WorldWideScience

Sample records for automotive exhaust gas

  1. Exhaust gas energy recovery system of pneumatic driving automotive engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yongqiang; Sun Wenxu; Li Qinghua; Zhong Ming; Hao Wei; Du Wenchang

    2011-01-01

    Almost the same quantity to net output work of energy has been carried out and wasted by exhaust gas in typical automotive engine. Recovering the energy from exhaust gas and converting to mechanical energy will dramatically increase the heat efficiency and decrease the fuel consumption. With the increasing demand of fuel conservation, exhaust gas energy recovery technologies have been a hot topic. At present, many researches have been focused on heating or cooling the cab, mechanical energy using and thermo-electronic converting. Unfortunately, the complicated transmission of mechanical energy using and the depressed efficiency of thermo-electronic converting restrict their widely applying. In this paper, a kind of exhaust gas energy recovery system of pneumatic driving automotive engine, in which highly compressed air acts as energy storing and converting carrier, has been established. Pneumatic driving motor can produce moderate speed and high torque output, which is compatible for engine using. The feasibility has been certificated by GT-Power simulation and laboratory testes. The technologies about increasing recovery efficiency have been discussed in detail. The results demonstrated that the in parallel exhaust gas energy recovery system, which is similar to the compound turbo-charger structure can recovery 8 to 10 percent of rated power output. At last, a comprehensive system,which includes Rankine cycle based power wheel cycle unit etc. , has been introduced.

  2. Automotive exhaust gas flow control for an ammonia–water absorption refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A considerable part of the energy generated by an automotive internal combustion engine is wasted as heat in the exhaust system. This wasted heat could be recovered and applied to power auxiliary systems in a vehicle, contributing to its overall energy efficiency. In the present work, the experimental analysis of an absorption refrigeration system was performed. The exhaust system of an automotive internal combustion engine was connected to the generator element of an absorption refrigeration system. The performance of the absorption refrigerator was evaluated as a function of the supplied heat. The use of a control strategy for the engine exhaust gas mass flow rate was implemented to optimize the system. Exhaust gas flow was controlled by step-motor actuated valves commanded by a microcontroller in which a proportional-integral control scheme was implemented. Information such as engine torque, speed, key temperatures in the absorption cycle, as well as internal temperatures of the refrigerator was measured in a transient regime. The results indicated that the refrigeration system exhibited better performance when the amount of input heat is controlled based on the temperature of the absorption cycle generator. It was possible to conclude that, by dynamically controlling the amount of input heat, the utilisation range of the absorption refrigeration system powered by exhaust gas heat could be expanded in order to incorporate high engine speed operating conditions. - Highlights: •An absorption refrigerator was driven by automotive exhaust gas heat. •A system for controlling the refrigeration system heat input was developed. •Excessive exhaust gas heat leads to ineffective operation of the refrigerator. •Control of refrigerator's generator temperature led to better performance. •The use of exhaust gas was possible for high engine speeds

  3. Catalysts as Sensors—A Promising Novel Approach in Automotive Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Moos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NOx traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NOx-loading of lean NOx traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters

  4. Catalysts as sensors--a promising novel approach in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NO(x) traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NO(x)-loading of lean NO(x) traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters. PMID:22163575

  5. Effect of ejector dilutors on measurements of automotive exhaust gas aerosol size distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejector dilutors have long been used for automotive exhaust particle sampling, as they can offer a low-cost option for stable dilution. In an ejector dilutor, pressurized air expanding in the periphery of a nozzle draws in and mixes with an exhaust sample which is then led to analytical equipment. The combination of processes involved may lead to particle losses which can affect the measurement. This study examines the losses of diesel exhaust particles of different characteristics (nucleation mode, non-volatile accumulation mode, internally and externally mixed accumulation mode) when these are sampled through an ejector dilutor. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), an electrical low-pressure impactor and a diffusion charger were used as analytical equipment to characterize losses with different instruments. Particle losses were found negligible for all practical applications of diesel exhaust aerosol sampling. Also, the sampling outlet and the operating pressure of the ejector dilutor were found to have a non-measurable effect on the distribution shape. Some variation of the labile nucleation mode particles was attributed to evaporation within the SMPS rather than an ejector effect, and this was confirmed by sampling solid NaCl particles in the same size range. The study further confirms the usability of ejector dilutors for exhaust particle sampling and dilution

  6. The Study of Automotive Exhaust Gas Turbine Power Generation Technology%汽车废气涡轮发电技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇斌

    2015-01-01

    汽车废气涡轮发电是利用汽车尾气能量推动涡轮转动并带动发电机发电的一项技术。基于汽车节能的思想,以东风EQ6100型内燃机为例设计了汽车废气回收利用装置,并从内燃机进气流量入手配合实际循环状态和排气状况,对热量的回收效益和涡轮机功率进行了计算,并对涡轮机结构进行了初步设计,发电机进行了选型匹配。计算得出了汽车废气涡轮发电涡轮机的功率和排气能量大小,证实了利用汽车废气驱动涡轮发电的可行性。%Automotive exhaust gas turbine power generation is a technology to use the car exhaust energy to rotate and drive a turbine generator to generate electricity. Based on the idea of energy-saving cars, taking Dongfeng EQ6100-type internal combustion engine as an example, a vehicle exhaust recycling system was designed. Combining the engine intake air flow rate and the actual cycling situation as well as the exhaust situation, the heat recovery efficiency and turbine power were calculated, turbine structure was preliminarily designed, and the selection of matching generators was carried out. Calculation of the automobile exhaust turbine generator turbine power and exhaust energy confirmed the feasibility of the use of motor vehicle exhaust to drive a turbine to generate electricity.

  7. 汽车燃料和排放物的快速气相色谱分析%HIGH-SPEED GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE FUELS AND EXHAUST SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AKIYAMAK

    2003-01-01

    The chemical analysis of organic compounds in the automotive fuels and exhaust species is an extremely important and complex procedure. For these compounds analysis, gas chromatography is the most widely method used because of its excellent selectivity, and wide dynamic concentration range. Although, analysis time of automotive fuels and exhausts are very long because these are complex mixtures, and target compounds in these samples are very low concentration. Concentrations of some species for example 13-butadiene are change after collection. Long analysis turnaround time make cost increase. The high-speed gas chromatography analysis techniques of automotive fuels and exhaust species are developed, because to decrease turnaround of analysis time is very important for cutback the cost of experiments and ensure of reliability.

  8. Present Situation of Purification Technologies for Automotive Exhaust in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It is presented that eliminating and controlling the current automotive exhaust emission should be important and urgent in China, and the Chinese state emission standards have been getting stricter and stricter. Also the present purification technologies for automotive exhaust are elucidated. It is indicated that the development and the commercialization of Rare Earth based on three way catalytic converters is pretty necessary and urgent to address the current harsh automotive exhaust emission problems in China. In addition, the future automotive exhaust purification technologies are prospected.

  9. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO₂ and NH₃ Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-02-23

    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO₂ and NH₃ gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO₂ and 15 ppm-NH₃ is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time.

  10. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO₂ and NH₃ Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO₂ and NH₃ gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO₂ and 15 ppm-NH₃ is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time. PMID:26907298

  11. Fast automotive diesel exhaust measurement using quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, J.; Brunner, R.; Lambrecht, A.

    2013-12-01

    Step by step, US and European legislations enforce the further reduction of atmospheric pollution caused by automotive exhaust emissions. This is pushing automotive development worldwide. Fuel efficient diesel engines with SCRtechnology can impede NO2-emission by reduction with NH3 down to the ppm range. To meet the very low emission limits of the Euro6 resp. US NLEV (National Low Emission Vehicle) regulations, automotive manufacturers have to optimize continuously all phases of engine operation and corresponding catalytic converters. Especially nonstationary operation holds a high potential for optimizing gasoline consumption and further reducing of pollutant emissions. Test equipment has to cope with demanding sensitivity and speed requirements. In the past Fraunhofer IPM has developed a fast emission analyzer called DEGAS (Dynamic Exhaust Gas Analyzer System), based on cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers. These systems have been used at Volkswagen AG`s test benches for a decade. Recently, IPM has developed DEGAS-Next which is based on cw quantum cascade lasers and thermoelectrically cooled detectors. The system is capable to measure three gas components (i.e. NO, NO2, NH3) in two channels with a time resolution of 20 ms and 1 ppm detection limits. We shall present test data and a comparison with fast FTIR measurements.

  12. Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today’s opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

  13. Measuring soot particles from automotive exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Hanspeter; Lüönd, Felix; Schlatter, Jürg; Auderset, Kevin; Jordan-Gerkens, Anke; Nowak, Andreas; Ebert, Volker; Buhr, Egbert; Klein, Tobias; Tuch, Thomas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Mamakos, Athanasios; Riccobono, Francesco; Discher, Kai; Högström, Richard; Yli-Ojanperä, Jaakko; Quincey, Paul

    2014-08-01

    The European Metrology Research Programme participating countries and the European Union jointly fund a three year project to address the need of the automotive industry for a metrological sound base for exhaust measurements. The collaborative work on particle emissions involves five European National Metrology Institutes, the Tampere University of Technology, the Joint Research Centre for Energy and Transport and the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research. On one hand, a particle number and size standard for soot particles is aimed for. Eventually this will allow the partners to provide accurate and comparable calibrations of measurement instruments for the type approval of Euro 5b and Euro 6 vehicles. Calibration aerosols of combustion particles, silver and graphite proof partially suitable. Yet, a consensus choice together with instrument manufactures is pending as the aerosol choice considerably affects the number concentration measurement. Furthermore, the consortium issued consistent requirements for novel measuring instruments foreseen to replace today's opacimeters in regulatory periodic emission controls of soot and compared them with European legislative requirements. Four partners are conducting a metrological validation of prototype measurement instruments. The novel instruments base on light scattering, electrical, ionisation chamber and diffusion charging sensors and will be tested at low and high particle concentrations. Results shall allow manufacturers to further improve their instruments to comply with legal requirements.

  14. Soft Sensor Model of Automotive Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor%汽车废气氧传感器软测量模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彩虹; 金福江

    2013-01-01

    The model of automotive exhaust gas oxygen sensor is one of the key technologies in the engine air-fuel ratio control system.There exists some deficiencies of the traditional relay model.Adopting a modeling method with tests,a soft sensor model was built between excessive air coefficient,temperature and output voltage.Rough estimation of the parameters were conducted with three-sum methods,and the optimum parameters were found by particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO).And the verification of the model was showed with experimental data.The simulation results show that the model of the sensor has the advantage of simple structure and higher predictive accuracy.It can be used in simulation research of the engine air-fuel ratio control system.%汽车废气氧(EGO)传感器模型是实现发动机空燃比闭环控制的关键技术之一.传统采用的继电器模型,存在一定的不足.采用实验建模的方法,建立了过量空气系数、温度与输出电压之间的软测量模型.利用三段和法对模型参数进行初步估计,得到参数的粗略值,然后利用粒子群优化算法,寻找最优参数,并对所得结果进行检验.仿真结果表明:该软测量模型结构简单,预测精度高,可以用于空燃比闭环控制系统的仿真研究.

  15. Combustion Noise and Pollutants Prediction for Injection Pattern and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Tuning in an Automotive Common-Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsie Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, emissions standards for internal combustion engines are becoming more and more restrictive, particularly for NOx and soot emissions from Diesel engines. In order to comply with these requirements, OEMs have to face with innovative combustion concepts and/or sophisticate after-treatment devices. In both cases, the role of the Engine Management System (EMS is increasingly essential, following the large number of actuators and sensors introduced and the need to meet customer expectations on performance and comfort. On the other hand, the large number of control variables to be tuned imposes a massive recourse to the experimental testing which is poorly sustainable in terms of time and money. In order to reduce the experimental effort and the time to market, the application of simulation models for EMS calibration has become fundamental. Predictive models, validated against a limited amount of experimental data, allow performing detailed analysis on the influence of engine control variables on pollutants, comfort and performance. In this paper, a simulation analysis on the impact of injection pattern and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR rate on fuel consumption, combustion noise, NO and soot emissions is presented for an automotive Common-Rail Diesel engine. Simulations are accomplished by means of a quasi-dimensional multi-zone model of in-cylinder processes. Furthermore a methodology for in-cylinder pressure processing is presented to estimate combustion noise contribution to radiated noise. Model validation is carried out by comparing simulated in-cylinder pressure traces and exhaust emissions with experimental data measured at the test bench in steady-state conditions. Effects of control variables on engine performance, noise and pollutants are analyzed by imposing significant deviation of EGR rate and injection pattern (i.e. rail pressure, start-of-injection, number of injections. The results evidence that quasi-dimensional in

  16. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO2 and NH3 Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfaya, Yacine; Bishop, Chris; Soltani, Ali; Sundaram, Suresh; Aubry, Vincent; Voss, Paul L.; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO2 and NH3 gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO2 and 15 ppm-NH3 is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time. PMID:26907298

  17. Investigation of the Performance of HEMT-Based NO, NO2 and NH3 Exhaust Gas Sensors for Automotive Antipollution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Halfaya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We report improved sensitivity to NO, NO2 and NH3 gas with specially-designed AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT that are suitable for operation in the harsh environment of diesel exhaust systems. The gate of the HEMT device is functionalized using a Pt catalyst for gas detection. We found that the performance of the sensors is enhanced at a temperature of 600 °C, and the measured sensitivity to 900 ppm-NO, 900 ppm-NO 2 and 15 ppm-NH 3 is 24%, 38.5% and 33%, respectively, at 600 °C. We also report dynamic response times as fast as 1 s for these three gases. Together, these results indicate that HEMT sensors could be used in a harsh environment with the ability to control an anti-pollution system in real time.

  18. Comparison between a Water-Based and a Solvent-Based Impregnation Method towards Dispersed CuO/SBA-15 Catalysts: Texture, Structure and Catalytic Performance in Automotive Exhaust Gas Abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Supported copper oxide nanoparticles are a potential candidate for replacing the rare and expensive precious metals within the automotive three-way catalyst. However, a well-designed dispersion method is necessary to allow a stable high loading of active material, compensating its lower intrinsic activity and stability. In this work, a CuO-loaded SBA-15 catalyst has been manufactured by two methods. The ammonia-driven deposition precipitation (ADP and the molecular designed dispersion (MDD methods are both considered as efficient deposition methods to provide well-dispersed copper oxide-based catalysts. Their morphology, copper dispersion and the chemical state of copper were characterized and compared. Due to the differences in the synthesis approach, a difference in the obtained copper oxide phases has been observed, leading to a distinct behavior in the catalytic performance. The structure-activity correlation of both catalysts has also been revealed for automotive exhaust gas abatement. Results demonstrate that various copper species can be formed depending on the precursor–support interaction, affecting selectivity and conversion during the catalytic reaction.

  19. Development of Exhaust Leak Detector Device for Automotive Service Industry: A Prototype Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eida Nadirah Roslin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust system plays a vital role in removing the gaseous emissions that is being produced within the combustion chamber during fuel-air mixture activities. The exhaust system is defined as a series of chambers and pipes that starts at the engine and ends at the back of the car with the tail pipe. However if there are any leaks in the exhaust system, it provide a direct path for the emission gaseous including carbon monoxide to enter can be very dangerous as it provides a direct path for carbon monoxide and other dangerous gaseous emissions to enter the cowl vent at the base of the windshield and directly to the passenger compartment. The risk of exposure to these hazardous gaseous is also high especially during vehicle maintenance services in suspected cases of leakages to the exhaust system.  The inspection of the exhaust system is done manually in most of the automotive services workshops. In this paper, accidental risks of performing these inspection jobs on a vehicle’s exhaust system, performed by a technician are discussed. In order to minimize the risks to technicians or mechanics, a prototype device to detect exhaust leakage was developed using a gas sensor module and a web camera. This device was successfully operated in detecting possible leakages of the exhaust system.

  20. Acoustic Optimization of Automotive Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C. Q.; Ye, B. Q.; Guo, X.; Hui, P.

    2012-06-01

    The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has been increasing with recent advances in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). This study analyzes the acoustic attenuation performance of exhaust-based TEGs. The acoustic characteristics of two different thermal designs of exhaust gas heat exchanger in TEGs are discussed in terms of transmission loss and acoustic insertion loss. GT-Power simulations and bench tests on a dynamometer with a high-performance production engine are carried out. Results indicate that the acoustic attenuation of TEGs could be determined and optimized. In addition, the feasibility of integration of exhaust-based TEGs and engine mufflers into the exhaust line is tested, which can help to reduce space and improve vehicle integration.

  1. La catalyse d'épuration des gaz d'échappement automobiles. Situation actuelle et nouvelles orientations Catalytic Automotive Exhaust Gas Depollution. Present Status and New Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prigent M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article passe en revue les différents systèmes catalytiques de post-traitement utilisés actuellement sur la plupart des automobiles pour limiter leurs rejets de polluants. Les systèmes sont différenciés par leur mode de fonctionnement, le type de moteur à dépolluer (deux-temps, quatre-temps, diesel ou essence ou par leur mode de réalisation. Les nouvelles orientations, prévues pour respecter les futures réglementations antipollution, sont également décrites. On montre que certains véhicules prototypes, équipés de moteurs à combustion interne, sont capables d'avoir des émissions très proches de zéro tout comme les véhicules électriques. A review is made of the various types of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems presently used on most vehicles to reduce pollutant emissions. The systems are differentiated by their mode of action, according to the engine type to be depolluted (two-stroke, four-stroke, diesel or spark-ignition, and by their type of make-up. The major developments foreseen in the future, in view of compliance with the new legislations, are described. It is shown that some prototype vehicles with internal combustion engines are able to emit pollutant quantities really close to zero, such as electric cars.

  2. An automotive transmission for automotive gas turbine power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A joint government-industry program was initiated to investigate the two-shaft gas turbine concept as an alternative to present-day automotive powerplants. Both were examined, compared and evaluated on the basis of the federal automotive driving cycle in terms of specific fuel/power/speed characteristics of the engine and the efficiency and performance of the transmission. The results showed that an optimum match of vehicle, gas turbine engine, and conventional automatic transmission is capable of a significant improvement in fuel economy. This system offers many advantages that should lead to its wide acceptance in future vehicles.

  3. Controlling automotive exhaust emissions: successes and underlying science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Martyn V

    2005-04-15

    Photochemical reactions of vehicle exhaust pollutants were responsible for photochemical smog in many cities during the 1960s and 1970s. Engine improvements helped, but additional measures were needed to achieve legislated emissions levels. First oxidation catalysts lowered hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, and later nitrogen oxides were reduced to nitrogen in a two-stage process. By the 1980s, exhaust gas could be kept stoichiometric and hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides were simultaneously converted over a single 'three-way catalyst'. Today, advanced three-way catalyst systems emissions are exceptionally low. NOx control from lean-burn engines demands an additional approach because NO cannot be dissociated under lean conditions. Current lean-burn gasoline engine NOx control involves forming a nitrate phase and periodically enriching the exhaust to reduce it to nitrogen, and this is being modified for use on diesel engines. Selective catalytic reduction with ammonia is an alternative that can be very efficient, but it requires ammonia or a compound from which it can be obtained. Diesel engines produce particulate matter, and, because of health concerns, filtration processes are being introduced to control these emissions. On heavy duty diesel engines the exhaust gas temperature is high enough for NO in the exhaust to be oxidised over a catalyst to NO2 that smoothly oxidises particulate material (PM) in the filter. Passenger cars operate at lower temperatures, and it is necessary to periodically burn the PM in air at high temperatures.

  4. Exhaust gas emissions from various automotive fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects on health, environment and energy utilization; Avgasemissioner fraan laetta fordon drivna med olika drivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlvik, P.; Brandberg, Aa. [Ecotraffic RandD AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The main aim of the investigation has been to assess the effects on health and environment from various alternative fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects that can be identified and quantified, such as acidification, ozone formation, cancer risk and climate change, have been of primary interest but other effects, such as respiratory diseases, have also been investigated. Data have been collected through literature surveys for subsequent calculation of the mentioned effects in different time-frames. Corrections have been used to take into consideration the influence of climate, ageing and driving pattern. Emissions generated in fuel production have also been accounted for. The most significant and important differences between the fuels have been found for effects as ozone formation cancer risk and particulate emissions. Alternative fuels, such as methanol and methane (natural gas and biogas), significantly decrease the ozone formation in comparison to petrol, while ethanol, methanol and methane are advantageous concerning cancer risk. The particulate emissions are considerably higher for diesel engines fuelled by diesel oil and RME in comparison to the other fuels. In the future, the importance of acid emissions in the fuel production will increase since the NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions will decrease from the vehicles. The emissions of climate gases could be significantly reduced by using non-fossil fuels but the efficiency of the drive train is also of importance. The technical development potential for further emission reductions is considerable for all fuels but the advantage for the best fuel options will remain in the future.

  5. Effect of Thermoelectric Modules' Topological Connection on Automotive Exhaust Heat Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y. D.; Zheng, S. J.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.; Yu, C. G.; Wang, Y. P.

    2016-03-01

    In automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (AETEGs), a certain number of thermoelectric modules are connected in series and/or parallel to recover energy from exhaust gas, which provides a way to improve fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Because of the temperature distribution on the surfaces of heat exchanger, several types of modules are planned for use in an AETEG; however, property disparities among modules exist and wire resistance cannot be neglected in practical application, so experiments have been carried out to research effects of the two factors on the maximum output power of series and parallel connection. The performance of series and parallel connections have been characterized, and mathematic models have been built to analyze and predict the performance of each connection. Experiments and theoretical analysis reveal that parallel connection shows a better performance than series connection when large differences of Seebeck coefficient and resistivity exist. However, wire resistance will cause more significant power dissipation in parallel connection. The authors believe the research presented in this paper is the first to carry out an examination of the impact of module property disparity and wire resistance on the output power of an array of thermoelectric modules connected in series and parallel, which provides a reference for choosing module connection in AETEGs.

  6. Support and promoter effects in automotive exhaust catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepage, M.

    2009-01-01

    Automotive catalysis being a mature technology, it can only be improved by the introduction of new breakthroughs. The ideas generating these technical advances in material science can be found thanks to the synthesis and study of model systems with controlled geometries, compositions, interactions a

  7. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  8. Muffler Design for Automotive Exhaust Noise Attenuation - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Jigar H. Chaudhri,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In these review paper different types of mufflers and design of exhaust system belonging engine has been studied. The object of this study is decide muffler design which one reduces a large amount of noise level and back pressure of engine. In designing, there is different parameter which has to taken in to the consideration. These parameters affect the muffler efficiency.

  9. AGT-102 automotive gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Development of a gas turbine powertrain with a 30% fuel economy improvement over a comparable S1 reciprocating engine, operation within 0.41 HC, 3.4 CO, and 0.40 NOx grams per mile emissions levels, and ability to use a variety of alternate fuels is summarized. The powertrain concept consists of a single-shaft engine with a ceramic inner shell for containment of hot gasses and support of twin regenerators. It uses a fixed-geometry, lean, premixed, prevaporized combustor, and a ceramic radial turbine rotor supported by an air-lubricated journal bearing. The engine is coupled to the vehicle through a widerange continuously variable transmission, which utilizes gearing and a variable-ratio metal compression belt. A response assist flywheel is used to achieve acceptable levels of engine response. The package offers a 100 lb weight advantage in a Chrysler K Car front-wheel-drive installation. Initial layout studies, preliminary transient thermal analysis, ceramic inner housing structural analysis, and detailed performance analysis were carried out for the basic engine.

  10. Impact of chronic exposure to gasoline automotive exhaust gases on some bio-markers affecting the hormonal sexual function, the kidney function and blood parameters, in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automotive exhaust gases constitute an important source of urban pollution. The objective of this study is to explore, in the rat, the effects of repetitive exposure to gasoline automotive exhaust gases on the level variations of serum testosterone, blood lead, bone lead, blood carbon monoxide, on the kidney function and blood parameters. 200 rats inhaling a mixture of air and automotive exhaust gas (10/1, v/v), are distributed in 4 groups treated during 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. They are compared to non treated controls. Our results show a decrease of serum testosterone level. This result is the origin of a masculine sterility already demonstrated in our laboratory. This sterility seems to be reversible because polluted rats regain their sexual activity, 2 months after stopping of the pollutant treatment. An increase of the blood carbon monoxide level with a lead accumulation in blood and in the tail is noticed. Biochemical analyses show that glycaemia, urea, and creatininaemia increase in treated animals. The urinary rate of creatinine decreases. These results indicate kidney deficiency. Our results show also in treated animals an increase of the number of red blood corpuscles, of hematocrit, of the blood level of haemoglobin and of the VGM, and a decrease of the CGMH. The carbon monoxide and the lead detected in blood of the treated animals are the origin of these perturbations. In conclusion, our results show that gasoline automotive exhaust gas induces, in the rat, a decrease of serum testosterone level. The carbon monoxide and the lead present in the exhaust gas, and detected in blood and in the tail of the treated animals, are the origin of sexual, kidney and blood parameters perturbations. (author)

  11. Sorption dehumidification of natural gas exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.; Longo, G.A. (Padua Univ. (Italy)); Piccininni, F. (Politecnico di Bari (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica)

    1992-09-01

    The calorific value of natural gas can be fully utilized only if the water vapour in the exhaust gases is condensed. This can be achieved in condensing boilers. Another possibility is to dry the exhaust before discharge by sorption dehumidification. The sorbent can be regenerated directly by the boiler. The vapour developed in the regenerator can be condensed in a condenser with useful effect. Simulations given an efficiency higher than 97% with respect to the Gross Calorific value. (author).

  12. Exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among global environmental problems, atmospheric pollution has been discussed since relatively old days, and various countermeasures have been taken, but recently in connection with acid rain, the efficient and economical treatment technology is demanded. As the denitration and desulfurization technology for the exhaust gas from the combustion of fossil fuel, the incineration of city trash and internal combustion engines, three is the treatment method by electron beam irradiation. By irradiating electron beam to exhaust gas, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are oxidized to nitric acid and sulfuric acid, and by promoting the neutralization of these acids with injected alkali, harmless salts are recovered. This method has the merit that nitrogen oxides and surfur oxides can be removed efficiently with a single system. In this report, as for the exhaust gas treatment by electron beam irradiation, its principle, features, and the present status of research and development are described, and in particular, the research on the recent exhaust gas treatment in city trash incineration is introduced. This treatment method is a dry process, accordingly, waste water disposal is unnecessary. The reaction products are utilized as fertilizer, and waste is not produced. (K.I.)

  13. Methane oxidation over noble metal catalysts as related to controlling natural gas vehicle exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas has considerable potential as an alternative automotive fuel. This paper reports on methane, the principal hydrocarbon species in natural-gas engine exhaust, which has extremely low photochemical reactivity but is a powerful greenhouse gas. Therefore, exhaust emissions of unburned methane from natural-gas vehicles are of particular concern. This laboratory reactor study evaluates noble metal catalysts for their potential in the catalytic removal of methane from natural-gas vehicle exhaust. Temperature run-up experiments show that the methane oxidation activity decreases in the order Pd/Al2O3 > Rh/Al2O3 > Pt/Al2O3. Also, for all the noble metal catalysts studied, methane conversion can be maximized by controlling the O2 concentration of the feedstream at a point somewhat rich (reducing) of stoichiometry

  14. 40 CFR 89.416 - Raw exhaust gas flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust gas flow. 89.416 Section... Procedures § 89.416 Raw exhaust gas flow. The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods...) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244....

  15. 40 CFR 86.511-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.511... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.511-90 Exhaust gas analytical system. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure F90-3 is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system for analysis...

  16. 40 CFR 86.111-90 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.111... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.111-90 Exhaust gas analytical system. (a) Schematic drawings. Figure B90-7 is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system for analysis...

  17. Gas sensing using porous materials for automotive applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Dominic J; Grand, Julien; Ting, Valeska P; Burke, Richard D; Edler, Karen J; Bowen, Chris R; Mintova, Svetlana; Burrows, Andrew D

    2015-07-01

    Improvements in the efficiency of combustion within a vehicle can lead to reductions in the emission of harmful pollutants and increased fuel efficiency. Gas sensors have a role to play in this process, since they can provide real time feedback to vehicular fuel and emissions management systems as well as reducing the discrepancy between emissions observed in factory tests and 'real world' scenarios. In this review we survey the current state-of-the-art in using porous materials for sensing the gases relevant to automotive emissions. Two broad classes of porous material - zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) - are introduced, and their potential for gas sensing is discussed. The adsorptive, spectroscopic and electronic techniques for sensing gases using porous materials are summarised. Examples of the use of zeolites and MOFs in the sensing of water vapour, oxygen, NOx, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen are then detailed. Both types of porous material (zeolites and MOFs) reveal great promise for the fabrication of sensors for exhaust gases and vapours due to high selectivity and sensitivity. The size and shape selectivity of the zeolite and MOF materials are controlled by variation of pore dimensions, chemical composition (hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity), crystal size and orientation, thus enabling detection and differentiation between different gases and vapours. PMID:25982991

  18. Modelling for Control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Zander, Claes-Göran; Pedersen, Nicolai;

    2013-01-01

    models. While literature is rich on four-stroke automotive engines, this paper considers two-stroke engines and develops a non-linear dynamic model of the exhaust gas system. Parameters are determined by system identication. The paper uses black-box nonlinear model identication and modelling from rst...... principles followed by parameter identication and compares the results of these approaches. The paper performs a validation against experimental data from a test engine and presents a linearised model for EGR control design....

  19. 40 CFR 86.1509 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Engines, New Methanol-Fueled Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum... Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1509 Exhaust gas sampling system. (a) The exhaust gas sampling system shall transport...

  20. Boosting devices with integral features for recirculating exhaust gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2015-12-22

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a turbine housing includes a turbine inlet in fluid communication with a turbine volute configured to house a turbine wheel, the turbine inlet configured to direct an exhaust gas flow from an engine to the turbine wheel. The turbine housing also includes a turbine outlet in fluid communication with the turbine volute, the turbine outlet configured to direct the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas conduit and a first exhaust gas recirculation supply port located on and in fluid communication with the turbine outlet, the first exhaust gas recirculation supply port being configured to direct a portion of the exhaust gas flow to an exhaust gas recirculation supply conduit.

  1. Research on Integration of an Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generator and a Three-Way Catalytic Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y. D.; Chen, Y. L.; Chen, S.; Xianyu, W. D.; Su, C. Q.

    2015-06-01

    A key research topic related to thermoelectric generators (TEGs) for automotive applications is to improve their compatibility with the original vehicle exhaust system, which determines the quality of the exhaust gas treatment and the realization of energy conservation and emission reduction. A new TEG integrated with a three-way catalytic converter (CTEG) by reshaping the converter as the heat exchanger is proposed. A heat-flux coupling simulation model of the integrated TEG is established at the light-off stage of the original three-way catalytic converter (TWC). Temperature distribution maps of the integrated heat exchanger, thermoelectric modules, and cooling-water tank are obtained to present the process of energy flow among the parts of the CTEG. Based on the simulation results, the output power of the CTEG is calculated by a mathematical model. A minimum output power of 31.93 W can be obtained by conversion when the TWC starts working at steady conditions. Theoretically, this case study demonstrates the great potential for use of CTEGs in vehicles.

  2. Simulation and experimental study on thermal optimization of the heat exchanger for automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Q. Su

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric technology has revealed the potential for automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG, which contributes to the improvement of the fuel economy of the engine-powered vehicle. As a major factor, thermal capacity and heat transfer of the heat exchanger affect the performance of TEG effectively. With the thermal energy of exhaust gas harvested by thermoelectric modules, a temperature gradient appears on the heat exchanger surface, so as the interior flow distribution of the heat exchanger. In order to achieve uniform temperature distribution and higher interface temperature, the thermal characteristics of heat exchangers with various heat transfer enhancement features are studied, such as internal structure, material and surface area. Combining the computational fluid dynamics simulations and infrared test on a high-performance engine with a dynamometer, the thermal performance of the heat exchanger is evaluated. Simulation and experiment results show that a plate-shaped heat exchanger made of brass with accordion-shaped internal structure achieves a relatively ideal performance, which can practically improve overall thermal performance of the TEG.

  3. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Rodman, Anthony; Liechty, Michael P.; Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  4. Short review on heat recovery from exhaust gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Hassan; Khaled, Mahmoud; Lemenand, Thierry; Ramadan, Mohamad

    2016-07-01

    The increasing growth of energy demand leads to issues associated with energy demand reduction and propose new energy efficient solutions. Heat recovery consists the most promising solution especially in regions where renewable energy resources are not available. That is why the domain of heat recovery has shown a tremendous improvement during the recent years. On the other hand, few works have been dedicated to heat recovery from exhaust gas. This paper presents a review on heat recovery from exhaust gas. The authors propose to classify exhaust gas heat recovery systems within three different classifications that are exhaust gas temperature, utilized equipment and recovery purposes.

  5. Simulation and Optimization of the Heat Exchanger for Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C. Q.; Huang, C.; Deng, Y. D.; Wang, Y. P.; Chu, P. Q.; Zheng, S. J.

    2016-03-01

    In order to enhance the exhaust waste heat recovery efficiency of the automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator (TEG) system, a three-segment heat exchanger with folded-shaped internal structure for the TEG system is investigated in this study. As the major effect factors of the performance for the TEG system, surface temperature, and thermal uniformity of the heat exchanger are analyzed in this research, pressure drop along the heat exchanger is also considered. Based on computational fluid dynamics simulations and temperature distribution, the pressure drop along the heat exchanger is obtained. By considering variable length and thickness of folded plates in each segment of the heat exchanger, response surface methodology and optimization by a multi-objective genetic algorithm is applied for surface temperature, thermal uniformity, and pressure drop for the folded-shaped heat exchanger. An optimum design based on the optimization is proposed to improve the overall performance of the TEG system. The performance of the optimized heat exchanger in different engine conditions is discussed.

  6. An assessment of consistence of exhaust gas emission test results obtained under controlled NEDC conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balawender, K.; Jaworski, A.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Ustrzycki, A.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements concerning emissions of pollutants contained in automobile combustion engine exhaust gases is of primary importance in view of their harmful impact on the natural environment. This paper presents results of tests aimed at determining exhaust gas pollutant emissions from a passenger car engine obtained under repeatable conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The test set-up was installed in a controlled climate chamber allowing to maintain the temperature conditions within the range from -20°C to +30°C. The analysis covered emissions of such components as CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, THC, and NMHC. The purpose of the study was to assess repeatability of results obtained in a number of tests performed as per NEDC test plan. The study is an introductory stage of a wider research project concerning the effect of climate conditions and fuel type on emission of pollutants contained in exhaust gases generated by automotive vehicles.

  7. Atomic absorbtion spectrometric determination of platinum, palladium and rhodium in catalysts for automotive exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical parameters of the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry method have been optimized for determination of platinum, palladium and rhodium in ceramic-supported catalysts for automobile exhaust gas treatment. Two chemical sample preparation methods have been proposed. In order to simplify the sample preparation procedure and to prevent the possible losses of platinum group metals the treatment of the previously ground sample with a mixture of mineral acids is recommended. (authors)

  8. 40 CFR 1065.127 - Exhaust gas recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas recirculation. 1065.127 Section 1065.127 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.127 Exhaust gas recirculation. Use...

  9. 30 CFR 7.102 - Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. 7.102 Section 7.102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING....102 Exhaust gas cooling efficiency test. (a) Test procedures. (1) Follow the procedures specified...

  10. 40 CFR 86.211-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system. 86.211... analytical system. The provisions of § 86.111-94 apply to this subpart, except that the NOX analyzer is optional. The exhaust gas analytical system must contain components necessary to determine...

  11. 46 CFR 63.25-7 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... drum type exhaust gas steam boiler must have a feed water control system. The system must automatically... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 63.25-7 Section 63.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING AUTOMATIC AUXILIARY...

  12. 30 CFR 36.26 - Composition of exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Composition of exhaust gas. 36.26 Section 36.26... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.26 Composition of exhaust gas. (a) Preliminary engine... immediately at full load and speed. The preliminary liquid-fuel-injection rate shall be such that the...

  13. Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity in compression ignition engines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avinash Kumar Agrawal; Shrawan Kumar Singh; Shailendra Sinha; Mritunjay Kumar Shukla

    2004-06-01

    In diesel engines, NOx formation is a highly temperature-dependent phenomenon and takes place when the temperature in the combustion chamber exceeds 2000 K. Therefore, in order to reduce NOx emissions in the exhaust, it is necessary to keep peak combustion temperatures under control. One simple way of reducing the NOx emission of a diesel engine is by late injection of fuel into the combustion chamber. This technique is effective but increases fuel consumption by 10–15%, which necessitates the use of more effective NOx reduction techniques like exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Re-circulating part of the exhaust gas helps in reducing NOx, but appreciable particulate emissions are observed at high loads, hence there is a trade-off between NOx and smoke emission. To get maximum benefit from this trade-off, a particulate trap may be used to reduce the amount of unburnt particulates in EGR, which in turn reduce the particulate emission also. An experimental investigation was conducted to observe the effect of exhaust gas re-circulation on the exhaust gas temperatures and exhaust opacity. The experimental setup for the proposed experiments was developed on a two-cylinder, direct injection, air-cooled, compression ignition engine. A matrix of experiments was conducted for observing the effect of different quantities of EGR on exhaust gas temperatures and opacity.

  14. Platform for a Hydrocarbon Exhaust Gas Sensor Utilizing a Pumping Cell and a Conductometric Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ralf Moos; Kerstin Wiesner; Diana Biskupski; Andrea Geupel; Maximilian Fleischer

    2009-01-01

    Very often, high-temperature operated gas sensors are cross-sensitive to oxygen and/or they cannot be operated in oxygen-deficient (rich) atmospheres. For instance, some metal oxides like Ga2O3 or doped SrTiO3 are excellent materials for conductometric hydrocarbon detection in the rough atmosphere of automotive exhausts, but have to be operated preferably at a constant oxygen concentration. We propose a modular sensor platform that combines a conductometric two-sensor-setup with an electroche...

  15. Exhaust gas assisted reforming of rapeseed methyl ester for reduced exhaust emissions of CI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions of compression ignition (CI) engines fueled with biodiesel are generally higher compared to conventional diesel fuelling. Previous research work in CI engines has shown that the partial replacement of hydrocarbon fuels by hydrogen combined with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can reduce NOx and smoke emissions without significant changes to the engine efficiency. In the present study, the production of hydrogen-rich gas by catalytic exhaust gas assisted fuel reforming of rapeseed methyl ester (RME) has been investigated experimentally as a way to provide the required hydrogen for the reduction of biodiesel emissions. For comparison, tests with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) were also performed. The reforming experiments were carried out in a mini reactor supplied with exhaust gas from a single cylinder CI engine. In all cases, the reactor inlet temperature was kept at 290-bar C which was chosen as a typical low exhaust gas temperature of diesel engines operating at part load. The engine operating condition (speed, load) was the same in all the tests and the reactor product gas was examined as a function of the reactor fuel flow rate and the composition of fuel and engine exhaust gas. Up to 17% hydrogen content of the reformer product was achieved and the results indicated that the main reactions in the reformer were the exothermic complete oxidation of part of the fuel and the endothermic steam reforming reaction. Reforming of RME produced more hydrogen with higher fuel conversion efficiency compared to ULSD reforming

  16. Thermoelectric Generators for the Integration into Automotive Exhaust Systems for Passenger Cars and Commercial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobenius, Fabian; Gaiser, Gerd; Rusche, Ulrich; Weller, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    A special thermoelectric generator system design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for the integration into the exhaust line of combustion engine-driven vehicles are described. A prototype setup for passenger cars and the effects on the measured power output are shown. Measurement results using this setup show the potential and the limitations of a setup based on thermoelectric modules commercially available today. In a second step, a short outline of the detailed mathematical modeling of the thermoelectric generator and simulation studies based on this model are presented. By this means, it can be shown by which measures an improvement of the system power output can be achieved—even if today's modules are used. Furthermore, simulation studies show how the exhaust gas conditions of diesel- and Otto-engines significantly affect the requirements on thermoelectric materials as well as the potential and the design of the thermoelectric generator. In a further step, the design and the setup of a thermoelectric generator for an application in a commercial vehicle are presented. This thermoelectric generator is designed to be integrated into the exhaust aftertreatment box of the vehicle. Experimental results with this setup are performed and presented. The results show that thermoelectric generators can become an interesting technology for exhaust waste heat recovery due to the fact that they comprise non-moving parts. However, the efficiency of the modules commercially available today is still far from what is required. Hence, modules made of new materials known from laboratory samples are urgently required. With regard to future CO2 regulations, a large market opportunity for modules with a high efficiency can be expected.

  17. Novel catalytic converter for natural gas powered diesel engines to meet stringent exhaust emission regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, M.; Mirosh, E.A. [Alternative Fuel Systems Inc. (Canada); Matros, Yu.S.; Bunimovich, G.A.; Strots, V.O. [Matros Technologies Inc. (United States); Sallamie, N.; Checkel, M.D. [Alberta Univ. (Canada); Windawi, H. [Johnson Matthey (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The implementation of stringent exhaust emission regulations has led to the development of natural gas powered dual fuel systems with electronic multiport injection. The high compression ratio of the baseline diesel engine was maintained to keep the high thermal efficiency of diesel cycles. The dual fuel system is mainly powered by natural gas and ignited by a diesel pilot. Extensive experimental results indicate that the diesel dual fuel system provides simultaneous reductions in NO{sub x} and particulate emissions. The system also has low exhaust THC and CO under heavy-duty operations. With the combined use of exhaust gas recirculation and catalytic converter, low emission operation has been extended to a larger range, from medium to full loads for all testing speeds. However, conventional converters exhibit poor conversion efficiency at low engine loads due to the low exhaust temperature levels. This leads to increased exhaust emissions during low load operations, especially for the non-reactive hydrocarbons, specifically, methane. To solve this problem, a novel automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment system - the reversing flow catalytic converter - has been developed. The prototype Reversing Flow Converter (RFC) consists of a diversion flow valve and a catalytic monolith converter. The diversion valve periodically re-directs the engine exhaust flow through the catalyst in alternative directions. The duration of flow in each direction is determined by engine operating conditions to obtain an ideal temperature profile along the axis of the monolith. The catalytic converter was designed to have high methane conversion efficiency. Associated techniques, such as retarding fuel injection, exhaust gas recirculation, and the variation of diesel pilot to natural gas ratio, can be used to raise exhaust temperature and bring the catalytic converter to light-off temperatures quicker. Engine dynamometer tests showed that CO conversion rate was above 95% and CH{sub 4

  18. Automotive Gas Turbine Power System-Performance Analysis Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    1997-01-01

    An open cycle gas turbine numerical modelling code suitable for thermodynamic performance analysis (i.e. thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, cycle state points, working fluid flowrates etc.) of automotive and aircraft powerplant applications has been generated at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Technology Division. The use this code can be made available to automotive gas turbine preliminary design efforts, either in its present version, or, assuming that resources can be obtained to incorporate empirical models for component weight and packaging volume, in later version that includes the weight-volume estimator feature. The paper contains a brief discussion of the capabilities of the presently operational version of the code, including a listing of input and output parameters and actual sample output listings.

  19. Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Technology Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust waste heat recovery systems have the potential to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy for conventional and hybrid electric powertrains spanning passenger to heavy truck applications. This chapter discusses thermodynamic considerations and three classes of energy recovery technologies which are under development for vehicle applications. More specifically, this chapter describes the state-of-the-art in exhaust WHR as well as challenges and opportunities for thermodynamic power cycles, thermoelectric devices, and turbo-compounding systems.

  20. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    OpenAIRE

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane; Natarajan Alagumurthy; Krishnaraj Palaniradja; G Selvaraj Gunasegarane

    2010-01-01

    Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive...

  1. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  2. Exhaust gas side corrosion of oil fired central heating boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Elsener, M.

    1987-09-01

    While Swiss boiler producers aim primarily at achieving low exhaust gas temperatures, in our northern neighbouring country, lower boiler water temperatures are being set as favourite objectives to be met. The first method aims at reducing the exhaust gas losses, i.e. of the heat content of the exhaust gases; the second one aims at reducing service life losses (= losses in the off-air of the boiler). Flue-gas caused corrosion, however, sets practical limits to the energy-saving reduction of the exhaust gas and boiler water temperatures. To be able to define this practical limit more exactly is the main goal of this project which is supported by NEFF and which is carried out in cooperation with the Institute for Energy Engineering of the ETHZ (Professor P. Suter). In addition to this, however, the author also head to find out about sill inexplained cases of corrosion in boilers which are being operated correctly, i.e. with comparably high boiler water and exhaust gas temperatures.

  3. Simulation of exhaust gas heat recovery from a spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explored various alternatives in improving the energy utilization of spray drying process through the exhaust gas heat recovery. Extensible and user-friendly simulation code was written in Visual Basic for Applications within Microsoft Excel for this purpose. The effects of process parameters were analyzed on the energy efficiency and energy saving in the industrial-scale spray drying system with exhaust gas heat recovery in an air-to-air heat exchanger and in the system with partial recirculation of exhaust air. The spray dryer is equipped with an indirect heater for heating the drying air. The maximum gains of 16% in energy efficiency and 50% in energy saving were obtained for spray drying system equipped with heat exchanger for exhaust air heat recovery. In addition, 34% in energy efficiency and 61% in energy saving for system with recirculation of exhaust air in the present range of process parameters. The high energy efficiency was obtained during drying of large amount of dilute slurry. The energy saving was increased using the large amount of hot drying air. - Highlights: • We model industrial-scale spray drying process with the exhaust gas heat recovery. • We develop an Excel VBA computer program to simulate spray dryer with heat recovery. • We examine effects of process parameters on energy efficiency and energy saving. • High energy efficiency is obtained during drying of large amount of dilute slurry. • Energy saving is increased using the large amount of hot drying air

  4. Field-effect gas sensors and their application in exhaust treatment systems; Feldeffekt-Gassensoren und ihre Anwendung in Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalwig, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Tightening environmental constraints on exhaust gas emissions of gasoline and Diesel engines led to a growing interest in new and highly sophisticated gas sensors. Such sensors will be required in future exhaust gas aftertreatment systems for the selective real time detection of pollutants such as nitric oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Restrictions on cost and device dimensions imposed by the automobile industry make semiconductor gas sensors promising candidates for the realization of cheap and small-size sensor devices. This work deals with semiconductor field effect devices with catalytically active platinum (Pt) electrodes and potential applications of such devices in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. To allow for continuous operation at high temperatures, silicon carbide (SiC) and group III-nitrides such as GaN and AlGaN were used as semiconductor materials. Different devices have been realized with such materials: SiC based MOS capacitors (MOSiC), GaN Schottky diodes and GaN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT). The principle feasibility of SiC and GaN based field effect gas sensors for automotive applications was tested under laboratory conditions using synthetic gas mixtures. Exhaust gas components such as carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxides (NO and NO{sub 2}), various saturated and unsaturated hydro-carbons as well as water vapor, oxygen (O{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) were used as test gases in appropriate concentrations with the sensor devices being operated in a range of temperatures extending from room temperature up to 600{sup o}C. (orig.)

  5. Certification of Pd and Pt single spikes and application to the quantification of Pt and Pd in automotive exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Jochen; Meyer, Christian; Noordmann, Janine; Rienitz, Olaf; Geilert, Sonja

    2014-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies show the effect of increased ambient pollution. Therefore measurement networks for air quality have been installed worldwide and legislation requires the monitoring of air pollution. Besides monitoring it is also important to be able to identify, to quantify and finally to regulate the emission of distinct sources in order to improve the quality of life. Automotive vehicles are a major source of environmental pollution especially through contaminants such as CO, NOX, SOX and hydrocarbons which derive from petrol combustion, while for example Platinum Group Elements (PGE) can be present from catalytic converters. The release of PGE into the environment, however, may be damaging in terms of public health, ecological and economic interests. In order to reliably assess the risks from PGEs, traceable and thus comparable data on the release rates of PGE from automotive catalysers are needed. As no Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are available for such samples the development of analytical procedures enabling SI-traceable results will be challenging. Therefore reference procedures for Pd and Pt in automotive exhaust emissions based on isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) have been developed and applied to specifically sampled automotive exhaust emissions. Due to the commonly known advantages, IDMS often is applied for quantification PGEs, as is the case within this work. The main reasons here are the required accuracy and the low PGE mass fractions in the sample. In order to perform IDMS analysis the analyte element must be available in an isotopically enriched form as so-called spike material or solution thereof, which is mixed with the sample. Unfortunately, no certified PGE spike solutions are available yet. To fill this gap two single PGE spikes, one 106Pd and one 194Pt spike, have been produced and characterized. The selection of the isotopes, the production of the solutions and the ampoulation will be described in this

  6. 40 CFR 86.111-94 - Exhaust gas analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (B) Copies may be inspected at U.S. EPA, OAR, 401 M St., SW., Washington, DC... 40 CFR 1065.275 for the determination of N2O (required for 2015 and later model year vehicles). A... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas analytical system....

  7. New catalysts for exhaust gas cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkoenen, M. [Kemira Metalkat Oy, Oulu (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Major challenge for future catalyst systems was to develop thermally more stable washcoats for close coupled operating conditions and for engines operating under high speed and load conditions. To design these future emission systems extensive research and development was undertaken to develop methods to disperse and stabilize the key catalytic materials for operation at much higher temperatures. Second priority was to design catalysts that are more effective under low temperature exhaust conditions and have improved oxygen storage properties in the washcoats. Incorporating new materials and modified preparation technology a new generation of metallic catalyst formulations emerged, those being trimetallic K6 (Pt:Pd:Rh and bimetallic K7) (Pd+Pd:Rh). The target was to combine the best property of Pt:Rh (good NO{sub x} reduction) with that of the good HC oxidation activity of Pd and to ensure that precious metal/support interactions were positively maintained. Both K6 and K7 concepts contain special catalyst structures with optimized washcoat performance which can be brick converter configuration. Improvement in light-off, thermal stability and transient performance with these new catalyst formulations have clearly been shown in both laboratory and vehicle testing. (author) (20 refs.)

  8. Platform for a hydrocarbon exhaust gas sensor utilizing a pumping cell and a conductometric sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biskupski, Diana; Geupel, Andrea; Wiesner, Kerstin; Fleischer, Maximilian; Moos, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Very often, high-temperature operated gas sensors are cross-sensitive to oxygen and/or they cannot be operated in oxygen-deficient (rich) atmospheres. For instance, some metal oxides like Ga(2)O(3) or doped SrTiO(3) are excellent materials for conductometric hydrocarbon detection in the rough atmosphere of automotive exhausts, but have to be operated preferably at a constant oxygen concentration. We propose a modular sensor platform that combines a conductometric two-sensor-setup with an electrochemical pumping cell made of YSZ to establish a constant oxygen concentration in the ambient of the conductometric sensor film. In this paper, the platform is introduced, the two-sensor-setup is integrated into this new design, and sensing performance is characterized. Such a platform can be used for other sensor principles as well. PMID:22423212

  9. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  10. Experimental study on exhaust gas after treatment using limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhrieh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a simple low-cost exhaust gas after-treatment filter using limestone was developed and tested on a four cylinder DI diesel engine coupled with dynamometer under variable engine running conditions. Limestone was placed in cast iron housing through which exhaust gases passes. The concentration of both carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides were measured with and without the filter in place. It was found that both pollutants were decreased significantly when the filter is in place, with no increase in the fuel consumption rate.

