WorldWideScience

Sample records for automotive fuel

  1. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Brighigna, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen fueled vehicles may just be the answer to the air pollution problem in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives. This paper examines the feasibility of hydrogen as an automotive fuel by analyzing the following aspects: the chemical-physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems; current production technologies and commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. With reference to recent trial results being obtained in the USA, an assessment is also made of the feasibility of the use of methane-hydrogen mixtures as automotive fuels. The paper concludes with a review of progress being made by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) in the development of fuel storage and electronic fuel injection systems for hydrogen powered vehicles

  2. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, D.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Sglavo, V.; ENEA, Rome

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the technical/economic feasibility of the use of hydrogen as an automotive fuel is made based on analyses of the following: the chemical- physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems - with water vapour injection, cryogenic injection, and the low or high pressure injection of hydrogen directly into the combustion chamber; the current commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. The paper concludes that, considering current costs for hydrogen fuel production, distribution and use, at present, the employment of hydrogen fuelled vehicles is feasible only in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives

  3. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  4. Automotive fuel efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    For at least the remainder of this century, the United States faces a growing dependence on imported oil. Costs are substantial, and they will mount. In June 1992, net imports provided nearly 50% of supplies, and their cost was $4.3 billion. Cost of net imports of motor vehicles and parts amounted to $3.0 billion. The two items combined totaled more than the negative trade balance of $6.6 billion. The light-duty highway fleet alone accounted for 38.2% of U.S. oil consumption in 1988. Correspondingly, the fleet was a substantial emitter of air pollutants - NO x , CO, and nonmethane hydrocarbons. In addition, it was a major source of CO 2 . The twin problems of oil imports and pollution would be ameliorated if the fuel economy if cars and trucks could be improved and their emissions were also reduced. In principle, the mileage of US automobiles could be substantially improved. But on purchasing a car, U.S. buyers rank fuel efficiency eight when making their choice. They are attracted to options that lower mileage. Consumers also tend to prefer large cars over small ones for reasons of safety. Increasingly, buyers are purchasing light trucks and vans that have inferior fuel efficiency. As a result of the above trends, the average mileage of the US automotive fleet has been diminishing. As long as fuel is available at comparatively low prices and there is no federal requirement for better mileage, improvement is unlikely. Moreover, even if improvements were mandated, change would be slow

  5. Future automotive fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepik, M.

    1993-01-01

    There are several important factors which are fundamental to the choice of alternative automobile fuels: the chain of energetic efficiency of fuels; costs; environmental friendliness; suitability for usual engines or adapting easiness; existing reserves of crude oil, natural gas or the fossil energy sources; and, alternatively, agricultural potentiality. This paper covers all these factors. The fuels dealt with in this paper are alcohol, vegetable oil, gaseous fuel, hydrogen and ammonia fuels. Renewable fuels are the most valuable forms of renewable energy. In addition to that rank, they can contribute to three other problem areas: agricultural surpluses, environmental degradation, and conservation of natural resources. Due to the competitive utilization of biomass for food energy production, bio-fuels should mainly be produced in those countries where an energy shortage is combined with a food surplus. The fuels arousing the most interest are alcohol and vegetable oil, the latter for diesel engines, even in northern countries. (au)

  6. Automotive fuels - environmental and health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    This document covers papers presented to the Institute of Petroleum's conference ''Automotive Fuels: Environmental and Health Implications'' held on the 9th October 1991. This wide ranging title meant that topics covered included the biochemistry, pathology and epidemiology of automotive fuel use, combustion science, environmental chemistry and atmospheric modelling. Also discussed are the technology of fuel and engine manufacture, limiting and containing emissions and social and political aspects relating to the use of automotive fuels. (UK)

  7. Automotive fuels from biomass via gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wennan

    2010-01-01

    There exists already a market of bio-automotive fuels i.e. bioethanol and biodiesel produced from food crops in many countries. From the viewpoint of economics, environment, land use, water use and chemical fertilizer use, however, there is a strong preference for the use of woody biomass and various forest/agricultural residues as the feedstock. Thus, the production of 2nd generation of bio-automotive fuels i.e. synthetic fuels such as methanol, ethanol, DME, FT-diesel, SNG and hydrogen through biomass gasification seems promising. The technology of producing synthetic fuels is well established based on fossil fuels. For biomass, however, it is fairly new and the technology is under development. Starting from the present market of the 1st generation bio-automotive fuels, this paper is trying to review the technology development of the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels from syngas platform. The production of syngas is emphasized which suggests appropriate gasifier design for a high quality syngas production. A number of bio-automotive fuel demonstration plant will be presented, which gives the state of the art in the development of BTS (biomass to synthetic fuels) technologies. It can be concluded that the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels are on the way to a breakthrough in the transport markets of industrial countries especially for those countries with a strong forest industry. (author)

  8. Automotive fuels. Quality current and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avella, F.

    1999-01-01

    In the present paper, a general view of the automotive fuel characteristics and of the influence of the most important fuel parameters on the engine performance and emissions are presented. At short term, the future scenario is conditioned by the application of the next European Directive on fuel specifications, that will came into effect on 1 January 2000. The composition of liquid fuels shall be subject to modifications nd restrictions to meet the new specifications Among alternative fuels, natural gas and Lpg (liquefied petroleum gases) are the most interesting in the view point of environmental protection. Biodiesel constitutes a potential and valid alternative to mineral gas oil in diesel engines [it

  9. Industrial thermoforming simulation of automotive fuel tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesche, Stefan aus der

    2004-01-01

    An industrial thermoforming simulation with regard to automotive plastic fuel tanks is presented including all relevant process stages. The radiative and conductive heat transfer during the reheat stage, the deformation and stress behaviour during the forming stage, and the final cooling stage are simulated. The modelling of the thermal and rheological behaviour of the involved material is investigated in greater detail. By means of experimental data it is found that modelling of the phase transition during the process is highly important for predicting correct wall thickness distributions

  10. Fuel System: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The fourth of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive fuel systems at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

  11. Materials Challenges for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Hubert

    2004-03-01

    Over the past few years, significant R efforts aimed at meeting the challenging cost and performance targets required for the use of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in automotive applications. Besides engineering advances in bipolar plate materials and design, the optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was an important enabler in reducing the cost and performance gaps towards commercial viability for the automotive market. On the one hand, platinum loadings were reduced from several mgPt/cm2MEA [1] to values of 0.5-0.6 mgPt/cm2MEA in current applications and loadings as low as 0.25 mgPt/cm2MEA have been demonstrated on the research level [2]. On the other hand, implementation of thin membranes (20-30 micrometer) [3, 4] as well as improvements in diffusion medium materials, essentially doubled the achievable power density of MEAs to ca. 0.9 W/cm2MEA (at 0.65 V) [5], thereby not only reducing the size of a PEMFC fuel cell system, but also reducing its overall materials cost (controlled to a large extent by membrane and Pt-catalyst cost). While this demonstrated a clear path towards automotive applications, a renewed focus of R efforts is now required to develop materials and fundamental materials understanding to assure long-term durability of PEM fuel cells. This presentation therefore will discuss the state-of-the-art knowledge of catalyst, catalyst-support, and membrane degradation mechanisms. In the area of Pt-catalysts, experience with phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) has shown that platinum sintering leads to long-term performance losses [6]. While this is less critical at the lower PEMFC operating temperatures (200C), very little is known about the dependence of Pt-sintering on temperature, cell voltage, and catalyst type (i.e., Pt versus Pt-alloys) and will be discussed here. Similarly, carbon-support corrosion can contribute significantly to voltage degradation in PAFCs [7], and even in the PEMFC environment more corrosion

  12. Automotive fuels survey. Part 4. Innovations or illusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troelstra, W.P.; Van Walwijk, M.; Bueckmann, M.

    1999-01-01

    Volumes 1 to 3 of the IEA/AFIS Automotive Fuels Survey, address the most well-known automotive fuels and fuel production routes. Less well-known fuels and energy sources that are not used in combustion engines, e.g. electricity, were excluded from these volumes. In this report fuel routes and fuels that have not been addressed in the first volumes will be analysed. In this report, each chapter starts with a short description of the fuel(route) and its status of development (e.g. if the idea has been abandoned or if the fuel is already sold at a fuel station). Then the different aspects of that fuel are described as far as the information is available. This is limited to information that can not be found in volumes one and two of the Automotive Fuels Survey. For example: for the diesel-water mixtures, the production of diesel is not be described. If comparisons are made, they are made either relative to an already described fuel(route) that is related (e.g. biogas will be compared with natural gas) or relative to diesel and gasoline as was done in volume 1 and 2 of the Automotive Fuels Survey. For some of the fuels, the relation with a fuel already covered in volume one and two is very strong. For these fuels more information can be found in the chapters on the related fuel in the other volumes of the Automotive Fuels Survey. The following fuels are covered in this report: biodiesel from used oil and fat, biodiesel and biogasoline from algae, diesel from hydrothermal upgrading, biogas, hythane, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, diesel-water blends, higher ethers, and electricity. 74 refs

  13. Price transparency on the market for automotive fuels. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meindert, L.; Van Schijndel, M.; Volkerink, B.

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study is to answer the main question: which bottlenecks may obstruct the road to up-to-date, reliable and fully market covering price comparison services for the Dutch market for automotive fuels. [nl

  14. Fuel saver based on electromagnetic induction for automotive engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, Houtman P.; Sibarani, Maradu

    2007-12-01

    In the considered research is designed and analyzed the performance of the fuel saver which is based on electromagnetic induction for automotive diesel engine. The fuel saver which is based on permanent magnet has sold in market and its performance has tested. In comparison to the former fuel saver, in the proposed work is produced fuel saver which is based on electromagnetic induction. The considered research is the continuation of my former work. Performance of the produced fuel saver which is installed in the fuel line of internal combustion engine rig is compared to the performance of the standard internal combustion engine rig Speed of the engine, wire diameter of coil, and number of coil which is coiled in the winding of the the fuel saver are chosen as the testing variables. The considered research has succeeded to design the fuel saver which is based on electromagnetic induction for saving the automotive fuel consumption. Results of the research show that the addition of the fuel saver which is based on electromagnetic induction to the flow of the diesel fuel can significantly save the automative fuel consumption. In addition the designed fuel saver can reduce the opacity of the emission gas.

  15. Fuel cell power plants for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J. F.

    1983-02-01

    While the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell has until recently not been considered competitive with such commercial and industrial energy systems as gas turbine generators and internal combustion engines, electrical current density improvements have markedly improved the capital cost/kW output rating performance of SPE systems. Recent studies of SPE fuel cell applicability to vehicular propulsion have indicated that with adequate development, a powerplant may be produced which will satisfy the performance, size and weight objectives required for viable electric vehicles, and that the cost for such a system would be competitive with alternative advanced power systems.

  16. On the efficiency of an advanced automotive fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechi, F.N.; Freunberger, S.A.; Reum, M.; Tsukada, A.; Dietrich, P. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Electrochemistry Laboratory, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Paganelli, G.; Delfino, A. [Conception et Developpement Michelin, Route Andre-Piller 30, CH-1762 Givisiez (Switzerland)

    2007-04-15

    Efficiency is the key parameter for the application of fuel cells in automotive applications. The efficiency of a hydrogen/oxygen polymer electrolyte fuel cell system is analyzed and compared to hydrogen/air systems. The analysis is performed for the tank to electric power chain. Furthermore, the additional energy required for using pure oxygen as a second fuel is analyzed and included in the calculation. The results show that if hydrogen is produced from primary fossil energy carriers, such as natural gas and pure oxygen needs to be obtained by a conventional process; the fuel to electric current efficiency is comparable for hydrogen/oxygen and hydrogen/air systems. However, if hydrogen and oxygen are produced by the splitting of water, i.e., by electrolysis or by a thermochemical process, the fuel to electric current efficiency for the hydrogen/oxygen system is clearly superior. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Natural gas as an automotive fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritsenko, A I; Vasiliev, Y N; Jankiewicz, A [VPO ' Soyuzgastekhnologiya' All-Union Scientific Research Inst. of Natural gases (VNIIGAS) (SU)

    1990-02-01

    The review presented covers mass production of gas-petrol and gas-diesel automobiles in the USSR, second generation auto gas filling compressor stations, principal exhaust toxicants, and tests indicating natural gas fired autos emit >5 times less NO{sub x} and 10 times less hydrocarbons excluding methane. The switch over to gas as auto fuel and ensuing release of petrol and diesel for other uses are discussed. (UK).

  18. INVESTIGATION OF PEM FUEL CELL FOR AUTOMOTIVE USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Mohiuddin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief investigation on suitability of Proton-exchange  membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs as the source of power for transportation purposes. Hydrogen is an attractive alternative transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel that can be used in an internal combustion engine (ICE and it is widely available. If hydrogen is used in a fuel cell which converts the chemical energy of hydrogen into electricity, (NOx emissions are eliminated. The investigation was carried out on a  fuel cell car model by implementing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM types of fuel cell as the source of power to propel the prototype car. This PEMFC has capability to propel the electric motor by converting chemical energy stored in hydrogen gas into useful electrical energy. PEM fuel cell alone is used as the power source for the electric motor without the aid of any other power source such as battery associated with it. Experimental investigations were carried out to investigate the characteristics of fuel cell used and the performance of the fuel cell car. Investigated papameters are the power it develops, voltage, current and speed it produces under different load conditions. KEYWORDS: fuel cell; automotive; proton exchange membrane; polymer electrolyte membrane; internal combustion engine

  19. Development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) automotive auxiliary power unit (APU) fueled by gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMinco, C.; Mukerjee, S.; Grieve, J.; Faville, M.; Noetzel, J.; Perry, M.; Horvath, A.; Prediger, D.; Pastula, M.; Boersma, R.; Ghosh, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the development progress of a 3 to 5 auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a gasoline fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This fuel cell was supplied reformate gas (reactant) by a partial oxidation (POx) catalytic reformer utilizing liquid gasoline and designed by Delphi Automotive Systems. This reformate gas consists mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen and was fed directly in to the SOFC stack without any additional fuel reformer processing. The SOFC stack was developed by Global Thermoelectric and operates around 700 o C. This automotive APU produces power to support future 42 volt vehicle electrical architectures and loads. The balance of the APU, designed by Delphi Automotive Systems, employs a packaging and insulation design to facilitate installation and operation on-board automobiles. (author)

  20. Prices, taxes and automotive fuel cross-border shopping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, Andres; Lopez-Laborda, Julio; Rodrigo, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to determine whether differences in automotive fuel prices among neighboring Autonomous Communities (i.e. Spanish political-administrative regions) affect the decisions taken by individuals regarding the region in which to purchase fuel. In particular, the intention is to discover if price increases in certain Autonomous Communities, as a result of the application of the regional tranche of the Hydrocarbon Retail Sales Tax (HRST) has affected fuel purchases in neighboring Communities. In order to achieve the above-mentioned objectives, the monthly purchases of automotive diesel in Aragon between January 2001 and March 2007 is estimated from the fuel price in Aragon, the relation between prices in each of the bordering Communities and Aragon, weighted by density of traffic, the number of vehicles registered in that Community, and three dummy variables representative of the implementation of the regional tranche of the HRST in Madrid, Catalonia, and Valencia. The paper finds empirical evidence to demonstrate a positive effect of the relative prices in the neighboring Communities and vehicle registrations, and also a negative effect of prices in Aragon, upon the acquisition of diesel in this region. In the case of Catalonia, some evidence suggests that the price effect may have been strengthened following the introduction of the regional tranche of the HRST in August 2004. (author)

  1. The future for fuel cells in the automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, P.E.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' This paper presents the view that the automotive industry, seen as a vital potential market for hydrogen fuel cell applications, is one that will be characterised in the future by an unprecedented combination of technological and economic diversity. This highly volatile and uncertain future has profound implications for those involved in government policy related to energy use and transportation, as well as those involved in the fuel cell industry. Most significantly, it is argued that the industry that applies hydrogen fuel cells twenty to thirty years from now will have a quite different structure and economic logic to that which currently prevails. Suppliers of hydrogen fuel cell solutions and systems need to have considerable flexibility in their business models. The themes of diversity and co-existence are developed from extensive research into the contemporary automotive industry, as well as an active involvement in the government policy arena at national, EU and international levels. The continued search for sustainability will not just entail the insertion of technology into otherwise familiar products by otherwise familiar manufacturing processes. It will enable and require the transformation of industry. This paper seeks to outline some of the ways in which the changes could unfold. (author)

  2. Free automotive and heating fuels for home and farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, K.

    1991-01-01

    This book is for farmers or any landowners with access to free materials, such as agricultural wastes, that can be converted with minimum expense to heating fuel of to ethanol for automotive use. Farmers can learn how to make and use stoves, furnaces or stills for processing their own free materials for their own use or their neighbors. If one is a good mechanic one can learn how to adjust carburetors, to start a business converting engines to burn ethanol. The book is intended to provide the information you need to make practical use of waste materials and to save money. The book contains five chapters: Ethanol feedstocks; Crops for burning; Conversion to fuel; Fuel Utilization; and Business Opportunities. These chapters have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  3. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel

  4. Automotive Stirling engine development program. [fuel economy assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzner, E. W.

    1978-01-01

    The Ford/DOE automotive Stirling engine development program is directed towards establishing the technological and developmental base that would enable a decision on whether an engineering program should be directed at Stirling engine production. The fuel economy assessment aims to achieve, with a high degree of confidence, the ERDA proposal estimate of 20.6 MPG (gasoline) for a 4500 lb 1WC Stirling engine passenger car. The current M-H fuel economy projection for the 170 HP Stirling engine is 15.7 MPG. The confidence level for this projection is 32%. A confidence level of 29% is projected for a 22.1 MPG estimate. If all of the planned analyses and test work is accomplished at the end of the one year effort, and the projected improvements are substantiated, the confidence levels would rise to 59% for the 20.6 MPG projection and 54% for the 22.1 MPG projection. Progress achieved thus far during the fuel economy assessment is discussed.

  5. Dynamic characteristics of an automotive fuel cell system for transitory load changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbani, Raja Abid; Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    A dynamic model of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) system is developed to investigate the behavior and transient response of a fuel cell system for automotive applications. Fuel cell dynamics are subjected to reactant flows, heat management and water transportation inside the fuel...

  6. 77 FR 29751 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Automotive Fuel Economy Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ...-0059] Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Automotive Fuel Economy Reports AGENCY... Transportation on whether a manufacturer will comply with an applicable average fuel economy standard for the... R. Katz, Fuel Economy Division, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and Consumer Programs...

  7. Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends report is the authoritative reference for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions,...

  8. Satisfaction of the Automotive Fleet Fuel Demand and Its Impact on the Oil Refining Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Because virtually all transportation fuels are based on petroleum, it is essential to include petroleum refining in any assessment of potential changes in the transportation system. A number of changes in the automotive fleet have been proposed to im...

  9. Sensitivities of Internal Combustion Automotive Engines to Variations in Fuel Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    An assessment of the sensitivity of the automotive gasoline and diesel engines to variations in fuel properties has been made. The variables studied include H/C ratio, distillation range, aromatic content, ignition quality as determined by the octane...

  10. Egyptian And International Automotive Diesel. Fuels: Specifications Meeting Challenges To Refining Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, A.M.; EI Shamy, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a brief summary and comparison of Egyptian automotive diesel fuel to the international one. Recent legislation all over the world, requiring further reduction in sulfur, aromatics, T 90 and T 95 and increasing cetane value of the transportation diesel fuels, presents numerous technical and economic challenges to the refiners. While refiners grapple with these challenges, they will also face pressure from the increased demand of transportation diesel fuel and tighter capital restrictions. Overcome of these challenges makes a fair competition. A comparison of the Egyptian automotive diesel fuel and the international one will be a guide to locally and globally facing these challenges

  11. How "Green" Is Your Fuel? Creation and Comparison of Automotive Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Eugene P.; Koehle, Maura A.; Moyle, Todd M.; Lambert, Patrick D.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, biofuel development and use has risen significantly. This undergraduate laboratory experiment educates students on the various alternative fuels that are being developed for automotive applications and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Students replicate commercially available alternative fuels, E85 and biodiesel, as well…

  12. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 5: Fuel and Carburetion Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Ludy

    This student guide is for Unit 5, Fuel and Carburetion Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting and servicing the fuel and carburetion systems. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 218-219. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  13. Fuels for homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. Automotive fuels survey. Part 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walwijk, M.

    2001-01-01

    . - So far, HCCI operation is only possible at light engine loads. - Engine-out emissions of HC and CO are not low. A low-temperature exhaust catalyst is required. Because it is possible to operate HCCI engines using a wide range of fuels, the conventional fuel specifications are not appropriate for HCCI engines. A fuel characteristic like cetane number for example, which is important for fuels in conventional diesel engines, has lost its significance for HCCI engines. Fuels like gasoline and natural gas, for which no cetane number is defined, can be used in HCCI engines. Research to establish the fuel requirements for HCCI engines has commenced. The first results indicate that the auto-ignition temperature of the fuel is important, because it has to be below the temperature that is reached in the combustion chamber after compression. The auto-ignition temperature is not specified for conventional fuel applications. Also fuel characteristics that affect the formation of a homogeneous air/fuel mixture are important, because inhomogeneities in the mixture lead to increased emission of NOx and particulates from HCCI engines. Consequently, volatility of the fuel and also boiling point may be considered important. Volatility of diesel fuel is low for example. To obtain a homogeneous air/fuel mixture with diesel, the inlet charge must be heated. A low sulphur content of the fuel is important in order to obtain high exhaust gas aftertreatment conversion efficiency. HCCI operation of internal combustion engines if possible with the fuels that are currently considered for automotive use. There are minor operational differences between the fuels, but no fundamental barriers seem to exist. This means that the conventional fuels from crude oil can be used in HCCI engines. Because the infrastructure to produce and distribute these fuels already exists, this is a plus for market introduction of HCCI engines. Fuel specifications for conventional fuels are becoming more and more

  14. The development of natural gas as an automotive fuel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Linwei; Geng, Jia; Li, Weqi; Liu, Pei; Li, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript aims to systematically review the development of natural gas as an automotive fuel in China and to draw policy implications for decision making. This manuscript presents a brief overview of natural gas development and the potential of natural gas as an automotive fuel in China, followed by an introduction to the development of various technology pathways for using natural gas as an automotive fuel, including CNG (compressed natural gas) vehicles, LNG (liquefied natural gas) vehicles, and others. This material suggests, a large potential to increase the use of natural gas as an automotive fuel, especially for CNG and LNG vehicles. The following activities will promote the development of natural gas vehicles: prioritizing vehicle use in the utilization of natural gas, supporting the construction of natural gas filling stations, developing a favorable pricing policy for natural gas used in vehicles, and enhancing the research and development to further improve the technology performance, especially for the technology of LNG vehicles. -- Highlights: •An overview of the natural gas development in China. •A systematic introduction of the development of natural gas vehicles in China. •A review of the technological performance of natural gas vehicles. •Policy suggestions to promote the development of natural gas vehicles in China

  15. Greenhouse gases - an up-date on the contribution of automotive fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution to global emissions of greenhouse gases from automotive fuels. The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change are explained briefly. Data is presented on the global warming potential of automobile emissions, actual measured emission rates and greenhouse gas emissions as CO 2 equivalents. It is concluded that insufficient data exists to assess accurately the contribution of automotive fuel use to all the important greenhouse gases. Over short timescales (say 20 years) low emission technologies do show significant reductions in CO 2 equivalent emissions compared with current technology vehicles. However, in the longer term, fuel economy rather than emissions of non-CO 2 gases, is likely to become the determining factor. (UK)

  16. Automotive fuel consumption in Brazil. Applying static and dynamic systems of demand equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iootty, Mariana [IE-UFRJ (Institute of Economics - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro), Energy Economics Group (Brazil); UFRRJ (Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro) (Brazil); Pinto, Helder Jr. [IE-UFRJ (Institute of Economics - Federal University of Rio de Janeiro), Energy Economics Group (Brazil); Ebeling, Francisco [Brazilian Petroleum Institute (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    This paper aims to investigate and explain the performance of the Brazilian demand for automotive fuels in the period 1970-2005. It estimates the price and income elasticities for all the available fuels in the automotive sector in the country: gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), ethanol and diesel. The analysis of the expenditure allocation process among these fuels is carried out through the estimation of a linear approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model. Two estimation methods were implemented: the static (through a seemingly unrelated regression) and a dynamic (through a vector error correction model). Specification tests support the use of the latter. The empirical analysis suggests a high substitutability between gasoline and ethanol; being this relation higher than the one observed between gasoline and CNG. The study shows that gasoline, ethanol and diesel are normal goods, and with the exception of ethanol, they are expenditure elastic. CNG was estimated as an inferior good. (author)

  17. Automotive fuel consumption in Brazil. Applying static and dynamic systems of demand equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iootty, Mariana; Pinto, Helder Jr.; Ebeling, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate and explain the performance of the Brazilian demand for automotive fuels in the period 1970-2005. It estimates the price and income elasticities for all the available fuels in the automotive sector in the country: gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), ethanol and diesel. The analysis of the expenditure allocation process among these fuels is carried out through the estimation of a linear approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model. Two estimation methods were implemented: the static (through a seemingly unrelated regression) and a dynamic (through a vector error correction model). Specification tests support the use of the latter. The empirical analysis suggests a high substitutability between gasoline and ethanol; being this relation higher than the one observed between gasoline and CNG. The study shows that gasoline, ethanol and diesel are normal goods, and with the exception of ethanol, they are expenditure elastic. CNG was estimated as an inferior good. (author)

  18. A survey of processes for producing hydrogen fuel from different sources for automotive-propulsion fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.F.

    1996-03-01

    Seven common fuels are compared for their utility as hydrogen sources for proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells used in automotive propulsion. Methanol, natural gas, gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation jet fuel, ethanol, and hydrogen are the fuels considered. Except for the steam reforming of methanol and using pure hydrogen, all processes for generating hydrogen from these fuels require temperatures over 1000 K at some point. With the same two exceptions, all processes require water-gas shift reactors of significant size. All processes require low-sulfur or zero-sulfur fuels, and this may add cost to some of them. Fuels produced by steam reforming contain {approximately}70-80% hydrogen, those by partial oxidation {approximately}35-45%. The lower percentages may adversely affect cell performance. Theoretical input energies do not differ markedly among the various processes for generating hydrogen from organic-chemical fuels. Pure hydrogen has severe distribution and storage problems. As a result, the steam reforming of methanol is the leading candidate process for on-board generation of hydrogen for automotive propulsion. If methanol unavailability or a high price demands an alternative process, steam reforming appears preferable to partial oxidation for this purpose.

  19. Design and optimization of automotive thermoelectric generators for maximum fuel efficiency improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, Nicholas; Zhang, Yanliang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A three-dimensional automotive thermoelectric generator (TEG) model is developed. • Heat exchanger design and TEG configuration are optimized for maximum fuel efficiency increase. • Heat exchanger conductivity has a strong influence on maximum fuel efficiency increase. • TEG aspect ratio and fin height increase with heat exchanger thermal conductivity. • A 2.5% fuel efficiency increase is attainable with nanostructured half-Heusler modules. - Abstract: Automotive fuel efficiency can be increased by thermoelectric power generation using exhaust waste heat. A high-temperature thermoelectric generator (TEG) that converts engine exhaust waste heat into electricity is simulated based on a light-duty passenger vehicle with a 4-cylinder gasoline engine. Strategies to optimize TEG configuration and heat exchanger design for maximum fuel efficiency improvement are provided. Through comparison of stainless steel and silicon carbide heat exchangers, it is found that both the optimal TEG design and the maximum fuel efficiency increase are highly dependent on the thermal conductivity of the heat exchanger material. Significantly higher fuel efficiency increase can be obtained using silicon carbide heat exchangers at taller fins and a longer TEG along the exhaust flow direction when compared to stainless steel heat exchangers. Accounting for major parasitic losses, a maximum fuel efficiency increase of 2.5% is achievable using newly developed nanostructured bulk half-Heusler thermoelectric modules.

  20. A life-cycle perspective on automotive fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, Andrew; Bauer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Individual inventories for each fuel cell system component, current and future. • Environmental and human health burdens from fuel cell production and end-of-life. • Comparison passenger transport in fuel cell and conventional vehicles. • Fuel cell can be more critical to overall burdens than hydrogen production. • Fuel cell developments require radical but possible changes to reduce burdens. - Abstract: The production and end-of-life (EoL) processes for current and future proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems for road passenger vehicle applications were analysed and quantified in the form of life cycle inventories. The current PEMFC technology is characterised by highly sensitive operating conditions and a high system mass. For each core component of PEMFC there are a range of materials under development and the research aimed to identify those considered realistic for a 2020 future scenario and according to commercial goals of achieving higher performance, increased power density, greater stability and a marked reduction of costs. End-of-life scenarios were developed in consideration of the materials at the focus of recovery efforts. The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) addressed the production and EoL of the fuel cell systems with inclusion of a sensitivity analysis to assess influences on the results from the key fuel cell parameters. The second part to the LCIA assessed the environmental and human health burdens from passenger transport in a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) with comparison between the 2012 and 2020 fuel cell scenarios and referenced to an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) of Euro5 emission standard. It was seen that whilst the drivetrain (and therefore the fuel cell system) is a major contributor to the emissions in all the indicators shown, the hydrogen use (and therefore the efficiency of the fuel cell system and the method of hydrogen production) can have a far greater influence on the environmental

  1. Liquefied Petroleum Gas as Automotive Fuel in Environmental Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the possibilities of using liquefied petroleumgas (LPG as alternative fuel for propelling Olio enginesin passenger cars. The advantages of using LPG comparedto petrol are reflected in the reduced emission of harmfulgases, lower price. The disadvantages include the costs of installingthe gas equipment, occupying part of the boot, as well asfew gas filling stations. In spite of the disadvantages, liquefiedpetroleum gas is claimed to be the fuel of the future.

  2. Oxygenates in automotive fuels. Consequence analysis - preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, Aa.; Saevbark, B.

    1994-01-01

    Oxygenates is used in gasoline due to several reasons. They are added as high-octane components in unleaded gasoline and as agents to reduce the emission of harmful substances. Oxygenates produced from biomass might constitute a coming market for alternative fuels. This preliminary study describes the prerequisites and consequences of such an oxygenate utilization. 39 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  3. 75 FR 12470 - Automotive Fuel Ratings, Certification and Posting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    .... 17021.\\5\\ Currently, the Rule's definition of ``alternative fuels'' does not specifically include either... benefitting consumers, commenters noted that the Rule benefits businesses. The Petroleum Marketers Association... (FFV). . . . Today . . . some marketers are selling blends like E20, and E30 (20% and 30% ethanol...

  4. Feasibility of Fuel Cell APUs for Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-05

    CELL DELPHI SOFC APU w/ REFORMER FREIGHTLINER TRACTOR WITH BALLARD PEM APU AND METHANOL REFORMER SUNLINE TRACTOR WITH HYDROGEN- FuELLED HYDROGENICS...NRF.L. ADVISOR model , t"’mparing the idling of a main diesei engine to this APU c~ntigur,uion. SUNLINE TRACTOR WITH HYDROGEN- FUELLED HYDROGENICS PEM ...the biggest hurdles to having a successful JP-8- fuelled fuel cell was preventing the sulfur-laden JP-8 from poisoning the catalyst.[9] Specifically

  5. Advanced Automotive Fuels Research, Development, and Commercialization Cluster (OH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkous, Clovis; Hripko, Michael; Abraham, Martin; Balendiran, Ganesaratnam; Hunter, Allen; Lovelace-Cameron, Sherri; Mette, Howard; Price, Douglas; Walker, Gary; Wang, Ruigang

    2013-08-31

    Technical aspects of producing alternative fuels that may eventually supplement or replace conventional the petroleum-derived fuels that are presently used in vehicular transportation have been investigated. The work was centered around three projects: 1) deriving butanol as a fuel additive from bacterial action on sugars produced from decomposition of aqueous suspensions of wood cellulose under elevated temperature and pressure; 2) using highly ordered, openly structured molecules known as metal-organic framework (MOF) compounds as adsorbents for gas separations in fuel processing operations; and 3) developing a photocatalytic membrane for solar-driven water decomposition to generate pure hydrogen fuel. Several departments within the STEM College at YSU contributed to the effort: Chemistry, Biology, and Chemical Engineering. In the butanol project, sawdust was blended with water at variable pH and temperature (150 – 250{degrees}C), and heated inside a pressure vessel for specified periods of time. Analysis of the extracts showed a wide variety of compounds, including simple sugars that bacteria are known to thrive upon. Samples of the cellulose hydrolysate were fed to colonies of Clostridium beijerinckii, which are known to convert sugars to a mixture of compounds, principally butanol. While the bacteria were active toward additions of pure sugar solutions, the cellulose extract appeared to inhibit butanol production, and furthermore encouraged the Clostridium to become dormant. Proteomic analysis showed that the bacteria had changed their genetic code to where it was becoming sporulated, i.e., the bacteria were trying to go dormant. This finding may be an opportunity, as it may be possible to genetically engineer bacteria that resist the butanol-driven triggering mechanism to stop further fuel production. Another way of handling the cellulosic hydrolysates was to simply add the enzymes responsible for butanol synthesis to the hydrolytic extract ex-vivo. These

  6. Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications. 2009 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian D. [Directed Technologies, Arlington, VA (United States); Kalinoski, Jeffrey A. [Directed Technologies, Arlington, VA (United States); Baum, Kevin N. [Directed Technologies, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light duty automobiles.

  7. Mass Production Cost Estimation For Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systesm for Automotive Applications. 2010 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian D. [Directed Technologies, Arlington, VA (United States); Kalinoski, Jeffrey A. [Directed Technologies, Arlington, VA (United States); Baum, Kevin N. [Directed Technologies, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2010-09-30

    This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct-hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems suitable for powering light-duty automobiles.

  8. Permeability of EVOH Barrier Material Used in Automotive Applications: Metrology Development for Model Fuel Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jing

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available EVOH (Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol materials are widely used in automotive applications in multi-layer fuel lines and tanks owing to their excellent barrier properties to aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. These barrier materials are essential to limit environmental fuel emissions and comply with the challenging requirements of fast changing international regulations. Nevertheless, the measurement of EVOH permeability to model fuel mixtures or to their individual components is particularly difficult due to the complexity of these systems and their very low permeability, which can vary by several orders of magnitude depending on the permeating species and their relative concentrations. This paper describes the development of a new automated permeameter capable of taking up the challenge of measuring minute quantities as low as 1 mg/(m2.day for partial fluxes for model fuel mixtures containing ethanol, i-octane and toluene at 50°C. The permeability results are discussed as a function of the model fuel composition and the importance of EVOH preconditioning is emphasized for accurate permeability measurements. The last part focuses on the influence of EVOH conditioning on its mechanical properties and its microstructure, and further illustrates the specific behavior of EVOH in presence of ethanol oxygenated fuels. The new metrology developed in this work offers a new insight in the permeability properties of a leading barrier material and will help prevent the consequences of (bioethanol addition in fuels on environmental emissions through fuel lines and tanks.

  9. Survey evidence on the willingness of U.S. consumers to pay for automotive fuel economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.; Evans, David H.; Hiestand, John

    2013-01-01

    Prospect theory holds that human beings faced with a risky bet will tend to value potential losses about twice as much as potential gains. Previous research has demonstrated that prospect theory could be sufficient to explain an energy paradox in the market for automotive fuel economy. This paper analyzes data from questions added to four commercial, multi-client surveys of 1000 U.S. households each in 2004, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Households were asked about willingness to pay for future fuel savings as well as the annual fuel savings necessary to justify a given upfront payment. Payback periods inferred from household responses are generally consistent over time and across different formulations of questions. Mean calculated payback periods are about 3 years, but there is substantial dispersion among individual responses. The calculated payback periods do not appear to be correlated with the attributes of respondents. Respondents were able to quantitatively describe their uncertainty about both vehicle fuel economy and future fuel prices. Simulation of loss averse behavior based on respondents’ stated uncertainty illustrates how loss aversion could lead consumers to substantially undervalue future fuel savings relative to their expected value. - Highlights: • Payback periods were calculated from stated willingness to pay for fuel savings in 4 US surveys. • US car buyers expect payback in 3 years in order to pay more for increased fuel economy. • Respondents’ payback periods are uncorrelated with their socio-economic attributes. • Survey respondents consider fuel economy ratings and future fuel prices highly uncertain. • The survey results are consistent with the behavioral economic principle of loss aversion

  10. Status and Outlook for the U.S. Non-Automotive Fuel Cell Industry: Impacts of Government Policies and Assessment of Future Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duleep, K. G. [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Upreti, Girish [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Non-Automotive Fuel Cell Industry, Government Policy and Future Opportunities. Fuel cells (FCs)are considered essential future energy technologies by developed and developing economies alike. Several countries, including the United States, Japan, Germany,and South Korea have established publicly funded R&D and market transformation programs to develop viable domestic FC industries for both automotive and nonautomotive applications.

  11. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes and fluoroelastomer antistatic nanocomposite for automotive fuel system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seok; Park, Seong Hwan; Ha, Kiryong [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Cheol [Jin-Yang Oil Seal Co., Ltd., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Fluoroelastomer (FKM) composites, reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), were prepared by conventional method to determine the possibility of using MWNTs to develop an antistatic composite in automotive fuel systems. The results obtained from the composite containing 0-9 phr of MWNTs were compared. A 5 points increase in hardness was achieved with the addition of only 1 phr of MWNTs and 9 phr added FKM composite was increased 6.4MPa in tensile strength compared to the MWNTs unfilled FKM composite. In addition, electrical conductivity increased from 0 to 1.039 Scm{sup -1} with increase in the MWNTs concentration, and the dynamic damping property was increased in the rubbery state region accordingly. These phenomena can be explained by the MWNTs networks formed in FKM matrix. This research will therefore be useful in the development of an antistatic rubber composite for fuel system components, which are deformed or vibrated while in operation.

  12. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes and fluoroelastomer antistatic nanocomposite for automotive fuel system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seok; Park, Seong Hwan; Ha, Kiryong; Lee, Jong Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroelastomer (FKM) composites, reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), were prepared by conventional method to determine the possibility of using MWNTs to develop an antistatic composite in automotive fuel systems. The results obtained from the composite containing 0-9 phr of MWNTs were compared. A 5 points increase in hardness was achieved with the addition of only 1 phr of MWNTs and 9 phr added FKM composite was increased 6.4MPa in tensile strength compared to the MWNTs unfilled FKM composite. In addition, electrical conductivity increased from 0 to 1.039 Scm -1 with increase in the MWNTs concentration, and the dynamic damping property was increased in the rubbery state region accordingly. These phenomena can be explained by the MWNTs networks formed in FKM matrix. This research will therefore be useful in the development of an antistatic rubber composite for fuel system components, which are deformed or vibrated while in operation.

  13. State of the art: Multi-fuel reformers for automotive fuel cell applications. Problem identification and research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerholm, R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Pettersson, L.J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    1999-12-01

    On an assignment from the Transport and Communications Research Board (KFB) a literature study and a study trip to the USA and Great Britain have been performed. The literature study and the study trip was made during late spring and autumn 1999.The purpose of the project was to collect available information about the chemical composition of the product gas from a multi-fuel reformer for a fuel cell vehicle. It was furthermore to identify problems and research needs. The report recommends directions for future major research efforts. The results of the literature study and the study trip led to the following general conclusions: With the technology available today it does not seem feasible to develop a highly efficient and reliable multi-fuel reformer for automotive applications, i. e. for applications where all types of fuels ranging from natural gas to heavy diesel fuels can be used. The potential for developing a durable and reliable system is considerably higher if dedicated fuel reformers are used.The authors propose that petroleum-derived fuels should be designed for potential use in mobile fuel cell applications. In the present literature survey and the site visit discussions we found that there are relatively low emissions from fuel cell engines compared to internal combustion engines. However, the major research work on reformers/fuel cells have been performed during steady-state operation. Emissions during start-up, shutdown and transient operation are basically unknown and must be investigated in more detail. The conclusions and findings in this report are based on open/available information, such as discussions at site visits, reports, scientific publications and symposium proceedings.

  14. Assessment of effects of maturity of Japan`s economy and society and improvement in automotive fuel consumption on demand for automotive fuels; Nippon keizai shakai no seijukuka to nenpi kaizen ga jidoshayo nenryo juyo ni ataeru eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimomura, S. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    This paper evaluates impacts of the maturity of Japan`s economy and society and the improvement in automotive fuel efficiency on the demand for automotive fuels by FY 2010. Standard case and lower order case were examined. When the traffic volume of passenger cars in FY 1995 is assumed to be 100, it become 121 and 119 in standard and lower order cases, respectively. The traffic volume of lorries become 106 and 102 in standard and lower order cases, respectively, which showed a rather small growth. Deterioration rate of the fuel consumption was estimated by considering the difference in fuel consumption of new cars and existing cars. Although the fuel consumption will be lowered by FY 2000 when the cassation rate of ordinary passenger cars will rapidly increase, the impact will be lowered after that. For lorries for commercial use, the running fuel consumption will be gradually lowered due to the increased carrying capacity and vehicle weight a lorry with improving the transportation efficiency. Decreased running speed by traffic jam is also a cause of the deterioration of fuel consumption. When a policy of improvement in the fuel consumption is promoted in a background of CO2 issues, the fuel consumption of each vehicle will be gradually improved. The peak of fuel demand will be in FY 2005 by considering the changes in economical and social structures and the improvement in fuel consumption for the environmental protection. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Technology development goals for automotive fuel cell power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, B.D.; Baum, G.N.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This report determines cost and performance requirements for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles carrying pure H{sub 2} fuel, to achieve parity with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. A conceptual design of a near term FCEV (fuel cell electric vehicle) is presented. Complete power system weight and cost breakdowns are presented for baseline design. Near term FCEV power system weight is 6% higher than ICE system, mid-term FCEV projected weights are 29% lower than ICE`s. There are no inherently high-cost components in FCE, and at automotive production volumes, near term FCEV cost viability is closer at hand than at first thought. PEM current vs voltage performance is presented for leading PEM manufacturers and researchers. 5 current and proposed onboard hydrogen storage techniques are critically compared: pressurized gas, cryogenic liquid, combined pressurized/cryogenic, rechargeable hydride, adsorption. Battery, capacitor, and motor/controller performance is summarized. Fuel cell power system component weight and cost densities (threshold and goal) are tabulated.

  16. Engineering-economic analyses of automotive fuel economy potential in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.; DeCicco, J.

    2000-02-01

    Over the past 25 years more than 20 major studies have examined the technological potential to improve the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks in the US. The majority has used technology/cost analysis, a combination of analytical methods from the disciplines of economics and automotive engineering. In this paper the authors describe the key elements of this methodology, discuss critical issues responsible for the often widely divergent estimates produced by different studies, review the history of its use, and present results from six recent assessments. Whereas early studies tended to confine their scope to the potential of proven technology over a 10-year time period, more recent studies have focused on advanced technologies, raising questions about how best to include the likelihood of technological change. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research.

  17. Characterizing automotive fuel cell materials by soft x-ray scanning transmission x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, A. P., E-mail: aph@mcmaster.ca; Lee, V.; Wu, J.; Cooper, G. [Chemistry & Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); West, M. M.; Berejnov, V. [Faculty of Health Sciences Electron Microscopy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Soboleva, T.; Susac, D.; Stumper, J. [Automotive Fuel Cell Cooperation Corp., Burnaby BC V5J 5J8 (Canada)

    2016-01-28

    Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) based engines are being developed rapidly for near-term implementation in hydrogen fueled, mass production, personal automobiles. Research is focused on understanding and controlling various degradation processes (carbon corrosion, Pt migration, cold start), and reducing cost by reducing or eliminating Pt catalyst. We are using soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the S 2p, C 1s, O 1s and F 1s edges to study a variety of issues related to optimization of PEM-FC materials for automotive applications. A method to efficiently and accurately measure perfluorosulfonic acid distributions was developed and is being used to better understand how different loadings and preparation methods affect the ionomer distribution in the cathode. Progress towards an environmental cell capable of controlling the temperature and humidity of a PEM-FC sample in the STXM is described. Methods for studying the 3D chemical structure of PEM-FC are outlined.

  18. Sliding mode observer for proton exchange membrane fuel cell: automotive application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piffard, Maxime; Gerard, Mathias; Fonseca, Ramon Da; Massioni, Paolo; Bideaux, Eric

    2018-06-01

    This work proposes a state observer as a tool to manage cost and durability issues for PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) in automotive applications. Based on a dead-end anode architecture, the observer estimates the nitrogen build-up in the anode side, as well as relative humidities in the channels. These estimated parameters can then be used at fuel cell management level to enhance the durability of the stack. This observer is based on transport equations through the membrane and it reconstructs the behavior of the water and nitrogen inside the channels without the need of additional humidity sensors to correct the estimate. The convergence of the output variables is proved with Lyapunov theory for dynamic operating conditions. The validation is made with a high-fidelity model running a WLTC (Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle). This observer provides the average values of nitrogen and relative humidities with sufficient precision to be used in a global real-time control scheme.

  19. Characterizing automotive fuel cell materials by soft x-ray scanning transmission x-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchcock, A. P.; Lee, V.; Wu, J.; Cooper, G.; West, M. M.; Berejnov, V.; Soboleva, T.; Susac, D.; Stumper, J.

    2016-01-01

    Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) based engines are being developed rapidly for near-term implementation in hydrogen fueled, mass production, personal automobiles. Research is focused on understanding and controlling various degradation processes (carbon corrosion, Pt migration, cold start), and reducing cost by reducing or eliminating Pt catalyst. We are using soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the S 2p, C 1s, O 1s and F 1s edges to study a variety of issues related to optimization of PEM-FC materials for automotive applications. A method to efficiently and accurately measure perfluorosulfonic acid distributions was developed and is being used to better understand how different loadings and preparation methods affect the ionomer distribution in the cathode. Progress towards an environmental cell capable of controlling the temperature and humidity of a PEM-FC sample in the STXM is described. Methods for studying the 3D chemical structure of PEM-FC are outlined

  20. Developing compressed natural gas as an automotive fuel in Nigeria: Lessons from international markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunlowo, Olufemi O.; Bristow, Abigail L.; Sohail, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Nigerian government proposed the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an automotive fuel in 1997 as part of the initiatives to harness natural gas (NG) resources but progress has been slow. This paper examines the natural gas vehicle (NGV) implementation approaches and outcomes in seven countries with diverse experiences in order to gain an understanding of the barriers to the NGV market development in Nigeria. The analysis employs hermeneutic principles to secondary data derived from academic literature, published reports from a variety of international agencies, grey literature, and text from online sources and identifies eight success factors for NGV market development namely: strategic intent, legal backing, learning and adaptation, assignment of responsibilities, financial incentives, NG pricing, consumer confidence, and NG infrastructure. The paper concludes that the principal impediment to NGV market development in Nigeria is the uncoordinated implementation approach and that greater government involvement is required in setting strategic goals, developing the legal and regulatory frameworks, setting of clear standards for vehicles and refuelling stations as well as assigning responsibilities to specific agencies. Short-term low cost policy interventions identified include widening the existing NG and gasoline price gap and offering limited support for refuelling and retrofitting facilities. - Highlights: • We examined the NGV policies and implementation strategies in selected countries. • The use of legislative mandates help deepen NGV penetration. • Aligning stakeholder interest is critical to NGV adoption. • Making national interest a priority ahead of regional infrastructure is a critical success factor. • Government support drives participation

  1. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  2. Are today's automotive technician students ready for the increased use of ethanol fuels: A study of students' perceptions of ethanol and the effects of E20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Gary R.

    As the price of petroleum rises, the use of alternative fuels such as ethanol will continue to increase. As ethanol use increases, consumers are asking automotive technicians questions about the fuel. But how much do automotive technicians know about ethanol? In order to answer this question, a study was conducted to describe automotive technician students' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of ethanol as a vehicle fuel. Automotive students were chosen because they will be tomorrow's generation of technicians who will be working on vehicles that have used ethanol fuels along with flex fuel vehicles. The students were selected from six two-year technical colleges located in southern Minnesota. The six schools were chosen because they are located in areas where ethanol use is prevalent. The study used a 33-question pencil-and-paper survey to measure 184 automotive students' perceptions of ethanol. The survey revealed that students' knowledge of ethanol is very superficial. They know well advertised terms and facts, but lack an in-depth knowledge of the fuel. Also, it was discovered that several myths about ethanol still exist. Because of the lack of knowledge on technical aspects of the fuel, it is recommended that instructors in automotive programs incorporate a one to two hour class covering ethanol fuels into their courses. The second part of this study was a review of several material compatibility studies conducted at Minnesota State University, Mankato on 20% ethanol blends. The studies were conducted on fuel system rubbers, plastics, and metals. Minnesota recently enacted a law that will require all gasoline sold in the state to contain 20% ethanol. These studies were reviewed to see if 20% ethanol, E20, will cause any vehicle fuel system problems that automotive technicians should know about. After reviewing the studies it was determined that the likelihood of fuel system problems from E20 would be very small and isolated. Even though the potential for

  3. Lightweighting Automotive Materials for Increased Fuel Efficiency and Delivering Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capabilities to U.S. Manufacturers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Steve

    2013-09-11

    Abstract The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), to bring together research and development (R&D) collaborations to develop and accelerate the knowledgebase and infrastructure for lightweighting materials and manufacturing processes for their use in structural and applications in the automotive sector. The purpose/importance of this DOE program: • 2016 CAFÉ standards. • Automotive industry technology that shall adopt the insertion of lightweighting material concepts towards manufacturing of production vehicles. • Development and manufacture of advanced research tools for modeling and simulation (M&S) applications to reduce manufacturing and material costs. • U.S. competitiveness that will help drive the development and manufacture of the next generation of materials. NCMS established a focused portfolio of applied R&D projects utilizing lightweighting materials for manufacture into automotive structures and components. Areas that were targeted in this program: • Functionality of new lightweighting materials to meet present safety requirements. • Manufacturability using new lightweighting materials. • Cost reduction for the development and use of new lightweighting materials. The automotive industry’s future continuously evolves through innovation, and lightweight materials are key in achieving a new era of lighter, more efficient vehicles. Lightweight materials are among the technical advances needed to achieve fuel/energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: • Establish design criteria methodology to identify the best materials for lightweighting. • Employ state-of-the-art design tools for optimum material development for their specific applications. • Match new manufacturing technology to production volume. • Address new process variability with new production-ready processes.

  4. Bacterial contamination of automotive fuels in a tropical region: the case of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E Rodríguez-Rodríguez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial contamination of fuel has been the cause of several problems in transportation and storage of these products. Due to the lack of previous studies related to these problems in Costa Rica, bacterial quality was evaluated biannually in automotive fuels stored in the four oil distribution facilities of the Costa Rican Petroleum Refinery (RECOPE. In 12 oil storage tanks, for a total of 96 samples, mesophilic, heterotrophic aerobic/facultative counts (ASTM D6974-04 and identification of bacteria presented in regular gas, premium gas and diesel from the bottom and superior part of the tanks were done; in the samples containing an aqueous phase, sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB were also quantified by the most probable number technique (MPN, according to the ASTM D4412-84 standard. The higher contamination was shown at the bottom of the tanks (populations up to 10(4 UFC/l, especially if there was accumulated water, in which case populations reached 10(8 UFC/l. The most contaminated fuel was diesel (counts up to 10(4 UFC/l, whereas the less contaminated was premium gas. The less contaminated fuels were from the facilities of La Garita and Barranca, whereas the most contaminated were from Ochomogo. Nevertheless, the quantified populations did not cause significant alteration in quality physicochemical parameters in the samples analyzed. A total of 149 bacterial strains were isolated, 136 (91.3% Gram positive and 13 (8.7% Gram negative. The most frequent genera were Staphylococcus (24.0%, Micrococcus (21.9%, Bacillus (18.8% and Kocuria (11.5% among Gram positive bacteria and Pseudomonas (7.3% among Gram negative bacteria. The majority of these genera have been found as fuel contaminants or even as degraders of this kind of products; nevertheless, some species for which their appearance or growth in hydrocarbons have not been described were found with low frequencies. SRB were present in counts up to 10(5 MPN/l in 42.9% of water containing samples

  5. Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive mechanics I and II. The six units in automotive mechanics I are as follows: orientation and safety; tools, equipment, and manuals; measurement; automotive engines; basic electrical systems; and fuel systems. Automotive…

  6. Environmental potential of the alternative automotive fuels biogas, ethanol, methanol, natural gas, rape oil methyl ester, and dimethyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egebaeck, K.E.; Westerholm, R.

    1997-09-01

    The aim of the project was to estimate the future emission levels when using alternative fuels, as a contribution to the Committee for Evaluation of Alternative Automotive Fuels (organized by the Swedish Ministry of Environment). The method used for the project was to use the today's knowledge about the emission levels and the emission control technology as a base for the estimation of what additional potential there is to decrease the emissions by coming development of vehicles and the emission control technology. The results of the analysis and the estimations show that there exist a positive development for all types of vehicles and alternative fuels. However, there will be a difference between the different fuel alternatives depending on chemical and physical differences between the different fuels. There will also be a difference in the possibilities of the different fuels to capture a market which will have certain impact on the willingness and the economic possibilities for the car manufacturers to invest in the development needed to reach low emission levels. 124 refs

  7. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT III, MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (2) TRACING THE FUEL FLOW, (3) MINOR COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (4) MAINTENANCE TIPS, (5) CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS, AND (6)…

  8. Modeling of Pem Fuel Cell Systems Including Controls and Reforming Effects for Hybrid Automotive Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boettner, Daisie

    2001-01-01

    .... This study develops models for a stand-alone Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, a direct-hydrogen fuel cell system including auxiliaries, and a methanol reforming fuel cell system for integration into a vehicle performance simulator...

  9. Towards Highly Performing and Stable PtNi Catalysts in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells for Automotive Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina C. Zignani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to help the introduction on the automotive market of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs, it is mandatory to develop highly performing and stable catalysts. The main objective of this work is to investigate PtNi/C catalysts in a PEFC under low relative humidity and pressure conditions, more representative of automotive applications. Carbon supported PtNi nanoparticles were prepared by reduction of metal precursors with formic acid and successive thermal and leaching treatments. The effect of the chemical composition, structure and surface characteristics of the synthesized samples on their electrochemical behavior was investigated. The catalyst characterized by a larger Pt content (Pt3Ni2/C presented the highest catalytic activity (lower potential losses in the activation region among the synthesized bimetallic PtNi catalysts and the commercial Pt/C, used as the reference material, after testing at high temperature (95 °C and low humidification (50% conditions for automotive applications, showing a cell potential (ohmic drop-free of 0.82 V at 500 mA·cm−2. In order to assess the electro-catalysts stability, accelerated degradation tests were carried out by cycling the cell potential between 0.6 V and 1.2 V. By comparing the electrochemical and physico-chemical parameters at the beginning of life (BoL and end of life (EoL, it was demonstrated that the Pt1Ni1/C catalyst was the most stable among the catalyst series, with only a 2% loss of voltage at 200 mA·cm−2 and 12.5% at 950 mA·cm−2. However, further improvements are needed to produce durable catalysts.

  10. Infrared reflecting glazing for automotive application. New developments to improve fuel efficiency and thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielsch, R.; Wahl, A.; Kleinhempel, R. [Southwall Europe GmbH, Grossroehrsdorf (Germany); Coda, M.; Boman, L. [Southwall Technologies Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Solar control coatings in automotive glazing improve the thermal comfort for passengers, degrease solar irradiation into the cabin and reduce fading of materials. In IRR glazing solar radiation reduction is performed by silver based low-e-stacks with high visual transmittance and high near infrared reflectance. The proposed ARB regulation for Califormia published 2009 demanded for reduced total solartransmittance Tts of <50% of automotive glazing in new cars from 2012 on and of <40% starting 2016. Unfortunately, the regulation was ceased last minute and of March 2010 due to some technical concerns related to proper operation of electronic communication devices. Nevertheless, the technical goals regarding the total solar energy transmittance became a widely accepted performance target for solar heat protection glazing in upcoming new car models for the next years. In order to achieve the challenging new Tts target <40% major steps forward in coating design and optimization of layer properties are required. (orig.)

  11. Hydrogen Oxidation-Selective Electrocatalysis by Fine Tuning of Pt Ensemble Sites to Enhance the Durability of Automotive Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Su-Won; Park, Shin-Ae; Kim, Tae-June; Kim, Jun-Hyuk; Pak, Gi-Woong; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2017-02-08

    A simple, inexpensive approach is proposed for enhancing the durability of automotive proton exchange membrane fuel cells by selective promotion of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and suppression of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the anode in startup/shutdown events. Dodecanethiol forms a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the surface of Pt particles, thus decreasing the number of Pt ensemble sites. Interestingly, by controlling the dodecanethiol concentration during SAM formation, the number of ensemble sites can be precisely optimized such that it is sufficient for the HOR but insufficient for the ORR. Thus, a Pt surface with an SAM of dodecanethiol clearly effects HOR-selective electrocatalysis. Clear HOR selectivity is demonstrated in unit cell tests with the actual membrane electrode assembly, as well as in an electrochemical three-electrode setup with a thin-film rotating disk electrode configuration. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The fuel cell: a coming technology for the cogeneration and the automotive; La pile a combustible: une technologie d'avenir pour la cogeneration et l'automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of the Eco-Industries 2000 meeting, the ATEE organized a colloquium on the fuel cell use in the automotive and cogeneration industries. This book presents the six papers proposed at this colloquium bringing information on the fuel cell market, design and advantages. In the automotive domain, the fuel cell integration in the future car at Renault is presented. The PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) concept is also detailed. (A.L.B.)

  13. Design, Operation, Control, and Economics of a Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Renewable Energy System for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary S. Whiteman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Meeting rapidly growing global energy demand—without producing greenhouse gases or further diminishing the availability of non-renewable resources—requires the development of affordable low-emission renewable energy systems. Here, we develop a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES for automotive applications—specifically, a roof-installed photovoltaic (PV array combined with a PEM fuel cell/NiCd battery bus currently operating shuttle routes on the University of Delaware campus. The system’s overall operating objectives—meeting the total power demand of the bus and maintaining the desired state of charge (SOC of the NiCd battery—are achieved with appropriately designed controllers: a logic-based “algebraic controller” and a standard PI controller. The design, implementation, and performance of the hybrid system are demonstrated via simulation of real shuttle runs under various operating conditions. The results show that both control strategies perform equally well in enabling the HRES to meet its objectives under typical operating conditions, and under sudden cloud cover conditions; however, at consistently high bus speeds, battery SOC maintenance is better, and the system consumes less hydrogen, with PI control. An economic analysis of the PV investment necessary to realize the HRES design objectives indicates a return on investment of approximately 30% (a slight, but nonetheless positive, ~$550 profit over the bus lifetime in Newark, DE, establishing the economic viability of the proposed addition of a PV array to the existing University of Delaware fuel cell/battery bus.

  14. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 5: Fuel and Carburetion Systems. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, David T.

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 5, Fuel and Carburetion Systems; available separately as CE 031 217. Focus of the posttests is the inspecting and servicing of the fuel and carburetion systems. One multiple choice posttest is provided that covers the 10 performance objectives…

  15. Enhanced air/fuel mixing for automotive stirling engine turbulator-type combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, George T.; Stotts, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    The invention relates to the improved combustion of fuel in a combustion chamber of a stirling engine and the like by dividing combustion into primary and secondary combustion zones through the use of a diverter plate.

  16. Evaluation of Techniques for Reducing In-Use Automotive Fuel Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of proposed techniques for reducing fuel consumption in the in-use light duty road vehicle fleet. Three general classes of techniques are treated: (1) modification of vehicles, (2) modification of traffic flow, and ...

  17. Pyrolysis of automotive shredder residue for the production of fuel-grade gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, L.L.; Ness, R.O. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Every year eight to ten million cars and trucks are disposed of by shredding at one of the 200 auto shredders located in the United States. Automotive shredder residue (ASR) is a by-product created in the dismantling of automobiles. Figure 1 illustrates the process by which ASR is generated. An automobile is stripped of useful and/or hazardous items, such as the gas tank, battery, tires, and radiator. Although it is beneficial to have these items removed for safety and environmental concerns, this is not always accomplished. After removal of some or all of these items, the automobile is shredded to provide a material less than 4 inches in size and composed of approximately 50% organic and 50% inorganic fractions. Ferrous scrap is then separated out magnetically. This ferrous scrap supplies the steel industry with 12 to 14 million tons per year for electric arc furnace feedstock. Air cyclone separators isolate a low density open-quotes fluffclose quotes from the nonferrous fraction (aluminum, copper, etc.). This fluff (shredder residue) is composed of a variety of plastics, fabrics, foams, glass, rubber, and an assortment of contaminants. Fluff bulk density is approximately 20 lb/ft

  18. Automotive Engines; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive engines course studies and demonstrates the theory and principles of operation of the automotive four stroke cycle engine. The student will develop an understanding of the systems necessary to make the engine perform as designed, such as cooling, fuel, ignition and lubrication. This is a one or two quinmester credit course of 45…

  19. Sustainable electricity supply in the world by 2050 for economic growth and automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, P.

    2010-01-01

    Over the next 40 years, the combustion of fossil fuels for generation of electricity and vehicle transportation will be significantly reduced. In addition to the business-as-usual growth in electric energy demand for the growing world population, new electricity-intensive industries, such as battery electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles will result in further growth in world consumption of electric energy. Planning for a sustainable supply of electric energy in the diverse economies of the world should be carried out with appropriate technology for selecting the appropriate large-scale energy resources based on their specific energy. Analysis of appropriate technology for the available large-scale energy resources with diminished use of fossil fuel combustion shows that sustainable electricity supply can be achieved with equal contributions of renewable energy resources for large numbers of small-scale distributed applications and nuclear energy resources for the smaller number of large-scale centralised applications. (author)

  20. Model-based diagnosis through Structural Analysis and Causal Computation for automotive Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polverino, Pierpaolo; Frisk, Erik; Jung, Daniel; Krysander, Mattias; Pianese, Cesare

    2017-07-01

    The present paper proposes an advanced approach for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) systems fault detection and isolation through a model-based diagnostic algorithm. The considered algorithm is developed upon a lumped parameter model simulating a whole PEMFC system oriented towards automotive applications. This model is inspired by other models available in the literature, with further attention to stack thermal dynamics and water management. The developed model is analysed by means of Structural Analysis, to identify the correlations among involved physical variables, defined equations and a set of faults which may occur in the system (related to both auxiliary components malfunctions and stack degradation phenomena). Residual generators are designed by means of Causal Computation analysis and the maximum theoretical fault isolability, achievable with a minimal number of installed sensors, is investigated. The achieved results proved the capability of the algorithm to theoretically detect and isolate almost all faults with the only use of stack voltage and temperature sensors, with significant advantages from an industrial point of view. The effective fault isolability is proved through fault simulations at a specific fault magnitude with an advanced residual evaluation technique, to consider quantitative residual deviations from normal conditions and achieve univocal fault isolation.

  1. Dynamic Simulation of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell System For Automotive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbani, Raja Abid; Rokni, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    parameters have been adjusted specifically for a 21.2 kW Ballard stack [1]. This model also incorporates the effects of water cross-over in the fuel cell membrane. Controls for temperatures, pressures, reactant stoichiometry and flows are implemented to simulate the system behaviour for different loads...

  2. Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

  3. Biofuels in Spain: Market penetration analysis and competitiveness in the automotive fuel market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrino, Fernando Hernandez; Monroy, Carlos Rodriguez; Perez, Jose Luis Hernandez

    2010-01-01

    For several years the European Union (E.U.) has been promoting the use of biofuels due to their potential benefits such as the reduction of dependence on foreign energy imports (the raw materials can be produced within the E.U.), the more stable fossil fuel prices (they can replace fossil fuels on the market), the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction (biofuels' raw materials fix CO 2 from the atmosphere) and the fact that they can represent an additional source of income for the primary sector (biofuels' raw materials are vegetables that can be grown and harvested). Despite the public aids (direct and indirect), biofuels are not competitive with fossil fuels at present, but it is possible that in the future the environment conditions change and biofuels might become competitive. It is difficult to assess whether this will happen or not, but it is possible to make an assessment of a future situation. This article presents two analyses with one objective: to determine if biofuels might become competitive in the future. The first analysis examines the dependencies of two quotations which have a strong relationship with fuels: the crude oil quotation and the CO 2 bond quotation. The analysis of these relationships may help to forecast the future competitiveness of biofuels. For instance, biofuels' future competitiveness will be higher if their raw material costs are not related to crude oil quotations or if they are related in a negative way (the higher the crude oil quotations the lower the raw material biofuels' cost). The second analysis focuses on the market penetration of biofuels in the Spanish market. There are data related to biofuels monthly consumption in Spain since 2007 and it is possible to know if biofuels are gaining market quota since then. (author)

  4. Biofuels in Spain: Market penetration analysis and competitiveness in the automotive fuel market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrino, Fernando Hernandez; Monroy, Carlos Rodriguez [Department of Business Administration, School of Industrial Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Perez, Jose Luis Hernandez [High School Chemistry Teacher, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    For several years the European Union (E.U.) has been promoting the use of biofuels due to their potential benefits such as the reduction of dependence on foreign energy imports (the raw materials can be produced within the E.U.), the more stable fossil fuel prices (they can replace fossil fuels on the market), the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction (biofuels' raw materials fix CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere) and the fact that they can represent an additional source of income for the primary sector (biofuels' raw materials are vegetables that can be grown and harvested). Despite the public aids (direct and indirect), biofuels are not competitive with fossil fuels at present, but it is possible that in the future the environment conditions change and biofuels might become competitive. It is difficult to assess whether this will happen or not, but it is possible to make an assessment of a future situation. This article presents two analyses with one objective: to determine if biofuels might become competitive in the future. The first analysis examines the dependencies of two quotations which have a strong relationship with fuels: the crude oil quotation and the CO{sub 2} bond quotation. The analysis of these relationships may help to forecast the future competitiveness of biofuels. For instance, biofuels' future competitiveness will be higher if their raw material costs are not related to crude oil quotations or if they are related in a negative way (the higher the crude oil quotations the lower the raw material biofuels' cost). The second analysis focuses on the market penetration of biofuels in the Spanish market. There are data related to biofuels monthly consumption in Spain since 2007 and it is possible to know if biofuels are gaining market quota since then. (author)

  5. Assessment of institutional barriers to the use of natural gas fuel in automotive vehicle fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, J.; Lent, L.; Lawrence, M.; White, L.

    1983-01-01

    Institutional barriers to the use of natural gas as a fuel for motor vehicle fleets were identified. Recommendations for barrier removal were developed. Eight types of institutional barriers were assessed: (1) lack of a national standard for the safe design and certification of natural gas vehicles and refueling stations; (2) excessively conservative or misapplied state and local regulations, including bridge and tunnel restrictions, restrictions on types of vehicles that may be fueled by natural gas, zoning regulations that prohibit operation of refueling stations, parking restrictions, application of LPG standards to LNG vehicles, and unintentionally unsafe vehicle or refueling station requirements; (3) need for clarification of EPA's tampering enforcement policy; (4) the U.S. hydrocarbon standard; (5) uncertainty concerning state utility commission jurisdiction; (6) sale for resale prohibitions imposed by natural gas utility companies or state utility commissions; (7) uncertainty of the effects of conversions to natural gas on vehicle manufactures warranties; and (8) need for a natural gas to gasoline equivalent units conversion factor for use in calculation of state road use taxes.

  6. Ionomer equivalent weight structuring in the cathode catalyst layer of automotive fuel cells: Effect on performance, current density distribution and electrochemical impedance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herden, Susanne; Hirschfeld, Julian A.; Lohri, Cyrill; Perchthaler, Markus; Haase, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    To improve the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with segmented cathode electrodes have been manufactured. Electrodes with a higher and lower ionomer equivalent weight (EW) were used and analyzed using current density and temperature distribution, polarization curve, temperature sweep and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. These were performed using automotive metallic bipolar plates and operating conditions. Measurement data were used to manufacture an optimized segmented cathode electrode. We were able to show that our results are transferable from a small scale hardware to automotive application and that an ionomer EW segmentation of the cathode leads to performance improvement in a broad spectrum of operating conditions. Furthermore, we confirmed our results by using in-situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  7. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiliang (ed.) [Tsinghua Univ. Beijing (China). China Automotive Energy Research Center

    2013-06-01

    The latest research available on automotive energy system analysis in China. Thorough introduction on automotive energy system in China. Provides the broad perspective to aid in planning sustainable road transport in China. Sustainable Automotive Energy System in China aims at identifying and addressing the key issues of automotive energy in China in a systematic way, covering demography, economics, technology and policy, based on systematic and in-depth, multidisciplinary and comprehensive studies. Five scenarios of China's automotive energy development are created to analyze the possible contributions in the fields of automotive energy, vehicle fuel economy improvement, electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles and the 2nd generation biofuel development. Thanks to this book, readers can gain a better understanding of the nature of China's automotive energy development and be informed about: (1) the current status of automotive energy consumption, vehicle technology development, automotive energy technology development and policy; (2) the future of automotive energy development, fuel consumption, propulsion technology penetration and automotive energy technology development, and (3) the pathways of sustainable automotive energy transformation in China, in particular, the technological and the policy-related options. This book is intended for researchers, engineers and graduates students in the low-carbon transportation and environmental protection field.

  8. Fischer–tropsch diesel production and evaluation as alternative automotive fuel in pilot-scale integrated biomass-to-liquid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Doo; Yang, Chang-Won; Kim, Beom-Jong; Moon, Ji-Hong; Jeong, Jae-Yong; Jeong, Soo-Hwa; Lee, See-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Ho; Seo, Myung-Won; Lee, Sang-Bong; Kim, Jae-Kon; Lee, Uen-Do

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A pilot scale biomass-to-liquid (BTL) process was investigated for Fischer-Tropsch diesel production. • 200 kW_t_h dual fluidized bed gasifier was integrated with 1 bbl/day F-T synthesis reactor. • Purified syngas satisfies minimum requirements of F-T synthesis. • F-T diesel produced successfully (1 L/h) and satisfies the automotive fuel standard. • Fully integrated BTL system was operated successfully more than 500 h. - Abstract: Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) diesel produced from biomass through gasification is a promising alternative fuel. In this study, a biomass-to-liquid (BTL) system involving a dual fluidized bed gasifier (DFBG), a methanol absorption tower, and an F-T synthesis process was investigated for producing clean biodiesel as an automotive fuel. A DFBG, which is an efficient indirect gasifier, can produce syngas with high caloric value while minimizing the amount of nitrogen in the product gas. In order to meet the strict requirements of syngas for F-T synthesis, any contaminants in the syngas must be minimized and its composition must be carefully controlled. In this work, the syngas mainly comprised 35 vol% of H_2 and 21.3 vol% of CO. The concentrations of H_2S and COS in the syngas were less than 1 ppmV owing to the use of chilled methanol cleaning process. Furthermore, long-term operation of a fully integrated BTL system was successfully conducted for over 500 h. The results showed that the BTL diesel can be used as an alternative automotive diesel fuel.

  9. CFD simulation of flow-pressure characteristics of a pressure control valve for automotive fuel supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dazhuan; Li, Shiyang; Wu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct CFD method for flow-pressure characteristic of a pressure control valve. • Fitted and interpreted the constants of the spool hydraulic force equation. • Established a flow coefficient function of both valve opening and pressure drop. • Developed an indirect CFD method based on the valve-governing equations. - Abstract: This study aims to elaborate on specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation methods for fitting the flow-pressure curve of a pressure control valve, which is spring-load valve widely used in the automotive fuel supply system. Given that the couple mechanism exists between the flow field in the valve and the spring system, numerous researchers chose to fit the characteristic curve with experimental approaches but scarcely focused on CFD methods. A direct CFD method is introduced in this study to solve this problem. Two evaluation criteria are used to determine whether the internal flow is physically real. An experiment is conducted to verify the simulation results, and the accuracy of this CFD method is proved. However, it is designed to solve one operating condition with fixed spring parameters and the accuracy depends on the amount of operating conditions. Thus, an indirect CFD method is developed based on the well-elaborated valve-governing equations to improve the efficiency and broaden the application extension. This method aims to simulate the exact value of the equation constants to uncouple the flow by numerical method. It is capable of dealing with changed operating conditions and varied spring parameters, and the results are also verified. The visualization of the internal flow provides a better understanding of the flow fields in the valve. The valve gap directly influences the hydraulic force distribution on the spool and causes most pressure loss. The physical meaning of the function constants are explained based on the flow analysis

  10. Modeling and analysis of flow and heat transfer in a large PEM fuel cell suitable for automotive applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yiğinsu, Berk; Yiginsu, Berk

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) targets, automotive manufacturers realize the necessities to develop new technologies that replace the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Nowadays there are two major trends in the automotive industry; First, hybrid vehicles which combine hydrogen energy with combustion energy, and second there is a down-sizing trend. By using hybrid technologies auto makers can obtain a significant drop in emission levels and the efficiencies increase up to 80%. Reachi...

  11. Status and Outlook for the U.S. Non-Automotive Fuel Cell Industry: Impacts of Government Policies and Assessment of Future Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Duleep, K. G. [ICF International; Upreti, Girish [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    Fuel cells (FCs) are considered essential future energy technologies by developed and developing economies alike. Several countries, including the United States, Japan, Germany, and South Korea have established publicly funded R&D and market transformation programs to develop viable domestic FC industries for both automotive and non-automotive applications. Important non-automotive applications include large scale and small scale distributed combined heat and electrical power, backup and uninterruptible power, material handling and auxiliary power units. The U.S. FC industry is in the early stages of development, and is working to establish sustainable markets in all these areas. To be successful, manufacturers must reduce costs, improve performance, and overcome market barriers to new technologies. U.S. policies are assisting via research and development, tax credits and government-only and government-assisted procurements. Over the past three years, the industry has made remarkable progress, bringing both stack and system costs down by more than a factor of two while improving durability and efficiency, thanks in part to government support. Today, FCs are still not yet able to compete in these markets without continued policy support. However, continuation or enhancement of current policies, such as the investment tax credit and government procurements, together with continued progress by the industry, appears likely to establish a viable domestic industry within the next decade.

  12. Research report for fiscal 1998. Research into the trends of low-carbon automotive fuel manufacturing technologies; 1998 nendo jidoshayo teitanso nenryo no seizo gijutsu doko chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Studies are made of optimum materials and methods for manufacturing low-carbon fuels for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. When their thermal dynamic limits and the technological maturity are considered, it is inferred that no extensive improvement will be achieved by merely improving on the efficiency of the existing fuels. The use of various high-efficiency driving power sources utterly different in mechanism from the conventional ones, such as those for fuel cell-powered automobiles, and the promotion of the use of low-carbon fuels such as methanol and methane for all kinds of driving power sources including those for the said fuel cell-powered automobiles, will become necessary. The use will also be necessary of recyclable materials. The biomass resources, in particular, since they absorb CO2 gas in their growing process by virtue of photosynthesis, may be said to be free of CO2 gas emissions. They have their own problems, however, which involve the economy of energy consumed for their production, harvesting, transportation, and conversion into fuels. It is therefore required that their whole life cycle be studied before their greenhouse gas reduction effect may be correctly assessed. The quantities of resources available for the production of automotive low-carbon fuels, manufacturing technologies, etc., are first of all put in order for easy perusal. An effective way is assessed for the whole including the life cycle. (NEDO)

  13. Life-cycle analysis of energy and greenhouse gas emissions of automotive fuels in India: Part 1 – Tank-to-Wheel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Patil, V.; Himabindu, M.; Ravikrishna, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    As part of a two-part life cycle efficiency and greenhouse gas emission analysis for various automotive fuels in the Indian context, this paper presents the first part, i.e., Tank-to-Wheel analysis of various fuel/powertrain configurations for a subcompact passenger car. The Tank-to-Wheel analysis was applied to 28 fuel/powertrain configurations using fuels such as gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and hydrogen with various conventional and hybrid electric powertrains. The gasoline-equivalent fuel economy and carbon dioxide emission results for individual fuel/powertrain configuration are evaluated and compared. It is found that the split hybrid configuration is best among hybrids as it leads to fuel economy improvement and carbon dioxide emissions reduction by 20–40% over the Indian drive cycle. Further, the engine efficiency, engine on-off time and regenerative braking energy assessment is done to evaluate the causes for higher energy efficiency of hybrid electric vehicles. The hybridization increases average engine efficiency by 10–60% which includes 19–23% of energy recovered at wheel through regenerative braking over the drive cycle. Overall, the Tank-to-Wheel energy use and efficiency results are evaluated for all fuel/powertrain configurations which show Battery Electric Vehicle, fuel cell vehicles and diesel hybrids are near and long term energy efficient vehicle configurations. - Highlights: • Tank-to-Wheel energy use & CO_2 emissions for subcompact car on Indian driving cycle. • Gasoline, diesel, CNG, LPG, hydrogen and electric vehicles are evaluated in this study. • First comprehensive Tank-to-Wheel analysis for India on small passenger car platform. • Parallel, series and split hybrid electric vehicles with various fuels are analysed.

  14. The European automotive LPG market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The European automotive LPG market could reach at least 4 % of the European fuel market in 2005 versus 1 % in 1990. This would represent a rise of about 35 % in automotive LPG sales (from 2,4 million tonnes in 1997 to 7 million tonnes estimated for 2005). This was underlined by Alain Deleuse, Primagaz group's Marketing Director, in the paper he delivered at the AEGPL Budapest Convention. We publish large excepts of this paper. (author)

  15. Efficiency Standard in automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, G.

    2008-01-01

    A technological transition in the transport sector could be only be possible with a convergence of objectives of the automotive and the fuel industries, which is not very simple to obtain. Fuel economy standards could differently reduce the growing trend of CO 2 emissions in this sector but regulators should avoid capture from domestic industry. [it

  16. Natural gas as an alternative to crude oil in automotive fuel chains well-to-wheel analysis and transition strategy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekkert, M.P.; Hendriks, F.H.J.F.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Neelis, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Road transport produces significant amounts of CO 2 by using crude oil as primary energy source. A reduction of CO 2 emissions can be achieved by implementing alternative fuel chains. This article studies CO 2 emissions and energy efficiencies by means of a well to wheel analysis of alternative automotive fuel chains, using natural gas (NG) as an alternative primary energy source to replace crude oil. The results indicate that NG-based hydrogen applied in fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) lead to largest CO 2 emission reductions (up to 40% compared to current practice). However, large implementation barriers for this option are foreseen, both technically and in terms of network change. Two different transition strategies are discussed to gradually make the transition to these preferred fuel chains. Important transition technologies that are the backbone of these routes are traditional engine technology fuelled by compressed NG and a FCV fuelled by gasoline. The first is preferred in terms of carbon emissions. The results furthermore indicate that an innovation in the conventional chain, the diesel hybrid vehicle, is more efficient than many NG-based chains. This option scores well in terms of carbon emissions and implementation barriers and is a very strong option for the future

  17. Automotive websites

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Todd A

    2006-01-01

    For anyone buying a new car, restoring an old favorite, collecting license plates or looking for motorsports information, the internet is the place to go and this is the book to help you get there. Now with over 650 internet addresses, this expanded and updated guide provides detailed descriptions and reviews of the biggest, best and most interesting automotive websites on the net. Beginning with a brief internet history and helpful hints, it aids the novice (or not so novice) user in picking through the countless automotive sites on the internet. Websites are arranged by topics such as afterm

  18. Recommended composition/property relationships for the characterization of commercial biodiesels before their application in production of automotive diesel fuels in a refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinov, I.; Stratiev, D.; Shishkova, I.; Dinkov, R. [LUKOIL Neftohim Burgas (Bulgaria); Georgiev, K. [Cristal Chemical Trading, Velingrad (Bulgaria)

    2013-10-15

    The article summarizes the results of experimental studies on the physicochemical properties of twenty commercial biodiesel samples obtained from different manufacturers, and studied properties include density, viscosity and cetane number. An extensive literature review was carried out on available mathematical relationships between fatty acid composition of the biodiesel and the above properties. The predictive potential of the published relationships was evaluated with respect to the properties of the investigated biodiesel samples. Based on existing standard methods for analysis those relationships were selected that fit within the reproducibility of the corresponding method or closely match it. The selected dependencies were summarized in a single mathematical apparatus, with which it is possible to expertly assess the quality of biodiesel before being used for production of automotive diesel fuel in a refinery. (orig.)

  19. Automotive Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Ralph C.; And Others

    This curriculum guide, which was validated by vocational teachers and mechanics in the field, describes the competencies needed by entry-level automotive mechanics. This guide lists 15 competencies; for each competency, various tasks with their performance objective, student learning experiences, suggested instructional techniques, instructional…

  20. Exhaust gas emissions from various automotive fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects on health, environment and energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlvik, P.; Brandberg, Aa.

    1999-12-01

    The main aim of the investigation has been to assess the effects on health and environment from various alternative fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects that can be identified and quantified, such as acidification, ozone formation, cancer risk and climate change, have been of primary interest but other effects, such as respiratory diseases, have also been investigated. Data have been collected through literature surveys for subsequent calculation of the mentioned effects in different time-frames. Corrections have been used to take into consideration the influence of climate, ageing and driving pattern. Emissions generated in fuel production have also been accounted for. The most significant and important differences between the fuels have been found for effects as ozone formation cancer risk and particulate emissions. Alternative fuels, such as methanol and methane (natural gas and biogas), significantly decrease the ozone formation in comparison to petrol, while ethanol, methanol and methane are advantageous concerning cancer risk. The particulate emissions are considerably higher for diesel engines fuelled by diesel oil and RME in comparison to the other fuels. In the future, the importance of acid emissions in the fuel production will increase since the NO x and SO x emissions will decrease from the vehicles. The emissions of climate gases could be significantly reduced by using non-fossil fuels but the efficiency of the drive train is also of importance. The technical development potential for further emission reductions is considerable for all fuels but the advantage for the best fuel options will remain in the future

  1. Energy management for automotive power nets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.

    2007-01-01

    Reducing fuel consumption has always been a major challenge to the automotive industry. Whereas first marketing aspects gave rise to innovative research, today the environmental regulations have become the main driving force behind new technologies. Historically, the research concentrated on

  2. Numerical simulations of a full-scale polymer electrolyte fuel cell with analysing systematic performance in an automotive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heesung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3-D full-scale fuel cell performance is numerically simulated. • Generated and consumed power in the system is affected by operating condition. • Systematic analysis predicts the net power of conceptual PEFC stack. - Abstract: In fuel cell powered electric vehicles, the net power efficiency is a critical factor in terms of fuel economy and commercialization. Although the fuel cell stack produces enough power to drive the vehicles, the transferred power to the power train could be significantly reduced due to the power consumption to operate the system components of air blower and cooling module. Thus the systematic analysis on the operating condition of the fuel cell stack is essential to predict the net power generation. In this paper numerical simulation is conducted to characterize the fuel cell performance under various operating conditions. Three dimensional and full-scale fuel cell of the active area of 355 cm 2 is numerically modelled with 47.3 million grids to capture the complexities of the fluid dynamics, heat transfer and electrochemical reactions. The proposed numerical model requires large computational time and cost, however, it can be powerful to reasonably predict the fuel cell system performance at the early stage of conceptual design without requiring prototypes. Based on the model, it has been shown that the net power is reduced down to 90% of the gross power due to the power consumption of air blower and cooling module

  3. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 5: Fuel and Carburetion Systems. Review Exercise Book. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Ludy

    This book of pretests and review exercises is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 5, Fuel and Carburetion Systems, available separately as CE 031 217. Focus of the exercises and pretests is inspecting and servicing the fuel and carburetion systems. Pretests and performance checklists are provided for each of the…

  4. Automotive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  5. Understanding the formative stage of technological innovation system development: The case of natural gas as an automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suurs, Roald A.A.; Hekkert, Marko P.; Kieboom, Sander; Smits, Ruud E.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study contributes to insights into mechanisms that influence the successes and failures of emerging energy technologies. It is assumed that for an emerging technology to fruitfully develop, it should be fostered by a Technological Innovation System (TIS), which is the network of actors, institutions and technologies in which it is embedded. For an emerging technology a TIS has yet to be built up. This research focuses on the dynamics of this build-up process by mapping the development of seven key activities: so-called system functions. The main contribution revolves around the notion of cumulative causation, or the phenomenon that the build-up of a TIS accelerates due to system functions reinforcing each other over time. As an empirical basis, an analysis is provided of the historical development of the TIS around automotive natural gas technology in the Netherlands (1970-2007). The results show that this TIS undergoes a gradual build-up in the 1970s, followed by a breakdown in the 1980s and, again, a build-up from 2000 to 2007. It is shown that underlying these trends are different forms of cumulative causation, here called motors of innovation. The study provides strategic insights for practitioners that aspire to support such motors of innovation.

  6. Final report: U.S. competitive position in automotive technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Michael B.; Cheney, Margaret; Thomas, Patrick; Kroll, Peter

    2002-09-30

    Patent data are presented and analyzed to assess the U.S. competitive position in eleven advanced automotive technology categories, including automotive fuel cells, hydrogen storage, advanced batteries, hybrid electric vehicles and others. Inventive activity in most of the technologies is found to be growing at a rapid pace, particularly in advanced batteries, automotive fuel cells and ultracapacitors. The U.S. is the clear leader in automotive fuel cells, on-board hydrogen storage and light weight materials. Japan leads in advanced batteries, hybrid electric vehicles, ultracapacitors, and appears to be close to overtaking the U.S. in other areas of power electronics.