  11. Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Thomas R.

    2009-12-31

    This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

  12. Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-12-10

    An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

  13. Electron beam treatment of exhaust gas with high NOx concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulated exhaust gases with a high NOx concentration, ranging from 200 to 1700 ppmv, were irradiated by an electron beam from an accelerator. In the first part of this study, only exhaust gases were treated. Low NOx removal efficiencies were obtained for high NOx concentrations, even with high irradiation doses applied. In the second part of study, gaseous ammonia or/and vapor ethanol were added to the exhaust gas before its inlet to the plasma reactor. These additions significantly enhanced the NOx removal efficiency. The synergistic effect of high SO2 concentration on NOx removal was observed. The combination of electron beam treatment with the introduction of the above additions and with the performance of irradiation under optimal parameters ensured high NOx removal efficiency without the application of a solid-state catalyst. (paper)

  14. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  15. 75 FR 82040 - Notice of Public Meeting on the International Maritime Organization Guidelines for Exhaust Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Exhaust Gas Cleaning Systems for Marine Engines To Comply with Annex VI to MARPOL 73/78 AGENCY: Coast... meeting on the International Maritime Organization guidelines for exhaust gas cleaning systems for marine...-543 policy letter 09-01 that provide guidance for exhaust gas cleaning systems under MARPOL Annex...

  16. Dual-fuelling of a direct-injection automotive diesel engine by diesel and compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of Compressed Natural Gas in diesel engines has always been important, especially in the field of automotive engineering. This is due to easy accessibility, better mixing quality and good combustion characteristics of the Compressed Natural Gas fuel. In this study the application of Compressed Natural Gas fuel along with diesel oil in a heavy duty direct-injection automotive diesel engine is experimentally investigated. In order to convert a diesel engine into a diesel-gas one, the so called mixed diesel-gasapproach has been used and for this purpose a carbureted Compressed Natural Gas fuel system has been designed and manufactured. For controlling quantity of Compressed Natural Gas, the gas valve is linked to the diesel fuel injection system by means of a set of rods. Then, the dual-fuel system is adjusted so that, at full load conditions, the quantity of diesel fuel is reduced to 20% and 80% of its equivalent energy is substituted by Compressed Natural Gas fuel. Also injection pressure of pilot jet is increased by 11.4%. Performance and emission tests are conducted under variation of load and speed on both diesel and diesel-gas engines. Results show that, with equal power and torque, the diesel-gas engine has the potential to improve overall engine performance and emission. For example, at rated power and speed, fuel economy increases by 5.48%, the amount of smoke decreases by 78%, amount of CO decreases by 64.3% and mean exhaust gas temperature decreases by 6.4%

  17. Experiments and Simulations on a Heat Exchanger of an Automotive Exhaust Thermoelectric Generation System Under Coupling Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Yu, C. G.; Chen, S.; Wang, Y. P.; Su, C. Q.

    2014-06-01

    The present experimental and computational study investigates an exhaust gas waste heat recovery system for vehicles, using thermoelectric modules and a heat exchanger to produce electric power. It proposes a new plane heat exchanger of a thermoelectric generation (TEG) system, producing electricity from a limited hot surface area. To investigate the new plane heat exchanger, we make a coupling condition of heat-flow and flow-solid coupling analysis on it to obtain the temperature, heat, and pressure field of the heat exchanger, and compared it with the old heat exchanger. These fields couple together to solve the multi-field coupling of the flow, solid, and heat, and then the simulation result is compared with the test bench experiment of TEG, providing a theoretical and experimental basis for the present exhaust gas waste heat recovery system.

  18. Investigation of Diesel Exhaust Gas Toxicity on Transient Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivashchenko Nikolay Antonovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the generation of heat engines and their control systems are based on ecological indices such as the toxicity of the fulfilled gases. When designing motors, software packages are widely used. These software packages provide the ability to calculate the workflow of engine at steady-state conditions. The definition of indicators emissions is a difficult task. The distribution statistics of the modes shows that the engines of the transport units work on unsteady modes most of the time. The calculation of toxicity indicators is even less developed. In this article experimental and numeric study of the diesel engine with turbocharger exhaust toxicity was considered. As a result of the experimental study, which was conducted with single-cylinder diesel engine compartment simulated work on the transient state, working process characteristics of a diesel engine were obtained, including carbon and nitrogen oxides concentrations. Functional dependencies of concentrations of toxic exhaust components, such as carbon and nitrogen oxides, on excess air ratio and exhaust temperature were obtained. Diesel engine transient processes were simulated using developed mathematical dynamic model of combined engine in locomotive power plant with a change in control signal (position of locomotive driver’s controller and external influence signal (resistance moment. The analysis of exhaust gas toxicity was conducted.

  19. 4-Nitrophenol, 1-nitropyrene, and 9-nitroanthracene emissions in exhaust particles from diesel vehicles with different exhaust gas treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Fushimi, Akihiro; Sato, Kei; Fujitani, Yuji; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    The dependence of nitro-organic compound emissions in automotive exhaust particles on the type of aftertreatment used was investigated. Three diesel vehicles with different aftertreatment systems (an oxidation catalyst, vehicle-DOC; a particulate matter and NOx reduction system, vehicle-DPNR; and a urea-based selective catalytic reduction system, vehicle-SCR) and a gasoline car with a three-way catalyst were tested. Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and nitrophenols in the particles emitted were analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The secondary production of nitro-organic compounds on the filters used to collect particles and the adsorption of gaseous nitro-organic compounds by the filters were evaluated. Emissions of 1-nitropyrene, 9-nitroanthracene, and 4-nitrophenol in the diesel exhaust particles were then quantified. The NOx reduction process in vehicle-DPNR appeared to remove nitro-hydrocarbons efficiently but not to remove nitro-oxygenated hydrocarbons efficiently. The nitro-PAH emission factors were lower for vehicle-DOC when it was not fitted with a catalyst than when it was fitted with a catalyst. The 4-nitrophenol emission factors were also lower for vehicle-DOC with a catalyst than vehicle-DOC without a catalyst, suggesting that the oxidation catalyst was a source of both nitro-PAHs and 4-nitrophenol. The time-resolved aerosol mass spectrometry data suggested that nitro-organic compounds are mainly produced when an engine is working under load. The presence of 4-nitrophenol in the particles was not confirmed statistically because of interference from gaseous 4-nitrophenol. Systematic errors in the estimated amounts of gaseous 1-nitropyrene and 9-nitroanthracene adsorbed onto the filters and the estimated amounts of volatile nitro-organic compounds that evaporated during sampling and during post-sampling conditioning could not be excluded. An analytical method

  20. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  1. Multi-Objective Optimization Design for Cooling Unit of Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, J. W.; Yu, C. G.; Deng, Y. D.; Su, C. Q.; Wang, Y. P.; Yuan, X. H.

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve the performance of cooling units for automotive thermoelectric generators, a study is carried out to optimize the cold side and the fin distributions arranged on its inner faces. Based on the experimental measurements and numerical simulations, a response surface model of different internal structures is built to analyze the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of fluid flow in the cooling unit. For the fin distributions, five independent variables including height, length, thickness, space and distance from walls are considered. An experimental study design incorporating the central composite design method is used to assess the influence of fin distributions on the temperature field and the pressure drop in the cooling units. The archive-based micro genetic algorithm (AMGA) is used for multi-objective optimization to analyze the sensitivity of the design variables and to build a database from which to construct the surrogate model. Finally, improvement measures are proposed for optimization of the cooling system and guidelines are provided for future research.

  2. Exhaust gas recirculation for advanced diesel combustion cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Analysis of the incremental (cycle-by-cycle) build-up of EGR. • Proposed one-step equations for transient/steady-state gas concentration estimation. • Defined an in-cylinder excess-air ratio to account for the recycled oxygen with EGR. • Demonstrated the use of intake oxygen as a reliable measure of EGR effectiveness. • Demonstrated the impact of engine load and intake pressure on EGR effectiveness. - Abstract: Modern diesel engines tend to utilize significantly large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and high intake pressures across the engine load range to meet NOx targets. At such high EGR rates, the combustion process and exhaust emissions tend to exhibit a marked sensitivity to small changes in the EGR quantity, resulting in unintended deviations from the desired engine performance characteristics (energy efficiency, emissions, stability). An accurate estimation of EGR and its effect on the intake dilution are, therefore, necessary to enable its application during transient engine operation or unstable combustion regimes. In this research, a detailed analysis that includes estimation of the transient (cycle-by-cycle) build-up of EGR and the time (engine cycles) required to reach the steady-state EGR operation has been carried out. One-step global equations to calculate the transient and steady-state gas concentrations in the intake and exhaust are proposed. The effects of engine load and intake pressure on EGR have been examined and explained in terms of intake charge dilution and in-cylinder excess-air ratio. The EGR analysis is validated against a wide range of empirical data that include low temperature combustion cycles, intake pressure and load sweeps. This research intends to not only formulate a clear understanding of EGR application for advanced diesel combustion but also to set forth guidelines for transient analysis of EGR

  3. Treating exhaust gas from a pressurized fluidized bed reaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Juhani; Koskinen, Jari

    1995-01-01

    Hot gases from a pressurized fluidized bed reactor system are purified. Under superatmospheric pressure conditions hot exhaust gases are passed through a particle separator, forming a flitrate cake on the surface of the separator, and a reducing agent--such as an NO.sub.x reducing agent (like ammonia), is introduced into the exhaust gases just prior to or just after particle separation. The retention time of the introduced reducing agent is enhanced by providing a low gas velocity (e.g. about 1-20 cm/s) during passage of the gas through the filtrate cake while at superatmospheric pressure. Separation takes place within a distinct pressure vessel the interior of which is at a pressure of about 2-100 bar, and-introduction of reducing agent can take place at multiple locations (one associated with each filter element in the pressure vessel), or at one or more locations just prior to passage of clean gas out of the pressure vessel (typically passed to a turbine).

  4. Influence of an Optimized Thermoelectric Generator on the Back Pressure of the Subsequent Exhaust Gas System of a Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Roland; Koeppen, Olaf; Kitte, Jens

    2014-06-01

    Numerous research projects in automotive engineering focus on the industrialization of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The development and the implementation of thermoelectric systems into the vehicle environment are commonly supported by virtual design activities. In this paper a customized simulation architecture is presented that includes almost all vehicle parts which are influenced by the TEG (overall system simulation) but is nevertheless capable of real-time use. Moreover, an optimized planar TEG with minimum nominal power output of about 580 W and pressure loss at nominal conditions of 10 mbar, synthesized using the overall system simulation, and the overall system simulation itself are used to answer a generally neglected question: What influence does the position of a TEG have on the back pressure of the subsequent exhaust gas system of the vehicle? It is found that the influence of the TEG on the muffler is low, but the catalytic converter is strongly influenced. It is shown that the TEG can reduce the back pressure of an exhaust gas system so much that its overall back pressure is less than the back pressure of a standard exhaust gas system.

  5. Non-thermal plasma application to the abatement of noxious emissions in automotive exhaust gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments and numerical model calculations on non-thermal plasma treatment of lean combustion exhaust gases were reviewed. It was found that because of the oxygen concentration of several per cent, oxidation of noxious compounds is the prevailing non-thermal plasma-induced process. Therefore nitric oxides cannot be reduced directly, but hybrid processes combining non-thermal plasma pre-treatment with catalytic reduction using either hydrocarbons or ammonia-based reducing agents have to be applied. Plasma-enhanced selective catalytic reduction (PE-SCR) of the nitric oxides emitted from a modern car's diesel engine for values of more than 60% was demonstrated in test bench experiments. For these experiments, a compact dielectric barrier discharge reactor with a flow cross section of 15 cm2 excited by a semiconductor switched pulse voltage source and a urea-based selective catalytic reduction system were applied. The average fuel penalty for this process under urban driving conditions was estimated to be around 2%. Thus PE-SCR has the potential to reduce the NOx emission of diesel cars to values well below future emission standards to be set in force in 2007. A number of investigations on the non-thermal plasma-induced oxidation of diesel soot showed very encouraging results

  6. Measurement of Gas-phase Acids in Diesel Exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzell, J. J.; Liggio, J.; Li, S.; Vlasenko, A. L.; Staebler, R. M.; Brook, J.; Lu, G.; Poitras, M.; Chan, T.

    2012-12-01

    Gas-phase acids were measured using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) as part of the Diesel Engine Emission Research Experiment (DEERE). The CIMS technique, utilizing acetate ion (CH3COO-) as a reagent ion, proved to be a rapid (measurements on the order of seconds) and sensitive (several counts/pptv) method of quantifying the acid emissions. Diluted diesel exhaust measurements were made from a Constant Volume Sampling dilution tunnel using a light duty (1.9L turbocharged Volkswagen Jetta TDI) diesel engine equipped with an OEM diesel oxidation catalyst and exhaust gas recirculation, mounted on an engine dynamometer. Acids measured included isocyanic, nitrous, nitric, propionic and sum of lactic and oxalic, as well as other unidentified compounds. Complimentary measurements of CO, CO2, Total Hydrocarbon (THC), and NOx, were also performed. Several engine modes (different engine rpm and torque outputs) at steady state were examined to determine their effect on acid emissions. Emission rates with respect to NOx and fuel based emission factors were determined. Measurements of HONO fuel emission factors agree well with real-world measurements within a traffic tunnel.1 The first estimate of isocyanic acid emission factors from a diesel engine is reported, and suggests that the emission of this highly toxic compound in diesel exhaust should not be ignored. 1. Kurtenbach, R., Becker, K. H., Gomes, J. A. G., Kleffmann, J.,Lorzer, J. C., Spittler, M., Wiesen, P., Ackermann, R., Geyer, A.,and Platt, U.: Investigations of emissions and heterogeneous formation of HONO in a road traffic tunnel, Atmos. Environ., 35, 3385-3394, doi:10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00138-8, 2001.

  7. Thermally grown oxide films and corrosion performance of ferritic stainless steels under simulated exhaust gas condensate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Five ferritic stainless steels with dissimilar composition included. • Thermal oxide films and performance under exhaust gas condensate conditions studied. • Oxide films grown at 300 and 600 °C show differences in structure and properties. • Performance of alloys with >11.5 wt.% Cr is related to elements Ti, Si, Nb and Mo. • Compositional optimization requires knowledge on several linked processes. - Abstract: Five ferritic stainless steels are characterized in terms of thermally grown oxide films and corrosion performance under simulated exhaust gas condensate conditions. Oxide films developed at 300 °C show only little variation in microstructure and properties between the alloys, whereas those evolved at 600 °C exhibit clear differences. Especially in alloys with >11.5 wt.% chromium, the presence and distribution of such alloying elements as titanium, silicon, niobium and molybdenum are crucial for the film properties and the overall corrosion performance. The results may be exploited in the compositional optimization of the alloys for the cold-end components of automotive exhaust system

  8. Estimation of exhaust gas aerodynamic force on the variable geometry turbocharger actuator: 1D flow model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Estimation of aerodynamic force on variable turbine geometry vanes and actuator. • Method based on exhaust gas flow modeling. • Simulation tool for integration of aerodynamic force in automotive simulation software. - Abstract: This paper provides a reliable tool for simulating the effects of exhaust gas flow through the variable turbine geometry section of a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT), on flow control mechanism. The main objective is to estimate the resistive aerodynamic force exerted by the flow upon the variable geometry vanes and the controlling actuator, in order to improve the control of vane angles. To achieve this, a 1D model of the exhaust flow is developed using Navier–Stokes equations. As the flow characteristics depend upon the volute geometry, impeller blade force and the existing viscous friction, the related source terms (losses) are also included in the model. In order to guarantee stability, an implicit numerical solver has been developed for the resolution of the Navier–Stokes problem. The resulting simulation tool has been validated through comparison with experimentally obtained values of turbine inlet pressure and the aerodynamic force as measured at the actuator shaft. The simulator shows good compliance with experimental results

  9. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  10. Organic Rankine cycle for power recovery of exhaust flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the effects of different working fluids on the performance of organic Rankine cycle (ORC), three working fluids, a mixture that matches with heat source, a mixture that matches with heat sink and a pure working fluid, are selected in this paper. Thermodynamic models were built in Matlab together with REFPROP, with which, the physical properties of the selected working fluids can be acquired. Heat source of the ORC system is the exhaust flue gas of boiler in a 240 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant. Some indicators such as thermal efficiency, inlet temperature of expander, superheat degree, mass flow, volumetric flow, and exergy destruction distribution, as well as the influence of recuperator are studied. The analytical results show that the mixture that matches with heat sink has the greatest efficiency and the mixture that matches with heat source has the lowest superheat degree. The rate of heat exchanged in recuperator to that in evaporator has a maximum value with evaporating pressure. There exists no optimal working fluid for all indicators (thermal efficiency, heat exchanger area, mass flow and volumetric flow etc.). An appropriate working fluid should be chosen by taking both investment cost and power generating benefits into account. The cost-benefit ratio of the proposed ORC plant was evaluated either. - Highlights: • Three types of working fluids are selected for ORC using exhaust flue gas. • The mixture that matches with heat sink has the greatest efficiency. • The mixture that matches with heat source has the lowest superheat degree. • There does not exist a working fluid that satisfies all the indicators

  11. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control for Large Diesel Engines - Achievable Performance with SISO Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Mahler; Blanke, Mogens; Niemann, Hans Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates control possibilities for Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on large diesel engines. The goal is to reduce the amount of NOx in the exhaust gas by reducing the oxygen concentration available for combustion. Control limitations imposed by the system are assessed using linear...

  12. 40 CFR 92.114 - Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sampling of the particulate material may take place (Figure B114-3 of this section) at this point. (i)(A... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas and particulate sampling... Procedures § 92.114 Exhaust gas and particulate sampling and analytical system. (a) General. (1)...

  13. The impact of using biodiesel/marine gas oil blends on exhaust emissions from a stationary diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavalakis, G; Tzirakis, E; Mattheou, L; Stournas, S; Zannikos, F; Karonis, D

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the impact of marine gas oil (MGO)/biodiesel blends on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in a single cylinder, stationary, diesel engine. Three different origins of biodiesel were used as the blending feedstock with the reference MGO, at proportions of 5 and 10% by volume. Methyl esters were examined according to the automotive FAME standard EN 14214. The baseline MGO and biodiesel blends were examined according to ISO 8217:2005 specifications for the DMA category. Independently of the biodiesel used, a decrease of PM, HC, CO and CO(2) emissions was observed. Emissions of NO(x) were also lower with respect to MGO. This reduction in NO(x) may be attributed to some physicochemical properties of the fuels applied, such as the higher cetane number and the lower volatility of methyl esters. Reductions in PM for biodiesel blends were lower in the exhaust than those of the reference fuel which was attributed to the oxygen content and the near absence of sulphur and aromatics compounds in biodiesel. However, a slight increase in fuel consumption was observed for the biodiesel blends that may be tolerated due to the exhaust emissions benefits. Brake thermal efficiency was also determined. Unregulated emissions were characterized by determining the soluble organic fraction content of the particulate matter. PMID:18988104

  14. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part II Dynamic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article describes the technology of marine engine diagnostics making use of dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. Little-known achievements of Prof. S. Rutkowski of the Naval College in Gdynia (now: Polish Naval Academy in this area are presented. A novel approach is proposed which consists in the use of the measured exhaust gas temperature dynamics for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the enthalpy flux of successive pressure pulses of the exhaust gas supplying the marine engine turbocompressor. General design assumptions are presented for the measuring and diagnostic system which makes use of a sheathed thermocouple installed in the engine exhaust gas manifold. The corrected thermal inertia of the thermocouple enables to reproduce a real time-history of exhaust gas temperature changes.

  15. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part I Standard Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of diagnostic informativeness of exhaust gas temperature measurements in turbocharged marine internal combustion engines. Theoretical principles of the process of exhaust gas flow in turbocharger inlet channels are analysed in its dynamic and energetic aspects. Diagnostic parameters are defined which enable to formulate general evaluation of technical condition of the engine based on standard online measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. A proposal is made to extend the parametric methods of diagnosing workspaces in turbocharged marine engines by analysing time-histories of enthalpy changes of the exhaust gas flowing to the turbocompressor turbine. Such a time-history can be worked out based on dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature, performed using a specially designed sheathed thermocouple.

  16. Removal of methane from compressed natural gas fueled vehicle exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the modes of methane (CH4) removal from simulated compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicle exhaust under net oxidizing, net reducing, and stoichiometric conditions. Model reaction studies were conducted. The results suggest that the oxidation of methane with oxygen contributes to the removal of methane under net oxidizing conditions. In contrast, the oxidation of methane with oxygen as well as nitric oxide contributes to its removal under net reducing conditions. The steam reforming reaction does not significantly contribute to the removal of methane. The methane conversions under net reducing conditions are higher than those observed under net oxidizing conditions. The study shows that the presence of carbon monoxide in the feed gas leads to a gradual decrease in the methane conversion with increasing redox ratio, under net oxidizing conditions. a minimum in methane conversion is observed at a redox ratio of 0. 8. The higher activity for the methane-oxygen reaction resulting from a lowering in the overall oxidation state of palladium and the contribution of the methane-nitric oxide reaction toward the removal of CH4 appear to account for the higher CH4 conversions observed under net reducing conditions

  17. Dual-purpose power plants, experiences with exhaust gas purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1984 to 1988, the research and development project ''pollutant reduction for exhaust gases from heat production systems'' sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) has been carried out by TUeV in Bavaria. This project was to show the state of exhaust gas technology for small and medium-sized plants (boilers and motoric heat generators). When publishing the final report, no positive balance could be given. Based on the results, the succession project ''Exhaust gas purification plants in field test'' (ARIF) has been started. This project has the following objectives: -Measuring technical investigation of the exhaust gas purification of motoric driven heat generator systems in field test. - Suitability of hand measuring devices for emissions for a discontinuous control of the exhaust gas purification plat by the operator. - Control of new methods regarding pollutant reduction for motoric and conventional heat generators. (orig.)

  18. Estimating IC engine exhaust gas lambda and oxygen from the response of a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Universal exhaust gas oxygen sensors (UEGOs) are in widespread use in internal combustion engines where they are used to measure lambda (the non-dimensional air–fuel ratio) and oxygen concentration (XO2). The sensors are used on production engines and for research and development. In a previous paper, a model of the UEGO sensor was presented, based on a solution of the Stefan–Maxwell equations for an axisymmetric geometry, and it was shown that for a known gas composition, predictions of the sensor response agreed well with experiment. In the present paper, the more ‘practical’ problem is addressed: how well can such a model predict λ and XO2 based on the sensor response? For IC engine applications, a chemistry model is required in order to predict λ, and such a model is also desirable for an accurate prediction of XO2. A fast (matrix exponential) method of solving the Stefan–Maxwell equations is also introduced, which offers the possibility of a near real-time computation of λ and XO2, with application, for example, to bench instruments. Extensive results are presented showing how the interpretation of the UEGO response may be compromised by uncertainties. These uncertainties may relate not only to the sensor itself, such as temperature, pressure and mean pore diameter, but also the chemistry model. (paper)

  19. Test procedures for measuring exhaust emissions from natural gas transmission engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the measurement of exhaust components from large natural gas transmission engines involves collection of the exhaust sample, transfer of the sample to the analytical instrumentation, measurement of individual component concentrations, and calculations of emission results in terms of mass, fuel specific, and brake specific rates. The major exhaust components measured include nitrogen oxides (NOx), total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxygen (O2). Collection of the exhaust sample requires proper probe design and placement in the exhaust system. Transfer of the sample to the analytical instruments must maintain sample integrity from the point where the sample is removed from the exhaust stream to the point at which the sample enters the instrument for analysis. Various analytical techniques are used to measure the exhaust emission concentrations

  20. Method for controlling exhaust gas heat recovery systems in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Brian L.; Claypole, George M.; Starr, Richard D

    2013-06-11

    A method of operating a vehicle including an engine, a transmission, an exhaust gas heat recovery (EGHR) heat exchanger, and an oil-to-water heat exchanger providing selective heat-exchange communication between the engine and transmission. The method includes controlling a two-way valve, which is configured to be set to one of an engine position and a transmission position. The engine position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the engine, but does not allow heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger and the oil-to-water heat exchanger. The transmission position allows heat-exchange communication between the EGHR heat exchanger, the oil-to-water heat exchanger, and the engine. The method also includes monitoring an ambient air temperature and comparing the monitored ambient air temperature to a predetermined cold ambient temperature. If the monitored ambient air temperature is greater than the predetermined cold ambient temperature, the two-way valve is set to the transmission position.

  1. Development of exhaust gas treatment technologies for environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other pollutants which result from burning fossil fuels has been identified as the major contributor to global warming and climate change. However, for the immediate term over the next 10 - 20 years at least, the world will continue to rely on fossil fuels as the source of primary energy. The challenge for the fossil fuel industry is to find cost-effective solutions that will reduce the release of CO2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The focus of this paper is on the ability to treat the exhaust gas from fossil fuel power plants in order to capture and store the CO2 and remove other pollutants such as SOx and NOx which are released in the atmosphere. In summary, capture/separation costs represent the largest financial impediment for this types of plants. Hence, efficient, cost-effective capture/separation technologies will need to be developed in order to allow their large-scale use. (authors)

  2. On the thermodynamics of waste heat recovery from internal combustion engine exhaust gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    The ideal internal combustion (IC) engine (Otto Cycle) efficiency ηIC = 1-(1/r)(γ - 1) is only a function of engine compression ratio r =Vmax/Vmin and exhaust gas specific heat ratio γ = cP/cV. Typically r = 8, γ = 1.4, and ηIC = 56%. Unlike the Carnot Cycle where ηCarnot = 1-(TC/TH) for a heat engine operating between hot and cold heat reservoirs at TH and TC, respectively, ηIC is not a function of the exhaust gas temperature. Instead, the exhaust gas temperature depends only on the intake gas temperature (ambient), r, γ, cV, and the combustion energy. The ejected exhaust gas heat is thermally decoupled from the IC engine and conveyed via the exhaust system (manifold, pipe, muffler, etc.) to ambient, and the exhaust system is simply a heat engine that does no useful work. The maximum fraction of fuel energy that can be extracted from the exhaust gas stream as useful work is (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot = 32% for TH = 850 K (exhaust) and TC = 370 K (coolant). This waste heat can be recovered using a heat engine such as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with ηTEG> 0 in the exhaust system. A combined IC engine and TEG system can generate net useful work from the exhaust gas waste heat with efficiency ηWH = (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot ×ηTEG , and this will increase the overall fuel efficiency of the total system. Recent improvements in TEGs yield ηTEG values approaching 15% giving a potential total waste heat conversion efficiency of ηWH = 4.6%, which translates into a fuel economy improvement approaching 5%. This work is supported by the US DOE under DE-EE0005432.

  3. Implementation of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Double Stage Waste Heat Recovery System on Large Container Vessel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Morten; Marissal, Matthieu; Sørensen, Kim;

    2014-01-01

    of recovering some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas. This heat is converted into electrical energy used on-board instead of using auxiliary engines. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems, are recirculating a part of the exhaust gas through the engine combustion chamber to reduce emissions. WHRS combined......Concerned to push ships to have a lower impact on the environment, the International Maritime Organization are implementing stricter regulation of NOx and SOx emissions, called Tier III, within emission control areas (ECAs). Waste Heat Recovery Systems (WHRS) on container ships consist...

  4. 40 CFR 91.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. 91.420 Section 91.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... mixing tunnel into which the engine exhaust and dilutant (background) air are dumped; a dilute...

  5. 40 CFR 90.420 - CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CVS concept of exhaust gas sampling system. 90.420 Section 90.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... consist of: a mixing tunnel into which the engine exhaust and dilutant (background) air are dumped;...

  6. Micro- and Nanostructural Characteristics of Particles Before and After an Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Scrubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieke, Kirsten Inga; Rosenørn, Thomas; Pedersen, Jannik;

    2013-01-01

    This work provides insight into the morphology and mixing state of submicron particles in diesel exhaust from a ship engine with an exhaust gas recirculation scrubber. Particles from this low-speed ship engine on test bed were collected using a microiner-tial impactor with transmission electron...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deflections or voltage output of analyzers with non-linear calibration curves shall be converted to... system; diesel engines. 86.1310-90 Section 86.1310-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1310-90 Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel...

  8. Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijmans Johannes G.; Merkel, Timothy C.; Baker, Richard W.

    2012-05-15

    A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

  9. Nonlinear Adaptive Control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Large Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Kræn V.; Blanke, Mogens; Vejlgaard-Laursen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    A nonlinear adaptive controller is proposed for the exhaust gas recirculation system on large two-stroke diesel engines. The control design is based on a control oriented model of the nonlinear dynamics at hand that incorporates fuel flow and turbocharger speed changes as known disturbances to the exhaust gas recirculation. The paper provides proof of exponential stability for closed loop control of the model given. Difficulties in the system include that certain disturbance levels will make ...

  10. Selection оf Parameters for System of Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kukharionok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of various methods for recirculation of diesel engine exhaust gases. An influence of recirculation parameters on economic and ecological diesel engine characteristics has been evaluated in the paper. The paper considers an influence of turbocharger configuration on the intensity of gas recirculation. Specific features of the recirculation system operation in dynamic modes have been shown in the paper. The paper provides recommendations for selection of a diesel engine exhaust gas recirculation system.

  11. In optics humidity compensation in NDIR exhaust gas measurements of NO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine Kirstine; Buchner, Rainer; Clausen, Sønnik;

    2015-01-01

    NDIR is proposed for monitoring of air pollutants emitted by ship engines. Careful optical filtering overcomes the challenge of optical detection of NO2 in humid exhaust gas, despite spectroscopic overlap with the water vapour band. © 2014 OSA.......NDIR is proposed for monitoring of air pollutants emitted by ship engines. Careful optical filtering overcomes the challenge of optical detection of NO2 in humid exhaust gas, despite spectroscopic overlap with the water vapour band. © 2014 OSA....

  12. Design review report for the RMCS exhauster modifications for flammable gas tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, J.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-27

    This report documents the completion of the formal design review for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Exhauster modifications for flammable gas tanks. The RMCS Exhauster modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve Engineering Change Orders and new drawings, at the 100% design completion state. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that the design was acceptable and efforts should continue toward fabrication and delivery.

  13. Air cooling of disk of a solid integrally cast turbine rotor for an automotive gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    A thermal analysis is made of surface cooling of a solid, integrally cast turbine rotor disk for an automotive gas turbine engine. Air purge and impingement cooling schemes are considered and compared with an uncooled reference case. Substantial reductions in blade temperature are predicted with each of the cooling schemes studied. It is shown that air cooling can result in a substantial gain in the stress-rupture life of the blade. Alternatively, increases in the turbine inlet temperature are possible.

  14. Portable Gas Analyzer Based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer for Patrolling and Examining Gas Exhaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuntao Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at monitoring emission of organic gases such as CH4, C2H6, C3H8, iso-C4H10, n-C4H10, C2H4, C3H6, C2H2, CO, and CO2, from coal mines, petroleum refineries, and other plants, a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectrometer was used to develop a portable gas analyzer for patrolling and examining gas exhaust. Firstly, structure of the instrument was introduced. Then, a spectral analysis approach was presented. Finally, instrument was tested with standard gases and with actual gases emitted from a petroleum refinery. For the latter test, a gas chromatograph (GC was used as a reference instrument. The test results showed that the detection limit of every component of analyte was less than 10 × 10−6. The maximum test error of every analyte was less than 15 × 10−6 when its practical concentration was no more than 500 × 10−6. A final comparison showed that the result curves of analytes obtained with FT-IR spectrometer almost overlapped with those obtained with GC, and their resulting noise was less than 6.4% when the practical gas concentration was above 100 × 10−6. As a result, our instrument was suitable to be used as a portable instrument for monitoring exhaust gases.

  15. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1309-90 Exhaust gas sampling system;...

  16. Turbine exhaust diffuser with region of reduced flow area and outer boundary gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosa, John

    2014-03-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inwardly toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. At least one gas jet is provided including a jet exit located on the outer boundary. The jet exit may discharge a flow of gas downstream substantially parallel to an inner surface of the outer boundary to direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the outer boundary to effect a radially outward flow of at least a portion of the exhaust gas flow toward the outer boundary to balance an aerodynamic load between the outer and inner boundaries.

  17. Exhaust gas concentration of CNG fuelled direct injection engine at MBT timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper presents an experimental result of exhaust gas concentration of high compression engine fuelled with compressed natural gas (CNG) at maximum brake torque (MBT). The engine uses central direct injection (DI) technique to inject the CNG into the cylinder. The engine geometry bases on gasoline engine with 14:1 compression ratio and called CNGDI engine. The injectors are positioned within a certain degrees of spark plug location. The objective of the experiment is to study the influence and significant of MBT timing in CNGDI engine towards exhaust gases. The experimental tests were carried out using computer-controlled eddy-current dynamometer, which measures the CNGDI engine performance. At MBT region, exhaust gas concentration as such CO, HC, NOx, O2 and CO2, were recorded and analyzed during the test using the Horiba analyzer. A closed loop wide band lambda sensor has been mounted at the exhaust manifold to indicate the oxygen level during the exercise. (author)

  18. Automotive gasoline quality analysis by gas chromatography: study of adulteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, L.S.; Azevedo, D.A. [Dept. de Quimica Organica, Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); d' Avila, L.A. [Dept. de Processos Organicos, Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-10-01

    The addition of organic solvents (light aliphatic, heavy aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons) in Brazilian gasoline is unfortunately very frequent, and this illicit practice impares gasoline quality. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses can be used as a procedure to improve the detection of adulterated gasoline. The results showed that adulterated samples and also the type of organic solvent used in adulteration can be detected by comparison of chromatographic profiles (standard samples versus adulterated samples). However, a single GC analysis can detect an adulterated gasoline, and so decrease the number of adulterated samples approved as presenting good quality. (orig.)

  19. Fuel economy screening study of advanced automotive gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klann, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel economy potentials were calculated and compared among ten turbomachinery configurations. All gas turbine engines were evaluated with a continuously variable transmission in a 1978 compact car. A reference fuel economy was calculated for the car with its conventional spark ignition piston engine and three speed automatic transmission. Two promising engine/transmission combinations, using gasoline, had 55 to 60 percent gains over the reference fuel economy. Fuel economy sensitivities to engine design parameter changes were also calculated for these two combinations.

  20. Current Techniques of Growing Algae Using Flue Gas from Exhaust Gas Industry: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guanhua; Chen, Feng; Kuang, Yali; He, Huan; Qin, An

    2016-03-01

    The soaring increase of flue gas emission had caused global warming, environmental pollution as well as climate change. Widespread concern on reduction of flue gas released from industrial plants had considered the microalgae as excellent biological materials for recycling the carbon dioxide directly emitted from exhaust industries. Microalgae also have the potential to be the valuable feedback for renewable energy production due to their high growth rate and abilities to sequester inorganic carbon through photosynthetic process. In this review article, we will illustrate important relative mechanisms in the metabolic processes of biofixation by microalgae and their recent experimental researches and advances of sequestration of carbon dioxide by microalgae on actual industrial and stimulate flue gases, novel photobioreactor cultivation systems as well as the perspectives and limitations of microalgal cultivation in further development. PMID:26695777

  1. Cost Benefit Analysis of Using Clean Energy Supplies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Global Automotive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Zhao; Chris Yuan; Huajun Cao; Qiang Zhai

    2011-01-01

    Automotive manufacturing is energy-intensive. The consumed energy contributes to the generation of significant amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by the automotive manufacturing industry. In this paper, a study is conducted on assessing the application potential of such clean energy power systems as solar PV, wind and fuel cells in reducing the GHG emissions of the global auto manufacturing industry. The study is conducted on the representative solar PV, wind and fuel cell clean energy...

  2. Workshop on an Assessment of Gas-Side Fouling in Fossil Fuel Exhaust Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marner, W. J. (Editor); Webb, R. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The state of the art of gas side fouling in fossil fuel exhaust environments was assessed. Heat recovery applications were emphasized. The deleterious effects of gas side fouling including increased energy consumption, increased material losses, and loss of production were identified.

  3. Carbon dioxide capture and use: organic synthesis using carbon dioxide from exhaust gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyo; Kim, Kwang Hee; Hong, Soon Hyeok

    2014-01-13

    A carbon capture and use (CCU) strategy was applied to organic synthesis. Carbon dioxide (CO2) captured directly from exhaust gas was used for organic transformations as efficiently as hyper-pure CO2 gas from a commercial source, even for highly air- and moisture-sensitive reactions. The CO2 capturing aqueous ethanolamine solution could be recycled continuously without any diminished reaction efficiency.

  4. Turbocharger efficiencies in pulsating exhaust gas flow; Turboladerwirkungsgrade in pulsierender Abgasstroemung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aymanns, Richard; Scharf, Johannes; Uhlmann, Tolga [FEV GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Business Unit Gasoline Engines; Pischinger, Stefan [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen

    2012-07-15

    The exhaust pressure pulse amplitudes in downsizing engines challenge the quasi steady modelling of turbocharger turbines in engine process simulation. An early selection of a well matching turbocharger is the key to time efficiency in the concept development phase of engines with ambitious performance and fuel economy targets. This article from FEV and RWTH Aachen assesses the turbocharger efficiencies in pulsating exhaust gas flow and gives a handling recommendation to minimise matching errors. (orig.)

  5. Low-pressure-ratio regenerative exhaust-heated gas turbine. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampe, L.A.; Frenkel, R.G.; Kowalick, D.J.; Nahatis, H.M.; Silverstein, S.M.; Wilson, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    A design study of coal-burning gas-turbine engines using the exhaust-heated cycle and state-of-the-art components has been completed. In addition, some initial experiments on a type of rotary ceramic-matrix regenerator that would be used to transfer heat from the products of coal combustion in the hot turbine exhaust to the cool compressed air have been conducted. Highly favorable results have been obtained on all aspects on which definite conclusions could be drawn.

  6. An approach for exhaust gas energy recovery of internal combustion engine: Steam-assisted turbocharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The calculation method for SAT engine was developed and introduced. • SAT can effectively promote the low-speed performances of IC engine. • At 1500 r/min, intake pressure reaches target value and torque is increased by 25%. • The thermal efficiency of SAT engine only has a slight increase. - Abstract: An approach for IC engine exhaust gas energy recovery, named as steam-assisted turbocharging (SAT), is developed to assist the exhaust turbocharger. A steam generating plant is coupled to the exhaust turbocharged engine’s exhaust pipe, which uses the high-temperature exhaust gas to generate steam. The steam is injected into turbine inlet and used as the supplementary working medium for turbine. By this means, turbine output power and then boosting pressure can be promoted due to the increase of turbine working medium. To reveal the advantages and energy saving potentials of SAT, this concept was applied to an exhaust turbocharging engine, and a parameter analysis was carried out. Research results show that, SAT can effectively promote the low-speed performances of IC engine, and make the peak torque shift to low-speed area. At 1500 r/min, the intake gas pressure can reach the desired value and the torque can be increased by 25.0% over the exhaust turbocharging engine, while the pumping mean effective pressure (PMEP) and thermal efficiency only have a slight increase. At 1000 r/min, the improvement of IC engine performances is very limited due to the low exhaust gas energy

  7. Advanced Gas Turbine (AGT) powertrain system development for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Rotor dynamic instability investigations were conducted. Forward ball bearing hydraulic mount configurations were tested with little effect. Trial assembly of S/N 002 ceramic engine was initiated. Impeller design activities were completed on the straight line element (SLE) blade definition to address near-net-shape powder metal die forging. Performance characteristics of the Baseline Test 2A impeller were closely preserved. The modified blading design has been released for tooling procurement. Developmental testing of the diffusion flame combustor (DFC) for initial use in the S/N 002 2100 F ceramic structures engine was completed. A natural gas slave preheater was designed and fabricated. Preliminary regenerator static seal rig testing showed a significant reduction in leakage and sensitivity to stack height. Ceramic screening tests were completed and two complete sets of ceramic static structures were qualified for engine testing. Efforts on rotor dynamics development to resolve subsynchronous motion were continued.

  8. Thermodynamic control-oriented modeling of cycle-to-cycle exhaust gas temperature in an HCCI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First thermodynamic model in the literature to predict exhaust temperature in HCCI engines. • The model can be used for integrated control of HCCI combustion and exhaust temperature. • The model is experimentally validated at over 300 steady state and transient conditions. • Results show a good agreement between predicted and measured exhaust temperatures. • Sensitivity of exhaust gas temperature to variation of engine variables is shown. - Abstract: Model-based control of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine exhaust temperature is a viable solution to optimize efficiency of both engine and the exhaust aftertreatment system. Low exhaust temperature in HCCI engines can limit the abatement of hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions in an exhaust aftertreatment system. A physical–empirical model is described for control of exhaust temperature in HCCI engines. This model captures cycle-to-cycle dynamics affecting exhaust temperature and is based on thermodynamic relations and semi-empirical correlations. It incorporates intake and exhaust gas flow dynamics, residual gas mixing, and fuel burn rate and is validated with experimental data from a single cylinder engine at over 300 steady state and transient conditions. The validation results indicate a good agreement between predicted and measured exhaust gas temperature

  9. Removal of Carbon Dioxide Gas From the Exhaust Gases Generated at the Takoradi Thermal Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Charles

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Takoradi Thermal Power Station (TTPS generates electricity by burning fossil-fuel and hence it also generates greenhouse gases especially carbon dioxide, which is vented into the atmosphere. These greenhouse gases are pollutants known to cause global warming. A method for the removal of carbon dioxide gas from the exhaust gases generated at TTPS is proposed in this research. It aims at reducing the plant’s carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere and hence reducing the plant’s rate of pollution into the atmosphere. The method employed is a modification of a method known as the Fluor Daniel ECONAMINE FG process. This method removes carbon dioxide from exhaust gas by using an amine solution which comes into “contact” with the exhaust gas in a counter-current manner. This method has been applied by 23 companies which produce CO2 on a large scale. However, before TTPS apply this method a cost feasibility study is recommended.

  10. Dynamic exhaust gas measurement with diode-lasers. Dynamische Abgasmessung mit Diodenlasern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzschke, E.; Wolf, H.

    The future development of internal combustion engines requires an exact knowledge of dynamic processes. Information on the time resolved concentration of single exhaust gas components is of special importance. Measurement techniques should have a time resolution of one combustion cycle. The reported instrument fulfills this requirement and has a response time of 3 ms. The exhaust gas analysis is performed by using a spectroscopic technique with infrared diode lasers. First applications of the system have shown it to be important for the analysis and optimization of modern engines. With gas sampling close to the exhaust valve the combustion process can precisely be analyzed. Strong variations were observed between single combustion cycles. Sampling behind the catalyst high system speed revealed dynamic properties of the catalyst and motor management system. (orig./HW).

  11. Damage of natural stone tablets exposed to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Orsolya; Szabados, György; Török, Ákos

    2016-04-01

    Natural stone tablets were exposed to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions to assess urban stone damage. Cylindrical test specimens (3 cm in diameter) were made from travertine, non-porous limestone, porous limestone, rhyolite tuff, sandstone, andesite, granite and marble. The samples were exposed to exhaust gas that was generated from diesel engine combustion (engine type: RÁBA D10 UTSLL 160, EURO II). The operating condition of the internal combustion engine was: 1300 r/m (app 50%). The exhaust gas was diverted into a pipe system where the samples were placed perpendicular to main flow for 1, 2, 4, 8 and 10 hours, respectively. The exhaust emission was measured by using AVL particulate measurement technology; filter paper method (AVL 415). The stone samples were documented and selective parameters were measured prior to and after exhaust gas exposure. Density, volume, ultrasonic pulse velocity, mineral composition and penetration depth of emission related particulate matter were recorded. The first results indicate that after 10 hours of exposure significant amount of particulate matter deposited on the stone surface independently from the surface properties and porosity. The black soot particles uniformly covered all types of stones, making hard to differentiate the specimens.

  12. Exhaust Gas Emissions from a Rotating Detonation-wave Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. Progress towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model including NOx chemistry is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. The performance of a baseline hydrogen/air RDE increased from 4940 s to 5000 s with the expansion flow chemistry, due to recombination of radicals and more production of H2O, resulting in additional heat release. Work sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  13. A method for removal of CO from exhaust gas using pulsed corona discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Yang, L; Lei, Y; Wang, J; Lu, Y

    2000-10-01

    An experimental study of the oxidation of CO in exhaust gas from a motorcycle has been carried out using plasma chemical reactions in a pulsed corona discharge. In the process, some main parameters, such as the initial CO concentration, amplitude and frequency of pulses, residence time, reactor volume, and relative humidity (RH), as well as their effects on CO removal characteristics, were investigated. O3, which is beneficial to reducing CO, was produced during CO removal. When the exhaust gas was at ambient temperature, more than 80% CO removal efficiency was realized at an initial concentration of 288 ppm in a suitable range of the parameters. PMID:11288300

  14. Feeding a Gas Turbine with Aluminum Plant Exhaust for Increased CO2 Concentration in Capture Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Jordal, Kristin; Anantharaman, Rahul; Genrup, Magnus; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Bakken, Jørn; Lilliestråle, Astrid; Mejdell, Thor; Holt, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum production contributes to global CO2 emissions both due to the production process itself and due to the generation of electric power required for aluminum production. A concept is presented for increasing the CO2 concentration in the aluminum exhaust from ∼1% to ∼5% through the feeding of aluminum plant exhaust gas to a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC). The specific energy demand for CO2 capture is therewith reduced for both the aluminum plant and the NGCC. An evaluation was made of...

  15. ANALYSIS OF EXHAUST GAS EMISSION IN THE MARINE TWO-STROKE SLOW-SPEED DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Lalić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the problem of exhaust emissions of the marine two-stroke slow-speed diesel engines. After establishing marine diesel engine regulations and defining the parameters influencing exhaust emissions, the simulation model of the marine two-stroke slow-speed diesel engine has been developed. Furthermore, the comparison of numerical and experimentally obtained data has been performed, resulting in achieving the model validity at 100% load, which represents a requirement for further exhaust gas analysis. Deviations obtained at the real engine and the model range from 2% to 7%. An analysis of the influential parameters such as compression ratio, exhaust valve timing and fuel injection timing has been performed. The obtained results have been compared and conclusions have been drawn.

  16. 40 CFR 86.109-94 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emission measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto... Year New Light-Duty Vehicles and New Light-Duty Trucks and New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.109-94 Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle vehicles not requiring...

  17. 40 CFR 86.110-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; diesel vehicles. 86.110-90 Section 86.110-90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... connected to a dilution tunnel. Figure B90-5 is a schematic drawing of the PDP system. Figure B90-6 is...

  18. Method and system for the purification of exhaust gas with an electrochemical cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for electrochemical reduction of nitrogen oxides and concomitant oxidation of soot, as well as systems useful therefor. Such methods and systems in particular are useful in the context of exhaust gas purification, in particular for diesel engines....

  19. A Framework for Modular Modeling of the Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas Cleaning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åberg, Andreas; Hansen, Thomas Klint; Linde, Kasper;

    2015-01-01

    Pollutants from diesel engines have a negative effect on urban air quality. Because of this and new legislation restricting the emission level, it is necessary to develop exhaust gas treatment systems for diesel engines that can reduce the amount of pollutants. A modular model capable of simulating...

  20. An overview of exhaust emissions regulatory requirements and control technology for stationary natural gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a practical overview of stationary natural gas engine exhaust emissions control technology and trends in emissions regulatory requirements is presented. Selective and non-selective catalytic reduction and lean burn technologies are compared. Particular emphasis is focussed on implications of the Clean Air Act of 1990. Recent emissions reduction conversion kit developments and a practical approach to continuous monitoring are discussed

  1. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation on diesel engine nitrogen oxide reduction operating with jojoba methyl ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, H.E. [Mechanical Power Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mattaria, Helwan University, 9 k Eltaaweniat, Nasr Road, P.O. Box 11718, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-10-15

    Jojoba methyl ester (JME) has been used as a renewable fuel in numerous studies evaluating its potential use in diesel engines. These studies showed that this fuel is good gas oil substitute but an increase in the nitrogenous oxides emissions was observed at all operating conditions. The aim of this study mainly was to quantify the efficiency of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) when using JME fuel in a fully instrumented, two-cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The tests were carried out in three sections. Firstly, the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the diesel engine operating with diesel fuel and JME at various speeds under full load are determined and compared. Secondly, tests were performed at constant speed with two loads to investigate the EGR effect on engine performance and exhaust emissions including nitrogenous oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and exhaust gas temperatures. Thirdly, the effect of cooled EGR with high ratio at full load on engine performance and emissions was examined. The results showed that EGR is an effective technique for reducing NO{sub x} emissions with JME fuel especially in light-duty diesel engines. With the application of the EGR method, the CO and HC concentration in the engine-out emissions increased. For all operating conditions, a better trade-off between HC, CO and NO{sub x} emissions can be attained within a limited EGR rate of 5-15% with very little economy penalty. (author)

  2. Brayton cycle for internal combustion engine exhaust gas waste heat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Galindo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An average passenger car engine effectively uses about one-third of the fuel combustion energy, while the two-thirds are wasted through exhaust gases and engine cooling. It is of great interest to automotive industry to recover some of this wasted energy, thus increasing the engine efficiency and lowering fuel consumption and contamination. Waste heat recovery for internal combustion engine exhaust gases using Brayton cycle machine was investigated. The principle problems of application of such a system in a passenger car were considered: compressor and expander machine selection, machine size for packaging under the hood, efficiency of the cycle, and improvement of engine efficiency. Important parameters of machines design have been determined and analyzed. An average 2-L turbocharged gasoline engine’s New European Driving Cycle points were taken as inlet points for waste heat recovery system. It is theoretically estimated that the recuperated power of 1515 W can be achieved along with 5.7% improvement in engine efficiency, at the point where engine power is 26550 W.