  7. Energy efficiency assessment by life cycle simulation of cassava-based fuel ethanol for automotive use in Chinese Guangxi context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suiran; Tao Jing

    2009-01-01

    Interest has been renewed in bio-ethanol products for their contributions in moderating oil crises. So far, most research on bio-ethanol in China is based on pilot-level experimental studies. But this work only discloses information regarding material balances and reached yields without any further energy analysis. This paper aims to assess the energy efficiency of the cassava-based fuel ethanol (KFE) product from southwest China. For the purpose of a life cycle study of the KFE product as replacement transportation fuel, the study chose a 'vehicle fueled by cassava-based E10 (a blend of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume)' as the subject and accordingly defined the scope of this study. Then, the life cycle model of the KFE product concerning energetically relevant in- and outputs was built. Due to variations in data collected, as well as some estimates and assumptions used in this study, the Monte Carlo method was introduced to develop the statistical dispersion of calculated outputs of the assessing model. Assessment results show that, within the boundary of this study, KFE has a positive net energy value, with an energy ratio of around 0.70 MJ/MJ, which means 7 MJ into the processing for each MJ of KFE output

  8. Life cycle energy, environment and economic assessment of soybean-based biodiesel as an alternative automotive fuel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhiyuan; Tan, Piqiang; Lou, Diming; Yan, Xiaoyu

    2008-01-01

    Life cycle energy, environment and economic assessment for conventional diesel (CD) and soybean-based biodiesel (SB) in China was carried out in this paper. The results of the assessment have shown that compared with CD, SB has similar source-to-tank (StT) total energy consumption, 76% lower StT fossil energy consumption, 79% higher source-to-wheel (StW) nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions, 31%, 44%, 36%, 29%, and 67% lower StW hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), sulfur oxides (SO X ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, respectively. SB is thus considered to be much more renewable and cleaner than CD. However, the retail price of SB at gas stations would be about 86% higher than that of CD without government subsidy according to the cost assessment and China had to import large amount of soybean to meet the demand in recent years. Therefore, although SB is one of the most promising clean and alternative fuels, currently it is not a good choice for China. It is strategically important for China to diversify the feedstock for biodiesel and to consider other kinds of alternative fuels to substitute CD. (author)

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of a fuel-cell-system for automotive transportation; Thermodynamische Analyse eines Brennstoffzellensystems zum Antrieb von Kraftfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Oliver

    2009-09-28

    The focus of the investigations was on the cooling of the fuel cell stack module. The many interfaces between the cooling system and other systems (hydrogen and air supply) made it necessary to take a more comprehensive approach. A commercial fuel cell vehicle was used for the investigations. In the first step, experiments were made on system test stands and in the climate wind tunnel. The measured data presented a picture of the status and helped to define the limits of heat transfer to the environment via the fuel cell cooling system. They were also used for validating a dynamic cooling system validation model. With this model, sensitivity analyses were carried out to define the key influencing parameters for increasing the heat transfer to the environment. Optimizations were made in terms of connection of the system component and their design and placement in the front part of the vehicle. On the basis of these and other findings, the optimized aggregate was again investigated on a system test stand in order to obtain more general energetic and exergetic information in the form of Sankey diagrams for visualization of the energy and exergy flows. The stack module under investigation had an efficiency of 61 percent in the test conditions while the aggregate efficiency in consideration of all auxiliary loads was 54 percent. Exergy losses were mostly caused by the fuel cell stack module, the humidifier and the air compressor. Further optimization potential was identified in the utilization of the exhaust exergy which amounts to about 7.3 percent of the fuel exergy. After integration of the fuel cell aggregate in a new vehicel, the new vehicle was again tested in the wind tunnel in order to validate the optimization measures on the cooling system side. For this, the two fuel cell vehicles were compared using the so-called Grossglockner driving cycle which is a test procedure for cooling systems of serially produced vehicles. According to the specifications, the real

  10. Alternative route for the MDW project for automotive fuels in the Dutch highway sector. A legal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Haute, J.S.R.; Kooy, J.

    2002-01-01

    In February 1998, the Dutch Government initiated an MDW project ('Marktwerking, Deregulering en Wetgevingskwaliteit', i.e. market functioning, deregulation and quality of legislation) to review ways in which competition within the motorway segment of the Dutch retail fuel market could be improved. The project reviewed the entry barriers and considered ways to stimulate competition, including preferential treatment of new entrants. The Dutch Major oil companies protested against the original plans of the Government and announced legal proceedings. The Government agreed to engage in negotiations with the oil industry in order to reach a compromise solution and avoid a legal battle. This resulted in an alternative route, which is analyzed in this article from a legal perspective [nl

  11. Automotive fuels distribution on highways: 2007 statistical inquiry; La distribution de carburants sur autoroutes: enquete statistique 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) is in charge of the follow up of the French market of petroleum products distribution. Each year, a statistical inquiry is carried out with the suppliers and published in the annual report of the petroleum industry. A particular emphasis is laid on fuel sales at highway service stations which give some additional information. The 2007 sales remain stable with respect to 2006 but they show a significant progress of diesel with respect to gasoline. The super-ethanol (E85) sales remain modest but show an import rise all along the year. And finally, 70% of the market is in the hands of 3 suppliers only. (J.S.)

  12. Part II: Oxidative Thermal Aging of Pd/Al2O3 and Pd/CexOy-ZrO2 in Automotive Three Way Catalysts: The Effects of Fuel Shutoff and Attempted Fuel Rich Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghe Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pd component in the automotive three way catalyst (TWC experiences deactivation during fuel shutoff, a process employed by automobile companies for enhancing fuel economy when the vehicle is coasting downhill. The process exposes the TWC to a severe oxidative aging environment with the flow of hot (800 °C–1050 °C air. Simulated fuel shutoff aging at 1050 °C leads to Pd metal sintering, the main cause of irreversible deactivation of 3% Pd/Al2O3 and 3% Pd/CexOy-ZrO2 (CZO as model catalysts. The effect on the Rh component was presented in our companion paper Part I. Moderate support sintering and Pd-CexOy interactions were also experienced upon aging, but had a minimal effect on the catalyst activity losses. Cooling in air, following aging, was not able to reverse the metallic Pd sintering by re-dispersing to PdO. Unlike the aged Rh-TWCs (Part I, reduction via in situ steam reforming (SR of exhaust HCs was not effective in reversing the deactivation of aged Pd/Al2O3, but did show a slight recovery of the Pd activity when CZO was the carrier. The Pd+/Pd0 and Ce3+/Ce4+ couples in Pd/CZO are reported to promote the catalytic SR by improving the redox efficiency during the regeneration, while no such promoting effect was observed for Pd/Al2O3. A suggestion is made for improving the catalyst performance.

  13. New insights to the use of ethanol in automotive fuels: a stable isotopic tracer for fossil- and bio-fuel combustion inputs to the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Brian M; Swart, Peter K; Riemer, Daniel D

    2011-08-01

    Ethanol is currently receiving increased attention because of its use as a biofuel or fuel additive and because of its influence on air quality. We used stable isotopic ratio measurements of (13)C/(12)C in ethanol emitted from vehicles and a small group of tropical plants to establish ethanol's δ(13)C end-member signatures. Ethanol emitted in exhaust is distinctly different from that emitted by tropical plants and can serve as a unique stable isotopic tracer for transportation-related inputs to the atmosphere. Ethanol's unique isotopic signature in fuel is related to corn, a C4 plant and the primary source of ethanol in the U.S. We estimated a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) for ethanol's oxidative loss in the atmosphere and used previous assumptions with respect to the fractionation that may occur during wet and dry deposition. A small number of interpretive model calculations were used for source apportionment of ethanol and to understand the associated effects resulting from atmospheric removal. The models incorporated our end-member signatures and ambient measurements of ethanol, known or estimated source strengths and removal magnitudes, and estimated KIEs associated with atmospheric removal processes for ethanol. We compared transportation-related ethanol signatures to those from biogenic sources and used a set of ambient measurements to apportion each source contribution in Miami, Florida-a moderately polluted, but well ventilated urban location.

  14. Status and Prospects of the Global Automotive Fuel Cell Industry and Plans for Deployment of Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, David L [ORNL; Duleep, Gopal [HD Systems

    2013-06-01

    Automobile manufacturers leading the development of mass-market fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) were interviewed in Japan, Korea, Germany and the United States. There is general agreement that the performance of FCVs with respect to durability, cold start, packaging, acceleration, refueling time and range has progressed to the point where vehicles that could be brought to market in 2015 will satisfy customer expectations. However, cost and the lack of refueling infrastructure remain significant barriers. Costs have been dramatically reduced over the past decade, yet are still about twice what appears to be needed for sustainable market success. While all four countries have plans for the early deployment of hydrogen refueling infrastructure, the roles of government, industry and the public in creating a viable hydrogen refueling infrastructure remain unresolved. The existence of an adequate refueling infrastructure and supporting government policies are likely to be the critical factors that determine when and where hydrogen FCVs are brought to market.

  15. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance. Volume 1. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Fourteen units on minor automotive maintenance are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: introduction to minor automotive maintenance, shop safety, engine principles, fuel system operation and repair, electrical system, ignition system, lubrication system, engine cooling system, exhaust system, wheel bearings and tires,…

  16. Tax exemption for biomass-based automotive fuels - the right way to go? Including an economic evaluation of ethanol as a vehicle fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoersell, Mats

    2004-12-01

    Biofuels are tax-exempt from 2004. Only ethanol and FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) are discussed in this assessment of the tax exemption. The EU's Biofuels Directive from 2003 contains the objective that 2% of fuels for transport purposes, in terms of energy content, is to consist of biofuels by 2005 and 5.75% by 2010. In practice, low admixture of ethanol and FAME are the only ways of very rapidly increasing the proportion of biofuels. EU quality requirements for petrol limit the admixture of ethanol in petrol to a maximum of 5%. As far as Sweden is concerned, this is equivalent to around 275,000m 3 ethanol. The admixture is lucrative for the oil companies, and we therefore assume that this volume will nearly be reached in 2004. Around 70,000m 3 ethanol is produced annually in Sweden, and imported ethanol with the following origins and costs is principally used in the admixture: Sugar cane is used as a raw material for ethanol production in Brazil. The production costs for the latest and largest ethanol factories are around SEK 1.75 per litre. In Norrkoeping, Sweden, ethanol is produced from cereals, and costs are reported to be around SEK 5 per litre. Wine ethanol is prepared from residual products in the manufacturing of wine and from surplus wine. The 'production cost' (heavily subsidised) is often quoted as being around SEK 2 per litre. We estimate the price in Sweden of ethanol from Brazil, including duty of SEK 0.93 and carriage costs of SEK 0.35-0.50 per litre, at around SEK 3.50 in both 2005 and 2010. Those EU member states which appear to be intending to rapidly implement the Biofuels Directive are expected to have demand for something of the order of 1 million m 3 ethanol in 2005. Supply in the medium term, for example in 2010, is highly elastic, and prices are not likely to increase in the longer term either, as the potential for future new production capacity in Brazil is huge: tens of millions of m 3 per year. We anticipate that in the foreseeable

  17. Les nouveaux carburants pour l'automobile. Carburants oxygénés : emploi et émissions New Automotive Fuels. Oxygenated Fuels: Their Use and Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibet J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A la lumière de résultats nouveaux obtenus à l'IFP et de publications récentes sur le sujet, on étudie les principales répercussions de l'emploi de carburants oxygénés sur les émissions de polluants à l'échapement et sur les risques possibles associés à la manipulation des produits. Les polluants examinés sont les alkyles de plomb, l'oxyde de carbone, les oxydes d'azote, les produits imbrûlés, les aldéhydes et les hydrocarbures aromatiques polynucléaires. Les émissions de fumées et de particules solides par les moteurs diesel font aussi l'objet de quelques commentaires. On aborde également les problèmes de pertes par évaporation et on fournit quelques informations sur la toxicité des alcools et des aldéhydes. L'étude fait apparaître un besoin réel de nouvelles recherches dans le domaine, mais elle indique déjà que l'emploi de produits organiques oxygénés comme carburants ne devrait pas changer l'ordre de grandeur des niveaux de polluants. In the light of new results from IFP and recent publications on the subject, this article examines the main repercussions of the use of oxygenated fuelss on pollutant exhauts emissions and on possible risks associated with the handling of products. The pollutants examined are lead alkyls, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned products, aldehydes and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Emissions of smoke and solid particles by diesel engines are also the subject of various comments. Likewise, the article takes up the problem of losses by evaporation, and some information is provided on the toxicity of alcohols and aldehydes. This study reveals the real need for further research in the field, but it already shows that the use of oxygenated organic products as fuels should not bring about much change in the order of magnitude of pollutant levels.

  18. Degradation of automotive materials in palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, M.A.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2012-01-01

    As compared to petroleum diesel, biodiesel is more corrosive for automotive materials. Studies on the characterization of corrosion products of fuel exposed automotive materials are scarce. Automotive fuel system and engine components are made from different ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The present study aims to investigate the corrosion products of different types of automotive materials such as copper, brass, aluminum and cast iron upon exposure to diesel and palm biodiesel. Changes in fuel properties due to exposure of different materials were also examined. Degradation of metal surface was characterized by digital camera, SEM/EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fuel properties were examined by measuring TAN (total acid number), density and viscosity. Among the metal investigated, copper is found to be least resistant in biodiesel and formed comparatively more corrosion products than other metals. Upon exposure of metals in biodiesel, TAN number crosses the limit given by standard while density and viscosity remain within the acceptable range of limit. -- Highlights: ► Order of incompatible metals in palm biodiesel: copper > brass > aluminum > cast iron. ► The possible reactions for the degradation of copper and cast iron have been discussed. ► For metal exposed biodiesel, only TAN number crosses the limit while density and viscosity remain within the limit. ► Copper and copper based alloy (brass) increase TAN number comparatively more than other metals.

  19. Environmental Innovation Dynamics in the Automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, O

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the innovation dynamics induced by environmental policy in the automotive industry. It examines car fuel efficiency programs in the EU, the US and Japan. It concludes that existing programs have not yet succeeded in promoting radical and breakthrough technologies, but that, at

  20. Modern materials for automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovorun T. P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The car industry uses a tremendous number of materials to build cars, including iron, aluminum, steel, glass, rubber, petroleum products, copper, steel and others. These materials have evolved greatly over the decades, becoming more sophisticated, better built, and safer. They've changed as new automotive manufacturing technologies have emerged over the years, and they're used in increasingly innovative ways. This article is devoted to systematization information on the introduction and application of modern materials in the automotive industry. Given both domestic and foreign sources of information, it follows that car manufacturers are constantly pushing to create the lightest cars possible to increase speed and power. Research and development into lightweight materials is essential for lowering their cost, increasing their ability to be recycled, enabling their integration into vehicles, and maximizing their fuel economy benefits. Light weighting without loss of strength and speed properties is the present, and the future, of the automotive manufacturing industry. It brings innovative materials to the frontline of design.

  1. Automotive Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P.

    2015-03-01

    Considerable fuel energy, as much as 70%, is not converted to useful work by internal combustion engines but is instead rejected as waste heat, and more than half of the waste heat, nearly 40% of fuel energy, is contained in vehicle exhaust gas. This provides an opportunity to recover some of the wasted fuel energy and convert it from heat into useful work, subject to the laws of thermodynamics, and thereby improve vehicle energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) materials have been extensively researched and TE devices are now being developed for operation at high temperatures corresponding to automotive exhaust gases for direct solid-state conversion of heat into electricity. This has stimulated substantial progress in the development of practical TE generator (TEG) systems for large-scale commercialization. A significant enabler of this progress has been the US Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program through funding for low cost solutions for automotive TE waste heat recovery to improve fuel economy. Our current project at General Motors has culminated in the identification of the potential supply chain for all components and assembly of an automotive TEG. A significant focus has been to develop integrated and iterative modeling tools for a fully optimized TEG design that includes all components and subsystems (TE modules, heat exchangers, thermal interfaces, electrical interconnects, power conditioning, and vehicle integration for maximal use of TEG power). We have built and tested a new, low-cost Initial TEG prototype based on state-of-the-art production-scale skutterudite TE modules, novel heat exchanger designs, and practical solutions to the many technical challenges for optimum TEG performance. We will use the results for our Initial TEG prototype to refine our modeling and design tools for a Final automotive TEG system prototype. Our recent results will be presented. Thanks to: J.R. Salvador, E.R. Gundlach, D. Thompson, N.K. Bucknor, M

  2. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I)--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENTIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE FUNCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND DIFFERENTIAL DRIVE UNITS USED IN DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE (1) FUEL SYSTEM COMPARISONS, (2) FUEL SYSTEM SUPPLY COMPONENTS, (3) FUEL SUPPLY SECTION MAINTENANCE, (4) FUNCTION OF THE DIFFERENTIAL,…

  3. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XIII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART III), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES, II--RADIATOR SHUTTER SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION, OPERATION, AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL AND RADIATOR SHUTTER SYSTEMS. TOPICS ARE (1) MORE ABOUT THE CUMMINS FUEL SYSTEM, (2) CALIBRATING THE PT FUEL PUMP, (3) CALIBRATING THE FUEL INJECTORS, (4) UNDERSTANDING THE SHUTTER SYSTEM, (5) THE…

  4. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  5. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  6. The future of automotive technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, J.A.Jr.; Hamilton, D. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Shah, R.; Belanger, M. [Computer Systems Management Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    An overview of the technological advances that have been made in the automotive industry worldwide in recent years were presented with a brief insight into the potential ramifications in terms of fuel efficiency and pollution abatement. Developments in power trains, materials and alternative fuels were reviewed. Up to and including the 1980's most vehicles consisted of internal combustion engines. Today, advanced spark ignition and electric vehicles/hybrid electric vehicles are already in production in Japan, North America and Europe and all major automakers are working on vehicles powered by fuel cells. The use of alternative fuels such as natural gas, propane, alcohols, biodiesel and hydrogen will be encouraged for economic, environmental and energy security reasons. These alternative fuels, however, will not reduce emissions of carbon dioxide as long as they are made from fossil-carbon sources. Cars with all aluminum or fiber-reinforced polymetric-matrix composite bodies and aluminum chassis are emerging as a challenge to steel's domination. Also family sedans with fuel efficiencies of 80 miles per US gallon will be common place. It was emphasized that the extent to which these new technologies will be implemented will depend on consumer acceptance and on governmental regulations. 8 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Optimization and optimal control in automotive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya; Steinbuch, Maarten; Re, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book demonstrates the use of the optimization techniques that are becoming essential to meet the increasing stringency and variety of requirements for automotive systems. It shows the reader how to move away from earlier  approaches, based on some degree of heuristics, to the use of  more and more common systematic methods. Even systematic methods can be developed and applied in a large number of forms so the text collects contributions from across the theory, methods and real-world automotive applications of optimization. Greater fuel economy, significant reductions in permissible emissions, new drivability requirements and the generally increasing complexity of automotive systems are among the criteria that the contributing authors set themselves to meet. In many cases multiple and often conflicting requirements give rise to multi-objective constrained optimization problems which are also considered. Some of these problems fall into the domain of the traditional multi-disciplinary optimization applie...

  8. The Evaluation of Flash Point and Cold Filter Plugging Point with Blends of Diesel and Cyn-Diesel Pyrolysis Fuel for Automotive Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Fionnuala; Devlin, Ger; McDonnell, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The production of synthetic fuels from alternative sources has increased in recent years as a cleaner, more sustainable source of transport fuel is now required. The European Commission has outlined renewable energy targets pertaining to transport fuel which must be met by 2020. In response to these targets Ireland has committed, through the Biofuels Obligation Scheme of 2008, to producing 3% of transport fuels from biofuels by 2010 and 10% by 2020. In order to be suitable for sale in Europe,...

  9. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE L. UNIT XII, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART II), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, PART II--UNIT INSTALLATION (ENGINE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE INSTALLATION. TOPICS ARE FUEL FLOW CHARACTERISTICS, PTG FUEL PUMP, PREPARATION FOR INSTALLATION, AND INSTALLING ENGINE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH…

  10. Online Reputation in Automotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodák Josef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the issue of online reputation, namely the social networking profile of businesses. Selected companies in the automotive industry through social profiles communicate with their customers, the public and they trying to improve their name and the name of their products in the public eye. Online reputation analysis was carried out to determine the current situation on the territory of Slovakia. On the basis of the data found, measures were proposed to improve the current state and reputation of automotive companies. Recommendations suggested by the findings can be used on any market to improve the current state and increase the competitiveness of automotive companies.

  11. Experimental investigations and guidelines for PCB design for a fuel injection ECU to meet automotive environmental, EMI/EMC and ESD standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyankar-Narwade, Supriya; Kumar, C. Ramesh; Patil, Sanjay A.

    2017-11-01

    Engine Management ECU plays a vital role in controlling different important features related to the engine performance. ECU is an embedded system which includes hardware and firmware platform for control logics. However, it is necessary to verify its smooth performance by its functionality testing in the Electromagnetic environment for approval. If these requirements are not known at earlier stages, then ECU may not fulfil functional requirements during required automotive electronic test standards. Hence, focusing on EMS ECU, this paper highlights hardware, layout and software guidelines for solving problems related with Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) to comply ISO 7637, CISPR 25 standard, Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) to comply ISO 11452-4,5 standard, Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) to comply ISO 10605 standard and Environmental Testing to comply standards as per IEC standards. This paper specifies initially the importance, need and guidelines for reducing the EMI effect on PCB i.e. making ECU more electromagnetically compatible as per automotive standards. The guidelines are useful for the designers to avoid pitfalls at the later stage. After mentioned modifications in the paper, ECU successfully passed the requirements for all standard tests.

  12. National Automotive Center - NAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Encouraged by the advantages of collaboration, the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) worked with the Secretary of the...

  13. Techno-economic requirements for automotive composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scot

    1993-01-01

    New technology generally serves two main goals of the automotive industry: one is to enable vehicles to comply with various governmental regulations and the other is to provide a competitive edge in the market. The latter goal can either be served through improved manufacturing and design capabilities, such as computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing, or through improved product performance, such as anti-lock braking (ABS). Although safety features are sometimes customer driven, such as the increasing use of airbags and ABS, most are determined by regulations as outlined by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). Other standards, set by the Environmental Protection Agency, determine acceptable levels of emissions and fuel consumption. State governments, such as in California, are also setting precedent standards, such as requiring manufacturers to offer zero-emission vehicles as a certain fraction of their sales in the state. The drive to apply new materials in the automobile stems from the need to reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency. Topics discussed include: new lightweight materials; types of automotive materials; automotive composite applications; the role for composite materials in automotive applications; advantages and disadvantages of composite materials; material substitution economics; economic perspective; production economics; and composite materials production economics.

  14. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIV, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM PART III--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING THE VOLTAGE REGULATOR/ALTERNATOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL AND BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) INJECTION TIMING CONTROLS, (2) GOVERNOR, (3) FUEL SYSTEM MAINTENANCE TIPS, (4) THE CHARGING SYSTEM, (5) REGULATING THE GENERATOR/ALTERNATOR, AND (6) CHARGING SYSTEM SERVICE…

  15. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM, PART II--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING STEERING SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM AND THE STEERING SYSTEM OF DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE FUEL INJECTION SECTION, AND DESCRIPTION OF THE STEERING SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  16. Automotive Stirling engine: Mod 2 design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Noel P.

    1986-01-01

    The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod 2, also nullifies arguments that Stirling engines are heavy, expensive, unreliable, demonstrating poor performance. Installed in a General Motors Chevrolet Celebrity car, this engine has a predicted combined fuel economy on unleaded gasoline of 17.5 km/l (41 mpg)- a value 50% above the current vehicle fleet average. The Mod 2 Stirling engine is a four-cylinder V-drive design with a single crankshaft. The engine is also equipped with all the controls and auxiliaries necessary for automotive operation.

  17. The AGT 101 advanced automotive gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A development program is described whose goal is the accumulation of the technology base needed by the U.S. automotive industry for the production of automotive gas turbine powertrains. Such gas turbine designs must exhibit reduced fuel consumption, a multi-fuel capability, and low exhaust emissions. The AGT101 powertrain described is a 74.6 kW, regenerated single-shaft gas turbine, operating at a maximum inlet temperature of 1644 K and coupled to a split differential gearbox and automatic overdrive transmission. The engine's single stage centrifugal compressor and single stage radial inflow turbine are mounted on a common shaft, and will operate at a maximum rotor speed of 100,000 rpm. All high temperature components, including the turbine rotor, are ceramic.

  18. Exhaust gas emissions from various automotive fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects on health, environment and energy utilization; Avgasemissioner fraan laetta fordon drivna med olika drivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlvik, P.; Brandberg, Aa. [Ecotraffic RandD AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The main aim of the investigation has been to assess the effects on health and environment from various alternative fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects that can be identified and quantified, such as acidification, ozone formation, cancer risk and climate change, have been of primary interest but other effects, such as respiratory diseases, have also been investigated. Data have been collected through literature surveys for subsequent calculation of the mentioned effects in different time-frames. Corrections have been used to take into consideration the influence of climate, ageing and driving pattern. Emissions generated in fuel production have also been accounted for. The most significant and important differences between the fuels have been found for effects as ozone formation cancer risk and particulate emissions. Alternative fuels, such as methanol and methane (natural gas and biogas), significantly decrease the ozone formation in comparison to petrol, while ethanol, methanol and methane are advantageous concerning cancer risk. The particulate emissions are considerably higher for diesel engines fuelled by diesel oil and RME in comparison to the other fuels. In the future, the importance of acid emissions in the fuel production will increase since the NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions will decrease from the vehicles. The emissions of climate gases could be significantly reduced by using non-fossil fuels but the efficiency of the drive train is also of importance. The technical development potential for further emission reductions is considerable for all fuels but the advantage for the best fuel options will remain in the future.

  19. Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-04-11

    An advanced vehicle powertrain systems analysis tool, the Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) provides a simple way to compare powertrains and estimate the impact of technology improvements on light-, medium- and heavy-duty vehicle efficiency, performance, cost, and battery life. Created by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, FASTSim accommodates a range of vehicle types - including conventional vehicles, electric-drive vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles - and is available for free download in Microsoft Excel and Python formats.

  20. L'auto adaptation à des mélanges essence/alcool utilisés comme carburant automobile: le moteur souple The Self-Adapting of Gasoline/Alcohol Mixtures Used As Automotive Fuel: the Flexible Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorbon M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le moteur souple est un moteur susceptible d'être alimenté par des carburants constitués de mélanges d'une essence classique et d'un alcool léger (méthanol ou éthanol; si la concentration de chacun des composants de ces mélanges varie, les réglages nécessaires au bon fonctionnement du véhicule se font automatiquement. Dans cet article, sont tout d'abord exposées les propriétés caractéristiques en tant que carburant automobile de l'un de ces alcools légers, le méthanol. Puis viennent les descriptions des dispositifs qui font le moteur souple c'est-à-dire d'une part les systèmes de reconnaissance du carburant et d'autre part les appareillages susceptibles de modifier les réglages du moteur (alimentation et allumage en fonction de la qualité du mélange consommé. A flexible engine is one capable of running on fuels consisting of mixtures of conventional gasoline and a light alcohol (methanol or ethanol. If the concentration of each of these components of such mixtures varies, the tuning required for the proper running of the vehicle takes place automatically. This article begins by describing the characteristic properties of one of these light alcohols (methanol as an automotive fuel. Then the equipment is described that makes an engine flexible, i. e. both the fuel recognition systems and the equipment capable of changing engine tuning (feed and ignition as a function of the quality of the mixture burned.

  1. Automotive NVH technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nijman, Eugenius; Priebsch, Hans-Herwig

    2016-01-01

    This book presents seven chapters examining selected noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) topics that are highly relevant for automotive vehicle development. These include applications following the major trends toward increased passenger comfort, vehicle electrification and lightweight design. The authors of the seven chapters, all of which are experts from the automotive industry and academia, present the foremost challenges and potential solutions in this demanding field. Among others, applications for sound optimization in downsized engines, noise optimization in electric powertrains, weight reduction options for exhaust systems, porous materials description, and the vibro-acoustic analysis of geared systems are discussed.

  2. Identification for automotive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hjalmarsson, Håkan; Re, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Increasing complexity and performance and reliability expectations make modeling of automotive system both more difficult and more urgent. Automotive control has slowly evolved from an add-on to classical engine and vehicle design to a key technology to enforce consumption, pollution and safety limits. Modeling, however, is still mainly based on classical methods, even though much progress has been done in the identification community to speed it up and improve it. This book, the product of a workshop of representatives of different communities, offers an insight on how to close the gap and exploit this progress for the next generations of vehicles.

  3. The automobile of the future: engine technologies and automotive fuels developed by IFP; l'automobile du futur: les technologies moteurs et carburants developpes par l'IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O; Pinchon, Ph

    2004-07-01

    In front of the challenges of climate change and depletion of petroleum reserves, in front of the continuous strengthening of pollution regulations applied to automobile (Euro IV and V) and the advances of R and D, several ways of research can be explored to answer the mobility needs of the coming decades. The IFP takes stock of these topics in this press kit which comprises 11 documents: the synthesis of O. Appert and P. Pinchon's talk about 'the cleaner and multi-energies automobile of the future', the slides of this presentation, the future evolutions of automobiles motorizations, the long-term evolutions of engines/fuels (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel fuel in the USA (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), bio-fuels in Europe (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel pollution abatement: efficient results from the IFP's diesel combustion process 'NADI'(TM), the presentation of the IFP scientific meeting of September 22-23, 2004 'which fuels for low CO{sub 2} engines?', the strategic positioning of IFP in the world energy and environmental context, the brochures 'IFP engines and fuels: a competitive advantage' and 'innovating for a sustainable development in the domain of energy'. (J.S.)

  4. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XI, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES, PART II--UNIT REPLACEMENT (ENGINE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO AND FOUR CYCLE ENGINES, THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM, AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE REMOVAL. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEW OF TWO CYCLE AND FOUR CYCLE CONCEPT, (2) SOME BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR CYCLE ENGINES,…

  5. Automotive Brake Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, orginally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the basic operations of automotive brake systems on military vehicles. The course contains four study units covering hydraulic brakes, air brakes, power brakes, and auxiliary brake systems. A troubleshooting guide for…

  6. 77 FR 55898 - Request for Comments on a Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection: Automotive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ...: Kenneth R. Katz, Fuel Economy Division, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and Consumer Programs... Fuel Economy Reports ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In compliance with the Paperwork... Part 537, Automotive Fuel Economy Reports. OMB Control Number: 2127-0019. Type of Request: Renewal of a...

  7. General Mechanical Repair. Minor Automotive Maintenance, Small Engine [Repair, and] Welding: Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Larry

    This document is a student manual for a general mechanical repair course. Following a list of common essential elements of trade and industrial education, the manual is divided into three sections. The first section, on minor automotive maintenance, contains 13 units: automotive shop safety; engine principles; fuel system operation and repair;…

  8. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-01-01

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  9. Polymer matrix nanocomposites for automotive structural components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Keum, Jong K.; Boeman, Raymond G.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past several decades, the automotive industry has expended significant effort to develop lightweight parts from new easy-to-process polymeric nanocomposites. These materials have been particularly attractive because they can increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, attempts to reinforce soft matrices by nanoscale reinforcing agents at commercially deployable scales have been only sporadically successful to date. This situation is due primarily to the lack of fundamental understanding of how multiscale interfacial interactions and the resultant structures affect the properties of polymer nanocomposites. In this Perspective, we critically evaluate the state of the art in the field and propose a possible path that may help to overcome these barriers. Only once we achieve a deeper understanding of the structure-properties relationship of polymer matrix nanocomposites will we be able to develop novel structural nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties for automotive applications.

  10. Rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2015-01-01

    Rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers is dealt with in this book encompassing the widely working field of small turbomachines under real operating conditions at the very high rotor speeds up to 300000 rpm. The broadly interdisciplinary field of turbocharger rotordynamics involves 1) Thermodynamics and Turbo-Matching of Turbochargers 2) Dynamics of Turbomachinery 3) Stability Analysis of Linear Rotordynamics with the Eigenvalue Theory 4) Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Rotordynamics with the Bifurcation Theory 5) Bearing Dynamics of the Oil Film using the Two-Phase Reynolds Equation 6) Computation of Nonlinear Responses of a Turbocharger Rotor 7) Aero and Vibroacoustics of Turbochargers 8) Shop and Trim Balancing at Two Planes of the Rotor 9) Tribology of the Bearing Surface Roughness 10) Design of Turbocharger Platforms using the Similarity Laws The rotor response of an automotive turbocharger at high rotor speeds is studied analytically, computationally, and experimentally. Due to the nonlinear character...

  11. Automotive systems engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Markus [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Regelungstechnik; Winner, Hermann (eds.) [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachgebiet Fahrzeugtechnik

    2013-06-01

    Innovative state-of-the-art book. Presents brand new results of a joint workshop in the field of automotive systems engineering. Recommendable to students for further reading even though not a primary text book. This book reflects the shift in design paradigm in automobile industry. It presents future innovations, often referred as ''automotive systems engineering''. These cause fundamental innovations in the field of driver assistance systems and electro-mobility as well as fundamental changes in the architecture of the vehicles. New driving functionalities can only be realized if the software programs of multiple electronic control units work together correctly. This volume presents the new and innovative methods which are mandatory to master the complexity of the vehicle of the future.

  12. Automotive turbogenerator design options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, C. [ITC, San Diego, CA (United States); McDonald, C. [McDonald Thermal Engineering, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    For the small turbogenerator to find reception in the hybrid electric automotive market its major features must be dominated by the following considerations, low cost, high performance, low emissions, compact size and high reliability. Not meeting the first two criteria has been the nemesis of earlier attempts to introduce the small gas turbine for automotive service. With emphasis on the design for low cost and high performance, this paper presents several turbogenerator design flowpath configuration options for the major engine components. The projected evolution from today`s state-of-the-art all metallic engines, to advanced technology ceramic units for service in the early decade of the 21st century, is the major topic of this paper. (author)

  13. A Low Cost Ferritic Stainless Steel Microalloyed by Higher Nb for Automotive Exhaust System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Erhu; Wang, Xuelin; Shang, Chengjia

    Automotive engine exhaust gas after combustion of fuel, and the gas will be liquefied in the rear of automotive exhaust system. A lot of corrosive anions existing in the condensate make corrosion of the exhaust system materials. Therefore, once pitting perforation, automotive exhaust system will fail directly. In 1980s, automotive exhaust manifold was made of Si-Mo ductile iron, mufflers and the tail pipe were made of carbon steel or aluminized steel. But with higher emission standards carried out, the improvement of engine performance and the higher exhaust temperature as well as the needs of the automotive light-weighting, we need the higher corrosion resistance of the material for automotive exhaust systems to meet the requirements.

  14. Ceramic technologies for automotive industry: Current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The automotive industry has developed substantially through advances in mechanical technologies, and technologies such as electronics and advanced materials have also contributed to further advances in automobiles. The contribution of ceramic materials to automobile technologies ranges over driving performance, exhaust gas purification, and fuel efficiency improvements. Several ceramic components, such as knock sensors, oxygen sensors, exhaust gas catalysts, and silicon nitride parts for automotive engines, have been successfully applied to automobiles. This paper focuses on the contribution of ceramics to automotive technologies. It also mentions potential contributions in the future, including adiabatic turbo-compound diesels, ceramic gas turbines, fuel cells, and electric vehicles because ceramic technologies have been intensively involved in the challenge to achieve advanced power sources.

  15. FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress are selected from nearly 2,000 papers submitted to the 34th FISITA World Automotive Congress, which is held by Society of Automotive Engineers of China (SAE-China ) and the International Federation of Automotive Engineering Societies (FISITA). This proceedings focus on solutions for sustainable mobility in all areas of passenger car, truck and bus transportation. Volume 8: Vehicle Design and Testing (II) focuses on: •Automotive Reliability Technology •Lightweight Design Technology •Design for Recycling •Dynamic Modeling •Simulation and Experimental Validation •Virtual Design, Testing and Validation •Testing of Components, Systems and Full Vehicle Above all researchers, professional engineers and graduates in fields of automotive engineering, mechanical engineering and electronic engineering will benefit from this book.   SAE-China is a national academic organization composed of enterprises and professionals who focus on research, design a...

  16. Get Your Automotive Program Nationally Certified!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Automotive programs that nationally certified enhance student recruitment and give students better employment opportunities. Technicians who earn the Automotive Service Excellence credential have joined the ranks of professionals in the automotive service industry. (Author/JOW)

  17. Automotive Chassis; Automotive Mechanics-Basic: 9043.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive chassis course is designed to familiarize the beginning student of the history and development of the automobile with basic concepts common to the automobile industry, and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. It is one quinmester in a series of quinmester outlines…

  18. Advanced high strength steels for automotive industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, J.; Samek, L.; Verleysen, P.; Verbeken, K.; Houbert, Y.

    2012-11-01

    The car industry is facing pressure because of the growing demand for more fuel-efficient passenger cars. In order to limit energy consumption and air pollution the weight of the car body has to be reduced. At the same time, high levels of safety have to be guaranteed. In this situation, the choice of material becomes a key decision in car design. As a response to the requirements of the automotive sector, high strength steels and advanced high strength steels have been developed by the steel industry. These modern steel grades offer an excellent balance of low cost, light weight and mechanical properties. (Author) 48 refs.

  19. Automotive mechatronics automotive networking, driving stability systems, electronics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    As the complexity of automotive vehicles increases this book presents operational and practical issues of automotive mechatronics. It is a comprehensive introduction to controlled automotive systems and provides detailed information of sensors for travel, angle, engine speed, vehicle speed, acceleration, pressure, temperature, flow, gas concentration etc. The measurement principles of the different sensor groups are explained and examples to show the measurement principles applied in different types. Contents Basics of mechatronics.- Architecture.- Electronic control unit.- Software development.- Basic principles of networking.- Automotive networking.- Bus systems.- Automotive sensors.- Sensor measuring principles.- Sensor types.- Electric actuators.- Electrohydraulic actuators.- Electronic transmission control.- Electronic transmission control unit.- Modules for transmission control.- Antilock braking system.- Traction control system.- Electronic stability program.- Automatic brake functions.- Hydraulic modu...

  20. Automotive systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Winner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    This book reflects the shift in design paradigm in automobile industry. It presents future innovations, often referred as  “automotive systems engineering”.  These cause fundamental innovations in the field of driver assistance systems and electro-mobility as well as fundamental changes in the architecture of the vehicles. New driving functionalities can only be realized if the software programs of multiple electronic control units work together correctly. This volume presents the new and innovative methods which are mandatory to master the complexity of the vehicle of the future.

  1. The automotive transmission book

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert; Jürgens, Gunter; Najork, Rolf; Pollak, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    This book presents essential information on systems and interactions in automotive transmission technology and outlines the methodologies used to analyze and develop transmission concepts and designs. Functions of and interactions between components and subassemblies of transmissions are introduced, providing a basis for designing transmission systems and for determining their potentials and properties in vehicle-specific applications: passenger cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and motorcycles. With these fundamentals the presentation provides universal resources for both state-of-the-art and future transmission technologies, including systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  2. Ultracapacitors for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus; Wright, Randy; Hunt, Gary

    In response to a growing consensus in the auto industry that ultracapacitors can potentially play a key role in the modern vehicle power distribution network, a task force was created at the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to tackle issues facing the fledging industry. The task force embarked on first developing and establishing standards for performance and abuse tolerance of ultracapacitors in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and National Labs. Subsequently, potential applications in the automotive industry were identified and a consensus requirement specification was drawn as a development guide for the industry.

  3. Ultracapacitors for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus [DaimlerChrysler Corp., CIMS 526-00-00, 1870 Technology Dr., Troy, MI 48083 (United States); Wright, Randy; Hunt, Gary [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 834415-3830 (United States)

    2006-03-21

    In response to a growing consensus in the auto industry that ultracapacitors can potentially play a key role in the modern vehicle power distribution network, a task force was created at the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to tackle issues facing the fledging industry. The task force embarked on first developing and establishing standards for performance and abuse tolerance of ultracapacitors in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and National Labs. Subsequently, potential applications in the automotive industry were identified and a consensus requirement specification was drawn as a development guide for the industry. (author)

  4. Automotive battery technology

    CERN Document Server

    Watzenig, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The use of electrochemical energy storage systems in automotive applications also involves new requirements for modeling these systems, especially in terms of model depth and model quality. Currently, mainly simple application-oriented models are used to describe the physical behavior of batteries. This book provides a step beyond of state-of-the-art modeling showing various different approaches covering following aspects: system safety, misuse behavior (crash, thermal runaway), battery state estimation and electrochemical modeling with the needed analysis (pre/post mortem). All this different approaches are developed to support the overall integration process from a multidisciplinary point-of-view and depict their further enhancements to this process.

  5. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, William D.; Shaltens, Richard K.

    1997-01-01

    The development and verification of automotive Stirling engine (ASE) component and system technology is described as it evolved through two experimental engine designs: the Mod 1 and the Mod 2. Engine operation and performance and endurance test results for the Mod 1 are summarized. Mod 2 engine and component development progress is traced from the original design through hardware development, laboratory test, and vehicle installation. More than 21,000 hr of testing were accomplished, including 4800 hr with vehicles that were driven more dm 59,000 miles. Mod 2 engine dynamometer tests demonstrated that the engine system configuration had accomplished its performance goals for power (60 kW) and efficiency (38.5%) to within a few percent. Tests with the Mod 2 engine installed in a delivery van demonstrated combined metro-highway fuel economy improvements consistent with engine performance goals and the potential for low emission levels. A modified version of the Mod 2 has been identified as a manufacturable design for an ASE. As part of the ASE project, the Industry Test and Evaluation Program (ITEP), NASA Technology Utilization (TU) project, and the industry-funded Stirling Natural Gas Engine program were undertaken to transfer ASE technology to end users. The results of these technology transfer efforts are also summarized.

  6. Reliability in automotive ethernet networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fabio L.; Campelo, Divanilson R.; Yan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular.......This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular....

  7. Recent Trends of Coated Sheet Steels for Automotive use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Manbeen

    2012-01-01

    Recent issues in the automotive industries are, improvement of fuel efficiency according to the worldwide CO 2 regulation, passenger safety through enhanced crash worthiness, superior design and cost reduction due to price fluctuation of raw material. To meet these demands, steelmaking companies are developing advanced high strength steel and new process technologies such as hydroforming, TWB(Tailor Welded Blank), hot stamping and so on. In addition, eco-friendly and high corrosion resistant coating technologies are getting more attention to comply with the environmental regulations. In this paper, reviews and prospects of recent coating technologies for automotive use are presented

  8. INTEGRATED AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J.S. Van Dyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Supply planning and traffic flow planning are major activities in the automotive manufacturing environment worldwide. Traditionally, the impact of supply planning strategies on plant traffic is rarely considered. This paper describes the development of a Decision Support System (DSS that will assist automotive manufacturers to analyse the effect of supply planning decisions on plant traffic during the supply planning phase of their logistics planning process. In essence, this DSS consists of a Supply Medium Decision Support Tool (SMDST (an interactive MS-Excel model with Visual Basic interfacing and a traffic flow simulation model tool (using eMPlant simulation software.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskaffingsbeplanning en verkeersvloeibeplanning is belangrike aktiwiteite in die motorvervaardigingsbedryf wêreldwyd. Tradisioneel word die uitwerking van verskaffings-beplanningsstrategië op aanlegverkeer selde in ag geneem. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van ’n Besluitnemings Ondersteuningstelsel (DSS wat motorvervaardigers sal ondersteun in die analise van die effek van verskaffingsbeplanningbesluite op aanlegverkeer tydens die verskaffingsbeplanningsfase van hulle logistieke beplanningsproses. Hierdie DSS bestaan hoofsaaklik uit ’n Verskaffings-vervoermiddel Besluitnemingshulpmiddel (SMDST (’n interaktiewe MS-Excel model met “Visual Basic” koppelling asook ’n simulasiemodel van verkeersvloei (met eM-Plant simulasiesagteware.

  9. Requirements for future automotive batteries - a snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karden, Eckhard; Shinn, Paul; Bostock, Paul; Cunningham, James; Schoultz, Evan; Kok, Daniel

    Introduction of new fuel economy, performance, safety, and comfort features in future automobiles will bring up many new, power-hungry electrical systems. As a consequence, demands on automotive batteries will grow substantially, e.g. regarding reliability, energy throughput (shallow-cycle life), charge acceptance, and high-rate partial state-of-charge (HRPSOC) operation. As higher voltage levels are mostly not an economically feasible alternative for the short term, the existing 14 V electrical system will have to fulfil these new demands, utilizing advanced 12 V energy storage devices. The well-established lead-acid battery technology is expected to keep playing a key role in this application. Compared to traditional starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) batteries, significant technological progress has been achieved or can be expected, which improve both performance and service life. System integration of the storage device into the vehicle will become increasingly important. Battery monitoring systems (BMS) are expected to become a commodity, penetrating the automotive volume market from both highly equipped premium cars and dedicated fuel-economy vehicles (e.g. stop/start). Battery monitoring systems will allow for more aggressive battery operating strategies, at the same time improving the reliability of the power supply system. Where a single lead-acid battery cannot fulfil the increasing demands, dual-storage systems may form a cost-efficient extension. They consist either of two lead-acid batteries or of a lead-acid battery plus another storage device.