  3. Interaction between Struts and Swirl Flow in Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffusers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roman Z.PIETRASCH; Joerg R. SEUME

    2005-01-01

    The increasing use of gas turbines in combined cycle power plants together with the high amount of kinetic energy in modem gas turbine exhaust flows focuses attention on the design of gas turbine diffusers as the connecting part between the Brayton/Joule and the Rankine parts of the combined cycle. A scale model of a typical gas turbine exhaust diffuser is investigated experimentally. The test rig consists of a radial type, variable swirl generator which provides the exhaust flow corresponding to different gas turbine operating conditions.Static pressure measurements are carried out along the outer diffuser walls and along the hub of the annular part and along the centerline of the conical diffuser. Velocity distributions at several axial positions in the annular and conical diffuser have been measured using a Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV). Pressure recovery coefficients and velocity profiles are depicted as a function of diffuser length for several combinations of swirl strength, tip flow and strut geometries. The diffuser without struts achieved a higher pressure recovery than the diffuser with struts at all swirl angle settings. The diffuser with cylindrical struts achieved a higher pressure recovery than the diffuser with profiled struts at all swirl angle settings. Inlet flows with swirl angles over 18° affected the pressure recovery negatively for all strut configurations.

  4. Turbine exhaust diffuser with a gas jet producing a coanda effect flow control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosa, John; Montgomery, Matthew

    2014-02-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub structure that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. The hub structure includes at least one jet exit located on the hub structure adjacent to the upstream end of the tail cone. The jet exit discharges a flow of gas substantially tangential to an outer surface of the tail cone to produce a Coanda effect and direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the inner boundary.

  5. Hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hydrogen combustion and exhaust emissions in a supercharged gas engine ignited with micro pilot diesel fuel was discussed in this presentation. A schematic diagram of the experimental study was first presented. The single cylinder, water-cooled, supercharged test engine was illustrated. Results were presented for the following: fuel energy and energy share (hydrogen and diesel fuel); pressure history and rate of heat release; engine performance and exhaust emissions; effect of nitrogen dilution on heat value per cycle; effect of N2 dilution on pressure history and rate of heat release; and engine performance and exhaust emissions. This presentation demonstrated that smooth and knock-free engine operation results from the use of hydrogen in a supercharged dual-fuel engine for leaner fuel-air equivalence ratios maintaining high thermal efficiency. It was possible to attain mor3 than 90 per cent hydrogen-energy substitution to the diesel fuel with zero smoke emissions. figs.

  6. Analysis of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Recovery and Pollution Processing for Z12V190 Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Xuejun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasingly prominent problem regarding rapid economy development and the gradually serious environmental pollution, the waste heat recovery and waste gas pollution processing have received significant attention. Z12V190 diesel engine has high fuel consumption and low thermal efficiency and releases large amounts of exhaust gas and waste heat into the atmosphere, causing serious problems of energy waste and environmental pollution. In this work, the diesel engine exhaust gas components are analysed and the diesel engine exhaust emission rates and exhaust gas waste heat rates are calculated. The calculating results proved the economic feasibility of waste heat recovery from Z12V190 diesel engine exhaust gas. Then, the mainly harmful components are analysed and the corresponding methods of purification and processing about Z12V190 diesel engine exhaust gas pollution discussed. In order to achieve full recovery of waste heat, save energy, purify treatment pollution and ultimate to lay the foundation for waste gas recovery and pollution treatment, the comprehensive process flows of Z12V190 diesel engine exhaust gas pollution processing and waste heat recovery are preliminary designed.

  7. Study of modeling theory of multiphase gas distribution in exhaust process of automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧杰

    2004-01-01

    According to experiments and the phenomena that tailpipes often have dirty particulate matter, this paper takes dynamic theory analysis as its study aim, beginning with the description method of multiphase gas distribution differential equation. According to the characteristics that exhaust gas will flow with high velocity in a tailpipe, it is supposed that gas mass that differ largely will layer when flowing with high velocity in a tailpipe.This means the exhaust gas is mixed with particulate matter, gas with large mass (CO2 ,HC,NOx ) and gas with small mass (CO,H2O,N2 ,O2). The interface of two phase fluid will be become clearer as it flows in the pipe for a long distance. The fluid continuous equation between gas phase and solid phase and the mathematical relationship between the geometry parameter and the flowing are established by a multiphase gas flowing theory. Analyzing the interface and state of layers will provide a basic theory for developing a catalytic converter with high efficiency.

  8. Analysis of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Recovery and Pollution Processing for Z12V190 Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Hou Xuejun; Gao Deli

    2012-01-01

    With the increasingly prominent problem regarding rapid economy development and the gradually serious environmental pollution, the waste heat recovery and waste gas pollution processing have received significant attention. Z12V190 diesel engine has high fuel consumption and low thermal efficiency and releases large amounts of exhaust gas and waste heat into the atmosphere, causing serious problems of energy waste and environmental pollution. In this work, the diesel engine exhaust gas compone...

  9. Exhaust Gas Recirculation in Gas Turbines for Reduction of CO2 Emissions; Combustion Testing with Focus on Stability and Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan E. Hustad

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas recirculation can be applied with the intention of reducing CO2 emissions. When a fraction of the exhaust gas is injected in the entry of a gas turbine, the amount of CO2 in the exhaust gas not being recirculated will be higher and less complicated to capture. However, with this change in combustion air composition, especially the reduced concentration of oxygen, the combustion process will be affected. The lower oxygen concentration decreases the stability and the increased amount of CO2, H2O and N2 will decrease the combustion temperature and thus, the NOx emissions. Testing has been performed on a 65 kW gas turbine combustor, to investigate the effect of adding N2, CO2 and O2 in the combustion process, with focus on stability and emissions of NOx. Results show that adding N2 and CO2 decreases the NOx emissions, whereas O2 addition increases the NOx emissions. The tests have been performed both in a diffusion flame (pilot burner and a premixed flame (main burner, and for additives being injected with the fuel or with the air stream. Addition into the fuel stream is proven to affect the NOx emissions the most. The stability limits of the flames are indicated with respect to mass-based additive-to-fuel ratios.

  10. Experimental research on exhaust gas purifying facilities in incinerating treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the research on the incinerating treatment of combustible low level wastes, three items, that is, combustible low level radioactive wastes and incinerating treatment method, wet type exhaust gas purifying facilities and ceramic filter type dry exhaust gas purifying facilities, were selected, and experimental research was carried out on the main theme of exhaust gas purification in the incineration of low level radioactive wastes. The definition of combustible low level radioactive wastes was decided, and the wastes conforming to this criteria were investigated and classified. The combustible low level wastes generated in the Tokai Research Establishment were classified and weighed, and the results reflected well the state of activities. The change of radioactive wastes to radioactive aerosol, radioactive gas and residue by incineration was investigated. The effect of volume reduction by incineration was studied. The decontamination performance of wet purifying system, the release of tritium steam, the cooling capacity of scrubbers and their corrosion, the construction of the test incinerator using ceramic filters, and the various tests on ceramic filters are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Nonlinear Adaptive Control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation for Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Vejlgaard-Laursen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    recirculation. The paper provides proof of exponential stabilityfor closed loop control of the model given. Difficulties in the system include that certaindisturbance levels will make a desired setpoint in O2 unreachable, for reasons of the physics of thesystem, and it is proven that the proposed control......A nonlinear adaptive controller is proposed for the exhaust gas recirculation systemon large two-stroke diesel engines. The control design is based on a control oriented model ofthe nonlinear dynamics at hand that incorporates load and engine speed changes as knowndisturbances to the exhaust gas...... will make the system converge exponentiallyto the best achievable state. Simulation examples confirm convergence and good disturbancerejection over relevant operational ranges of the engine....

  12. Developing compressed natural gas as an automotive fuel in Nigeria: Lessons from international markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nigerian government proposed the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an automotive fuel in 1997 as part of the initiatives to harness natural gas (NG) resources but progress has been slow. This paper examines the natural gas vehicle (NGV) implementation approaches and outcomes in seven countries with diverse experiences in order to gain an understanding of the barriers to the NGV market development in Nigeria. The analysis employs hermeneutic principles to secondary data derived from academic literature, published reports from a variety of international agencies, grey literature, and text from online sources and identifies eight success factors for NGV market development namely: strategic intent, legal backing, learning and adaptation, assignment of responsibilities, financial incentives, NG pricing, consumer confidence, and NG infrastructure. The paper concludes that the principal impediment to NGV market development in Nigeria is the uncoordinated implementation approach and that greater government involvement is required in setting strategic goals, developing the legal and regulatory frameworks, setting of clear standards for vehicles and refuelling stations as well as assigning responsibilities to specific agencies. Short-term low cost policy interventions identified include widening the existing NG and gasoline price gap and offering limited support for refuelling and retrofitting facilities. - Highlights: • We examined the NGV policies and implementation strategies in selected countries. • The use of legislative mandates help deepen NGV penetration. • Aligning stakeholder interest is critical to NGV adoption. • Making national interest a priority ahead of regional infrastructure is a critical success factor. • Government support drives participation

  13. 5th international exhaust gas and particulate emissions forum. Proceedings; 5. Internationales Forum Abgas- und Partikelemissionen. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-11

    The Proceedings of the 5th International Exhaust Gas and Particulate Emissions Forum contains 22 printed contributions as well as a CD-ROM. The titles of them are: (1) Diesel Emissions Control in the United States - 2010 and Beyond; (2) The MBE90 commercial vehicle engine for EPA '07 emissions regulations; (3) Concepts for engines and exhaust-gas cleaning systems for heavy duty trucks of the future; (4) HD Engine Technology for Near-Zero Emissions and Lowest Cost of Ownership; (5) (Partially-) Homogeneous Diesel Combustion; (6) Exhaust gas sensors for NOx storage catalysts and ammonia-SCR systems; (7) Sensors for modern exhaust gas after-treatment systems; (8) New reducing agents for low NOx-SCR Techno-logy; (9) Exhaust gas Aftertreatment on Lean Burn Gasoline Direct Injection Engines: The System of TWC and NOx-Storage Catalyst; (10) New Platinum/Palladium based catalyzed filter technologies for future passenger car applications; (11) Development of a Roadway Hydrocarbon Sorption Model and Characterization of a Novel PM Generator; (12) Requirements for current and future particulate measurement instrumentation from the point of view of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt; (13) Standardized dilution conditions for gravimetric PM sampling - measures to assure results that correlate; (14) Particle Counting according PMP; (15) Future high-confidence measurement of diesel particulate emissions for approval and development; (16) New developments in optical instrumentation for exhaust gas; (17) Simultaneous Detection of Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Components by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy; (18) Boundaries of modern exhaust gas instrumentation; (19) Raising quality and reducing application effort through efficient data input to the particulate filter load model for a EURO5 diesel car; (20) Stop-start operation of diesel engines - modified require-ment for exhaust gas after-treatment?; (21) Particulates emission with Biodiesel B30 impact on CSF management; (22

  14. Evaluation of Exhaust Gas Condensing Economizer Installation at Riga CHP Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zigurs, Aris; Kunickis, Maris; Balodis, Maris; Linkevics, Olegs; Stuklis, Ilmars; Ivanova, Polina

    2015-01-01

    In this study, passive exhaust gas condensing economizer installation is evaluated at Riga CHP plants No. 1 and No. 2 to increase efficiency of heat only boilers (HOBs). Five options are investigated: two options for Riga CHP plant No. 1 and three options for Riga CHP plant No. 2. The study provides the analysis of HOBs operation statistics, determination of HOBs operation trends, development of production programmes, as well as economic and sensitivity analysis of the considered options. Bas...

  15. Investigation of Materials for Use in Exhaust Gas Condensate Environment with Focus on EGR systems

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) ar en teknik som anvands for dieselmotorer, for att mota de hart satta utslappskraven for kvaveoxider. EGR fungerar genom att en del av avgaserna aterfors till cylindrarna. Avgaserna gor sa att den maximala forbranningstemperaturen sanks, vilket kraftigt reducerar bildandet av kvaveoxider. Dieselavgaser inneh aller framst CO2, NOx, SO2 och H2O och innan avgasernaaterfors till cylindrarna kyls de ner. Detta leder till att det bildas ett korrosivt kondensat, eft...

  16. Analysis of impulse electric field effect on organic exhaust gas decomposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The technique of organic exhaust gas decomposition with impulse corono-dischrge plasma has been investigated in this study. It has been discovered that the impulse electric fieldaffected the decomposition efficiency with the secondary electron emission coefficient (δ of the corona electrode as an intermediate: when W was fixed the corona electrode material with higher δcould induce higher decomposition efficiency. In these experiments,wolfram electrode which has the highest δhas really induced the highest decomposition efficiency.

  17. 40 CFR 86.210-08 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel-cycle vehicles not requiring particulate emissions measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exhaust gas sampling system; Diesel... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF... the outside surface of the CVS duct or dilution tunnel....

  18. State Estimation in the Automotive SCR DeNOx Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Guofeng; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Duwig, Christophe;

    2012-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is a widely applied diesel engine exhaust gas after-treatment technology. For effective NOx removal in a transient operating automotive application, controlled dosing of urea can be used to meet the increasingly restrictive legislations...... on exhaust gas emissions. For advanced control, e.g. Model Predictive Control (MPC), of the SCR process, accurate state estimates are needed. We investigate the performance of the ordinary and the extended Kalman filters based on a simple first principle system model. The performance is tested through...

  19. Final report on EURAMET.QM-S10/1274: supplementary comparison of preparative capabilities for automotive gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val'ková, M.; Ďurišová, Z.; Szilágyi, Z. N.; Büki, T.; Fükű, J.

    2016-01-01

    This bilateral supplementary preparative comparison involves standard gas mixtures of automotive gas containing carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and propane in nitrogen. Two laboratories (SMU, Slovakia and MKEH, Hungary) participated in this supplementary comparison. SMU was the coordinating laboratory, responsible for collecting and reporting measurement results. The participants have established facilities for automotive gas gravimetric preparation and analysis. The agreement of the results in this supplementary comparison is good. All the results with their reported uncertainties are in agreement with the reference values for the participants. SMU participated and obtained good results in the previous preparative comparison organised within EURAMET in this field. Both laboratories have existing claims for their Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) for automotive gas mixtures. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. Effects of injection pressure and injection timing to exhaust gas opacity for a conventional indirect diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiman, Agus; Majid, Akmal Irfan; Pambayun, Nirmala Adhi Yoga; Yuswono, Lilik Chaerul; Sukoco

    2016-06-01

    In relation to pollution control and environmental friendliness, the quality of exhaust gas from diesel engine needs to be considered. The influences of injection pressure and timing to exhaust gas opacity were investigated. A series of experiments were conducted in a one-cylinder conventional diesel engine with a naturally aspirated system and indirect injection. The default specification of injection pressure was 120 kg/cm2. To investigate the injection pressure, the engine speed was retained on 1000 rpm with pressure variations from 80 to 215 kg/cm2. On the other hand, the various injection timing (8, 10, 12, 16 degrees before TDC point and exact 18 degrees before TDC point) were used to determine their effects to exhaust gas opacity. In this case, the engine speed was varied from 1000 to 2400 rpm. The injector tester was used to measure injection pressure whereas the exhaust gas opacity was determined by the smoke meter. Those data were also statistically analyzed by product moment correlation. As the results, the injection pressure of diesel engine had a non-significant positive correlation to the exhaust gas opacity with r = 0.113 and p > 5 %. Injection pressure should be adjusted to the specification listed on the diesel engine as if it was too high or too low will lead to the higher opacity. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between injection timing and the exhaust gas opacity in all engine speeds.

  1. Measurement of pollutant species in automotive exhaust: application of a 3D Eulerian model about the photochemical oxidant formation in the troposphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automotive pollution has become a more and more worrying problem. Pollution regulations are more severe today but even if some pollutants have to fulfill strict emission standards, other compounds like volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds, are less controlled but remain toxic for human beings in a direct way (primary pollution) or in an indirect way (secondary pollution). This work deals with the experimental measurements of exhaust pollution, the inventory of pollutant emissions from transports, and the modeling of air quality. The experimental measurements are performed in the framework of the European project Artemis (assessment and reliability of transport emission models and inventory systems) under the coordination of INRETS, on a set of 30 gasoline and diesel vehicles of recent technology. These vehicles are submitted to various road tests in order to improve the emissions database for private vehicles. The main pollutants measured are the light VOCs (C2 to C6), the heavy VOCs (C7 to C15) and the carbonyl compounds. About a hundred of compounds are thus measured. The emissions factor of each pollutant has been determined for each vehicle and has been used for the elaboration of an emission map of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region. These pollutant data have been used as input data for a physicochemical simulation model of troposphere (UAM: urban air-shed model). A previous study about the introduction of the detailed molecular speciation of VOCs and the use of the CBIV mechanism did not lead to concluding results about the speciation impact on ozone formation. The introduction of a new mechanism would allow to take into account the overall compounds and to see their eventual contribution to the ozone formation. This would require a modification of the model and in particular the addition of a flexible chemical mechanism (FCM) interface for the introduction of a new chemical mechanism (SAPRC 99 instead of CBIV) in the model. The overall input

  2. Performance Study of Adsorption Cooling Cycle for Automotive Air-conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Syed Muztuza; Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2015-01-01

    Exhaust gas from automobile can be used to drive adsorption cooling based air conditioning system for the vehicle cabin. This study describes the thermodynamic framework of a two stage indirect exhaust heat recovery system of automotive engine and an effective lumped parameter model to simulate the dynamic behaviors of an adsorption chiller that ranges from the transient to the cyclic steady states. Silica gel and water are used as adsorbent-adsorbate pair. The adsorption chiller model is dev...

  3. Steady-state modelling of the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor is a well-established device which was developed for the measurement of relative air fuel ratio in internal combustion engines. There is, however, little information available which allows for the prediction of the UEGO's behaviour when exposed to arbitrary gas mixtures, pressures and temperatures. Here we present a steady-state model for the sensor, based on a solution of the Stefan–Maxwell equation, and which includes a momentum balance. The response of the sensor is dominated by a diffusion barrier, which controls the rate of diffusion of gas species between the exhaust and a cavity. Determination of the diffusion barrier characteristics, especially the mean pore size, porosity and tortuosity, is essential for the purposes of modelling, and a measurement technique based on identification of the sensor pressure giving zero temperature sensitivity is shown to be a convenient method of achieving this. The model, suitably calibrated, is shown to make good predictions of sensor behaviour for large variations of pressure, temperature and gas composition. (paper)

  4. Laboratory Scale of Liquid Coal Fuel Combustion Process and Exhaust Gas Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika K. Hendratna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Much research of coal has been already undertaken to ascertain the possibilities of coal being used as substitute for heavy fuel oil in the transportation sector. The effects of using coal as transportation fuel to the environment must also be considered. This study will review several aspects of the coal oil combustion process including combustion behavior, flame stability, some emissions from exhaust gas; CO, NOx and the particulate matter in a well insulated laboratory scale furnace for more stable of combustion. Approach: New way for preparation for liquid coal oil steady combustion on a 2.75 m horizontal boiler with four annular segment tubes, a water jacket system and a system for measurement of water temperature inside was archived. Data was gained by applying liquid coal in the experiment. Detailed preparation and setting for steady combustion of coal oil and formation of the exhaust gas were discussed based on data sampling from four sample points in each centre of the angular tube segments. Results: Preparation for coal oil combustion is an important point in the successful of combustion. Heating coal fuel to than 100°C, heating the fuel line to the same temperature and providing enough air pressure for atomization of coal oil until 0.1 MPa allows coal fuel smoothly atomized in the semi gas phase. There was enough of air combustion via a blower with 4500 L min-1 of flow rate and a 24 L min-1 of water flow rate in the water jacket transforms the energy of the fuel to the heat. Uncolored of the exhaust gas and the physical inspection describes the completion of combustion. This result close-relates with the pollutants formation in the exhaust gas. Conclusion: By conducting a deep research process, there is a chance for the substitute of heavy fuel oil with liquid coal fuel with no special treatment needed in combustion process without ignoring the contribution of the combustion results as an environmental problem.

  5. Responses of spruce seedlings (Picea abies) to exhaust gas under laboratory conditions. 1. plant-insect interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viskari, E.-L.; Koessi, S. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Pasanen, P.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Mirme, A. [Tartu Univ. (Estonia). Int. of Environmental Physics; Holopainen, J.K. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Agricultural Research Centre, Plant Production research, Jokioinen (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The effects of motor vehicle exhaust gas on Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies (L) Karst) and plant-insect interaction of spruce shoot aphid (Cinara pilicornis Hartig) was studied. The exhaust gas concentrations in the fumigation chambers were monitored and controlled by measuring the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) with a computer aided feedback system. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components (black carbon (BC), fine particles, VOCs and carbonyl compounds) in the chamber air were also measured. Responses of Norway spruce seedlings to a 2 and 3 week exhaust gas exposure and subsequent performance of spruce shoot aphid were studied using realistic exposure regimes; 50, 100 and 200 ppb NO{sub x}. The feedback control system based on NO{sub x} concentrations proved an adequate and practical means for controlling the concentration of exhaust gases and studying plant responses in controlled environment chambers. The exhaust exposure resulted in increased concentrations of proline, glutamine, threonine, aspartic acid, glycine and phenylalanine and decreased concentration of arginine, serine, alanine and glycine in young needles. No changes in soluble N concentrations were observed. The results are interpreted as a stress response rather than use of NO{sub x} as a nitrogen source. No changes in total phenolics and only transient changes in some individual terpene concentrations were detected. The exhaust gas exposure stressed the exposed seedlings, but had no significant effect on N metabolism or the production of defence chemicals. Aphid performance was not significantly affected. Soluble N, secondary metabolism and aphid performance were not sensitive to exhaust gas exposure during shoot elongation in Norway spruce. (author)

  6. Pyrolysis of automotive shredder residue for the production of fuel-grade gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every year eight to ten million cars and trucks are disposed of by shredding at one of the 200 auto shredders located in the United States. Automotive shredder residue (ASR) is a by-product created in the dismantling of automobiles. Figure 1 illustrates the process by which ASR is generated. An automobile is stripped of useful and/or hazardous items, such as the gas tank, battery, tires, and radiator. Although it is beneficial to have these items removed for safety and environmental concerns, this is not always accomplished. After removal of some or all of these items, the automobile is shredded to provide a material less than 4 inches in size and composed of approximately 50% organic and 50% inorganic fractions. Ferrous scrap is then separated out magnetically. This ferrous scrap supplies the steel industry with 12 to 14 million tons per year for electric arc furnace feedstock. Air cyclone separators isolate a low density open-quotes fluffclose quotes from the nonferrous fraction (aluminum, copper, etc.). This fluff (shredder residue) is composed of a variety of plastics, fabrics, foams, glass, rubber, and an assortment of contaminants. Fluff bulk density is approximately 20 lb/ft

  7. Multiple Exhaust Nozzle Effects on J-2X Gas Generator Outlet Impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R. Jeremy; Muss, Jeffrey; Hulka, James R.; Casiano, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The current test setup of the J-2X gas generator system uses a multiple nozzle configuration to exhaust hot gases to drive the propellant supply turbines. Combustion stability assessment of this gas generator design requires knowledge of the impedance effects the multiple nozzle configuration creates on the combustion chamber acoustic modes. Parallel work between NASA and Sierra Engineering is presented, showing two methods used to calculate the effective end impedance resulting from multiple nozzle configurations. The NASA method is a simple estimate of the effective impedance using the long wavelength approximation. Sierra Engineering has developed a more robust numerical integration method implemented in ROCCID to accommodate for multiple nozzles. Analysis using both methods are compared to J-2X gas generator test data collected over the past year.

  8. Variable-geometry turbocharger with asymmetric divided volute for engine exhaust gas pulse optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serres, Nicolas

    2010-11-09

    A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.

  9. Making aerospace technology work for the automotive industry - Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    In many cases it has been found that advances made in one technical field can contribute to other fields. An investigation is in this connection conducted concerning subjects from contemporary NASA programs and projects which might have relevance and potential usefulness to the automotive industry. Examples regarding aerospace developments which have been utilized by the automotive industry are related to electronic design, computer systems, quality control experience, a NASA combustion scanner and television display, exhaust gas analyzers, and a device for suppressing noise propagated through ducts. Projects undertaken by NASA's center for propulsion and power research are examined with respect to their value for the automotive industry. As a result of some of these projects, a gas turbine engine and a Stirling engine might each become a possible alternative to the conventional spark ignition engine.

  10. Exhaust gas monitoring based on absorption spectroscopy in the process industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Wen-qing; Zhang, Yu-jun; Shu, Xiao-wen; Kan, Rui-feng; Cui, Yi-ben; He, Ying; Xu, Zhen-yu; Geng, Hui; Liu, Jian-guo

    2009-07-01

    This non-invasive gas monitor for exhaust gas monitoring must has high reliability and requires little maintenance. Monitor for in-situ measurements using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in the near infrared, can meet these requirements. TDLAS has evolved over the past decade from a laboratory especially to an accepted, robust and reliable technology for trace gas sensing. With the features of tunability and narrow linewidth of the distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser and by precisely tuning the laser output wavelength to a single isolated absorption line of the gas, TDLAS technique can be utilized to measure gas concentration with high sensitivity. Typical applications for monitoring of H2S, NH3, HC1 and HF are described here together by wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic(WMS-2F) detection. This paper will illustrate the problems related to on-line applications, in particular, the overfall effects, automatic light intensity correction, temperature correction, which impacted on absorption coefficient and give details of how effect of automatic correction is necessary. The system mainly includes optics and electronics, optical system mainly composed of fiber, fiber coupler and beam expander, the electron part has been placed in safe analysis room not together with the optical part. Laser merely passes through one-meter-long pipes by the fiber coupling technology, so the system itself has anti-explosion. The results of the system are also presented in the end, the system's response time is only 0.5s, and can be achieved below 1×10-5 the detection limit at the volume fraction, it can entirely replace the traditional methods of detection exhaust gas in the process industry.

  11. Simulation and evaluation of a CCHP system with exhaust gas deep-recovery and thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Exhaust gas deep-recovery and thermoelectric generator are applied in CCHP system. • Electric output of TEG changes from 0.231 kW to 1.18 kW. • Total recoverable waste heat increases by 13–16%. • ESR, CSR and PEE are improved to 0.304, 0.417, and 0.944, respectively. • The total investment increment of system is about 11%. - Abstract: Combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems are thought to be highly efficient in energy utilization. But there are still potentials to further improve system performance. This work proposed a CCHP system based on internal combustion engine (ICE) for power generation, refrigeration and domestic hot water production. Thermoelectric generator (TEG) and condensing heat exchanger are applied to efficiently recover the exhaust gas waste heat of ICE. All the energy flows are designed based on energy cascading utilization principle. Basing on the test results of a 16 kW ICE, CCHP system characteristics are investigated by simulation from idling condition to full load condition. Especially, the part load performance of TEG and absorption chiller are simulated and discussed. The feasible operating zone of ICE and feed water flow rate are figured out to keep the domestic hot water temperature within a certain range. Results show that the primary energy efficiency of system can reach 0.944, thanks to the condensing heat recovery from exhaust gas. The primary energy saving ratio and cost saving ratio can reach 0.304 and 0.417, respectively. Considering some more equipment is incorporated, the total investment increment is about 11.1%

  12. Ion beam analyses of particulate matter in exhaust gas of a ship diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, Yuichi; Fujita, Hirotsugu; Taniike, Akira; Kitamura, Akira

    2011-12-01

    There is an urgent need to reduce emission of the particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust gas from ship diesel engines causing various health hazards and serious environmental pollution. Usually the heavy fuel oil (HFO) for ships is of low quality, and contains various kinds of impurities. Therefore, the emission of PM along with exhaust gas from ship diesel engines is one of the most serious environmental issues. However, the PM fundamental properties are not well known. Therefore, it is important to perform elemental analysis of the PM. The HFO contains sulfur with a relatively high concentration of a few percent. It is important to make quantitative measurements of sulfur in the PM, because this element is poisonous for the human body. In the present work, PM samples were collected from exhaust gas of a test engine, and RBS and PIXE analyses were applied successfully to quantitative analysis of the PM samples. The RBS analysis enabled quantitative analysis of sulfur and carbon in the collected PM, while heavier elements such as vanadium and iron were analyzed quantitatively with the PIXE analysis. It has been found that the concentration ratio of sulfur to carbon was between 0.007 and 0.012, and did not strongly depend on the output power of the engine. The S/ C ratio is approximately equal to the original composition of the HFO used in the present work, 0.01. From the known conversion ratio 0.015 of sulfur in the HFO to sulfates, the conversion ratio of carbon in the HFO to the PM is found to be 0.01-0.02 by the RBS measurements. On the other hand, the PIXE analysis revealed a vanadium enrichment of one order of magnitude in the PM.

  13. Evaluation of an exhaust gas evacuation system during propane-fueled lift truck maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) gas in the workplace can cause health problem. CO gas is colourless and odourless, and exposure to it can cause intoxication, particularly for mechanics working on internal combustion engines fed by propane-fueled lift trucks. Regular procedures for evacuating the gases emitted during routine mechanical repairs involve the use of rigid evacuating pipes attached to the building and hooked to a flexible pipe at the end of the exhaust pipe. With lift trucks, this procedure is limited because of the configuration of these vehicles, and also because this type of work is often done in places without access to permanent mechanical ventilation. The object of this study was to propose a new evacuation method for CO gas fumes that would lower the exposures of fumes for mechanics and for workstations. It identified the criteria that should be considered, such as the configuration of the existing exhaust system of lift trucks, and feasibility of using this system at a variety of on-site locations. The design of the device was described and evaluated. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs., 3 appendices

  14. Experimental investigation of an improved exhaust recovery system for liquid petroleum gas fueled spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürbüz Habib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated the recovery of energy lost as waste heat from exhaust gas and engine coolant, using an improved thermoelectric generator (TEG in a LPG fueled SI engine. For this purpose, we have designed and manufactured a 5-layer heat exchanger from aluminum sheet. Electrical energy generated by the TEG was then used to produce hydrogen in a PEM water electrolyzer. The experiment was conducted at a stoichiometric mixture ratio, 1/2 throttle position and six different engine speeds at 1800-4000 rpm. The results of this study show that the configuration of 5-layer counterflow produce a higher TEG output power than 5-layer parallel flow and 3-layer counterflow. The TEG produced a maximum power of 63.18 W when used in a 5-layer counter flow configuration. This resulted in an improved engine performance, reduced exhaust emission as well as an increased engine speed when LPG fueled SI engine is enriched with hydrogen produced by the PEM electrolyser supported by TEG. Also, the need to use an extra evaporator for the LPG fueled SI engine is eliminated as LPG heat exchangers are added to the fuel line. It can be concluded that an improved exhaust recovery system for automobiles can be developed by incorporating a PEM electrolyser, however at the expense of increasing costs.

  15. Evaluating tractor performance and exhaust gas emissions using biodiesel from cotton seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative fuels for diesel engines, such as biodiesel, have attracted much attention recently due to increasing fuel prices and the imperative to reduce emissions. The exhaust gas emissions from tractors and other agricultural machinery make a significant contribution to these emissions. The use of biodiesel in internal combustion engines (ICE) has been reported to give comparable performance to conventional diesel (CD), but with generally lower emissions. There is however, contradictory evidence of NO emissions being both higher and lower from the use of biodiesel. In this work, agriculture tractor engine performance and its emission using both CD and biodiesel from cotton seed oil (CSO-B20) mixed at a 20% blend ration has been evaluated and compared. The PTO test results showed comparable exhaust emissions between CD and CSO-B20. However, the use of CSO-B20 led to reductions in the thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature and an increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), when compared to CD.

  16. Remote gas analysis of aircraft exhausts using FTIR-emission-spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heland, J.; Schaefer, K. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Atmospheric Environmental Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    FITR emission spectroscopy as a remote sensing multi-component analyzing technique was investigated to determine the composition of aircraft exhausts at ground level. A multi-layer radiative transfer interpretation software based on a line-by-line computer algorithm using the HITRAN data base was developed. Measurements were carried out with different engine types to determine the traceable gas species and their detection limits. Finally validation measurements were made to compare the results of the system to those of conventional equipment. (author) 8 refs.

  17. 对废气中氮化物的测量%Measurement of nitrogen compounds in exhaust gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Environmental standards and technological advances continue to cut emission levels. The lowering of pollutant concentrations in exhaust gas is increasing demands on measurement technology. Measurement of pollutants is required for monitoring and adjusting pollutant reduction systems. Such measurement equipment must be reliable and low maintenance. Continuous gas analyzers from ABB show how innovative approaches permit industrial metrology to achieve higher sensitivity.

  18. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

    2012-08-01

    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels. PMID:22732009

  19. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L

    2012-08-01

    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels.

  20. Exhaust gas recirculation – Zero dimensional modelling and characterization for transient diesel combustion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Zero-dimensional EGR model for transient diesel combustion control. • Detailed analysis of EGR effects on intake, cylinder charge and exhaust properties. • Intake oxygen validated as an operating condition-independent measure of EGR. • Quantified EGR effectiveness in terms of NOx emission reduction. • Twin lambda sensor technique for estimation of EGR/in-cylinder parameters. - Abstract: The application of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) during transient engine operation is a challenging task since small fluctuations in EGR may cause larger than acceptable spikes in NOx/soot emissions or deterioration in the combustion efficiency. Moreover, the intake charge dilution at any EGR ratio is a function of engine load and intake pressure, and typically changes during transient events. Therefore, the management of EGR during transient engine operation or advanced combustion cycles (that are inherently less stable) requires a fundamental understanding of the transient EGR behaviour and its impact on the intake charge development. In this work, a zero-dimensional EGR model is described to estimate the transient (cycle-by-cycle) progression of EGR and the time (engine cycles) required for its stabilization. The model response is tuned to a multi-cylinder engine by using an overall engine system time-constant and shown to effectively track the transient EGR changes. The impact of EGR on the actual air–fuel ratio of the cylinder charge is quantified by defining an in-cylinder excess-air ratio that accounts for the oxygen in the recycled exhaust gas. Furthermore, a twin lambda sensor (TLS) technique is implemented for tracking the intake dilution and in-cylinder excess-air ratio in real-time. The modelling and analysis results are validated against a wide range of engine operations, including transient and steady-state low temperature combustion tests

  1. KATsim. A tool for numerically simulating exhaust-gas catalysts; KATsim. Ein Werkzeug zur numerischen Simulation von Abgaskatalysatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusemund, Sandra; Schneider, Hellfried; Langeheinecke, Kay [IAV GmbH, Gifhorn (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Powertrain Mechatronik; Bank, Robert [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    2009-11-15

    The demands placed on numerically simulating exhaust-gas aftertreatment components are manifold. In addition to laying out the process engineering of exhaust-emission systems, the focus also rests on concept studies for their configuration as well as on 3-D simulations. Increasingly, simulations are also being used for developing and calibrating algorithms for engine control units. To meet these different requirements, IAV is developing the KATsim modular numeric simulation system. (orig.)

  2. Study of SI engine fueled with methanol vapor and dissociation gas based on exhaust heat dissociating methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The full load power decreases successively from gasoline engine, methanol vapor engine to dissociated methanol engine. • Both power and thermal efficiency of dissociated methanol engine can be improved by boosting pressure. • The conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy is largely influenced by the BMEP. • At the same BMEP, dissociated methanol engine has higher thermal efficiency than methanol vapor engine and gasoline engine. - Abstract: To improve the fuel efficiency of internal combustion (IC) engine and also achieve the goal of direct usage of methanol fuel on IC engine, an approach of exhaust heat dissociating methanol was investigated, which is a kind of method for IC engine exhaust heat recovery (EHR). A bottom cycle system is coupled with the IC engine exhaust system, which uses the exhaust heat to evaporate and dissociate methanol in its catalytic cracker. The methanol dissociation gas (including methanol vapor) is used as the fuel for IC engine. This approach was applied to both naturally aspirated (NA) engine and turbocharged engine, and the engine performance parameters were predicted by the software GT-power under various kinds of operating conditions. The improvement to IC engine performance and the conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy can be evaluated by comparing the performances of IC engine fueled with various kinds of fuels (or their compositions). Results show that, from gasoline engine, methanol vapor engine to dissociated methanol engine, the full load power decreases successively in the entire speed area due to the declining of volumetric efficiency, while it is contrary in the thermal efficiency at the same brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) level because of the improving of fuel heating value. With the increase of BMEP, the conversion efficiency of recovered exhaust gas energy is promoted. All those results indicate that the approach of exhaust heat dissociating methanol has large

  3. Application of Ceria and Lanthana in Catalyst for Cleansing Exhaust Gas of Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chunsheng; Chen Jianhua; Dai Shaojun

    2004-01-01

    The importanCe of rare earths being applied in the catalyst for cleansing the exhaust gas out of car was introduced. The acting mechanism of ceria and lanthana in catalyst and its influencing factors were discussed, and its prospect was forecasted. Pt-Rh precious metals three-way catalyst is widely used for decontaminating the exhaust gas of car now. Ceria and lanthana, which can decrease the content of Pt-Rh and increase the content of Pd in the catalyst, are used as additive in the decontaminating catalyst in order to solve the problem of the supply and demand of Pt and Rh.It is reported that increasing the activity of the coat on catalyst, regulating automatically the ratio of air and fuel, acting as catalyst-accelerator, and improving its properties such as thermal stability and strength may primarily amount for the catalyzing, mechanism of ceria and lanthana. The factors, such as their interaction, additive methods, and effects of cocatalyst ZrO2, CuO, AgO, etc. , will remarkably influence the catalyzing function of ceria and lanthana.

  4. A GM (1, 1 Markov Chain-Based Aeroengine Performance Degradation Forecast Approach Using Exhaust Gas Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning-bo Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance degradation forecast technology for quantitatively assessing degradation states of aeroengine using exhaust gas temperature is an important technology in the aeroengine health management. In this paper, a GM (1, 1 Markov chain-based approach is introduced to forecast exhaust gas temperature by taking the advantages of GM (1, 1 model in time series and the advantages of Markov chain model in dealing with highly nonlinear and stochastic data caused by uncertain factors. In this approach, firstly, the GM (1, 1 model is used to forecast the trend by using limited data samples. Then, Markov chain model is integrated into GM (1, 1 model in order to enhance the forecast performance, which can solve the influence of random fluctuation data on forecasting accuracy and achieving an accurate estimate of the nonlinear forecast. As an example, the historical monitoring data of exhaust gas temperature from CFM56 aeroengine of China Southern is used to verify the forecast performance of the GM (1, 1 Markov chain model. The results show that the GM (1, 1 Markov chain model is able to forecast exhaust gas temperature accurately, which can effectively reflect the random fluctuation characteristics of exhaust gas temperature changes over time.

  5. Analysis of the reusability of the energy of the exhaust gas from the calciner for the production of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A calciner is used to produce carbon from anthracite coal. In its working process, a significant amount of energy is lost through its exhaust gas. How much energy can be recovered from the exhaust gas becomes important. To answer this question a method to determine the mass flow rate and the composition of the exhaust gas from a calciner is developed, and a combustion model based on well-stirred reactor is used to obtain the suitable combustor parameters and the amount of the chemical energy which can be released in combustion. As an example to verify the method and the model, the energy utilization ratio of a calciner with power of 1250 kW is investigated. The results show that the method can determine the mass flow rate and the composition of the exhaust gas, and the combustion model is suitable for obtaining reasonable results in determining the volume and the heat duty of the combustor, the air–fuel ratio, and the amount of the chemical energy released. For a calciner with power of 1250 kW, when the temperature of the tail gas after combustion reaches to 135 °C, the energy utilization ratio of the calciner is calculated to be around 77%. - Highlights: • A method obtaining the mass balance of exhaust gas from calciner is reported. • A combustion model obtaining combustion behavior of the exhaust gas is reported. • Determining the energy utilization ratio of a typical calciner is demonstrated. • The energy utilization ratio of a typical calciner is about 77%

  6. Exhaust circulation into dry gas desulfurization process to prevent carbon deposition in an Oxy-fuel IGCC power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Power plant with semi-closed gas turbine and O2–CO2 coal gasifier was studied. • We adopt dry gas sulfur removal process to establish the system. • The exhaust gas circulation remarkably prevented carbon deposition. • Efficiency loss for exhaust gas circulation is quite small. • Appropriate operating condition of sulfur removal process is revealed. - Abstract: Semi-closed cycle operation of gas turbine fueled by oxygen–CO2 blown coal gasification provides efficient power generation with CO2 separation feature by excluding pre-combustion type CO2 capture that usually brings large efficiency loss. The plant efficiency at transmission end is estimated as 44% at lower heating value (LHV) providing compressed CO2 with concentration of 93 vol%. This power generation system will solve the contradiction between economical resource utilization and reduction of CO2 emission from coal-fired power plant. The system requires appropriate sulfur reduction process to protect gas turbine from corrosion and environment from sulfur emission. We adopt dry gas sulfur removal process to establish the system where apprehension about the detrimental carbon deposition from coal gas. The effect of circulation of a portion of exhaust gas to the process on the retardation of carbon deposition was examined at various gas compositions. The circulation remarkably prevented carbon deposition in the sulfur removal sorbent. The impact of the circulation on the thermal efficiency is smaller than the other auxiliary power consumption. Thus, the circulation is appropriate operation for the power generation

  7. Exhaust gas analysis and formation mechanism of SiC nanowires synthesized by thermal evaporation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppasint Jiraborvornpongsa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide nanowires (SiCNWs are a set of promising reinforcement materials due to their superior properties. However, formation mechanism of the SiCNWs synthesized by the thermal evaporation method without metal catalyst is still unclear. To understand the formation mechanism, SiCNWs were synthesized by the thermal evaporation method at 1350 °C using a pre-oxidized Si powder and CH4 gas as precursors. SiCNWs obtained by this method were β-SiC/SiO2 core–shell nanowires with average diameter about 55 nm and with a length up to 1 mm. The exhaust gases during the SiCNWs synthesis process were examined by gas chromatography and the photographs of growth activity of SiCNWs inside the furnace were captured. CO gas was detected during the active formation of SiCNWs. It was clarified that CO gas was one of the byproducts from SiCNWs synthesis process, and the formation reaction of SiCNWs should be 3SiO(g + 3C(s → 2SiC(s + SiO2(s + CO(g. The formation of SiCNWs was discussed based on the oxide-assisted-growth mechanism.

  8. Splitter-bladed centrifugal compressor impeller designed for automotive gas turbine application. [at the Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampreen, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Mechanical design and fabrication of two splitter-bladed centrifugal compressor impellers were completed for rig testing at NASA Lewis Research Center. These impellers were designed for automotive gas turbine application. The mechanical design was based on NASA specifications for blade-shape and flowpath configurations. The contractor made engineering drawings and performed calculations for mass and center-of-gravity, for stress and vibration analyses, and for shaft critical speed analysis. One impeller was machined to print; the other had a blade height and exit radius of 2.54 mm larger than print dimensions.

  9. Effect of the Sequence of the Thermoelectric Generator and the Three-Way Catalytic Converter on Exhaust Gas Conversion Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chuqi; Tong, Naiqiang; Xu, Yuman; Chen, Shan; Liu, Xun

    2013-07-01

    The potential for thermoelectric exhaust heat recovery in vehicles has increased with recent improvements in the efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). The problem with using thermoelectric generators for vehicle applications is whether the device is compatible with the original vehicle exhaust system, which determines the quality of the exhaust gas treatment and the realization of energy conservation and emission reduction. Based on ANSYS CFX simulation analysis of the impact of two positional relationships between the TEG and three-way catalytic converter in the exhaust system on the working efficiency of both elements, it is concluded that the layout with the front three-way catalytic converter has an advantage over the other layout mode under current conditions. New ideas for an improvement program are proposed to provide the basis for further research.

  10. Optimization of Low-Temperature Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Fueled Organic Rankine Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHui—tao; WANGHua; ZHANGZhu—ming

    2012-01-01

    Low temperature exhaust gases carrying large amount of waste heat are released by steel-making process and many other industries, Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) are proven to be the most promising technology to re- cover the low-temperature waste heat, thereby to get more financial benefits for these industries. The exergy analysis of ORC units driven by low-temperature exhaust gas waste heat and charged with dry and isentropic fluid was per- formed, and an intuitive approach with simple impressions was developed to calculate the performances of the ORC unit. Parameter optimization was conducted with turbine inlet temperature simplified as the variable and exergy effi- ciency or power output as the objective function by means of Penalty Function and Golden Section Searching algo- rithm based on the formulation of the optimization problem. The power generated by the optimized ORC unit can be nearly as twice as that generated by a non-optimized ORC unit. In addition, cycle parametric analysis was performed to examine the effects of thermodynamic parameters on the cycle performances such as thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency. It is proven that performance of ORC unit is mainly affected by the thermodynamic property of working fluid, the waste heat temperature, the pinch point temperature of the evaporator, the specific heat capacity of the heat carrier and the turbine inlet temperature under a given environment temperature.

  11. Exhaust gas emissions and mutagenic effects of modern diesel fuels, GTL, biodiesel and biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schroeder, Olaf [Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: axel.munack@vti.bund.de; Krahl, Juergen [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Buenger, Juergen [University of Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel can be used alone (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel in any proportion. The most popular biodiesel blend in the U.S.A. is B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% diesel fuel), which can be used for Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) compliance. In the European Union, the use of biofuel blends is recommended and was introduced by federal regulations in several countries. In Germany, biodiesel is currently blended as B5 (5% biodiesel) to common diesel fuel. In 2008, B7 plus three percent hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as well is intended to become mandatory in Germany. To investigate the influence of blends on the emissions and possible health effects, we performed a series of studies with several engines (Euro 0, III and IV) measuring regulated and non-regulated exhaust compounds and determining their mutagenic effects. Emissions of blends showed an approximate linear dependence on the blend composition, in particular when regulated emissions are considered. However, a negative effect of blends was observed with respect to mutagenicity of the exhaust gas emissions. In detail, a maximum of the mutagenic potency was found in the range of B20. From this point of view, B20 must be considered as a critical blend, in case diesel fuel and biodiesel are used as binary mixtures. (author)

  12. A study on exhaust gas emissions from ships in Turkish Straits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Turkish Straits, i.e. Istanbul (Bosphorus) and Canakkale (Dardanellen), which connect Black Sea and Aegean Sea, have a continuously increasing maritime traffic. Especially, the maritime traffic on Bosphorus (Istanbul Strait) that connects the continents of Europe and Asia is too complex due to geographical conditions. The maritime traffic in the Turkish Straits includes the ships, which are in use in domestic transport, the transit passing ships with various aims and fishing, sport or strolling ships. In this paper, fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions NOx, CO, CO2, VOC, PM exhausted from ships such as transit vessels, which are passing both Bosphorus and Dardanellen, and passenger ships used in domestic transport on the Bosphorus are calculated. In order to do this the general characteristics, the main engine systems, the fuel types, cruising times and speeds of all vessels are taken into consideration. The calculated NOx emissions on the Bosphorus are 2720t from domestic passenger ships and 4357t from transit ships. In this case it is clear that the transit ships cause more than half of the total amount of emissions from ships on the Bosphorus. The amount of nitrogen oxide emissions from domestic passenger ships used for public transport in Istanbul Strait is equal to approx. 4% of nitrogen oxide emissions from motor vehicles in Istanbul. Finally, the future emissions from ships in Turkish Straits are discussed. (Author)

  13. Control of gaseous pollutants emission with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) and catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Fernando Silva de Araujo [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil); Mann, Jens; Ueberschaer, Dietmar [Fachhochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Fachbereich Maschinenbau; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella; Nascimento, Nazem [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia]. E-mail: ftilor@eu.ansp.br; perrella@feg.unesp.br; nazem@feg.unesp.br

    1997-07-01

    Study of gaseous pollutant emission from engine tests simulating real work conditions, using spark point manually controlled and exhaust gas recirculation in diverse proportion levels. The objective of this present work is to re-examine the potential of the EGR conception, a well-known method of combustion control, employed together electronic fuel injection and three-way catalytic converter closed-loop control at a spark ignition engine, verifying the performance characteristics and technical availability of this conception to improve pollution control and fuel economy. The pollutant emissions under operational conditions were analyzed and compared with the expected by concerning theory and real tests performed by EGR equipped engines by factory. (author)

  14. EFFECTS OF COOLED EXTERNAL EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION ON DIESEL HOMOGENEOUS CHARGE COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Lei; CUI Yi; DENG Kangyao

    2007-01-01

    The effects of cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the combustion and emission performance of diesel fuel homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) are studied. Homogeneous mixture is formed by injecting fuel in-cylinder in the negative valve overlap (NVO) period. So, the HCCI combustion which has low NOx and smoke emission is achieved. Cooled external EGR can delay the start of combustion effectively, which is very useful for high cetane fuel (diesel) HCCI, because these fuels can easily self-ignition, which makes the start of combustion more early. External EGR can avoid the knock combustion of HCCI at high load which means that the EGR can expand the high load limit. HCCI maintains low smoke emission at various EGR rate and various load compared with conventional diesel engine because there is no fuel-rich area in cylinder.

  15. Application of Irradiation. Application to polymer processing, exhaust gas treatment, sterilization of medical instruments and food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many fields such as industry, agriculture, medical treatment and environment use radiation. This report explained some examples of irradiation applications. Radiation source is 60Co γ-ray. Polymer industry use radiation for radiation curing (thermally stable polymer), tire, expanded polymer, radiation induced graft copolymerization and electron beam curing. On environmental conservation, radiation is used for elimination of NOx and SOx in exhaust combustion gas. In the medical treatment, radiation is applied to sterilization of medical instruments, that occupied about 50% volume, and blood for transfusion, which is only one method to prevent GVHD after transfusion. On agriculture, irradiation to spice, dry vegetable, frozen kitchen, potato and garlic are carried out in 30 countries. However, potato is only a kind food in Japan. Radiation breeding and pest control are put in practice. (S.Y.)

  16. Dynamic instabilities in spark-ignited combustion engines with high exhaust gas recirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, C. Stuart; Finney, Charles E. A.

    2011-04-01

    We propose a cycle-resolved dynamic model for combustion instabilities in spark-ignition engines operating with high levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). We account for the complex combustion response to cycle-to-cycle feedback by utilizing a global probability distribution that describes the pre-spark state of in-cylinder fuel mixing. The proposed model does a good job of simulating combustion instabilities observed in both lean-fueling engine experiments and in experiments where nitrogen dilution is used to simulate some of the combustion inhibition of EGR. When used to simulate high internal EGR operation, the model exhibits a range of global bifurcations and chaos that appear to be very robust. We use the model to show that it should be possible to reduce high EGR combustion instabilities by switching from internal to external EGR.