  10. Performance evaluation of an automotive thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubitsky, Andrei O.

    Around 40% of the total fuel energy in typical internal combustion engines (ICEs) is rejected to the environment in the form of exhaust gas waste heat. Efficient recovery of this waste heat in automobiles can promise a fuel economy improvement of 5%. The thermal energy can be harvested through thermoelectric generators (TEGs) utilizing the Seebeck effect. In the present work, a versatile test bench has been designed and built in order to simulate conditions found on test vehicles. This allows experimental performance evaluation and model validation of automotive thermoelectric generators. An electrically heated exhaust gas circuit and a circulator based coolant loop enable integrated system testing of hot and cold side heat exchangers, thermoelectric modules (TEMs), and thermal interface materials at various scales. A transient thermal model of the coolant loop was created in order to design a system which can maintain constant coolant temperature under variable heat input. Additionally, as electrical heaters cannot match the transient response of an ICE, modelling was completed in order to design a relaxed exhaust flow and temperature history utilizing the system thermal lag. This profile reduced required heating power and gas flow rates by over 50%. The test bench was used to evaluate a DOE/GM initial prototype automotive TEG and validate analytical performance models. The maximum electrical power generation was found to be 54 W with a thermal conversion efficiency of 1.8%. It has been found that thermal interface management is critical for achieving maximum system performance, with novel designs being considered for further improvement.

  11. Downsizing assessment of automotive Stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, R. H.; Tew, R. C., Jr.; Klann, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A 67 kW (90 hp) Stirling engine design, sized for use in a 1984 1440 kg (3170 lb) automobile was the focal point for developing automotive Stirling engine technology. Since recent trends are towards lighter vehicles, an assessment was made of the applicability of the Stirling technology being developed for smaller, lower power engines. Using both the Philips scaling laws and a Lewis Research Center (Lewis) Stirling engine performance code, dimensional and performance characteristics were determined for a 26 kW (35 hp) and a 37 kW (50 hp) engine for use in a nominal 907 kg (2000 lb) vehicle. Key engine elements were sized and stressed and mechanical layouts were made to ensure mechanical fit and integrity of the engines. Fuel economy estimates indicated that the Stirling engine would maintain a 30 to 45 percent fuel economy advantage comparable spark ignition and diesel powered vehicles in the 1984 period.

  12. Rheo-processing of semi-solid metal alloys: a new technology for manufacturing automotive and aerospace components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ivanchev, L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The latest trend in the automotive industry to produce fuel-efficient vehicles has resulted in the increased use of aluminium and magnesium alloys. Liquid metal high pressure die-casting (HPDC) currently satisfies the bulk of the automotive industry...

  13. Tank-automotive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  14. Environment, automotive fuels and petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabarelli, Davide

    1997-01-01

    After several years of delays, the italian environmental regulation concerning the oil industry has taken a leading role in Europe, especially starting from 1995, for benzene limits in gasoline. This article tries to estimate what are the anticipates costs for the italian industry due to a stricter legislation on gasoline compared to the rest of Europe

  15. Automotive emission standards. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning emission standards and air quality standards applied to automobile emissions. Included are federal and state regulations and policies regarding these emission standards. Techniques to meet emission standards are also addressed, involving fuel injection, catalysts, alternate engines, and automotive fuel refinery operations. Studies concerning implementation of automobile emission standards explore economic and environmental effects, testing and inspection procedures, and the automobile industry point of view. Most of the citations refer to gasoline engines, but a few pertain to diesel and other fuels. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Automotive mechatronics operational and practical issues

    CERN Document Server

    Fijalkowski, B T

    2011-01-01

    This book presents operational and practical issues of automotive mechatronics with special emphasis on the heterogeneous automotive vehicle systems approach, and is intended as a graduate text as well as a reference for scientists and engineers involved in the design of automotive mechatronic control systems. As the complexity of automotive vehicles increases, so does the dearth of high competence, multi-disciplined automotive scientists and engineers. This book provides a discussion into the type of mechatronic control systems found in modern vehicles and the skills required by automotive scientists and engineers working in this environment. Divided into two volumes and five parts, Automotive Mechatronics aims at improving automotive mechatronics education and emphasises the training of students' experimental hands-on abilities, stimulating and promoting experience among high education institutes and produce more automotive mechatronics and automation engineers. The main subject that are treated are: VOLUME...

  17. MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, Michael

    2013-01-01

    MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications reviews the use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in developing solutions to the unique challenges presented by the automotive and aerospace industries.Part one explores MEMS for a variety of automotive applications. The role of MEMS in passenger safety and comfort, sensors for automotive vehicle stability control applications and automotive tire pressure monitoring systems are considered, along with pressure and flow sensors for engine management, and RF MEMS for automotive radar sensors. Part two then goes on to explore MEMS for

  18. Automotive Control Systems: For Engine, Driveline, and Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiencke, Uwe; Nielsen, Lars

    Advances in automotive control systems continue to enhance safety and comfort and to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Reflecting the trend to optimization through integrative approaches for engine, driveline, and vehicle control, this valuable book enables control engineers to understand engine and vehicle models necessary for controller design, and also introduces mechanical engineers to vehicle-specific signal processing and automatic control. The emphasis on measurement, comparisons between performance and modeling, and realistic examples derive from the authors' unique industrial experience

  19. Hybrid-electric propulsion for automotive and aviation applications

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, C; Robertson, Paul Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In parallel with the automotive industry, hybrid-electric propulsion is becoming a viable alternative propulsion technology for the aviation sector and reveals potential advantages including fuel savings, lower pollution, and reduced noise emission. Hybrid-electric propulsion systems can take advantage of the synergy between two technologies by utilizing both internal combustion engines and electric motors together, each operating at their respective optimum conditions...

  20. Design of lightweight multi-material automotive bodies using new material performance indices of thin-walled beams for the material selection with crashworthiness consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xintao; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Shuxin; Zhang, Lianhong; Ko, Jeonghan

    2011-01-01

    Currently, automotive bodies are constructed usually using a single material, e.g. steel or aluminum. Compared to single-material automotive bodies, multi-material automotive bodies allow optimal material selection in each structural component for higher product performance and lower cost. This paper presents novel material performance indices and procedures developed to guide systematic material selection for multi-material automotive bodies. These new indices enable to characterize the crashworthiness performance of complex-shaped thin-walled beams in multi-material automotive bodies according to material types. This paper also illustrates the application of these performance indices and procedures by designing a lightweight multi-material automotive body. These procedures will help to design a lightweight and affordable body favored by the automotive industry, thus to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Japanese automotive transportation sector's impact upon global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaseki, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    Automobiles are still increasing in number in Japan. If this continues, CO 2 emissions in this sector may increase through the first half of the 21st century. Consequently, a study of measures for reducing these CO 2 emissions is essential. In this paper, possible automotive technologies, improvements in fuel consumption and the introduction of electric vehicles are discussed. These measures are then evaluated for the Japanese case. Furthermore, market penetration of these technologies is evaluated, using life-cycle cost analysis based on initial cost and annual fuel cost. It is concluded that reducing CO 2 emissions to 1995 levels by 2010 is possible. This would require the simultaneous implementation of fuel-consumption improvements and the introduction of electric vehicles. However, automotive consumers would be reluctant to accept these technologies, particularly electric vehicles, because of their high purchase-price and low benefits in terms of operating economy. Acceptance will require financial and institutional support from the public sector in introducing these automotive technologies into the Japanese transportation sector. (author)

  2. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (0.05 kg H2/kgsystem), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/Lsystem). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material properties-and most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  3. Automotive dual-mode hydrogen generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D. A.

    The automotive dual mode hydrogen generation system is advocated as a supplementary hydrogen fuel means along with the current metallic hydride hydrogen storage method for vehicles. This system consists of utilizing conventional electrolysis cells with the low voltage dc electrical power supplied by two electrical generating sources within the vehicle. Since the automobile engine exhaust manifold(s) are presently an untapped useful source of thermal energy, they can be employed as the heat source for a simple heat engine/generator arrangement. The second, and minor electrical generating means consists of multiple, miniature air disk generators which are mounted directly under the vehicle's hood and at other convenient locations within the engine compartment. The air disk generators are revolved at a speed which is proportionate to the vehicles forward speed and do not impose a drag on the vehicles motion.

  4. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the Ontario automotive sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    A variety of options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the automotive sector in Ontario over the next decade were discussed. Each option was assessed in terms of practicality and implications for implementation. I was concluded that improvements in fuel economy anticipated from advancing technology, with or without new mandated standards, will not be enough to offset the impact of growth in vehicle fleet size and kilometres driven. If the goal is to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, other measures such as reducing the fleet size and vehicle kilometres travelled and accelerated vehicle retirement (scrappage) programs must be considered. Key constraints on expansion of the alternative fuel fleet were identified. These include: (1) limited availability of an adequate range of alternative fuel vehicles at competitive prices, (2) limited refuelling facility infrastructure in the case of natural gas, limited range and fuel storage capacity for natural gas; (3)current limited fuel ethanol production capacity, and (4) market perceptions of performance, reliability and safety. tabs

  5. MICROALLOYED STEELS FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanshu Bhattacharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two major drivers for the use of newer steels in the automotive industry are fuel efficiency and increased safety performance. Fuel efficiency is mainly a function of weight of steel parts, which in turn, is controlled by gauge and design. Safety is determined by the energy absorbing capacity of the steel used to make the part. All of these factors are incentives for the U.S. automakers to use both Highly Formable and Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS to replace the conventional steels used to manufacture automotive parts in the past. AHSS is a general term used to describe various families of steels. The most common AHSS is the dual-phase steel that consists of a ferrite-martensite microstructure. These steels are characterized by high strength, good ductility, low tensile to yield strength ratio and high bake hardenability. Another class of AHSS is the complex-phase or multi-phase steel which has a complex microstructure consisting of various phase constituents and a high yield to tensile strength ratio. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP steels is another class of AHSS steels finding interest among the U.S. automakers. These steels consist of a ferrite-bainite microstructure with significant amount of retained austenite phase and show the highest combination of strength and elongation, so far, among the AHSS in use. High level of energy absorbing capacity combined with a sustained level of high n value up to the limit of uniform elongation as well as high bake hardenability make these steels particularly attractive for safety critical parts and parts needing complex forming. A relatively new class of AHSS is the Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P steels. These steels seem to offer higher ductility than the dual-phase steels of similar strengths or similar ductility as the TRIP steels at higher strengths. Finally, martensitic steels with very high strengths are also in use for certain parts. The most recent initiative in the area of AHSS

  6. Environmental sustainability: plastic's evolving role in the automotive life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jekel, L.; Tam, E.K.L.

    2002-01-01

    One method of assessing the sustainability of manufactured products involves performing a life cycle analysis for a product and comparing it to alternative ones, or else examining if individual stages of the product can be modified. LCA applications are being used more extensively, especially in the automotive and related industries. Automotive plastics in particular are being scrutinized with much greater care. Plastic components have replaced metal ones in vehicle manufacturing to improve vehicle fuel efficiency and aesthetics. However, at the end of a vehicle's life, recycling rates for plastic are negligible when compared to those of steel. In order to gain the full environmental benefits of using plastic as a vehicle material, plastics must be recycled at the end of a vehicle's life, especially given their increasing use. While a variety of processes have been developed for the recycling of automotive plastics, the challenges of sorting, processing, and finally recycling a heterogeneous mixture of used plastics have yet to be effectively solved. A preliminary life cycle assessment of a plastic automotive fascia demonstrates the usefulness of this eco-balance technique in evaluating potential improvements to manufacturing and end-of-life processes. Improving the manufacturing process may reduce environmental burdens to a larger extent than just recycling the plastic. (author)

  7. The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robyn Ready

    2011-12-31

    The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program conducted education and outreach activities and used the competition's technical goals and vehicle demonstrations as a means of attracting students and the public to learn more about advanced vehicle technologies, energy efficiency, climate change, alternative fuels, and the science and math behind efficient vehicle development. The Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE Education Program comprised three integrated components that were designed to educate the general public and create a multi-tiered initiative to engage students and showcase the 21st century skills students will need to compete in our global economy: teamwork, creativity, strong literacy, math and science skills, and innovative thinking. The elements included an Online Experience, a National Student Contest, and in person education events and activites. The project leveraged online connections, strategic partnerships, in-classroom, and beyond-the-classroom initiatives, as well as mainstream media. This education program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) also funded the specification of vehicle telemetry and the full development and operation of an interactive online experience that allowed internet users to follow the Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE vehicles as they performed in real-time during the Progressive Insurance Automotive X PRIZE competition events.

  8. Action Handbook for Automotive Service Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of the U.S., Inc., Detroit, MI.

    The document is a handbook for a vocational automotive service education program which was formulated as a result of a four-day series of intensive workshops called the National Automotive Service Vocational Education Conference. The handbook discusses the major components of an automotive service vocational education program and aspects of their…

  9. Twenty-five years after introduction of automotive catalysts. What next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelef, M.; McCabe, R.W. [Chemical and Physical Sciences Laboratory, Ford Research Laboratory, Ford Motor Company, MD-3179, SRL, PO Box 2053, 48121 Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2000-09-25

    The union of catalysts and the automobile has been one of the greatest successes of heterogeneous catalysis over the last 25 years. Here, the history of automotive catalysis is briefly reviewed, followed by an assessment of where automotive catalysis stands today and where it is headed in the future. A key distinction between past automotive catalysis experience and that projected for the future is an increased focus on catalysts in upstream of power plant applications, such as on-board fuel processing units for fuel cell vehicles. Driven by ever tighter regulations, there will be continued research and development activity focused also on downstream applications (i.e. exhaust emission aftertreatment), especially for fuel-efficient, lean-burn vehicles, both diesel and spark-ignited.

  10. Automotive, the Future of Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieck, Frank; Machielsen, C.; van Duin, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Will the Automotive era come to an end in the 21th century? Looking at today’s environmental and economic challenges of the use of cars based on last century technology and listening to some trend watchers one could think so. Cars can be regarded, as an old school status product indeed, for which

  11. Future perspectives on automotive CAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensler, Henry; Eller, Tom; Kabat vel Job, Alexander; Magoulas, Nikolaos; Yigit, Emrah; Van Tongeren, A.

    2014-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) is an integral part of today’s automotive design process. Very often OEM’s rely solely on software vendors to provide appropriate solutions. On the other hand, some companies still use in-house developed software for specific applications. It is, however, a

  12. Automotive the Future of Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ir. F.G. Rieck; ir. Cees Machielse; Ron van Duin

    2017-01-01

    Will the Automotive era come to an end in the 21th century? Looking at today’s environmental and economic challenges of the use of last century technology cars and listening to some trend watchers one could think so. Cars can be regarded, as an old school status product indeed, for which there is

  13. Automotive Mechanics. Student Learning Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 33 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 33 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in automotive mechanics. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-9 enabling objectives. For each enabliing objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps…

  14. Automotive Electronics. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Howard C.; Heiserman, Russell L.

    This learning module addresses computers and their applications in contemporary automobiles. The text provides students with information on automotive microcomputers and hands-on activities that will help them see how semiconductors and digital logic devices fit into the modern repair facility. The module contains nine instructional units that…

  15. On Ugliness and the Automotive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The function of this essay is to to see what consequences a consideration of ugliness in automotive styling has for the theories of three writers on aesthetics in design: David Pye, Roger Scruton and Ralf Weber. As such, the concepts of beauty and ugliness will be treated in brief before moving...

  16. Innovative Technology in Automotive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John

    2007-01-01

    Automotive Technology combines hands-on training along with a fully integrated, interactive, computerized multistationed facility. Our program is a competency based, true open-entry/open-exit program that utilizes flexible self-paced course outlines. It is designed around an industry partnership that promotes community and economic development,…

  17. Current and Future Uses of Aluminum in the Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, R. S.; Boettcher, E.; Crawford, D.

    2017-12-01

    Aluminum use is growing in automotive closures and body in white applications to improve vehicle performance and fuel economy. The auto industry is looking for higher-strength aluminum materials needed for strength-driven safety-critical parts. Through cooperation with industrial partners and support from the Department of Energy (DOE), multiple experimental 7xxx alloys were developed for automotive applications. The objective is to enable complex shapes to be formed at temperatures below 225°C. A demonstration part has been developed that is representative of the forming challenges within a current hot-stamped door ring component. This part tooling has been built and installed into a press line which includes blank heating and robotic transfer. Forming trials of these alloys are currently underway and the formability, strength and corrosion performance of these materials are being evaluated.

  18. Flywheel Energy Storage for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Hedlund

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of flywheel energy storage technology was made, with a special focus on the progress in automotive applications. We found that there are at least 26 university research groups and 27 companies contributing to flywheel technology development. Flywheels are seen to excel in high-power applications, placing them closer in functionality to supercapacitors than to batteries. Examples of flywheels optimized for vehicular applications were found with a specific power of 5.5 kW/kg and a specific energy of 3.5 Wh/kg. Another flywheel system had 3.15 kW/kg and 6.4 Wh/kg, which can be compared to a state-of-the-art supercapacitor vehicular system with 1.7 kW/kg and 2.3 Wh/kg, respectively. Flywheel energy storage is reaching maturity, with 500 flywheel power buffer systems being deployed for London buses (resulting in fuel savings of over 20%, 400 flywheels in operation for grid frequency regulation and many hundreds more installed for uninterruptible power supply (UPS applications. The industry estimates the mass-production cost of a specific consumer-car flywheel system to be 2000 USD. For regular cars, this system has been shown to save 35% fuel in the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP drive cycle.

  19. GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES IN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ISAC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The automotive sector is characterised by a relatively low trade/salesratio. While the production of most automotive producers in the world is spread over variouscountries in the value chain, the brands are still considered to reflect some national identity.Internationalisation strategies may change over the lifecycle of the product and automakerstend to pursue diametrically opposed strategies. In mature markets, it is about managing whatgoes on beneath a static surface; in emerging markets’ dynamic environments, companies muststrategically position themselves to benefit from growth opportunities. However, without theright strategy and execution in mature markets, it is clear that traditional OEMs cannot profitfrom emerging markets-the persistence of structural issues in mature market operationseventually will rob all but the most resilient competitors of the opportunity to compete inemerging markets.

  20. Antenna Arrays and Automotive Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This book throws a lifeline to designers wading through mounds of antenna array patents looking for the most suitable systems for their projects. Drastically reducing the research time required to locate solutions to the latest challenges in automotive communications, it sorts and systematizes material on cutting-edge antenna arrays that feature multi-element communication systems with enormous potential for the automotive industry. These new systems promise to make driving safer and more efficient, opening up myriad applications, including vehicle-to-vehicle traffic that prevents collisions, automatic toll collection, vehicle location and fine-tuning for cruise control systems. This book’s exhaustive coverage begins with currently deployed systems, frequency ranges and key parameters. It proceeds to examine system geometry, analog and digital beam steering technology (including "smart" beams formed in noisy environments), maximizing signal-to-noise ratios, miniaturization, and base station technology that ...

  1. Advanced Materials for Automotive Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisza, M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper some recent material developments will be overviewed mainly from the point of view of automotive industry. In car industry, metal forming is one of the most important manufacturing processes imposing severe restrictions on materials; these are often contradictory requirements, e.g. high strength simultaneously with good formability, etc. Due to these challenges and the ever increasing demand new material classes have been developed; however, the more and more wide application of high strength materials meeting the requirements stated by the mass reduction lead to increasing difficulties concerning the formability which requires significant technological developments as well. In this paper, the recent materials developments will be overviewed from the point of view of the automotive industry

  2. Advanced ignition for automotive engines

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda, Daniel Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Spark plugs have been igniting combustible mixtures like those found in automotive engines for over a century, and the principles of the associated ignition techniques using thermal plasma (inductive or capacitive sparks) have remained relatively unchanged during that time. However, internal combustion engines are increasingly operating with boosted intake pressures (i.e. turbo- or super-charged) in order to maintain power output while simultaneously reducing engine size and weight, and they ...

  3. Computational intelligence in automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokhorov, Danil (ed.) [Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing (TEMA), Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Toyota Technical Center

    2008-07-01

    What is computational intelligence (CI)? Traditionally, CI is understood as a collection of methods from the fields of neural networks (NN), fuzzy logic and evolutionary computation. This edited volume is the first of its kind, suitable to automotive researchers, engineers and students. It provides a representative sample of contemporary CI activities in the area of automotive technology. The volume consists of 13 chapters, including but not limited to these topics: vehicle diagnostics and vehicle system safety, control of vehicular systems, quality control of automotive processes, driver state estimation, safety of pedestrians, intelligent vehicles. All chapters contain overviews of state of the art, and several chapters illustrate their methodologies on examples of real-world systems. About the Editor: Danil Prokhorov began his technical career in St. Petersburg, Russia, after graduating with Honors from Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation in 1992 (MS in Robotics). He worked as a research engineer in St. Petersburg Institute for Informatics and Automation, one of the institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He came to the US in late 1993 for Ph.D. studies. He became involved in automotive research in 1995 when he was a Summer intern at Ford Scientific Research Lab in Dearborn, MI. Upon his graduation from the EE Department of Texas Tech University, Lubbock, in 1997, he joined Ford to pursue application-driven research on neural networks and other machine learning algorithms. While at Ford, he took part in several production-bound projects including neural network based engine misfire detection. Since 2005 he is with Toyota Technical Center, Ann Arbor, MI, overseeing important mid- and long-term research projects in computational intelligence. (orig.)

  4. United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States Automotive Materials Partnership

    2011-01-31

    The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly

  5. Rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinjoh, Hirohumi

    2006-01-01

    The usage of rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts is demonstrated in this paper. Rare earth metals have been widely used in automotive catalysts. In particular, three-way catalysts require the use of ceria compounds as oxygen storage materials, and lanthana as both a stabilizer of alumina and a promoter. The application for diesel catalysts is also illustrated. Effects of inclusion of rare earth metals in automotive catalysts are discussed

  6. Modularity analysis of automotive control software

    OpenAIRE

    Dajsuren, Y.; Brand, van den, M.G.J.; Serebrenik, A.

    2013-01-01

    A design language and tool like MATLAB/Simulink is used for the graphical modelling and simulation of automotive control software. As the functionality based on electronics and software systems increases in motor vehicles, it is becoming increasingly important for system/software architects and control engineers in the automotive industry to ensure the quality of the highly complex MATLAB/Simulink control software. For automotive software, modularity is recognized as being a crucial quality a...

  7. International Congress of Automotive and Transport Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ispas, Nicolae

    2017-01-01

    The volume will include selected and reviewed papers from CONAT - International Congress of Automotive and Transport Engineering to be held in Brasov, Romania, in October 2016. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in automotive vehicles and environment, advanced transport systems and road traffic, heavy and special vehicles, new materials, manufacturing technologies and logistics, accident research and analysis and innovative solutions for automotive vehicles. The conference will be organized by SIAR (Society of Automotive Engineers from Romania) in cooperation with FISITA. .

  8. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Troy, MI... the Anderson, South Carolina location of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, working out of Troy... certification to include workers in support of the Anderson, South Carolina facility working out of Troy...

  9. Evaluation of the environmental impact of modern passenger cars on petrol, diesel, automotive LPG and CNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Rijkeboer, R.C.; Bremmers, D.A.C.M.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Winkel, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    The project reported here concerns an investigation into the environmental performance of modern passenger cars on four different fuels: petrol, diesel, automotive LPG and CNG. The objectives of the project were twofold: - To make a valid and useful comparison between modern vehicles fuelled by

  10. Application of Hybrid IC's to the Automotive Electronics Market in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Eckart von Roda

    1981-01-01

    In the last few years hybrids have been increasingly used in automotive electronics in Europe. With examples from the BOSCH and BLAUPUNKT production range their application in regulators, breakerless ignition modules, electronically-controlled fuel injection systems and car radios is illustrated. The elements and techniques used to assemble the hybrids, and the advantages which can be gained are discussed.

  11. Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

    2013-12-01

    Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

  12. NASA/DOE automotive Stirling engine project: Overview 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beremand, D. G.; Shaltens, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    The DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project is reviewed and its technical progress and status are presented. Key technologies in materials, seals, and piston rings are progressing well. Seven first-generation engines, and modifications thereto, have accumulated over 15,000 hr of test time, including 1100hr of in-vehicle testing. Results indicate good progress toward the program goals. The first second-generation engine is now undergoing initial testing. It is expected that the program goal of a 30-percent improvement in fuel economy will be achieved in tests of a second-generation engine in a Celebrity vehicle.

  13. 49 CFR 537.9 - Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of fuel economy values and average fuel economy. 537.9 Section 537.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AUTOMOTIVE FUEL ECONOMY REPORTS § 537.9 Determination of fuel...

  14. 1975 Automotive Characteristics Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    A study of automobile characteristics as a supportive tool for auto energy consumption, fuel economy monitoring, and fleet analysis studies is presented. This report emphasizes the utility of efficient data retrieval methods in fuel economy analysis,...

  15. Advanced high strength steels for automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán, J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The car industry is facing pressure because of the growing demand for more fuel-efficient passenger cars. In order to limit energy consumption and air pollution the weight of the carbody has to be reduced. At the same time, high levels of safety have to be guaranteed. In this situation, the choice of material becomes a key decision in car design. As a response to the requirements of the automotive sector, high strength steels and advanced high strength steels have been developed by the steel industry. These modern steel grades offer an excellent balance of low cost, light weight and mechanical properties.

    La industria del automóvil se enfrenta a una creciente demanda de vehículos de pasajeros más eficientes. Con el fin de disminuir el consumo de energía y la contaminación ambiental, el peso del vehículo tiene que ser reducido, al mismo tiempo que se garantizan altos niveles de seguridad. Ante esta situación, la elección de material se convierte en una decisión crucial en el diseño del vehículo. Como respuesta a las necesidades del sector automovilístico, nuevos aceros avanzados y de alta resistencia, han sido desarrollados por la industria siderúrgica. Dichos tipos de acero ofrecen un excelente equilibrio de precio, peso y propiedades mecánicas.

  16. Veranderende automotive wereld vraagt om verandering onderwijs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.C. Nas

    2011-01-01

    Met dit document wil ik de lezer een nieuwe invalshoek tonen op mobiliteit (Driving Guidance) en een andere benadering van automotive hbo onderwijs. De wereld om ons heen verandert en deze nieuwe wereld zal een ander type automotive ingenieur eisen. Dit is een korte weergave van een lezing voor de

  17. Using Technology to Enhance an Automotive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Denis Ashton uses technology in his automotive technology program at East Valley Institute of Technology (EVIT) to positively impact student outcomes. Ashton, the department chair for the automotive programs at EVIT, in Mesa, Arizona, says that using an interactive PowerPoint curriculum makes learning fun for students and provides immediate…

  18. Dynamic and Acoustic Characterisation of Automotive Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Curà

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the dynamic and acoustic characterisation of an automotive wheel. In particular, an experimental research activity previously performed by the authors about the dynamic behaviour of automotive wheels has been extended to the acoustic field.

  19. Brakes Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a course on becoming an automotive brakes specialist, based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The course consists of three instructional units: service brake hydraulic system and wheel bearings, service drum brakes, and service disc brakes. Depending on the…

  20. Carbon composite manufacturing in automotive volume production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, Raphael; Pahl, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Lightweight constructions are a continuously increasing trend in the automotive industry. Main drivers for that trend are the challenging emission reduction targets regarding combustion engines and increasing ranges in electric mobility. This article presents different composite production methods...... and discusses their ability within mass production giving also an example within the automotive production....

  1. The automobile of the future: engine technologies and automotive fuels developed by IFP; l'automobile du futur: les technologies moteurs et carburants developpes par l'IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O.; Pinchon, Ph.

    2004-07-01

    In front of the challenges of climate change and depletion of petroleum reserves, in front of the continuous strengthening of pollution regulations applied to automobile (Euro IV and V) and the advances of R and D, several ways of research can be explored to answer the mobility needs of the coming decades. The IFP takes stock of these topics in this press kit which comprises 11 documents: the synthesis of O. Appert and P. Pinchon's talk about 'the cleaner and multi-energies automobile of the future', the slides of this presentation, the future evolutions of automobiles motorizations, the long-term evolutions of engines/fuels (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel fuel in the USA (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), bio-fuels in Europe (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel pollution abatement: efficient results from the IFP's diesel combustion process 'NADI'(TM), the presentation of the IFP scientific meeting of September 22-23, 2004 'which fuels for low CO{sub 2} engines?', the strategic positioning of IFP in the world energy and environmental context, the brochures 'IFP engines and fuels: a competitive advantage' and 'innovating for a sustainable development in the domain of energy'. (J.S.)

  2. ORNL-GM: Development of Ionic Liquid-Additized, GF-5/6 Compatible Low-Viscosity Oils for Automotive Engine and Rear Axle Lubrication for 4% Improved Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Luo, Huimin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Toops, Todd J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brookshear, Daniel W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stump, Benjamin C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Viola, Michael B. [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States); Zreik, Khaled [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States); Ahmed, Tasfia [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The overall objective of this project are as follows: Further develop ionic liquid (IL)-additized lowviscosity engine oils meeting the GF-5/6 specifications and possessing superior lubricating characteristics; Expand the IL additive technology to rear axle lubricants; and Seek a combined improvement in the vehicle fuel economy

  3. Analysis of the potential for new automotive uses of wrought magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.; Wu, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory has performed a study for the Lightweight Materials Program within the US Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation Materials to evaluate the suitability of wrought magnesium and its alloys to replace steel or aluminum for automotive structural and sheet applications. Vehicle weight reduction is one of the major means available for improving automotive fuel efficiency. Although high-strength steels, Al, and polymers are already being used to achieve significant weight reductions, substantial additional weight reductions could be achieved by increased use of Mg (whose density is less than one-fourth that of steel and only two-thirds that of Al). This study shows that Mg sheet could be used in automotive body nonstructural and semistructural applications, whereas extrusions could be used in such structural applications as spaceframes. The primary barrier to such uses of wrought Mg is high cost.

  4. Hybrid Automotive Engine Using Ethanol-Burning Miller Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    A proposed hybrid (internal-combustion/ electric) automotive engine system would include as its internal-combustion subsystem, a modified Miller-cycle engine with regenerative air preheating and with autoignition like that of a Diesel engine. The fuel would be ethanol and would be burned lean to ensure complete combustion. Although the proposed engine would have a relatively low power-to-weight ratio compared to most present engines, this would not be the problem encountered if this engine were used in a non-hybrid system since hybrid systems require significantly lower power and thus smaller engines than purely internal-combustion-engine-driven vehicles. The disadvantage would be offset by the advantages of high fuel efficiency, low emission of nitrogen oxides and particulate pollutants, and the fact that ethanol is a renewable fuel. The original Miller-cycle engine, named after its inventor, was patented in the 1940s and is the basis of engines used in some modern automobiles, but is not widely known. In somewhat oversimplified terms, the main difference between a Miller-cycle engine and a common (Otto-cycle) automobile engine is that the Miller-cycle engine has a longer expansion stroke while retaining the shorter compression stroke. This is accomplished by leaving the intake valve open for part of the compression stroke, whereas in the Otto cycle engine, the intake valve is kept closed during the entire compression stroke. This greater expansion ratio makes it possible to extract more energy from the combustion process without expending more energy for compression. The net result is greater efficiency. In the proposed engine, the regenerative preheating would be effected by running the intake air through a heat exchanger connected to the engine block. The regenerative preheating would offer two advantages: It would ensure reliable autoignition during operation at low ambient temperature and would help to cool the engine, thereby reducing the remainder of the

  5. Novel thermocouples for automotive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gierth

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of temperatures in engine and exhaust systems in automotive applications is necessary for thermal protection of the parts and optimizing of the combustion process. State-of-the-art temperature sensors are very limited in their response characteristic and installation space requirement. Miniaturized sensor concepts with a customizable geometry are needed. The basic idea of this novel sensor concept is to use thick-film technology on component surfaces. Different standardized and especially nonstandard material combinations of thermocouples have been produced for the validation of this technology concept. Application-oriented measurements took place in the exhaust system of a test vehicle and were compared to standard laboratory conditions.

  6. Parametric studies on automotive radiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliet, C.; Oliva, A.; Castro, J.; Perez-Segarra, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a set of parametric studies performed on automotive radiators by means of a detailed rating and design heat exchanger model developed by the authors. This numerical tool has been previously verified and validated using a wide experimental data bank. A first part of the analysis focuses on the influence of working conditions on both fluids (mass flows, inlet temperatures) and the impact of the selected coolant fluid. Following these studies, the influence of some geometrical parameters is analysed (fin pitch, louver angle) as well as the importance of coolant flow lay-out on the radiator global performance. This work provides an overall behaviour report of automobile radiators working at usual range of operating conditions, while significant knowledge-based design conclusions have also been reported. The results show the utility of this numerical model as a rating and design tool for heat exchangers manufacturers, being a reasonable compromise between classic ε - NTU methods and CFD

  7. Health aspects of automotive pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouan, M

    1973-01-01

    General health aspects of carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons, and aldehydes are described. Unlike spark ignition engines, diesel engines emit but minimal quantities of carbon monoxide. Automotive carbon monoxide may cause chronic poisoning by its combination with hemoglobin. The threshold value beyond which physiological changes occur lies at 2.5 percent carboxyhemoglobin. Nitric oxide, and especially nitrogen dioxide cause pulmonary edema, impaired respiratory function, and chronic bronchitis in very low concentrations. According to regulations implemented in France, a CO concentration of 40 ppM/hr must occur not more than 1 percent of the time on a yearly basis. A level of 15 ppm must not be exceeded for more than 15 percent of the time in any 9-hour period. The maximum allowable 1-hour nitrogen oxide concentration is set at 0.25 ppM. The emission standards implemented, as well as favorable meteorological conditions have resulted in an abatement of the CO concentrations in Paris.

  8. Prospects for MEMS in the Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard DIXON

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An automotive sector as a growth market for MEMS sensors is analyzed in the article. The automotive sector accounted for $1.6 billion, making this the second biggest opportunity after IT peripherals and inkjet print heads. By 2011 the market will top $2.2 billion, a CAGR of around 7%. The main applications in revenues terms are, in order, pressure sensors, gyroscopes, accelerometers and flow sensors and this will remain so for the foreseeable future. Automotive companies are forced to innovate as a result of competition and price pressures.

  9. INFLUENCE OF AUTOMOTIVE CLUSTERS IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin BORDEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an overview of the evolution in the automotive sector in the process of regional development. The fundamental changes made by the component supplier sector improved the regional development and manufacturing process. Automotive industry is one of the modern sectors in many countries that benefits of a high technology impact and creates jobs that reduces unemployment across Europe. The auto industry changed cities, regions and countries into poles of development and it becomes more and more efficient. The high foreign direct investments from the automotive sector play an important role in regional development process. Continuous changes are being made in the economy, society, and company; in conclusion the automotive clusters will always be a subject of analysis.

  10. Nonlinear estimation and control of automotive drivetrains

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear Estimation and Control of Automotive Drivetrains discusses the control problems involved in automotive drivetrains, particularly in hydraulic Automatic Transmission (AT), Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) and Automated Manual Transmission (AMT). Challenging estimation and control problems, such as driveline torque estimation and gear shift control, are addressed by applying the latest nonlinear control theories, including constructive nonlinear control (Backstepping, Input-to-State Stable) and Model Predictive Control (MPC). The estimation and control performance is improved while the calibration effort is reduced significantly. The book presents many detailed examples of design processes and thus enables the readers to understand how to successfully combine purely theoretical methodologies with actual applications in vehicles. The book is intended for researchers, PhD students, control engineers and automotive engineers. Hong Chen is a professor at the State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and...

  11. Formalizing correspondence rules for automotive architectural views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dajsuren, Y.; Gerpheide, C.M.; Serebrenik, A.; Wijs, A.J.; Vasilescu, B.N.; Brand, van den M.G.J.; Seinturier, L.; Bures, T.; McGregor, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    Architecture views have long been used in software industry to systematically model complex systems by representing them from the perspective of related stakeholder concerns. However, consensus has not been reached for the architecture views between automotive architecture description languages and

  12. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    CERN Document Server

    CAERC, Tsinghua University

    2014-01-01

    This book identifies and addresses key issues of automotive energy in China. It covers demography, economics, technology and policy, providing a broad perspective to aid in the planning of sustainable road transport in China.

  13. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  14. SELECTION METHOD FOR AUTOMOTIVE PARTS RECONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Florin NITOI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents technological methods for metal deposition, costs calculation and clasification for the main process that helps in automotive technologies to repair or to increase pieces properties. Paper was constructed based on many technological experiments that starts from practicans and returns to them. The main aim is to help young engineers or practicians engineers to choose the proper reconditioning process with the best information in repairing pieces from automotive industry.

  15. Automotive perspective on laser material processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper a broad review is given of the development and use of laser processing in the automotive industry. a brief introduction to the major types of processing lasers and related systems is followed by a summary of the major processing regimes. Examples are given of the automotive industry's use of lasers in a variety of applications, from heat treating and welding, to cutting and marking

  16. Hydrogen system (hydrogen fuels feasibility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarna, S.

    1991-07-01

    This feasibility study on the production and use of hydrogen fuels for industry and domestic purposes includes the following aspects: physical and chemical properties of hydrogen; production methods steam reforming of natural gas, hydrolysis of water; liquid and gaseous hydrogen transportation and storage (hydrogen-hydride technology); environmental impacts, safety and economics of hydrogen fuel cells for power generation and hydrogen automotive fuels; relevant international research programs

  17. Hydrogen: the great debate. 'Power to Gas - how to cope with the challenge of electricity storage?; Hydrogen in energy transition: which challenges to be faced?; Hydrogen, essential today, indispensable tomorrow; Electrolytic hydrogen, a solution for energy transition?; Development of high power electrolysis systems: need and approach; Hydrogen as energy vector, Potential and stakes: a perspective; The Toyota Fuel Cell System: a new era for the automotive industry; Three key factors: production, applications to mobility, and public acceptance; Hydrogen, benevolent fairy or tempting demon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauet, Jean-Pierre; Boucly, Philippe; Beeker, Etienne; Mauberger, Pascal; Quint, Aliette; Pierre, Helene; Lucchese, Paul; Bouillon-Delporte, Valerie; Chauvet, Bertrand; Brisse, Annabelle; Gautier, Ludmila; Hercberg, Sylvain; De Volder, Marc; Gruson, Jean-Francois; Marion, Pierre; Grellier, Sebastien; Devezeaux, Jean-Guy; Mansilla, Christine; Le Net, Elisabeth; Le Duigou, Alain; Maire, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of contributions which address various issues related to the development of the use of hydrogen as an energy source. More precisely, these contributions discuss how to face the challenge of electricity storage by using the Power-to-Gas technology, the challenges to be faced regarding the role of hydrogen in energy transition, the essential current role of hydrogen and its indispensable role for tomorrow, the possible role of electrolytic hydrogen as a solution for energy transition, the need of and the approach to a development of high power electrolysis systems, the potential and stakes of hydrogen as an energy vector, the Toyota fuel cell system as a sign for new era for automotive industry, the three main factors (production, applications to mobility, and public acceptance) for the use of hydrogen in energy transition, and the role of hydrogen perceived either as a benevolent fairy or a tempting demon

  18. Integrated fuel processor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Pereira, C.; Lee, S. H. D.; Krumpelt, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies has been supporting the development of fuel-flexible fuel processors at Argonne National Laboratory. These fuel processors will enable fuel cell vehicles to operate on fuels available through the existing infrastructure. The constraints of on-board space and weight require that these fuel processors be designed to be compact and lightweight, while meeting the performance targets for efficiency and gas quality needed for the fuel cell. This paper discusses the performance of a prototype fuel processor that has been designed and fabricated to operate with liquid fuels, such as gasoline, ethanol, methanol, etc. Rated for a capacity of 10 kWe (one-fifth of that needed for a car), the prototype fuel processor integrates the unit operations (vaporization, heat exchange, etc.) and processes (reforming, water-gas shift, preferential oxidation reactions, etc.) necessary to produce the hydrogen-rich gas (reformate) that will fuel the polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks. The fuel processor work is being complemented by analytical and fundamental research. With the ultimate objective of meeting on-board fuel processor goals, these studies include: modeling fuel cell systems to identify design and operating features; evaluating alternative fuel processing options; and developing appropriate catalysts and materials. Issues and outstanding challenges that need to be overcome in order to develop practical, on-board devices are discussed

  19. Automotive History and Development of the Automobile; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive history and development of the automobile course is designed to familiarize the beginning student with basic concepts common to the automobile history and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. A course outline is provided and seven pages of post-tests are included in the…

  20. Secondary-Postsecondary Curriculum Development in Automotive Mechanics. Automotive Electrical Competencies. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepner, Ronald

    Developed as part of a competency-based curriculum in automotive mechanics which is usable by students at both the secondary and postsecondary levels, this learning package focuses on automotive electrical systems. It is the first unit to be published in a series of eight which will cover the eight subject areas on the national certification…

  1. Automotive Electrical and Electronic System II; Automotive Mechanics-Intermediate: 9045.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive electrical and electronic system course is an intermediate course designed for the student who has completed automotive Electrical and Electronic System I. The theory and principles of operation of the components of the starting and charging systems and other electrical accessory systems in the automobile will be learned by the…

  2. Automotive Electrical and Electronic Systems I; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive electrical and electronic system I course is designed as one of a group of quinmester courses offered in the field of automotive mechanics. General information will be given along with technical knowledge, basic skills, attitudes and values that are required for job entry level. The nine week (135 clock hour) course overcomes some…

  3. Petroleum Diesel Fuel and Linseed Oil Mixtures as Engine Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V. A.; Kamaltdinov, V. G.; Savastenko, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The actual problem is the use of alternative biofuels in automotive diesel engines. Insufficiently studied are the indicators of toxicity of exhaust gases of these engines operating on biofuel. The aim of the study is to identify indicators of the toxicity of exhaust gases when using of petroleum diesel fuel and linseed oil mixtures as a fuel for automotive diesel engines. Physical and chemical properties of linseed oil and its mixtures with petroleum diesel fuel are considered. Experimental researches of D-245.12C diesel are carried out on mixtures of diesel fuel and corn oil with a different composition. An opportunity of exhaust toxicity indexes improvement using these mixtures as a fuel for automobiles engine is shown.

  4. The impact of global warming on the automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannappel, Ralf

    2017-08-01

    One cause of global warming of the earth's atmosphere is the emission of human made gases (methane, CO2, nitrous oxygen, etc.) into the environment. Of the total global CO2 emissions the transportation sector contributes to about 14%. In order to control the emissions of the automotive sector, in all major countries (USA, Europe, China, Japan) of the world, tough emissions targets were being set to reduce the vehicle traffic's contribution of CO2. These are derived from the global climate conference' target to limit the maximum temperature increase of the earth of 2 degrees Celsius until 2100. In order to achieve these stringent targets the automotive industry will face a major change in its drivetrain. It will move from combustion to electrical engines. The technical realization of these engines will most likely be battery and fuel cell driven propulsion systems. In order to achieve that transition a major effort is required in 4 industrial areas, i.e. growing electrical charging infrastructure, lowering battery cost, increasing the battery-electric vehicle ranges and developing new environmental friendly hydrogen production methods.