  17. Dual-catalyst aftertreatment of lean-burn natural gas engine exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dual-catalyst system for the reduction of NO with CH4 under lean conditions was investigated. The system is comprised of a mixed bed containing a Co/ZrO2 catalyst, active for the oxidation of NO to NO2, and a Pd/sulfated zirconia (SZ) catalyst that is active for the reduction of NO2 with CH4. Such a system is capable of taking advantage of higher reduction rates for NO2, as compared to NO, that have been previously observed. When simulated exhaust streams from lean-burn natural gas engines are used as feed, the dual-catalyst system is simultaneously active for the reduction of NOx and the oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons and CO. (author)

  18. Evaluation of SI engine exhaust gas emissions upstream and downstream of the catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C.M.; Costa, M.; Farias, T.L. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos, H. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao, Instituto Politecnico de Leiria, Leiria (Portugal)

    2006-11-15

    The conversion efficiency of a catalytic converter, mounted on a vehicle equipped with a 2.8l spark ignition engine, was evaluated under steady state operating conditions. The inlet and outlet chemical species concentration, temperature and air fuel ratio (A/F) were measured as a function of the brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and engine speed (rpm). Oil temperature, coolant temperature, brake power and spark advance were also monitored. In parallel, a mathematical model for the catalytic converter has been developed. The main inputs of the model are the temperature, flow rate, chemical species mass flow and local A/F ratio as measured at the catalyst inlet section. The main conclusions are: (i) the exhaust gas and substrate wall temperatures at the catalyst outlet increase with BMEP and rpm; (ii) the HC conversion efficiency increases with the value of BMEP up to a maximum beyond which it decreases; (iii) the CO conversion efficiencies typically increase with BMEP; (iv) the NO{sub x} conversion efficiency remains nearly constant regardless of BMEP and rpm; (v) except for idle, the NO{sub x} conversion efficiency is typically the highest, followed in turn by the CO and HC conversion efficiencies; (vi) conversion efficiencies are lower for idle conditions, which can be a problem under traffic conditions where idle is a common situation; (vii) regardless of rpm and load, for the same flow rate the conversion efficiency is about the same; (viii) the model predictions slightly over estimate the exhaust gas temperature data at the catalyst outlet section with the observed differences decreasing with BMEP and engine speed; (ix) in general, the model predictions of the conversion efficiencies are satisfactory. (author)

  19. Exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty vehicles fuelled by alcohol or biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, L.J.; Wahlberg, A.M.; Jaeraas, S.G. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    1997-06-01

    The long-term objective for the project is to develop tailor-made exhaust gas catalysts for heavy-duty ethanol fuelled diesel vehicles operating in urban traffic. Due to special problems, related to emissions of unregulated compounds emanating from ethanol fuelled buses in Swedish fleet tests, a catalyst research programme has been initiated. The engineering target was to achieve a light-off temperature (T{sub 50}) for ethanol conversion below 110 deg C and a selectivity for total oxidation over 90 %. In this report results from laboratory-reactor tests are described. The results indicate that by combining two different precious metals both activity and selectivity can be positively affected compared to the properties of the corresponding mono metallic catalysts. The best results show a light-off temperature for ethanol conversion below 100 deg C. The base metal oxides were more selective for total oxidation than the corresponding precious metal catalysts. The results also indicate a considerable interaction between support and active material which affects the product distribution in catalytic oxidation of ethanol. At temperatures below 250 deg C the by-product formation can be quite high and the major by-product is acetaldehyde. The metal support interaction also has a certain influence on the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}. The results show that the NO{sub 2} formation can be suppressed without considerably affecting the activity of the catalyst. This report also includes a preliminary life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC) estimate for exhaust gas catalysts intended for heavy-duty ethanol vehicles in urban traffic. 22 refs, numerous figs and tabs

  20. Effects of exhaust gas recirculation on the thermal efficiency and combustion characteristics for premixed combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, a boiler in a premixed combustion system used to achieve exhaust gas recirculation was investigated as a way to achieve high thermal efficiencies and low pollutant emissions. The effects of various exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratios, equivalence ratios and boiler capacities on thermal efficiency, NOx and CO emissions and the flame behavior on the burner surface were examined both experimentally and numerically. The results of the experiments showed that when EGR was used, the NOx and CO concentrations decreased and the thermal efficiency increased. In the case of a 15% EGR ratio at an equivalence ratio of 0.90, NOx concentrations were found to be smaller than for the current operating condition of the boiler, and the thermal efficiency was approximately 4.7% higher. However, unlike NOx concentrations, although the EGR ratio was increased to 20% at an equivalence ratio of 0.90, the CO concentration was higher than in the current operating condition of the boiler. From the viewpoint of burner safety, the red glow on the burner surface was noticeably reduced when EGR was used. These results confirmed that the EGR method is advantageous from the standpoint of reducing emission concentrations and ensuring burner safety. -- Highlights: ► The premixed boiler system applied EGR was investigated to achieve high thermal efficiencies and low pollutant emissions. ► Thermal efficiency and emission characteristics were examined with EGR ratios, equivalence ratios and boiler capacities. ► EGR method is advantageous from the standpoint of reducing emission concentrations and ensuring burner safety.

  1. Study on the combustion characteristics of a premixed combustion system with exhaust gas recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boiler of a premixed combustion system with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) is investigated to explore the potential for increasing thermal efficiency and lowering pollutant emissions. To achieve this purpose, a thermodynamic analysis is performed to predict the effect of EGR on the thermodynamic efficiency for various equivalence ratios. Experiments of a preheated air condensing boiler with EGR were conducted to measure the changes in the thermal efficiency and the characteristics of the pollutant emission. Finally, a 1-D premixed code was calculated to understand the effect of the EGR method on the NO reduction mechanism. The results of the thermodynamic analysis show that the thermodynamic efficiency is not changed because the temperature and the amount of the exhaust gas are unchanged, even though the EGR method is implemented in the system. However, when the EGR method is used with an equivalence ratio near 1.00, it is experimentally verified that the thermal efficiency increases and the NOx concentration decreases. Based on the results from numerical calculations, it is shown that the NO production rates of N + O2 ↔ NO + O and N + OH ↔ NO + H are remarkably changed due to the decrease in the flame temperature and the NO mole fraction is decreased. - Highlights: • Premixed combustion system with EGR is studied for a high efficiency and low NOx. • All research is performed with various EGR and equivalence ratios. • It verified that efficiency increases and the NOx emission decreases with EGR method. • NO production rates are remarkably changed by N + O2 ↔ NO + O and N + OH ↔ NO + H with EGR

  2. Purification of exhaust gas from stenter%定形机废气的净化处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晨昀

    2013-01-01

    定形机废气含有大量挥发性有机化合物,若不处理,会危害人体健康,影响生态环境.对此,可采用定形机废气净化处理技术,包括定形机废气的降温,蜂巢式高压工业静电除油烟,喷淋式除油烟以及废气除臭技术等.%The exhaust gas from heat setting machine contains large amounts of volatile organic compounds(VOCs) , it will endanger human health and ecological environment if not been processed. Purification technologies of exhaust gas from stenter are introduced, including cooling, removing fumes with high pressure static electricity generated by honeycombed device or spray system, as well as exhaust deodorization technology.

  3. Automotive NVH technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nijman, Eugenius; Priebsch, Hans-Herwig

    2016-01-01

    This book presents seven chapters examining selected noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) topics that are highly relevant for automotive vehicle development. These include applications following the major trends toward increased passenger comfort, vehicle electrification and lightweight design. The authors of the seven chapters, all of which are experts from the automotive industry and academia, present the foremost challenges and potential solutions in this demanding field. Among others, applications for sound optimization in downsized engines, noise optimization in electric powertrains, weight reduction options for exhaust systems, porous materials description, and the vibro-acoustic analysis of geared systems are discussed.

  4. Calculations of economy of 18-cylinder radial aircraft engine with exhaust-gas turbine geared to the crankshaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, Richard W; Zimmerman, Richard H

    1945-01-01

    Calculations based on dynamometer test-stand data obtained on an 18-cylinder radial engine were made to determine the improvement in fuel consumption that can be obtained at various altitudes by gearing an exhaust-gas turbine to the engine crankshaft in order to increase the engine-shaft work.

  5. 热处理废气治理及环保标准%Handling of Exhaust Gas Originating from Heat Treatment and Related Environmental Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏永辉; 苏兴武; 沈合利; 王红伟; 张峦

    2015-01-01

    The main source of exhaust gas in heat treatment trade and the standards related to exhaust gas discharging were introduced.The ways of handling exhaust gas were put forward.The exhaust gas originating from heat treatment should be strictly handled according to the relevant environmental standard,rendering discharged exhaust gas up to the standard.%介绍了热处理行业废气的主要来源及废气排放的相关标准,提出了治理废气的方法。热处理废气应该严格按相关的环保标准进行处理,使废气排放达标。

  6. Automotive Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P.

    2015-03-01

    Considerable fuel energy, as much as 70%, is not converted to useful work by internal combustion engines but is instead rejected as waste heat, and more than half of the waste heat, nearly 40% of fuel energy, is contained in vehicle exhaust gas. This provides an opportunity to recover some of the wasted fuel energy and convert it from heat into useful work, subject to the laws of thermodynamics, and thereby improve vehicle energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) materials have been extensively researched and TE devices are now being developed for operation at high temperatures corresponding to automotive exhaust gases for direct solid-state conversion of heat into electricity. This has stimulated substantial progress in the development of practical TE generator (TEG) systems for large-scale commercialization. A significant enabler of this progress has been the US Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program through funding for low cost solutions for automotive TE waste heat recovery to improve fuel economy. Our current project at General Motors has culminated in the identification of the potential supply chain for all components and assembly of an automotive TEG. A significant focus has been to develop integrated and iterative modeling tools for a fully optimized TEG design that includes all components and subsystems (TE modules, heat exchangers, thermal interfaces, electrical interconnects, power conditioning, and vehicle integration for maximal use of TEG power). We have built and tested a new, low-cost Initial TEG prototype based on state-of-the-art production-scale skutterudite TE modules, novel heat exchanger designs, and practical solutions to the many technical challenges for optimum TEG performance. We will use the results for our Initial TEG prototype to refine our modeling and design tools for a Final automotive TEG system prototype. Our recent results will be presented. Thanks to: J.R. Salvador, E.R. Gundlach, D. Thompson, N.K. Bucknor, M

  7. Application of the water gas shift reaction to fusion fuel exhaust streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a Fusion Fuel Clean Up (FCU) system, impurities will be removed from the fusion reactor exhaust and neutral beam line streams. Tritium in this impurity stream will be recovered and recycled to the fuel stream. In one flowsheet configuration of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), tritium is recovered from a simulated impurity stream via uranium hot metal beds and recycled to an isotope separation system. This study has shown, however, that the catalyzed water gas shift reaction, by which (H,D,T)2O and CO are converted to (H,D,T)2 and CO2 is a better method of (H,D,T)2O reduction than the hot metal beds. Catalytic reactors were designed, built and tested to provide data for the design of a prototype reactor to replace the hot metal beds in the FCU system. The prototype reactor contains only 10 g of catalyst and is expected to last at least 5 years. The reactor is small (1.3 cm OD x 13 cm long), operates at low temperatures (approximately 490 K) and will convert water to hydrogen, at a CO/H2O ratio of 1.5, with an efficiency of greater than 98 percent. Results show that the catalytic reactor is very stable even during upset conditions. Wide ranges of flow and a CO/H2O ratio variance from 1.3 upward have little effect on the conversion efficiency. Short term high temperature excursions do not affect the catalyst and lower temperatures will simply decrease the reaction rate resulting in lower conversions. The reactor appears to be unaffected by NO2, CO2, O2 and N2 in the feed stream at concentration levels expected in a fusion reactor exhaust stream

  8. PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST GAS EMISSIONS ANALYSIS OF DIRECT INJECTION CNG-DIESEL DUAL FUEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANBIR SINGH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Existing diesel engines are under stringent emission regulation particularly of smoke and particulate matter in their exhaust. Compressed Natural Gas and Diesel dual fuel operation is regarded as one of the best ways to control emissions from diesel engines and simultaneously saving petroleum based diesel fuel. Dual fuel engineis a conventional diesel engine which burn either gaseous fuel or diesel or both at the same time. In the present paper an experimental research was carried out on a laboratory single cylinder, four-stroke variable compression ratio, direct injection diesel engine converted to CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of pure diesel first and then CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode. The measurements were recorded for the compression ratio of 15 and 17.5 at CNG substitution rates of 30% and 60% and varying theload from idle to rated load of 3.5kW in steps of 1 up to 3kW and then to 3.5kW. The results reveal that brake thermal efficiency of dual fuel engine is in the range of 30%-40% at the rated load of 3.5 kW which is 11%-13% higher than pure diesel engine for 30% and 60% CNG substitution rates. This trend is observed irrespective of the compression ratio of the engine. Brake specific fuel consumption of dual fuel engine is found better than pure diesel engine at all engine loads and for both CNG substitution rates. It is found that there is drastic reduction in CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke emissions in the exhaust of dual fuel engine at all loads and for 30% and 60% CNG substitution rates by employing some optimum operating conditions set forth for experimental investigations in this study.

  9. Life cycle analysis and choice of natural gas-based automotive alternative fuels in Chongqing Municipality,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Rui; LI Guangyi; ZHANG Zongyi; REN Yulong; HAN Weijian

    2007-01-01

    Road transport produces significant amounts of emissions by using crude oil as the primary energy source.A reduction of emissions can be achieved by implementing alternative fuel chains.The objective of this study is to carry out an economic,environmental and energy (EEE) life cycle study on natural gas-based automotive fuels with conventional gasoline in an abundant region of China.A set of indices of four fuels/vehicle systems on the basis of life cycle are assessed in terms of impact of EEE,in which natural gas produces compressed natural gas (CNG),methanol,dimethylether (DME) and Fischer Tropsch diesel (FTD).The study included fuel production,vehicle production,vehicle operation,infrastructure and vehicle end of life as a system for each fuel/vehicle system.A generic gasoline fueled car is used as a baseline.Data have been reviewed and modified based on the best knowledge available to Chongqing local sources.Results indicated that when we could not change electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles into commercial vehicles on a large scale,direct use of CNG in a dedicated or bi-fuel vehicle is an economical choice for the region which is most energy efficient and more environmental friendly.The study can be used to support decisions on how natural gas resources can best be utilized as a fuel/energy resource for automobiles,and what issues need to be resolved in Chongqing.The models and approaches for this study can be applied to other regions of China as long as all the assumptions are well defined and modified to find a substitute automotive energy source and establish an energy policy in a specific region.

  10. 基于蓄能器原理的汽车尾气余热利用系统%Residual Heat Recovery System of Automotive Exhaust Based on Accumulator Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨星; 路勇; 杨亮; 谭春来; 刘扬; 韩春旭; 闰昱全

    2011-01-01

    针对陆路交通主力军——汽车发动机的尾气余热白白浪费的现象,拟研究开发一套基于蓄能器原理的汽车发动机尾气余热回收存储与利用系统.利用设计的双循环特殊蓄能器对汽车运行过程中尾气排放管道壁产生的热量进行回收,将其转化为液压能储存在恒压蓄能器中,并设计一套与之相配的液压传动回路,利用回收的液压能作为车辆起动和制动的动力源.系统在实现节能的同时,也使汽车尾气余热回收利用的方式更加多元化和实用化.%For the waste phenomenon of exhaust residual heat of automobile engine, which is main land traffic tool, the recovery, storage and utilization system of residual heat was researched and developed based on the accumulator principle. The heat which generated in the exhaust pipe wall during the running of automobile was recycled by a special designed dual cycle accumulator and then was stored in a constant pressure accumulator after being transformed into hydraulic energy. By designing a set of matched hydraulic transmission circuit, the recovered hydraulic energy could be used as the power resource of starting and braking. The system realized energy reuse and made the automotive engine exhaust heat application more practical and diversified.

  11. Study of an exhaust gas recirculation equipped micro gas turbine supplied with bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss in this paper some aspects related to the employment of liquid and gaseous bio-fuels in a micro-gas turbine. Besides the purpose of checking the effectiveness of methods for supplying the micro-turbine with fuels from renewable sources, the attention is focused on the need of controlling the pollutant emission. To this aim, several solutions are experienced and numerically tested. For the liquid fuel supply, a new shape and location of the main fuel injector is combined with a modified position of the pilot injector. In the case of the biogas fuelling, an external EGR option is considered as activated. Both methods aim at the reduction of the thermal and prompt NO formation by approaching the flameless combustion concept. -- Highlights: • External and internal EGR concepts applied to NOx control from micro gas turbines. • For gaseous fuels: internal EGR is obtained by a proper location of the pilot injector. • For liquid fuels: replacing the original radial injectors with a pressure swirl atomizer. • We apply a CFD based method, after validation with experimental data. • Blends of bio-fuels with fossil fuels promise noticeable benefits

  12. Trigeneration scheme for energy efficiency enhancement in a natural gas processing plant through turbine exhaust gas waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Efficiency enhancement of Natural Gas (NG) processing plants in hot/humid climates. ► Gas turbine waste heat powered trigeneration scheme using absorption refrigeration. ► Annual NG savings of 1879 MSCM and operating cost savings of US$ 20.9 million realized. ► Trigeneration scheme payback period estimated at approximately 1 year. ► Significant economical and environmental benefits for NG processing plants. - Abstract: The performance of Natural Gas Processing Plants (NGPPs) can be enhanced with the integration of Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) generation schemes. This paper analyzes the integration of a trigeneration scheme within a NGPP, that utilizes waste heat from gas turbine exhaust gases to generate process steam in a Waste Heat Recovery Steam Generator (WHRSG). Part of the steam generated is used to power double-effect water–lithium bromide (H2O–LiBr) absorption chillers that provide gas turbine compressor inlet air-cooling. Another portion of the steam is utilized to meet part furnace heating load, and supplement plant electrical power in a combined regenerative Rankine cycle. A detailed techno-economic analysis of scheme performance is presented based on thermodynamic predictions obtained using Engineering Equation Solver (EES). The results indicate that the trigeneration system could recover 79.7 MW of gas turbine waste heat, 37.1 MW of which could be utilized by three steam-fired H2O–LiBr absorption chillers to provide 45 MW of cooling at 5 °C. This could save approximately 9 MW of electric energy required by a typical compression chiller, while providing the same amount of cooling. In addition, the combined cycle generates 22.6 MW of additional electrical energy for the plant, while process heating reduces furnace oil consumption by 0.23 MSCM per annum. Overall, the trigeneration scheme would result in annual natural gas fuel savings of approximately 1879 MSCM, and annual operating cost savings of

  13. Some implications of applying the theory of the economics of exhaustible resources to oil and gas pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inyang, E.D.; Stultz-Karim, S.P.; Thackeray, F.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of the economics of exhaustible resources is reviewed and discussed in terms of its applicability to the complex structure of the international petroleum industry. Particular attention is given to the implications of uncertainty in reserves estimations for corporate, public, and financial institutions which have the responsibilities of oil and gas pricing and depletion policy formulation. A modification of the model of the economics of exhaustible resources under a freely competitive market structure is analyzed to determine the effect of uncertainty in reserves estimations on the optimal net price and on depletion profiles. The uncertainty in the resultant time until economic exhaustion and the discount present value is found to be directly proportional to the uncertainty in the reserves estimations. These results should be carefully considered in the difficult conflicts between short-term profit maximization and long-term social objectives in the formulation of public and private pricing and depletion policies.

  14. Cost Benefit Analysis of Using Clean Energy Supplies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Global Automotive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Automotive manufacturing is energy-intensive. The consumed energy contributes to the generation of significant amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by the automotive manufacturing industry. In this paper, a study is conducted on assessing the application potential of such clean energy power systems as solar PV, wind and fuel cells in reducing the GHG emissions of the global auto manufacturing industry. The study is conducted on the representative solar PV, wind and fuel cell clean energy systems available on the commercial market in six representative locations of GM’s global facilities, including the United States, Mexico, Brazil, China, Egypt and Germany. The results demonstrate that wind power is superior to other two clean energy technologies in the economic performance of the GHG mitigation effect. Among these six selected countries, the highest GHG emission mitigation potential is in China, through wind power supply. The maximum GHG reduction could be up to 60 tons per $1,000 economic investment on wind energy supply in China. The application of wind power systems in the United States and Germany could also obtain relatively high GHG reductions of between 40–50 tons per $1,000 economic input. When compared with wind energy, the use of solar and fuel cell power systems have much less potential for GHG mitigation in the six countries selected. The range of median GHG mitigation values resulting from solar and wind power supply are almost at the same level.

  15. The Effect of Fuel Dose Division on The Emission of Toxic Components in The Car Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietras Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the effect of fuel dose division in the Diesel engine on smoke opacity and composition of the emitted exhaust gas. The research activities reported in the article include experimental examination of a small Diesel engine with Common Rail type supply system. The tests were performed on the engine test bed equipped with an automatic data acquisition system which recorded all basic operating and control parameters of the engine, and smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas. The parameters measured during the engine tests also included the indicated pressure and the acoustic pressure. The tests were performed following the pre-established procedure in which 9 engine operation points were defined for three rotational speeds: 1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm, and three load levels: 25, 40 and 75 Nm. At each point, the measurements were performed for 7 different forms of fuel dose injection, which were: the undivided dose, the dose divided into two or three parts, and three different injection advance angles for the undivided dose and that divided into two parts. The discussion of the obtained results includes graphical presentation of contests of hydrocarbons, carbon oxide, and nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas, and its smoke opacity. The presented analyses referred to two selected cases, out of nine examined engine operation points. In these cases the fuel dose was divided into three parts and injected at the factory set control parameters. The examination has revealed a significant effect of fuel dose division on the engine efficiency, and on the smoke opacity and composition of the exhaust gas, in particular the content of nitrogen oxides. Within the range of low loads and rotational speeds, dividing the fuel dose into three parts clearly improves the overall engine efficiency and significantly decreases the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas. Moreover, it slightly decreases the contents of hydrocarbons and

  16. Utilization of Common Automotive Three-Way NO{sub x} Reduction Catalyst for Managing Off- Gas from Thermal Treatment of High-Nitrate Waste - 13094

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Adam L.; Ki Song, P.E. [Studsvik, Inc. 5605 Glenridge Drive Suite 705, Atlanta, GA 30342 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Studsvik's Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR) steam reforming process has been tested and proven to effectively treat radioactive and hazardous wastes streams with high nitrate contents to produce dry, stable mineral products, while providing high conversion (>98%) of nitrates and nitrites directly to nitrogen gas. However, increased NO{sub x} reduction may be desired for some waste streams under certain regulatory frameworks. In order to enhance the NO{sub x} reduction performance of the THOR process, a common Three-Way catalytic NO{sub x} reduction unit was installed in the process gas piping of a recently completed Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD). The catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit was located downstream of the main THOR process vessel, and it was designed to catalyze the reduction of residual NO{sub x} to nitrogen gas via the oxidation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds that are inherent to the THOR process gas. There was no need for auxiliary injection of a reducing gas, such as ammonia. The unit consisted of four monolith type catalyst sections positioned in series with a gas mixing section located between each catalyst section. The process gas was monitored for NO{sub x} concentration upstream and downstream of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. Conversion efficiencies ranged from 91% to 97% across the catalytic unit, depending on the composition of the inlet gas. Higher concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the THOR process gas increased the NO{sub x} reduction capability of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. The NO{sub x} destruction performance of THOR process in combination with the Three-Way catalytic unit resulted in overall system NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of greater than 99.9% with an average NO{sub x} reduction efficiency of 99.94% for the entire demonstration program. This allowed the NO{sub x} concentration in the ESTD exhaust gas to be maintained at less than 40 parts per million (ppm

  17. Establishing isokinetic flow for a plasma torch exhaust gas diagnostic for a plasma hearth furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, B.R.

    1996-05-01

    Real time monitoring of toxic metallic effluents in confined gas streams can be accomplished through use of Microwave Induced Plasmas to perform atomic emission spectroscopy, For this diagnostic to be viable it is necessary that it sample from the flowstream of interest in an isokinetic manner. A method of isokinetic sampling was established for this device for use in the exhaust system of a plasma hearth vitrification furnace. The flow and entrained particulate environment were simulated in the laboratory setting using a variable flow duct of the same dimensions (8-inch diameter, schedule 40) as that in the field and was loaded with similar particulate (less than 10 {mu}m in diameter) of lake bed soil typically used in the vitrification process. The flow from the furnace was assumed to be straight flow. To reproduce this effect a flow straightener was installed in the device. An isokinetic sampling train was designed to include the plasma torch, with microwave power input operating at 2.45 GHz, to match local freestream velocities between 800 and 2400 ft/sec. The isokinetic sampling system worked as planned and the plasma torch had no difficulty operating at the required flowrates. Simulation of the particulate suspension was also successful. Steady particle feeds were maintained over long periods of time and the plasma diagnostic responded as expected.

  18. Analysis of benefits of using internal exhaust gas recirculation in biogas-fueled HCCI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The influence of EGR on combustion of biogas fueled HCCI was investigated. • The aim was to reduce intake temperature requirement by internal EGR. • Combustion products caused the delay of combustion in similar conditions. • Internal EGR enabled by negative valve overlap increased cylinder temperature. • This increase was not enough to significantly reduce the intake temperature. - Abstract: This paper describes a numerical study that analyzed the influence of combustion products (CP) concentration on the combustion characteristics (combustion timing and combustion duration) of a biogas fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine and the possibility of reducing the high intake temperature requirement necessary for igniting biogas in a HCCI engine by using internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) enabled by negative valve overlap (NVO). An engine model created in AVL Boost, and validated against experimental engine data, was used in this study. The results show, somewhat counter-intuitively, that when CP concentrations are increased the required intake temperature for maintaining the same combustion timing must be increased. When greater NVO is used to increase the in-cylinder CP concentration, the in-cylinder temperature does increase, but the chemical dilution influence of CP almost entirely counteracts this thermal effect. Additionally, it has been observed that with larger fractions of CP some instability of combustion in the calculation was obtained which indicates that the increase of internal EGR might produce some combustion instability

  19. Reducing the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel power plans by exhaust gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other pollutants which result from burning fossil fuels has been identified as the major contributor to global warming and climate change. However, for the short term, at least for the next 10-20 years, the world will continue to rely on fossil fuels as the source of primary energy. The challenge for the fossil the fuel industry is to find cost-effective solutions that will reduce the release of CO2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The focus of this paper is on the ability to treat the exhaust gas from fossil fuel power plants in order to capture and store the CO2 and remove the other pollutants such as SOx and NOx which are released into the atmosphere. In summary, capture/separation costs represent the largest financial impediment for this type of plants. Hence, efficient, cost-effective capture/separation technologies need to be developed to allow their large-scale use. (author)

  20. [Research on diagnosis of gas-liquid detonation exhaust based on double optical path absortion spectroscopy technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiao-Jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    The effect detection of detonation exhaust can provide measurement data for exploring the formation mechanism of detonation, the promotion of detonation efficiency and the reduction of fuel waste. Based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique combined with double optical path cross-correlation algorithm, the article raises the diagnosis method to realize the on-line testing of detonation exhaust velocity, temperature and H2O gas concentration. The double optical path testing system is designed and set up for the valveless pulse detonation engine with the diameter of 80 mm. By scanning H2O absorption lines of 1343nm with a high frequency of 50 kHz, the on-line detection of gas-liquid pulse detonation exhaust is realized. The results show that the optical testing system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique can capture the detailed characteristics of pulse detonation exhaust in the transient process of detonation. The duration of single detonation is 85 ms under laboratory conditions, among which supersonic injection time is 5.7 ms and subsonic injection time is 19.3 ms. The valveless pulse detonation engine used can work under frequency of 11 Hz. The velocity of detonation overflowing the detonation tube is 1,172 m x s(-1), the maximum temperature of detonation exhaust near the nozzle is 2 412 K. There is a transitory platform in the velocity curve as well as the temperature curve. H2O gas concentration changes between 0-7% during detonation under experimental conditions. The research can provide measurement data for the detonation process diagnosis and analysis, which is of significance to advance the detonation mechanism research and promote the research of pulse detonation engine control technology. PMID:25208369

  1. 浅析逆向注油排气法在汽车液压制动系统中的应用%On the Application of Reverse Oiling and Exhaust Method in Automotive Hydraulic Braking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志维

    2014-01-01

    Automotive hydraulic braking system is the automotive braking device by using the brake fluid as the transmission media to make the wheel brakes work. The hydraulic braking system has the advantages of smooth braking and high sensitivity. Once the hydraulic braking system occur air resistance, it will cause braking weak, the braking force reducing and other failure, and reduce the braking performance of wheel brakes, so that will directly affects the car's braking performance and safety. This paper introduces an operation method overturning the traditional methods:reverse oiling and exhaust method. This method is simple and practical, and can greatly improve the maintenance efficiency.%汽车液压式制动系统是利用制动油液作为传力介质使车轮制动器工作的汽车制动装置,液压式制动系统具有制动平稳、制动灵敏度高等优点。而当液压制动系统一旦发生气阻时就会导致制动发软、制动力减小等故障,使车轮制动器的制动效能下降,直接影响汽车的制动性能和安全性。文章介绍一种颠覆传统操作方法:逆向注油排气法,这种方法简单实用,极大地提高了维修效率。

  2. Evaluation of the necessity of exhaust gas recirculation employment for a methanol/diesel reactivity controlled compression ignition engine operated at medium loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Methanol fraction considerably affected the engine performance. • Exhaust gases had little effect on fuel efficiency at a fixed ignition timing. • Good performance was obtained without exhaust gases at low initial temperature. • The introduction of exhaust gases was essential when initial temperature is high. - Abstract: Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to investigate the improvement of engine performance by managing exhaust gas recirculation rate and methanol fraction in a methanol/diesel reactivity controlled compression ignition engine. By defining fuel efficiency and ringing intensity as the restricted boundaries, the operating ranges of exhaust gas recirculation rate and methanol fraction under various initial temperatures were determined to simultaneously achieve high fuel economy and avoid engine knock. The results indicated that the fuel efficiency and ringing intensity were dominantly affected by the combustion phasing, and they was nearly insensitive to the variations of exhaust gas recirculation rate and initial temperature at a constant combustion phasing. The necessity of exhaust gas recirculation employment at medium loads was dependent on the level of initial temperature. When initial temperature was less than the critical value (380 K in this study), optimal engine performance could be achieved by only adopting high methanol fraction without introducing exhaust gas recirculation. Once initial temperature was beyond the critical value, exhaust gas recirculation was imperative to avoid excessive ringing intensity. Through simultaneously optimizing methanol fraction and exhaust gas recirculation rate, the combined strategy exhibited more advantages in fuel efficiency, nitrogen oxides, and ringing intensity under a wide range of initial temperature

  3. Reduction of the exhaust gas emissions during warm up by improving the mixture preparation of spark-ignition engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During warm-up the engine emits the highest concentration of exhaust gas emissions. An improvement of the atomization behaviour of the injected fuel should lead to a good mixture preparation in the manifold and combustion chamber and further to lower exhaust gas emissions during warm up. During these investigations it was found out that the build-up of fuel film in the manifold of cold spark-ignition engines can not be prevented. But by injecting the fuel at the open inlet valve it is possible to reduce the fuel film. The injection of extremely finely atomized fuel at the open inlet valve leads to a better mixture preparation with smaller fuel dropplets in the manifold and combustion chamber. This again leads, during warm-up of the spark ignition engine, to a reduction of the HC emissions of 30% and the CO emissions of 50%. (author)

  4. Development of high temperature SiC based field effect sensors for internal combustion engine exhaust gas monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Wingbrant, Helena

    2003-01-01

    While the car fleet becomes increasingly larger it is important to lower the amounts of pollutants from each individual diesel or gasoline engine to almost zero levels. The pollutants from these engines predominantly originate from high NOx emissions and particulates, in the case when diesel is utilized, and emissions at cold start from gasoline engines. One way of treating the high NOx levels is to introduce ammonia in the diesel exhausts and let it react with the NOx to form nitrogen gas an...

  5. Application of exhaust gas fuel reforming in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines fuelled with biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    A. Megaritis; Yap, D

    2008-01-01

    This is the post-print version of the final paper published in Energy. The published article is available from the link below. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. Copyright @ 2007 Elsevier B.V. This paper documents the application of exhaust gas fuel reforming ...

  6. Development of low cost ceramic recuperator technology applicable to automotive gas turbine engines. Final report, April 1972--April 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kormanyos, K.R.

    1978-02-01

    Oxide glass--ceramic recuperators for application to automotive gas turbine engines were investigated. Design data and fabrication feasibility were established. Evaluation of glass--ceramic recuperator structures was carried out on a series of experimental test specimens. Parametric design data for plate--fin type glass--ceramic recuperator configurations was developed over a range of engine operating conditions. Recuperator sizing procedures were developed to fit four conceptual recuperator designs to the DOE/Chrysler Baseline regenerated gas turbine engine. Assumed pressure drop and effectiveness value constraints on sizing yielded two design packages with acceptable dimensions to fit an automobile engine compartment. Four conceptual recuperator designs were fabricated as demonstration samples using CER-VIT C-132 glass--ceramic material. Single-pass cross-flow cores were fabricated using CER-VIT C-126 material for laboratory scale tests of cross-circuit leakage and hot-gas flow thermal cycling effects. The laboratory tests precipitated the development effect of a modified material system for test core fabrication. The modified material system proved successful in initial studies on small core sections; however, upon scale up to test core size unacceptably high cross-leakage resulted.

  7. ANALYSIS OF EXHAUST GAS EMISSION IN THE MARINE TWO-STROKE SLOW-SPEED DIESEL ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    Branko Lalić; Gojmir Radica; Nikola Račić

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the problem of exhaust emissions of the marine two-stroke slow-speed diesel engines. After establishing marine diesel engine regulations and defining the parameters influencing exhaust emissions, the simulation model of the marine two-stroke slow-speed diesel engine has been developed. Furthermore, the comparison of numerical and experimentally obtained data has been performed, resulting in achieving the model validity at 100% load, which represents a requirement for furth...

  8. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Combustible Oxygen Mass Fraction on Emission Index of NOx for Counterflow Methane/Air Diffusion Flames

    OpenAIRE

    Sane, Mugdha S

    2013-01-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation has been proven to be an effective method of reducing emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from internal combustion engines. The present study validates this effect through flame simulations using detailed chemistry. Counterflow methane/air diffusion flames were simulated in one dimension in physical space using GRI-Mech 3.0 detailed chemistry mechanism, thermal, and transport data. The influence of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on the flame structure and NOx emis...

  9. Gas-oil/water emulsion fuel for automotive diesel engines. energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    In this paper the work performed within the contract EE-C-201-I is reported. The results achieved in the tests of high speed diesel engines with water in oil emulsion feeding system are summarized. First, carried out trials on test bench are described; then operation in light duty truck on the road and on roller test bench is reported and trials with constant speed diesel engine are related. Finally, the work about emulsion characterization is synthetized. The conclusion shows as the water in oil emulsion is a feeding system suitable for high speed diesel engine operation because BSFC, grade of smoke, exhaust temperature and emission are lowered without considerable troubles.

  10. The growing interest of automobile manufacturers for natural gas as an automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects for natural gas vehicles (NGV) are good. The number of trucks, busses and passenger cars that run on natural gas has considerably increased over the last few years. Natural gas is applauded from various sides as the most important alternative engine fuel. Some prestigious automobile manufacturers have meanwhile included NGV in their price list. However, it's up to the authorities and the gas industry itself in particular to make or break the success of NGV. The maximum range of 300 km is still too limited as is the number of natural gas filling stations in most countries. And without financial impetus NGV will not be able to compete with petrol- and diesel-fueled cars. Yet, clean natural gas vehicles appear to realize a market share of 1% soon

  11. Making aerospace technology work for the automotive industry, introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    NASA derived technology already in use in the automotive industry include: (1) developments in electronics design, computer systems, and quality control methods for line testing of cars and trucks; (2) a combustion analysis computer program for automotive engine research and development; (3) an infrared scanner and television display for analyzing tire design and performance, and for studying the effects of heat on the service life of V-belts, shock mounts, brakes, and rubber bearings; (4) exhaust gas analyzers for trouble shooting and emissions certification; (5) a device for reducing noise from trucks; and (6) a low cost test vehicle for measuring highway skid resistance. Services offered by NASA to facilitate access to its technology are described.

  12. Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Christopher R.; Moini, Ahmad; Koermer, Gerald S.; Furbeck, Howard

    2010-07-20

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

  13. The California greenhouse gas initiative and its implications to the automotive industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B. C.; Miller, R. T.; Center for Automotive Research

    2006-05-31

    CAR undertook this investigation to better understand the costs and challenges of a local (state) regulation necessitating the implementation of alternative or advanced powertrain technology. CAR will attempt to add insight into the challenges that local regulations present to the automotive industry, and to contribute further to the discussion of how advanced powertrain technology may be used to meet such regulation. Any local law that (directly or indirectly) affects light duty motor vehicle fuel economy creates what in effect is a specialty market for powertrain technology. As such these small markets present significant challenges for automotive manufacturers. First, a small market with unique standards presents significant challenges to an industry that has sustained growth by relying on large volumes to achieve scale economies and deliver products at a cost acceptable to the consumer. Further, the challenges of the additional technology make it likely that any powertrain capable of meeting the stringent emissions standards will include costly additional components, and thus will be more costly to manufacture. It is likely that manufacturers would consider the following actions as steps to deliver products to meet the pending California regulatory requirements anticipated as a result of prior California legislation: (1) Substituting more fuel efficient vehicles: Bring in more efficient vehicles from global operations, while likely dropping existing domestic products. (2) Substituting powertrains: Add existing downsized engines (i.e. turbocharged versions, etc.) into California market-bound vehicles. (3) Powertrain enhancements: Add technology to current engine and transmission offerings to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. (4) Incorporating alternative powertrains into existing vehicle platforms: Develop a hybrid or other type of powertrain for an existing vehicle. (5) New powertrains and new platforms: Develop vehicles specifically intended to

  14. Exhaust bypass flow control for exhaust heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G.

    2015-09-22

    An exhaust system for an engine comprises an exhaust heat recovery apparatus configured to receive exhaust gas from the engine and comprises a first flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas and a second flow passage in fluid communication with the exhaust gas. A heat exchanger/energy recovery unit is disposed in the second flow passage and has a working fluid circulating therethrough for exchange of heat from the exhaust gas to the working fluid. A control valve is disposed downstream of the first and the second flow passages in a low temperature region of the exhaust heat recovery apparatus to direct exhaust gas through the first flow passage or the second flow passage.

  15. Shielding gas influences on laser weldability of tailored blanks of advanced automotive steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of shielding gas types and flow rates on CO2 laser weldability of DP600/TRIP700 steel sheets were studied in this work. The evaluated shielding gases were helium (He), argon (Ar) and different mixtures of He and Ar. Weld penetration, tensile strength and formability (Erichsen test) of laser welds were found to be strongly dependent upon the shielding gas types. The ability of shielding gas in removing plasma plume and thus increasing weld penetration is believed to be closely related to ionization potential and atomic weight which determine the period of plasma formation and disappearance. It was found that the higher helium shielding gas flow rate, the deeper weld penetration and the lower weld width.

  16. Shielding gas influences on laser weldability of tailored blanks of advanced automotive steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisgen, Uwe; Schleser, Markus; Mokrov, Oleg [RWTH Aachen University, Welding and Joining Institute, Pontstr. 49, Aachen (Germany); Ahmed, Essam, E-mail: essam.ahmed@rwth-aachen.de [RWTH Aachen University, Welding and Joining Institute, Pontstr. 49, Aachen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    The effects of shielding gas types and flow rates on CO{sub 2} laser weldability of DP600/TRIP700 steel sheets were studied in this work. The evaluated shielding gases were helium (He), argon (Ar) and different mixtures of He and Ar. Weld penetration, tensile strength and formability (Erichsen test) of laser welds were found to be strongly dependent upon the shielding gas types. The ability of shielding gas in removing plasma plume and thus increasing weld penetration is believed to be closely related to ionization potential and atomic weight which determine the period of plasma formation and disappearance. It was found that the higher helium shielding gas flow rate, the deeper weld penetration and the lower weld width.

  17. Shielding gas influences on laser weldability of tailored blanks of advanced automotive steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisgen, Uwe; Schleser, Markus; Mokrov, Oleg; Ahmed, Essam

    2010-12-01

    The effects of shielding gas types and flow rates on CO 2 laser weldability of DP600/TRIP700 steel sheets were studied in this work. The evaluated shielding gases were helium (He), argon (Ar) and different mixtures of He and Ar. Weld penetration, tensile strength and formability (Erichsen test) of laser welds were found to be strongly dependent upon the shielding gas types. The ability of shielding gas in removing plasma plume and thus increasing weld penetration is believed to be closely related to ionization potential and atomic weight which determine the period of plasma formation and disappearance. It was found that the higher helium shielding gas flow rate, the deeper weld penetration and the lower weld width.

  18. A well-based cost function and the economics of exhaustible resources: The case of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chermak, J.M. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States); Patrick, R.H. [Rutgers Univ., Newark, NJ (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A cost function for natural gas production is estimated, using a pool of data from 29 wells. Statistically exact tests are performed for parameter stability across locations, formations, wells, and producing firms. Costs are determined to be inversely related to remaining recoverable reserves, and marginal costs of production are decreasing in all cases. Theoretical implications of these cost characteristics on optimal exhaustible resource extraction are analyzed. Although marginal cost is decreasing, production effects on the resource stock imply that an interior production path may be optimal. Conditions under which production optimally occurs at the capacity bound are delineated, and optimal interior production paths are characterized. 21 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Automotive Catalyst State Diagnosis Using Microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moos Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The state of catalysts plays a key role in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment. The soot or ash loading of Diesel particulate filters, the oxygen loading degree in three-way catalysts, the amount of stored ammonia in SCR catalysts, or the NOx loading degree in NOx storage catalysts are important parameters that are today determined indirectly and in a model-based manner with gas sensors installed upstream and/or downstream of the catalysts. This contribution gives an overview on a novel approach to determine the catalyst state directly by a microwave-based technique. The method exploits the fact that the catalyst housing acts as a microwave cavity resonator. As “sensing” elements, one or two simple antennas are mounted inside the catalyst canning. The electrical properties of the catalyst device (ceramic honeycomb plus coating and storage material can be measured. Preferably, the resonance characteristics, e.g., the resonance frequencies, of selected cavity modes are observed. The information on the catalyst interior obtained in such a contactless manner is very well correlated with the catalyst state as will be demonstrated for different exhaust gas aftertreatment systems.

  20. Automotive mechatronics automotive networking, driving stability systems, electronics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    As the complexity of automotive vehicles increases this book presents operational and practical issues of automotive mechatronics. It is a comprehensive introduction to controlled automotive systems and provides detailed information of sensors for travel, angle, engine speed, vehicle speed, acceleration, pressure, temperature, flow, gas concentration etc. The measurement principles of the different sensor groups are explained and examples to show the measurement principles applied in different types. Contents Basics of mechatronics.- Architecture.- Electronic control unit.- Software development.- Basic principles of networking.- Automotive networking.- Bus systems.- Automotive sensors.- Sensor measuring principles.- Sensor types.- Electric actuators.- Electrohydraulic actuators.- Electronic transmission control.- Electronic transmission control unit.- Modules for transmission control.- Antilock braking system.- Traction control system.- Electronic stability program.- Automatic brake functions.- Hydraulic modu...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1710-99 - Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet average non-methane organic gas....1710-99 Fleet average non-methane organic gas exhaust emission standards for light-duty vehicles and light light-duty trucks. (a) Fleet average NMOG standards and compliance. (1) Each manufacturer...

  2. Polymer spiral film gas-liquid heat exchanger for waste heat recovery in exhaust gases

    OpenAIRE

    Breton, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    In this master thesis report the development of an innovative spiral heat exchanger based on polymer materials is described. Building prototypes, erection of a test bench and firsts tests of the heat exchanger are presented. The heat exchanger prototype survived all tests especially several days in contact with aggressive gases. A facility integrating a Diesel exhaust gases production has been developed to test this heat exchanger design. Performance results obtained during the tes...

  3. Highly improved reliability of amber light emitting diode with Ca -α-SiAlON phosphor in glass formed by gas pressure sintering for automotive applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chang-Bun; Kim, Sanghyun; Choi, Sung-Woo; Yoon, Chulsoo; Ahn, Sang Hyeon; Chung, Woon Jin

    2016-04-01

    Phosphor in glass (PiG) with 40 wt% of Ca-α-SiAlON phosphor and 60 wt% of Pb-free silicate glass was synthesized and mounted on a high-power blue LED to make an amber LED for automotive applications. Gas pressure sintering was applied after the conventional sintering process was used to achieve fully dense PiG plates. Changes in photoluminescence spectra and color coordination were inspected by varying the thickness of the plates that were mounted after optical polishing and machining. A trade-off between luminous flux and color purity was observed. The commercial feasibility of amber PiG packaged LED, which can satisfy international regulations for automotive components, was successfully demonstrated by examining the practical reliability under 85% humidity at an 85°C condition. PMID:27192294

  4. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Technology (EGR)%废气再循环系统EGR的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂林; 孙亮

    2012-01-01

    With the continuous improvement of economic level and living standards, an explosion of car makes easier to people in the life, but also causes serious air pollution. Exhaust gas recirculation technology (EGR) is the more effective emission control means. By a typical structure introduction, this paper gives an indepth analysis about how exhaust gas recirculation system works and the control strategies.%随着经济水平、生活水平的不断提高,汽车保有量激增,在给人们生活带来便利的同时,也造成了十分严重的大气污染。废气再循环技术(EGR),是目前比较有效地尾气控制手段。通过典型结构的介绍,深入分析废气再循环系统的工作原理、控制策略等。

  5. Emission characteristics of iso-propanol/gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine combined with exhaust gas re-circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in a spark-ignition engine fueled with iso-propanol/gasoline blends. Emission characteristics of this engine were investigated experimentally, including gaseous emissions (HC, CO, NOx and particulate matter emission in term of number and size distributions. The effects of different iso-propanol percentages, loads and exhaust gas recirculation rates on emissions were analyzed. Results show that the introduction of exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx emission and NOx emission gives the highest value at full load condition. HC and CO emissions present inconspicuous variations at all the loads except the load of 10%. Additionally, HC emission shows a sharp increase for pure propanol when the exhaust gas recirculation rate is up to 5%, while little variation is observed at lager exhaust gas recirculation rates. Moreover, the particulate matter number concentration increases monotonically with the increase of load and the decrease of exhaust gas recirculation rate. There exists a critical spark timing that produces the highest particulate matter number concentration at all the blending ratios.

  6. An analysis of the thermodynamic efficiency for exhaust gas recirculation-condensed water recirculation-waste heat recovery condensing boilers (EGR-CWR-WHR CB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents fundamental research on the development of a new boiler that is expected to have a higher efficiency and lower emissions than existing boilers. The thermodynamic efficiency of exhaust gas recirculation-condensed water recirculation-waste heat recovery condensing boilers (EGR-CWR-WHR CB) was calculated using thermodynamic analysis and was compared with other boilers. The results show the possibility of obtaining a high efficiency when the temperature of the exhaust gas is controlled within 50–60 °C because water in the exhaust gas is condensed within this temperature range. In addition, the enthalpy emitted by the exhaust gas for the new boiler is smaller because the amount of condensed water is increased by the high dew-point temperature and the low exhaust gas temperature. Thus, the new boiler can obtain a higher efficiency than can older boilers. The efficiency of the EGR-CWR-WHR CB proposed in this study is 93.91%, which is 7.04% higher than that of existing CB that is currently used frequently. - Highlights: • The study presents the development of a new boiler expected to have a high efficiency. • Thermodynamic efficiency of EGR-CWR-WHR condensing boiler was calculated. • Efficiency of EGR-CWR-WHR CB is 93.91%, which is 7.04% higher than existing CB

  7. Use of compressed natural gas in automotive vehicles; Uso del gas natural comprimido aplicado en vehiculos automotores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez R, Adrian [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The natural gas is natural origin energy (fossil fuel); it contains predominantly 90 percent methane; does not require transformation process for its use; is supplied the 24 hours to commerce, industries and homes by underground pipes; it is lighter than air; it is not corrosive, nor absorbent or toxic. For those reasons a study was performed where it is widely justified why the natural gas ought to be used in vehicles. [Spanish] El gas natural es un energetico de origen natural (combustible fosil), contiene predominantemente 90 por ciento de metano, no requiere proceso de transformacion para su utilizacion, llega directamente las 24 horas del dia a los hogares, comercios e industrias por tuberias subterraneas, es mas ligero que el aire, no es corrosivo, no es absorbente y no es toxico. Por esas razones se hizo un estudio donde se justifica ampliamente porque el gas natural debe utilizarse en vehiculos.

  8. Oxidation and exhaust gas corrosion resistance of the cobalt base clad layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Smolenska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this work is describing the behaviour of the cobalt base cladding layers after treatment in hot air (750°C, 200 hours and exhaust gases (700°C, two month.Design/methodology/approach: The layers were produced by two cladding, laser and PTA, cladding technique. Cladding was conducted with a high power diode laser HDPL ROFIN SINAR DL 020 and Plasma Transformed Arc method. The layers consisted of three multitracking sublayers. The cobalt base layers were evaluated by microstructure investigations (optical and scanning electron microscope SEM, chemical analysis and micro hardness measurements.Findings: The microstructure of the investigated layers did not change much, neither on the top part nor in the clad/steel interface after treatment in both environments. On the outer surfaces the oxide layers were observed which consisted generally of chromium and iron oxides. The compositions of this scales were reviled by the EDS analyze. The changes in chemical compositions before and after oxidation and after corrosion in exhaust gases in the dendritic regions and micro regions were confirmed by the semi-quantitative chemical analysis (EDS. Neither the oxidation nor exposition for two month in exhaust gases did not influence on the morphology of the clad layers in any region however changes in chemical composition were observed. For both sort of clads the oxide layers were observed on the surface. The proposed layers are resistant for the hot exhausted gases.Research limitations/implications: The future researches should be done on microstructural and kinetic analyze of high temperature corrosion for higher temperature and times of the process.Practical implications: The clad layers, of this composition, were designed as a method to prolong service time for the ship engine exhausted valve and after this investigation the first valve heads with laser clad layer were installed in working ship engine.Originality/value: The chemical

  9. The pilot plant experiment of electron beam irradiation process for removal of NOx and SOx from sinter plant exhaust gas in the iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution problem has become more important in the progress of industry. Nitrogen oxides (NOx, mostly NO) and sulfur oxides (SOx, mostly SO2) which are contained in a sinter plant exhaust gas, are known as serious air pollutants. In such circumstances, an attempt has been made to simultaneously remove NOx and SOx from the sinter plant exhaust gas by means of a new electron beam irradiation process. The process consists of adding a small amount of NH3 to the exhaust gas, irradiating the gas by electron beam, forming ammonium salts by reactions of NOx and SOx with the NH3 and collecting ammonium salts by dry electrostatic precipitator (E.P.). Basic research on the present process had been performed using heavy oil combustion gas. Based on the results research was launched to study the applicability of the process to the treatment of sinter plant exhaust gas. A pilot plant, capable of treating a gas flow of 3000 Nm3/H was set up, and experiments were performed from July 1977 to June 1978. The plant is described and the results are presented. (author)

  10. 基于AVR单片机的汽车尾气检测系统设计%Design of automobile exhaust gas detection system based on AVR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚宁; 郭朝龙; 翁凌云; 葛承滨

    2014-01-01

    针对当前汽车尾气污染加重和检测标准日益完善的现状,为了弥补传统汽车尾气检测系统在测量精度、稳定性、人机操作等方面存在的不足,提出了一种基于AVR单片机的汽车尾气检测系统设计方案。系统以ATMEGA8L为核心控制器,主要由传感器模块、信号采集调理电路、A/D转换器以及显示模块等组成。实验结果表明,系统具有测量精度高、稳定可靠、人机交互性好等优点。%Nowadays the automotive exhaust pollution has been increasing and the detecting standard is increasingly sophis⁃ticated. A design scheme of an automobile exhaust detecting system based on AVR is proposed to overcome the shortage of tradi⁃tional automotive exhaust detection systems in measuring accuracy,stability and man⁃machine operation. ATMEGA8L is taken as the core controller of the system,which is composed of the sensor module,signal acquisition and conditioning circuit,A/D converter,and display module. The tested results show that the system has the advantages of high⁃accuracy,high stability,high reliability and good human⁃computer interaction.