  5. Springback Prediction, Compensation and Correlation for Automotive Stamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Siguang; Zhao Kunmin; Lanker, Terry; Zhang, Jimmy; Wang, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    To reduce weight and increase fuel efficiency and safety, more and more automotive sheet stamping parts are being made of aluminum and high strength steels. Forming of such materials encounters not just reduced formability but also dimensional quality problems. Springback prediction accuracy and compensation effectiveness have been the major challenge to die development, construction and tryout. In this paper, the factors that affect the accuracy of springback prediction are discussed, which includes the effect of material models, the selection of element size, and the contact algorithms. Springback predictions of several automotive aluminum and high strength panels are compared with measurement data. The examples show that the prediction correlates with measurement data in both springback trend and magnitude. The effect of springback on final product can be reduced or eliminated through process control and die face compensation. The process control method involves finding the root causes of springback and eliminating them through process modification. The geometrical compensation of die surface is a direct way to eliminate the springback effect. The global scaling compensation method is normally limited to parts with relatively small springback. For large springback and twisting, a new approach is discussed, which takes into account of the effect of deformation and springback history. The compensation is achieved iteratively by solving a system of non-linear equations. Production dies were cut to the compensated surface, which shows that the die compensation is an efficient way to reduce springback-induced geometry deviation

  6. Change in the automotive industry; Fordonsindustrin i foeraendring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjaellstroem, Mikael [Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden); Pohl, Hans [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Liljemark, Stefan [SwedPower AB (Sweden); Leander, Aasa [Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden); Maruo, Kanehira [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden); Waldenby, Torbjoern [JIC Consulting AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mellgren, Henry [Fordonskomponentgruppen, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The 'Change in the Automotive Industry' investigation was initiated by the Swedish Energy Agency in the autumn of 2000. The objective has been to illuminate and analyse technical developments in respect of the use of electricity in vehicles, not only for various ancillary systems but also for propulsion. A number of Swedish businesses that have, or could have, links with the automotive industry have been investigated. The main aim has been to attempt to identify the opportunities for the industry to meet and benefit from the changes. A total of 14 businesses have been visited, and a further 29 companies have replied to a survey questionnaire on the theme. Business intelligence shows that a great deal of work is being done on the use of electricity for automotive propulsion, in everything from battery vehicles, via electric hybrid vehicles to fuel cell vehicles. In terms of development, the Japanese manufacturers are in the lead, while the USA constitutes the largest single driving force behind development. The technical development requires a greater understanding within several new disciplines, and leads to major changes between different industry sectors. The results show that Sweden possesses world class expertise in several of the fields that can become very important for tomorrow's automotive industry. At the same time, the companies expect difficulties in recruiting personnel qualified in the appropriate disciplines, such as development and design. There is, therefore, a clear risk that the present-day expertise will progressively fade away if nothing is done.There is a wide range of awareness of the greater use of electricity in vehicles. However, in principle, all companies feel that development towards new drive trains will proceed rapidly. Most of the companies are also very interested in descriptions and analyses of the state of development. The general conclusion of the work is that there are excellent prospects for Swedish industry to benefit from this

  7. Change in the automotive industry; Fordonsindustrin i foeraendring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjaellstroem, Mikael [Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden); Pohl, Hans [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Liljemark, Stefan [SwedPower AB (Sweden); Leander, Aasa [Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden); Maruo, Kanehira [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden); Waldenby, Torbjoern [JIC Consulting AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mellgren, Henry [Fordonskomponentgruppen, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The 'Change in the Automotive Industry' investigation was initiated by the Swedish Energy Agency in the autumn of 2000. The objective has been to illuminate and analyse technical developments in respect of the use of electricity in vehicles, not only for various ancillary systems but also for propulsion. A number of Swedish businesses that have, or could have, links with the automotive industry have been investigated. The main aim has been to attempt to identify the opportunities for the industry to meet and benefit from the changes. A total of 14 businesses have been visited, and a further 29 companies have replied to a survey questionnaire on the theme. Business intelligence shows that a great deal of work is being done on the use of electricity for automotive propulsion, in everything from battery vehicles, via electric hybrid vehicles to fuel cell vehicles. In terms of development, the Japanese manufacturers are in the lead, while the USA constitutes the largest single driving force behind development. The technical development requires a greater understanding within several new disciplines, and leads to major changes between different industry sectors. The results show that Sweden possesses world class expertise in several of the fields that can become very important for tomorrow's automotive industry. At the same time, the companies expect difficulties in recruiting personnel qualified in the appropriate disciplines, such as development and design. There is, therefore, a clear risk that the present-day expertise will progressively fade away if nothing is done.There is a wide range of awareness of the greater use of electricity in vehicles. However, in principle, all companies feel that development towards new drive trains will proceed rapidly. Most of the companies are also very interested in descriptions and analyses of the state of development. The general conclusion of the work is that there are excellent prospects for Swedish industry to

  8. Automobile Buyer Decisions about Fuel Economy and Fuel Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Kurani, Ken; Turrentine, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Much prior research into consumer automotive and fuel purchase behaviors and fuel economy has been shaped by the normative assumptions of economics. Among these assumptions are that consumers should pay attention to costs of fuel and that they are aware of their options to save on fuel over long periods of time, i.e., the life of a vehicle or at least their period of ownership. For example, researchers have analyzed in some depth consumer choices for more fuel economical vehicles in the 1980s...

  9. Green competitiveness research on Chinese automotive enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhui Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: More and more executives of automobileindustry in China start to recognize the concept of green competitiveness recently. However, relatively less research attention has been devoted to the consideration of measurement. This paper aims to find empirical approach to quantify green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The connotation of green competitiveness is explored and one suite of evaluation index system has been proposed with four dimensions including environmental, resource, capability and knowledge.Design/methodology/approach: By introducing the factor analysis method, green competitiveness has been measured through an empirical analysis of 24 automotive enterprises within China.Findings: The results indicate that those elements, such as enterprise resource possession and utilization; environment, responsibility and knowledge; profitability; management efficiency, have significant effect on the green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The further analysis also unveils the advantages and disadvantages of green competitiveness for each company and the direction for improvement.Research limitations/implications: Guide regulators and managers of automobile industry to take some measures to enhance their green competitive advantage.Practical implications: Provide practical methods to measure green competitiveness for automotive enterprises.Originality/value: This paper proposes an evaluation index system of green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The suggestions of our research will be beneficial to enterprise executives and industry regulators.

  10. Economic and environmental considerations of biomass fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The economic and environmental aspects of biomass fuels are considered. Close to source, the cost of useful energy in the form of lignocellulose is often competitive with fossil fuels, say $1-3 per GJ. There are three main options to divert this biomass into commercial energy channels: solid fuels for underboiler use; liquid fuels for automotive use and electric power generation, each of which is discussed. The social, economic and environmental advantages of an afforestation programme are highlighted. (Author)

  11. 5th International Conference on Sustainable Automotive Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Subic, Aleksandar; Trufin, Ramona

    2014-01-01

    This book captures selected peer reviewed papers presented at the 5th International Conference on Sustainable Automotive Technologies, ICSAT 2013, held in Ingolstadt, Germany. ICSAT is the state-of-the-art conference in the field of new technologies for transportation. The book brings together the work of international researchers and practitioners under the following interrelated headings: fuel transportation and storage, material recycling, manufacturing and management costs, engines and emission reduction. The book provides a very good overview of research and development activities focused on new technologies and approaches capable of meeting the challenges to sustainable mobility. About the Editors: Prof. Dr. Jörg Wellnitz is the Dean of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt, Germany. Prof. Dr. Aleksandar Subic is the Head of the School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Australia. Ramona Trufin, M.A. is the coordinator of the Facul...

  12. Storing electricity, the technological challenge of the automotive sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulet, C.

    2010-01-01

    The search for alternatives to the internal combustion engine for motor vehicles may be nothing new, but the present focus on environmental issues (dwindling fossil fuel reserves, growing awareness of the environmental impact of the internal combustion engine, etc.) makes it more topical than ever. It is no coincidence that most manufacturers and OEMs on the automotive market, and many research centers, are studying the use of batteries and fuel cells as a means of developing greener, sustainable transport solutions for the future. The European Union is considering ways of compelling manufacturers to market vehicles that are more fuel-efficient at a time when the members of the European Automobile Manufacturers Association, unlike their counterparts in Japan, are failing to meet the targets defined in voluntary agreements. Through their sales of hybrid vehicles, Japanese manufacturers have lent credibility to the notion of a market for electrified vehicles. In this way, market constraints (environmental impact of the internal combustion engine, the cost of fossil fuel, consumers, and national or European lawmakers) will push the automotive industry into marketing 'low-carbon' vehicles in the very short term. Manufacturers' product plans reveal that a wave of electrified products can be expected on the market in 2015. That implies a significant R and D effort between now and 2012, with demonstrator vehicles up and running by 2013-2014 at the latest. So now is a crucial time for research organisations to position themselves in preparation for this emerging market. Industry is hoping for technological progress in areas that cut across these varying degrees of hybridisation and electrification, namely the storage and management of electrical energy and power electronics. It is these areas that will be at the heart of research programs. In these highly competitive times, efforts should focus on: - Lowering costs (by a factor of 5 to 10 for fuel cells and 2 to 4 for

  13. ROS (Robot Operating System) für Automotive

    OpenAIRE

    Bubeck, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    - Introduction into the Robot Operating System - Open Source in the automotive industries - Application of ROS in the automotive industry - ROS navigation - ROS with real time control - ROS in the embedded world - Outlook: ROS 2.0 - Summary

  14. The fuel cell; La pile a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boursin, P.

    2005-07-01

    This document is an exhaustive review of the history of fuel cells from 1802 to 2004. It focusses mainly on the automotive applications and supplies many technical details about each prototype of fuel cell and/or vehicle. (J.S.)

  15. IPI tax relief policy and its impact on automotive and related sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antônio Abrantes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The policy of IPI tax relief in the automotive industry came from the need of answers to the Global Financial Crisis of 2008, which affected Brazil. This way, Brazilian Government set the reduction of the percentages of rates applied to automotive products and related sectors, according to several factors such as engine power, fuel type and production site, in order to restore the sector demand and stimulate the economy. In this context, this work aims to evaluate the implications of IPI tax relief policy, since 2009, on the turnover of joint-stock companies of the automotive and related sectors. The methodology was a multiple regression analysis model with Dynamic Panel data, in order to explain the variations of companies' turnover in the sector, regarding IPI tax relief. The data used were of 84 companies of this sector, for the period from 1998 to 2015, based on the software Economática. The results showed a decrease of IPI tax collection in the periods of relief, both in general and specific scope. In addition, we verified that the adoption of the policy had a negative influence on the turnover of the evaluated companies. Thus, we concluded that the tax policy under analysis did not contribute to an increase of automotive sector companies' turnover.

  16. Recovery of platinum-group metals (PGMS from spent automotive catalysts: Part II: Automotive catalysts: Structures and principle of operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Mile D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic converters are incorporated into motor vehicle emission systems (passenger cars, trucks and other motor vehicles, as well as civil and agricultural machines, as of lately to reduce air pollution as well as to meet the emission standards. Their purpose is to convert toxic emissions generated by combustion of liquid fossil fuels into less harmful products. In catalytic converters, rhodium is used for the reduction of gasses, whereas platinum and palladium are used for the oxidation of gasses. This paper presents the structure and operating principle of automotive catalysts in view of the fact that cars are the most prevalent motor vehicles worldwide and due to the fact that the production of cars with gasoline and diesel engines will dominate until at least 2020.

  17. New market strategies in the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokić Miljko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The world automotive industry has about 30% of excessive capacity. Regardless of that, the new plants are being constantly built. The countries of the East Europe, China and India are selected as suitable areas by almost all world leading car manufactures to build their additional plants in order to make profits. An open world market is subject to an uncompromising striving for each customer. Our manufacturers have to meet the same requirements if want to offer their products in the world market. Finding out of foreign strategic partners is the fastest way to recover a domestic automotive industry and to increase an employment rate.

  18. Fatigue life of automotive rubber jounce bumper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, R S; Ali, Aidy

    2010-01-01

    It is evident that most rubber components in the automotive industry are subjected to repetitive loading. Vigorous research is needed towards improving the safety and reliability of the components. The study was done on an automotive rubber jounce bumper with a rubber hardness of 60 IRHD. The test was conducted in displacement-controlled environment under compressive load. The existing models by Kim, Harbour, Woo and Li were adopted to predict the fatigue life. The experimental results show strong similarities with the predicted models.

  19. Automotive sensors: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosser, S J

    2007-01-01

    This paper will provide a review of past, present and future automotive sensors. Today's vehicles have become highly complex sophisticated electronic control systems and the majority of innovations have been solely achieved through electronics and the use of advanced sensors. A range of technologies have been used over the past twenty years including silicon microengineering, thick film, capacitive, variable reluctance, optical and radar. The automotive sensor market continues to grow with respect to vehicle production level in recognition of the transition to electronically controlled electrically actuated systems. The environment for these sensors continues to be increasingly challenging with respect to robustness, reliability, quality and cost

  20. Automotive sensors: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, S. J.

    2007-07-01

    This paper will provide a review of past, present and future automotive sensors. Today's vehicles have become highly complex sophisticated electronic control systems and the majority of innovations have been solely achieved through electronics and the use of advanced sensors. A range of technologies have been used over the past twenty years including silicon microengineering, thick film, capacitive, variable reluctance, optical and radar. The automotive sensor market continues to grow with respect to vehicle production level in recognition of the transition to electronically controlled electrically actuated systems. The environment for these sensors continues to be increasingly challenging with respect to robustness, reliability, quality and cost.

  1. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands.

  2. Best Practices in School-to-Careers: The Automotive Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Employer Leadership Council, Washington, DC.

    This document highlights the school-to-careers (STC) partnerships connecting workplace experiences to classroom learning to prepare students for successful employment in the automotive industry. First, the current state of the automotive industry is reviewed and the role of STC in addressing automotive service needs is explained. Next, the…

  3. Optimal Design of an Automotive Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagehi, Hassan; Attar, Alaa; Lee, Hosung

    2018-07-01

    The consumption of energy continues to increase at an exponential rate, especially in terms of conventional automobiles. Approximately 40% of the applied fuel into a vehicle is lost as waste exhausted to the environment. The desire for improved fuel efficiency by recovering the exhaust waste heat in automobiles has become an important subject. A thermoelectric generator (TEG) has the potential to convert exhaust waste heat into electricity as long as it is improving fuel economy. The remarkable amount of research being conducted on TEGs indicates that this technology will have a bright future in terms of power generation. The current study discusses the optimal design of the automotive exhaust TEG. An experimental study has been conducted to verify the model that used the ideal (standard) equations along with effective material properties. The model is reasonably verified by experimental work, mainly due to the utilization of the effective material properties. Hence, the thermoelectric module that was used in the experiment was optimized by using a developed optimal design theory (dimensionless analysis technique).

  4. Optimal Design of an Automotive Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagehi, Hassan; Attar, Alaa; Lee, Hosung

    2018-04-01

    The consumption of energy continues to increase at an exponential rate, especially in terms of conventional automobiles. Approximately 40% of the applied fuel into a vehicle is lost as waste exhausted to the environment. The desire for improved fuel efficiency by recovering the exhaust waste heat in automobiles has become an important subject. A thermoelectric generator (TEG) has the potential to convert exhaust waste heat into electricity as long as it is improving fuel economy. The remarkable amount of research being conducted on TEGs indicates that this technology will have a bright future in terms of power generation. The current study discusses the optimal design of the automotive exhaust TEG. An experimental study has been conducted to verify the model that used the ideal (standard) equations along with effective material properties. The model is reasonably verified by experimental work, mainly due to the utilization of the effective material properties. Hence, the thermoelectric module that was used in the experiment was optimized by using a developed optimal design theory (dimensionless analysis technique).

  5. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, N.; Ernst, W.; Richey, A.; Simetkosky, M.; Smith, G.; Antonelli, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Mod I engine testing and test results, the test of a Mod I engine in the United States, Mod I engine characterization and analysis, Mod I Transient Test Bed fuel economy, Mod I-A engine performance are discussed. Stirling engine reference engine manufacturing and reduced size studies, components and subsystems, and the study and test of low-cost casting alloys are also covered. The overall program philosophy is outlined, and data and results are presented.

  6. FUEL PRICES AND CAR SALES

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Cârstea

    2008-01-01

    Automotive industry is a very important economic sector that is highly responsive to changes in the world economy. The fuel price is the biggest enemy of car manufacturers. This is a compared analysis between Europe and Romania regarding new car registrations.

  7. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 5. Multinational Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  8. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 6. Foreign Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  9. PERFORMANCE OF AN AUTOMOTIVE BUMPER FROM LALLOH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work presented here is the production of an automotive Bumper from Lalloh plant (Corchorus tridenL.) fibre reinforced epoxy composite and its performance evaluation using the drop weight test method. An impact test was carried out on the bumper using a test rig modeled after the Dynatup Model 8150 drop weight test ...

  10. International Conference on Vehicle and Automotive Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bolló, Betti

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the first vehicle engineering and vehicle industry conference. It captures the outcome of theoretical and practical studies as well as the future development trends in a wide field of automotive research. The themes of the conference include design, manufacturing, economic and educational topics.

  11. Automotive Stirling engine development program: A success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, W. K.

    1987-01-01

    The original 5-yr Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program has been extended to 10 years due to reduced annual funding levels. With an estimated completion date of April 1988, the technical achievements and the prospectives of meeting the original program objectives are reviewed. Various other applications of this developed Stirling engine technology are also discussed.

  12. Analysis of the Advertising Market Automotive Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Rešlová, Pavlína

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with advertising expenditure major automotive brands, which are compared with their marketability. The thesis reflects the strategic marketing process and outlines the components of advertising. The aim of the work is to verify whether the investment in television advertising significantly and directly affects the marketability of vehicles, or there are some other factors.

  13. Automotive Mechanics Occupational Performance Survey. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcher, Sidney D.; Leiter, Paul B.

    The purpose of this federally-funded interim report is to present the results of a task inventory analysis survey of automotive mechanics completed by project staff within the Instructional Systems Design Program at the Center for Vocational and Technical Education. Intended for use in curriculum development for vocational education programs in…

  14. Orientation: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The first six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the basic theory and practice of a beginning course at the secondary and post-secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction…

  15. Basic Automotive Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a basic automotive mechanics program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of Occupational…

  16. Green innovation adoption in automotive supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zailani, Suhaiza; Govindan, Kannan; Iranmanesh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    generators of industrial waste that affect the quality of the natural environment. This study aims to investigate the determinants of green innovation adoption and its effect on firm performance. Data were gathered by surveying 153 firms in the Malaysian automotive supply chain industry. Data were analyzed...

  17. Optimization and Optimal Control in Automotive Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waschl, H.; Kolmanovsky, I.V.; Steinbuch, M.; Re, del L.

    2014-01-01

    This book demonstrates the use of the optimization techniques that are becoming essential to meet the increasing stringency and variety of requirements for automotive systems. It shows the reader how to move away from earlier approaches, based on some degree of heuristics, to the use of more and

  18. Aero and vibroacoustics of automotive turbochargers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-Schaefer, Hung [Bosch Mahle Turbo Systems GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-02-01

    First book about the aeroacoustics of automotive turbochargers. Author of the book ''Rotordynamics of Automotive Turbochargers'', Springer, 2012. Written by an R and D expert in the turbocharger industry. Aero and Vibroacoustics of Automotive Turbochargers is a topic involving aspects from the working fields of thermodynamics of turbomachinery, aerodynamics, rotordynamics, and noise propagation computation. In this broadly interdisciplinary subject, thermodynamics of turbomachinery is used to design the turbocharger and to determine its operating conditions. Aerodynamics is needed to study the compressor flow dynamics and flow instabilities of rotating stall and surge, which can produce growling and whining-type noises. Rotordynamics is necessary to study rotor unbalance and self-excited oil-whirl instabilities, which lead to whistling and constant tone-type noises in rotating floating oil-film type bearings. For the special case of turbochargers using ball bearings, some high-order harmonic and wear noises also manifest in the rotor operating range. Lastly, noise propagation computation, based on Lighthill's analogy, is required to investigate airborne noises produced by turbochargers in passenger vehicles. The content of this book is intended for advanced undergraduates, graduates in mechanical engineering, research scientists and practicing engineers who want to better understand the interactions between these working fields and the resulting impact on the interesting topic of Aero and Vibroacoustics of Automotive Turbochargers.

  19. The evolution of automotive technology : a handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mom, G.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    This book covers one and a quarter century of the automobile, conceived as a cultural history of its technology, aimed at engineering students and all those who wish to have a concise introduction into the basics of automotive technology and its long-term development. Its approach is systemic and

  20. A listening test system for automotive audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Geoff, Martin; Minnaar, Pauli

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a system for simulating automotive audio through headphones for the purposes of conducting listening experiments in the laboratory. The system is based on binaural technology and consists of a component for reproducing the sound of the audio system itself and a component...

  1. Modularity analysis of automotive control software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dajsuren, Y.; Brand, van den M.G.J.; Serebrenik, A.

    2013-01-01

    A design language and tool like MATLAB/Simulink is used for the graphical modelling and simulation of automotive control software. As the functionality based on electronics and software systems increases in motor vehicles, it is becoming increasingly important for system/software architects and

  2. Gear shift strategies for automotive transmissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo, D.V.

    2012-01-01

    The development history of automotive engineering has shown the essential role of transmissions in road vehicles primarily powered by internal combustion engines. The engine with its physical constraints on the torque and speed requires a transmission to have its power converted to the drive power

  3. Model-based control for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, G.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The number of distributed control systems in modern vehicles has increased exponentially over the past decades. Today’s performance improvements and innovations in the automotive industry are often resolved using embedded control systems. As a result, a modern vehicle can be regarded as a complex

  4. Training Issues for the European Automotive Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankbaar, B.

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the results of an investigation carried out for the European Commission. Aims to identify themes and issues in the field of continuing training in the European automotive industry. A large number of interviews were carried out in all the major car manufacturing countries of

  5. Training issues for the European automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankbaar, B.

    1999-01-01

    Provides an overview of the results of an investigation carried out for the European Commission. Aims to identify themes and issues in the field of continuing training in the European automotive industry. A large number of interviews were carried out in all the major car manufacturing countries of

  6. Catalysis and automotive pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crucq, A.; Frennet, A.

    1987-01-01

    In these proceedings seven lectures are presented dealing with the effects of exhaust gas on human health and the environment, with the economical and legislative problems associated with the new EEC standards and with the points of view of the oil and motor industries. Three papers deal with catalytic converters and problems such as specific pollution control of diesel engines, synthesis of adequate fuels and additives adapted to catalytic converters. Twentyfour papers are devoted to fundamental and applied studies on catalytic converters, support preparation and base metal catalysts. refs.; figs.; tabs

  7. 40 CFR 79.56 - Fuel and fuel additive grouping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... industry-sponsored or other independent brokering arrangements. (3) Manufacturers who enroll a fuel or fuel... Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel”, used to define the general characteristics of gasoline... shall be chemical-grade quality, at a minimum, and shall not contain a significant amount of other...

  8. Diffusion of new automotive technologies for improving energy efficiency in Brazil's light vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, Cristina; Szklo, Alexandre; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli

    2010-01-01

    Historically, Brazil has promoted the development and sales of light duty vehicles running on ethanol (firstly, ethanol-dedicated cars, and recently flexfuel cars). In the 1990s, the country also favored the sales of compact cars to middle and low-income classes. However, in the last years, the profile of vehicles sold in Brazil has converged towards larger and less-efficient vehicles. In 2008, Brazil launched the vehicle labeling program. Based on the outcomes of the historical programs oriented towards the development of automotive innovations, and on a survey conducted with the country's main auto makers, this article evaluates whether the vehicle labeling program will both improve the energy efficiency of light vehicles, and introduce new technologies. Our results indicate that, despite its virtuous intentions, the program will not control the tendency of rising fuel consumption of passenger cars sold in Brazil. Therefore, other policies are needed to boost innovations in Brazil's automotive industry. (author)

  9. Fundamentals of automotive and engine technology standard drives, hybrid drives, brakes, safety systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid drives and the operation of hybrid vehicles are characteristic of contemporary automotive technology. Together with the electronic driver assistant systems, hybrid technology is of the greatest importance and both cannot be ignored by today’s car drivers. This technical reference book provides the reader with a firsthand comprehensive description of significant components of automotive technology. All texts are complemented by numerous detailed illustrations. Contents History of the automobile.- History of the Diesel engine.- Areas of use for Diesel engines.- Basic principles of the Diesel engine.- Basic principles of Diesel fuel-injection.- Basic principles of the gasoline engine.- Inductive ignition system.- Transmissions for motor vehicles.- Motor vehicle safety.- Basic principles of vehicle dynamics.- Car braking systems.- Vehicle electrical systems.- Overview of electrical and electronic systems in the vehicle.- Control of gasoline engines.- Control of Diesel engines.- Lighting technology.- Elec...

  10. Design and development of a continuously variable ratio transmission for automotive vehicles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-30

    Work accomplished between July 1974 and October 1978 in a program directed toward the design and development of a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT) for an automotive vehicle is reported. The following major accomplishments were achieved: the laboratory and mathematical projections establishing the viability of the program and the predicted attainment of the primary goal of fuel economy were verified; the proposed Concept Demonstration prototype hydromechanical transmission (HMT) was completed from design to operation; the HMT was thoroughly tested in the laboratory and on the road and its in-vehicle performance was verified by independent testing laboratories; and design of a second generation Pre-Production HMT has proceeded to the point of confirming the practicality of the automotive HMT size and weight; most of the necessary information has been generated which could permit its production cost/competitiveness to be evaluated. (LCL)

  11. 76 FR 19684 - Automotive Fuel Ratings Certification and Posting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... Helvetica Black font but rather allow any legible block type font because Microsoft Word does not offer... content, size, color, and font of the label. \\9\\ ASTM International, formerly known as the American... type of biomass-based diesel.\\36\\ The commenters asserted that disclosing the presence of renewable...

  12. Development of excise on automotive fuels in the neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.; Janse, P.

    1994-04-01

    The political options for the Netherlands to implement the pricing policy for road traffic by means of an increase of excise, as formulated in the Second Transport Structure Plan (SVV-2), are limited by the excise level in neighbouring countries. Therefore, a study on the title subject has been carried out. First, an overview is given of the historical development of sales prices since 1980 for Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg and France with special attention for the large price differences. Next, insight into the effects of a price difference at the borders is given. Subsequently the development in the policy of the European Union with regard to harmonization of excise tariffs is discussed. Environmental organizations in Belgium and Luxembourg were contacted to learn about the expected development of excises in those countries. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 4 appendices, 10 refs

  13. Feasibility of Fuel Cell APUs for Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-07

    in the process of detennining how many contracts to award from the proposals submitted to the US Army T ARDEC Broad Agency Announcement ( BAA ). 25...Chemistry", John Wiley &Sons, Inc~,· pp.66 (1995). [13] E. Iglesia, So C. Reyes, and S. L. Soled, in "Computer-Aided Design of Catalysts" (E.R. Beckes and

  14. Proceedings of the international symposium on alcohol fuel technology: methanol and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The papers presented dealt with the following topics: international situation and economic and political aspects, use of alcohol fuels as automotive fuels, production of methanol and methyl fuels, production of ethanol, methanol application and modeling, alcohol fuel optimization, and environmental considerations. Each paper was prepared for introduction into the EDB data base. (JSR)

  15. Determining Role of Temperature Chart while Evaluating Specific Expenses of Organic Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nesenchouk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers designing principles of operational space continuous heating and heat-treating furnaces at mechanical engineering, automotive and tractor enterprises in theRepublicofBelarus. A role of temperature chart on heating metallic charge while evaluating specific expenses of organic fuel in heating and heat-treating furnaces of mechanical engineering, automotive and tractor industries. 

  16. Status of solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology and potential for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J. F.; Nuttall, L. J.

    The solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell represents the first fuel cell technology known to be used operationally. Current activities are mainly related to the development of a space regenerative fuel cell system for energy storage on board space stations, or other large orbiting vehicles and platforms. During 1981, a study was performed to determine the feasibility of using SPE fuel cells for automotive or other vehicular applications, using methanol as the fuel. The results of this study were very encouraging. Details concerning a conceptual automotive fuel cell power plant study are discussed, taking into account also a layout of major components for compact passenger car installation.

  17. Multichip module technology for automotive application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Wayne; Evans, John L.; Bosley, Larry

    1995-01-01

    Advancements in multichip module technology are creating design freedoms previously unavailable to design engineers. These advancements are opening new markets for laminate based multichip module products. In particular, material improvements in laminate printed wiring boards are allowing multichip module technology to meet more stringent environmental conditions. In addition, improvements in encapsulants and adhesives are enhancing the capabilities of multichip module technology to meet harsh environment. Furthermore, improvements in manufacturing techniques are providing the reliability improvements necessary for use in high quality electronic systems. These advances are making multichip module technology viable for high volume, harsh environment applications like under-the-hood automotive electronics. This paper will provide a brief review of multichip module technology, a discussion of specific research activities with Chrysler for use of multichip modules in automotive engine controllers and finally a discussion of prototype multichip modules fabricated and tested.

  18. Technological measures to improve automotive product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gladkov, V.; Kruglov, S.

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the basic technological measures aimed at improving product quality in automotive industry. While paying due attention to solving organizational and technological problems, including the development of certification systems for production processes, it is also necessary to improve the technical standards of specific technologies, equipment and materials as they largely determine product quality. Special emphasis is given to the importance of improving the production of auto...

  19. Lean tool used in the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Ingaldi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper basic concepts of Lean Manufacturing were presented. A company specializing in the development of vehicle dynamics, driver assistance systems, brake systems, seat belt sand electronics technology was characterized. The company is engaged in designing and manufacturing world-class products for the automotive market. The Lean tools used in the production hall, such as Yamazumi chart, machine motion analysis, MTM method and timing, were presented.

  20. Directions for computational mechanics in automotive crashworthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James A.; Khalil, T. B.

    1993-01-01

    The automotive industry has used computational methods for crashworthiness since the early 1970's. These methods have ranged from simple lumped parameter models to full finite element models. The emergence of the full finite element models in the mid 1980's has significantly altered the research direction. However, there remains a need for both simple, rapid modeling methods and complex detailed methods. Some directions for continuing research are discussed.

  1. Forecasting Demand for Automotive Aftermarket Inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Alin DOBRICAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management decisions regarding the resource allocation in the automotive aftermarket in-volves a good understanding of it. This includes a better understanding of the participants in this market, the supply chains, specificities products and demand for these products. A useful instrument to anticipate the latter is the use of simulation methods, one of them being the Monte Carlo method, which, in this paper, is used to create various scenarios of supply.

  2. Photoacoustic CO2-Sensor for Automotive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, J.; Weber, C.; Eberhardt, A.; Wöllenstein, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a field-tested miniaturized spectroscopic CO2 sensor which is based on the photoacoustic effect. The sensor is developed for automotive applications and considers the requirements for the usage in vehicles. The sensor measures two measurement ranges simultaneously: The monitoring of the indoor air quality and the detection of possible leakages of the coolant in CO2 air-conditioning systems. The sensor consists of a miniaturized innovative photoacoustic sensor unit with integrated e...

  3. Lean tool used in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Ingaldi; Marta Jagusiak-Kocik

    2014-01-01

    In the paper basic concepts of Lean Manufacturing were presented. A company specializing in the development of vehicle dynamics, driver assistance systems, brake systems, seat belt sand electronics technology was characterized. The company is engaged in designing and manufacturing world-class products for the automotive market. The Lean tools used in the production hall, such as Yamazumi chart, machine motion analysis, MTM method and timing, were presented.

  4. INNOVATION LEAN PRINCIPLES IN AUTOMOTIVE GREEN MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Sabadka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, industries such as automotive and manufacturing industries deal with a lot of environmental regulations. Lean is a production strategy whose fundamental principles drive the industry towards a more effective production of goods and services. The eco-efficiency concept is primary to sustainable development and intends to provide more value with less environmental impact. The aim of this study is to identify and explore the contributions of Lean to reduce environmental impacts that naturally result from industrial activity.

  5. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets. L' AMBRIŠKO1,∗ and L PEŠEK2. 1Institute of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering,. Technical University of Košice, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovak Republic. 2Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Metallurgy,. Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, ...

  6. Occupational skin diseases in automotive industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakut, Yunus; Uçmak, Derya; Akkurt, Zeynep Meltem; Akdeniz, Sedat; Palanci, Yilmaz; Sula, Bilal

    2014-03-01

    Studies on occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry are few. To investigate the prevalence of occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry. Between September and December 2011, a total of 405 workers from the automotive repair industry in Diyarbakır were interviewed. They were active workers in the repair industry who had been employed for at least six months. Business owners, sellers of spare parts and accounting officers were not included. The employees were examined at their workplaces and the working conditions were observed. Detailed dermatological examination was performed. The mean age of the 405 workers who participated in the study was 27.7 ± 10.3. The mean working time of employees was 13.3 ± 10.4 years. All of the employees were male. Dermatological diseases were not detected in 144 out of 405 workers (35.6%) and at least one condition was diagnosed in 261 (64.4%). The most frequent diagnosis was callus, hyperkeratosis, clavus (27.7%), followed by nail changes (16.8%) and superficial mycoses (12.1%). Contact dermatitis was seen at a rate of 5.9%. Traumatic lesions such as hyperkeratotic lesions and nail changes were found most frequently. Traumatic lesions were common among individuals who did not use gloves. Most nail changes were localized leuconychia, a finding not reported in the studies on automotive industry workers. In accordance with the literature, irritant contact dermatitis was observed in patients with a history of atopy and who had been working for a long time. Occupational skin diseases comprise an important field in dermatology, deserving much attention. Further studies on occupational dermatology are necessary.

  7. Green competitiveness research on Chinese automotive enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuanhui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: More and more executives of automobileindustry in China start to recognize the concept of green competitiveness recently. However, relatively less research attention has been devoted to the consideration of measurement. This paper aims to find empirical approach to quantify green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The connotation of green competitiveness is explored and one suite of evaluation index system has been proposed with four dimensions including environmental, resou...

  8. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bartsch; F. Fitzek; R. H. Rasshofer

    2012-01-01

    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insight...

  9. Diode-laser-illuminated automotive lamp systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Michael A.; Remillard, Jeffrey T.

    1998-05-01

    We have utilized the high brightness of state-of-the-art diode laser sources, and a variety of emerging optical technologies to develop a new class of thin, uniquely styled automotive brake and signal lamps. Using optics based on thin (5 mm) plastic sheets, these lamps provide appearance and functional advantages not attainable with traditional automotive lighting systems. The light is coupled into the sheets using a 1 mm diameter glass fiber, and manipulated using refraction and reflection from edges, surfaces, and shaped cut-outs. Light can be extracted with an efficiency of approximately 50% and formed into a luminance distribution that meets the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) photometric requirements. Prototype lamps using these optics have been constructed and are less than one inch in thickness. Thin lamps reduce sheet metal costs, complexity, material usage, weight, and allow for increased trunk volume. In addition, these optics enhance lamp design flexibility. When the lamps are not energized, they can appear body colored, and when lighted, the brightness distribution across the lamp can be uniform or structured. A diode laser based brake lamp consumes seven times less electrical power than one using an incandescent source and has instant on capability. Also, diode lasers have the potential to be 10-year/150,000 mile light sources.

  10. Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); LaBarge, W. [Delphi Automotive Systems, Flint, MI (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The CRADA between Delphi Automotive Systems (Delphi; formerly General Motors - AC Delco, Systems) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research (LMER) on automotive catalysts was completed at the end of FY96, after a ten month, no-cost extension. The CRADA was aimed at improved performance and lifetime of noble metal based three-way-catalysts (TWC), which are the primary catalytic system for automotive emission control systems. While these TWC can meet the currently required emission standards, higher than optimum noble metal loadings are often required to meet lifetime requirements. In addition, more stringent emission standards will be imposed in the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts. Initially in a fresh catalyst, the active material is often distributed on a very fine scale, approaching single atoms or small atomic clusters. As such, a wide range of analytical techniques have been employed to provide high spatial resolution characterization of the evolving state of the catalytic material.

  11. Thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Masaki; Nakajima, Yasushi; Saito, Masanori; Satou, Fuminori; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes three low-cost thermoelectric infrared imaging sensors having a 1,536, 2,304, and 10,800 element thermoelectric focal plane array (FPA) respectively and two experimental automotive application systems. The FPAs are basically fabricated with a conventional IC process and micromachining technologies and have a low cost potential. Among these sensors, the sensor having 2,304 elements provide high responsivity of 5,500 V/W and a very small size with adopting a vacuum-sealed package integrated with a wide-angle ZnS lens. One experimental system incorporated in the Nissan ASV-2 is a blind spot pedestrian warning system that employs four infrared imaging sensors. This system helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a blind spot by detecting the infrared radiation emitted from the person"s body. The system can also prevent the vehicle from moving in the direction of the pedestrian. The other is a rearview camera system with an infrared detection function. This system consists of a visible camera and infrared sensors, and it helps alert the driver to the presence of a pedestrian in a rear blind spot. Various issues that will need to be addressed in order to expand the automotive applications of IR imaging sensors in the future are also summarized. This performance is suitable for consumer electronics as well as automotive applications.

  12. Bosch automotive electrics and automotive electronics. Systems and components, networking and hybrid drive. 5. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    Complete reference guide to automotive electrics and electronics. The significance of electrical and electronic systems has increased considerably in the last few years and this trend is set to continue. The characteristics feature of innovative systems is the fact that they can work together in a network. This requires powerful bus systems that the electronic control units can use to exchange information. Networking and the various bus systems used in motor vehicles are the prominent new topic in the 5th edition of the ''Automotive Electric, Automotive Electronics'' technical manual. The existing chapters have also been updated, so that this new edition brings the reader up to date on the subjects of electrical and electronic systems in the motor vehicle.

  13. Conversion of hydrocarbons and alcohols for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensen, Finn; Rostrup-Nielsen, Jens R.

    The growing demand for clean and efficient energy systems is the driving force in the development of fuel processing technology for providing hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gaseous fuels for power generation in fuel cells. Successful development of low cost, efficient fuel processing systems will be critical to the commercialisation of this technology. This article reviews various reforming technologies available for the generation of such fuels from hydrocarbons and alcohols. It also briefly addresses the issue of carbon monoxide clean-up and the question of selecting the appropriate fuel(s) for small/medium scale fuel processors for stationary and automotive applications.

  14. The fuzzy outline of the Mediterranean automotive space (In French)

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Bernard LAYAN (E3i-IFReDE-GRES); Yannick LUNG (E3i-IFReDE-GRES)

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyses the evolution of the automotive industry in the Mediterranean area during the last years. First part focuses on the impacts for this region of the geographical changes of the European automotive systems associated to location of multinational automotive firms in CEEC. This leads to difficulties for the automobile countries of the western part of the Mediterranean Europe (Italy, Spain, Portugal) on one side, and to a huge growth of the auto industry at the east, in Turkey, o...

  15. AUTOMOTIVE MARKET- FROM A GENERAL TO A MARKET SEGMENTATION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Automotive market and its corresponding industry are undoubtedly of outmost importance and therefore proper market segmentation is crucial for market players, potential competitors and customers as well. Time has proved that market economic analysis often shown flaws in determining the relevant market, by using solely or mainly the geographic aspect and disregarding the importance of segments on the automotive market. For these reasons we propose a new approach of the automotive market proving the importance of proper market segmentation and defining the strategic groups within the automotive market.

  16. Comparative Environmental Benefits of Lightweight Design in the Automotive Sector: The Case Study of Recycled Magnesium Against CFRP and Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, Fabrizio; Ranza, Luigi

    A LCA feasibility study was undertaken to determine the environmental impact of an Eco-magnesium process route by recycled chips to manufacture panel for the automotive sector to be compared with comparative scenarios, a non-recycled carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) and a baseline steel-made component scenario. The objective of this LCA study was to assess the actual benefits of a lightweight solution considering the whole life cycle, including the dirty-phase (i.e. the "cradle-to-exit gate" stage) that impacts differently for the different materials. For this reason the analysis has regarded the net "cradle-to-grave" scenario. Different automotive floor pans were then compared considering the rate of fuel consumption during vehicle operation — i.e. the fuel-mass correlation factor — and the different material substitution factors allowed by the different materials selected.

  17. The Role of Public and Private Protection in Disruptive Innovation: The Automotive Industry and the Emergence of Low-Emission Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkse, J.; Bohnsack, R.; Kolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the automotive industry, the need to move toward more sustainable trajectories of innovation has received much attention. Car manufacturers have started to develop lower emission alternatives for the internal combustion engine, particularly electric, hybrid, and fuel-cell vehicles. They face the

  18. Advanced high temperature materials for the energy efficient automotive Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titran, R.H.; Stephens, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Stirling engine is under investigation jointly by the Department of Energy and NASA Lewis as an alternative to the internal combustion engine for automotive applications. The Stirling engine is an external combustion engine that offers the advantage of high fuel economy, low emissions, low noise, and low vibrations compared to current internal combustion automotive engines. The most critical component from a materials viewpoint is the heater head consisting of the cylinders, heating tubes, and regenerator housing. Materials requirements for the heater head include compatibility with hydrogen, resistance to hydrogen permeation, high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance, and high temperature creep-rupture and fatigue properties. A continuing supporting materials research and technology program has identified the wrought alloys CG-27 and 12RN72, and the cast alloys XF-818 and NASAUT 4G-A1 as candidate replacements for the cobalt containing alloys used in current prototype engines. Based on the materials research program in support of the automotive Stirling engine it is concluded that manufacture of the engine is feasible from low cost iron-base alloys rather than the cobalt alloys used in prototype engines. This paper presents results of research that led to this conclusion

  19. Non-Destructive Thermography Analysis of Impact Damage on Large-Scale CFRP Automotive Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Schmidt, Roland; Oswald-Tranta, Beate; Schledjewski, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Laminated composites are increasingly used in aeronautics and the wind energy industry, as well as in the automotive industry. In these applications, the construction and processing need to fulfill the highest requirements regarding weight and mechanical properties. Environmental issues, like fuel consumption and CO2-footprint, set new challenges in producing lightweight parts that meet the highly monitored standards for these branches. In the automotive industry, one main aspect of construction is the impact behavior of structural parts. To verify the quality of parts made from composite materials with little effort, cost and time, non-destructive test methods are increasingly used. A highly recommended non-destructive testing method is thermography analysis. In this work, a prototype for a car’s base plate was produced by using vacuum infusion. For research work, testing specimens were produced with the same multi-layer build up as the prototypes. These specimens were charged with defined loads in impact tests to simulate the effect of stone chips. Afterwards, the impacted specimens were investigated with thermography analysis. The research results in that work will help to understand the possible fields of application and the usage of thermography analysis as the first quick and economic failure detection method for automotive parts. PMID:28788464

  20. Evaluation of the Benefits Attributable to Automotive Lighweight Materials Program Research and Development Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.

    2002-01-11

    The purpose of this project is to identify and test methods appropriate for estimating the benefits attributable to research and development (R and D) projects funded by the Automotive Lightweight Materials (ALM) Program of the Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program focuses on the development and validation of advanced lightweight materials technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The work supports the goals of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Up to thirty percent of the improvement required to meet the PNGV goal of tripling vehicle fuel economy and much of its cost, safety, and recyclability goal depend on the lightweight materials. Funded projects range from basic materials science research to applied research in production environments. Collaborators on these projects include national laboratories, universities, and private sector firms, such as leading automobile manufacturers and their suppliers.

  1. In vitro assessment of human airway toxicity from major aldehydes in automotive emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafstroem, R.C. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1997-09-01

    Automotive exhausts can significantly contribute to the levels of reactive aldehydes, including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein, in urban air. The use of alcohols as an alternative fuel for gasoline or diesel may further increase these emissions. Since it is unclear if aldehyde inhalation may induce pathological states, including cancer, in human airways, the toxic properties of the above-mentioned aldehydes were studied in cultured target cell types. Each aldehyde modified vital cellular functions in a dose-dependent manner, and invariably inhibited growth and induced abnormal terminal differentiation. Decreases of cellular thiols and increases of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} were observed, and moreover, variable types and amounts of short-lived or persistent genetic damage were induced. The concentrations required for specified levels of a particular type of injury varied up to 10000-fold among the aldehydes. Overall, distinctive patterns of cytopathological activity were observed, which differed both qualitatively and quantitatively among the aldehydes. Finally, aldehydes inhibited DNA repair processes and increased cytotoxicity and mutagenesis in synergy with other known toxicants, indicating that aldehydes may also enhance damage by other constituents in automotive exhausts. In summary, the aldehydes, notably {sup m}u{sup M}-mM formaldehyde, caused pathological effects and induced mechanisms that relate to acute toxicity and cancer development in airway epithelial cells. Since `no-effect` levels may not exist for carcinogenic agents, the overall results support a need for elimination of aldehydes in automotive exhausts. 41 refs

  2. Non-Destructive Thermography Analysis of Impact Damage on Large-Scale CFRP Automotive Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminated composites are increasingly used in aeronautics and the wind energy industry, as well as in the automotive industry. In these applications, the construction and processing need to fulfill the highest requirements regarding weight and mechanical properties. Environmental issues, like fuel consumption and CO2-footprint, set new challenges in producing lightweight parts that meet the highly monitored standards for these branches. In the automotive industry, one main aspect of construction is the impact behavior of structural parts. To verify the quality of parts made from composite materials with little effort, cost and time, non-destructive test methods are increasingly used. A highly recommended non-destructive testing method is thermography analysis. In this work, a prototype for a car’s base plate was produced by using vacuum infusion. For research work, testing specimens were produced with the same multi-layer build up as the prototypes. These specimens were charged with defined loads in impact tests to simulate the effect of stone chips. Afterwards, the impacted specimens were investigated with thermography analysis. The research results in that work will help to understand the possible fields of application and the usage of thermography analysis as the first quick and economic failure detection method for automotive parts.

  3. Non-Destructive Thermography Analysis of Impact Damage on Large-Scale CFRP Automotive Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Alexander; Schmidt, Roland; Oswald-Tranta, Beate; Schledjewski, Ralf

    2014-01-14

    Laminated composites are increasingly used in aeronautics and the wind energy industry, as well as in the automotive industry. In these applications, the construction and processing need to fulfill the highest requirements regarding weight and mechanical properties. Environmental issues, like fuel consumption and CO₂-footprint, set new challenges in producing lightweight parts that meet the highly monitored standards for these branches. In the automotive industry, one main aspect of construction is the impact behavior of structural parts. To verify the quality of parts made from composite materials with little effort, cost and time, non-destructive test methods are increasingly used. A highly recommended non-destructive testing method is thermography analysis. In this work, a prototype for a car's base plate was produced by using vacuum infusion. For research work, testing specimens were produced with the same multi-layer build up as the prototypes. These specimens were charged with defined loads in impact tests to simulate the effect of stone chips. Afterwards, the impacted specimens were investigated with thermography analysis. The research results in that work will help to understand the possible fields of application and the usage of thermography analysis as the first quick and economic failure detection method for automotive parts.

  4. Environmental Aspects of Use of Recycled Carbon Fiber Composites in Automotive Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanran; McKechnie, Jon; Turner, Thomas; Wong, Kok H; Pickering, Stephen J

    2017-11-07

    The high cost and energy intensity of virgin carbon fiber manufacture provides an opportunity to recover substantial value from carbon fiber reinforced plastic wastes. In this study, we assess the life cycle environmental implications of recovering carbon fiber and producing composite materials as substitutes for conventional and proposed lightweight materials in automotive applications (e.g., steel, aluminum, virgin carbon fiber). Key parameters for the recycled carbon fiber materials, including fiber volume fraction and fiber alignment, are investigated to identify beneficial uses of recycled carbon fiber in the automotive sector. Recycled carbon fiber components can achieve the lowest life cycle environmental impacts of all materials considered, although the actual impact is highly dependent on the design criteria (λ value) of the specific component. Low production impacts associated with recycled carbon fiber components are observed relative to lightweight competitor materials (e.g., aluminum, virgin carbon fiber reinforced plastic). In addition, recycled carbon fiber components have low in-use energy use due to mass reductions and associated reduction in mass-induced fuel consumption. The results demonstrate environmental feasibility of the CFRP recycling materials, supporting the emerging commercialization of CF recycling technologies and identifying significant potential market opportunities in the automotive sector.

  5. Factors affecting diesel fuel degradation using a bespoke high-pressure fuel system rig

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalan, Kesavan; Smith, Christopher; Pickering, Simon; Chuck, Christopher; Bannister, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Recently, there has been automotive industry-wide impetus to reduce overall diesel vehicle emissions and fuel consumption by increasing fuel injection pressures within common rail systems. Many production fuel injection systems are now capable of delivering rail pressures of 1800-2000 bar with those able to achieve 3000 bar under development. In addition, there has been a gradual increase in the permitted FAME content in EN590 diesel from 5% to 7% with further increases to 10% proposed. With ...

  6. Advanced compressed hydrogen fuel storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeary, B.

    2000-01-01

    Dynetek was established in 1991 by a group of private investors, and since that time efforts have been focused on designing, improving, manufacturing and marketing advanced compressed fuel storage systems. The primary market for Dynetek fuel systems has been Natural Gas, however as the automotive industry investigates the possibility of using hydrogen as the fuel source solution in Alternative Energy Vehicles, there is a growing demand for hydrogen storage on -board. Dynetek is striving to meet the needs of the industry, by working towards developing a fuel storage system that will be efficient, economical, lightweight and eventually capable of storing enough hydrogen to match the driving range of the current gasoline fueled vehicles

  7. An Evaluation of 3D Woven Orthogonal Composites' Potential in the Automotive Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Dalia

    The automotive supply chain and its management can be a very complex process and comprises a long dynamic and complex network that consists of four primary segments: original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), first tier suppliers, sub tiers suppliers, and infrastructure suppliers. During the analysis of the current automotive industry it was identified that textile industry importance is considerable increasing as a part of the global automotive supply chain, because textile products are used for interior, exterior and even suspension parts and components. Automotive industry has an increasing demand for higher quality exterior panels with better functional properties and reduced weight. One of the main potentials for this demand is based on the three-dimensional woven composites technology innovations which can replace an existing technology. The new role of the textile industry could make important changes in the automotive supply chain industry, such as: changes in the size of the supply chain, the time to the market and the position of textile industry in the automotive supply chain structure. 3D composite materials from high performance fibers, such as glass and carbon, have been used for automotive applications in a limited way due to the low production rate and the lack of research and development. This research will contribute to the understanding of textile composites in transportation and the textile parameters that affect the performance characteristics of these materials. The research examines the performance characteristics of lighter and stronger 3D woven fabric composites made from fiberglass with the aim to improve fuel efficiency by reducing the total vehicle weight while maintaining safety standards. The performance characteristics of the 3D woven fabric composite can be designed by changing different construction parameters, such as picks density, pick roving linear density, arrangements of warp and z-yarns, and the number of warp and picks layers

  8. Numerical Investigation on the Performance of an Automotive Thermoelectric Generator with Exhaust-Module-Coolant Direct Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Tang, Yulin; Deng, Yadong; Su, Chuqi

    2018-06-01

    Energy conservation and environmental protection have typically been a concern of research. Researchers have confirmed that in automotive engines, just 12-25% of the fuel energy converts into effective work and 30-40% gets wasted in the form of exhaust. Saidur et al. (Energy Policy 37:3650, 2009) and Hasanuzzaman et al. (Energy 36:233, 2011). It will be significant to enhance fuel availability and decrease environmental pollution if the waste heat in the exhaust could be recovered. Thermoelectric generators (TEGs), which can translate heat into electricity, have become a topic of interest for vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery. In conventional automotive TEGs, the thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are arranged between the exhaust tank and the coolant tank. The TEMs do not contact the hot exhaust and coolant, which leads to low heat transfer efficiency. Moreover, to provide enough packing force to keep good contact with the exhaust tank and the coolant tank, the framework required is so robust that the TEGs become too heavy. Therefore, in current study, an automotive TEG was designed which included one exhaust channel, one coolant channel and several TEMs. In the TEG, the TEMs which contacted the exhaust and coolant directly were inserted into the walls of each coolant channel. To evaluate the performance of the automotive TEG, the flow field and temperature field were computed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Based on the temperature distribution obtained by CFD and the performance parameters of the modules, the total power generation was obtained by some proved empirical formulas. Compared with conventional automotive TEGs, the power generation per unit volume exhaust was boosted.

  9. Numerical Investigation on the Performance of an Automotive Thermoelectric Generator with Exhaust-Module-Coolant Direct Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Tang, Yulin; Deng, Yadong; Su, Chuqi

    2017-12-01

    Energy conservation and environmental protection have typically been a concern of research. Researchers have confirmed that in automotive engines, just 12-25% of the fuel energy converts into effective work and 30-40% gets wasted in the form of exhaust. Saidur et al. (Energy Policy 37:3650, 2009) and Hasanuzzaman et al. (Energy 36:233, 2011). It will be significant to enhance fuel availability and decrease environmental pollution if the waste heat in the exhaust could be recovered. Thermoelectric generators (TEGs), which can translate heat into electricity, have become a topic of interest for vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery. In conventional automotive TEGs, the thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are arranged between the exhaust tank and the coolant tank. The TEMs do not contact the hot exhaust and coolant, which leads to low heat transfer efficiency. Moreover, to provide enough packing force to keep good contact with the exhaust tank and the coolant tank, the framework required is so robust that the TEGs become too heavy. Therefore, in current study, an automotive TEG was designed which included one exhaust channel, one coolant channel and several TEMs. In the TEG, the TEMs which contacted the exhaust and coolant directly were inserted into the walls of each coolant channel. To evaluate the performance of the automotive TEG, the flow field and temperature field were computed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Based on the temperature distribution obtained by CFD and the performance parameters of the modules, the total power generation was obtained by some proved empirical formulas. Compared with conventional automotive TEGs, the power generation per unit volume exhaust was boosted.

  10. Efficient production of automotive biofuels; Effektiv produktion av biodrivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gode, Jenny; Hagberg, Linus; Rydberg, Tomas; Raadberg, Henrik; Saernholm, Erik

    2008-07-01

    The report describes opportunities and consequences associated with biomass polygeneration plants, in particular the role that heat plants (HP) or combined heat and power plants (CHP) in district heating systems can play in the production of automotive biofuels. The aim of the report is to provide a knowledge base to stakeholders to help assess energy and environmental benefits associated with collaborative approaches in planning, constructing and operating energy plants. Several configurations are possible for an energy polygeneration plant, but this report focuses on configurations in which a plant for automotive biofuel production and a district heating system with HPs or CHPs have been integrated in some way in order to achieve added value. The modes of integration are several, e.g.: - Supply of process steam from the CHP to the fuel plant, by which the time of operation for the CHP can be extended; Supply of surplus heat from the fuel plant to the district heating system; Material exchange between the systems, by use of residue streams from the fuel plant as fuel in the HP/CHP; Surplus heat from the fuel plant used for drying of the solid fuel to the HP/CHP or for drying of raw material for pellets production; Co-location providing opportunities for shared infrastructure for raw material handling, service systems, utilities and/or logistics. The report principally addresses integration options of the first three types, but describes briefly also pellets production. The starting point for the analysis of integration options is the description of technologies of interest for the production of automotive biofuels. Commercially available technologies are of prime interest, but also a couple of technologies under development are included in this part of the study. In addition to outlining the process characteristics for these processes, surrounding conditions and system requirements are briefly outlined. The results are summarized in Table S1. Ethanol fermentation

  11. Multiroller traction drive speed reducer: Evaluation for automotive gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, D. A.; Anderson, N. E.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Tests were conducted on a nominal 14:1 fixed-ratio Nasvytis multiroller traction drive retrofitted as the speed reducer in an automotive gas turbine engine. Power turbine speeds of 45,000 rpm and a drive output power of 102 kW (137 hp) were reached. The drive operated under both variable roller loading (proportional to torque) and fixed roller loading (automatic loading mechanism locked). The drive operated smoothly and efficiently as the engine speed reducer. Engine specific fuel consumption with the traction speed reducer was comparable to that with the original helical gearset.

  12. Managing knowledge boundaries for open innovation - lessons from the automotive industry : lessons from the automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, Miriam; Dolfsma, Wilfred

    2018-01-01

    Purpose - The rising need to innovate and obtain knowledge from more distant knowledge sources calls for new innovation strategies and a better integration of other external actors who lie outside the traditional automotive supply chain. Such an open innovation strategy challenges organizational

  13. Automotive Body Trim and Glass; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help students become employable with skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values necessary for performing the required service of the automotive trim and glass mechanic. The course of study includes an orientation to the course, service tools and bench skills development, and a study…

  14. Characterization of three-way automotive catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenik, E.A.; More, K.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); LaBarge, W. [General Motors-AC Delco Systems, Flint, MI (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This has been the second year of a CRADA between General Motors - AC Delco Systems (GM-ACDS) and Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES) aimed at improved performance/lifetime of platinum-rhodium based three-way-catalysts (TWC) for automotive emission control systems. While current formulations meet existing emission standards, higher than optimum Pt-Rh loadings are often required. In additionk, more stringent emission standards have been imposed for the near future, demanding improved performance and service life from these catalysts. Understanding the changes of TWC conversion efficiency with ageing is a critical need in improving these catalysts.

  15. Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valldorf, Jürgen; Gessner, Wolfgang

    Since 1995 the annual international forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA) has been held in Berlin. The event offers a unique opportunity for microsystems component developers, system suppliers and car manufacturers to show and to discuss competing technological approaches of microsystems based solutions in vehicles. The book accompanying the event has demonstrated to be an efficient instrument for the diffusion of new concepts and technology results. The present volume including the papers of the AMAA 2005 gives an overview on the state-of-the-art and outlines imminent and mid-term R&D perspectives.

  16. Cold neutron fluoroscopy of operating automotive engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, P.A.E.; Heritage, J.

    1983-01-01

    The application of neutron fluoroscopy in the automotive industry is a natural extension of previous studies with aircraft engines. This paper describes investigations with two sub-compact car engines. The extent and manner in which lubricants reached the various parts of the engines are compared and contrasted. The paper goes on to describe a study of the deposits inside turbochargers and postulates future topics worthy of investigation. The authors confirm that there is a place for neutron fluoroscopy both as a design tool and for investigations of ''in-service'' phenomena. (Auth.)

  17. Dynamic characteristics of automotive steel sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mihaliková

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experimental research was to perform an analysis of deformation characteristics on two different types of steel: IF steel, and micro-alloyed steel were used automotive industry. For that purpose changes of properties of these materials were carried out by static 10-3 · s-1 and dynamic 103 · s-1 strain rate assess its plastic properties. Vickers micro hardness test was carried out by the static and dynamic loading condition and describes different hardness distribution. The higher strain hardening of materials was obtained too that was confirmed by distribution of dislocations.

  18. Simulation of Assembly Line Balancing in Automotive Component Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Muthanna; Mohd Razali, Noraini

    2016-02-01

    This study focuses on the simulation of assembly line balancing in an automotive component in a vendor manufacturing company. A mixed-model assembly line of charcoal canister product that is used in an engine system as fuel's vapour filter was observed and found that the current production rate of the line does not achieve customer demand even though the company practices buffer stock for two days in advance. This study was carried out by performing detailed process flow and time studies along the line. To set up a model of the line by simulation, real data was taken from a factory floor and tested for distribution fit. The data gathered was then transformed into a simulation model. After verification of the model by comparing it with the actual system, it was found that the current line efficiency is not at its optimum condition due to blockage and idle time. Various what-if analysis were applied to eliminate the cause. Proposed layout shows that the line is balanced by adding buffer to avoid the blockage. Whereas, manpower is added the stations to reduce process time therefore reducing idling time. The simulation study was carried out using ProModel software.

  19. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, U; Krötz, G; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D

    2008-01-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature

  20. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2008-04-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

  1. Analysis of automotive tire construction. Jidosha tire no kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, K. (Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    This paper introduces features and trends of analyzing performance and construction of automotive tires. Tires are demanded of high durability, high motion performance, good comfort performance for vibration and noise, and low fuel consumption performance. A feature of analyzing the construction is to execute a modelling assuming that a tire has air-rigid flexible structure and rubber materials show hyperelastic behavior, hypothesizing a strain energy density function. In addition, a tire is highly incompressible. Visco elasticity and anti-friction performance are also important points. Rubber and cord layers have elastic characteristic of three-dimensional perpendicular anisotropy as well as non-linearity with which characteristics change according to transformation. A structural analysis must cover from static analysis to steady dynamic analysis, non-steady dynamic analysis, and eigenvalue analysis. Thermal analysis of tires simulates phenomena by combining dynamical analysis with thermal analysis. Super-computers have now come to be used for formulating equilibrium equations using finite element methods, developing finite elements, and performing heat or visco elasticity analysis and applied analysis. 35 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Corporate brand positioning and differentiation in the luxury automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kotiranta, V. (Ville)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Global luxury automotive industry faces one of the most competitive and dynamic markets in the world. The focus of this research has been to discover the corporate strategies relating to competitive positioning and differentiation via brand personality. Both Aaker brand personality framework and specifically for this industry developed luxury automotive strategy framework are applied for content analysis data, whic...

  3. Radial basis function neural network in fault detection of automotive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radial basis function neural network in fault detection of automotive engines. ... Five faults have been simulated on the MVEM, including three sensor faults, one component fault and one actuator fault. The three sensor faults ... Keywords: Automotive engine, independent RBFNN model, RBF neural network, fault detection

  4. Tune Up: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The fifth of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in automotive tune-ups at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each lesson…

  5. Cooling System: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The last of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the automotive cooling system at the secondary and post secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each…

  6. Career Development Standards for Vocational Automotive Service Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of the U.S., Inc., Detroit, MI.

    The book, prepared for educators and industry, was designed as a complete guide to establishing an automotive training program. The 10 sections describe the following aspects of program planning and implementation: (1) career opportunities in automotive service; (2) guidance, counseling, placement, and followup; (3) school, parent, emPloyer,…

  7. Design of a tubular permanent magnet actuator for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.L.G.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.; Vandenput, A.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the number of electrical applications in automotive systems has increased rapidly. The demand on these new electrical auxiliary systems suggests that this development will continue in the foreseeable future. At the moment, a major concern of the automotive technology is active safety and

  8. An Overview of NASA Automotive Component Reliability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The results of NASAs studies into the appropriateness of using US Automotive electronic parts in NASA spaceflight systems will be presented. The first part of the presentation provides an overview of the United States Automotive Electronics Councils AECQ standardization program, the second part provides a summary of the results of NASAs procurement and testing experiences and other lessons learned along with preliminary test results.

  9. Simulation and control of an automotive dry clutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrarens, A.F.A.; Dassen, M.; Steinbuch, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the dynamic behavior and control of an automotive dry clutch is analyzed. Thereto, a straight-forward model of the clutch is embedded within a dynamic model of an automotive powertrain comprising an internal combustion engine, drivetrain and wheels moving a vehicle through tire-road

  10. Brakes Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide for automatic brakes service is one in a series of automotive service speciality publications that is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The curriculum is composed of four units. Each unit of instruction may contain some or all of the following components: objective sheet, suggested…

  11. Building best practice automotive after sales network : The Volkswagen case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikolik, Gerlinde

    2017-01-01

    This thesis aims to analyze the service operations and networks in the automotive industry as research into the automotive After Sales service network lacks the necessary fine details and industrial feedback. Its purpose is to present the insights and lessons learned from studying the After Sales

  12. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Emission Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, testing, and servicing of automotive emission control systems. The course is comprised of one unit, Fundamentals of Emission Systems. The unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives directions for unit completion. The…

  13. Potential energy consumption reduction of automotive climate control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Filip; Uddheim, Åsa; Dalenbäck, Jan-Olof

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Twenty-on energy saving measures for vehicle interior climate were evaluated. • Few single energy saving measures could reduce the energy use significantly. • The operation of the system in intermediate conditions determines the energy use. • Required heating/cooling of passenger compartment had small effect on energy use. - Abstract: In recent years fuel consumption of passenger vehicles has received increased attention by customers, the automotive industry, regulatory agencies and academia. One area which affect the fuel consumption is climate control systems. Twenty-one energy saving measures were evaluated regarding the total energy use for vehicle interior climate using simulation. Evaluated properties were heat flow into the passenger compartment, electrical and mechanical work. The simulation model included sub models of the passenger compartment, air-handling unit, Air Conditioning (AC) system, engine and engine cooling system. A real-world representative test cycle, which included tests in cold, intermediate and warm conditions, was used for evaluation. In general, few single energy saving measures could reduce the energy use significantly. The measures with most potential were increased blower efficiency with a reduction of 46% of the electrical work and increased AC-system disengage temperature with a reduction of 27% of the mechanical work. These results show that the operation of the climate control system had a large effect on the energy use, especially compared to the required heating and cooling of the passenger compartment. As a result energy saving measures need to address how heating and cooling is generated before reducing the heat flow into the passenger compartment.

  14. Gaseous fuels: past experiences and future expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M. van der

    1996-01-01

    During the fifties, the use of LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) was promoted in Italy and the Netherlands. The Dutch government promulgated tax regulations which made the use of LPG, available in large quentities as a by-product in the refineries, attractive as an automotive fuel. Dedicated heavy-duty

  15. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obydenkova, Svetlana V.; Kouris, Panos D.; Hensen, Emiel J. M.; Heeres, Hero J.; Boot, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative

  16. Methanol as fuel: evaluation of atmosphere contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, C.D.; Romano, J.; Guardani, M.L.G.

    1991-01-01

    With the beginning of methanol use as automotive fuel in Sao Paulo city, 1990, were realized special measurements of methanol, formaldehyde, ethanol and acetaldehyde in atmosphere. Other indicators of air quality as carbon and ozone monoxide were also observed in this study. (C.M.)

  17. Survey of CFD studies on automotive buffeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.-F.

    2005-01-01

    In the current automobile market buffeting is one of the customer frequent complaints on luxury cars and SUVs. Buffeting is a low frequency but high level wind noise and makes people inside the vehicle uncomfortable if it lasts for a long period of time. The physical mechanism of buffeting is a complicated phenomenon of aeroacoustic resonance. The aeroacoustic characteristics of buffeting depend on vehicle features and operating conditions. In this paper, a survey of CFD studies on the automotive buffeting is presented. Firstly, several buffeting related concepts, such as Helmholtz resonator, flow over a cavity, shear layer instability and vortex shedding, are reviewed and relevant references are listed. Then, a historic survey of the buffeting investigation is made with emphasis on computational studies. As an example, the buffeting studies at DaimlerChrysler are selected to demonstrate the procedure of CFD simulation for automotive buffeting. The procedure is then validated by the correlation with wind tunnel testing. After that the validated procedure is applied to find solutions for buffeting reduction. Finally, some comments on buffeting studies are addressed. (author)

  18. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, A.; Fitzek, F.; Rasshofer, R. H.

    2012-09-01

    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insights into the object classification process. The impact of raw radar data properties can be directly observed in every layer of the classification system by avoiding machine learning and tracking. This gives information on the limiting factors of raw radar data in terms of classification decision making. To accomplish the very challenging distinction between pedestrians and static objects, five significant and stable object features from the spatial distribution and Doppler information are found. Experimental results with data from a 77 GHz automotive radar sensor show that over 95% of pedestrians can be classified correctly under optimal conditions, which is compareable to modern machine learning systems. The impact of the pedestrian's direction of movement, occlusion, antenna beam elevation angle, linear vehicle movement, and other factors are investigated and discussed. The results show that under real life conditions, radar only based pedestrian recognition is limited due to insufficient Doppler frequency and spatial resolution as well as antenna side lobe effects.

  19. Predicting the Overall Spatial Quality of Automotive Audio Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Daisuke

    The spatial quality of automotive audio systems is often compromised due to their unideal listening environments. Automotive audio systems need to be developed quickly due to industry demands. A suitable perceptual model could evaluate the spatial quality of automotive audio systems with similar reliability to formal listening tests but take less time. Such a model is developed in this research project by adapting an existing model of spatial quality for automotive audio use. The requirements for the adaptation were investigated in a literature review. A perceptual model called QESTRAL was reviewed, which predicts the overall spatial quality of domestic multichannel audio systems. It was determined that automotive audio systems are likely to be impaired in terms of the spatial attributes that were not considered in developing the QESTRAL model, but metrics are available that might predict these attributes. To establish whether the QESTRAL model in its current form can accurately predict the overall spatial quality of automotive audio systems, MUSHRA listening tests using headphone auralisation with head tracking were conducted to collect results to be compared against predictions by the model. Based on guideline criteria, the model in its current form could not accurately predict the overall spatial quality of automotive audio systems. To improve prediction performance, the QESTRAL model was recalibrated and modified using existing metrics of the model, those that were proposed from the literature review, and newly developed metrics. The most important metrics for predicting the overall spatial quality of automotive audio systems included those that were interaural cross-correlation (IACC) based, relate to localisation of the frontal audio scene, and account for the perceived scene width in front of the listener. Modifying the model for automotive audio systems did not invalidate its use for domestic audio systems. The resulting model predicts the overall spatial

  20. 19 CFR 10.84 - Automotive vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. 10.84 Section 10.84 Customs Duties U.S... vehicles and articles for use as original equipment in the manufacture of automotive vehicles. (a)(1... his declaration that the articles are being imported for use as original equipment in the manufacture...

  1. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Obydenkova, SV; Kouris, P Panagiotis; Hensen, EJM Emiel; Heeres, Hero J; Boot, MD Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative energy carries to replace lignin, transport modalities, and allocation methodology. The results highlight two critical factors that ultimately determine the economic and/or environmental fuel viability....

  2. The potential of natural fibres for automotive sector - review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogorasi, MS; Barbu, I.

    2017-10-01

    Due to environment and sustainability regulation in the last decades considerable performance in green technology in the field of materials science through the development of biocomposites could be noticed. Thus, the development of high-performance materials produced from natural resources expands worldwide. This can be attributed mainly due to their assets compared to their synthetic contourparts like low cost, low weight, less damage to processing equipment, improved surface finish of moulded parts composite, good mechanical properties, biodegradability, abundant and renewable resources. Natural fibres are valuable and versatile resources with multiple advantages. Nowadays all the more, the automotive industry is under increasing pressure to fulfill environmental and performance demands and higher fuel efficiency at competitive costs. Automakers recognize potential in biocomposites if these materials can offer the same performance as traditional composites but with lower weight. Additional they exhibit non-brittle fracture on impact, which is another significant requirement for automotive sector. Other drivers that scores for use of natural fibres reinforced polymer composites (NFRPC) in automotive applications imply reduced waste disposal, reduction of greenhouse gas emission and Life Cycle Consideration. In spite of their benefits, the significant challenge for producers and supplier to handle with natural fiber reinforced polymer composites resides in large inconsistency of their properties. The chemical composition of vegetal fibres relies on several factors comprising fiber variety, time of harvesting, climatic history, soil characteristics and fibre processing technology. All these factors exert an influence on their final properties when used as reinforcements in biocomposite materials. In this review a wide range of issues is addressed with special reference to mechanical properties of fibres, interface adhesion and environmental implication of NFRPC. The

  3. The effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic characteristics of an automotive catalytic converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Tariq

    2008-01-01

    Automotive catalytic converters, which are employed to reduce engine exhaust emissions, are subjected to highly transient conditions during a typical driving cycle. These transient conditions arise from changes in driving mode, the hysteresis and flow lags of the feedback control system, and result in fluctuations of air-fuel ratio, exhaust gas flow rates and temperatures. The catalyst performance is also strongly influenced by the oxygen storage capacity. This paper presents a computational investigation of the effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic behavior of an automotive catalytic converter subjected to modulations in exhaust gases. The modulations are generated by forcing the temporal variations in exhaust gases air-fuel ratio, gas flow rates and temperatures. The study employs a single-channel based, one-dimensional, non-adiabatic model. The results show that the imposed modulations cause a significant departure in the catalyst behavior from its steady behavior, and the oxygen storage capacity plays an important role in determining the catalyst's response to the imposed modulations. Modulations and oxygen storage capacity are found to have relatively greater influence on the catalyst's performance near stoichiometric conditions

  4. The effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic characteristics of an automotive catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Tariq [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128-2406 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Automotive catalytic converters, which are employed to reduce engine exhaust emissions, are subjected to highly transient conditions during a typical driving cycle. These transient conditions arise from changes in driving mode, the hysteresis and flow lags of the feedback control system, and result in fluctuations of air-fuel ratio, exhaust gas flow rates and temperatures. The catalyst performance is also strongly influenced by the oxygen storage capacity. This paper presents a computational investigation of the effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic behavior of an automotive catalytic converter subjected to modulations in exhaust gases. The modulations are generated by forcing the temporal variations in exhaust gases air-fuel ratio, gas flow rates and temperatures. The study employs a single-channel based, one-dimensional, non-adiabatic model. The results show that the imposed modulations cause a significant departure in the catalyst behavior from its steady behavior, and the oxygen storage capacity plays an important role in determining the catalyst's response to the imposed modulations. Modulations and oxygen storage capacity are found to have relatively greater influence on the catalyst's performance near stoichiometric conditions. (author)

  5. A COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS ANALYSIS OF AIR FLOW THROUGH A TELECOM BACK-UP UNIT POWERED BY AN AIR-COOLED PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xin; Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive to stationary such as powering telecom back-up units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce electricity and heat....... This product heat has to be effectively removed from the fuel cell, and while automotive fuel cells are usually liquid-cooled using a secondary coolant loop similar to the internal combustion engines, stationary fuel cell systems as they are used for telecom back-up applications often rely on excessive air fed...... to the fuel cell cathode to remove the heat. Thereby, the fuel cell system is much simpler and cheaper while the fuel cell performance is substantially lower compared to automotive fuel cells. This work presents a computational fluid dynamics analysis on the heat management of an air-cooled fuel cell powered...

  6. Bosch automotive electrics and automotive electronics systems and components, networking and hybrid drive

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The significance of electrical and electronic systems has increased considerably in the last few years and this trend is set to continue. The characteristics feature of innovative systems is the fact that they can work together in a network. This requires powerful bus systems that the electronic control units can use to exchange information. Networking and the various bus systems used in motor vehicles are the prominent new topic in the 5th edition of the "Automotive Electric, Automotive Electronics" technical manual. The existing chapters have also been updated, so that this new edition brings the reader up to date on the subjects of electrical and electronic systems in the motor vehicle. Content Electrical and electronical systems – Basic principles of networking - Examples of networked vehicles – Bus systems – Architecture of electronic systems – Mechatronics – Elektronics – Electronic control Units – Software – Sensors – Actuators – Hybrid drives – Vehicle electrical system – Start...

  7. Advances in LEDs for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jy; Peddada, Rao; Spinger, Benno

    2016-03-01

    High power LEDs were introduced in automotive headlights in 2006-2007, for example as full LED headlights in the Audi R8 or low beam in Lexus. Since then, LED headlighting has become established in premium and volume automotive segments and beginning to enable new compact form factors such as distributed low beam and new functions such as adaptive driving beam. New generations of highly versatile high power LEDs are emerging to meet these application needs. In this paper, we will detail ongoing advances in LED technology that enable revolutionary styling, performance and adaptive control in automotive headlights. As the standards which govern the necessary lumens on the road are well established, increasing luminance enables not only more design freedom but also headlight cost reduction with space and weight saving through more compact optics. Adaptive headlighting is based on LED pixelation and requires high contrast, high luminance, smaller LEDs with high-packing density for pixelated Matrix Lighting sources. Matrix applications require an extremely tight tolerance on not only the X, Y placement accuracy, but also on the Z height of the LEDs given the precision optics used to image the LEDs onto the road. A new generation of chip scale packaged (CSP) LEDs based on Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) have been developed to meet these needs, offering a form factor less than 20% increase over the LED emitter surface footprint. These miniature LEDs are surface mount devices compatible with automated tools for L2 board direct attach (without the need for an interposer or L1 substrate), meeting the high position accuracy as well as the optical and thermal performance. To illustrate the versatility of the CSP LEDs, we will show the results of, firstly, a reflector-based distributed low beam using multiple individual cavities each with only 20mm height and secondly 3x4 to 3x28 Matrix arrays for adaptive full beam. Also a few key trends in rear lighting and impact on LED light

  8. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum Outline for Secondary Schools. Vocational Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum outline for secondary automotive mechanics is structured around Louisiana's Vocational-Technical Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. The curriculum is composed of 16 units of instruction, covering the following topics: benchwork, fundamentals of automotive engines, preventive maintenance, automotive brakes, steering and front…

  9. Automotive Stirling engine Market and Industrial Readiness Program (MIRP), phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    A program, begun in 1978, has the goal of transferring Stirling engine technology from United Stirling of Sweden to the US and, then, following design, fabrication, and prototype testing, to secure US manufacturers for the engine. The ultimate objective is the large-scale commercial use of the Automotive Stirling Engine (ASE) by the year 2000. The fist phase of the Market and Industrial Readiness Program for the ASE was concerned with defining the market, product, economic and technical factors necessary to be addressed to assure a reasonable chance of ultimate commercial acceptance. Program results for this first phase are reported and discussed. These results pertain to licensing strategy development, economic analysis, market factors, product planning, market growth, cost studies, and engine performance as measured by fuel economy using conventional fuels and by vehicle speed and acceleration characteristics.

  10. Nanotechnology in automotive industry: research strategy and trends for the future-small objects, big impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Margarida C; Torrão, Guilhermina; Emami, Nazanin; Grácio, José

    2012-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to emphasize and present briefly the nanotechnology science and its potential impact on the automotive industry in order to improve the production of recent models with an optimization of the safety performance and a reduction in the environmental impacts. Nanomaterials can be applied in car bodies as light weight constructions without compromising the stiffness and crashwortiness, which means less material and less fuel consumption. This paper outlines the progress of nanotechnology applications into the safety features of more recent vehicle models and fuel efficiency, but also emphasis the importance of sustainable development on the application of these technologies and life cycle analysis of the considered materials, in order to meet the society trends and customers demands to improve ecology, safety and comfort.

  11. Minimizing of the boundary friction coefficient in automotive engines using Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Mohamed Kamal Ahmed; Xianjun, Hou; Elagouz, Ahmed; Essa, F.A.; Abdelkareem, Mohamed A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Minimizing of the boundary friction coefficient is critical for engine efficiency improvement. It is known that the tribological behavior has a major role in controlling the performance of automotive engines in terms of the fuel consumption. The purpose of this research is an experimental study to minimize the boundary friction coefficient via nano-lubricant additives. The tribological characteristics of Al 2 O 3 and TiO 2 nano-lubricants were evaluated under reciprocating test conditions to simulate a piston ring/cylinder liner interface in automotive engines. The nanoparticles were suspended in a commercially available lubricant in a concentration of 0.25 wt.% to formulate the nano-lubricants. The Al 2 O 3 and TiO 2 nanoparticles had sizes of 8–12 and 10 nm, respectively. The experimental results have shown that the boundary friction coefficient reduced by 35–51% near the top and bottom dead center of the stroke (TDC and BDC) for the Al 2 O 3 and TiO 2 nano-lubricants, respectively. The anti-wear mechanism was generated via the formation of protective films on the worn surfaces of the ring and liner. These results will be a promising approach for improving fuel economy in automotive.

  12. Balanced pressure gerotor fuel pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, Michael Raymond; Maier, Eugen

    2004-08-03

    A gerotor pump for pressurizing gasoline fuel is capable of developing pressures up to 2.0 MPa with good mechanical and volumetric efficiency and satisfying the durability requirements for an automotive fuel pump. The pump has been designed with optimized clearances and by including features that promote the formation of lubricating films of pressurized fuel. Features of the improved pump include the use of a shadow port in the side plate opposite the outlet port to promote balancing of high fuel pressures on the opposite sides of the rotors. Inner and outer rotors have predetermined side clearances with the clearances of the outer rotor being greater than those of the inner rotor in order to promote fuel pressure balance on the sides of the outer rotor. Support of the inner rotor and a drive shaft on a single bushing with bearing sleeves maintains concentricity. Additional features are disclosed.

  13. Risk assessment of LPG automotive refuelling facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchers, R.E. [University of Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia). Dept. of Civil, Surveying and Enviromental Engineering; Feutrill, W.R. [Wesfarmers Kleenheat Gas Pty. Ltd., Perth (Australia)

    2001-12-01

    Quantified risk analysis (QRA) was used for the revision of regulatory separation distances associated with medium size liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) refuelling facilities used in automotive service (gas) stations. Typically these facilities consist of a 7.5 kl pressure vessel, pump, pipework, dispensing equipment and safety equipment. Multi-tank installations are relatively uncommon. This paper describes the hazard scenarios considered, the risk analysis procedure and the selection and application of data for initiating events and for rates of failure of mechanical components and of the pressure vessel. Human errors and intervention possibilities were also considered. Because of the inapplicability of established consequence models and the relatively small scale of the facilities, a number of tests were performed to estimate flame length, flame impingement effects, ignition probabilities and the effectiveness of screening devices. (author)

  14. Fault Detection for Automotive Shock Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Alcantara, Diana; Morales-Menendez, Ruben; Amezquita-Brooks, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Fault detection for automotive semi-active shock absorbers is a challenge due to the non-linear dynamics and the strong influence of the disturbances such as the road profile. First obstacle for this task, is the modeling of the fault, which has been shown to be of multiplicative nature. Many of the most widespread fault detection schemes consider additive faults. Two model-based fault algorithms for semiactive shock absorber are compared: an observer-based approach and a parameter identification approach. The performance of these schemes is validated and compared using a commercial vehicle model that was experimentally validated. Early results shows that a parameter identification approach is more accurate, whereas an observer-based approach is less sensible to parametric uncertainty.

  15. AGT101 automotive gas turbine system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackley, R. A.; Kidwell, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The AGT101 automotive gas turbine system consisting of a 74.6 kw regenerated single-shaft gas turbine engine, is presented. The development and testing of the system is reviewed, and results for aerothermodynamic components indicate that compressor and turbine performance levels are within one percent of projected levels. Ceramic turbine rotor development is encouraging with successful cold spin testing of simulated rotors to speeds over 12,043 rad/sec. Spin test results demonstrate that ceramic materials having the required strength levels can be fabricated by net shape techniques to the thick hub cross section, which verifies the feasibility of the single-stage radial rotor in single-shaft engines.

  16. An Assembly Line Balancing Problem Automotive Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triki Hager

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Assembly Line Balancing Problem (ALBP is presented in a real-world automotive cables manufacturer company. This company found it necessary to balance its line, since it needs to increase the production rate. In this ALBP, the number of stations is known and the objective is to minimize cycle time where both precedence and zoning constrains must be satisfied. This problem is formulated as a binary linear program (BLP. Since this problem is NP-hard, an innovative Genetic Algorithm (GA is implemented. The full factorial design is used to obtain the better combination GA parameters and a simple convergence experimental study is performed on the stopping criteria to reduce computational time. Comparison of the proposed GA results with CPLEX software shows that, in a reasonable time, the GA generates consistent solutions that are very close to their optimal ones. Therefore, the proposed GA approach is very effective and competitive.

  17. Smart cover glass for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sang Kug

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a smart cover glass based on electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) actuation for automotive applications. It can remove water droplets in a wide range of sizes to allow the camera's lens to get clean at any time. The proposed cover glass offers a simple design structure to be easily installed on any device but provides a fast and energy efficient droplet cleaning operation. As proof of concept, a real imaging test is carried out using a mobile smartphone camera and landscape photography. When water droplets with different volumes are on the camera cover glass, the image of landscape photography is distorted with blurred spots. However, the distorted image is restored by removing the droplets through EWOD actuation.

  18. Multi-channel automotive night vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gang; Wang, Li-jun; Zhang, Yi

    2013-09-01

    A four-channel automotive night vision system is designed and developed .It is consist of the four active near-infrared cameras and an Mulit-channel image processing display unit,cameras were placed in the automobile front, left, right and rear of the system .The system uses near-infrared laser light source,the laser light beam is collimated, the light source contains a thermoelectric cooler (TEC),It can be synchronized with the camera focusing, also has an automatic light intensity adjustment, and thus can ensure the image quality. The principle of composition of the system is description in detail,on this basis, beam collimation,the LD driving and LD temperature control of near-infrared laser light source,four-channel image processing display are discussed.The system can be used in driver assistance, car BLIS, car parking assist system and car alarm system in day and night.

  19. Improving production control within the automotive industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, R L

    1982-01-01

    The problems of controlling and minimising design and manufacturing information within the automotive industry are both costly and do not make maximum use of previous experience. With the advent of CAD/CAM, many new techniques have evolved for the speedy construction of design and manufacturing data bases. A means of binding together these data bases and controlling the design and process planning information is now presented in the form of Computervision's Migraphics and Miplan software. This gives a data retrieval capability from all area's of the production cycle including design and detail, numerical control and robotics, process planning, manufacture and procurement. Together with its numerous analytical capabilities this sorftware provides an excellent tool for the optimisation of manufacturing techniques, thus providing a complete CAD/CAM system from a single data base.

  20. Automotive mechatronic systems. General developments and examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isermann, R. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik, FG Regelungstechnik und Prozessautomatisierung

    2006-08-15

    Automobiles are showing an increasing integration of mechanics with digital electronics and information processing. This integration is between the components (hardware) and by the information-driven functions (software), resulting in integrated systems called mechatronic systems. Their development involves finding an optimal balance between the basic mechanical structure, sensor and actuator implementation, communication, automatic information processing and overall control. This contribution summarizes some ongoing developments for mechatronic systems in automobiles, shows design approaches and examples and considers the various embedded control functions and systems integrity. Some examples of automotive mechatronic systems are shown in more detail. Great progress can be observed in braking systems (ABS, ESP), the first brake-by-wire electro-hydraulic brake system (EHB), steering systems (electrical power steering, active front steering) and active suspension systems. (orig.)

  1. Active gated imaging for automotive safety applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Yoav; Sonn, Ezri

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents the Active Gated Imaging System (AGIS), in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast gated-camera equipped with a unique Gated-CMOS sensor, and a pulsed Illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest which are then processed by computer vision real-time algorithms. In recent years we have learned the system parameters which are most beneficial to night-time driving in terms of; field of view, illumination profile, resolution and processing power. AGIS provides also day-time imaging with additional capabilities, which enhances computer vision safety applications. AGIS provides an excellent candidate for camera-based Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and the path for autonomous driving, in the future, based on its outstanding low/high light-level, harsh weather conditions capabilities and 3D potential growth capabilities.