  11. Quantification of diesel exhaust gas phase organics by a thermal desorption proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Erickson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new approach was developed to measure the total abundance of long chain alkanes (C12 and above in urban air using thermal desorption with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS. These species are emitted in diesel exhaust and may be important precursors to secondary organic aerosol production in urban areas. Long chain alkanes undergo dissociative proton transfer reactions forming a series of fragment ions with formula CnH2n+1. The yield of the fragment ions is a function of drift conditions. At a drift field strength of 80 Townsends, the most abundant ion fragments from C10 to C16 n-alkanes were m/z 57, 71 and 85. The PTR-MS is insensitive to n-alkanes less than C8 but displays an increasing sensitivity for larger alkanes. Higher drift field strengths yield greater normalized sensitivity implying that the proton affinity of the long chain n-alkanes is less than H2O. Analysis of diesel fuel shows the mass spectrum was dominated by alkanes (CnH2n+1, monocyclic aromatics, and an ion group with formula CnH2n−1 (m/z 97, 111, 125, 139. The PTR-MS was deployed in Sacramento, CA during the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study field experiment in June 2010. The ratio of the m/z 97 to 85 ion intensities in ambient air matched that found in diesel fuel. Total diesel exhaust alkane concentrations calculated from the measured abundance of m/z 85 ranged from the method detection limit of ~1 μg m−3 to 100 μg m−3 in several air pollution episodes. The total diesel exhaust alkane concentration determined by this method was on average a factor of 10 greater than the sum of alkylbenzenes associated with spark ignition vehicle exhaust.

  12. A Fault Diagnosis Approach for Gas Turbine Exhaust Gas Temperature Based on Fuzzy C-Means Clustering and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-tao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important gas path performance parameter of gas turbine, exhaust gas temperature (EGT can represent the thermal health condition of gas turbine. In order to monitor and diagnose the EGT effectively, a fusion approach based on fuzzy C-means (FCM clustering algorithm and support vector machine (SVM classification model is proposed in this paper. Considering the distribution characteristics of gas turbine EGT, FCM clustering algorithm is used to realize clustering analysis and obtain the state pattern, on the basis of which the preclassification of EGT is completed. Then, SVM multiclassification model is designed to carry out the state pattern recognition and fault diagnosis. As an example, the historical monitoring data of EGT from an industrial gas turbine is analyzed and used to verify the performance of the fusion fault diagnosis approach presented in this paper. The results show that this approach can make full use of the unsupervised feature extraction ability of FCM clustering algorithm and the sample classification generalization properties of SVM multiclassification model, which offers an effective way to realize the online condition recognition and fault diagnosis of gas turbine EGT.

  13. Ejection of toxic and carcinogenic substances along with the exhaust gasses of gas turbine engines and ways of reducing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshavskiy, I.L.; Kanilo, P.M.; Khesina, A.Y.; Ryabeka, V.P.; Smirnov, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of the amount of carcinogenic substances in exhaust gasses of piston aviation engines showed that the concentration of Benzene (A) tyrene in exhaust gasses is found at a level of 0.5-5 micrograms/m/sup 3/. It increases with an increase of a load, rotation frequency and angle of advance of fuel injection. The maximum concentration of Benzene(A)tyrene is observed in transitional states related to acceleration of the airplane. Measures to reduce the ejection of NO (injection of water into the combustion chamber, the use of water and fuel emulsions, recirculation of the treated gasses into the combustion chamber) relates to an increase of Benzene(a)tyrene ejections. Tests were carried out on an experimental test bed using the gas turbine aviation engine type AI-9 to determine the amount of waste gasses that are carcinogenic and toxic. The Benzene(a)tyrene concentration in waste gasses of piston engines (0.8 micrograms/m/sup 3/) with an increase of the total coefficient of excess air in a combustion chamber increases by a factor of 2 to 4. Enriching the fuel-air mixture with hydrogen in a combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine by adding hydrogen to the primary zone of the combustion chamber simultaneously reduces the concentration of waste gasses, Benzene(a)tyrene and CO. For the AI-25 gas turbine engine the addition of hydrogen in the amount of 5% mass of fuel reduces the ejection of CO by a factor of 2, and that of Benzene(a)tyrene by a factor of 7.

  14. The effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic characteristics of an automotive catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Tariq [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128-2406 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Automotive catalytic converters, which are employed to reduce engine exhaust emissions, are subjected to highly transient conditions during a typical driving cycle. These transient conditions arise from changes in driving mode, the hysteresis and flow lags of the feedback control system, and result in fluctuations of air-fuel ratio, exhaust gas flow rates and temperatures. The catalyst performance is also strongly influenced by the oxygen storage capacity. This paper presents a computational investigation of the effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic behavior of an automotive catalytic converter subjected to modulations in exhaust gases. The modulations are generated by forcing the temporal variations in exhaust gases air-fuel ratio, gas flow rates and temperatures. The study employs a single-channel based, one-dimensional, non-adiabatic model. The results show that the imposed modulations cause a significant departure in the catalyst behavior from its steady behavior, and the oxygen storage capacity plays an important role in determining the catalyst's response to the imposed modulations. Modulations and oxygen storage capacity are found to have relatively greater influence on the catalyst's performance near stoichiometric conditions. (author)

  15. Exhaust Gas Analysis and Parametric Study of Ethanol Blended Gasoline Fuel in Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra kumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the future availability of energy resources, as well as the need for reducing CO2 emissions from the fuels used has increased the need for the utilization of regenerative fuels. This research is done taking commercial gasoline as reference which is originally blended with 5% ethanol. Hence 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% ethanol blended with Gasoline initially was tested in SI engines. Physical properties relevant to the fuel were determined for the four blends of gasoline. A four cylinder, four stroke, varying rpm, Petrol (MPFI engine was tested on blends containing 5%,10%,15%,20% ethanol and performance characteristics, and exhaust emissions were evaluated. Even though higher blends can replace gasoline in a SI engine, results showed that there is a reduction in exhaust gases, such as HC, O2, CO, CO2 and increase in Brake Thermal Efficiency on blending. Hence we can conclude from the result that using 10% ethanol blend is most effective and we can utilize it for further use in SI engines with little constraint on material used to sustain little increase in pressure.

  16. Bicycle Painting Exhaust Gas Treatment Technology Comparison%自行车涂装废气治理技术的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜万义; 张晓燕

    2015-01-01

    The exhaust gas of bicycle spraying mainly contains two parts. The first part is the mist particles which appear during spraying process. The second part is VOC which appear during the process of spraying and drying. This paper describes the main treatment method of the exhaust gas during bicycle spraying.%自行车涂装废气主要有两部分,一是喷涂过程中产生的漆雾颗粒物,二是喷涂和烘干过程中产生的VOC。本文阐述了涂装废气的治理主要方法。

  17. Market structure and exhaustible resources: The case of natural gas and crude oil in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czastkiewicz, Carolina

    Using a dataset of natural gas and crude oil production in the state of California, evidence shows overextraction incentives among market participants that shared a common pool. Due to these incentives the supply of gas and crude oil extraction tends to become more inelastic as the number of firms in the pool increases. Using an instrumental variables estimation of the supply function, the results show that the common pool externality caused an average overproduction rate of 11% and 4% over the 1977--2001 period, in natural gas and crude oil, respectively. These figures imply 1 year and 4 years of additional production for natural gas and crude oil, respectively.

  18. Implementation of an experimental pilot reproducing the fouling of the exhaust gas recirculation system in diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crepeau Gérald

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The European emission standards EURO 5 and EURO 6 define more stringent acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles. The Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR system is a partial but essential solution for lowering the emission of nitrogen oxides and soot particulates. Yet, due to a more intensive use than in the past, the fouling of the EGR system is increased. Ensuring the reliability of the EGR system becomes a main challenge. In partnership with PSA Peugeot Citroën, we designed an experimental setup that mimics an operating EGR system. Its distinctive features are (1 its ability to reproduce precisely the operating conditions and (2 its ability to measure the temperature field on the heat exchanger surface with an Infra Red camera for detecting in real time the evolution of the fooling deposit based on its thermal resistance. Numerical codes are used in conjunction with this experimental setup to determine the evolution of the fouling thickness from its thermal resistance.

  19. Air intake and exhaust systems in fuel cell engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuesser, R.; Weber, O. [Mann and Hummel (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the design and development of the air intake and exhaust system of a fuel cell powered road vehicle. In this instance the automotive supplier designed both the air intake and the exhaust system. The fuel cell engine gives a cold combustion effect making it possible to manufacture the exhaust from plastic materials. (UK)

  20. A comparison of benzene, toluene and C{sub 2}-benzenes mixing ratios in automotive exhaust and in the suburban atmosphere during the introduction of catalytic converter technology to the Swiss Car Fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeb, N.V.; Forss, A.-M.; Bach, C.; Reimann, S.; Herzog, A.; Jackle, H.W. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    Time-resolved chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) has been used to investigate the variations of the mixing ratios of benzene, toluene and the C{sub 2}-benzenes (xylenes and ethyl benzene) in automotive exhaust during transient engine operation. A significant increase of the benzene/toluene ratios from 0.35 to 1.31 (median) was found upon introduction of a catalytic converter system. A preliminary emission model was developed from these test stand measurements to simulate benzene/toluene ratios of passenger car fleets with variable proportions of three-way catalyst vehicles. Although only the emissions of gasoline-driven passenger cars have been considered so far, the predicted increase of the benzene/toluene ratios during the introduction period of the three-way catalyst from 1980 to 2000 is in good agreement with the observed increase of the atmospheric benzene/toluene ratio measured at a suburban monitoring site (Dubendorf, Switzerland) which is strongly influenced by road traffic emissions. At this site, the atmospheric concentrations of benzene and alkyl benzenes have been detected at hourly intervals since 1993. A steady decrease of the yearly mean from 3.54 to 2.00 ppb for toluene and from 2.87 to 1.33 ppb for the sum of C{sub 2}-benzenes was found from 1994 to 1998, respectively, when the proportion of three-way catalyst passenger cars increased from 60 to 82%. Nevertheless, the mean benzene concentration was only affected to a small degree (from 1.10 to 0.97 ppb) within the same period of time. Thus, the observed increase of the atmospheric benzene/toluene-mixing ratios from 0.32 to 0.58 (mean) is in good agreement with the predicted values from the presented emission model. Reduced catalyst conversion efficiency for benzene with respect to alkylated benzenes can explain most of the observed increase of the benzene/toluene and benzene/C{sub 2}-benzenes mixing rations. In addition, benzene emissions e.g. from the class of light duty vehicles, which

  1. Noise Radiation from Automotive Turbochargers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenrui, Wang

    2011-01-01

    Turbochargers are now commonly used in modern automotive engines, which increase the density of air entering the engine to produce more power. This device not only greatly improves the degree of engine efficiency, but also reduces the pollutant emissions. However, one of the important issues which must be considered is the noise from turbochargers. This noise can radiate either after propagation through the intake and exhaust ducts or via induced vibrations in the turbocharger housing. Here t...

  2. The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimize Fuel Economy and Minimize Emission in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2011-12-31

    This report summarizes activities conducted for the project “The Use of Exhaust Gas Recirculation to Optimized Fuel Economy and Minimize Emissions in Engines Operating on E85 Fuel” under COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC26-07NT43271, which are as outlined in the STATEMENT OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES (SOPO) dated March 2007 and in the supplemental SOPO dated October 2010. The project objective was to develop and demonstrate an internal combustion engine that is optimized for E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) fuel operation to achieve substantially improved fuel economy while operating with E85 fuel and that is also production viable in the near- to medium-term. The key engine technology selected for research and development was turbocharging, which is known to improve fuel economy thru downsizing and is in particular capable of exploiting ethanol fuel’s characteristics of high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. The engine further integrated synergistic efficiency improving technologies of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), direct fuel injection and dual continuously variable intake and exhaust cam phasers. On the vehicle level, fuel economy was furthered thru powertrain system optimization by mating a state-of-the-art six-speed automatic transmission to the engine. In order to achieve the project’s objective of near- to medium-term production viability, it was essential to develop the engine to be flex-fuel capable of operating with fuels ranging from E0 (0% ethanol and 100% gasoline) to E85 and to use three-way type of catalyst technology for exhaust aftertreatment. Within these scopes, various technologies were developed through systems approach to focus on ways to help accelerate catalyst light-off. Significant amount of development took place during the course of the project within General Motors, LLC. Many prototype flex-fuel engines were designed, built and developed with various hardware configurations selected to achieve the project

  3. Estimation of current density distribution of PAFC by analysis of cell exhaust gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, S.; Seya, A. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Ichihara-shi (Japan); Asano, A. [Fuji Electric Corporate, Ltd., Yokosuka-shi (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    To estimate distributions of Current densities, voltages, gas concentrations, etc., in phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stacks, is very important for getting fuel cells with higher quality. In this work, we leave developed a numerical simulation tool to map out the distribution in a PAFC stack. And especially to Study Current density distribution in the reaction area of the cell, we analyzed gas composition in several positions inside a gas outlet manifold of the PAFC stack. Comparing these measured data with calculated data, the current density distribution in a cell plane calculated by the simulation, was certified.

  4. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a dual fuel compression ignition engine operated with pilot Diesel fuel and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially soot and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. These engines are known as dual fuel combustion engines, i.e. they use conventional Diesel fuel and a gaseous fuel as well. This technology is currently reintroduced, associated with efforts to overcome various difficulties of HCCI engines, using various fuels. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using natural gas in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high autoignition temperature of natural gas is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under dual fuel conditions. The primary amount of fuel is the gaseous one, which is ignited by a pilot Diesel liquid injection. Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and dual fuel operation, revealing the effect of dual fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  5. Device for the removal of sulfur dioxide from exhaust gas by pulsed energization of free electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a new device using pulsed streamer corona for the removal of sulfur dioxide from humid air has been evaluated. The pulsed streamer corona produced free electrons which enhance gas-phase chemical reactions, and convert SO2 to sulfuric acid mist. The SO2 removal efficiency was compared with that of the electron-beam flue-gas treatment process. The comparison demonstrates the advantage of the novel device

  6. Control of PCDDs/PCDFs, PCBs and PAHs emissions in exhaust of landfill gas fed engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idczak, F.; Dengis, P.; Duchateau, P.; Petitjean, S. [ISSeP, Liege (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Wallonia in Belgium, like many countries around the world, planned to reduce amounts of waste generated by human activity and stored in landfills. Since they experienced a couple of crisis situations in the past, both with former and presently used landfill sites, authorities launched a demanding landfill monitoring program which covers now 9 out of the 10 major sites. Biogas produced in these landfills are collected and eliminated in two different ways. Either simply burned in a flare, or, when the methane grade and flow are high enough, the biogas can be burned in electricity producing engines. This later use represents an energy recovery from the waste. In the context of difficulty for landfill sites to be accepted by the public (the well-known NIMBY phenomenon), the question has been raised whether combustion of the biogas did not entail production of dioxins and other polyaromatic compounds. For the exhaust gases of engines operated with biogas, a check on the presence of dioxins and associated organic pollutants, composed of three different runs or days of sampling for each of 5 landfill sites was performed upon demand of responsible authorities.

  7. Inhalation of diesel engine exhaust affects spermatogenesis in growing male rats; Diesel enigne hai gas bakuro ni yoru seicho yusei rat no seishi keisei eno eiky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, A. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    The paper investigated effects of the exposure of diesel engine exhaust on internal secretion function of genital organs of rats being in growth. Exposure tests were divided into a group of exposing rats to total exhaust gas (TG), a group of exposing rats to particulate-free exhaust gas (PFG), and a group of exposing rats to clean air (comparison group). The tests were carried out for 6 hours/day, for 5 days/week, and for 3 months from the birth. As to the weight at the time of finishing tests, there were no significant differences in weights of testicle and epididymis in each group. About the concentration of male/female sex hormones in serum, the values were significantly higher in TG and PFG groups than the comparison group. The follide stimulating hormone significantly decreased in both exposure groups as compared with the comparison group. The luteinizing hormone significantly decreased in TG group as compared with the comparison group and PFG group. Further, the sperm productivity and testicle hyaluronidase activity significantly decreased in both exhaust exposure groups as compared with the comparison group. It is indicated that the diesel engine exhaust stimulates the secretion of adrenal cortical hormone, reduces emission of gonadotropic hormone, and controls the spermatogenesis of rats. (NEDO)

  8. 77 FR 76842 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed new aircraft engine emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NO... turbojet engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012, July 27, 2011)....

  9. 78 FR 63015 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... aircraft engines which, in the EPA Administrator's judgment, causes or contributes to air pollution that... aircraft engine emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ), compliance flexibilities, and...

  10. 78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... emission of any air pollutant from classes of aircraft engines which, in the EPA Administrator's judgment... standards. On July 27, 2011, the EPA proposed new aircraft engine emission standards for oxides of...

  11. 30 CFR 36.47 - Tests of exhaust-gas cooling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... water consumption, high-water level when the system sprays excess water, and low-water level when the... allowable liquid fuel rate and governed speed with 0.5 ±0.1 percent, by volume, of natural gas in the intake... cooling water shall be filled with the quantity of water recommended by the applicant. No cooling...

  12. 废气涡轮增压器故障诊断浅谈%Fault Diagnosis of Exhaust Gas Turbochargers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷伟

    2014-01-01

    废气涡轮增压器被广泛应用于采油平台发电机组中。描述了废气涡轮增压器的构造、原理及作用,提出采用正确的使用和保养方法。针对影响增压器使用寿命因素加以诊断分析,并说明使用中的注意事项,意在减少增压器故障,延长其使用寿命,降低维护费用。%Exhaust gas turbochargers are widely applied in the generator sets of oil platforms. In the paper,the struc-ture,principle and functions of gas turbochargers were described and proper usage and maintenance methods were proposed. Moreover,factors affecting the service life of the turbochargers were diagnosed and analyzed and precau-tions were explained,aiming to reduce turbocharger failures,prolong their service life and reduce maintenance costs.

  13. Thermodynamic optimization of several (heat recovery steam generator) HRSG configurations for a range of exhaust gas temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design optimization of a (heat recovery steam generator) HRSG is essential due to its direct impact on large power generation combined cycles. This study is aimed at giving a thermodynamic comparison between the optimums of three configurations of HRSG operating at exhaust gas temperature (TOT) from 350 °C to 650 °C. The optimization results, using PSO (Particle Swarm Optimization) method, show that adding another pressure level allows achieving a higher pressure at the inlet of high pressure turbine, producing more steam quantities, destroying less exergy and finally producing more specific work independently of TOT. For a given value of 600 °C representative of TOT of recent gas turbines, an addition of a pressure level is shown to increase the specific work of about 17 kJ/kg, representing a benefit of about 10% for the steam cycle, whereas a third pressure level results in 8 kJ/kg increase in the specific work, corresponding to 4% in the steam cycle. - Highlights: • Three types of HRSG are optimized and compared between them for several TOT values. • Adding a pressure level leads to thermodynamic performance enhancement whatever TOT. • Adding a pressure level permits reaching higher optimal pressures whatever TOT value. • Adding a pressure level permits producing more steam quantities. • Superheater effectiveness tends to its highest possible value except for high TOTs

  14. Effect of water injection and off scheduling of variable inlet guide vanes, gas generator speed and power turbine nozzle angle on the performance of an automotive gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Chrysler/ERDA baseline automotive gas turbine engine was used to experimentally determine the power augmentation and emissions reductions achieved by the effect of variable compressor and power engine geometry, water injection downstream of the compressor, and increases in gas generator speed. Results were dependent on the mode of variable geometry utilization. Over 20 percent increase in power was accompanied by over 5 percent reduction in SFC. A fuel economy improvement of at least 6 percent was estimated for a vehicle with a 75 kW (100 hp) engine which could be augmented to 89 kW (120 hp) relative to an 89 Kw (120 hp) unaugmented engine.

  15. A Review of the Utilisation of Natural Gas with High Carbon Dioxide Content as Automotive Fuel in an Indirect Injection Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opatola Rasheed Adewale

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The persistent consumption of fossil fuels by modern transportation tends toward feared depletion in crude oil and infliction of health risks on human beings and the environment due to the noxious emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. This work examines the prospects of fuel modification in improving engine performance by utilising compressed natural gas (CNG mixed with varying proportions of carbon dioxide (CO2 as fuel in Diesel engines. The extent to which the addition of CO2 to CNG could help simulate the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR as employed in modern engine technology will be established.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of nano-Au/CeO2-M (M-Fe2O3, La2O3 and ZrO4) catalysts for automotive exhaust purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of nanosized gold catalysts has received much attention in the environmental-related issues due to their remarkable CO oxidation activity. The study of CO oxidation over gold catalysts has additionally facilitated a wide range of industrial applications, such as gas masks, CO sensors, CO2 laser tubes, etc. Among the many investigated factors, the nature of supports plays a key role in the activity of gold catalysts. Recently, CeO2-based materials has gained significant interest due to the presence of oxygen vacancy defects generated by Ce4+/Ce3+ redox process, which allows effective O2 adsorption and activation for CO oxidation. It has been well documented that the modification of ceria by doping technology enhances its unique characteristics useful for various potential applications. The quest for the present study was to develop novel Au/doped-CeO2 catalysts to combat cold-start auto-exhaust problems. Therefore, herein, various nano-Au/CeO2-M (M-Fe2O3, La2O3 and ZrO4) catalysts were prepared and evaluated for CO oxidation. Attempts were made to correlate the activity results with characterization studies

  17. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  18. NO{sub x} reduction from a heavy-duty diesel engine with direct injection of natural gas and cooled exhaust gas recirculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McTaggart-Cowan, G.; Bushe, W.K.; Hill, P.G. [British Columbia Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Munshi, S.R. [Westport Innovations Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-06-01

    A heavy-duty ISX diesel engine has been commissioned for single-cylinder operation fuelled with pilot diesel ignited natural gas injected directly into the cylinder. The stock ISX engine was modified by replacing the diesel fuelling system with a high-pressure natural gas system, replacing the turbocharger with an independently controlled supercharger and installing a variable-flow exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system. A study of the impact of cooled EGR on engine performance and gaseous emissions was carried out. Various engine speeds, loads and injection timings were tested over a range of EGR fractions. A preliminary study of the effect of EGR 'type' - supplemental or replacement - was also carried out. The results indicate that the NO{sub x} emissions varied linearly with the intake oxygen mass fraction (representative of the EGR fraction) until NO{sub x} emissions reached 20 per cent of their non-EGR levels. Further NO{sub x} reductions were achieved with higher EGR fractions, but the rate of reduction was significantly reduced. The NO{sub x} reductions were found to be independent of engine speed and load. An overall activation energy for NO{sub x} formation was determined by correlating the NO{sub x} reductions with a representative flame temperature. The emissions of combustion by-products, including carbon monoxide (CO)and unburned total hydrocarbons (THC) increased significantly at higher EGR fractions. The engine performance and efficiency were not significantly affected except at very high EGR fractions. (Author)

  19. Automotive Sensors and MEMS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonomura, Yutaka

    - Automotive sensors are used for emission gas purification, energy conservation, car kinematic performance, safety and ITS (intelligent transportation system). The comparison of the sensor characteristics was made for their application area. Many kinds of the principles are applied for the sensors. There are two types of sensors, such as physical and chemical one. Many of the automotive sensors are physical type such as mechanical sensors. And a gas sensor is a chemical type. The sensors have been remarkably developed with the advancement of the MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology. In this paper, gas, pressure, combustion pressure, acceleration, magnetic, and angular rate sensors for automotive use are explained with their features. The sensors are key devices to control cars in the engine, power train, chassis and safety systems. The environment resistance, long term reliability, and low cost are required for the automotive sensors. They are very hard to be resolved. However, the sensor technology contributes greatly to improving global environment, energy conservation, and safety. The applications of automotive sensors will be expanded with the automobile developments.

  20. Atmospheric pressure glow discharge generated in nitrogen-methane gas mixture: PTR-MS analyzes of the exhaust gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torokova, Lucie; Mazankova, Vera; Krcma, Frantisek; Mason, Nigel J.; Matejcik, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports the results of an extensive study of with the in situ mass spectrometry analysis of gaseous phase species produced by an atmospheric plasma glow discharge in N2-CH4 gas mixtures (with methane concentrations ranging from 1% to 4%). The products are studied using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). HCN and CH3CN are identified as the main gaseous products. Hydrazine, methanimine, methyldiazene, ethylamine, cyclohexadiene, pyrazineacetylene, ethylene, propyne and propene are identified as minor compounds. All the detected compounds and their relative abundances are determined with respect to the experimental conditions (gas composition and applied power). The same molecules were observed by the Cassini-Huygens probe in Titan's atmosphere (which has same N2-CH4 gas mixtures). Such, experiments show that the formation of such complex organics in atmospheres containing C, N and H, like that of Titan, could be a source of prebiotic molecules. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  1. An Approach to the Prototyping of an Optimized Limited Stroke Actuator to Drive a Low Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfrind, Christophe; Dufour, Laurent; Liebart, Vincent; Vannier, Jean-Claude; Vidal, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the design of a limited stroke actuator and the corresponding prototype to drive a Low Pressure (LP) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve for use in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). The direct drive actuator topology is an axial flux machine with two air gaps in order to minimize the rotor inertia and a bipolar surface-mounted permanent magnet in order to respect an 80° angular stroke. Firstly, the actuator will be described and optimized under constraints of a 150 ms time response, a 0.363 N·m minimal torque on an angular range from 0° to 80° and prototyping constraints. Secondly, the finite element method (FEM) using the FLUX-3D(®) software (CEDRAT, Meylan, France) will be used to check the actuator performances with consideration of the nonlinear effect of the iron material. Thirdly, a prototype will be made and characterized to compare its measurement results with the analytical model and the FEM model results. With these electromechanical behavior measurements, a numerical model is created with Simulink(®) in order to simulate an EGR system with this direct drive actuator under all operating conditions. Last but not least, the energy consumption of this machine will be estimated to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed EGR electromechanical system. PMID:27213398

  2. Effect of Ambient Temperature on Total Organic Gas Speciation Profiles from Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicle Exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anirban; Sonntag, Darrell; Cook, Richard; Yanca, Catherine; Schenk, Charles; Choi, Yunsoo

    2016-06-21

    Total organic gases (TOG) emissions from motor vehicles include air toxic compounds and contribute to formation of ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). These emissions are known to be affected by temperature; however previous studies have typically focused only on the temperature dependence of total emission factors and select toxic compounds. This study builds on the previous research by performing an evaluation of a comprehensive set of gas-phase organic compounds present in gasoline motor vehicle exhaust. A fleet of five vehicles using port fuel injection engine technology and running on E10 fuel was tested. Overall, three temperatures (0, 20, and 75 °F; or -18, -7, and 24 °C), two driving conditions (urban-FTP75 and aggressive driving-US06) and 161 compounds were evaluated; the emissions distributions were used to construct speciation profiles for each driving cycle and temperature. Overall, the speciation results indicated a significant increase in alkane and methane content, and decrease in alcohol, aldehyde and ketone content with decreasing temperature. These were verified using a statistical significance test. The fraction and composition of Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) were significantly affected by temperature for both driving cycles. The ozone forming potentials of these profiles were evaluated using the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scale. Aromatic content was predicted to be a major driver behind the ozone forming potentials. Additionally, the decreasing ozone potential could be attributed to increased methane fractions with increasing temperature. PMID:27203618

  3. Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on the Homogeneous Charge Combustion Process of n-Heptane at Different Load Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dexin; FENG Hongqing; ZHENG Jincai; MILLER David L; CERNANSKY Nicholas P

    2005-01-01

    Effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on homogeneous charge combustion of n-heptane was studied through simulation and experiment. Experiments were carried out in a single cylinder, four-stroke, air cooled engine and a single cylinder, two-stroke, water cooled engine. In the four-stroke engine, experiments of the effects of EGR were examined using heated N2 addition as a surrogate for external EGR and modifying engine to increase internal EGR. The ignition timing was sensitive to EGR due to thermal and chemical effects. EGR or extra air is a key factor in eliminating knock during mid-load conditions. For higher load operation the only way to avoid knock is to control reaction timing through the use of spark ignition. Experimental and modeling results from the two-stroke engine show that auto-ignition can be avoided by increasing the engine speed. The two-stroke engine experiments indicate that high levels of internal EGR can enable spark ignition at lean conditions. At higher load conditions, increasing the engine speed is an effective method to control transition from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation to non-HCCI operation and successful spark ignition of a highly dilute mixture can avoid serious knock.

  4. An Approach to the Prototyping of an Optimized Limited Stroke Actuator to Drive a Low Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfrind, Christophe; Dufour, Laurent; Liebart, Vincent; Vannier, Jean-Claude; Vidal, Pierre

    2016-05-20

    The purpose of this article is to describe the design of a limited stroke actuator and the corresponding prototype to drive a Low Pressure (LP) Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve for use in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). The direct drive actuator topology is an axial flux machine with two air gaps in order to minimize the rotor inertia and a bipolar surface-mounted permanent magnet in order to respect an 80° angular stroke. Firstly, the actuator will be described and optimized under constraints of a 150 ms time response, a 0.363 N·m minimal torque on an angular range from 0° to 80° and prototyping constraints. Secondly, the finite element method (FEM) using the FLUX-3D(®) software (CEDRAT, Meylan, France) will be used to check the actuator performances with consideration of the nonlinear effect of the iron material. Thirdly, a prototype will be made and characterized to compare its measurement results with the analytical model and the FEM model results. With these electromechanical behavior measurements, a numerical model is created with Simulink(®) in order to simulate an EGR system with this direct drive actuator under all operating conditions. Last but not least, the energy consumption of this machine will be estimated to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed EGR electromechanical system.

  5. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine using liquefied petroleum gas-Diesel blended fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially smoke and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection (DI) Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using LPG in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high auto-ignition temperature of LPG is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under LPG-Diesel blended fuel conditions, using LPG-Diesel blended fuels with various blended rates (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%). Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and blended fuels, revealing the effect of blended fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  6. Toward gas exhaustion in the W51 high-mass protoclusters

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsburg, Adam; Goddi, Ciriaco; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Dale, James E; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara D; Youngblood, Allison; Sankrit, Ravi; Smith, Rowan; Darling, Jeremy; Kruijssen, J M Diederik; Liu, Hauyu Baobab

    2016-01-01

    We present new JVLA observations of the high-mass cluster-forming region W51A from 2 to 16 GHz with resolution ${\\theta}_{fwhm} \\approx$ 0.3 - 0.5". The data reveal a wealth of observational results: (1) Currently-forming, very massive (proto-O) stars are traced by o-H2CO $2_{1,1}-2_{1,2}$ emission, suggesting that this line can be used efficiently as a massive protostar tracer. (2) There is a spatially distributed population of $\\sim$mJy continuum sources, including hypercompact H ii regions and candidate colliding wind binaries, in and around the W51 proto-clusters. (3) There are two clearly detected protoclusters, W51e and W51 IRS2, that are gas-rich but may have most of their mass in stars within their inner $\\sim$ 0.05 pc. The majority of the bolometric luminosity in W51 most likely comes from a third population of OB stars between these clusters. The presence of a substantial population of exposed O-stars coincident with a population of still-forming massive stars, along with a direct measurement of the...

  7. Automotive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  8. Antenna Arrays and Automotive Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This book throws a lifeline to designers wading through mounds of antenna array patents looking for the most suitable systems for their projects. Drastically reducing the research time required to locate solutions to the latest challenges in automotive communications, it sorts and systematizes material on cutting-edge antenna arrays that feature multi-element communication systems with enormous potential for the automotive industry. These new systems promise to make driving safer and more efficient, opening up myriad applications, including vehicle-to-vehicle traffic that prevents collisions, automatic toll collection, vehicle location and fine-tuning for cruise control systems. This book’s exhaustive coverage begins with currently deployed systems, frequency ranges and key parameters. It proceeds to examine system geometry, analog and digital beam steering technology (including "smart" beams formed in noisy environments), maximizing signal-to-noise ratios, miniaturization, and base station technology that ...

  9. Effect of nozzle hole size coupling with exhaust gas re-circulation on the engine emission perfomance based on KH-ACT spray model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Liang; He Zhixia; Wang Qian; Guo Genmiao

    2015-01-01

    To research an effective measure of reducing the Soot and NOx in engine at the same time, different nozzle hole diameters coupled with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were adopted in this study based on KH-ACT spray breakup model, which takes the aerodynamic-induced ,cavitation-induced and turbulence-induced breakup into account. The SAGE detailed chemistry combustion and the new atomization model used in the simulation have been verified with the experimen...

  10. 废气涡轮增压器的优缺点分析%Analysis of the advantages and disadvantages for exhaust gas turbocharger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    富刚

    2013-01-01

    The exhaust gas turbocharger is a new technology for engine and a good solution for poor condition of nat-urally aspirated engine. Therefore, the exhaust gas turbocharger has been widely applied in a variety of models, particularly in sedan; Of course, the exhaust gas turbocharger also has its own drawbacks, so people use many effective ways to im-prove and compensate its shortcomings.%  废气涡轮增压器作为发动机的一项新技术,很好解决了自然吸气发动机动力性不佳的问题。因此,废气涡轮增压器在各种车型特别是轿车上得到了广泛的应用;当然,废气涡轮增压器也有其自身的缺点,因此针对其缺点人们采取了许多的有效的改善方法来弥补其缺陷。

  11. Thermodynamic and economic performances optimization of an organic Rankine cycle system utilizing exhaust gas of a large marine diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new parameter is proposed for optimizing economic performance of the ORC system. • Maximal thermodynamic and economic performances of an ORC system are presented. • The corresponding operating pressures in turbine of optimum thermodynamic and economic performances are investigated. • An optimal effectiveness of pre-heater is obtained for the ORC system. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the thermodynamic and economic performances optimization for an ORC system recovering the waste heat of exhaust gas from a large marine diesel engine of the merchant ship. Parameters of net power output index and thermal efficiency are used to represent the economic and thermodynamic performances, respectively. The maximum net power output index and thermal efficiency are obtained and the corresponding turbine inlet pressure, turbine outlet pressure, and effectiveness of pre-heater of the ORC system are also evaluated using R1234ze, R245fa, R600, and R600a. Furthermore, the analyses of the effects of turbine inlet temperature and cooling water temperature on the optimal economic and thermodynamic performances of the ORC system are carried out. The results show that R245fa performs the most satisfactorily followed by R600, R600a, and R1234ze under optimal economic performance. However, in the optimal thermodynamic performance evaluations, R1234ze has the largest thermal efficiency followed by R600a, R245fa, and R600. The payback periods will decrease from 0.5 year for R245fa to 0.65 year for R1234ze respectively as the system is equipped with a pre-heater. In addition, compared with conventional diesel oil feeding, the proposed ORC system can reduce 76% CO2 emission per kilowatt-hour

  12. Determination of benzene in exhaust gas from biofuels. Final report; Bestimmung von Benzol im Abgas von Biokraftstoffen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutz, M.; Buenger, J.; Gnuschke, H.; Halboth, H.; Gruedl, P.; Krahl, J.

    2001-10-01

    With the advance of environmental legislation and practices oriented towards sustainability renewable energy resources are becoming increasingly important. Use of replenishable raw materials helps preserve fossil resources. In the fuel sector the most widely used replenishable materials are rape methyl ester (RME) and ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). The purpose of the present project on the ''Determination of benzene in exhaust gas from biofuels'' was to generate orienting data on the potential health relevance of mixtures of fossil and renewable fuel intended for use in spark ignition and diesel engines. This included a determination of benzene emissions and the mutagenicity of particles. Beyond the applied-for scope of research measurements were also performed on the test engine's toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene emissions as well as on the smoke spot number and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of the diesel engine. [German] Regenerative Energien gewinnen durch die Umweltgesetzgebungen und das Streben nach einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung zunehmend an Bedeutung. Durch die Verwendung nachwachsender Rohstoffe koennen die fossilen Ressourcen geschont werden. Im Kraftstoffsektor sind hier hauptsaechlich Rapsoelmethylester (RME) und optional Ethyltertiaerbutylether (ETBE) zu nennen. Um fuer Diesel- und Ottomotoren insbesondere mit Blick auf Kraftstoffgemische aus fossilen und regenerativen Komponenten orientierende Daten ueber eine potenzielle Gesundheitsrelevanz zu generieren, wurde das Projekt 'Bestimmung von Benzol im Abgas von Biokraftstoffen' durchgefuehrt. Neben der Benzolemission wurde die Mutagenitaet der Partikeln ermittelt. Ueber den beantragten Untersuchungsrahmen hinaus wurden die Tuluol-, Ethylbenzol-, und Xylolemissionen der eingesetzten Motoren, sowie die Russzahl (RZ) und die Stickoxid- (NO{sub x}) und Kohlenwasserstoffemissionen (HC) des Dieselmotors bestimmt. (orig.)

  13. Tokamak fusion reactor exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a compilation of papers dealing with reactor exhaust which were produced as part of the TIGER Tokamak Installation for Generating Electricity study at Culham. The papers are entitled: (1) Exhaust impurity control and refuelling. (2) Consideration of the physical problems of a self-consistent exhaust and divertor system for a long burn Tokamak. (3) Possible bundle divertors for INTOR and TIGER. (4) Consideration of various magnetic divertor configurations for INTOR and TIGER. (5) A appraisal of divertor experiments. (6) Hybrid divertors on INTOR. (7) Refuelling and the scrape-off layer of INTOR. (8) Simple modelling of the scrape-off layer. (9) Power flow in the scrape-off layer. (10) A model of particle transport within the scrape-off plasma and divertor. (11) Controlled recirculation of exhaust gas from the divertor into the scrape-off plasma. (U.K.)

  14. Experimental study on scale prevention method using exhausted gases from geothermal power station. Chinetsu hatsudensho no haishutsu gas wo mochiita scale fuchaku boshiho no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirowatari, K. (Kyushu Electric Power Co. Ltd., Fukuoka (Japan))

    1990-10-25

    This paper reports on a method of suppressing the scale deposition, which is considered to be promising in view of both economical efficiency of power generation and prevention of environmental pollution. A brief summary is first given of the well known fact that the silica scaling can be suppressed by keeping geothermal water in acidic conditions. There is next a description of an experiment, which was performed at the Hatchobaru geothermal power station, on the control of pH condition of geothermal water using a technique of bringing it in contact with exhaust gas discharged from the plant, which contains 70% of CO {sub 2} gas and about 2% of H {sub 2} S gas in volume. It is shown by this experiment that pH of the geothermal water was lowered to a value less than about 5.5 and thereby the rate of scale deposition could be reduced to about one twentieth of that observed in the case of original thermal water. Furthermore, it is noted that H {sub 2} S gas causes the deposition of much slime containing various kinds of metal elements on the filler of vessels used for pH adjustment of the geothermal water, but it can be efficiently removed from the exhaust gas by means of the pressure swing adsorption process. 8 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James Joshua; Coleman, Gerald N.

    2008-05-13

    A system of ammonia production for a selective catalytic reduction system is provided. The system includes producing an exhaust gas stream within a cylinder group, wherein the first exhaust gas stream includes NOx. The exhaust gas stream may be supplied to an exhaust passage and cooled to a predetermined temperature range, and at least a portion of the NOx within the exhaust gas stream may be converted into ammonia.

  16. High-Speed Multiplexed Spatiotemporally Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Dynamics in a Multi-Cylinder Engine Using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2016-04-01

    The need for more environmentally friendly and efficient energy conversion is of paramount importance in developing and designing next-generation internal combustion (IC) engines for transportation applications. One effective solution to reducing emissions of mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which has been widely implemented in modern vehicles. However, cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variations in the charge-gas uniformity can be a major barrier to optimum EGR implementation on multi-cylinder engines, and can limit performance, stability, and efficiency. Precise knowledge and fine control over the EGR system is therefore crucial, particularly for optimizing advanced engine concepts such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI). An absorption-based laser diagnostic was developed to study spatiotemporal charge-gas distributions in an IC engine intake manifold in real-time. The laser was tuned to an absorption band of carbon dioxide (CO2), a standard exhaust-gas marker, near 2.7 µm. The sensor was capable of probing four separate measurement locations simultaneously, and independently analyzing EGR fraction at speeds of 5 kHz (1.2 crank-angle degree (CAD) at 1 k RPM) or faster with high accuracy. The probes were used to study spatiotemporal EGR non-uniformities in the intake manifold and ultimately promote the development of more efficient and higher performance engines. PMID:27091946

  17. High-Speed Multiplexed Spatiotemporally Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Dynamics in a Multi-Cylinder Engine Using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2016-04-01

    The need for more environmentally friendly and efficient energy conversion is of paramount importance in developing and designing next-generation internal combustion (IC) engines for transportation applications. One effective solution to reducing emissions of mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which has been widely implemented in modern vehicles. However, cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variations in the charge-gas uniformity can be a major barrier to optimum EGR implementation on multi-cylinder engines, and can limit performance, stability, and efficiency. Precise knowledge and fine control over the EGR system is therefore crucial, particularly for optimizing advanced engine concepts such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI). An absorption-based laser diagnostic was developed to study spatiotemporal charge-gas distributions in an IC engine intake manifold in real-time. The laser was tuned to an absorption band of carbon dioxide (CO2), a standard exhaust-gas marker, near 2.7 µm. The sensor was capable of probing four separate measurement locations simultaneously, and independently analyzing EGR fraction at speeds of 5 kHz (1.2 crank-angle degree (CAD) at 1 k RPM) or faster with high accuracy. The probes were used to study spatiotemporal EGR non-uniformities in the intake manifold and ultimately promote the development of more efficient and higher performance engines.

  18. Principle Findings from Development of a Recirculated Exhaust Gas Intake Sensor (REGIS) Enabling Cost-Effective Fuel Efficiency Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, Claus [Robert Bosch LLC, Farmington Hills, MI (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Kick-off of the Bosch scope of work for the REGIS project started in October 2012. The primary work-packages included in the Bosch scope of work were the following: overall project management, development of the EGR sensor (design of sensor element, design of protection tube, and design of mounting orientation), development of EGR system control strategy, build-up of prototype sensors, evaluation of system performance with the new sensor and the new control strategy, long-term durability testing, and development of a 2nd generation sensor concept for continued technology development after the REGIS project. The University of Clemson was a partner with Bosch in the REGIS project. The Clemson scope of work for the REGIS project started in June 2013. The primary work-packages included in the Clemson scope of work were the following: development of EGR system control strategy, and evaluation of system performance with the new sensor and new control strategy. This project was split into phase I, phase II and phase III. Phase I work was completed by the end of June 2014 and included the following primary work packages: development of sensor technical requirements, assembly of engine testbench at Clemson, design concept for sensor housing, connector, and mounting orientation, build-up of EGR flow test benches at Bosch, and build-up of first sensor prototypes. Phase II work was completed by the end of June 2015 and included the following primary work pack ages: development of an optimizing function and demonstration of robustness of sensor, system control strategy implementation and initial validation, completion of engine in the loop testing of developed control algorithm, completion of sensor testing including characteristic line, synthetic gas test stand, and pressure dependency characterization, demonstration of benefits of control w/o sensing via simulation, development of 2nd generation sensor concept. Notable technical achievements from phase II were the following

  19. Black carbon from ships: a review of the effects of ship speed, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lack

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO has moved to address the health and climate impact of the emissions from the combustion of low-quality residual fuels within the commercial shipping industry. Fuel sulfur content (FS limits and an efficiency design index for future ships are examples of such IMO actions. The impacts of black carbon (BC emissions from shipping are now under review by the IMO, with a particular focus on the potential impacts of future Arctic shipping.

    Recognizing that associating impacts with BC emissions requires both ambient and onboard observations, we provide recommendations for the measurement of BC. We also evaluate current insights regarding the effect of ship speed (engine load, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing on BC emissions from ships. Observations demonstrate that BC emission factors (EFBC increases 3 to 6 times at very low engine loads (<25% compared to EFBC at 85–100% load; absolute BC emissions (per nautical mile of travel also increase up to 100% depending on engine load, even with reduced load fuel savings. If fleets were required to operate at lower maximum engine loads, presumably associated with reduced speeds, then engines could be re-tuned, which would reduce BC emissions.

    Ships operating in the Arctic are likely running at highly variable engine loads (25–100% depending on ice conditions and ice breaking requirements. The ships operating at low load may be emitting up to 50% more BC than they would at their rated load. Such variable load conditions make it difficult to assess the likely emissions rate of BC.

    Current fuel sulfur regulations have the effect of reducing EFBC by an average of 30% and potentially up to 80% regardless of engine load; a removal rate similar to that of scrubbers.

    Uncertainties among current observations demonstrate there is a need for more information on (a the impact of fuel

  20. Black carbon from ships: a review of the effects of ship speed, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lack

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The International Maritime Organization (IMO has moved to address the health and climate impact of the emissions from the combustion of low-quality residual fuels within the commercial shipping industry. Fuel sulfur content (FS limits and an efficiency design index for future ships are examples of such IMO actions. The impacts of black carbon (BC emissions from shipping are now under review by the IMO, with a particular focus on the potential impacts of future Arctic shipping.

    Recognizing that associating impacts with BC emissions requires both ambient and onboard observations, we provide recommendations for the measurement of BC. We also evaluate current insights regarding the effect of ship speed (engine load, fuel quality and exhaust gas scrubbing on BC emissions from ships. Observations demonstrate that BC emission factors (EFBC increases 3 to 6 times at very low engine loads (<25% compared to EFBC at 85–100% load; absolute BC emissions (per nautical mile of travel also increase up to 100% depending on engine load, even with reduced load fuel savings. If fleets were required to operate at lower maximum engine loads, presumably associated with reduced speeds, then engines could be re-tuned, which would reduce BC emissions.

    Ships operating in the Arctic are likely running at highly variable engine loads (25–100% depending on ice conditions and ice breaking requirements. The ships operating at low load may be emitting up to 50% more BC than they would at their rated load. Such variable load conditions make it difficult to assess the likely emissions rate of BC.

    Current fuel sulfur regulations have the effect of reducing EFBC by an average of 30% and potentially up to 80% regardless of engine load; a removal rate similar to that of scrubbers.

    Uncertainties among current observations demonstrate there is a need for more information on a the impact of fuel quality

  1. The effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic characteristics of an automotive catalytic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, T. [Michigan-Dearborn Univ., Dearborn, MI (United states). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Automotive catalytic converters that reduce engine exhaust emissions are subject to transient conditions during a typical driving cycle. These conditions arise from changes in driving mode, the hysteresis and flow lags of the feedback control system, and result in fluctuations of air-fuel, exhaust gas flow rates and temperatures. The catalyst performance is also highly influenced by the oxygen storage capacity (OSC). This paper examined the influence of OSC on the catalyst dynamic behavior. The transient conditions were simulated by considering the catalyst subjected to temporal modulation in air-fuel ratio, exhaust gas composition and temperature. The paper presented the mathematical formulation including the development of governing equations. The governing equations were developed by considering the conservation of mass, energy and chemical species. It also presented the results and discussed the effect of sinusoidal modulation in the air-fuel ratio as well as the effect of sinusoidal modulation in exhaust composition. It was concluded that the presence of the OSC sensitivity influenced its response to the imposed modulation. The specific effect was dependent on the operating conditions and the type of the imposed modulations. 10 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  2. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part I: Numerical Modeling and Baseline Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2013-04-01

    A numerical model has been developed to simulate coupled thermal and electrical energy transfer processes in a thermoelectric generator (TEG) designed for automotive waste heat recovery systems. This model is capable of computing the overall heat transferred, the electrical power output, and the associated pressure drop for given inlet conditions of the exhaust gas and the available TEG volume. Multiple-filled skutterudites and conventional bismuth telluride are considered for thermoelectric modules (TEMs) for conversion of waste heat from exhaust into usable electrical power. Heat transfer between the hot exhaust gas and the hot side of the TEMs is enhanced with the use of a plate-fin heat exchanger integrated within the TEG and using liquid coolant on the cold side. The TEG is discretized along the exhaust flow direction using a finite-volume method. Each control volume is modeled as a thermal resistance network which consists of integrated submodels including a heat exchanger and a thermoelectric device. The pressure drop along the TEG is calculated using standard pressure loss correlations and viscous drag models. The model is validated to preserve global energy balances and is applied to analyze a prototype TEG with data provided by General Motors. Detailed results are provided for local and global heat transfer and electric power generation. In the companion paper, the model is then applied to consider various TEG topologies using skutterudite and bismuth telluride TEMs.

  3. Impact of recycling on cradle-to-gate energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of automotive lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jennifer B; Gaines, Linda; Sullivan, John; Wang, Michael Q

    2012-11-20

    This paper addresses the environmental burdens (energy consumption and air emissions, including greenhouse gases, GHGs) of the material production, assembly, and recycling of automotive lithium-ion batteries in hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and battery electric vehicles (BEV) that use LiMn(2)O(4) cathode material. In this analysis, we calculated the energy consumed and air emissions generated when recovering LiMn(2)O(4), aluminum, and copper in three recycling processes (hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical recycling) and examined the effect(s) of closed-loop recycling on environmental impacts of battery production. We aimed to develop a U.S.-specific analysis of lithium-ion battery production and in particular sought to resolve literature discrepancies concerning energy consumed during battery assembly. Our analysis takes a process-level (versus a top-down) approach. For a battery used in a BEV, we estimated cradle-to-gate energy and GHG emissions of 75 MJ/kg battery and 5.1 kg CO(2)e/kg battery, respectively. Battery assembly consumes only 6% of this total energy. These results are significantly less than reported in studies that take a top-down approach. We further estimate that direct physical recycling of LiMn(2)O(4), aluminum, and copper in a closed-loop scenario can reduce energy consumption during material production by up to 48%.