  2. Determining organic pollutants in automotive industry sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Wonghon, Audrey L; von Mühlen, Carin

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the policy for disposing industrial sludge is changing from an emphasis on using controlled landfills to other treatment or co-processing methods; however, the monitoring of organic pollutants is not mandatory. The present study evaluated two general screening methods for organic pollutants in sludge generated in an automotive industrial complex in southern Brazil. The screening was performed using Soxhlet and sonication extractions and Gas Chromatograph coupled with Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/qMS). It was concluded that both techniques were effective and that most of the compounds identified were alkanes, phenols and esters. Important pollutants were detected in the sludge, which confirms the necessity of monitoring this type of residue.

  3. Aero and vibroacoustics of automotive turbochargers

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2013-01-01

    Aero and Vibroacoustics of Automotive Turbochargers is a topic involving aspects from the working fields of thermodynamics of turbomachinery, aerodynamics, rotordynamics, and noise propagation computation.   In this broadly interdisciplinary subject, thermodynamics of turbomachinery is used to design the turbocharger and to determine its operating conditions.  Aerodynamics is needed to study the compressor flow dynamics and flow instabilities of rotating stall and surge, which can produce growling and whining-type noises. Rotordynamics is necessary to study rotor unbalance and self-excited oil-whirl instabilities, which lead to whistling and constant tone-type noises in rotating floating oil-film type bearings. For the special case of turbochargers using ball bearings, some high-order harmonic and wear noises also manifest in the rotor operating range. Lastly, noise propagation computation, based on Lighthill’s analogy, is required to investigate airborne noises produced by turbochargers in passenger vehi...

  4. Executable UML Modeling For Automotive Embedded Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, Sebastien

    2000-01-01

    Engineers are more and more faced to the hard problem of sophisticated real-time System whereas time to market becomes always smaller. Object oriented modeling supported by UML standard brings effective solutions to such problems. However the possibility to specify real-time aspects of an application are not yet fully satisfactory Indeed, existing industrial proposals supply good answers to concurrency specification problem but they are yet limited regarding to real-time quantitative properties specification of an application. This work aims to construct a complete and consistent UML methodology based on a profile dedicated to automotive embedded Systems modeling and prototyping. This profile contains ail needed extensions to express easily the real-time quantitative properties of an application. Moreover, thanks to the formalization of UML protocol state machines, real-time concepts have been well-integrated in the object oriented paradigm. The main result of this deep integration is that a user is now able to model real-time Systems through the classical object oriented view i.e. without needing any specific knowing in real-time area. In order to answer to an industrial requirement, Systems prototyping (key point for car industry) the ACCORD/UML approach allows also to build executable models of an application. For that purpose, the method supplies a set of rules allow.ng to remove UML ambiguous semantics points, to complete semantics variation points and then to obtain a complete and coherent global model of an application being executable. The work of UML extension and its using formalization realized all along this thesis supplied also a complete and non-ambiguous modeling framework for automotive electronics Systems development. This is also a base particularly well-suited to tackle other facets of the Systems development as automatic and optimized code generation, validation, simulation or tests. (author) [fr

  5. Evaluation of Handheld Scanners for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadea Ameen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of generating a computerized geometric model for an existing part is known as Reverse Engineering (RE. It is a very useful technique in product development and plays a significant role in automotive, aerospace, and medical industries. In fact, it has been getting remarkable attention in manufacturing industries owing to its advanced data acquisition technologies. The process of RE is based on two primary steps: data acquisition (also known as scanning and data processing. To facilitate point data acquisition, a variety of scanning systems is available with different capabilities and limitations. Although the optical control of 3D scanners is fully developed, still several factors can affect the quality of the scanned data. As a result, the proper selection of scanning parameters, such as resolution, laser power, shutter time, etc., becomes very crucial. This kind of investigation can be very helpful and provide its users with guidelines to identify the appropriate factors. Moreover, it is worth noting that no single system is ideal in all applications. Accordingly, this work has compared two portable (handheld systems based on laser scanning and white light optical scanning for automotive applications. A car door containing a free-form surface has been used to achieve the above-mentioned goal. The design of experiments has been employed to determine the effects of different scanning parameters and optimize them. The capabilities and limitations have been identified by comparing the two scanners in terms of accuracy, scanning time, triangle numbers, ease of use, and portability. Then, the relationships between the system capabilities and the application requirements have been established. The results revealed that the laser scanner performed better than the white light scanner in terms of accuracy, while the white light scanner performed better in terms of acquisition speed and triangle numbers.

  6. Advancing Material Models for Automotive Forming Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegter, H.; An, Y.; Horn, C.H.L.J. ten; Atzema, E.H.; Roelofsen, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Simulations in automotive industry need more advanced material models to achieve highly reliable forming and springback predictions. Conventional material models implemented in the FEM-simulation models are not capable to describe the plastic material behaviour during monotonic strain paths with sufficient accuracy. Recently, ESI and Corus co-operate on the implementation of an advanced material model in the FEM-code PAMSTAMP 2G. This applies to the strain hardening model, the influence of strain rate, and the description of the yield locus in these models. A subsequent challenge is the description of the material after a change of strain path.The use of advanced high strength steels in the automotive industry requires a description of plastic material behaviour of multiphase steels. The simplest variant is dual phase steel consisting of a ferritic and a martensitic phase. Multiphase materials also contain a bainitic phase in addition to the ferritic and martensitic phase. More physical descriptions of strain hardening than simple fitted Ludwik/Nadai curves are necessary.Methods to predict plastic behaviour of single-phase materials use a simple dislocation interaction model based on the formed cells structures only. At Corus, a new method is proposed to predict plastic behaviour of multiphase materials have to take hard phases into account, which deform less easily. The resulting deformation gradients create geometrically necessary dislocations. Additional micro-structural information such as morphology and size of hard phase particles or grains is necessary to derive the strain hardening models for this type of materials.Measurements available from the Numisheet benchmarks allow these models to be validated. At Corus, additional measured values are available from cross-die tests. This laboratory test can attain critical deformations by large variations in blank size and processing conditions. The tests are a powerful tool in optimising forming simulations prior

  7. Fuel cell hardware-in-loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, R.M.; Randolf, G.; Virji, M. [University of Hawaii, Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (United States); Hauer, K.H. [Xcellvision (Germany)

    2006-11-08

    Hardware-in-loop (HiL) methodology is well established in the automotive industry. One typical application is the development and validation of control algorithms for drive systems by simulating the vehicle plus the vehicle environment in combination with specific control hardware as the HiL component. This paper introduces the use of a fuel cell HiL methodology for fuel cell and fuel cell system design and evaluation-where the fuel cell (or stack) is the unique HiL component that requires evaluation and development within the context of a fuel cell system designed for a specific application (e.g., a fuel cell vehicle) in a typical use pattern (e.g., a standard drive cycle). Initial experimental results are presented for the example of a fuel cell within a fuel cell vehicle simulation under a dynamic drive cycle. (author)

  8. Dual-fuelling of a direct-injection automotive diesel engine by diesel and compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Mohammadi Kosha, A.; Mosseibi, A.; Moshirabadi, J.; Gangi, A.; Moghadaspour, M.

    2000-01-01

    Application of Compressed Natural Gas in diesel engines has always been important, especially in the field of automotive engineering. This is due to easy accessibility, better mixing quality and good combustion characteristics of the Compressed Natural Gas fuel. In this study the application of Compressed Natural Gas fuel along with diesel oil in a heavy duty direct-injection automotive diesel engine is experimentally investigated. In order to convert a diesel engine into a diesel-gas one, the so called m ixed diesel-gas a pproach has been used and for this purpose a carbureted Compressed Natural Gas fuel system has been designed and manufactured. For controlling quantity of Compressed Natural Gas, the gas valve is linked to the diesel fuel injection system by means of a set of rods. Then, the dual-fuel system is adjusted so that, at full load conditions, the quantity of diesel fuel is reduced to 20% and 80% of its equivalent energy is substituted by Compressed Natural Gas fuel. Also injection pressure of pilot jet is increased by 11.4%. Performance and emission tests are conducted under variation of load and speed on both diesel and diesel-gas engines. Results show that, with equal power and torque, the diesel-gas engine has the potential to improve overall engine performance and emission. For example, at rated power and speed, fuel economy increases by 5.48%, the amount of smoke decreases by 78%, amount of CO decreases by 64.3% and mean exhaust gas temperature decreases by 6.4%

  9. 76 FR 40591 - Coordinating Policies on Automotive Communities and Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... automakers in 2010 gained market share for the first time since 1995. The automotive supply chain, which... Department of Labor set aside funds for green jobs and job training for high- growth sectors of the economy...

  10. SEE - Sight Effectiveness Enhancement. Results of the automotive evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, V.; Hansen, K.D.; Cathala, T.

    2006-01-01

    In the SEE project two parallel evaluations have been conducted, an experimental trial of the automotive and another of the aeronautical application. The evaluations have measured the efficiency and HMI (human-machine interaction) characteristics of theSEE prototype. This report covers the automo......In the SEE project two parallel evaluations have been conducted, an experimental trial of the automotive and another of the aeronautical application. The evaluations have measured the efficiency and HMI (human-machine interaction) characteristics of theSEE prototype. This report covers...... the automotive part of the evaluation. The evaluation of the automotive application was carried out in computer simulated environments and followed the general objectives of the evaluation described in ‘Definition of theEvaluation Plan’ . The field experiment discussed, however, was given up due to lack...

  11. Following Industry's Lead: Revising the Automotive Technology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, William H.; Anglin, Donald L.

    1976-01-01

    Today's automotive technology curriculum is changing; curriculum revisions are being made in response to both the changing automobile and to the latest social trends and laws affecting students and teachers alike. (Author)

  12. THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY IN A NEW TEHNOLOGICAL ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Catalina ALBULESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The business world is changing at an impressive speed: the global financial crisis, challenging markets, technology and talent crisis have a major impact on business. The last century can be associated with the triumph of the automobile industry. At the beginning of the 21st century the automotive industry has experienced one of the largest shifts in the automotive history. The new CO2 regulations on global level have determined the automotove industry to adopt new and original technologies faster than anticipated. The emerging tendency of car sharing in larger cities added to the media information related to the negative environmental effects of car mobility generate concerns that customers were seeking a replacement to the traditional, individual car ownership. The automotive industry will face challenging years ahead taking into consideration the shifting paradigm in auto-mobility. In this context, this article aims to provide a general perspective of the tendencies in the automotive sector.

  13. Firm and Product Heterogeneity in China's Automotive Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth analysis of the anatomy of China's automotive exports, relying on the literature on firm and product heterogeneity. For this purpose, we use highly disaggregated HS 8-digit product-category level data collected by the Chinese Customs Office for 2000 and 2008, and we distinguish between foreign firms, domestic public firms, and domestic private firms. We also decompose automotive products into autos and auto parts and components (P/C. We then calculate both the extensive margins – number of products exported – and intensive margins – average value of exports per product – of China's automotive exports. We estimate gravity equations to assess the determinants of China's exports of autos and auto P/C. Overall, our analysis yields a number of new, interesting stylized facts about China's automotive exports by confirming the need for taking into account different types of heterogeneity in analyzing international trade.

  14. Conference on Future Automotive Technology Focus Electro Mobility

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The increasing trend towards electric cars leads to several challenges for the automobile industry, research institutes and politics as well as for the society. Research and serial development move closer together to meet automotive standards with new components such as traction batteries integrated into hybrid and electrical drivetrains. Furthermore, the influence of e-mobility on the daily mobility behavior, the effects on the automotive supply chain and the impact on industrial production have to be taken into account. According to these complex aspects it is crucial to not only acquire specific knowledge in the particular fields but also to consider their functional interaction. Therefore, it seems essential to merge competence from science, economy and politics. This year, the annual „Conference on Future Automotive Technology“ as the follow-up of the „2. Automobiltechnisches Kolloquium München” focuses on the economical realization of widespread automotive electro mobility. Contents - Energy St...

  15. Robust optical sensors for safety critical automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Locht, Cliff; De Knibber, Sven; Maddalena, Sam

    2008-02-01

    Optical sensors for the automotive industry need to be robust, high performing and low cost. This paper focuses on the impact of automotive requirements on optical sensor design and packaging. Main strategies to lower optical sensor entry barriers in the automotive market include: Perform sensor calibration and tuning by the sensor manufacturer, sensor test modes on chip to guarantee functional integrity at operation, and package technology is key. As a conclusion, optical sensor applications are growing in automotive. Optical sensor robustness matured to the level of safety critical applications like Electrical Power Assisted Steering (EPAS) and Drive-by-Wire by optical linear arrays based systems and Automated Cruise Control (ACC), Lane Change Assist and Driver Classification/Smart Airbag Deployment by camera imagers based systems.

  16. Assessment of Safety Standards for Automotive Electronic Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study that assessed and compared six industry and government safety standards relevant to the safety and reliability of automotive electronic control systems. These standards include ISO 26262 (Road Vehicles - ...

  17. TECHNICAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZING AND CLEANUP OF AUTOMOTIVE RECYCLING BROWNFIELDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guidance document gives assistance to communities, decision-makers, states and municipalities, academia, and the private sector to address issues related to the redevelopment of Brownfields sites, specifically automotive recycling sites. The document helps users to understand...

  18. NEW TRENDS AND CHELLENGES IN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY LOGISTICS OPERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Dušan Sabadka

    2015-01-01

    This paper lays out the main features of the global automotive industry and identifies several important trends. Logistics operations (inbound and outbound) in the automotive supply chain are complex and account for large expenses and therefore are segments in the value chainwhere improvements can be made. Better coordination between inbound and outbound logistics contributes to optimising the supply chains, to reducing inventories and to responding to consumer requests. As econom...

  19. Sustainable Manufacturing Practices in Malaysian Automotive Industry: Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Habidin, Nurul Fadly; Zubir, Anis Fadzlin Mohd; Fuz, Nursyazwani Mohd; Latip, Nor Azrin Md; Azman, Mohamed Nor Azhari

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable manufacturing practices (SMPs) have received enormous attention in current years as an effective solution to support the continuous growth and expansion of the automotive manufacturing industry. This reported study was conducted to examine confirmatory factor analysis for SMP such as manufacturing process, supply chain management, social responsibility, and environmental management based on automotive manufacturing industry. The results of confirmatory factor analysis show that fo...

  20. Autonomous Driving – a Challenge for the Automotive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bardt, Hubertus

    2017-01-01

    The automotive industry is one of the most important industries in Europe. This industry is responsible for 14% of total production and capital investment in the European manufacturing sector, and in Germany the share amounts to 22%. Structural change within this crucial sector is of relevance for the whole economy. Along with alternative propulsion systems such as electromobility, (semi-)autonomous vehicles are one of the big trends in the automotive industry. For established providers, the ...

  1. EFFECTIVE OUTSOURCING THROUGHOUT THE SUPPLY CHAIN IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor’s thesis was to find a method of using outsourcing effectively throughout the supply chain in the automotive industry. Through the data collecting and analyzing, this thesis was written totally based on theory. As the automotive industry has been developing, the outsourcing service has become one of the most popular methods to improve the supply chain management. The auto manufacturer and spare parts supplier are the two most important roles in the supply chai...

  2. Analysis of Strengthening Steel Distribution Channel in Domestic Automotive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pangraksa, Sugeng; Djajadiningrat, Surna Tjahja

    2013-01-01

    Distribution has strategic role to spread up product from manufacturer into end-user. Automotive industry needs distribution channel which has: excellent data management, timely delivery management, excellent quality management, and competitive reducing cost. Krakatau Steel (KS) distributors has weaknesses to enter automotive market current that require tight prerequisite such as: consistency of product quality, good cooperation, close relationship, continuously cost reduction, wide spread to...

  3. Numerical simulation of heat transfer process in automotive brakes

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Voltas, David

    2013-01-01

    This master thesis concerns the theoretical investigations of the heat transfer process in automotive brakes. The process of heat generation and heat transfer to ambient air in automotive brake was presented. The two–dimensional, axi-symmetrical model of transient heat conduction for the brake was applied. The relevant boundary conditions, that describe the heat generated in the brake and the heat transferred to ambient air, were used. The unsteady heat conduction problem was solved by the...

  4. The Indian Automotive Industry and the ASEAN Supply Chain Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Tristan Leo Dallo AGUSTIN; Martin SCHRODER

    2015-01-01

    The topic of automotive supply chains has been increasingly studied as it raises questions of economic development, especially from the perspectives of simultaneous globalisation and regionalisation, and trade. While ASEAN is a prime example of intraregional production networks, supply chains that connect ASEAN and India have not been studied indepth. Therefore, this paper investigates the Indian automotive industry, which is composed of automobile original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and ...

  5. Automated Freedom from Interference Analysis for Automotive Software

    OpenAIRE

    Leitner-Fischer , Florian; Leue , Stefan; Liu , Sirui

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Freedom from Interference for automotive software systems developed according to the ISO 26262 standard means that a fault in a less safety critical software component will not lead to a fault in a more safety critical component. It is an important concern in the realm of functional safety for automotive systems. We present an automated method for the analysis of concurrency-related interferences based on the QuantUM approach and tool that we have previously developed....

  6. Visualization of the air flow behind the automotive benchmark vent

    OpenAIRE

    Pech, Ondřej; Jedelský, Jan; Caletka, Petr; Jícha, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Passenger comfort in cars depends on appropriate function of the cabin HVAC system. A great attention is therefore paid to the effective function of automotive vents and proper formation of the flow behind the ventilation outlet. The article deals with the visualization of air flow from the automotive benchmark vent. The visualization was made for two different shapes of the inlet channel connected to the benchmark vent. The smoke visualization with the laser knife was used. The influence of ...

  7. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 2. Iron, Steel and Aluminum Suppliers to the Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  8. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 7. Machine Tool Suppliers to the Automotive Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  9. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 4. North American Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  10. Research with neutron and synchrotron radiation on aerospace and automotive materials and components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaysser, Wolfgang; Abetz, Volker; Huber, Norbert; Kainer, Karl Ulrich; Pyczak, Florian; Schreyer, Andreas; Staron, Peter [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum fuer Material und Kuestenforschung, Geesthacht (Germany); Esslinger, Joerg [MTU Aero Engines GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Klassen, Thomas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum fuer Material und Kuestenforschung, Geesthacht (Germany); Helmut Schmidt Universitaet, Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Characterization with neutrons and synchrotron radiation has yielded essential contributions to the research and development of automotive and aerospace materials, processing methods, and components. This review mainly emphasises developments related to commercial passenger airplanes and light-duty cars. Improved and partly new materials for the reduction of airframe weight and joining by laser-beam welding and friction stir welding are ongoing areas of assessment. Chemical reactions, microstructure development, and residual stresses are frequently measured. Polymers and polymer matrix composites often require special experimental techniques. The thrust-to-weight ratio of aero-engines is increasing due to the improved design of components and the use of innovative materials. Investigations on superalloys, {gamma}-TiAl, and thermal barrier coatings are described in some detail. A discussion of the use of neutron and synchrotron diffraction in automotive applications covers the analysis of surface effects with respect to lubricants and wear, as well as the investigation of microstructure development, deformation, and fatigue behavior of materials, welds and components. Special steels, Al and Mg alloys are discussed and residual stresses in automotive components such as gears or crankshafts are described. Applications of characterization methods on membranes for polymeric membrane fuel cells and on nanocrystalline metal hydrides for hydrogen storage are shown. The degradation of railway tracks after long-term use is taken as an example for the application of synchrotron methods to transport systems beyond the commercial aircraft and light duty passenger car. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Carbon Fiber Composite Materials for Automotive Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Jr., Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mainka, Hendrik [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Volkswagen (VW) is internationally recognized for quantity and quality of world-wide vehicle production and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is internationally recognized in materials research and development. With automotive production ramping up in the recently constructed VW Group of America facility in Chattanooga, Tennessee, ORNL and VW initiated discussions in 2012 concerning opportunities for collaboration around ORNL’s carbon fiber and composites programs. ORNL is conducting an internationally recognized program to develop and implement lower cost carbon fibers and composites for automotive and other “energy missions” for the US Department of Energy. Significant effort is ongoing in selecting, developing, and evaluating alternative precursors, developing and demonstrating advanced conversion techniques, and developing and tailoring surface treatment, sizings, and formatting fiber for specific composite matrices and end-use applications. ORNL already had North America’s most comprehensive suite of tools for carbon fiber research and development and established a semiproduction demonstration line referred to as the Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTF) to facilitate implementation of low cost carbon fiber (LCCF) approaches in early 2013. ORNL and VW agreed to collaborate in a formal Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (NFE-12-03992) specifically focused on evaluating applicability of low cost carbon fiber products for potential vehicle components. The goal of the work outlined in this report was to develop and qualify uses for carbon fiber-reinforced structures in connection with civilian ground transportation. Significant progress was achieved in evaluating and understanding lignin-based precursor materials; however, availability of carbon fiber converted from lignin precursor combined with logistical issues associated with the Visa limitations for the VW participant resulted in significantly shortening of the collaboration

  12. Remanufacturing in automotive industry: Challenges and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Golinska

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide the framework for management of reverse flow of materials in automotive industry. The emphasis is placed on the remanufacturing activities. Materials management in such conditions is a real challenge. The cause for this is parallel use of raw materials and reused materials. Such hybrid flows of materials are characterized by increased level of uncertainty connected with amount, quality and timing. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents a comprehensive review of remanufacturing and traditional manufacturing. The stabilization of reverse flows is crucial for continuity of remanufacturing operations. The simulation model and results are discussed regarding stabilization of the reverse flows. Findings: Authors identify main problems that appear in the area of combining at the production system forward and reverse flows of materials. The agent-based technology is applied for configuration and stabilization of reverse network. Research limitations/implications: Paper is case – oriented. Practical implications: Both logistician and IT researchers might benefit from authors approach. Originality/value: Authors provide an interdisciplinary approach combining operations management, logistics and information technology.

  13. Implementing Automotive Telematics for Fleet Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Azzopardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of Usage-Based Insurance for automotive covers over conventional rating methods have been discussed in literature for over four decades. Notwithstanding their adoption in insurance markets has been slow. This paper seeks to establish the viability of introducing fleet Telematics-Based Insurance by investigating the perceptions of insurance operators, tracking service providers and corporate fleet owners. At its core, the study involves a SWOT-analysis to appraise Telematics-Based Insurance against conventional premium rating systems. Twenty five key stakeholders in Malta, a country with an insurance industry that represents others in microcosm, were interviewed to develop our analysis. We assert that local insurers have interests in such insurance schemes as enhanced fleet management and monitoring translate into an improved insurance risk. The findings presented here have implications for all stakeholders as we argue that telematics enhance fleet management, TBI improves risk management for insurers and adoption of this technology is dependent on telematics providers increasing the perceived control by insurers over managing this technology.

  14. Advanced Automotive Diesel Assessment Program, executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of this analytical study were: to select one advanced automotive diesel engine (AAD) concept which would increase the tank mileage of a 3,000 pound passenger car from the present 35 mpg to at least 52 mpg; to identify long term component research and development work required to bring the selected concept to fruition; and to prepare a development strategy that will bring the selected concept to a prototype testing phase. Cummins Engine Company has completed this study. The selected concept is a 4 stroke cycle, direct injection, spark assisted, advanced adiabatic diesel engine with positive displacement compounding plus expander and part load air preheating. The engine does not use a liquid coolant nor liquid lubricants. It is a 4 cylinder, in-line, 77 mm bore x 77 mm stroke, 1.434 liters displacement engine weighing 300 lb, and rated at 70 BHP at 3000 rpm. Installation dimensions are 621 mm length x 589 mm width x 479 mm height (24.4 inch x 22 inch x 18.9 inch).

  15. Automotive Catalyst State Diagnosis Using Microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moos Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The state of catalysts plays a key role in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment. The soot or ash loading of Diesel particulate filters, the oxygen loading degree in three-way catalysts, the amount of stored ammonia in SCR catalysts, or the NOx loading degree in NOx storage catalysts are important parameters that are today determined indirectly and in a model-based manner with gas sensors installed upstream and/or downstream of the catalysts. This contribution gives an overview on a novel approach to determine the catalyst state directly by a microwave-based technique. The method exploits the fact that the catalyst housing acts as a microwave cavity resonator. As “sensing” elements, one or two simple antennas are mounted inside the catalyst canning. The electrical properties of the catalyst device (ceramic honeycomb plus coating and storage material can be measured. Preferably, the resonance characteristics, e.g., the resonance frequencies, of selected cavity modes are observed. The information on the catalyst interior obtained in such a contactless manner is very well correlated with the catalyst state as will be demonstrated for different exhaust gas aftertreatment systems.

  16. Protectionism in the Colombian automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ronderos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs the concept of Effective Protection in order to calculate the real level of protection that has favored the automotive assembly industry in Colombia and to value if this level of protection has helped to achieve the goals of an Import Substitution Policy. A policy that seeks to establish, through this protection mechanism a national industry of consumer durable goods, with an increasing share of domestic inputs generating alongside new dynamics in investment and employment generation. For this purpose, this paper works with data from the Colombian National Manufacture Survey (Encuesta Nacional Manufacturera de Colombia, data provided by the industry on incorporation of local inputs, and a review of changes in policy and legislation affecting the way in which this mechanism operates. Contrary to what would be expected, analysis shows that share of local inputs has decreased, bringing as a result that the cost of protection has been very high when compared to investment and employment generation. The paper concludes with some thoughts as to the convenience of maintaining this type of policy.

  17. Applications and issues in automotive computational aeroacoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbon, K.J.; Kumarasamy, S.; Singh, R.

    2002-01-01

    Automotive aeroacoustics is the noise generated due to the airflow around a moving vehicle. Previously regarded as a minor contributor, wind noise is now recognized as one of the dominant vehicle sound sources, since significant progress has been made in suppressing engine and tire noise. Currently, almost all aeroacoustic development work is performed experimentally on a full-scale vehicle in the wind tunnel. Any reduction in hardware models is recognized as one of the major enablers to quickly bring the vehicle to market. In addition, prediction of noise sources and characteristics at the early stages of vehicle design will help in reducing the costly fixes at the later stages. However, predictive methods such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) are still under development and are not considered mainstream design tools. This paper presents some initial applications and findings of CFD and CAA analysis towards vehicle aeroacoustics. Transient Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) and Lighthill-Curle methods are used to model low frequency buffeting and high frequency wind rush noise. Benefits and limitations of the approaches are described. (author)

  18. Fuel cells - from the laboratory to the road

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fronk, M.H. [Delphi Energy and Engine Management Systems, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell faces stiff competition from existing automotive powerplants and other Hybrid APUs. To be successful, the Fuel Cell will have to demonstrate real customer advantages such as fuel economy and emissions. The PEM technology has an inherent advantage over other powerplants in both thermal efficiency and emission performance, and as such fits in very well with the future regulations that strive to clean up the environment. In addition, it will need to be cost competitive and provide acceptable performance. The majority of development activity on PEM Fuel Cells to date has concentrated primarily in the area of Stack refinement and optimization with improvements coming in higher power densities and higher specific power. To make the Fuel Cell compatible with an automotive environment the entire system will need to be analyzed, understood, and then engineered to work together in an efficient manner.

  19. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  20. Future Automotive Aftertreatment Solutions: The 150°C Challenge Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zammit, Michael; DiMaggio, Craig L.; Kim, Chang H.; Lambert, Christine; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Parks, James E.; Howden, Ken

    2013-10-15

    With future fuel economy standards enacted, the U.S. automotive manufacturers (OEMs) are committed to pursuing a variety of high risk/highly efficient stoichiometric and lean combustion strategies to achieve superior performance. In recognition of this need, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has partnered with domestic automotive manufacturers through U.S. DRIVE to develop these advanced technologies. However, before these advancements can be introduced into the U.S. market, they must also be able to meet increasingly stringent emissions requirements. A significant roadblock to this implementation is the inability of current catalyst and aftertreatment technologies to provide the required activity at the much lower exhaust temperatures that will accompany highly efficient combustion processes and powertrain strategies. Therefore, the goal of this workshop and report is to create a U.S. DRIVE emission control roadmap that will identify new materials and aftertreatment approaches that offer the potential for 90% conversion of emissions at low temperature (150°C) and are consistent with highly efficient combustion technologies currently under investigation within U.S. DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) programs.

  1. Corrosion performance of Al-Si-Cu hypereutectic alloys in a synthetic condensed automotive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilta de Oliveira Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation the corrosion resistance of four Al-Si hypereutectic alloys in a solution typical of condensate from automotive fuel combustion products, and referred to here as synthetic condensed automotive solution, has been studied. Three commercial alloys that are used for cylinder liners, and a laboratory made alloy, were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and measurements were taken after increasing times of immersion in this solution. Comparison of the electrochemical response of the four alloys in the corrosive solution was carried out. Although the mechanisms by which the four alloys corroded were similar, the results indicated differences in corrosion resistances of these alloys, and these differences could be related to their microstructures. The laboratory prepared alloy showed increased susceptibility to pitting corrosion compared to the commercial alloys. The surfaces of the alloys were examined, before and after the corrosion test, by scanning electron microscopy and analyzed by energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results indicated preferential attack of the aluminium matrix phase in all the alloys. The alloy with higher copper content and prepared by spray forming was more susceptible to pitting compared to the other alloys. The EIS response at low frequencies indicated a diffusion-controlled process, probably that of oxygen to the alloy interface.

  2. A study of the Armstrong Whitworth swing beam engine for automotive application

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The introduction of ceramics to those parts suffering high thermal loading was successfully demonstrated, and there is no question that the 100 kw (134 hp) naturally aspirated engine of the future will be developed to produce up to 300 kw (402 hp) by the application of turbocharging or its equivalent. However, at the 60 - 80 kw (80 - 107 hp) size needed for the economic automotive engine, scaling down the 300 kw (402 hp) is beset by the laws of scale. The conventional four stroke diesel was not shown to be successful at the small high speed engine size. The opposed piston two stroke engine does not suffer the same laws of scale and engines in the low power range have already been marketed successfully. The half liter/cylinder Armstrong Whitworth Swing Beam Engine is the latest to be designed with the automotive market in mind. Its low noise structure and balanced linkage system coupled with advantages for easy start and potential use of low grade fuels, derived from its variable compression ratio and slow piston motion, qualifies it for the application.

  3. Building Block Approach' for Structural Analysis of Thermoplastic Composite Components for Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carello, M.; Amirth, N.; Airale, A. G.; Monti, M.; Romeo, A.

    2017-12-01

    Advanced thermoplastic prepreg composite materials stand out with regard to their ability to allow complex designs with high specific strength and stiffness. This makes them an excellent choice for lightweight automotive components to reduce mass and increase fuel efficiency, while maintaining the functionality of traditional thermosetting prepreg (and mechanical characteristics) and with a production cycle time and recyclability suited to mass production manufacturing. Currently, the aerospace and automotive sectors struggle to carry out accurate Finite Elements (FE) component analyses and in some cases are unable to validate the obtained results. In this study, structural Finite Elements Analysis (FEA) has been done on a thermoplastic fiber reinforced component designed and manufactured through an integrated injection molding process, which consists in thermoforming the prepreg laminate and overmolding the other parts. This process is usually referred to as hybrid molding, and has the provision to reinforce the zones subjected to additional stresses with thermoformed themoplastic prepreg as required and overmolded with a shortfiber thermoplastic resin in single process. This paper aims to establish an accurate predictive model on a rational basis and an innovative methodology for the structural analysis of thermoplastic composite components by comparison with the experimental tests results.

  4. Automotive Thermoelectric Generator impact on the efficiency of a drive system with a combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziolkowski Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the combustion engine drive systems efficiency is currently being achieved by structural changes in internal combustion engines and its equipment, which are geared towards limiting mechanical, thermal and outlet losses. For this reason, downsizing. In addition to these changes, all manner of exhaust gas energy recovery systems are being investigated and implemented, including turbocompound, turbogenerators and thermoelectric generators. The article presents the author’s idea of a thermoelectric generator system of automotive applications ATEG (Automotive Thermoelectric Generator and the study of the recovery of exhaust gas energy stream. The ATEG consists of a heat exchanger, thermoelectric modules and a cooling system. In this solution, 24 commercial thermoelectric modules based on Bi2Te3 (bismuth telluride were used. Measurements were made at two engine test sites on which SI and CI engines were installed. The exhaust gas parameters (temperature and mass flow rate, fuel consumption and operating parameters of the ATEG – the intensity and the voltage generated by the thermoelectric modules and the temperature on the walls of the heat exchanger – were all measured in the experiments. Based on the obtained results, the exhaust gas energy flow and the power of the ATEG were determined as well as its effect on the diesel engine drive system efficiency.

  5. Temperature control of an automotive engine cooling system utilizing a magneto-rheological fan clutch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok; Park, Young-Gee; Lee, Soojin

    2010-01-01

    In this note, the temperature control of an automotive engine cooling system is undertaken using a magneto-rheological (MR) fluid-based fan clutch (MR fan clutch in short). In order to achieve this goal, an appropriate size of controllable fan clutch using an MR fluid is firstly devised by considering the design parameters of a conventional fan clutch to reflect the practical application. Then, the principal design parameters of the MR fan clutch such as the length of the disc are optimally determined through finite element analysis. The drum-type MR fan clutch is manufactured and its time response to input current is experimentally evaluated. A robust sliding mode controller is then formulated by treating the time constant of the fan clutch system as an uncertain parameter. After identifying the relationship between angular velocity of the MR fan clutch and the temperature of the cooling system, the sliding mode controller is experimentally realized for the cooling system. It has been clearly demonstrated that the proposed sliding mode controller follows well the desired temperature with a small regulating error. It is expected from this feasibility work that the proposed control system associated with an MR fan clutch can be effectively utilized for the automotive cooling system to improve the fuel efficiency. (technical note)

  6. Modeling and experimental validation of a Hybridized Energy Storage System for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenti, Simone; Guanetti, Jacopo; Guezennec, Yann; Onori, Simona

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the development and experimental validation of a dynamic model of a Hybridized Energy Storage System (HESS) consisting of a parallel connection of a lead acid (PbA) battery and double layer capacitors (DLCs), for automotive applications. The dynamic modeling of both the PbA battery and the DLC has been tackled via the equivalent electric circuit based approach. Experimental tests are designed for identification purposes. Parameters of the PbA battery model are identified as a function of state of charge and current direction, whereas parameters of the DLC model are identified for different temperatures. A physical HESS has been assembled at the Center for Automotive Research The Ohio State University and used as a test-bench to validate the model against a typical current profile generated for Start&Stop applications. The HESS model is then integrated into a vehicle simulator to assess the effects of the battery hybridization on the vehicle fuel economy and mitigation of the battery stress.

  7. Checklist for transition to new highway fuel(s).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risch, C.; Santini, D.J. (Energy Systems)

    2011-12-15

    Transportation is vital to the U.S. economy and society. As such, U.S. Presidents have repeatedly stated that the nation needs to reduce dependence on petroleum, especially for the highway transportation sector. Throughout history, highway transportation fuel transitions have been completed successfully both in United States and abroad. Other attempts have failed, as described in Appendix A: Historical Highway Fuel Transitions. Planning for a transition is critical because the changes can affect our nation's ability to compete in the world market. A transition will take many years to complete. While it is tempting to make quick decisions about the new fuel(s) of choice, it is preferable and necessary to analyze all the pertinent criteria to ensure that correct decisions are made. Doing so will reduce the number of changes in highway fuel(s). Obviously, changes may become necessary because of occurrences such as significant technology breakthroughs or major world events. With any and all of the possible transitions to new fuel(s), the total replacement of gasoline and diesel fuels is not expected. These conventional fuels are envisioned to coexist with the new fuel(s) for decades, while the revised fuel and vehicle infrastructures are implemented. The transition process must analyze the needs of the primary 'players,' which consist of the customers, the government, the fuel industry, and the automotive industry. To maximize the probability of future successes, the prime considerations of these groups must be addressed. Section 2 presents a succinct outline of the Checklist. Section 3 provides a brief discussion about the groupings on the Checklist.

  8. Deployment of ERP Systems at Automotive Industries, Security Inspection (Case Study: IRAN KHODRO Automotive Company)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hatamirad; Hasan, Mehrjerdi

    Automotive industry and car production process is one of the most complex and large-scale production processes. Today, information technology (IT) and ERP systems incorporates a large portion of production processes. Without any integrated systems such as ERP, the production and supply chain processes will be tangled. The ERP systems, that are last generation of MRP systems, make produce and sale processes of these industries easier and this is the major factor of development of these industries anyhow. Today many of large-scale companies are developing and deploying the ERP systems. The ERP systems facilitate many of organization processes and make organization to increase efficiency. The security is a very important part of the ERP strategy at the organization, Security at the ERP systems, because of integrity and extensive, is more important of local and legacy systems. Disregarding of this point can play a giant role at success or failure of this kind of systems. The IRANKHODRO is the biggest automotive factory in the Middle East with an annual production over 600.000 cars. This paper presents ERP security deployment experience at the "IRANKHODRO Company". Recently, by launching ERP systems, it moved a big step toward more developments.

  9. Motor fuel demand analysis - applied modelling in the European union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorazewiez, S.

    1998-01-01

    Motor fuel demand in Europe amounts to almost half of petroleum products consumption and to thirty percent of total final energy consumption. This study considers, Firstly, the energy policies of different European countries and the ways in which the consumption of motor gasoline and automotive gas oil has developed. Secondly it provides an abstract of demand models in the energy sector, illustrating their specific characteristics. Then it proposes an economic model of automotive fuel consumption, showing motor gasoline and automotive gas oil separately over a period of thirty years (1960-1993) for five main countries in the European Union. Finally, forecasts of consumption of gasoline and diesel up to the year 2020 are given for different scenarios. (author)

  10. Cost Benefit Analysis of Using Clean Energy Supplies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Global Automotive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Automotive manufacturing is energy-intensive. The consumed energy contributes to the generation of significant amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by the automotive manufacturing industry. In this paper, a study is conducted on assessing the application potential of such clean energy power systems as solar PV, wind and fuel cells in reducing the GHG emissions of the global auto manufacturing industry. The study is conducted on the representative solar PV, wind and fuel cell clean energy systems available on the commercial market in six representative locations of GM’s global facilities, including the United States, Mexico, Brazil, China, Egypt and Germany. The results demonstrate that wind power is superior to other two clean energy technologies in the economic performance of the GHG mitigation effect. Among these six selected countries, the highest GHG emission mitigation potential is in China, through wind power supply. The maximum GHG reduction could be up to 60 tons per $1,000 economic investment on wind energy supply in China. The application of wind power systems in the United States and Germany could also obtain relatively high GHG reductions of between 40–50 tons per $1,000 economic input. When compared with wind energy, the use of solar and fuel cell power systems have much less potential for GHG mitigation in the six countries selected. The range of median GHG mitigation values resulting from solar and wind power supply are almost at the same level.

  11. Developing e-learning solutions in the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Virgil Bogdan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the rapid developing market of automotive industry, cutting-edge technologies are being introduced. One such example is the AUTOSAR standard. Companies are investing a large amount of finances for the training of their employees into the intricacies of such technologies. In order to face such an increase of the training costs, automotive corporation have started lately switching their approach to e-Learning systems. This paper presents an e-Learning approach developed in the automotive industry in order to address the demands of teaching AUTOSAR standard. The developed e-Learning project is called Academy. In order to develop the e-Learning solution we focused on the Software Development part of automotive industry. Therefore we had to gather the ideas from different trainers, come with a common approach and use specific techniques so that the trainee should get a real feeling of the material. It is presented the design, implementation and evaluation of this e-Learning solution, but more than that faced issues and learned lessons. Developing this solution has offered different insights into how to approach such a task which are useful for the further expansion of the project, but also for future researchers who might encounter such a challenge of developing e-Learning solutions for the automotive industry. These are all grouped in a set of guidelines related to following a model of implementation, getting track of participants, user interaction with the AUTOSAR standard, test and production development and so on.

  12. Advanced Automotive Technologies annual report to Congress, fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This annual report serves to inform the United States Congress on the progress for fiscal year 1996 of programs under the Department of Energy`s Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT). This document complies with the legislative requirement to report on the implementation of Title III of the Automotive Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978. Also reported are related activities performed under subsequent relevant legislation without specific reporting requirements. Furthermore, this report serves as a vital means of communication from the Department to all public and private sector participants. Specific requirements that are addressed in this report are: Discussion of how each research and development contract, grant, or project funded under the authority of this Act satisfies the requirements of each subsection; Current comprehensive program definition for implementing Title III; Evaluation of the state of automotive propulsion system research and development in the United States; Number and amount of contracts and grants awarded under Title III; Analysis of the progress made in developing advanced automotive propulsion system technology; and Suggestions for improvements in automotive propulsion system research and development, including recommendations for legislation.

  13. DISAIN SIMULATOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KOMPETENSI MAHASISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamin Sumardi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi automotive air conditioning dan aplikasinya sangat cepat, salah satunya dengan menerapkan green technology. Penerapan green technology pada teknologi air conditioning, karena masih menggunakan refrigeran yang mengandung unsur kimia yang merusak lapisan ozon dan pemanasan global. Alih teknologi bidang air conditioning yang ramah lingkungan, belum dibarengi dengan ketersediaan tenaga kerja pada tingkat SMK dan perguruan tinggi yang memadai, baik kuantitas maupun kompetensinya. Pada level SMK dan perguruan tinggi, kompetensi akademik dan vokasional bidang automotive air conditioning harus terus ditingkatkan dan diperbaharui sesuai dengan perkembangan teknologinya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan simulator automotive air conditioner dan model pembelajaran tata udara pada otomotif berwawasan teknologi ramah lingkungan. Penelitian menggunakan metode research and development dengan langkah-langkah: studi pendahuluan, perencanaan, pengembangan melalui uji coba simulator, validasi, dan produk akhir. Simulator dibuat sesuai dengan kondisi di dunia kerja agar tidak terjadi miskonsepsi dan mala-praktek automotive air conditioning. Simulator ini dibuat secara kompak dan mobile atau dapat dipindah dan dibawa. Model pembelajaran disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan kompetensi yang dipersyaratkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dengan bantuan simulator automotive air conditioner dan model pembelajaran yang tepat mahasiswa mampu menyerap konsep dan praktek lebih cepat 85%. Hasil belajar pada ranah afektif, kognitif, psikomotor dan kompetensi meningkat secara signifikan.

  14. Change management methodologies trained for automotive infotainment projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostean, G.; Volker, S.; Hutanu, A.

    2017-01-01

    An Automotive Electronic Control Units (ECU) development project embedded within a car Environment is constantly under attack of a continuous flow of modifications of specifications throughout the life cycle. Root causes for those modifications are for instance simply software or hardware implementation errors or requirement changes to satisfy the forthcoming demands of the market to ensure the later commercial success. It is unavoidable that from the very beginning until the end of the project “requirement changes” will “expose” the agreed objectives defined by contract specifications, which are product features, budget, schedule and quality. The key discussions will focus upon an automotive radio-navigation (infotainment) unit, which challenges aftermarket devises such as smart phones. This competition stresses especially current used automotive development processes, which are fit into a 4 Year car development (introduction) cycle against a one-year update cycle of a smart phone. The research will focus the investigation of possible impacts of changes during all phases of the project: the Concept-Validation, Development and Debugging-Phase. Building a thorough understanding of prospective threats is of paramount importance in order to establish the adequate project management process to handle requirement changes. Personal automotive development experiences and Literature review of change- and configuration management software development methodologies led the authors to new conceptual models, which integrates into the structure of traditional development models used in automotive projects, more concretely of radio-navigation projects.