  4. Environmental potential of the alternative automotive fuels biogas, ethanol, methanol, natural gas, rape oil methyl ester, and dimethyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the project was to estimate the future emission levels when using alternative fuels, as a contribution to the Committee for Evaluation of Alternative Automotive Fuels (organized by the Swedish Ministry of Environment). The method used for the project was to use the today's knowledge about the emission levels and the emission control technology as a base for the estimation of what additional potential there is to decrease the emissions by coming development of vehicles and the emission control technology. The results of the analysis and the estimations show that there exist a positive development for all types of vehicles and alternative fuels. However, there will be a difference between the different fuel alternatives depending on chemical and physical differences between the different fuels. There will also be a difference in the possibilities of the different fuels to capture a market which will have certain impact on the willingness and the economic possibilities for the car manufacturers to invest in the development needed to reach low emission levels. 124 refs

  5. Impact of recycling on cradle-to-gate energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of automotive lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jennifer B; Gaines, Linda; Sullivan, John; Wang, Michael Q

    2012-11-20

    This paper addresses the environmental burdens (energy consumption and air emissions, including greenhouse gases, GHGs) of the material production, assembly, and recycling of automotive lithium-ion batteries in hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and battery electric vehicles (BEV) that use LiMn(2)O(4) cathode material. In this analysis, we calculated the energy consumed and air emissions generated when recovering LiMn(2)O(4), aluminum, and copper in three recycling processes (hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical recycling) and examined the effect(s) of closed-loop recycling on environmental impacts of battery production. We aimed to develop a U.S.-specific analysis of lithium-ion battery production and in particular sought to resolve literature discrepancies concerning energy consumed during battery assembly. Our analysis takes a process-level (versus a top-down) approach. For a battery used in a BEV, we estimated cradle-to-gate energy and GHG emissions of 75 MJ/kg battery and 5.1 kg CO(2)e/kg battery, respectively. Battery assembly consumes only 6% of this total energy. These results are significantly less than reported in studies that take a top-down approach. We further estimate that direct physical recycling of LiMn(2)O(4), aluminum, and copper in a closed-loop scenario can reduce energy consumption during material production by up to 48%. PMID:23075406

  6. Automotive Technology Seminar held in Thailand; Tai de jidosha gijutsu seminar wo kaisai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, T. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces the automotive technology seminar held in Thailand as one of the operations for international contribution by The Japan Automobile Research Institute, Inc. The seminar was intended to support automobile-related technology development such as environmental improvement, energy conservation and safety in Asian countries as well as contributing to the sound development of motorization. About 200 people participated in the seminar held at the Bangkok International Trade Center (BITEC) in 1999. The themes were exhaust gas reducing technology and CO2 cutback issues with emphasis on the improvement of the environment. Four speakers from the Research Institute lectured on the experience of technological development heretofore in Japan and on the latest technologies. There were questions asked actively concerning the lectures in the seminar place, giving the lecturers the feel of the participants' strong interest in the activities of the Institute and the exhaust gas reducing technology. On the day before the seminar, a press release was given jointly with the Thailand Automotive Institute to the news media for the opening of the seminar. Many questions were about road traffic systems such as ITS, which seemed to indicate expectations for the technology like ITS as a means to improve traffic congestion. (NEDO)

  7. Swirl and blade wakes in the interaction between gas turbines and exhaust diffusers investigated by endoscopic particle image velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opilat, Victor

    2011-10-21

    Exhaust diffusers studied in this thesis are installed behind the last turbine stage of gas turbines, including those used in combined cycle power plants. Extensive research made in recent years proved that effects caused by an upstream turbine need to be taken into account when designing efficient diffusers. Under certain conditions these effects can stabilize the boundary layer in diffusers and prevent separation. In this research the impact of multiple parameters, such as tip leakage flow, swirl, and rotating blade wakes, on the performance of a diffuser is studied. Experiments were conducted using a diffuser test rig with a rotating bladed wheel as a turbine effect generator and with an additional tip leakage flow insert. The major advantages of this test rig are modularity and easy variation of the main parameters. To capture the complexity and understand the physics of diffuser flow, and to clarify the phenomenon of the flow stabilisation, the 2D endoscopic laser optical measurement technique Partide Image Velocimetry (PIV) was adopted to the closed ''rotating'' diffuser test rig. Intensity and distribution of vortices in the blade tip area are decisive for diffuser performance. Large vortices in the annular diffuser inlet behind the blade tips interact with the boundary layer in diffusers. At design point these vortices are very early suppressed by the main flow. For the operating point with a low value of the flow coefficient (negative swirl), vortices are ab out two tim es stronger than for design point and the boundary layer is destabilized. V mtices develop in the direction contrary to swirl in the main flow and just cause flow destabilization. Coherent back flow zones are induced and reduction of diffuser performance occurs. For the operating point with positive swirl (for a high flow coefficient value), these vortices are also strong but do not counteract the main flow because they develop in the same direction with the swirl in the

  8. Cold-air performance of free-power turbine designed for 112-kilowatt automotive gas-turbine engine. 1: Design Stator-vane-chord setting angle of 35 deg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Nusbaum, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    A cold air experimental investigation of a free power turbine designed for a 112-kW automotive gas-turbine was made over a range of speeds from 0 to 130 percent of design equivalent speeds and over a range of pressure ratio from 1.11 to 2.45. Results are presented in terms of equivalent power, torque, mass flow, and efficiency for the design power point setting of the variable stator.

  9. The performance of a monolithic catalytic converter of automobile exhaust gas with oscillatory feeding of CO, NO, and O{sub 2}. A modelling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nievergeld, A.J.L.; Hoebink, J.H.B.J.; Marin, G.B. [Lab. voor Chemische Technologie, Eindhoven Univ. of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    An isothermal monolithic catalytic converter of automobile exhaust gas was modelled in order to assess the effects of oscillatory feeding of CO, O{sub 2} and NO on the performance of the reactor. The influence of the temperature, frequency, and amplitude on the time average conversions was investigated. An improvement relative to the steady state conversion of 8% for CO and 30% for NO can be obtained. An explanation is given in terms of strongly changing surface coverage during cycling of the feed concentrations. 9 figs., 5 tabs., 16 refs.

  10. Automotive Aluminium Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelas, B. des

    2000-07-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview on the contribution of aluminium recycling in the supply of new aluminium for automotive applications. Based on a presentation on how the global European automotive aluminium supply requirements are met, an analysis of the present and future contribution of automotive aluminium recycling is first presented. Current situation and future developments for automotive aluminium recycling practices are then commented, together with an outline on design principles for easier aluminium recycling. (orig.)

  11. Combustion Noise and Pollutants Prediction for Injection Pattern and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Tuning in an Automotive Common-Rail Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Arsie Ivan; Di Leo Rocco; Pianese Cesare; De Cesare Matteo

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, emissions standards for internal combustion engines are becoming more and more restrictive, particularly for NOx and soot emissions from Diesel engines. In order to comply with these requirements, OEMs have to face with innovative combustion concepts and/or sophisticate after-treatment devices. In both cases, the role of the Engine Management System (EMS) is increasingly essential, following the large number of actuators and sensors introduced and the need to meet customer ...

  12. La catalyse d'épuration des gaz d'échappement automobiles. Situation actuelle et nouvelles orientations Catalytic Automotive Exhaust Gas Depollution. Present Status and New Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Prigent M.

    2006-01-01

    Cet article passe en revue les différents systèmes catalytiques de post-traitement utilisés actuellement sur la plupart des automobiles pour limiter leurs rejets de polluants. Les systèmes sont différenciés par leur mode de fonctionnement, le type de moteur à dépolluer (deux-temps, quatre-temps, diesel ou essence) ou par leur mode de réalisation. Les nouvelles orientations, prévues pour respecter les futures réglementations antipollution, sont également décrites. On montre que certains véhicu...

  13. Cold-air performance of free power turbine designed for 112-kilowatt automotive gas-turbine engine 3: Effect of stator vane end clearances on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a free power turbine designed for a 112-kW, automotive, gas turbine engine was made to determine the penalty in performance due to the stator vane end clearances. Tests were made over a range of mean section stator vane angles from 26 deg to 50 deg (as measured from the plane of rotation) with the vane end clearances filled. These results were compared with test results of the same turbine with vane end clearances open. At design equivalent values of rotative speed and pressure ratio and at a vane angle of 35 deg, the mass flow with the vane and clearances filled was about 8 percent lower than mass flow with vane end clearances open. The decrease in mass flow was mitigated by increasing the vane angle. With the vane end clearances filled, there was about a 66 percent reduction in mass flow when the vane angle was decreased from 40 deg to 26 deg. For the same decrease in vane angle the stator throat area decreased by about 50 percent. This result indicates that the rotor losses were increasing with decreasing vane angle.

  14. Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, T W; Chirico, R; Clairotte, M; Elsasser, M; Manfredi, U; Martini, G; Sklorz, M; Streibel, T; Heringa, M F; Decarlo, P F; Baltensperger, U; De Santi, G; Krasenbrink, A; Zimmermann, R; Prevot, A S H; Astorga, C

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns.

  15. Rejuvenation of automotive fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Langlois, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A process for rejuvenating fuel cells has been demonstrated to improve the performance of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells with platinum/ionomer electrodes. The process involves dehydrating a fuel cell and exposing at least the cathode of the fuel cell to dry gas (nitrogen, for example) at a temperature higher than the operating temperature of the fuel cell. The process may be used to prolong the operating lifetime of an automotive fuel cell.

  16. Coke-free dry reforming of model diesel fuel by a pulsed spark plasma at low temperatures using an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Yasushi; Furukawa, Naotsugu; Matsukata, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Eiichi, E-mail: ysekine@waseda.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Waseda University, 65-301, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2011-07-13

    Dry reforming of diesel fuel, an endothermic reaction, is an attractive process for on-board hydrogen/syngas production to increase energy efficiency. For operating this dry reforming process in a vehicle, we can use the exhaust gas from an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system as a source of carbon dioxide. Catalytic dry reforming of heavy hydrocarbon is a very difficult reaction due to the high accumulation of carbon on the catalyst. Therefore, we attempted to use a non-equilibrium pulsed plasma for the dry reforming of model diesel fuel without a catalyst. We investigated dry reforming of model diesel fuel (n-dodecane) with a low-energy pulsed spark plasma, which is a kind of non-equilibrium plasma at a low temperature of 523 K. Through the reaction, we were able to obtain syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) and a small amount of C{sub 2} hydrocarbon without coke formation at a ratio of CO{sub 2}/C{sub fuel} = 1.5 or higher. The reaction can be conducted at very low temperatures such as 523 K. Therefore, it is anticipated as a novel and effective process for on-board syngas production from diesel fuel using an EGR system.

  17. Coke-free dry reforming of model diesel fuel by a pulsed spark plasma at low temperatures using an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Yasushi; Furukawa, Naotsugu; Matsukata, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Eiichi

    2011-07-01

    Dry reforming of diesel fuel, an endothermic reaction, is an attractive process for on-board hydrogen/syngas production to increase energy efficiency. For operating this dry reforming process in a vehicle, we can use the exhaust gas from an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system as a source of carbon dioxide. Catalytic dry reforming of heavy hydrocarbon is a very difficult reaction due to the high accumulation of carbon on the catalyst. Therefore, we attempted to use a non-equilibrium pulsed plasma for the dry reforming of model diesel fuel without a catalyst. We investigated dry reforming of model diesel fuel (n-dodecane) with a low-energy pulsed spark plasma, which is a kind of non-equilibrium plasma at a low temperature of 523 K. Through the reaction, we were able to obtain syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) and a small amount of C2 hydrocarbon without coke formation at a ratio of CO2/Cfuel = 1.5 or higher. The reaction can be conducted at very low temperatures such as 523 K. Therefore, it is anticipated as a novel and effective process for on-board syngas production from diesel fuel using an EGR system.

  18. 1025t/h锅炉排烟温度高改造%Treatment of high exhaust gas temperature for 1025t / h boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勋川; 周胜利

    2011-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the structure of 1025t/h boiler and its operation in Guizhou Qianbei Power Plant, aiming at its existing problems, such as high exhaust gas temperature and high desuperheating water flow, etc. By analyzing the boiler operation pa- rameters, this article presents some proposals to reduce exhaust gas temperature and boiler desuperheating water flow, and to improve the efficiency of the heating boiler. After the transformation, while receiving obvious effects, compared with the design value, it still has bigger difference. The author also puts forward views and opinions.%简要介绍了贵州西电黔北发电总厂1025t/h锅炉的结构及运行情况,针对锅炉排烟温度高、减温水流量大等问题。通过对锅炉运行参数的分析,提出了旨在降低锅炉排烟温度和减温水流量,提高了锅炉效率的受热面改造的建议。

  19. Simultaneous conversion of nitrogen oxides and soot into nitrogen and carbon dioxide over iron containing oxide catalysts in diesel exhaust gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the simultaneous catalytic conversion of NOx and soot into N2 and CO2 in diesel exhaust gas. Several iron containing oxide catalysts were partially modified by the alkali metal potassium and were used for NOx-soot reaction in a model exhaust gas. Fe1.9K0.1O3 has shown highest catalytic performance for N2 formation in the so far investigated catalysts. Further studies have shown that Fe1.9K0.1O3 was deactivated in a substantial way after about 20 TPR experiments due to the agglomeration of the promoter potassium. Experiments carried out over the aged Fe1.9K0.1O3 catalyst have shown that NOx-soot reaction was suppressed at higher O2 concentration, since O2-soot conversion was kinetically favored. In contrast to that, the catalytic activity was increased in presence of NO2 and H2O. Mechanistic examinations suggest that (CO) intermediates, formed at the soot surface, are the reactive sites in the NOx-soot reaction. Higher catalytic performance in presence of NO2 could be explained by the enhanced formation of these (CO) species. Moreover, nitrate species formed at the catalyst surface might also play an important role in NOx-soot conversion

  20. Coke-free dry reforming of model diesel fuel by a pulsed spark plasma at low temperatures using an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry reforming of diesel fuel, an endothermic reaction, is an attractive process for on-board hydrogen/syngas production to increase energy efficiency. For operating this dry reforming process in a vehicle, we can use the exhaust gas from an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system as a source of carbon dioxide. Catalytic dry reforming of heavy hydrocarbon is a very difficult reaction due to the high accumulation of carbon on the catalyst. Therefore, we attempted to use a non-equilibrium pulsed plasma for the dry reforming of model diesel fuel without a catalyst. We investigated dry reforming of model diesel fuel (n-dodecane) with a low-energy pulsed spark plasma, which is a kind of non-equilibrium plasma at a low temperature of 523 K. Through the reaction, we were able to obtain syngas (hydrogen and carbon monoxide) and a small amount of C2 hydrocarbon without coke formation at a ratio of CO2/Cfuel = 1.5 or higher. The reaction can be conducted at very low temperatures such as 523 K. Therefore, it is anticipated as a novel and effective process for on-board syngas production from diesel fuel using an EGR system.

  1. Automotive gas turbine ceramic regenerator design and reliability program. Final annual report, July 1, 1975--September 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.A.; Fucinari, C.A.; Lingscheit, J.N.; Rahnke, C.J.

    1976-10-01

    The primary objective of the ERDA/Ford Ceramic Regenerator Design and Reliability Program is to develop ceramic regenerator cores that can be used in passenger car gas turbine engines, Stirling engines, and industrial/truck gas turbine engines. Specific durability objectives are defined as achieving a B/sub 10/ life of 10,000 hours on a truck/industrial gas turbine engine duty cycle. Previous reports, under this program, summarized operating experience on lithium aluminum silicate (LAS) ceramic regenerator cores obtained at Ford Motor Company. The primary cause of failure of these regenerators was determined to be chemical attack of the LAS material. Improved materials and design concepts aimed at reducing or eliminating chemical attack were placed on durability test in Ford 707 industrial gas turbine engines late in 1974. A description is given of the results of 18,500 hours of turbine engine durability testing accumulated during the period from July 1, 1975 to Sept. 30, 1976. Two materials, aluminum silicate and magnesium aluminum silicate continue to show promise toward achieving the durability objectives of this program. Regenerator cores made from aluminum silicate show no evidence of chemical attack damage after 5600 hours of engine test.

  2. Tribopolymerization: An advanced lubrication concept for automotive engines and systems of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furey, M.J. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Kajdas, C. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Plock (Poland); Kaltenbach, K.W. [Triad Investors Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Advanced lubrication technologies based on the concept of tribopolymerization as a mechanism of boundary lubrication are described. Advantages of this approach as well as potential applications which could have an impact on the design, manufacture, and performance of existing and future automotive engines are presented and discussed. Tribopolymerization, a novel concept of molecular design developed by Furey and Kajdas, involves the continuous formation of thin polymeric films on rubbing surfaces; the protective films formed are self-replenishing. The antiwear compounds developed from this technology are effective with metals as well as ceramics and in the liquid as well as vapor phases. Furthermore, they are ashless and contain no harmful phosphorus or sulfur; and many are biodegradable. Thus, potential applications of this technology are diverse and include a variety of cost/performance/energy/environmental advantages. Examples include the following: (a) machining and cutting applications using thin films to reduce friction and ceramic tool wear; (b) the lubrication of ceramic engines (e.g., low heat rejection diesel engines) or ceramic components; (c) the development of ashless lubricants for existing and future automotive engines to reduce exhaust catalyst poisoning and environmental emissions; (d) ashless antiwear or ``lubricity`` additives for fuels, including gasoline, diesel and jet fuel; (e) vapor phase applications of this technology to high temperature gaseous systems or to fuel injector wear problems associated with the use of natural gas engines; and (f) the use of the concept of tribopolymerization as an enabling technology in the development of new engines and new automotive propulsion systems.

  3. Laser mass spectrometry for high sensitive and multi-com- ponent analysis of exhaust gas from vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Laser mass spectrometry is a newly developed method for pollutantdetection. It combines resonance-en- hanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and time-of-flight mass spectro- metry (TOF-MS). It may detect pollutants with high sensitivity, high selectivity and in a multi-com- ponent way. In this note, laser mass spectrometry was used to detect the pollutants in exhaust gases from vehicles. With one-color REMPI (at 266 nm), several aromatic hydrocarbons, including benzene, toluene, xylene, C3-benzene, etc., were detected. These substances were selectively ionized by (1+1) REMPI and their mass resolution was detected by a TOF mass spectrometer. And a quantitative analysis was achieved.

  4. Pd catalysts supported on modified Zr0.5Al0.5O1.75 used for lean-burn natural gas vehicles exhaust purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan Shang; Yun Wang; Maochu Gong; Yaoqiang Chen

    2012-01-01

    Composite supports Zr0.5Al0.5O1.75 modified by metal oxides,such as La2O3,ZnO,Y2O3 or BaO,were prepared by co-precipitation method,and palladium catalysts supported on the modified composite supports were prepared by impregnation method.Their properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD),H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR),N2 adsorption/desorption,and CO-chemisorption.The catalytic activity and the resistance to water poisoning of the prepared Pd catalysts were tested in a simulated exhaust gas from lean-burn natural gas vehicles with and without water vapor.The results demonstrated that the modified supports had an apparent effect on the performance of Pd catalysts,compared with the Pd catalyst supported on the unmodified ZrAl.The addition of ZnO or Y2O3 promoted the conversion of CH4.In the absence of water vapor,Pd/ZnZrAl exhibited the best activity for CH4 conversion with the light-off temperature (T50) of 275 ℃ and the complete conversion temperature (T90) of 314 ℃,respectively.However,in the presence of water vapor,Pd/YZrAl was the best one over which the light-off temperature (T50) of methane was 339 ℃ and the complete conversion temperature (T90) was 371 ℃.These results indicated that Pd catalyst supported on the modified composite ZrAl support showed excellent catalytic activity at low temperature and high resistance to H2O poisoning for the exhaust purification of lean-burn natural gas vehicles.

  5. Effects of diluent admissions and intake air temperature in exhaust gas recirculation on the emissions of an indirect injection dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-Alla, G.H.; Soliman, H.A.; Badr, O.A.; Abd-Rabbo, M.F. [Zagazig University, Cairo (Egypt). Shoubra Faculty of Engineering

    2001-05-01

    The operation of Diesel engines on gaseous fuels, commonly known as dual fuel engines, uses Diesel fuel as the pilot fuel and gaseous fuel (methane and sometimes propane in the present work) as the main fuel. The gaseous fuel was inducted in the intake manifold to mix with the intake air. The investigation was conducted on a high speed indirect injection (Ricardo-E6) dual fuel engine and was concerned with the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the dual fuel engine combustion and emissions, in particular, the effects of intake air temperature and diluent admissions (N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) on combustion and emissions. The use of diluents to displace oxygen (O{sub 2}) in the intake air resulted in a reduction in the O{sub 2} supplied to the engine, increased the inlet charge thermal capacity (thermal effect) and, potentially, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} participated in the combustion process (chemical effect). In a separate series of tests, the temperature of the engine inlet charge was raised gradually in order to simulate the effect of mixing hot EGR with the engine inlet gaseous fuel air mixture. It was found that the admission of diluents resulted in reductions in the exhaust oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}). Higher inlet charge temperature increases the exhaust NO{sub x} but reduces the unburned hydrocarbon emissions. Finally, when carbon dioxide was added to the inlet gaseous fuel air charge, large reductions in NO{sub x} were observed. (author)

  6. Estimated times to exhaustion and power outputs at the gas exchange threshold, physical working capacity at the rating of perceived exertion threshold, and respiratory compensation point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Haley C; Housh, Terry J; Zuniga, Jorge M; Camic, Clayton L; Traylor, Daniel A; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O

    2012-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the power outputs and estimated times to exhaustion (T(lim)) at the gas exchange threshold (GET), physical working capacity at the rating of perceived exertion threshold (PWC(RPE)), and respiratory compensation point (RCP). Three male and 5 female subjects (mean ± SD: age, 22.4 ± 2.8 years) performed an incremental test to exhaustion on an electronically braked cycle ergometer to determine peak oxygen consumption rate, GET, and RCP. The PWC(RPE) was determined from ratings of perceived exertion data recorded during 3 continuous workbouts to exhaustion. The estimated T(lim) values for each subject at GET, PWC(RPE), and RCP were determined from power curve analyses (T(lim) = ax(b)). The results indicated that the PWC(RPE) (176 ± 55 W) was not significantly different from RCP (181 ± 54 W); however, GET (155 ± 42 W) was significantly less than PWC(RPE) and RCP. The estimated T(lim) for the GET (26.1 ± 9.8 min) was significantly greater than PWC(RPE) (14.6 ± 5.6 min) and RCP (11.2 ± 3.1 min). The PWC(RPE) occurred at a mean power output that was 13.5% greater than the GET and, therefore, it is likely that the perception of effort is not driven by the same mechanism that underlies the GET (i.e., lactate buffering). Furthermore, the PWC(RPE) and RCP were not significantly different and, therefore, these thresholds may be associated with the same mechanisms of fatigue, such as increased levels of interstitial and (or) arterial [K⁺]. PMID:22716291

  7. Analysis of an Increase in the Efficiency of a Spark Ignition Engine Through the Application of an Automotive Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Fuc, Pawel; Lijewski, Piotr; Ziolkowski, Andrzej; Galant, Marta; Siedlecki, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    We have analyzed the increase of the overall efficiency of a spark ignition engine through energy recovery following the application of an automotive thermoelectric generator (ATEG) of our own design. The design of the generator was developed following emission investigations during vehicle driving under city traffic conditions. The measurement points were defined by actual operation conditions (engine speed and load), subsequently reproduced on an engine dynamometer. Both the vehicle used in the on-road tests and the engine dynamometer were fit with the same, downsized spark ignition engine (with high effective power-to-displacement ratio). The thermodynamic parameters of the exhaust gases (temperature and exhaust gas mass flow) were measured on the engine testbed, along with the fuel consumption and electric current generated by the thermoelectric modules. On this basis, the power of the ATEG and its impact on overall engine efficiency were determined.

  8. Exhaust gas emissions and environmental effects by use of rape seed oil based fuels in agricultural tractors; Schadstoffemissionen und Umweltwirkungen bei Verwendung von Rapsoelkraftstoffen in der Landwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krahl, J.; Vellguth, G.; Munack, A.; Stalder, K.; Bahadir, M.

    1996-01-01

    The use of biofuels can only be supported, if their effects on environment and human health are well known. So the exhaust gases of seven different Diesel engines fueled with rape seed oil or RME were analyzed and compared to those from Diesel fuel (DF). As motor test procedure the 5-mode cycle was chosen, which simulates the typical load of agricultural tractors. Besides the determination of the regulated and nonregulated exhaust gas compounds, some engines were examined with regard to the cytotoxic and mutagenic potentials of their particulates as well. The result of all investigations shows that RME has definite advantages when it is used in rural areas. (orig.) [Deutsch] Oekologische Aspekte, die Endlichkeit fossiler Ressourcen und das Bestreben, die landwirtschaftlichen Strukturen zu erhalten, motivieren die Verwendung nachwachsender Rohstoffe. In der Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (FAL) wird seit den 70er Jahren die technische Nutzung von Rapsoel als Alternativkraftstoff untersucht. Schon sehr frueh zeigte sich, dass reines Rapsoel nicht langfristig in konventionellen Dieselmotoren einsetzbar ist, da schwere Motorschaeden die Folge sind. Um Rapsoel dennoch als Kraftstoff nutzen zu koennen, muss entweder der Motor oder der Kraftstoff veraendert werden. Durch motorische Sonderkonstruktionen auf der einen oder die Umesterung des Rapsoels - meist zu Rapsoelmethylester (RME) - auf der anderen Seite gelingt es, Rapsoel als fluessigen Energietraeger zu verwenden. Mit RME, der in seinen physikalischen Eigenschaften dem Dieselkraftstoff (DK) sehr aehnelt, wird seit 1982 in der Versuchsstation der FAL ein Traktor erfolgreich betrieben, Bild 1. Analog dazu muessen auch modifizierte Motoren ihre Tauglichkeit im Langzeitversuch unter Beweis stellen. (orig.)

  9. Effect of cooled EGR on performance and exhaust gas emissions in EFI spark ignition engine fueled by gasoline and wet methanol blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohadi, Heru; Syaiful, Bae, Myung-Whan

    2016-06-01

    Fuel needs, especially the transport sector is still dominated by fossil fuels which are non-renewable. However, oil reserves are very limited. Furthermore, the hazardous components produced by internal combustion engine forces many researchers to consider with alternative fuel which is environmental friendly and renewable sources. Therefore, this study intends to investigate the impact of cooled EGR on the performance and exhaust gas emissions in the gasoline engine fueled by gasoline and wet methanol blends. The percentage of wet methanol blended with gasoline is in the range of 5 to 15% in a volume base. The experiment was performed at the variation of engine speeds from 2500 to 4000 rpm with 500 intervals. The re-circulated exhaust gasses into combustion chamber was 5%. The experiment was performed at the constant engine speed. The results show that the use of cooled EGR with wet methanol of 10% increases the brake torque up to 21.3%. The brake thermal efficiency increases approximately 39.6% using cooled EGR in the case of the engine fueled by 15% wet methanol. Brake specific fuel consumption for the engine using EGR fueled by 10% wet methanol decreases up to 23% at the engine speed of 2500 rpm. The reduction of CO, O2 and HC emissions was found, while CO2 increases.

  10. Automotive factory network renewal

    OpenAIRE

    Scicluna, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this applied thesis was to plan, implement, and study the upgrading the network infrastructure in Valmet Automotive Oy, specifically in its Uusikaupunki factory. Valmet Automotive is a Finnish automotive service provider, focusing on premium vehicles, convertible roof systems and electric vehicles. The objective was to plan and implement a networking infrastructure that could support the load of a factory in full-scale production, while ensuring near-constant availability. T...

  11. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  12. A comparative study of the elemental composition of the exhaust emissions of cars powered by liquefied petroleum gas and unleaded petrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Jayaratne, E. Rohan; Kokot, Serge

    Elements emitted from the exhausts of new Ford Falcon Forte cars powered by unleaded petrol (ULP) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were measured on a chassis dynamometer. The measurements were carried out in February, June and August 2001, and at two steady state driving conditions (60 and 80 km h -1). Thirty seven elements were quantified in the exhaust samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The total emission factors of the elements from the exhausts of ULP cars were higher than those of LPG cars at both engine speeds even though high variability in the exhaust emissions from different cars was noted. The effect of the operating conditions such as mileage of the cars, engine speed, fuel and lubricating oil compositions on the emissions was studied. To investigate the effects of these conditions, multivariate data analysis methods were employed including exploratory principal component analysis (PCA), and the multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) and geometrical analysis for interactive aid (GAIA), for ranking the cars on the basis of the emission factors of the elements. PCA biplot of the complete data matrix showed a clear discrimination of the February, June and August emission test results. In addition, (i) platinum group elements (PGE) emissions were separated from each other in the three different clusters viz. Pt with February, Pd with June and Rh with August; (ii) the motor oil related elements, Zn and P, were particularly associated with the June and August tests (these vectors were also grouped with V, Al and Cu); and (iii) highest emissions of most major elements were associated with the August test after the cars have recorded their highest mileage. Extensive analysis with the aid of the MCDM ranking methods demonstrated clearly that cars powered by LPG outperform those powered by ULP. In general, cars tested in June perform better than

  13. Utilisation of CO2, fixation of nitrogen and exhaust gas cleaning in electric discharge with electrode catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method reported here provides a contribution to CO2 utilisation, nitrogen fixation and combustion exhaust cleaning using synergetic effect of electric discharge with heterogeneous catalysis on electrodes. The efficiency of CO2 removal is about 40-65%. The process of CO2 removal is always accompanied by NOx, VOC, SX and other component removal and is connected with O2 formation. The final product of process is powder with fractal microstructure, low specific weight, water insoluble suitable for use as nitrogen containing fertilizer. The main component (95%) of solid product is amorphous condensate of amino acids with about 5% of metal organic compound with catalytic properties. The condensate has character of statistical proteinoid. Its creation seems to play important role during formation of life in pre-biotic Earth

  14. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section 119... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.430 Engine exhaust pipe installation. (a) The design of all... an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any connections. The piping must...

  15. NOx abatement in the exhaust of lean-burn natural gas engines over Ag-supported γ-Al2O3 catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Y.; Kambolis, A.; Boréave, A.; Giroir-Fendler, A.; Retailleau-Mevel, L.; Guiot, B.; Marchand, O.; Walter, M.; Desse, M.-L.; Marchin, L.; Vernoux, P.

    2016-04-01

    A series of Ag catalysts supported on γ-Al2O3, including two different γ-Al2O3 supports and various Ag loadings (2-8 wt.%), was prepared, characterized (SEM, TEM, BET, physisorption, TPR, NH3-TPD) and tested for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by CH4 for lean-burn natural gas engines exhausts. The catalysts containing 2 wt.% Ag supported on γ-Al2O3 were found to be most efficient for the NOx reduction into N2 with a maximal conversion of 23% at 650 °C. This activity was clearly linked with the ability of the catalyst to concomitantly produce CO, via the methane steam reforming, and NO2. The presence of small AgOx nanoparticles seems to be crucial for the methane activation and NOx reduction.

  16. Amperometric NOx-sensor for Combustion Exhaust Gas Control. Studies on transport properties and catalytic activity of oxygen permeable ceramic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the research described in this thesis is the development of a mixed conducting oxide layer, which can be used as an oxygen permselective membrane in an amperometric NOx sensor. The sensor will be used in exhaust gas systems. The exhaust gas-producing engine will run in the lean mix mode. The preparation of this sensor is carried out using screen-printing technology, in which the different layers of the sensor are applied successively. Hereafter, a co-firing step is applied in which all layers are sintered together. This co-firing step imposes several demands on the selection of materials. The design specifications of the sensor further include requirements concerning the operating temperature, measurement range and overall stability. The operating temperature of the sensor varies between 700 and 850C, enabling measurement of NOx concentrations between 50 and 1200 ppm with a measurement accuracy of 10 ppm. Concerning the stability of the sensor, it must withstand the exhaust gas atmosphere containing, amongst others, smoke, acids, abrasive particles and sulphur. Because of the chosen lean-mix engine concept, in which the fuel/air mixture switches continuously between lean (excess oxygen) and fat (excess fuel) mixtures, the sensor must withstand alternately oxidising and reducing atmospheres. Besides, it should be resistant to thermal shock and show no cross-sensitivity of NOx with other exhaust gas constituents like oxygen and hydrocarbons. The response time should be short, typically less than 500 ms. Because of the application in combustion engines of cars, the operational lifetime should be longer than 10 years. Demands on the mixed conducting oxide layer include the following ones. The layer should show minimal catalytic activity towards NOx-reduction. The oxygen permeability must be larger than 6.22 10-8 mol/cm2s at a layer thickness between 3-50 μm. Since the mixed conducting oxide layer is coated on the YSZ electrolyte embodiment, the two

  17. 基于 Glyphworks 的汽车排气系统加速耐久试验载荷谱的研究%Study on the durability accelerated experimental load spectrum for automotive exhaust system based on Glyphworks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐华平; 崔京宝

    2014-01-01

    On the premise of the same failure mode and damage equivalence,the loading spectra of the exhaust system of a passenger car were edited by using fatigue strength analysis software Glyphworks. Then both the test duration and fatigue editing were displayed with various damage retained,and validation test was conducted. Compared with traditional durability tests,the test duration and cost of our method were reduced markedly.%在损伤等效和失效模式相同的前提下,应用疲劳分析软件 Glyphworks,对从试验场采集的汽车排气系统道路载荷谱进行编辑。得到预计试验时间和保留不同损伤量的台架试验加速载荷谱编辑结果,并进行试验验证。结果表明:与传统耐久试验方法相比,该方法能在更短的时间内准确再现失效模式。

  18. Denuder for measuring emissions of gaseous organic exhaust gas constituents; Denuder zur Emissionsmessung von gasfoermigen organischen Abgasinhaltsstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerchel, B.; Jockel, W.; Kallinger, G.; Niessner, R.

    1997-05-01

    Industrial plants which emit carcinogenic or other noxious substances should be given top priority in any policy to ward off harmful environmental effects. This also applies to many volatile and semi-volatile air constituents such as volatile aliphatic carbonyls or amines. To date there are no satisfactory methods for determining trace organic components of exhaust gases. It is true that aldehydes are considered in the VDI Guideline 3862, but the measuring methods given there are based on absorption in liquids and are accordingly difficult to use and show a high cross-sensitivity for other substances. No VDI Guideline exists to date on amine emissions. In view of the complexity of exhaust gases a selective enrichment of certain families of substances would appear indicated. Sampling trouble could be reduced if it was possible only to accumulate the gaseous phase, or even just one family of gaseous constituents. A particularly suitable air sampling method is that of diffusion separation. These diffusion separators (denuders) are well known as a powerful measuring system which is able to accumulate trace pollutants in the outside air. The purpose of the present study was to find out whether the concept of diffusion separation is also applicable to emission monitoring, and in particular whether it is suitable for detecting volatile aliphatic aldehydes and amines (primary and secondary) at extremely low concentrations (<10 ppb). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Fuer Anlagen mit Emissionen von krebserzeugenden und gesundheitsgefaehrdenden Stoffen ergibt sich ein besonderer Handlungsbedarf zum Schutz vor schaedlichen Umwelteinwirkungen. Zu diesen Stoffen gehoeren auch viele leicht- und mittelfluechtigen Luftinhaltsstoffe, wie z.B. die leichtfluechtigen aliphatischen Carbonyle oder Amine. Fuer organische Komponenten, die nur in geringen Konzentrationen im Abgas vorkommen, existieren bisher keine zufriedenstellenden Messverfahren. Fuer die Aldehyde liegt zwar die VDI-Richtlinie 3862

  19. Automotive Industry in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter; Govindaraju, V.G.R. Chandran

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains the evolution and assesses the development of the Malaysian automotive industry within the premise of infant industry and trade protection framework as well as extended arguments of infant industry using a global value chain perspective. The Malaysian automotive industry expan...

  20. Kentucky's Automotive Certification Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Office of Vocational Education.

    The state of Kentucky recognized a need to standardize automotive mechanics training throughout the state and to establish minimum guidelines for the quality of instruction in such programs. To meet these needs, the Office of Vocational Education selected the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) and began the certification…

  1. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  2. Exhaust gas emissions from diesel-engines driven by rape seed oil methyl ester, rape seed oil and diesel fuel - an evaluation of laboratory and vehicle fleet test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, C.; Widmann, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    Diesel fuels from rape seed oil can contribute to a reduction of CO{sub 2}-emissions and save mineral fuel resources. But at the same time other emission components, which have an environmental or health impact, must be compared with the exhaust gas emissions from presently used mineral diesel fuels. This study compares various results from vehicle emission tests, concentrating on personnel vehicles and rape seed oil methyl ester (RME), to show a tendency if there is a similar, lower or even higher output of critical exhaust gas components. The results vary in a wide range: for motors with a generally high emission level there is a tendency for lower emissions with RME, but for motors with a sophisticated technology (e.g. injection technique and exhaust gas cleaning) the differences between the fuels become more and more insignificant, so that general statements about advantages cannot be made. The influence of modern motor and exhaust gas cleaning technology seems more important here than the fuel properties. Even through the differences between the fuels in emission components are not significant in general it can be stated that the advantages concerning the reduction of CO{sub 2}-emission and biodegradability remain. (orig.)

  3. Exhaust gas emissions from diesel-engines driven by rape seed oil methyl ester, rape seed oil and diesel fuel - an evaluation of laboratory and vehicle fleet test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, C.; Widmann, B. (Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany))

    1999-01-01

    Diesel fuels from rape seed oil can contribute to a reduction of CO[sub 2]-emissions and save mineral fuel resources. But at the same time other emission components, which have an environmental or health impact, must be compared with the exhaust gas emissions from presently used mineral diesel fuels. This study compares various results from vehicle emission tests, concentrating on personnel vehicles and rape seed oil methyl ester (RME), to show a tendency if there is a similar, lower or even higher output of critical exhaust gas components. The results vary in a wide range: for motors with a generally high emission level there is a tendency for lower emissions with RME, but for motors with a sophisticated technology (e.g. injection technique and exhaust gas cleaning) the differences between the fuels become more and more insignificant, so that general statements about advantages cannot be made. The influence of modern motor and exhaust gas cleaning technology seems more important here than the fuel properties. Even through the differences between the fuels in emission components are not significant in general it can be stated that the advantages concerning the reduction of CO[sub 2]-emission and biodegradability remain. (orig.)

  4. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  5. Acoustics of automotive catalytic converter assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Nolan S.; Selamet, Ahmet; Parks, Steve J.; Tallio, Kevin V.; Miazgowicz, Keith D.; Radavich, Paul M.

    2003-10-01

    In an automotive exhaust system, the purpose of the catalytic converter is to reduce pollutant emissions. However, catalytic converters also affect the engine and exhaust system breathing characteristics; they increase backpressure, affect exhaust system acoustic characteristics, and contribute to exhaust manifold tuning. Thus, radiated sound models should include catalytic converters since they can affect both the source characteristics and the exhaust system acoustic behavior. A typical catalytic converter assembly employs a ceramic substrate to carry the catalytically active noble metals. The substrate has numerous parallel tubes and is mounted in a housing with swelling mat or wire mesh around its periphery. Seals at the ends of the substrate can be used to help force flow through the substrate and/or protect the mat material. Typically, catalytic converter studies only consider sound propagation in the small capillary tubes of the substrate. Investigations of the acoustic characteristics of entire catalytic converter assemblies (housing, substrate, seals, and mat) do not appear to be available. This work experimentally investigates the acoustic behavior of catalytic converter assemblies and the contributions of the separate components to sound attenuation. Experimental findings are interpreted with respect to available techniques for modeling sound propagation in ceramic substrates.

  6. Generating usable and safe CO{sub 2} for enrichment of greenhouses from the exhaust gas of a biomass heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dion, L.M.; Lefsrud, M. [McGill Univ., Macdonald Campus, Ste-Anne-deBellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated the use of biomass as a renewable fuel to enrich a greenhouse with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). CO{sub 2} enrichment of greenhouses has been shown to improve crop production whether it occurs from liquid CO{sub 2} or combustion of fossil fuels. Biomass, in the form of wood chips or pellets, has received much interest as a sustainable and economically viable alternative to heat greenhouses. As such, the opportunity exists to convert exhaust gases from a greenhouse wood heating system into a useful resource. CO{sub 2} can be extracted from flue gas via membrane separation instead of electrostatic precipitators. This technique has shown potential for large industries trying to reduce and isolate CO{sub 2} emissions for sequestration and may be applicable to the greenhouse industry. Some research has also been done with wet scrubbers using catalysts to obtain plant fertilizers. Sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (NO) emissions can be stripped from flue gas to form ammonium sulphate as a valuable byproduct for fertilizer markets. This study will review the potential of these techniques in the summer of 2010 when experiments will be conducted at the Macdonald Campus of McGill University.

  7. 论多晶硅生产废气回收的必要性%On the Necessity for Recycling of Exhaust Gas in Polysilicon Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆大军

    2011-01-01

    介绍了某企业多晶硅生产过程中废气的来源和组成,对废气回收的必要性进行了论述。%In a 3,000 t/a polysilicon project with modified Siemens process,the low-boiling-point compositions which are produced in production systems are not recycled for some design and production reasons.As a result,the severe exceeding standard of low-boiling-point compositions in the production systems makes the systems always excess pressure,which makes it is not easy for the safety operation for the system.Besides,the recycling systems do not classify the discharge,then the off gas scrubber system do not work properly and the treatment cost is increased.This makes a lot of material waste and increases the production cost.In order to save production costs and reduce the treatment costs,it is urgent to recycle the exhaust gas.

  8. A Technique for the Analysis of Auto Exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothern, Ray D.; And Others

    Developed for presentation at the 12th Conference on Methods in Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Studies, University of Southern California, April, 1971, this outline explains a technique for separating the complex mixture of hydrocarbons contained in automotive exhausts. A Golay column and subambient temperature programming technique are…

  9. Component Analysis of Deposits in Selective Catalytic Reduction System for Automotive Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Neng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, deposits in exhaust pipes for automotive diesel engines were studied by various chemical analysis methods and a kind of analysis process to determine the compositions of organic matter was proposed. Firstly, the elements of the deposits were determined through the element analysis method. Then using characteristic absorption properties of organic functional groups to the infrared spectrum, the functional groups in the deposits were determined. Finally, by GC-MS (gas chromatography - mass spectrometry test, the content of each main component was determined quantitatively. Element analysis results indicated that the deposits adsorbed metal impurities from fuel oil, lubricating oil, mechanical wear and urea water solution. The result of GC-MS test showed that the area percentage of cyanuric acid was the biggest (about 85%, the second was urea (about 4%, and the content of biuret and biurea was scarce.

  10. National Automotive Center - NAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Encouraged by the advantages of collaboration, the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) worked with the Secretary of the...

  11. Design of a high temperature chemical vapor deposition reactor in which the effect of the condensation of exhaust gas in the outlet is minimized using computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji-Young; Geun Kim, Byeong; Nam, Deok-Hui; Yoo, Chang-Hyoung; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Seo, Won-Seon; Shul, Yong-Gun; Lee, Won-Jae; Jeong, Seong-Min

    2016-02-01

    Tetramethylsilane (TMS) was recently proposed as a safe precursor for SiC single crystal growth through high temperature chemical vapor deposition (HTCVD). Because the C content of TMS is much higher than Si, the exhaust gas from the TMS-based HTCVD contains large amounts of C which is condensed in the outlet. Because the condensed C close to the crystal growth front will influence on the thermodynamic equilibrium in the crystal growth, an optimal reactor design was highly required to exclude the effect of the condensed carbon. In this study, we report on a mass/heat transfer analysis using the finite element method (FEM) in an attempt to design an effective reactor that will minimize the effect of carbon condensation in the outlet. By applying the proposed reactor design to actual growth experiments, single 6H-SiC crystals with diameters of 50 mm were successfully grown from a 6H-SiC seed. This result confirms that the proposed reactor design can be used to effectively grow 6H-SiC crystals using TMS-based HTCVD.

  12. Effect of nozzle hole size coupling with exhaust gas re-circulation on the engine emission perfomance based on KH-ACT spray model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To research an effective measure of reducing the Soot and NOx in engine at the same time, different nozzle hole diameters coupled with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR were adopted in this study based on KH-ACT spray breakup model, which takes the aerodynamic-induced ,cavitation-induced and turbulence-induced breakup into account. The SAGE detailed chemistry combustion and the new atomization model used in the simulation have been verified with the experiment data from a YN4100QBZL engine. Different diesel nozzles was adopted in the study combined with different EGR rates ranging from 0% to 40%. The simulation results show that the NOx emission could be reduced effectively for both small(0.1mm and large(0.15mm diesel nozzle when increasing EGR ratio. The soot emission increases for the small nozzle hole size as the EGR increasing. However, when it comes to the large diesel nozzle, the emission increases slightly first and decrease quickly when the EGR rate above 20%.

  13. Analysis and Discussion of the Exhaust Gas in Thermoelectric Industry%热电行业大气污染防治分析与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚德飞; 姚建松; 张建中; 潘淑萍

    2011-01-01

    According to monitoring results and the pollution characteristics of exhaust gas in thermoelectric industry, this article discusses the selection of different type of boiler and analyzes the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emission characteristics, and also compares the treatment efficiency of different pollution treatment facilities. The conclusion will provide references for environment impact forecasting and assessment.%根据浙江省热电行业特点以及其污染特征,结合已有的监测结果,对热电行业的污染防治与废气排放特点进行分析与总结,探讨热电行业的锅炉设备选型,合理的选择污染防治设施与工艺、废气污染物的达标可行性,并重点对该行业废气治理设施,以及废气中烟尘、二氧化硫、氮氧化物的排放情况进行分析与探讨,为热电行业的环境影响预测与评价提供参考。

  14. Impact of intake CO 2 addition and exhaust gas recirculation on NO x emissions and soot reactivity in a common rail diesel engine

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Qurashi, Khalid

    2012-10-18

    The impact of intake CO 2 addition and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on engine combustion characteristics, NO x emissions, and soot oxidative reactivity was studied in a common rail diesel engine equipped with a cooled EGR system. The engine test results and the heat release analysis show that the reduced flame temperature, induced by the reduction of the oxygen concentration (dilution effect) is the dominant mechanism via which CO 2 and EGR lower NO x emissions in diesel engines. On the other hand, the collected soot from the engine tests was examined for its oxidative reactivity using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Results show that EGR has a significant effect on soot reactivity and results in higher initial active sites compared to the CO 2 case. We conclude that the reduced flame temperature (thermal effect) which is a consequence of the dilution effect is responsible for the observed increase in soot reactivity. These results confirm observations from our past work on flame soot, which showed that the peak adiabatic flame temperature is the governing factor affecting soot reactivity. These findings imply that driving the combustion concepts toward low temperature is favorable to effectively control engine pollutants, including soot reactivity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. A bearing temperature stability control method and application of axial exhaust coal gas turbine machine%轴向排气型煤气透平的轴承温度稳定控制方法及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚军; 叶欣

    2012-01-01

    This paper concisely analyses the reasons for bearing temperature rise of the exhaust side which happened to radial intake and axial exhaust gas turbo-expanders. How to avoid the exhaust side's bearing temperature rise of the gas turbo-expanders is very important to guarantee the normal operation of turbine unit. This paper put forward through the control of the turbine exhaust temperature method of lateral bearing, making the process control function of TRT unit's automation system further improving.%简要分析了径向进气、轴向排气型煤气透平膨胀机的排气侧轴承温度增高的原因,如何避免煤气透平膨胀机排气侧支撑轴承温度的升高,对保证TRT机组的正常运行非常重要.通过该文提出的控制透平排气侧轴承温度升高的方法,使TRT机组自动化系统的控制功能更加完善.

  16. Automobile Exhaust Pollution and Purification Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    As we all know, the automobile gas exhaust pollution has become more and more severe at recent years. It influences both to the human beings health and to quality of environment. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what are the main components of the exhaust gases, and give a basic and effective way to solve the problem. In this thesis, first the danger of exhaust pollution and its components will be presented. Then the writer will give the general mechanism of automobile exhaust ...

  17. Modeling of Filling and Solidification Process for TiAl Exhaust Valves During Suction Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao XIONG; Yingche MA; Bo CHEN; Kui LIU; Yiyi LI

    2013-01-01

    Investment and suction casting (ISC) represents an economic and promising process route to fabricate automotive exhaust valves ofγ-TiAl based alloys,but information available on the metal flow and the temperature changes during mould filling and solidification process for the ISC process is meager.A sequentially coupled mathematical flow-thermal model,based on the commercial finite-volume/finite-difference code FLOW-3D and the finite-element code PROCAST,has been developed to investigate the ISC process.In term of calculating the flow and temperature fields during the filling and solidification stages,potential defects including the gas bubbles and the surface air entrainment occurred in the mould filling process and the shrinkage porosities formed in the solidification process are predicted and the reasons for the formation of these defects are also analyzed.The effects of filling pressure difference control methods and moulds on gas bubble and surface air entrainment behavior are presented.It is found that by changing the filling pressure difference control methods from general suction casting to "air leakage" suction casting and reducing air leakage flow rates,the gas bubbles are eliminated effectively,and the surface air entrainment attenuate dramatically.With resort to a mould with a tetragonal runner,the surface air entrainment decrease to the lowest level.Finally,the water analogue and suction casting experiments of exhaust valves are implemented for further validation of the simulation results.

  18. Wastes to Reduce Emissions from Automotive Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jiménez Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was actually the investigation of the effect of various treatments on the ability of urine in absorbing greenhouse gases. Urine alone or mixed with olive-oil-mill waste waters (O, poultry litter (P, or sewage sludge (S was used on the absorption of CO2 and NOx from diesel exhaust. The absorption coefficient (0.98–0.29 g CO2/grNH4 was similar to other solvents such as ammonia and amines. The ranges of CO2 absorption(1.7–5.6 g/l and NO reduction (0.9–3.7 g/l in six hours indicate that on average 20 litres of urine could be needed to capture CO2 and NOx vehicle emissions from each covered kilometre. The best results of CO2 absorption and NOx reduction were for urine mixed with O, P and urine alone. These wastes could be used to capture CO2 and NOx from automotive diesel engines to reduce gas emissions. The proposed strategy requires further research to increase CO2 absorption and reduce the risks associated with waste-water reuse.

  19. The Status of Marine Engine Exhaust Gas Scrubbing and Desulfurizing Technology and its Development Trend%船舶废气洗涤脱硫技术现状及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周松; 李琤; 沈飞翔

    2014-01-01

    As marine engine exhaust gas emission limitation is becoming more and more stringent, the research state of marine engine exhaust gas scrubber is introduced in detail, and the tendency, economy and prospect of the application of marine scrubbers are analyzed. The research shows that the exhaust gas scrubber is a valid measure to meet IMO 2015 regulation of fuel sulphur content. Although the initial in-vestment of scrubber is large, the capital can be recovered in 1~4 years, and is expected to have wide application in marine auxiliary products market.%针对船舶排放控制日趋严格,介绍了国内外船舶动力装置废气洗涤脱硫技术的研究现状,并分析了其发展趋势、经济性和应用前景。研究表明,船舶废气洗涤技术是应对2015年IMO燃油含硫量限制的有效方法。洗涤系统虽然初投资较大,但成本可在1~4年内收回,具有广阔的市场前景。

  20. Cold-air performance of free power turbine designed for 112-kilowatt automotive gas-turbine engine. 2: Effects of variable stator-vane-chord setting angle on turbine performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclallin, K. L.; Kofskey, M. G.