  15. Advanced Automotive Technologies annual report to Congress, fiscal year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This annual report serves to inform the United States Congress on the progress for fiscal year 1996 of programs under the Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT). This document complies with the legislative requirement to report on the implementation of Title III of the Automotive Propulsion Research and Development Act of 1978. Also reported are related activities performed under subsequent relevant legislation without specific reporting requirements. Furthermore, this report serves as a vital means of communication from the Department to all public and private sector participants. Specific requirements that are addressed in this report are: Discussion of how each research and development contract, grant, or project funded under the authority of this Act satisfies the requirements of each subsection; Current comprehensive program definition for implementing Title III; Evaluation of the state of automotive propulsion system research and development in the United States; Number and amount of contracts and grants awarded under Title III; Analysis of the progress made in developing advanced automotive propulsion system technology; and Suggestions for improvements in automotive propulsion system research and development, including recommendations for legislation

  16. Evolution of the Automotive Body Coating Process—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson K. Akafuah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Automotive coatings and the processes used to coat automobile surfaces exemplify the avant-garde of technologies that are capable of producing durable surfaces, exceeding customers’ expectations of appearance, maximizing efficiency, and meeting environmental regulations. These accomplishments are rooted in 100 years of experience, trial-and-error approaches, technique and technology advancements, and theoretical assessments. Because of advancements directed at understanding the how, why, when, and where of automobile coatings, the progress in controlling droplets and their deposition attributes, and the development of new technologies and paint chemistries, a comprehensive and up-to-date review of automobile coatings and coating technologies was considered to be of value to industrial practitioners and researchers. Overall, the critical performance factors driving the development and use of advanced automotive coatings and coating technologies are (a aesthetic characteristics; (b corrosion protection; (c mass production; (d cost and environmental requirements; and (e appearance and durability. Although the relative importance of each of these factors is debatable, the perfection of any one at the expense of another would be unacceptable. Hence, new developments in automotive coatings are described and discussed in the following review, and then related to improvements in production technologies and paints. Modern automotive coating procedures are also discussed in detail. Finally, an extrapolation into the future of automotive coating is offered with a view of the developments and technologies needed for an increasingly efficient and more sustainable coatings industry.

  17. Overview of Automotive Core Tools: Applications and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Jigar A.; Desai, Darshak

    2017-08-01

    Continuous improvement of product and process quality is always challenging and creative task in today's era of globalization. Various quality tools are available and used for the same. Some of them are successful and few of them are not. Considering the complexity in the continuous quality improvement (CQI) process various new techniques are being introduced by the industries, as well as proposed by researchers and academia. Lean Manufacturing, Six Sigma, Lean Six Sigma is some of the techniques. In recent years, there are new tools being opted by the industry, especially automotive, called as Automotive Core Tools (ACT). The intention of this paper is to review the applications and benefits along with existing research on Automotive Core Tools with special emphasis on continuous quality improvement. The methodology uses an extensive review of literature through reputed publications—journals, conference proceedings, research thesis, etc. This paper provides an overview of ACT, its enablers, and exertions, how it evolved into sophisticated methodologies and benefits used in organisations. It should be of value to practitioners of Automotive Core Tools and to academics who are interested in how CQI can be achieved using ACT. It needs to be stressed here that this paper is not intended to scorn Automotive Core Tools, rather, its purpose is limited only to provide a balance on the prevailing positive views toward ACT.

  18. Investigation of metallurgical coatings for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jun Feng

    Metallurgical coatings have been widely used in the automotive industry from component machining, engine daily running to body decoration due to their high hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance and low friction coefficient. With high demands in energy saving, weight reduction and limiting environmental impact, the use of new materials such as light Aluminum/magnesium alloys with high strength-weight ratio for engine block and advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) with better performance in crash energy management for die stamping, are increasing. However, challenges are emerging when these new materials are applied such as the wear of the relative soft light alloys and machining tools for hard AHSS. The protective metallurgical coatings are the best option to profit from these new materials' advantages without altering largely in mass production equipments, machinery, tools and human labor. In this dissertation, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating processing on aluminum alloys was introduced in engine cylinder bores to resist wear and corrosion. The tribological behavior of the PEO coatings under boundary and starve lubrication conditions was studied experimentally and numerically for the first time. Experimental results of the PEO coating demonstrated prominent wear resistance and low friction, taking into account the extreme working conditions. The numerical elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) and asperity contact based tribological study also showed a promising approach on designing low friction and high wear resistant PEO coatings. Other than the fabrication of the new coatings, a novel coating evaluation methodology, namely, inclined impact sliding tester was presented in the second part of this dissertation. This methodology has been developed and applied in testing and analyzing physical vapor deposition (PVD)/ chemical vapor deposition (CVD)/PEO coatings. Failure mechanisms of these common metallurgical hard coatings were systematically

  19. Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, Kathyayani

    2011-10-04

    Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).

  20. International Conference on Innovative Design and Development Practices in Aerospace and Automotive Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar, U

    2017-01-01

    The book presents the best articles presented by researchers, academicians and industrial experts in the International Conference on “Innovative Design and Development Practices in Aerospace and Automotive Engineering (I-DAD 2016)”. The book discusses new concept designs, analysis and manufacturing technologies, where more swing is for improved performance through specific and/or multifunctional linguistic design aspects to downsize the system, improve weight to strength ratio, fuel efficiency, better operational capability at room and elevated temperatures, reduced wear and tear, NVH aspects while balancing the challenges of beyond Euro IV/Barat Stage IV emission norms, Greenhouse effects and recyclable materials. The innovative methods discussed in the book will serve as a reference material for educational and research organizations, as well as industry, to take up challenging projects of mutual interest.

  1. Innovative design, analysis and development practices in aerospace and automotive engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar, U; Arankalle, Avinash

    2014-01-01

    The book presents the best articles presented by researchers, academicians and industrial experts in the International Conference on “Innovative Design, Analysis and Development Practices in Aerospace and Automotive Engineering”. The book discusses new concept designs, analysis and manufacturing technologies, where more swing is for improved performance through specific and/or multifunctional linguistic design aspects to downsize the system, improve weight to strength ratio, fuel efficiency, better operational capability at room and elevated temperatures, reduced wear and tear, NVH aspects while balancing the challenges of beyond Euro IV/Barat Stage IV emission norms, Greenhouse effects and recyclable materials. The innovative methods discussed in the book will serve as a reference material for educational and research organizations, as well as industry, to take up challenging projects of mutual interest.

  2. Component Analysis of Deposits in Selective Catalytic Reduction System for Automotive Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Neng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, deposits in exhaust pipes for automotive diesel engines were studied by various chemical analysis methods and a kind of analysis process to determine the compositions of organic matter was proposed. Firstly, the elements of the deposits were determined through the element analysis method. Then using characteristic absorption properties of organic functional groups to the infrared spectrum, the functional groups in the deposits were determined. Finally, by GC-MS (gas chromatography - mass spectrometry test, the content of each main component was determined quantitatively. Element analysis results indicated that the deposits adsorbed metal impurities from fuel oil, lubricating oil, mechanical wear and urea water solution. The result of GC-MS test showed that the area percentage of cyanuric acid was the biggest (about 85%, the second was urea (about 4%, and the content of biuret and biurea was scarce.

  3. Nonlinear force feedback control of piezoelectric-hydraulic pump actuator for automotive transmission shift control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Woo; Wang, K. W.

    2008-03-01

    In recent years, researchers have investigated the feasibility of utilizing piezoelectric-hydraulic pump based actuation systems for automotive transmission controls. This new concept could eventually reduce the complexity, weight, and fuel consumption of the current transmissions. In this research, we focus on how to utilize this new approach on the shift control of automatic transmissions (AT), which generally requires pressure profiling for friction elements during the operation. To illustrate the concept, we will consider the 1--> 2 up shift control using band brake friction elements. In order to perform the actuation force tracking for AT shift control, nonlinear force feedback control laws are designed based on the sliding mode theory for the given nonlinear system. This paper will describe the modeling of the band brake actuation system, the design of the nonlinear force feedback controller, and simulation and experimental results for demonstration of the new concept.

  4. 16th International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA)

    CERN Document Server

    Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2012 : Smart Systems for Safe, Sustainable and Networked Vehicles

    2012-01-01

    The ambitious objectives of future road mobility, i.e. fuel efficiency, reduced emissions, and zero accidents, imply a paradigm shift in the concept of the car regarding its architecture, materials, and propulsion technology, and require an intelligent integration into the systems of transportation and power. ICT, components and smart systems have been essential for a multitude of recent innovations, and are expected to be key enabling technologies for the changes ahead, both inside the vehicle and at its interfaces for the exchange of data and power with the outside world. It has been the objective of the International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA) for almost two decades to detect novel trends and to discuss technological implications and innovation potential from day one on. In 2012, the topic of the AMAA conference is “Smart Systems for Safe, Sustainable and Networked Vehicles”. The conference papers selected for this book address current research, developments and i...

  5. The Automotive Situation in Poznań versus other Cities and National Indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Karolina; Kozak, Miłosław; Merkisz, Jerzy; Nijak, Dawid; Wiśniewska, Bożena

    2012-09-01

    Following the dynamic development of the automotive industry and economic changes in the last 20 years Polish transport-related needs and citizen mobility have changed as well. An increased demand for traveling and easy access to individual means of transport in the form of passenger cars put Poznan in the top ten of the largest cities of Poland in terms of the motorization level. The paper analyses the current situation of the level of motorization of the city of Poznan based on statistical data from Central Vehicle and Driver Register, Department of Motor Vehicles in Poznan and published by Central Office of Statistics. A synthetic analysis has been presented of the situation in Poznan against other largest cities of Poland and the average situation in the country. The paper also presents the analysis of the preferences of the citizens of Poznan in terms of engine capacity, type of fuel, engine type as and the most popular vehicle makes.

  6. [Fuel substitution of vehicles by natural gas: Summaries of four final technical reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report contains summary information on three meetings and highlights of a fourth meeting held by the Society of Automotive Engineers on natural gas fueled vehicles. The meetings covered the following: Natural gas engine and vehicle technology; Safety aspects of alternately fueled vehicles; Catalysts and emission control--Meeting the legislative standards; and LNG--Strengthening the links.

  7. The start-up analysis of a PEM fuel cell system in vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbani, Raja Abid; Rokni, Masoud; Hosseinzadeh, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Addressing large load fluctuation in automotive applications, dynamic analysis of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell system is conducted here. Operations of a comprehensive system-level control-oriented fuel cell model with all necessary auxiliary components are demonstrated and simulation ...

  8. Technological aspects in synthesis and characterization of proton conducting polyetheretherketone (PEEK) membranes for fuel cell applications.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vaivars, G

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The research on ion-exchange membranes has grown considerably in recent years with the growing interest in fuel cell technology for the automotive and portable applications. The requirements for a fuel cell membrane are the following: high chemical...

  9. Hydrogen for automotive applications and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberle, U. [Adam Opel GmbH, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    The energy storage system is of decisive importance for all types of electric vehicles, in contrast to the case of vehicles powered by a conventional fossil fuel or bio-fuel based internal combustion engine. Two major alternatives exist and need to be discussed: on the one hand, there is the possibility of electrical energy storage using batteries, whilst on the other hand there is the storage of energy in chemical form as hydrogen and the application of a fuel cell as energy converter. Considering the latter concept, hydrogen is a promising energy carrier in future energy systems. However, storage of hydrogen is a substantial challenge, especially for applications in vehicles with fuel cells that use proton-exchange membranes (PEMs). Different methods for hydrogen storage are discussed, including high-pressure and cryogenic-liquid storage, adsorptive storage on high-surface-area adsorbents, chemical storage in metal hydrides and complex hydrides, and storage in boranes. For the latter chemical solutions, reversible options and hydrolytic release of hydrogen with off-board regeneration are both possible. Reforming of liquid hydrogen-containing compounds is also a possible means of hydrogen generation. The advantages and disadvantages of the different systems are compared. (orig.)

  10. Automotive Manufacturing and Repair Technician Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlinden, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    It's been more than three years since the U.S. automobile industry nearly collapsed. A controversial federal bailout, an increase in consumer demand, and a growing interest in environmentally friendly fuel-efficient vehicles and related technologies have combined to help create a remarkable recovery. Total U.S. sales of light vehicles in 2012 are…

  11. Hemp biofuel for automotive transport. Ukrainian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolodnytska R.V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine takes a fourth place in the world in the technical hemp production and can use waste of hemp for biofuel (including biodiesel production. This paper presents an analysis of cetane numbers and low-temperature properties of hemp biodiesels as well as spray and evaporation of these fuels. Two types of hemp biodiesel fuels are analyzed: Hemp Methyl esters, produced from hemp oil in Ukraine (HM1 and European Union (HM2. It was found that hemp biodiesel has smaller cetane number than traditional rapeseed or soy biodiesel. At the same time hemp biodiesel shows better low-temperature properties compared with traditional biodiesels. So, it was recommended to use the mixture of rapeseed or soy biodiesel with hemp biodiesel to optimise both the low-temperature properties and cetane number of fuel. According to modelling the spray parameters of hemp biodiesel are very close to those of soy biodiesel. Evaporation of hemp biodiesel is very close to soy biodiesel according to previous research. Therefore, mixture of soy/rapeseed and hemp biodiesels can be recommended for experimental investigation as a future fuel for Ukrainian market.

  12. Relationship value antecedents in the South African automotive component supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletta S. Tolmay

    2017-05-01

    Practical/managerial implications: It is suggested that superior supply chain practices within the South African automotive industry might secure business retention. Automotive component suppliers are therefore advised to implement relationship value strategies to promote higher value through personal interaction.

  13. Report for fiscal 2000. Part 4. Research on assistance to put recycling technologies into practical use (Research and development of elevating automotive fuel consumption and exhaust gas technologies); 2000 nendo recycle gijutsu nado jitsuyoka shien kenkyu hokokusho. 4. Jidosha nenpi hai gas gijutsu kodoka kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Discussions have been given on identification of actual status of exhaust gas emission during driving, starting, and idling of automobiles, on technologies to enhance fuel consumption and reduce exhaust gas emission, and on technologies to measure harmful substances. In the investigation of effects of environmental temperatures on evaporation gas, it was shown that fuel evaporation generated from the fuel tank increases as the average ambient temperature rises. In the investigation of effects of environmental temperatures on exhaust gas and fuel consumption, it was discovered that the effects of environmental temperatures on 10{center_dot}15 mode regulated exhaust gas differ depending on vehicles, and no definite difference due to combustion systems was recognized. Carbon monoxide and THC under the 11 mode regulation showed a trend to increase when the environmental temperature falls down. In the investigation of effects of fuel properties on exhaust gas, no definite difference due to combustion systems was recognized as a result of measurements using various types of gasoline having different distillation properties. In the investigation of analysis methods for harmful substances, development has been made on an analysis method mainly for 1-3 butadiene. (NEDO)

  14. A Comprehensive Framework for Information Technology Governance and Localizing it for Automotive Industry of Iran (Case Study: ATLAS Automotive Holding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mosakhani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the absence of a comprehensive framework for IT governance, the main objective of the study is to identify all components of IT governance and present them in the form of a comprehensive IT governance framework .The localization of provided framework for the automotive industry is the secondary objective of the study. In this regard, the research questions are: what is the comprehensive framework of IT governance? What are the components and dimensions of a comprehensive framework of IT governance? What is the localized comprehensive framework of IT governance for the Iranian automotive industry? All researches on IT governance were investigated using meta-synthesis qualitative method and were limited to 96 selected articles by performing a meta-synthesis process. Then, the five categories, 19 concepts and 79 codes of IT governance were identified through detailed study of these articles. Then, a comprehensive framework of IT governance was presented. For localizing, a questionnaire designed based on the identified IT governance components, and distributed among the automotive industry experts. Statistical hypothesis testing of collected data led to the rejection of cross/functional job rotation component in the automotive industry. To demonstrate the applicability of the framework, the IT governance status of ATLAS holding company was evaluated based on the comprehensive framework that localized for automotive industry.

  15. Social media for knowledge sharing in automotive repair

    CERN Document Server

    Finkbeiner, Patric

    2017-01-01

    This book explores, describes and explains the predictors essential for the acceptance of social media as a digital platform to share professional knowledge in the field of automotive repair in Germany. It reports a rigorous literature review covering key elements of social media, knowledge management and technology acceptance studies. The book assumes a pragmatist approach and applies mixed methods in an exploratory sequential design, combining qualitative and quantitative methods to ensure robust collection and analysis of the collected data. Based on a survey on German automotive repair shops, the author provides a framework, for various stakeholders, to comprehend the motivations for knowledge sharing for automotive repair professionals in Germany. This book not only adds to the existing academic body of knowledge but also provides implications for industry and legislation on a European scale. .

  16. An Elderly Employment Model For The Thai Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornrat Sadangharn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at studying an elderly employment model for the Thai automotive industry. Mixed methods with a sequential exploratory strategy were utilized. Grounded theory was employed by using in-depth interviews to investigate the characteristics of elderly employment in the Thai automotive industry. For this stage of the research, theoretical and purposive sampling was used to select 32 key informants from four groups of stakeholders: (1 elderly workers, (2 employers or human resource managers, (3 government officers, and (4 academics. The findings were then validated using a quantitative approach with structural equation modelling (SEM. A total of 308 elderly workers and human resource managers were surveyed regarding their opinion about elderly employment. Based on the survey, the elderly employment model in the Thai automotive industry, which is comprised of the approach to elderly employment, elderly employment preparation, and key success factors for elderly employment, was revealed to be a good fit. 

  17. OASIS: An automotive analysis and safety engineering instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mader, Roland; Armengaud, Eric; Grießnig, Gerhard; Kreiner, Christian; Steger, Christian; Weiß, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel software tool named OASIS (AutOmotive Analysis and Safety EngIneering InStrument). OASIS supports automotive safety engineering with features allowing the creation of consistent and complete work products and to simplify and automate workflow steps from early analysis through system development to software development. More precisely, it provides support for (a) model creation and reuse, (b) analysis and documentation and (c) configuration and code generation. We present OASIS as a part of a tool chain supporting the application of a safety engineering workflow aligned with the automotive safety standard ISO 26262. In particular, we focus on OASIS' (1) support for property checking and model correction as well as its (2) support for fault tree generation and FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) table generation. Finally, based on the case study of hybrid electric vehicle development, we demonstrate that (1) and (2) are able to strongly support FTA (Fault Tree Analysis) and FMEA

  18. Making aerospace technology work for the automotive industry - Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    In many cases it has been found that advances made in one technical field can contribute to other fields. An investigation is in this connection conducted concerning subjects from contemporary NASA programs and projects which might have relevance and potential usefulness to the automotive industry. Examples regarding aerospace developments which have been utilized by the automotive industry are related to electronic design, computer systems, quality control experience, a NASA combustion scanner and television display, exhaust gas analyzers, and a device for suppressing noise propagated through ducts. Projects undertaken by NASA's center for propulsion and power research are examined with respect to their value for the automotive industry. As a result of some of these projects, a gas turbine engine and a Stirling engine might each become a possible alternative to the conventional spark ignition engine.

  19. Financial Crises and Automotive Industry Development in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doner, Richard F.; Wad, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The automotive industries of Southeast Asia have grown significantly but unevenly. Thailand has outperformed its neighbours in Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines with regard to production and, most notably, export volumes. But the Thai auto industry has not exhibited the level of local...... (indigenous) technology capacity and input growth seen in South Korea, Taiwan and, increasingly, in China. The 1997–98 and 2008 financial and economic crises generally reinforced pre-existing national automotive strategies, but to different degrees: They strongly accelerated an earlier Thai move to exports...... whose very success weakened pressures for upgrading; encouraged more moderate automotive liberalisation in Indonesia and, to a lesser extent, in the Philippines; but promoted only minimal changes to Malaysia’s relatively protectionist national car strategy. The fact that the crises served more...

  20. Analysis of Intra-Industry Trade in Turkish Automotive Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Füsun YENİLMEZ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The automotive sector is one of the important sectors affecting the economy of a country. Considering the export and import size of the sector, any kind of work to be done for the sector is important. The analysis of Turkey's situation in the sector will contribute to R&D studies to develop the sector, strategic planning and determination of short, medium and long term targets. The aim of the paper is to determine the location of the Turkish automotive industry in world trade. For this purpose, firstly products in the automotive sector foreign trade were reduced to three sub-digit and included in the evaluation. Grubel-Lloyd index is used in the analysis. As a result of the analyzes, Turkey has been determined separately according to the product groups of the countries that have the most intensive trade in industry.

  1. Exposure to automotive pollution increases plasma susceptibility to oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, James E; Coombes, Jeff S; Geraghty, Dominic P; Fraser, David I

    2002-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein oxidation is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Plasma susceptibility to oxidation may be used as a marker of low-density lipoprotein oxidation and thus predict atherosclerotic risk. In this study the authors investigated the relationship between plasma susceptibility to oxidation and exposure to automotive pollution in a group of automobile mechanics (n = 16) exposed to high levels of automotive pollution, vs. matched controls (n = 13). The authors induced plasma oxidation by a free radical initiator and they determined susceptibility to oxidation by (1) change in absorbance at 234 nm, (2) lag time to conjugated diene formation, and (3) linear slope of the oxidation curve. Mechanics had significantly higher values (mean +/- standard error) for change in absorbance (1.60 +/- 0.05 vs. 1.36 +/- 0.05; p automotive pollutants increases plasma susceptibility to oxidation and may, in the long-term, increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis.

  2. LaFePdO3 perovskite automotive catalyst having a self-regenerative function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hirohisa; Tan, Isao; Uenishi, Mari; Taniguchi, Masashi; Kimura, Mareo; Nishihata, Yasuo; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro

    2006-01-01

    An automotive gasoline engine is operated close to the stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio to convert the pollutant emissions simultaneously, accompanying with redox (reduction and oxidation) fluctuations in exhaust-gas composition through adjusting the air-to-fuel ratio. An innovative LaFe 0.95 Pd 0.05 O 3 perovskite catalyst, named 'the intelligent catalyst', has been developed, and which has a new self-regenerative function of the precious metal in the inherent fluctuations of automotive exhaust-gas. The LaFe 0.95 Pd 0.05 O 3 perovskite catalyst, La located at the A-site, was prepared by the alkoxide method. Pd located at the B-site of the perovskite lattice in the oxidative atmosphere, and segregated out to form small metallic particles in the reductive atmosphere. The catalyst retained a predominantly perovskite structure throughout a redox cycle of the exhaust-gas, while the local structure around Pd could be changed in a completely reversible manner. The agglomeration and growth of Pd particles is suppressed, even under the severe environment, as a result of the movement between inside and outside the perovskite lattice. It is revealed that the self-regenerative function of Pd occurs even at 200 deg. C, unexpectedly low temperature, in the LaFe 0.95 Pd 0.05 O 3 catalyst. Since the high catalytic activity is maintained, the great reduction of Pd loading has been achieved. The intelligent catalyst is expected as a new application of the rare earth, and then the technology is expected in the same way in the global standard of the catalyst designing

  3. The development of fuel cell systems for mobile applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Oosterkamp, P.F.; Kraaij, G.J.; Van der Laag, P.C.; Stobbe, E.R.; Wouters, D.A.J.

    2006-09-15

    The ECN fuel cell related R and D program on fuel cells is linked to the stationary market and the automotive market. This paper will summarize our R and D activities for the automotive market. The role of fuels cells in two transport application area's will be described: the development of dedicated hydrogen based platforms in combination with advanced electricity storage for special logistic applications and the APU (auxiliary power unit) market for passenger cars and trucks, as well as for ships and airplanes. The associated aspects of hydrogen transport and storage, as well as the reforming of logistic fuels and bio-fuels to hydrogen will be described with some illustrative examples. These examples show that an integrated approach using applied catalysis, chemical reactor design and engineering, process simulation, control modelling and electrical engineering is required to address all aspects of the development of fuel cell technology for automotive applications. The paper concludes with a summary of the important environmental and economic drivers that influence the fuel cell market application.

  4. Energizing Engineering Students with Hydrogen Fuel Cell Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, Nori; Zavaleta, Dan

    2010-01-01

    At Desert Vista High School, near Phoenix, Arizona, Perkins Innovation Grant funding is being used to fund a program that is helping to prepare students for careers in engineering by giving them hands-on experience in areas like hydrogen generation and fuel cell utilization. As one enters Dan Zavaleta's automotive and engineering classroom and lab…

  5. Beyond survival: Challenges facing South African automotive component exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Naude

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Objective: The South African automotive component industry faces huge challenges in a very competitive global market. The primary focus of this research article is to determine the challenges facing exporters within this industry with special reference to selected sub-sectors. The challenges are approached from a supply chain perspective only. Problem Investigated: The research problem of this study was to identify these unique challenges and ascertain whether the implementation of a 'philosophy of continuous improvement' could be used as a strategic tool to address the challenges they face in the market. Methodology: This study included a combination of literature review, interviews with managers in the selected sub-groups and questionnaires sent out to determine the challenges facing automotive component exporters. In order to test the content validity and the reliability of the questionnaire, a pilot study was conducted at two organisations that are the main suppliers of automotive filters for passenger vehicles. The non-probability convenience sample technique was used to select the sample and consisted of selected sub-sectors that contribute 64,1% of the total value of automotive component exports in South Africa. Out of twenty-seven questionnaires sent out, twenty (74% response rate were duly completed by the respondents and returned to the researcher. Findings: South Africa faces unique challenges and these are listed and ranked according to priority from most to least important as follows: 1. The reduction of production costs; 2. R/US$ exchange rate effect on the respondent's export sales and profit margin; 3. Exchange rate fluctuations; 4. Threats to the local automotive component market; and 5. Increased competition by way of manufactured imports being sold in the South African market. Value of Research: The study provides recommendations that can be used within the automotive component industry.

  6. Simulation work of fatigue life prediction of rubber automotive components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samad, M S A; Ali, Aidy

    2010-01-01

    The usage of rubbers has always been so important, especially in automotive industries. Rubbers have a hyper elastic behaviour which is the ability to withstand very large strain without failure. The normal applications for rubbers are used for shock absorption, sound isolation and mounting. In this study, the predictions of fatigue life of an engine mount of rubber automotive components were presented. The finite element analysis was performed to predict the critical part and the strain output were incorporated into fatigue model for prediction. The predicted result shows agreement in term of failure location of rubber mount.

  7. Automotive SOI-BCD Technology Using Bonded Wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himi, H.; Fujino, S.

    2008-01-01

    The SOI-BCD device is excelling in high temperature operation and noise immunity because the integrated elements can be electrically separated by dielectric isolation. We have promptly paid attention to this feature and have concentrated to develop SOI-BCD devices seeking to match the automotive requirement. In this paper, the feature technologies specialized for automotive SOI-BCD devices, such as buried N + layer for impurity gettering and noise shielding, LDMOS with improved ESD robustness, crystal defect-less process, and wafer direct bonding through the amorphous layer for intelligent power IC are introduced.

  8. NEW TRENDS AND CHELLENGES IN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY LOGISTICS OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Sabadka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper lays out the main features of the global automotive industry and identifies several important trends. Logistics operations (inbound and outbound in the automotive supply chain are complex and account for large expenses and therefore are segments in the value chainwhere improvements can be made. Better coordination between inbound and outbound logistics contributes to optimising the supply chains, to reducing inventories and to responding to consumer requests. As economies grow, the competition shifts towards brand image and customisation and here the speed and reliability of logistics operations becomes a critical elements.

  9. Environmental management and operational performance in automotive companies in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, C.J.C.; De Sousa Jabbour, A.B.L.; Govindan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to verify the influence of Environmental Management (EM) on Operational Performance (OP) in Brazilian automotive companies, analyzing whether Lean Manufacturing (LM) and Human Resources (HR) interfere in the greening of these companies. Therefore, a conceptual...... framework listing these concepts was proposed, and three research hypotheses were presented. A questionnaire was elaborated based on this theoretical background and sent to respondents occupying the highest positions in the production/operations areas of Brazilian automotive companies. The data, collected...

  10. Evaluation of filtration and distillation methods for recycling automotive coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, P.M.; Gavaskar, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    Government regulations and high waste disposal cost of spent automotive coolant have driven the vehicle maintenance industry to explore on-site recycling. The USEPA in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) and the New Jersey Department of Transportation (NJDOT) evaluated two commercially available technologies that have potential for reducing the volume of spent automotive coolant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of the recycled coolant, the pollution prevention potential, and the economic feasibility of the technologies

  11. Visualization of the air flow behind the automotive benchmark vent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech, Ondrej; Jedelsky, Jan; Caletka, Petr; Jicha, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    Passenger comfort in cars depends on appropriate function of the cabin HVAC system. A great attention is therefore paid to the effective function of automotive vents and proper formation of the flow behind the ventilation outlet. The article deals with the visualization of air flow from the automotive benchmark vent. The visualization was made for two different shapes of the inlet channel connected to the benchmark vent. The smoke visualization with the laser knife was used. The influence of the shape of the inlet channel to the airflow direction, its enlargement and position of air flow axis were investigated.

  12. Visualization of the air flow behind the automotive benchmark vent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pech Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger comfort in cars depends on appropriate function of the cabin HVAC system. A great attention is therefore paid to the effective function of automotive vents and proper formation of the flow behind the ventilation outlet. The article deals with the visualization of air flow from the automotive benchmark vent. The visualization was made for two different shapes of the inlet channel connected to the benchmark vent. The smoke visualization with the laser knife was used. The influence of the shape of the inlet channel to the airflow direction, its enlargement and position of air flow axis were investigated.

  13. Review on the effects of dual-fuel operation, using diesel and gaseous fuels, on emissions and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, A.M.L.M.; Leermakers, C.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the automotive industry has been forced to reduce the harmful and pollutant emissions emitted by direct injected diesel engines. To accomplish this difficult task various solutions have been proposed. One of these proposed solutions is the usage of gaseous fuels in addition to the

  14. A Study of the Awareness Level of Electric Vehicle Technology in California Community College Automotive Curriculums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyzer, James

    California automotive technician programs were surveyed regarding their awareness of the impact that mandates of the Clean Air Act would have on their automotive technology programs. A questionnaire was sent to 100 California community colleges with an automotive technology program; 49 usable questionnaires were returned. A possible byproduct of…

  15. The effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic characteristics of an automotive catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, T. [Michigan-Dearborn Univ., Dearborn, MI (United states). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Automotive catalytic converters that reduce engine exhaust emissions are subject to transient conditions during a typical driving cycle. These conditions arise from changes in driving mode, the hysteresis and flow lags of the feedback control system, and result in fluctuations of air-fuel, exhaust gas flow rates and temperatures. The catalyst performance is also highly influenced by the oxygen storage capacity (OSC). This paper examined the influence of OSC on the catalyst dynamic behavior. The transient conditions were simulated by considering the catalyst subjected to temporal modulation in air-fuel ratio, exhaust gas composition and temperature. The paper presented the mathematical formulation including the development of governing equations. The governing equations were developed by considering the conservation of mass, energy and chemical species. It also presented the results and discussed the effect of sinusoidal modulation in the air-fuel ratio as well as the effect of sinusoidal modulation in exhaust composition. It was concluded that the presence of the OSC sensitivity influenced its response to the imposed modulation. The specific effect was dependent on the operating conditions and the type of the imposed modulations. 10 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  16. Sliding mode observers for automotive alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, De-Shiou

    Estimator development for synchronous rectification of the automotive alternator is a desirable approach for estimating alternator's back electromotive forces (EMFs) without a direct mechanical sensor of the rotor position. Recent theoretical studies show that estimation of the back EMF may be observed based on system's phase current model by sensing electrical variables (AC phase currents and DC bus voltage) of the synchronous rectifier. Observer design of the back EMF estimation has been developed for constant engine speed. In this work, we are interested in nonlinear observer design of the back EMF estimation for the real case of variable engine speed. Initial back EMF estimate can be obtained from a first-order sliding mode observer (SMO) based on the phase current model. A fourth-order nonlinear asymptotic observer (NAO), complemented by the dynamics of the back EMF with time-varying frequency and amplitude, is then incorporated into the observer design for chattering reduction. Since the cost of required phase current sensors may be prohibitive, the most applicable approach in real implementation by measuring DC current of the synchronous rectifier is carried out in the dissertation. It is shown that the DC link current consists of sequential "windows" with partial information of the phase currents, hence, the cascaded NAO is responsible not only for the purpose of chattering reduction but also for necessarily accomplishing the process of estimation. Stability analyses of the proposed estimators are considered for most linear and time-varying cases. The stability of the NAO without speed information is substantiated by both numerical and experimental results. Prospective estimation algorithms for the case of battery current measurements are investigated. Theoretical study indicates that the convergence of the proposed LAO may be provided by high gain inputs. Since the order of the LAO/NAO for the battery current case is one order higher than that of the link

  17. Automotive catalyst strategies for future emission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, W.B.; Summers, J.C.; Scaparo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that while significant advances in Pt/Rh three-way catalyst (TWC) formulations have been accomplished, the use of Pd-containing catalysts for three-way emission control are of interest for overall noble metal cost reduction, lower Rh usage, and potential durability improvements. Applications of Pd are demonstrated for replacement of Pt in conventional Pt/Rh TWC systems, for use in Pd-only three-way catalysts and for lowering methanol and formaldehyde emissions at close-coupled locations on a methanol-fueled vehicle. The individual contributions of Pt, Pd and Rh for aged three-way performance indicate significant advantages of using Pd over Pt. A comparison of vehicle system control strategies illustrates that higher system temperatures significantly lower HC emissions, while air/fuel control strategies are most critical in lowering NO x emissions

  18. Fixing Detroit: how far, how fast, how fuel-efficient

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinbaum, Rob; McManus, Walter

    2009-01-01

    The Automotive Industry Crisis of 2009 is the worst the industry has ever experienced. This paper helps resolve the debate on how much and fast it should change and how it should it respond to demands for increased fuel efficiency. Looking at the actions of successful corporate turnarounds, the lessons are very clear: implement broad, deep, fast change, replace the management team, and transform the culture. We modeled the impacts of different fuel economy standards on profitability and sales...

  19. Modifications for use of methanol or methanol-gasoline blends in automotive vehicles, September 1976-January 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, D.J.; Bolt, J.A.; Cole, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    Methanol or blends of methanol and gasoline as automotive fuels may be attractive means for extending the nation's petroleum reserves. The present study was aimed at identifying potential problems and solutions for this use of methanol. Retrofitting of existing vehicles as well as future vehicle design have been considered. The use of ethanol or higher alcohols was not addressed in this study but will be included at a later date. Several potentially serious problems have been identified with methanol use. The most attractive solutions depend upon an integrated combination of vehicle modifications and fuel design. No vehicle problems were found which could not be solved with relatively minor developments of existing technology providing the methanol or blend fuel was itself engineered to ameliorate the solution. Research needs have been identified in the areas of lubrication and materials. These, while apparently solvable, must precede use of methanol or methanol-gasoline blends as motor fuels. Because of the substantial costs and complexities of a retrofitting program, use of methanol must be evaluated in relation to other petroleum-saving alternatives. Future vehicles can be designed initially to operate satisfactorily on these alternate fuels. However a specific fuel composition must be specified around which the future engines and vehicles can be designed.

  20. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  1. The Effect of Industrial Work Performance Practice and Performance Automotive Electrical Prakti entrepreneurial n Against Interests Automotive Mechanics Class XII Smk Diponegoro Depok Sleman

    OpenAIRE

    Arif Mustofa; Pairun Roniwijaya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (1) the influence of the industrial working practices achievement entrepreneurial interests, (2) the effect of automotive electrical practice achievement against entrepreneurial interests, and (3) influence of achievement and accomplishment industry work practices automotive electrical practices to entrepreneurial interest Automotive Mechanics XII class students of SMK Diponegoro Depok Sleman school year 2012/2013.  The results showed that the test r...

  2. Product waste in the automotive industry : Technology and environmental management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, Peter; Hond, Frank Den

    1993-01-01

    In this article the changes in technology and industry structure forced by waste management in the automotive industry are explored. The analysis is based on (1) a characterisation of corporate response to environmental issues, and (2) the management of technology applied to the car manufacturing

  3. Monitoring active filters under automotive aging scenarios with embedded instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, J.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2012-01-01

    In automotive mixed-signal SoCs, the analogue/mixed-signal front-ends are of particular interest with regard to dependability. Because of the many electrical disturbances at the front-end, often (active) filters are being used. Due to the harsh environments, in some cases, degradation of these

  4. Events as spaces for upgrading : Automotive events in Shanghai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Tuijl (Erwin); K. Dittrich (Koen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis study contributes to the literature dealing with upgrading of the Chinese automotive industry by analysing the role of events in the upgrading process. By combining literature on temporary clusters with that of knowledge sourcing and upgrading, we investigate how firms use events

  5. Supply chain management problems at South African automotive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    competition in global markets, the introduction of products with shorter life cycles, ... employees in the domestic automotive industry has declined, with 16 000 job .... integrates supply and demand management across companies” (Council for .... across the supply chain so that the enterprise can improve performance by ...

  6. Analysis of reconfigurable assembly system framing systems in automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zain Mohamad Zamri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current trend in automotive industry shows increasing demand for multiple models with lean production. Prior to that, automotive manufacturing systems evolved from mass production to flexible automation. Material handling systems and equipment in a single assembly line with multiple models require high investment but with low throughput thus making production cost relatively high. Current assembly process of side structure and undercarriage with downtime occurrence during assembly process affecting production performance (quality, cost and delivery. Manufacturing facilities should allow more flexibility and increase intelligence evolving toward novel reconfigurable assembly systems (RAS. RAS is envisaged capable of increasing factor flexibility and responsiveness by incorporating assembly jig, robot and framing, which could be next generation of world class automotive assembly systems. This project research proposes a new methodology of framework reconfigurable assembly systems principles in automotive framing systems i.e. enhance assembly process between side structure assembly and undercarriage assembly which a new RAS is capable to reconfigure the assembly processes of multiple model on a single assembly line. Simulation software (Witness will be used to simulate and validate current and proposed assembly process. RAS is expected to be a solution for rapid change in structure and for a responsively adjustable production capacity. Quality, cost and delivery are production key parameters that can be achieved by implementing RAS.

  7. Multifunctional Converter Drive for Automotive Electric Power Steering Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackner, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis it is shown that in the case of an automotive electric power steering system, critical pulse power loads can be decoupled from the power net with a storage element and a multifunctional converter. A multifunctional converter system is proposed because it uses the motor drive system as

  8. Temperature control of evaporators in automotive waste heat recovery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oom, M.E.E.; Feru, E.; de Jager, A.G.; de Lange, H.C.; Ouwerkerk, H.

    2017-01-01

    his paper presents a control strategy for the steam generation process in automotive waste heat recovery systems that are based on the subcritical Rankine cycle. The central question is how to regulate the flow of water into the evaporator such that dry steam is generated at its outlet, subject to

  9. Automotive body panel containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Adamson, Douglas (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An automotive body panel containing a polymer composite formed of at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

  10. Sensor fault diagnosis for automotive engines with real data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a new fault diagnosis method using an adaptive neural network for automotive engines is developed. A redial basis function (RBF) network is used as a ... The real data experiments confirm that sensor faults as small as 2% can be detected and isolated clearly. The developed scheme is capable of diagnosing ...

  11. Automotive Manufacturing Assessment System : Volume 1. Master Product Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    Volume I is part of a four volume set documenting areas of research resulting from the development of the Automotive Manufacturing Assessment System (AMAS) for the DOT/Transportation Systems Center. AMAS was designed to assist in the evaluation of in...

  12. Laser surface treatment of grey cast iron for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Tang, P.N.; de Boer, M.C.; de Oliveira, U.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI

    2005-01-01

    The surface of pearlitic grey cast iron was treated using a 2 kW Nd:YAG laser beam with the final aim to improve its surface properties, mainly for automotive applications. Two kinds of laser surface treatments were experimentally applied. In the laser surface hardening approach the surface of cast

  13. Designing Competency-Based Materials for the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Roger L.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the Career Education Center's (Florida State University) development of the "Automotive Mechanics Catalog" (a job inventory noting performance objectives for specific occupational programs), using the Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) model. Also describes the development of curriculum materials using…

  14. Automotive Technology Student Learning Styles and Their Implications for Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threeton, Mark D.; Walter, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to provide Career and Technical Education (CTE) professionals with additional insight on how to better meet the educational needs of the learner, this study sought to identify the preference for learning of postsecondary automotive technology students. While it might appear logical to naturally classify auto-tech students as primarily…

  15. Competency-Based Materials for the Florida Automotive Mechanics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Ludy; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes Florida's new automotive mechanics curriculum, an individualized, self-paced learning sequence that combines text material, review exercises and actual work activities. Development of the materials, including incorporation of Florida's V-TECS catalog of performance objectives in auto mechanics, is described. A field-test experience of a…

  16. Service Station Attendant and Light Automotive Maintenance, Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Jack W.; And Others

    Prepared by instructors and curriculum specialists, this course of study was designed to meet the individual needs of the dropout and/or hard-core unemployed youth by providing training as a service station attendant and light automotive maintenance mechanic. The achievement level of each student is determined at entry, and small instructional…

  17. NEPP Evaluation of Automotive Grade Tantalum Chip Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Mike; Brusse, Jay

    2018-01-01

    Automotive grade tantalum (Ta) chip capacitors are available at lower cost with smaller physical size and higher volumetric efficiency compared to military/space grade capacitors. Designers of high reliability aerospace and military systems would like to take advantage of these attributes while maintaining the high standards for long-term reliable operation they are accustomed to when selecting military-qualified established reliability tantalum chip capacitors (e.g., MIL-PRF-55365). The objective for this evaluation was to assess the long-term performance of off-the-shelf automotive grade Ta chip capacitors (i.e., manufacturer self-qualified per AEC Q-200). Two (2) lots of case size D manganese dioxide (MnO2) cathode Ta chip capacitors from 1 manufacturer were evaluated. The evaluation consisted of construction analysis, basic electrical parameter characterization, extended long-term (2000 hours) life testing and some accelerated stress testing. Tests and acceptance criteria were based upon manufacturer datasheets and the Automotive Electronics Council's AEC Q-200 qualification specification for passive electronic components. As-received a few capacitors were marginally above the specified tolerance for capacitance and ESR. X-ray inspection found that the anodes for some devices may not be properly aligned within the molded encapsulation leaving less than 1 mil thickness of the encapsulation. This evaluation found that the long-term life performance of automotive grade Ta chip capacitors is generally within specification limits suggesting these capacitors may be suitable for some space applications.

  18. Automotive RF immunity test set-up analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, M.J.; Pues, H.; Bousquet, T.; Gillon, R.; Gielen, G.; Baric, A.

    2011-01-01

    Though the automotive RF emission and RF immunity requirements are highly justifiable, the application of those requirements in an non-intended manner leads to false conclusions and unnecessary redesigns for the electronics involved. When the test results become too dependent upon the test set-up

  19. Visual bias in subjective assessments of automotive sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Legarth, Søren Vase

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate how strong the influence of visual input on sound quality evaluation may be, a naive sample of 20 participants was asked to judge interior automotive sound recordings while simultaneously being exposed to pictures of cars. twenty-two recordings of second-gear acceleration...

  20. Control of automotive waste heat recovery systems with parallel evaporators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.P.T.; Rascanu, G.C.; Jager, de A.G.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, Model Predictive Control (MPC) is applied to control a Waste Heat Recovery system for a highly dynamic automotive application. As a benchmark, a commonly applied control strategy is used that consists of a feedforward based on engine conditions and of two PI controllers that