    1979-01-01

    The cold-air performance of an axial-flow power turbine with a variable stator designed for a 112-kW automotive gas-turbine engine was determined at speeds from 30 to 110 percent of design and at pressure ratios from 1.11 to 2.67. Performance is presented in terms of equivalent mass flow, torque, power, and efficiency for stator-vane-chord setting angles of 26 degs, 30 degs, 35 degs (design), 40 degs, 45 degs, and 50 degs. Turbine braking performance at a nominal stator setting angle of 107 degs is also presented. Turbine efficiency increased with increasing stator setting angle. A 10-point efficiency increase was obtained by opening the stator from the design setting angle of 35 degs to a setting angle of 45 degs.

  1. Cold-air performance of a 15.41-cm-tip-diameter axial-flow power turbine with variable-area stator designed for a 75-kW automotive gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclallin, K. L.; Kofskey, M. G.; Wong, R. Y.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of the aerodynamic performance of the axial flow, variable area stator power turbine stage for the Department of Energy upgraded automotive gas turbine engine was conducted in cold air. The interstage transition duct, the variable area stator, the rotor, and the exit diffuser were included in the evaluation of the turbine stage. The measured total blading efficiency was 0.096 less than the design value of 0.85. Large radial gradients in flow conditions were found at the exit of the interstage duct that adversely affected power turbine performance. Although power turbine efficiency was less than design, the turbine operating line corresponding to the steady state road load power curve was within 0.02 of the maximum available stage efficiency at any given speed.

  2. Catalytic cleaning of automotive exhaust gases; Katalytische Reinigung von Kraftfahrzeugabgasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domesle, R. [Degussa AG, Hanau (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    In the Clean Air Act of 1970 the US American Government set itself the goal of reducing pollutant emissions from automobiles to 10% of the original level. While it was very ambitious at the time, this goal has meanwhile been reached, at least in terms of the amount of pollution per vehicle. The period between 1981 and 1986 alone saw emission reductions in the USA of 65% for CO, 60% for HC, and 40% for NO{sub x}. The introduction of stringent limit values in Europe is in particular predicted to bring about drastic reductions in HC emissions. By the year 2010, after the phase-out of old vehicles without a cat, HC emissions are expected to have decreased to 20% of the 1990 level. A similar development has been predicted for CO emissions. As for NO{sub x} emissions there will at least be drastic reductions in spark ignition vehicles. However, this success will be neutralised for some part by the growing number of diesel vehicles and by increasing mileage. These figures show impressively that the use of catalytic converters in road vehicles has made a substantial contribution to relieving the environment and improving the quality of life and will continue to do so in future. [Deutsch] Die amerikanische Regierung trat 1970 im Clean Air Act mit der Vorgabe an, die Schadstoffe aus Kraftfahrzeugen auf 10% des urspruenglichen Wertes mindern zu wollen. Dieses Ziel war zum damaligen Zeitpunkt sehr hochgesteckt, ist aber inzwischen erreicht worden, was die Schadstoffmenge pro Fahrzeug angeht. Allein zwischen den Jahren 1981-86 wurde eine Schadstoffreduzierung um 65% fuer CO, 60% fuer HC und 40% fuer NO{sub x} in den USA festgestellt. Durch Einfuehrung der strengen Grenzwerte in Europa ist vor allem eine drastische Verminderung der HC-Emissionen prognostiziert. Diese sollen im Jahre 2010 nach Auslaufen der Altfahrzeuge ohne Katalysator noch 20% des Niveaus von 1990 betragen. Fuer CO werden aehnliche Verhaeltnisse erwartet. Bei den NO{sub x}-Emissionen wird im PKW-Bereich fuer Ottomotorfahrzeuge ebenfalls eine drastische Reduktion erreicht werden. Jedoch werden diese Erfolge zum Teil kompensiert durch steigenden Anteil von Dieselfahrzeugen und die hoehere Fahrleistung. Diese Zahlen zeigen eindrucksvoll, dass der Katalysatoreinsatz im Bereich der Strassenfahrzeuge einen wesentlichen Beitrag zur Entlastung der Umwelt und zur Erhoehung der Lebensqualitaet geleistet hat und auch in Zukunft noch leisten wird. (orig.)

  3. Conductometric soot sensor for automotive exhausts: initial studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Gunter; Feistkorn, Constanze; Wiegärtner, Sven; Heinrich, Andreas; Brüggemann, Dieter; Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    In order to reduce the tailpipe particulate matter emissions of Diesel engines, Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) are commonly used. Initial studies using a conductometric soot sensor to monitor their filtering efficiency, i.e., to detect a malfunction of the DPF, are presented. The sensors consist of a planar substrate equipped with electrodes on one side and with a heater on the other. It is shown that at constant speed-load points, the time until soot percolation occurs or the resistance itself are reproducible means that can be well correlated with the filtering efficiency of a DPF. It is suggested to use such a sensor setup for the detection of a DPF malfunction. PMID:22294888

  4. The impact of alternate fuels on future candidate automotive engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahnke, C.J.; Nichols, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    The thermal efficiency that could occur in the future for a variety of automotive engine candidates operating on conventional and alternate fuels is projected based on current automotive engine development trends and the special characteristics of the various alternate fuels. The multi-fuel engine candidates include mixture cycle and direct injection reciprocating engines, as well as adiabatic turbocompound engines and advanced gas turbine and Stirling engines. The alternate fuels considered are propane, methanol, ethanol, diesel and methane.

  5. Automotive Corporate Strategy in CEE

    OpenAIRE

    Kadlecová, Petra

    2009-01-01

    The diploma thesis shows the status of the automotive industry in the Czech Republic. It shows the trends in the Czech automotive industry in short theoretical presentation. There is a trend of the future competition from developing countries, other problems are growing raw material prices or government's limits in CO2 production. The companies connected to the automotive industry are reacting. The relevant information about the status and reactions of the Czech automotive industry companies,...

  6. Design of a validation test process of an automotive software

    OpenAIRE

    Awédikian, Roy; Yannou, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Testing software for defects exhaustively remains a computationally intensive problem. Therefore, deciding when to stop the test of a software product is one of the main issues in software engineering. Introducing fewer defects, detecting defects earlier in the development process and reducing the time to delivery are the primary objectives of software organizations. In particular, we have been working to address this problem within the realm of the automotive suppliers of car-embedded electr...

  7. The determination of regulated and some unregulated exhaust gas components from ethanol blended diesel fuels in comparison with neat diesel and ethanol fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haupt, D.; Nordstroem, F.; Niva, M.; Bergenudd, L.; Hellberg, S. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1999-02-01

    Investigations that have been carried out at Luleaa University of Technology (LTU) show how exhaust gas emissions and engine performance are affected by the composition of the fuels. The fuels that have been tested and compared are two different ethanol blended diesel fuels, `neat` diesel fuels and neat ethanol fuels. Two different, heavy-duty engines were used for the investigations; one for the neat ethanol fuels and the other for the ethanol blended diesel fuels and neat diesel fuels. The investigation also includes some tests with two oxidizing catalysts. Results from the investigation show that none of the fuels produce emissions exceeding the values of the 13-mode test (ECE R-49, 1997). Lowest HC-emission levels were found for the two `neat` ethanol fuels although the difference between the HC-emissions can be considered negligible for the studied fuels. An effective reduction in the hydrocarbon emissions was achieved by using a catalyst. The investigation also shows that the NO{sub x} emissions were much lower for the neat ethanol fuels than for the other fuels. Even if the CO emissions from the two ethanol fuels were approximately three times higher than for the other investigated fuels the use of a catalyst equalize the CO emissions from the studied fuels. The formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions were clearly higher for the neat ethanol fuels than for the other investigated fuels. However, by using a catalyst the formaldehyde emission from the ethanol fuels could be decreased. Unfortunately, the use of a catalyst also resulted in an increase in the emission of acetaldehyde from the ethanol fuelled engine 10 refs, 11 figs, 5 tabs, 6 appendixes

  8. The determination of regulated and some unregulated exhaust gas components from ethanol blended diesel fuels in comparison with neat diesel and ethanol fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations that have been carried out at Luleaa University of Technology (LTU) show how exhaust gas emissions and engine performance are affected by the composition of the fuels. The fuels that have been tested and compared are two different ethanol blended diesel fuels, 'neat' diesel fuels and neat ethanol fuels. Two different, heavy-duty engines were used for the investigations; one for the neat ethanol fuels and the other for the ethanol blended diesel fuels and neat diesel fuels. The investigation also includes some tests with two oxidizing catalysts. Results from the investigation show that none of the fuels produce emissions exceeding the values of the 13-mode test (ECE R-49, 1997). Lowest HC-emission levels were found for the two 'neat' ethanol fuels although the difference between the HC-emissions can be considered negligible for the studied fuels. An effective reduction in the hydrocarbon emissions was achieved by using a catalyst. The investigation also shows that the NOx emissions were much lower for the neat ethanol fuels than for the other fuels. Even if the CO emissions from the two ethanol fuels were approximately three times higher than for the other investigated fuels the use of a catalyst equalize the CO emissions from the studied fuels. The formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions were clearly higher for the neat ethanol fuels than for the other investigated fuels. However, by using a catalyst the formaldehyde emission from the ethanol fuels could be decreased. Unfortunately, the use of a catalyst also resulted in an increase in the emission of acetaldehyde from the ethanol fuelled engine 10 refs, 11 figs, 5 tabs, 6 appendixes

  9. High integrity automotive castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D. [Eck Industries Inc., St. Manitowoc, WI (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper described the High Integrity Magnesium Automotive Casting (HI-MAC) program, which was developed to ensure the widespread adoption of magnesium in structural castings. The program will encourage the use of low pressure permanent molds, squeeze casting, and electromagnetic pumping of magnesium into dies. The HI-MAC program is currently investigating new heat treatment methods, and is in the process of creating improved fluid flow and solidification modelling to produce high volume automotive components. In order to address key technology barriers, the program has been divided into 8 tasks: (1) squeeze casting process development; (2) low pressure casting technology; (3) thermal treatment; (4) microstructure control; (5) computer modelling and properties; (6) controlled molten metal transfer and filling; (7) emerging casting technologies; and (8) technology transfer throughout the automotive value chain. Technical challenges were outlined for each of the tasks. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  10. TENDENCIES IN AUTOMOTIVE TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    U. D. Antushenay; T. R. Kisel

    2008-01-01

    The paper contains an analysis of export of transport services provided by the Republic automotive transport. Structure of expenses associated with operation of automotive transport facilities is presented in the paper. The paper cites directions pertaining to development of international automotive transportation.

  11. Identification for automotive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hjalmarsson, Håkan; Re, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Increasing complexity and performance and reliability expectations make modeling of automotive system both more difficult and more urgent. Automotive control has slowly evolved from an add-on to classical engine and vehicle design to a key technology to enforce consumption, pollution and safety limits. Modeling, however, is still mainly based on classical methods, even though much progress has been done in the identification community to speed it up and improve it. This book, the product of a workshop of representatives of different communities, offers an insight on how to close the gap and exploit this progress for the next generations of vehicles.

  12. Lanthanide Catalysts for Conversion of Exhaust Gas from Compressed Natural Gas Automobiles%压缩天然气汽车稀土型尾气转化催化剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚如杰; 董新彬

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at improving the air quality, more and more automobiles with compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel are being used in some big cities now. The three way catalysts (TWC) for gasoline cars are not suitable for CNG cars. In the exhaust gases from CNG cars, the hydrocarbon is mainly methane, which is converted into carbon dioxide quite difficultly compared with other hydrocarbons. In this paper, a specially designed catalyst dosage was developed, which contained lanthanide oxides, transition element oxides and a minor part of noble metal oxides. The catalysts can reach a high conversion ratio for the exhaust pollutants above 700℃. More than 98.0 per cent of CH4 and CO in CNG engine exhaust gases can be converted into CO2 and H2O. At 1 000℃, the catalyst maintains a 99.0 per cent conversion ratio for CH4 and CO in 1.5 h, showing a high thermal stability. A resistance to sulfur oxides was also behaved.%压缩天然气(CNG)汽车因其良好的排放特性,正被越来越多的大型城市公交系统使用,但是汽油车辆用尾气净化催化剂对天然气汽车的主要烃类排放物甲烷转化效率低.针对天然气车辆排放物特点,设计了天然气汽车尾气净化催化剂,其成分包括稀土金属和过渡金属化合物、少量贵金属氧化物、结构稳定剂等.试验结果表明,在700℃以上,CO和CH4转化率达到98%以上,催化剂耐高温性能好,在1 000℃,1.5 h试验时间内HC和CO转化率达到99%,此外该催化剂具有一定的抗硫化物中毒能力.

  13. Temperature optimisation of a diesel engine using exhaust gas heat recovery and thermal energy storage (Diesel engine with thermal energy storage)

    OpenAIRE

    Kauranen, Pertti; Elonen, Tuomo; Wikström, Lisa; Heikkinen, Jorma; Laurikko, Juhani

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Modern automotive diesel engines are so energy efficient that they are heating up slowly and tend to run rather cold at subzero temperatures. The problem is especially severe in mail delivery operations where the average speed is low and the drive cycle includes plenty of idling. The problem is typically solved by adding a diesel fuelled additional engine heater which is used for the preheating of the engine during cold start and additional heating of the engine if the coo...

  14. Automotive Emission Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Billy D.; Ragazzi, Ronald

    This guide designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in the area of automotive emission control curriculum includes four areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  15. Automotive Power Trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

  16. Bringing Excellence to Automotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Večeřa, Pavel; Paulová, Iveta

    2012-12-01

    Market situation and development in recent years shows, that organization's ability to meet customer requirements is not enough. Successful organizations are able to exceed the expectations of all stakeholders. They are building their excellence systematically. Our contribution basically how the excellence in automotive is created using EFQM Excellence Model in Total Quality Management.

  17. The status of ceramic turbine component fabrication and quality assurance relevant to automotive turbine needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richerson, D.W.

    2000-02-01

    This report documents a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) with guidance from the Ceramics Division of the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). DOE and the automotive companies have funded extensive development of ceramic materials for automotive gas turbine components, the most recent effort being under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program.

  18. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  19. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  20. Low Cost Advanced Thermoelectric (TE) Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2014-03-01

    Low cost, fully integrated TE generators (TEGs) to recover waste heat from vehicle exhaust will reduce transportation sector energy consumption and emissions. TEGs will be the first application of high-temperature TE materials for high-volume use and establish new industrial sectors with scaled up production capability of TEG materials and components. We will create a potential supply chain for practical automotive TEGs and identify manufacturing and assembly processes for large scale production of TEG materials and components. Our work focusses on several innovative R&D paths: (1) enhanced TE material performance by doping and compositional tuning, (2) optimized TE material fabrication and processing to reduce thermal conductivity and improve fracture strength, (3) high volume production for successful skutterudite commercialization, (4) new material, nanostructure, and nanoscale approaches to reduce thermal interface and electrical contact resistances, (5) innovative heat exchangers for high efficiency heat flows and optimum temperature profiles despite highly variable exhaust gas operating conditions, (6) new modeling and simulation tools, and (7) inexpensive materials for thermal insulation and coatings for TE encapsulation. Recent results will be presented. Supported by the U.S. DOE Vehicle Technology Program.

  1. 78 FR 14546 - Seagull Maritime Agencies Private Ltd. v. Gren Automotive, Inc., Centrus Automotive Distributors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Seagull Maritime Agencies Private Ltd. v. Gren Automotive, Inc., Centrus Automotive Distributors Inc., and... Limited (``SMA''), hereinafter ``Complainant,'' against Gren Automotive, Inc. (``Gren''), Centrus Automotive Distributors Inc. (``Centrus'') and Mr. Liu Shao hereinafter ``Respondents.'' Complainant...

  2. 78 FR 58518 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Benteler Automotive Corporation (Automotive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Benteler Automotive Corporation (Automotive Suspension and Body Components); Duncan, South Carolina Benteler Automotive Corporation (Benteler... produce automotive suspension components and subassemblies using certain foreign-status components....

  3. The purification of internal combustion engine exhaust emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, M.J.; Jorgensen, Norman; Carlow, J.S.; Raybone, David.

    1994-03-02

    In this patent, improved catalytic reduction of exhaust gas pollutants from internal combustion engines is described. During the warm-up phase of the cycle, a plasma discharge is initiated in the exhaust gases upstream of the catalytic converter. The plasma is controlled using sensors which detect the catalyst temperature and gas pressure and flow rate. (UK)

  4. Rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2015-01-01

    Rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers is dealt with in this book encompassing the widely working field of small turbomachines under real operating conditions at the very high rotor speeds up to 300000 rpm. The broadly interdisciplinary field of turbocharger rotordynamics involves 1) Thermodynamics and Turbo-Matching of Turbochargers 2) Dynamics of Turbomachinery 3) Stability Analysis of Linear Rotordynamics with the Eigenvalue Theory 4) Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Rotordynamics with the Bifurcation Theory 5) Bearing Dynamics of the Oil Film using the Two-Phase Reynolds Equation 6) Computation of Nonlinear Responses of a Turbocharger Rotor 7) Aero and Vibroacoustics of Turbochargers 8) Shop and Trim Balancing at Two Planes of the Rotor 9) Tribology of the Bearing Surface Roughness 10) Design of Turbocharger Platforms using the Similarity Laws The rotor response of an automotive turbocharger at high rotor speeds is studied analytically, computationally, and experimentally. Due to the nonlinear character...

  5. FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress are selected from nearly 2,000 papers submitted to the 34th FISITA World Automotive Congress, which is held by Society of Automotive Engineers of China (SAE-China ) and the International Federation of Automotive Engineering Societies (FISITA). This proceedings focus on solutions for sustainable mobility in all areas of passenger car, truck and bus transportation. Volume 8: Vehicle Design and Testing (II) focuses on: •Automotive Reliability Technology •Lightweight Design Technology •Design for Recycling •Dynamic Modeling •Simulation and Experimental Validation •Virtual Design, Testing and Validation •Testing of Components, Systems and Full Vehicle Above all researchers, professional engineers and graduates in fields of automotive engineering, mechanical engineering and electronic engineering will benefit from this book.   SAE-China is a national academic organization composed of enterprises and professionals who focus on research, design a...

  6. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the technical/economic feasibility of the use of hydrogen as an automotive fuel is made based on analyses of the following: the chemical- physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems - with water vapour injection, cryogenic injection, and the low or high pressure injection of hydrogen directly into the combustion chamber; the current commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. The paper concludes that, considering current costs for hydrogen fuel production, distribution and use, at present, the employment of hydrogen fuelled vehicles is feasible only in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives

  7. State Estimation for the Automotive SCR Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Guofeng; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx is a widely applied diesel engine exhaust gas aftertreatment technology. For advanced SCR process control, like model predictive control, full state information of the process is required. The ammonia coverage ratio inside the catalyst is difficult...... present for SCR in engine applications, we recommend to estimating the ammonia coverage using the extended Kalman filter....

  8. A comparison of exhaust emissions from vehicles fuelled with petrol, LPG and CNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielaczyc, P.; Szczotka, A.; Woodburn, J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an analysis of THC, NMHC, CO, NOx and CO2 emissions during testing of two bi-fuel vehicles, fuelled with petrol and gaseous fuels, on a chassis dynamometer in the context of the Euro 6 emissions requirements. The analyses were performed on one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/LPG) and one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/CNG), both with SI engines equipped with MPI feeding systems operating in closed-loop control, typical three-way-catalysts and heated oxygen sensors. The vehicles had been adapted by their manufacturers for fuelling with LPG or CNG by using additional special equipment mounted onto the existing petrol fuelling system. The vehicles tested featured multipoint gas injection systems. The aim of this paper was an analysis of the impact of the gaseous fuels on the exhaust emission in comparison to the emission of the vehicles fuelled with petrol. The tests subject to the analyses presented here were performed in the Engine Research Department of BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd in Bielsko-Biala, Poland, within a research programme investigating the influence of alternative fuels on exhaust emissions from light duty vehicle vehicles with spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines.

  9. SITUATION IN RUSSIAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY AND AUTOMOTIVE MARKET IN CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Starkova, Nadezhda; Tolstova, Alisa; Ubogova, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Todays situation of Russian automotive industry and automotive market has been analyzed. Main factors influencing for their position have been revealed, short-term forecast of development has been presented. Directions for stabilization of situation in production and sales of cars in Russia have been formulated.

  10. Catalytic converter heating by reversible chemical reaction of CaO/Ca(OH)2. Simulation study of exhaust emission reduction with prototype heater; CaO/Ca(OH)2 kagyaku hannonetsu ni yoru sangen shokubai kanetsu hoshiki no kento. Prototype sochi no haishutsu gas joka seino simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katashiba, H.; Kimura, H. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Morita, S. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-07-25

    Rapid activation of three-way catalyst is very effective to reduce harmful substances in exhaust gas. For heating the catalyst of a car, feasibility study of CaO/Ca(OH)2 reversible exothermic reaction has been done. In this paper, experimental results of prototype heater with exothermic hydration and dehydration reaction are described. Furthermore, the performance of exhaust emission reduction with the prototype heater and Ca(OH)2 dehydration are estimated by simulation study. It is predicted that the prototype heater reduces unburned exhaust emission by 37% in LA-4 test cycle simulation. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation of the capt......Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation...

  12. Exhaustion from prolonged gambling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2013-01-01

    Complaints of fatigue and physical exhaustion are frequently seen in the acute medical setting, especially amongst athletes, army recruits and persons involved in strenuous and exertional physical activities.Stress-induced exhaustion, on the other hand, is less often seen, but can present with very similar symptoms to physical exhaustion.Recently, three patients were seen at theDepartment ofEmergencyMedicine, presenting with exhaustion from prolonged involvement in gambling activities.The cases serve to highlight some of the physical consequences of prolonged gambling.

  13. Effects of fuel properties and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions; Keiyu seijo oyobi sanka shokubai no diesel haishutsu gas eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aihara, S.; Morihisa, H.; Tamanouchi, M.; Araki, H.; Yamada, S. [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Effects of fuel properties (T90 and Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons: PAH) and oxidation catalyst on diesel exhaust emissions were studied using three DI diesel engines and two diesel passenger cars. (IDI engine) PM emissions were found to increase as T90 and PAH increased and could be decreased considerably for each fuel if an oxidation catalyst was installed. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Effects of gasoline properties on exhaust emission and photochemical reactivity; Gasoline seijo ga haiki gas sosei, kokagaku hannosei ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, R.; Usui, K.; Moriya, A.; Sato, M.; Nomura, T.; Sue, H. [Petroleum Energy Center, Advanced Technology and Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to investigate the effects of fuel properties on emissions, four passenger cars were tested under Japanese 11 and 10-15 modes using two series gasoline fuels. The test results suggest that the distillation property (T90) affects A/F ratio which in turn influences exhaust emissions. The results of regression analysis show that both ozone forming potential and air toxics are highly corrected with the composition of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline. 3 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Control Technology of Exhaust Gas Emission from Marine Diesel Engine%船用柴油机有害物排放控制技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞海龙; 邓成林; 姚广涛; 资新运; 卜建国; 陈超

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduced the actual situation of atmospheric pollution caused by exhaust emission from marine diesel engines and expounded the regulations made by IMO for controlling exhaust emissions. And then, it summarized current methods to reduce SOx, NOx and PM in the exhaust gases. Finally, it pointed that the combination application of various technologies is the main development tendency of the emission reduction for marine diesel engine in the future.%介绍船舶柴油机排气对大气污染的现状及国际海事组织对船舶柴油机排放的控制法规;归纳总结了目前降低船舶柴油机氮氧化物、硫氧化物和颗粒物排放的主要技术措施,提出了多种技术综合运用是今后船舶柴油机减排发展必然趋势.

  16. Performance Analysis of a Reciprocating Piston Expander and a Plate Type Exhaust Gas Recirculation Boiler in a Water-Based Rankine Cycle for Heat Recovery from a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Latz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust gas in an internal combustion engine provides favorable conditions for a waste-heat recovery (WHR system. The highest potential is achieved by the Rankine cycle as a heat recovery technology. There are only few experimental studies that investigate full-scale systems using water-based working fluids and their effects on the performance and operation of a Rankine cycle heat recovery system. This paper discusses experimental results and practical challenges with a WHR system when utilizing heat from the exhaust gas recirculation system of a truck engine. The results showed that the boiler’s pinch point necessitated trade-offs between maintaining adequate boiling pressure while achieving acceptable cooling of the EGR and superheating of the water. The expander used in the system had a geometric compression ratio of 21 together with a steam outlet timing that caused high re-compression. Inlet pressures of up to 30 bar were therefore required for a stable expander power output. Such high pressures increased the pump power, and reduced the EGR cooling in the boiler because of pinch-point effects. Simulations indicated that reducing the expander’s compression ratio from 21 to 13 would allow 30% lower steam supply pressures without adversely affecting the expander’s power output.

  17. Exhaust Structure Influence on Gas Flow Distribution in PSC-1O0 Guide Vane Cyclone Tube%排气结构对PSC-100型导叶式旋风管内流场分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建军; 许文文; 金有海

    2011-01-01

    采用五孔球探针测量了不同排气结构参数(导流锥下口直径d1、开缝面积比a和开缝位置)的改变对PSC-100型导叶式旋风管内总压降和流场的影响.试验结果表明:带有导流锥的排气结构对分离有利;导流锥下口直径增大,气流旋转强度减小,颗粒分离所需离心力场减弱;导流锥开缝面积越大,分离空间内气旋强度越低;导流锥上侧缝开缝部位对旋风管内流场分布亦有影响.%By means of the intelligent five-hole pitot tube, the exhaust structure influence from the lower port d1 , the slotted area ratio a and the slotted position on the flow field distribution were investigated. Experimental results show that, an exhaust structure with diversion cone benefits centrifugal separation; with the enlargement of lower port d1 , the gas rotation intensity slows down and the centrifugal force to particle separation decreases; the gas rotation intensity slows down with the reduce of slotted area. The slotted position also influences flow field distribution.

  18. Oxidation of automotive primary reference fuels at elevated pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, C V; Curran, H J; Dryer, F L; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    1999-03-01

    Automotive engine knock limits the maximum operating compression ratio and ultimate thermodynamic efficiency of spark-ignition (SI) engines. In compression-ignition (CI) or diesel cycle engines, the premixed burn phase, which occurs shortly after injection, determines the time it takes for autoignition to occur. In order to improve engine efficiency and to recommend more efficient, cleaner-burning alternative fuels, they must understand the chemical kinetic processes that lead to autoignition in both SI and CI engines. These engines burn large molecular-weight blended fuels, a class to which the primary reference fuels (PRF) n-heptane and iso-octane belong. In this study, experiments were performed under engine like conditions in a high-pressure flow reactor using both the pure PRF fuels and their mixtures in the temperature range 550-880 K and 12.5 atm pressure. These experiments not only provide information on the reactivity of each fuel but also identify the major intermediate products formed during the oxidation process. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is used to simulate these experiments, and comparisons of experimentally measured and model predicted profiles for O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and temperature rise are presented. Intermediates identified in the flow reactor are compared with those present in the computations, and the kinetic pathways leading to their formation are discussed. In addition, autoignition delay times measured in a shock tube over the temperature range 690-1220 K and at 40 atm pressure were simulated. Good agreement between experiment and simulation was obtained for both the pure fuels and their mixtures. Finally, quantitative values of major intermediates measured in the exhaust gas of a cooperative fuels research engine operating under motored engine conditions are presented together with those predicted by the detailed model.

  19. Capture efficiency measurement of pollutants over a workbench with the reinforced slot exhaust system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavelek M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the measurement of the capture efficiency of pollutants by the slot reinforced exhaust system situated in two positions over the workbench. The slot reinforced exhaust system, which is known as REEXS, is the traditional slot exhaust hood equipped with an air supply inlet that intensifies exhausting along the axis of the exhaust hood. It can operate in traditional or reinforced exhaust modes. Measurements were made for the same air velocity in the suction slot and with the different momentum flux ratio of supplied and exhausted air flow. The tracer gas method was used for the capture efficiency measurement of the system. As the tracer gas the carbon dioxide was chosen. The knowledge of the shape and range of the effective exhaust area for various configurations in front of the exhaust hood is important for the exhaust hood setting according to a source of pollutants.

  20. Reliability in automotive ethernet networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fabio L.; Campelo, Divanilson R.; Yan, Ying;

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular.......This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular....

  1. Automotive systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Winner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    This book reflects the shift in design paradigm in automobile industry. It presents future innovations, often referred as  “automotive systems engineering”.  These cause fundamental innovations in the field of driver assistance systems and electro-mobility as well as fundamental changes in the architecture of the vehicles. New driving functionalities can only be realized if the software programs of multiple electronic control units work together correctly. This volume presents the new and innovative methods which are mandatory to master the complexity of the vehicle of the future.

  2. The automotive transmission book

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert; Jürgens, Gunter; Najork, Rolf; Pollak, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    This book presents essential information on systems and interactions in automotive transmission technology and outlines the methodologies used to analyze and develop transmission concepts and designs. Functions of and interactions between components and subassemblies of transmissions are introduced, providing a basis for designing transmission systems and for determining their potentials and properties in vehicle-specific applications: passenger cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and motorcycles. With these fundamentals the presentation provides universal resources for both state-of-the-art and future transmission technologies, including systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  3. Automotive battery technology

    CERN Document Server

    Watzenig, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The use of electrochemical energy storage systems in automotive applications also involves new requirements for modeling these systems, especially in terms of model depth and model quality. Currently, mainly simple application-oriented models are used to describe the physical behavior of batteries. This book provides a step beyond of state-of-the-art modeling showing various different approaches covering following aspects: system safety, misuse behavior (crash, thermal runaway), battery state estimation and electrochemical modeling with the needed analysis (pre/post mortem). All this different approaches are developed to support the overall integration process from a multidisciplinary point-of-view and depict their further enhancements to this process.

  4. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  5. Immune Exhaustion and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Fueyo, A; Markmann, J F

    2016-07-01

    Exhaustion of lymphocyte function through chronic exposure to a high load of foreign antigen is well established for chronic viral infection and antitumor immunity and has been found to be associated with a distinct molecular program and characteristic cell surface phenotype. Although exhaustion has most commonly been studied in the context of CD8 viral responses, recent studies indicate that chronic antigen exposure may affect B cells, NK cells and CD4 T cells in a parallel manner. Limited information is available regarding the extent of lymphocyte exhaustion development in the transplant setting and its impact on anti-graft alloreactivity. By analogy to the persistence of a foreign virus, the large mass of alloantigen presented by an allograft in chronic residence could provide an ideal setting for exhausting donor-reactive T cells. The extent of T cell exhaustion occurring with various allografts, the kinetics of its development, whether exhaustion is influenced positively or negatively by different immunosuppressants, and the impact of exhaustion on graft survival and tolerance development remains a fertile area for investigation. Harnessing or encouraging the natural processes of exhaustion may provide a novel means to promote graft survival and transplantation tolerance. PMID:26729653

  6. Duplex tab exhaust nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff (Inventor); Martens, Steven (nmn) (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An exhaust nozzle includes a conical duct terminating in an annular outlet. A row of vortex generating duplex tabs are mounted in the outlet. The tabs have compound radial and circumferential aft inclination inside the outlet for generating streamwise vortices for attenuating exhaust noise while reducing performance loss.

  7. WLAN Hot Spot services for the automotive and oil industries :a business analysis Or : "Refuel the car with petrol and information, both ways at the gas station"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François); M.H.P. Oremus

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWhile you refuel for gas ,why not refuel for information or download vehicle data ? This paper analyzes in extensive detail the user segmentation by vehicle usage , service offering , and full business models from WLAN hot spot services delivered to vehicles (private, professional , publ

  8. Self-regeneration of a Pd-perovskite catalyst for automotive emissions control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihata, Y.; Mizuki, J.; Akao, T.; Tanaka, H.; Uenishi, M.; Kimura, M.; Okamoto, T.; Hamada, N.

    2002-07-01

    Catalytic converters are widely used to reduce the amounts of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons in automotive emissions. The catalysts are finely divided precious-metal particles dispersed on a solid support. During vehicle use, the converter is exposed to heat, which causes the metal particles to agglomerate and grow, and their overall surface area to decrease. As a result, catalyst activity deteriorates. The problem has been exacerbated in recent years by the trend to install catalytic converters closer to the engine, which ensures immediate activation of the catalyst on engine start-up, but also places demanding requirements on the catalyst's heat resistance. Conventional catalyst systems thus incorporate a sufficient excess of precious metal to guarantee continuous catalytic activity for vehicle use over 50,000miles (80,000km). Here we use X-ray diffraction and absorption to show that LaFe0.57Co0.38Pd0.05O3, one of the perovskite-based catalysts investigated for catalytic converter applications since the early 1970s, retains its high metal dispersion owing to structural responses to the fluctuations in exhaust-gas composition that occur in state-of-the-art petrol engines. We find that as the catalyst is cycled between oxidative and reductive atmospheres typically encountered in exhaust gas, palladium (Pd) reversibly moves into and out of the perovskite lattice. This movement appears to suppress the growth of metallic Pd particles, and hence explains the retention of high catalyst activity during long-term use and ageing.

  9. Gas-flow fluctuation velocity within exhaust tube of pulse-jet engine%脉冲发动机喷管内气流压力波动速度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许林云; 周宏平; 徐幼林

    2007-01-01

    A portable pulse fogger, in which the fog will be generated by inducing pesticide into the pulse-jet engine exhaust tube that is full of high temperature and high speed exhaust gas, can be applied in disease and insect controling in forestry, greenhouse and sanitation with the advantages of high application efficiency and low environmental pollution. A system for measuring the gas-flow fluctuation velocity was set up to obtain the pressure signals at different axial positions of exhaust tube. On the principle of correlation between pressure signals from one signal source, the correlation analysis of two pressure signals at various positions of exhaust tube had been carried out. The autocorrelation function chart showed that the pressure signals in the exhaust tube were characterized as the sinusoidal or the cosinoidal waves with a few of random signals. The average gas-flow fluctuation velocity was derived from mutual correlation analysis of two signals at two positions. The average maximal gas flow velocity obtained by this measuring system was 5883 m/s, which was 8.72 times as fast as local sonic velocity 669 m/s.%便携式烟雾机是利用脉动发动机产生的高温、高速燃气将农药雾化形成直径微小的颗粒,达到高效、环保防治林木病虫害的目的.该文建立了一套气流波动速度测试装置,利用等直径喷管中气流脉动流动特性,测定喷管不同轴向位置处的压力信号,利用同一压力信号源流过喷管不同轴向位置处,相互之间具有相关性的原理,将喷管不同位置处获得的压力信号进行相关分析.自相关分析结果表明喷管内压力信号具有典型正(余)弦信号特征,只是其中包含少许随机信号.通过互相关分析可获得喷管中两测点之间的平均压力波动速度,即气流纵波的波动速度.测试计算结果表明喷管内气流最大平均压力波动速度达5833 m/s,相当于本地音速669 m/s的8.72倍.

  10. Characterization of the main automotive gasoline compounds by using gas chromatography; Caracterizacao dos principais componentes da gasolina automotiva atraves de cromatografia gasosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Julio Cesar Rosa; Jaeger, Helena Valli; Almeida, Selmo Queiroz; Teixeira, Leonardo Sena Gomes; Pontes, Luiz Antonio Magalhaes; Vitor Sobrinho, Eledir; Guimaraes, Paulo Roberto Britto; Vianna, Regina Ferreira [Universidade Salvador - UNIFACS, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia e Arquitetura]. E-mail: julio.assis@posgrad.unifacs.br

    2003-07-01

    Gasoline is composed of a number of hydrocarbons of varied structure and different functional groups, which have a marked influence on the final quality of the former. It is thus important to identify the main components of gasoline and how they influence some of its characteristics. This research work is concerned with the development of a technique, based on gas chromatography, for the separation and identification of more than 350 organic compounds likely to be present in gasoline. The study involved 50 gasoline samples collected at gas stations located in Salvador-Bahia (Brazil). The hydrocarbons identified were classified according to their main functional groups and compositions were obtained via a statistical treatment of the raw data. The results have shown that the gasoline used in Salvador has isopentane as the prevalent saturated compound, while m-xylene and methyl-butene are the most frequently found aromatic and olefin, respectively. (author)

  11. A Review of the Utilisation of Natural Gas with High Carbon Dioxide Content as Automotive Fuel in an Indirect Injection Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Opatola Rasheed Adewale; Aziz A. Rashid A.; Heikal Morgan Raymond; Said Mior Azman Meor

    2014-01-01

    The persistent consumption of fossil fuels by modern transportation tends toward feared depletion in crude oil and infliction of health risks on human beings and the environment due to the noxious emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. This work examines the prospects of fuel modification in improving engine performance by utilising compressed natural gas (CNG) mixed with varying proportions of carbon dioxide (CO2) as fuel in Diesel engines. The extent to which the addition of CO2 to ...

  12. The impact of carbon dioxide and exhaust gas recirculation on the oxidative reactivity of soot from ethylene flames and diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qurashi, Khalid O.

    Restrictive emissions standards to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines necessitate the development of advanced emission control technology. The engine manufacturers in the United States have implemented the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and diesel particulate filters (DPF) to meet the stringent emissions limits on NOx and PM, respectively. Although the EGR-DPF system is an effective means to control diesel engine emissions, there are some concerns associated with its implementation. The chief concern with this system is the DPF regenerability, which depends upon several factors, among which are the physicochemical properties of the soot. Despite the plethora of research that has been conducted on DPF regenerability, the impact of EGR on soot reactivity and DPF regenerability is yet to be examined. This work concerns the impact of EGR on the oxidative reactivity of diesel soot. It is part of ongoing research to bridge the gap in establishing a relationship between soot formation conditions, properties, and reactivity. This work is divided into three phases. In the first phase, carbon dioxide (CO2) was added to the intake charge of a single cylinder engine via cylinders of compressed CO2. This approach simulates the cold-particle-free EGR. The results showed that inclusion of CO2 changes the soot properties and yields synergistic effects on the oxidative reactivity of the resulting soot. The second phase of this research was motivated by the findings from the first phase. In this phase, post-flame ethylene soot was produced from a laboratory co-flow laminar diffusion flame to better understand the mechanism by which the CO2 affects soot reactivity. This phase was accomplished by successfully isolating the dilution, thermal, and chemical effects of the CO2. The results showed that all of these effects account for a measurable increase in soot reactivity. Nevertheless, the thermal effect was found to be the most

  13. Study on the utilization of the energy produced by the exhaust gases and the cooling water of a internal combustion engine; Estudo do aproveitamento da energia obtida pelos gases de escapamento e pela agua de resfriamento de um motor de combustao interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Andre Luiz dos; Arroyo, Narciso Angel Ramos [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Motores Termicos]. E-mail: als2000@tutopia.com.br; arroyo@sinmec.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    This work is about heat balance of an automotive internal combustion engine of 4 cylinders, using ethylic alcohol, and utilize the energy obtained in the exhaust gas and the water cooling system. This paper show an theoretical - experimental model for use this energy in an absorption refrigeration system using the work fluid water and Li Br. In this paper are analyzed engines charges of 30%, 50% and 100%. The results shows that for this charges and for any speed of the engines, the energy obtained in the evaporator are significant. (author)

  14. Performance analysis of a waste heat recovery thermoelectric generation system for automotive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A new automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator and its “four-TEGs” system are constructed, and the performance characteristics of system are discussed through road test and revolving drum test. - Highlights: • The automotive thermoelectric generator system was constructed and studied. • Road test and revolving drum test were used to measure the output power. • A performance of 201.7 V (open circuit voltage)/944 W obtained. - Abstract: Thermoelectric power generators are one of the promising green energy sources. In this case study, an energy-harvesting system which extracts heat from an automotive exhaust pipe and turns the heat into electricity by using thermoelectric power generators (TEGs) has been constructed. The test bench is developed to analysis the performance of TEG system characteristics, which are undertaken to assess the feasibility of automotive applications. Based on the test bench, a new system called “four-TEGs” system is designed and assembled into prototype vehicle called “Warrior”, through the road test and revolving drum test table, characteristics of the system such as hot-side temperature, cold-side temperature, open circuit voltage and power output are studied, and a maximum power of 944 W was obtained, which completely meets the automotive application. The present study shows the promising potential of using this kind of thermoelectric generator for low-temperature waste heat recovery vehicle

  15. Large-scale time-resolved digital particle image velocimetry (TR-DPIV) for measurement of high subsonic hot coaxial jet exhaust of a gas turbine engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a highly configurable triple digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) system is described, which is capable of acquiring both continuous, statistically independent measurements at up to 14 Hz and time-resolved PIV data at MHz rates. The system was used at QinetiQ's Noise Test Facility (NTF) as part of the EU-funded CoJeN programme to obtain measurements from high subsonic (Mach ≤ 0.9), hot (∼500 °C), large (1/10th) scale coaxial jet flows at a standoff distance of ∼1 m. High-resolution time-averaged velocity and turbulence data were obtained for complete coaxial engine exhaust plumes down to 4 m (20 jet diameters) from the nozzle exit in less than 1 h. In addition, the system allowed volumetric data to be obtained, enabling fast assessment of spatial alignment of nozzle configurations. Furthermore, novel six-frame time-series data-capture is demonstrated up to 330 kHz, used to calculate time–space correlations within the exhaust, allowing for study of spatio-temporal developments in the jet, associated with jet-noise production. The highly automated system provides synchronization triggers for simultaneous acquisition from different measurement systems (e.g. LDA) and is shown to be versatile, rugged, reliable and portable, operating remotely in a hostile environment. Data are presented for three operating conditions and two nozzle geometries, providing a database to be used to validate CFD models of coaxial jet flow

  16. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  17. Technological improvements of a metal oxide gas multi-sensor based on a micro-hotplate structure and inkjet deposition for an automotive air quality sensor application

    OpenAIRE

    DUFOUR, Nicolas; Chapelle, Audrey; Mesnilgrente, Fabien; Conédéra, Véronique; Menini, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    International audience In this paper we present a gas multi-sensor composed by an optimized low consumption (55mW-500°C) and low cost (microelectronics process) micro-hotplate and by three different metal oxides (CuO, ZnO and SnO2) sensing materials deposited by inkjet directly on the membrane. The realized structures have shown a stable and reproducible behavior. By using a specific temperature-modulated profile associated to a multivariate classifier, we have realized an electronic nose ...

  18. Tank-automotive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  19. Engineering task plan for five portable exhausters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exhausters will be employed to ventilate certain single-shell tanks (SSTs) during salt well pumping campaigns. Active ventilation is necessary to reduce the potential flammable gas inventory (LANL 1996a) in the dome space that may accumulate during steady-state conditions or during/after postulated episodic gas release events. The tanks described in this plan support the activities required to fabricate and test three 500 cfm portable exhausters in the 200 W area shops, and to procure, design, fabricate and test two 1000 cfm units. Appropriate Notice of Construction (NOC) radiological and toxic air pollutant permits will be obtained for the portable exhausters. The portable exhauster design media to be employed to support this task was previously developed for the 241-A-101 exhauster. The same design as A101 will be fabricated with only minor improvements to the design based upon operator input/lessons learned. The safety authorization basis for this program effort will follow SAD 36 (LANL 1996b), and each tank will be reviewed against this SAD for changes or updates. The 1000 cfm units will be designed by the selected offsite contractor according to the specification requirements in KHC-S-O490. The offsite units have been specified to utilize as many of the same components as the 500 cfm units to ensure a more cost effective operation and maintenance through the reduction of spare parts and additional procedures

  20. Automotive Fuels Survey. Part 3. Comparison and selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, N.; Van Walwijk, M.; Bueckmann, M.; Troelstra, W.P.; Elam, N. [eds.

    1998-01-01

    A method is presented to compare automotive fuels, which enables answering strategic questions. Five comparisons are made, each covering one specific theme: oil dependency in chapter 2 (which fuels enable a considerable reduction of the oil dependency), ease of transition in chapter 3 (comparison of the ease of transition to alternative fuels), local environmental effects of road transport in chapter 4 (which fuels can result in a substantial improvement of local air quality), greenhouse effect in chapter 5 (which fuels can realize a substantial reduction of well to wheel greenhouse gas emissions), and finally, costs in chapter 6 (a comparison of well to wheel costs for all fuels). The fuels compared are gasoline or reformulated gasoline from crude oil, diesel oil and reformulated diesel oil from crude oil, LPG from refineries and associated gas, natural gas, methanol from natural gas or cellulosic material, ethanol from starch rich crops or sugar rich crops or from cellulosic material, biodiesel (esterified oil from oil containing crops), hydrogen from natural gas, biomass or by electrolysis of water, and dimethylether (DME) from natural gas or cellulosic material. In part 1 of the title survey an overview of important aspects of raw materials and their conversion to automotive fuels is presented, while part is concerned with distribution and use of conventional and alternative automotive fuels. figs., tabs., refs.

  1. Exhaust purification with on-board ammonia production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, Wade J.; Driscoll, James J.; Coleman, Gerald N.; Knox, Kevin J.

    2009-06-30

    A power source is provided for use with selective catalytic reduction systems for exhaust-gas purification. The power source includes a first cylinder group with a first air-intake passage and a first exhaust passage, and a second cylinder group with a second air-intake passage and a second exhaust passage. The second air-intake passage is fluidly isolated from the first air-intake passage. A fuel-supply device may be configured to supply fuel into the first exhaust passage, and a catalyst may be disposed downstream of the fuel-supply device to convert at least a portion of the exhaust stream in the first exhaust passage into ammonia.

  2. MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, Michael

    2013-01-01

    MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications reviews the use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in developing solutions to the unique challenges presented by the automotive and aerospace industries.Part one explores MEMS for a variety of automotive applications. The role of MEMS in passenger safety and comfort, sensors for automotive vehicle stability control applications and automotive tire pressure monitoring systems are considered, along with pressure and flow sensors for engine management, and RF MEMS for automotive radar sensors. Part two then goes on to explore MEMS for

  3. Modeling and Experimental Validation of a Volumetric Expander Suitable for Waste Heat Recovery from an Automotive Internal Combustion Engine Using an Organic Rankine Cycle with Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Galindo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste heat recovery (WHR in exhaust gas flow of automotive engines has proved to be a useful path to increase the overall efficiency of internal combustion engines (ICE. Recovery potentials of up to 7% are shown in several works in the literature. However, most of them are theoretical estimations. Some present results from prototypes fed by steady flows generated in an auxiliary gas tank and not with actual engine exhaust gases. This paper deals with the modeling and experimental validation of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC with a swash-plate expander integrated in a 2 L turbocharged petrol engine using ethanol as working fluid. A global simulation model of the ORC was developed with a maximum difference of 5%, validated with experimental results. Considering the swash-plate as the main limiting factor, an additional specific submodel was implemented to model the physical phenomena in this element. This model allows simulating the fluid dynamic behavior of the swash-plate expander using a 0D model (Amesim. Differences up to 10.5% between tests and model results were found.

  4. Effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of exhaust temperature on infrared signature (in 3–5 μm band) for a helicopter equipped with integrative infrared suppressor were numerically investigated. The internal flow of exhaust gas and the external downwash flow, as well as the mixing between exhaust gas and downwash were simulated by CFD software to determine the temperature distributions on the helicopter skin and in the exhaust plume. Based on the skin and plume temperature distributions, a forward–backward ray-tracing method was used to calculate the infrared radiation intensity from the helicopter with a narrow-band model. The results show that for a helicopter with its integrative infrared suppressor embedded inside its rear airframe, the exhaust temperature has significant influence on the plume radiation characteristics, while the helicopter skin radiation intensity has little impact. When the exhaust temperature is raised from 900 K to 1200 K, the plume radiation intensity in 3–5 μm band is increased by about 100%, while the skin radiation intensity is increased by only about 5%. In general, the effects of exhaust temperature on helicopter infrared radiation intensity are mainly concentrated on plume, especially obvious for a lower skin emissivity case. -- Highlights: ► The effect of exhaust temperature on infrared signature for a helicopter is numerically investigated. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin temperature is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on plume radiation characteristics is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter skin radiation is revealed. ► The impact of exhaust temperature on helicopter's total infrared radiation intensity is revealed

  5. Liquid/Gas Vortex Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, B. G.

    1986-01-01

    Liquid/gas separator vents gas from tank of liquid that contains gas randomly distributed in bubbles. Centrifugal force separates liquid and gas, forcing liquid out of vortex tube through venturi tube. Gas vented through exhaust port. When liquid detected in vent tube, exhaust port closed, and liquid/gas mixture in vent tube drawn back into tank through venturi.

  6. High temperature sensors for exhaust diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenningstorp, Henrik

    2000-07-01

    One of the largest problems that we will have to deal with on this planet this millennium is to stop the pollution of our environment. In many of the ongoing works to reduce toxic emissions, gas sensors capable of enduring rough environments and high temperatures, would be a great tool. The different applications where sensors like this would be useful vary between everything from online measurement in the paper industry and food industry to measurement in the exhaust pipe of a car. In my project we have tested Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensor as gas sensors operating at high temperatures. The measurement condition in the exhaust pipe of a car is extremely tough, not only is the temperature high and the different gases quite harmful, there are also a lot of particles that can affect the sensors in an undesirable way. In my project we have been testing Schottky diodes and MlSiCFET sensors based on SiC as high temperature sensors, both in the laboratory with simulated exhaust and after a real engine. In this thesis we conclude that these sensors can work in the hostile environment of an engines exhaust. It is shown that when measuring in a gas mixture with a fixed I below one, where the I-value is controlled by the O{sub 2} concentration, a sensor with a catalytic gate metal as sensitive material respond more to the increased O{sub 2} concentration than the increased HC concentration when varying the two correspondingly. A number of different sensors have been tested in simulated exhaust towards NO{sub x}. It was shown that resistivity changes in the thin gate metal influenced the gas response. Tests have been performed where sensors were a part of a SCR system with promising results concerning NH{sub 3} sensitivity. With a working temperature of 300 deg C there is no contamination of the metal surface.

  7. High Temperature Resistant Exhaust Valve Spindle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bihlet, Uffe Ditlev

    of the engine, new high temperature alloys are required for a specific engine component, the exhaust valve spindle. Two alloys are used for an exhaust valve spindle; one for the bottom of the spindle, and one for the spindle seat. Being placed in the exhaust gas stream, combustion products such as V2O5 and Na2...... of the current valve seat alloy, Alloy 718 (Ni-based, 19 wt% Cr, 18 wt% Fe, 5.1 wt% Nb, 3 wt% Mo, 1 wt% Ti and 0.6 wt% Al), and thereby to obtain a more hot corrosion resistant alloy. To validate these calculations, 16 Ni-based alloys, containing 40 wt% Cr and Nb, Ta and Ti in varying levels, were produced...

  8. 蓄热式热氧化炉处理医化废气%Medical and Chemical Exhaust Gas Treated by Heat Oxidation Oven with Heat-storage Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕富华; 顾震宇; 项敏; 陈哲铭; 陆建海

    2015-01-01

    采用蓄热式热氧化炉(RTO)处理医化行业排放的挥发性有机废气,通过组合喷淋系统和优化设计参数,使一般特征污染因子的平均净化效率达到95%以上,浓度远低于《大气污染物综合排放标准》(GB16297-1996)中的二级标准,热回收效率达95%以上;含氯元素废气处理后的尾气中,二英浓度小于0.019TEQng/m3,表明RTO适用于医化行业挥发性有机废气的处理。%By adopting heat oxidation oven (RTO) with heat-storage type to treat volatile organic waste gas emitted from medical and chemical industries. Based on the combination of spraying system and optimized design parameter, the average purifying efifciency of ordinary polution gene reaches at over 95%, the concentration is under the secondary standard of (GB16297-1996) and the heat reclaimed efifciency reaches at over 95%, and the dioxin concentration is lower than 0.019TEQng/m3 in exhaust gas after treatment of chlorine waste gas. The result shows that RTO is the same with the treatment of volatile organic waste gas of medical and chemical industries.

  9. Medical and Chemical Exhaust Gas Treated by Heat Oxidation Oven with Heat-storage Type%蓄热式热氧化炉处理医化废气

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕富华; 顾震宇; 项敏; 陈哲铭; 陆建海

    2015-01-01

    By adopting heat oxidation oven (RTO) with heat-storage type to treat volatile organic waste gas emitted from medical and chemical industries. Based on the combination of spraying system and optimized design parameter, the average purifying efifciency of ordinary polution gene reaches at over 95%, the concentration is under the secondary standard of (GB16297-1996) and the heat reclaimed efifciency reaches at over 95%, and the dioxin concentration is lower than 0.019TEQng/m3 in exhaust gas after treatment of chlorine waste gas. The result shows that RTO is the same with the treatment of volatile organic waste gas of medical and chemical industries.%采用蓄热式热氧化炉(RTO)处理医化行业排放的挥发性有机废气,通过组合喷淋系统和优化设计参数,使一般特征污染因子的平均净化效率达到95%以上,浓度远低于《大气污染物综合排放标准》(GB16297-1996)中的二级标准,热回收效率达95%以上;含氯元素废气处理后的尾气中,二英浓度小于0.019TEQng/m3,表明RTO适用于医化行业挥发性有机废气的处理。

  10. Twenty-five years after introduction of automotive catalysts. What next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelef, M.; McCabe, R.W. [Chemical and Physical Sciences Laboratory, Ford Research Laboratory, Ford Motor Company, MD-3179, SRL, PO Box 2053, 48121 Dearborn, MI (United States)

    2000-09-25

    The union of catalysts and the automobile has been one of the greatest successes of heterogeneous catalysis over the last 25 years. Here, the history of automotive catalysis is briefly reviewed, followed by an assessment of where automotive catalysis stands today and where it is headed in the future. A key distinction between past automotive catalysis experience and that projected for the future is an increased focus on catalysts in upstream of power plant applications, such as on-board fuel processing units for fuel cell vehicles. Driven by ever tighter regulations, there will be continued research and development activity focused also on downstream applications (i.e. exhaust emission aftertreatment), especially for fuel-efficient, lean-burn vehicles, both diesel and spark-ignited.

  11. Modelling gas-phase and heterogeneous conversions of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust plume of an aircraft ; A parameterization for global models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer EW; Beck JP; Velders GJM; LLO

    1996-01-01

    The gas-phase and heterogeneous chemical conversion of nitrogen compounds occurring in the plume of an aircraft in the first two days after emission were investigated with a newly developed aircraft plume model. A parameterization was developed for global chemical transport models to account for th

  12. The Freestyle RTO Incinerator for both Exhaust Gas and Phenolic Wastewater Treatment%可以同时处理废气与有机废液的自由式RTO焚烧炉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾光龙

    2014-01-01

    For current RTO incinerator, most of them are only applied for exhaust gas, or trash-burning separately, but no such RTO incinerator that can be applied for all exhaust gas, phenolic wastewater and organic solid trash simultaneously till now. The treatment of phenolic wastewater has been a long-standing problem of phenolic resin industrial, through the heat made by exhaust gas burning to burn phenolic wastewater and solid trash, the RTO incinerator will be multipurpose and more energy-saving . Since freestyle RTO incinerator honeycomb ceramic is placed horizontally, incinerator furnace temperatures up to 850-950℃, wastewater into the incinerator will not come into contact with honeycomb ceramic, so it is not only suitable for gas processing, but will be also suitable for phenolic wastewater (including industrial waste water) and organic solid trash treatment, a complete decomposition of oxidation of organics, the fuel consumption is very low. Consider the advantages of simple structure, energy-saving, low cost and maintenance, and wider applications, the freestyle RTO incinerator will be very valuable for promotion.%当前的焚烧炉,多数是专用于焚烧有机废气,或专用于焚烧垃圾,未见过可以同时进行有机废气、废液、有机固体废弃物处理的RTO焚烧炉。含酚废水处理一直是酚醛树脂工业的老大难问题,利用燃烧有机废气产生热量,烧掉这些有机废液与有机固体废弃物,可以达到一炉多用又更加节能目的。由于自由式RTO焚烧炉的蜂窝陶瓷是水平摆放,焚烧炉炉膛的温度高达850-950℃,废水进入焚烧炉不会接触到蜂窝陶瓷,因此它不仅适用于废气处理,而且也适用于含酚废水(包含工业废液),以及有机固体废弃物的处理,有机物氧化分解彻底,燃料消耗非常低。由于自由式RTO的结构简单,节能,造价低,维护费用低,用途更加广泛,因此非常有推广价值。

  13. Research progress of ship exhaust gas cleaning desulfurization denitration and PM removal equipment%船舶废气洗涤脱硫脱硝和脱PM细颗粒设备研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄博伦; 杨国华

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the research progresses of ship exhaust gas cleaning desulfurization equipment. Advantages and disadvantages of seawater treatment,alkali liquor and modified method of seawater were introduced. The hybrid system combining seawater with alkali liquor is more efficient economically and has a wide applicability range. Products from major manufacturers were discussed, focusing on the parameters and structures of the scrubbers. Effluent standards and its treatment were also introduced. The analysis of the research status of simultaneous removal of various pollutions from ship exhaust indicated that design efficiency,cost effective NOx oxidation device,and improvement of the ultrafine particle capture ability of wet process,are important factors. Simultaneous removal of SOx,NOx and PM by wet process could be the research direction of ship exhaust cleaning equipment in the future.%综述了船舶废气洗涤脱硫设备的研究现状,通过阐述海水法、碱液法、改性海水法的优缺点,指出海水法联合碱液法的混合系统最具经济性和广泛适用性。列举了国际上几大主要厂商设计的洗涤塔,对比研究了各洗涤塔的参数及其结构特点,最后介绍了洗涤残液的排放标准及其处理方式。通过分析船舶废气中多种污染物联合脱除的研究现状,提出设计出高效、廉价的 NOx氧化装置以及提高湿法对于超细颗粒物的捕集能力将是研究的重点和难点,采用湿法联合脱除SOx、NOx和PM是今后船舶废气洗涤净化设备重要的研究方向。

  14. Hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristiniemi, Heli; Perski, Aleksander; Lyskov, Eugene; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-12-01

    Chronic stress is among the most common diagnoses in Sweden, most commonly in the form of exhaustion syndrome (ICD-10 classification - F43.8). The majority of patients with this syndrome also have disturbed breathing (hyperventilation). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperventilation and exhaustion syndrome. Thirty patients with exhaustion syndrome and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated with the Nijmegen Symptom Questionnaire (NQ). The participants completed questionnaires about exhaustion, mental state, sleep disturbance, pain and quality of life. The evaluation was repeated 4 weeks later, after half of the patients and healthy subjects had engaged in a therapy method called 'Grounding', a physical exercise inspired by African dance. The patients reported significantly higher levels of hyperventilation as compared to the healthy subjects. All patients' average score on NQ was 26.57 ± 10.98, while that of the healthy subjects was 15.14 ± 7.89 (t = -3.48, df = 42, p < 0.001). The NQ scores correlated strongly with two measures of exhaustion (Karolinska Exhaustion Scale KES r = 0.772, p < 0.01; Shirom Melamed Burnout Measure SMBM r = 0.565, p < 0.01), mental status [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) depression r = 0.414, p < 0.01; HADS anxiety r = 0.627, p < 0.01], sleep disturbances (r = -0.514, p < 0.01), pain (r = -.370, p < 0.05) and poor well-being (Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 questionnaire- SR Health r = -0.529, p < 0.05). In the logistic regression analysis, the variance in the scores from NQ were explained to a high degree (R(2) = 0.752) by scores in KES and HADS. The brief Grounding training contributed to a near significant reduction in hyperventilation (F = 2.521, p < 0.124) and to significant reductions in exhaustion scores and scores of depression and anxiety. The conclusion is that hyperventilation is common in exhaustion syndrome patients and that it can be reduced by systematic physical therapy

  15. Improvement of emissions and performance by using of air jet, exhaust gas re-circulation and insulation methods in a direct injection diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarmadara S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the improvement of operation characteristics and emissions reduction by means of creating an air-cell inside the piston body, exhaust gases recirculating and insulating combustion chamber in a direct injection diesel engine simultaneously. The engine considered is a caterpillar 3401 which was modeled with an air-cell included as part of the piston geometry. This air-cell demonstrates that air injection in late combustion period can be effective in a significant reduction of Soot emission while cold EGR can be effective in reduction of NOx emission. Also for increasing of performance parameters, combustion chamber with air-cell is insulated. The analyses are carried out at part (75% of full load and full load conditions at the same engine speed 1600 rpm. The obtained results indicate that creating the air-cell has a slight effect on improvement of performance parameters and it has significantly effect on Soot reduction. The air-cell decreases the Soot pollutant as a factor of two at both part and full load conditions. Also, the adding 5% of cold EGR in inlet air decreases NOx by about half and insulating the engine increases the power and IMEP by about 7.7% and 8.5% and decreases the ISFC by about 7.5% at part load and increases power and IMEP by 8.5%, 8.5% and decreases ISFC by 8% at full load condition, respectively. Using this method, it was possible to control emissions formation and increase performance parameters simultaneously. The predicted results for mean in-cylinder pressure and emissions are compared to the corresponding experimental results and show good agreements.

  16. Method of controlling temperature of a thermoelectric generator in an exhaust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Gregory P; Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-05-21

    A method of controlling the temperature of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an exhaust system of an engine is provided. The method includes determining the temperature of the heated side of the TEG, determining exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG, and determining the exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. A rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG is predicted based on the determined temperature, the determined exhaust gas flow rate, and the determined exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. Using the predicted rate of change of temperature of the heated side, exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG is calculated that will result in a maximum temperature of the heated side of the TEG less than a predetermined critical temperature given the predicted rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG. A corresponding apparatus is provided.

  17. Heat treatment of cold formed steel forgings for the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    B. Kosec; M. Brezigar; G. Kosec; J. Bernetic; M. Bizjak

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: In the Slovenian company ISKRA Avtoelektrika they manufacture, with the processes of cold forming, a great number of a different steel forgings for the Slovenian and European automotive industry. During their exploitation they are exposed to the high mechanical and temperature loads.Design/methodology/approach: A gas furnaces and devices play important role in the heat treatments of various metal parts for the automotive industry. Their thermotechnical characteristics have a great in...

  18. Reducing the Environmental Footprint and Economic Costs of Automotive Manufacturing through an Alternative Energy Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Chris; Dornfeld, David

    2009-01-01

    The automotive industry consumes a significant amount of energy in the manufacturing stage and generates substantial greenhouse gas emissions and a variety of air pollutants. With more than two thirds of these emissions generated from purchased electricity, an effective way to reduce the environmental footprint of automotive manufacturing is to use alternative energies to partially supply the power needs for the current manufacturing processes. This paper assesses three alternative energy tec...

  19. Supplier Selection in the Thai Automotive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nopprach, Somsupa

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses agglomeration theory to analyze the impact of Thai government policies on the development of the Thai automotive industry and cluster formation in Central and Eastern Thailand. Using cross-section data on 162 auto-parts suppliers from the Thailand Automotive Directory 2003-2004, the paper examines the criteria of supplier selection in the Thai automotive industry. Using logit models and cross-section data on 162 auto-parts suppliers from the Thailand Automotive Directory 2003-...

  20. Ultra trace analysis and mobility of palladium emissions from automotive catalytic converters

    OpenAIRE

    Schindl, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Palladium (Pd) is emitted as particles and nanoparticles in considerable amounts from automotive catalytic converters along with the exhaust fume. In the environment Pd nanoparticles may be coated by small organic molecules or dissolve to Pd(II) species. Transformation and mobility of Pd in nature is not well understood yet and have to be investigated due to possible environmental and health risks. In the first part of this thesis a method for the determination of Pd in urban samples, suc...

  1. Decision aid tool and design approach for plastic recycling chain integration in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    MAUDET-CHARBUILLET, Carole; Bertoluci, Gwenola

    2007-01-01

    The many uses of plastics in our society are now compromised because of the social and environmental impacts they generate: exhaustion of petroleum resources, waste management... Plastics recycling appears to be one of the best ways to solve these problems. But Plastics Recycling Chains (PRC) are still emerging system. The automotive industry is directly concerned by plastic recycling through the End of Life Vehicles (ELV) directive which compels it to respect recycling rate for their product...

  2. The effect of metal salts on quantification of elemental and organic carbon in diesel exhaust particles using thermal-optical evolved gas analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.; Chung, A.; S. E. Paulson

    2010-01-01

    Thermal-optical evolved gas analysis (TOEGA) is a conventional method for classifying carbonaceous aerosols as organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC). Its main source of uncertainty arises from accounting for pyrolized OC (char), which has similar behavior to the EC originally present on the filter. Sample composition can also cause error, at least partly by complicating the charred carbon correction. In this study, lab generated metal salt particles, including alkali...

  3. Action Handbook for Automotive Service Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association of the U.S., Inc., Detroit, MI.

    The document is a handbook for a vocational automotive service education program which was formulated as a result of a four-day series of intensive workshops called the National Automotive Service Vocational Education Conference. The handbook discusses the major components of an automotive service vocational education program and aspects of their…

  4. Aerodynamic Control of Exhaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    In the autumn of 1985 the Unive!Sity of Aalborg was approached by the manufacturer C. P. Aaberg, who had obtained aerodynilmic control of the exhaust by means of injection. The remaining investigations comprising optimizations of the system with regard to effect, consumption, requirements for...

  5. In vitro assessment of human airway toxicity from major aldehydes in automotive emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafstroem, R.C. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1997-09-01

    Automotive exhausts can significantly contribute to the levels of reactive aldehydes, including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein, in urban air. The use of alcohols as an alternative fuel for gasoline or diesel may further increase these emissions. Since it is unclear if aldehyde inhalation may induce pathological states, including cancer, in human airways, the toxic properties of the above-mentioned aldehydes were studied in cultured target cell types. Each aldehyde modified vital cellular functions in a dose-dependent manner, and invariably inhibited growth and induced abnormal terminal differentiation. Decreases of cellular thiols and increases of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} were observed, and moreover, variable types and amounts of short-lived or persistent genetic damage were induced. The concentrations required for specified levels of a particular type of injury varied up to 10000-fold among the aldehydes. Overall, distinctive patterns of cytopathological activity were observed, which differed both qualitatively and quantitatively among the aldehydes. Finally, aldehydes inhibited DNA repair processes and increased cytotoxicity and mutagenesis in synergy with other known toxicants, indicating that aldehydes may also enhance damage by other constituents in automotive exhausts. In summary, the aldehydes, notably {sup m}u{sup M}-mM formaldehyde, caused pathological effects and induced mechanisms that relate to acute toxicity and cancer development in airway epithelial cells. Since `no-effect` levels may not exist for carcinogenic agents, the overall results support a need for elimination of aldehydes in automotive exhausts. 41 refs

  6. Experiments and simulations on heat exchangers in thermoelectric generator for automotive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, an energy-harvesting system which extracts heat from an automotive exhaust pipe and turns the heat into electricity by using thermoelectric power generators (TEGs) was built. Experiments show that the temperature difference in automotive system is not constant, especially the heat exchanger, which cannot provide the thermoelectric modules (TMs) large amount of heat. The thermal performance of different heat exchangers in exhaust-based TEGs is studied in this work, and the thermal characteristics of heat exchangers with different internal structures and thickness are discussed, to obtain higher interface temperature and thermal uniformity. Following computational fluid dynamics simulations, infrared experiments and output power testing system are carried out on a high-performance production engine with a dynamometer. Results show that a plate-shaped heat exchanger with chaos-shaped internal structure and thickness of 5 mm achieves a relatively ideal thermal performance, which is practically useful to enhance the thermal performance of the TEG, and larger total output power can be thus obtained. - Graphical abstract: The thermal and electrical characteristics of different heat exchangers of automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator are discussed, to obtain higher interface temperature and thermal uniformity. - Highlights: • Different internal structures and thickness of heat exchangers were proposed. • Power output testing system of the two heat exchangers was characterized. • Chaos-shaped heat exchanger (5 mm thickness) shows better performance

  7. [Remote passive sensing of aeroengine exhausts using FTIR system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qing; Zuo, Hong-Fu; Li, Shao-Cheng; Wen, Zhen-Hua; Li, Yao-Hua

    2009-03-01

    The traditional method of measuring the aeroengine exhausts is intrusive gas sampling analysis techniques. The disadvantages of the techniques include complex system, difficult operation, high costs and potential danger because of back-pressure effects. The non-intrusive methods have the potential to overcome these problems. So the remote FTIR passive sensing is applied to monitor aeroengine exhausts and determine the concentration of the exhausts gases of aeroengines. The principle of FTIR remote passive sensing is discussed. The model algorithm for the calibration of FTIR system, the radiance power distribution and gas concentration are introduced. TENSOR27 FTIR-system was used to measure the spectra of infrared radiation emitted by the hot gases of exhausts in a test rig. The emission spectra of exhausts were obtained under different thrusts. By analyzing the spectra, the concentrations of CO2, CO and NO concentration were calculated under 4 thrusts. Researches on the determination of concentration of the exhausts gases of aeroengines by using the remote FTIR sensing are still in early stage in the domestic aeronautics field. The results of the spectra and concentration in the aeroengine test are published for the first time. It is shown that the remote FTIR passive sensing techniques have a great future in monitoring the hot gas of the aeroengines exhausts.

  8. THE ESTIMATION OF THE AUTOMOTIVE FUEL DEMAND IN IRAN: ALMOST IDEAL DEMAND SYSTEM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Ahmadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the demand for fuels in Iran automotive sector, using the Almost Ideal Demand System to estimate price and income elasticities for all the available fuels in the automotive sector: gasoline, automotive gas oil and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG. These estimates can be very useful in predicting the overall impacts of price policies designed to reduce fuel consumption and to address concerns of carbon emissions or energy security. Empirical results indicate all own-price elasticities are negative and significant at 5% level. The own-price elasticity for gas oil, gasoline and LPG were estimated by about -0.22, -1.01 and -3.58, respectively. The findings also show that gasoline and gas oil are normal goods and LPG being an inferior good.

  9. Modal Analysis of Exhaust System

    OpenAIRE

    Myrén, Marcus; Olsson, Jörgen

    1999-01-01

    A modal analysis is performed on an exhaust system for cars. Natural frequencies and mode shapes are correlated between experimental and finite element models. MAC-values are calculated. Theories and guidelines for modal analyses of exhaust systems are discussed.

  10. Determining organic pollutants in automotive industry sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Wonghon, Audrey L; von Mühlen, Carin

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the policy for disposing industrial sludge is changing from an emphasis on using controlled landfills to other treatment or co-processing methods; however, the monitoring of organic pollutants is not mandatory. The present study evaluated two general screening methods for organic pollutants in sludge generated in an automotive industrial complex in southern Brazil. The screening was performed using Soxhlet and sonication extractions and Gas Chromatograph coupled with Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/qMS). It was concluded that both techniques were effective and that most of the compounds identified were alkanes, phenols and esters. Important pollutants were detected in the sludge, which confirms the necessity of monitoring this type of residue. PMID:23007373

  11. Program Final Report - Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Meisner

    2011-08-31

    , and integration costs into the material selection criteria in order to balance various materials, module and subsystem design, and vehicle integration options. Our work on advanced TE materials development and on TEG system design, assembly, vehicle integration, and testing proceeded in parallel efforts. Results from our two preliminary prototype TEGs using only Bi-Te TE modules allowed us to solve various mechanical challenges and to finalize and fine tune aspects of the design and implementation. Our materials research effort led us to quickly abandon work on PbTe and focus on the skutterudite materials due to their superior mechanical performance and suitability at automotive exhaust gas operating temperatures. We synthesized a sufficiently large quantity of skutterudite material for module fabrication for our third and final prototype. Our TEG#3 is the first of its kind to contain state-of-the-art skutterudite-based TE modules to be installed and tested on a production vehicle. The design, which consisted of 24 skutterudite modules and 18 Bi-Te modules, attempted to optimize electrical power generation by using these two kinds of TE modules that have their peak performance temperatures matched to the actual temperature profile of the TEG during operation. The performance of TEG#3 was limited by the maximum temperature allowable for the Bi-Te TE modules located in the colder end of the TEG, resulting in the operating temperature for the skutterudite modules to be considerably below optimum. We measured the power output for (1) the complete TEG (25 Watts) and (2) an individual TE module series string (1/3 of the TEG) operated at a 60°C higher temperature (19 Watts). We estimate that under optimum operating temperature conditions, TEG#3 will generate about 235 Watts. With additional improvements in thermal and electrical interfaces, temperature homogeneity, and power conditioning, we estimate TEG#3 could deliver a power output of about 425 Watts.

  12. Automotive Electronics. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Howard C.; Heiserman, Russell L.

    This learning module addresses computers and their applications in contemporary automobiles. The text provides students with information on automotive microcomputers and hands-on activities that will help them see how semiconductors and digital logic devices fit into the modern repair facility. The module contains nine instructional units that…

  13. Automotive Technologies. State Competency Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    This document, which lists the technical automotive technologies competencies identified by representatives from business, industry, and labor as well as technical educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary…

  14. Human factors in automotive innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terken, J.; Ham, J.; Hoedemaeker, M.

    2011-01-01

    Many automotive innovations affect the driver's task and/or the driving experience. In this paper we argue that successful innovation in these cases requires that due attention is given to Human Factors issues in the course of the innovation process. We support this claim by examples from several re

  15. Innovative Technology in Automotive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John

    2007-01-01

    Automotive Technology combines hands-on training along with a fully integrated, interactive, computerized multistationed facility. Our program is a competency based, true open-entry/open-exit program that utilizes flexible self-paced course outlines. It is designed around an industry partnership that promotes community and economic development,…

  16. Natural gas passenger vehicles: challenges and way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas vehicles have been used in the world for many years: at present, there are about 3 million vehicles running on natural gas and many governments and vehicle manufactures are involved in programs for further developing the market for natural gas vehicles. In comparison to other forms of energy for vehicles, natural gas (NG) engenders low pressures on the environment. At the same time, because of its technical characteristics, NG is very suitable for motor use. The economic advantage of converting a vehicles (NGVs) would be expected to attract the interest of a great number of people, and achieve rapid and widespread diffusion. On the contrary, traditional fuels still dominate the scene, and show no sign of going out of fashion. The use of natural gas as automotive fuel has become of national and worldwide interests particularly so with the recent increase in petrol price, depleting petrol reserves and stringent control of exhaust emission levels. For automotive applications, shifting from petrol to gas needs technological research and development. Within the framework of the reciprocating piston based engine this development is very challenging with technological issues of low range, refueling infrastructure, heavy fuel storage, safety, emissions control and gas operating pressures. Other issues include available expertise and experience in research management. This paper describes the advances being made with passenger vehicles natural gas engines worldwide and in Malaysia more specific. The significant milestones in the development of NGV in Malaysia and the rationale behind the choice of NGV industry including the NGV vehicle population growth, the development of service station as well as the expansion of the sales volume will be illustrated. The presentation presents also development stages and advances in development, fabrication and testing a Compressed Natural Gas Direct Injection vehicle and NGV refueling station. This presentation discuses the

  17. Understanding Exhaustive Pattern Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Libin

    2011-01-01

    Pattern learning in an important problem in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Some exhaustive pattern learning (EPL) methods (Bod, 1992) were proved to be flawed (Johnson, 2002), while similar algorithms (Och and Ney, 2004) showed great advantages on other tasks, such as machine translation. In this article, we first formalize EPL, and then show that the probability given by an EPL model is constant-factor approximation of the probability given by an ensemble method that integrates exponenti...

  18. 汽车发动机尾气余热温差发电装置结构研究%A Study on the Structure of Thermoelectric Power Generation Device for Vehicle Exhaust Gas Waste Heat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂小亮; 倪计民; 石秀勇

    2014-01-01

    Thermoelectric power generation technology has huge potentiality in the field of low-grade waste heat recovery technology,while vehicle exhaust gas takes away 40%of total engine heat,and ther-moelectric power generation technology converts waste energy directly into electrical energy recycling. This article introduces design principle of a thermoelectric power generation unit,as well as the impact of struc-tural parameters on the performance of the device output performance. Besides,we analyze heat transfer and output performance of the power generation unit through experiment and propose appropriate improve-ment scheme.%半导体温差发电技术在低品位余热回收技术领域具有重要的应用价值。汽车尾气温度高,带走的热量约占发动机总量的40%,温差发电技术能直接将废热能量转化为电能回收利用。介绍温差发电装置的设计原理,结构参数对性能影响以及装置输出性能参数,并结合试验对温差发电装置的传热性能和电功率输出性能进行分析以及提出有效的改进方案。

  19. The Ammonia of Ambient Atmosphere and Exhaust Gas was Determined by Flow Injection Spectrophotometer%流动注射-光度法测定环境空气和工业废气中氨含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤凰; 曾议; 杨书昌; 洪涛; 沈方祥

    2012-01-01

    Facing to gradually in creasing the workload of analysis, the ammonia of ambient atmosphere and exhaust gas was determined by flow injection spectrophotometer in order to shorten the time of analysis, improve efficiency. The method is interference small, sensitive, good correlation in comparison with the national standard methods, and is worthy to promoting and applying.%针对分析工作量的逐渐增大,为缩短分析时间,提高工作效率,采用流动注射-光度法分析环境空气和工业废气中氨的含量.该方法主要特点是可以不经过前处理,干扰小、准确度高、精密度高,与国标方法比较,相关性较好,各项指标达到分析要求,是一种值得推广运用的分析方法.

  20. COOMET.QM-S5 (COOMET project No 576/RU/12) 'Supplementary comparison of national standards in the field of analysis of gas mixtures containing CO2, CO, C3H8 in nitrogen ("automotive" gas mixtures)'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopelko, L. A.; Kolobova, A. V.; Rozhnov, M. S.; Melnyk, D. M.; Petryshyn, P. V.; Shpilnyi, S. A.; Iakubov, S. E.; Bakovec, N. V.; Kluchits, A. S.; Kipphardt, H.; Aleksandrov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the COOMET.QM-S5 comparison is founded on tightening of requirements to a control of automobile emissions (realization of environmental standards of EURO 4, EURO-5). Participating laboratories: VNIIM, BAM, BelGIM, Ukrmetrteststandart, KazInMetr. This comparison was carried out in 2013-2014. This supplementary comparison supports CMC claims for: CO2 in the range (4-16) . 10-2 mol/mol; CO in the range (0.5-5) . 10-2 mol/mol; C3H8 in the range (0.01-0.3) . 10-2 mol/mol. Results: Component CO: All laboratories identified the values of carbon monoxide mole fraction in the gas mixture within +/-0.9134%. Component CO2: All laboratories identified the values of carbon dioxide mole fraction in the gas mixture within +/-0.3042%. Component C3H8: All laboratories identified the values of propane mole fraction in the gas mixture within +/-0.443%. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  1. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification...

  2. Quantitative fingerprinting by headspace--two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of solid matrices: some challenging aspects of the exhaustive assessment of food volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolotti, Luca; Cordero, Chiara; Cagliero, Cecilia; Liberto, Erica; Sgorbini, Barbara; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Bicchi, Carlo

    2013-10-10

    The study proposes an investigation strategy that simultaneously provides detailed profiling and quantitative fingerprinting of food volatiles, through a "comprehensive" analytical platform that includes sample preparation by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME), separation by two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection (GC×GC-MS) and data processing using advanced fingerprinting approaches. Experiments were carried out on roasted hazelnuts and on Gianduja pastes (sugar, vegetable oil, hazelnuts, cocoa, nonfat dried milk, vanilla flavorings) and demonstrated that the information potential of each analysis can better be exploited if suitable quantitation methods are applied. Quantitation approaches through Multiple Headspace Extraction and Standard Addition were compared in terms of performance parameters (linearity, precision, accuracy, Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantitation) under headspace linearity conditions. The results on 19 key analytes, potent odorants, and technological markers, and more than 300 fingerprint components, were used for further processing to obtain information concerning the effect of the matrix on volatile release, and to produce an informative chemical blueprint for use in sensomics and flavoromics. The importance of quantitation approaches in headspace analysis of solid matrices of complex composition, and the advantages of MHE, are also critically discussed. PMID:24070492

  3. The role of transport sector within the German energy system under greenhouse gas reduction constraints and effects on other exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walbeck, M.; Martinsen, D. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The German Federal Government pledged itself to make a 25% reduction in national CO{sub 2} emissions by 2005 on the basis of 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions. This reduction target is valid for the entire Federal Republic. Within that context the Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology initiated the IKARUS project (Instruments for Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies) in 1990. The aim of the project is to provide tools for developing strategies to reduce energy-related emissions of greenhouse gases in Germany. A range of instruments has been developed consisting of models, a data base and various tools with the aid of which different action sequences can be simulated and evaluated until the year 2020. By using the database and mainly one of the models of the project a scenario in terms of energy and carbon dioxide emissions will be sown as it could be expected for the year 2005. For this scenario as base two different strategies that hit the 25% reduction target will be discussed. Special attention is given to the transport sector. (au)

  4. Considerations over the effects caused by a heat recovery system for exhaust gases, adapted to gas turbines originally designed for the operation in a simple cycle; Consideraciones sobre los efectos causados por un sistema de recuperacion de calor de gases de escape, adaptado a turbinas de gas disenadas originalmente para operar bajo un ciclo simple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuesta Escobar, Cesar A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    This article sets out the considerations on what a heat recovery system from exhaust gases, to already installed and in operation gas turbines, and that were not originally designed to operate with this system, can cause. The potential effects are set forth on the control systems, on the combustion chambers, and in the gas turbine blades, utilized for natural gas pumping or power generation in land installations or in offshore platforms in trying to adapt to them a regenerative cycle or a heating system. Observed effects, fundamentally in the flame stability loop, flow velocity, thermal intensity coefficient, air/fuel relationships and mass flow. Also are presented the consequences that primary production system would suffer, mainly due to the natural gas pumping reduction, the space availability, the fuel consumption, and the maximum amount of heat susceptible to be recovered, comparing the requirements of this in the system. [Espanol] En este articulo se plantean las consideraciones sobre lo que puede provocar un sistema de recuperacion de calor de gases de escape adaptado a turbinas de gas ya instaladas, operando y que no fueron disenadas originalmente para operar con este sistema. Se plantean los probables efectos en los sistemas de control, en las camaras de combustion y en los empaletados de las turbinas de gas usadas para bombeo de gas natural o generacion electrica en instalaciones de tierra o plataformas marinas, al tratar de adaptarseles un ciclo regenerativo o un sistema para calentamiento. Efectos observados, fundamentalmente, en el LOOP de estabilidad de flama, velocidad del flujo, coeficiente de intensidad termica, relaciones aire-combustible y flujo masico. Tambien se presentan las consecuencias que sufriria el sistema primario de produccion debido, principalmente, a la reduccion del bombeo de gas natural, a la disponibilidad de espacio, al consumo de combustible y a la cantidad maxima de calor susceptible de recuperarse, comparada con los

  5. Planned operation of tritium recovery system based on investigation of LHD exhaust system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the conditions of exhaust gas treatment at the transition point between the Large Helical Device (LHD) vacuum pumping system and the exhaust gas tritium recovery system, the gas flow rate and hydrogen concentration were measured. Simultaneous measurement of the exhaust gas flow rate and hydrogen concentration was made possible by applying two types of hydrogen monitors: a thermal conductivity sensor and a combustible gas sensor. The obtained results have led to remodeling of the LHD vacuum pumping system and an optimised plan of operation for the tritium recovery system. (author)

  6. Automotive fuels survey. Part 4. Innovations or illusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volumes 1 to 3 of the IEA/AFIS Automotive Fuels Survey, address the most well-known automotive fuels and fuel production routes. Less well-known fuels and energy sources that are not used in combustion engines, e.g. electricity, were excluded from these volumes. In this report fuel routes and fuels that have not been addressed in the first volumes will be analysed. In this report, each chapter starts with a short description of the fuel(route) and its status of development (e.g. if the idea has been abandoned or if the fuel is already sold at a fuel station). Then the different aspects of that fuel are described as far as the information is available. This is limited to information that can not be found in volumes one and two of the Automotive Fuels Survey. For example: for the diesel-water mixtures, the production of diesel is not be described. If comparisons are made, they are made either relative to an already described fuel(route) that is related (e.g. biogas will be compared with natural gas) or relative to diesel and gasoline as was done in volume 1 and 2 of the Automotive Fuels Survey. For some of the fuels, the relation with a fuel already covered in volume one and two is very strong. For these fuels more information can be found in the chapters on the related fuel in the other volumes of the Automotive Fuels Survey. The following fuels are covered in this report: biodiesel from used oil and fat, biodiesel and biogasoline from algae, diesel from hydrothermal upgrading, biogas, hythane, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, diesel-water blends, higher ethers, and electricity. 74 refs

  7. Automotive fuels survey. Part 4. Innovations or illusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troelstra, W.P.; Van Walwijk, M.; Bueckmann, M. [International Energy Agency Automotive Fuels Information Service IEA/AFIS, c/o Innas, Breda (Netherlands)

    1999-01-01

    Volumes 1 to 3 of the IEA/AFIS Automotive Fuels Survey, address the most well-known automotive fuels and fuel production routes. Less well-known fuels and energy sources that are not used in combustion engines, e.g. electricity, were excluded from these volumes. In this report fuel routes and fuels that have not been addressed in the first volumes will be analysed. In this report, each chapter starts with a short description of the fuel(route) and its status of development (e.g. if the idea has been abandoned or if the fuel is already sold at a fuel station). Then the different aspects of that fuel are described as far as the information is available. This is limited to information that can not be found in volumes one and two of the Automotive Fuels Survey. For example: for the diesel-water mixtures, the production of diesel is not be described. If comparisons are made, they are made either relative to an already described fuel(route) that is related (e.g. biogas will be compared with natural gas) or relative to diesel and gasoline as was done in volume 1 and 2 of the Automotive Fuels Survey. For some of the fuels, the relation with a fuel already covered in volume one and two is very strong. For these fuels more information can be found in the chapters on the related fuel in the other volumes of the Automotive Fuels Survey. The following fuels are covered in this report: biodiesel from used oil and fat, biodiesel and biogasoline from algae, diesel from hydrothermal upgrading, biogas, hythane, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, diesel-water blends, higher ethers, and electricity. 74 refs.

  8. The effect of metal salts on quantification of elemental and organic carbon in diesel exhaust particles using thermal-optical evolved gas analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal-optical evolved gas analysis (TOEGA is a conventional method for classifying carbonaceous aerosols as organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC. Its main source of uncertainty arises from accounting for pyrolyzed OC (char, which has similar behavior to the EC originally present on the filter. Sample composition can also cause error, at least partly by complicating the charred carbon correction. In this study, lab generated metal salt particles, including alkali (NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, alkaline-earth (MgCl2, CaCl2 and transition metal salts (CuCl2, FeCl2, FeCl3, CuCl, ZnCl2, MnCl2, CuSO4, Fe2(SO43, were deposited on a layer of diesel particles to investigate their effect on EC and OC quantification with TOEGA. Measurements show that metals reduce the oxidation temperature of EC and enhance the charring of OC. The split point used to determine classification of EC vs. OC is more dependent on changes in EC oxidation temperature than it was on charring. The resulting EC/OC ratio is reduced by 0–80% in the presence of most of the salts, although some metal salts increased reported EC/OC at low metal to carbon ratios. In general, transition metals are more active than alkali and alkaline-earth metals; copper is the most active. Copper and iron chlorides are more active than sulfates. The melting point of metal salts is strongly correlated with the increase of OC charring, but not with the reduction of EC oxidation temperature. Other chemistry, such as redox reactions, may affect the EC oxidation. A brief discussion of possible catalytic mechanisms for the metals is provided.

  9. Electron beam treatment of simulated marine diesel exhaust gases

    OpenAIRE

    Licki Janusz; Pawelec Andrzej; Zimek Zbigniew; Witman-Zając Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    The exhaust gases from marine diesel engines contain high SO2 and NOx concentration. The applicability of the electron beam flue gas treatment technology for purification of marine diesel exhaust gases containing high SO2 and NOx concentration gases was the main goal of this paper. The study was performed in the laboratory plant with NOx concentration up to 1700 ppmv and SO2 concentration up to 1000 ppmv. Such high NOx and SO2 concentrations were observed in the exhaust gases from marine high...

  10. Experimental study on the aeroacoustic characterization of exhaust mufflers in the presence of mean flow

    OpenAIRE

    Vanelderen, Bart; De Roeck, Wim; Vandeun, Dieter; Mattheys, Yannick; Sas, Paul; Desmet, Wim

    2010-01-01

    For the aeroacoustic design of mufflers, commonly installed in HVAC ducts, automotive exhaust systems or other confined flow applications, both the convective noise propagation and the aerodynamic noise generation mechanisms should be taken into account. An experimental procedure, based on an active two-port formulation, allows a straightforward characterization of both phenomena and gives further insight in the aeroacoustic performance of acoustic filters. This paper describes the developmen...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE WITH UTILIZING EXHAUST GASES RECIRCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Kazakov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available From the various methods for reducing harmful exhaust emissions as combustion control, improved fuel injection form of the combustion chamber, recirculation of the combustion products, impact of smoke particles, the addition of water, synthetic fuel. Is established that the system for recirculation of exhaust gas is one of the most effective methods for obtaining of lower values of NOx, because the reduced temperature of the combustion process and excess oxygen.

  12. In2O3-based micro gas sensor for detecting NO x gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum-Joon; Song, In-Gyu; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2014-03-01

    In this study, NO x micro gas sensors for monitoring the indoor atmosphere of automobile were fabricated using MEMS (microelectromechanical system) technology and a sol-gel process. The sensing electrode and micro heater were designed to have a co-planar typed structure in a Pt thin film layer. The thermal characteristics of a micro heater array were analyzed using a finite element method (FEM). The chip size of the gas sensor was approximately 2 mm × 2 mm. Indium oxide as a sensing material for NO x gas was synthesized by a sol-gel process with indium isopropoxide as a precursor. Field emission Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction showed that particle size of the synthesized In2O3 was approximately 17-45 nm. The maximum gas sensitivity as the relative resistance ( R s = R gas / R air ) was observed at 275°C with a value of 8.0 at 1 ppm NO2 gas. The response (80% saturation) and recovery times were within 1 min. The sensing properties of NO2 gas exhibited linear behavior with increasing gas concentration. The sensing mechanism of the gas sensor was explained by the variations in the electron depletion layers and the adsorption of gas molecules on the In2O3 particle surface. These results suggest that in the future, MEMS-based gas sensors can be used as automotive-exhaust-gas sensors.

  13. Effect of brickyard exhaust gas pollution on photosynthetic characteristics of Hevea brasiliensis%砖厂废气污染对橡胶树光合生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周会平; 原慧芳; 龙云锋; 刘世红; 魏丽萍

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effects of the brickyard emission pollution on photosynthetic parameters of Hevea brasiliensis, the rubber trees of "Yunyan 77-2" varieties at different distances (200, 400 and 600 m respectively) from the exhaust gas pollution source were selected as the test material. The results showed that brickyard exhaust emissions have significant impacts on the leaf photosynthetic parameters of rubber trees at three different distances (P < 0.05). With the decrease of distance from pollution source, namely, with pollution aggravating, the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr), maximum photosynthetic rate (Pmax), light saturation point (LSP), dark respiration rate (Rd) and chlorophyll content (Chi) decreased; the maximum fluorescence (Fm), variable fluorescence (Fv) and maximum fluorescence ratio (Fv/Fm) also decreased; and the initial fluorescence (Fo) increased. Those results demonstrated that brickyard exhaust emission had obvious influences on the photosynthetic physiological characteristics of Hevea brasiliensis: within 600 m range, the closer the rubber trees to pollution source was, the lower of the leaf photosynthetic performance was.%选取砖厂废气排放方向种植的橡胶树(Hevea brasiliensis)品系“云研77-2”为研究对象,在距离砖厂200、400、600 m处设置3个研究点,研究分析砖厂排放废气污染对橡胶树光合参数的影响.结果表明:砖厂废气排放对3个不同距离处橡胶树叶片光合参数有显著影响(P< 0.05).随着橡胶树与砖厂距离的缩近,即污染加剧,橡胶树叶片净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、胞间CO2(Ci)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、最大光合速率(Pmax)、光饱和点(LSP)、暗呼吸速率(Rd)和叶绿素含量(Chl)均呈下降趋势;最大荧光(Fm)、可变荧光(Fv)和最大荧光比(Fv/Fm)也下降,初始荧光(Fo)升高.该研究结果证明,砖厂废气污染对橡胶树光合生理

  14. 支持向量机在船舶柴油机废气涡轮增压器故障诊断中的应用%Application of support vector machine in fault diagnosis for exhaust gas turbocharger of ship diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林新通; 詹玉龙; 周薛毅; 赵海洲

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the reliability of the exhaust gas turbocharger of ship diesel engine, and to ensure the personnel and ship equipment safety, an intelligent fault diagnosis is conducted for the exhaust gas turbocharger based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) correlation theory. According to the SVM intelligent fault diagnosis theory, the common faults of exhaust gas turbocharger are analyzed; and the application of SVM in fault diagnosis for the turbocharger of ship diesel engine is researched. The simulation experiments show that SVM has excellent fitting ability in the fault diagnosis for exhaust gas turbocharger; and the application of the SVM theory for the intelligent fault diagnosis for the turbocharger of ship diesel engine is feasible.%为提高船舶柴油机废气涡轮增压器的可靠性,确保人员及船舶设备的安全,基于支持向量机(Support Vector Machine,SVM)相关理论,对船舶柴油机废气涡轮增压器进行智能故障诊断.根据SVM智能故障诊断理论,分析废气涡轮增压器常见故障;研究SVM在船舶柴油机增压器故障诊断中的应用.仿真实验表明:SVM在柴油机废气涡轮增压器故障诊断中具有很出色的拟合能力;运用SVM理论对柴油机增压器故障进行智能诊断是可行的.

  15. US Department of Energy - Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Inter-Agency Agreement Research on "The Analysis of Genotoxic Activities of Exhaust Emissions from Mobile Natural Gas, Diesel, and Spark-Ignition Engines"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William E. Wallace

    2006-09-30

    The US Department of Energy-Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (now the DOE-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies) signed an Interagency Agreement (IAA) with National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), No.01-15 DOE, 9/4/01, for 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile natural gas, diesel, and spark-ignition engines'; subsequently modified on 3/27/02 (DOE IAG No.01-15-02M1); subsequently modified 9/02/03 (IAA Mod No. 01-15-03M1), as 'The analysis of genotoxic activities of exhaust emissions from mobile internal combustion engines: identification of engine design and operational parameters controlling exhaust genotoxicity'. The DOE Award/Contract number was DE-AI26-01CH11089. The IAA ended 9/30/06. This is the final summary technical report of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health research performed with the US Department of Energy-Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies under that IAA: (A) NIOSH participation was requested by the DOE to provide in vitro genotoxicity assays of the organic solvent extracts of exhaust emissions from a suite of in-use diesel or spark-ignition vehicles; (B) research also was directed to develop and apply genotoxicity assays to the particulate phase of diesel exhaust, exploiting the NIOSH finding of genotoxicity expression by diesel exhaust particulate matter dispersed into the primary components of the surfactant coating the surface of the deep lung; (C) from the surfactant-dispersed DPM genotoxicity findings, the need for direct collection of DPM aerosols into surfactant for bioassay was recognized, and design and developmental testing of such samplers was initiated.

  16. Advanced Materials for Automotive Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper some recent material developments will be overviewed mainly from the point of view of automotive industry. In car industry, metal forming is one of the most important manufacturing processes imposing severe restrictions on materials; these are often contradictory requirements, e.g. high strength simultaneously with good formability, etc. Due to these challenges and the ever increasing demand new material classes have been developed; however, the more and more wide application of high strength materials meeting the requirements stated by the mass reduction lead to increasing difficulties concerning the formability which requires significant technological developments as well. In this paper, the recent materials developments will be overviewed from the point of view of the automotive industry

  17. GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES IN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ISAC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The automotive sector is characterised by a relatively low trade/salesratio. While the production of most automotive producers in the world is spread over variouscountries in the value chain, the brands are still considered to reflect some national identity.Internationalisation strategies may change over the lifecycle of the product and automakerstend to pursue diametrically opposed strategies. In mature markets, it is about managing whatgoes on beneath a static surface; in emerging markets’ dynamic environments, companies muststrategically position themselves to benefit from growth opportunities. However, without theright strategy and execution in mature markets, it is clear that traditional OEMs cannot profitfrom emerging markets-the persistence of structural issues in mature market operationseventually will rob all but the most resilient competitors of the opportunity to compete inemerging markets.

  18. Automotive stamped part fatigue design

    OpenAIRE

    Caudoux Mélanie; Facchinetti Matteo Luca; Raynal Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue design of automotive axle parts is of prior concern because of these are high safety parts and they are expected to drive the overall vehicle mass reduction. In this framework, the stamping process is widely used to form axle parts, before assembling them by welding. Consequently, the mechanical and physical characteristics of the blank sheet are modified, having a strong influence on the fatigue behavior. In this paper, we address the consequences of the stamped process on the fatigu...

  19. Applications of thin coatings in automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Louda

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Use of thin coatings in automotive industry give economic and ecological savings. This is evoke by reducing of weight of used construction elements and currently by increasing of their service life and with that connected elevating of nanomaterials manufacture qualities.Design/methodology/approach: In the paper was disscussed the possibility of applications of thin coating in automotive industry.Findings: The paper shows the examples of thin coatings application in automotive industry.Practical implications: Through the assimilation, improvement, and generation of new technologies, the coating community, as a major supplier to the very large automotive industry, will continue to thrive, grow, and maintain its environmental stewardship in the global marketplace.Originality/value: Applications of thin coatings in automotive industry is and with nanotechnology together will be in centre of interest of automotive industry in near future.

  20. Simulation based design of automotive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schiehlen, Werner

    1993-01-01

    The design of automotive systems using simulation tools features cost reduction and quality enhancement. This paper presents two basic approaches. The rust approach deals with the application of CAD data bases to the evaluation of input data for multibody system formalisms, most adequate for automotive system modeling. An object oriented data model for multibody systems is presented. The second approach covers the development of an integrated simulation tool for automotive vehicles and the co...

  1. Systems thinking in designing automotive textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Pammi; Muthu, Subramanian Senthilkannan; Taylor, Iain; Schulz, Rita; Beverley, Katharine J.; Day, Claire L.; Tipi, Nicoleta S.

    2015-01-01

    We present the complexities in terms of designing automotive exterior seating materials (seat coverings and interior linings) at Sage Automotive Interiors (UK), which is a division of a global international automotive textile supplier with headquarters in the US. Sustainability and innovation are emphasized in documents communicating the company’s vision. Using a case study approach, we consider the current design, development and manufacture process and examine it for the potential for feedb...

  2. Applications of thin coatings in automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    P. Louda

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Use of thin coatings in automotive industry give economic and ecological savings. This is evoke by reducing of weight of used construction elements and currently by increasing of their service life and with that connected elevating of nanomaterials manufacture qualities.Design/methodology/approach: In the paper was disscussed the possibility of applications of thin coating in automotive industry.Findings: The paper shows the examples of thin coatings application in automotive industr...

  3. Diesel exhaust exposures in port workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debia, Maximilien; Neesham-Grenon, Eve; Mudaheranwa, Oliver C; Ragettli, Martina S

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to diesel engine exhaust has been linked to increased cancer risk and cardiopulmonary diseases. Diesel exhaust is a complex mixture of chemical substances, including a particulate fraction mainly composed of ultrafine particles, resulting from the incomplete combustion of fuel. Diesel trucks are known to be an important source of diesel-related air pollution, and areas with heavy truck traffic are associated with higher air pollution levels and increased public health problems. Several indicators have been proposed as surrogates for estimating exposures to diesel exhaust but very few studies have focused specifically on monitoring the ultrafine fraction through the measurement of particle number concentrations. The aim of this study is to assess occupational exposures of gate controllers at the port of Montreal, Canada, to diesel engine emissions from container trucks by measuring several surrogates through a multimetric approach which includes the assessment of both mass and number concentrations and the use of direct reading devices. A 10-day measurement campaign was carried out at two terminal checkpoints at the port of Montreal. Respirable elemental and organic carbon, PM1, PM2.5, PMresp (PM4), PM10, PMtot (inhalable fraction), particle number concentrations, particle size distributions, and gas concentrations (NO2, NO, CO) were monitored. Gate controllers were exposed to concentrations of contaminants associated with diesel engine exhaust (elemental carbon GM = 1.6 µg/m(3); GSD = 1.6) well below recommended occupational exposure limits. Average daily particle number concentrations ranged from 16,544-67,314 particles/cm³ (GM = 32,710 particles/cm³; GSD = 1.6). Significant Pearson correlation coefficients were found between daily elemental carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations, as well as between total carbon, PM fractions and particle number concentrations. Significant correlation coefficients were found between particle number

  4. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.

    2013-11-01

    This report introduces general information about diesel particles and their health effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce particulate matter pollution and present some recent studies made regarding the health effects of particulate matter. The aim is not to go very deeply into the science, but instead to keep the text understandable for the average layman. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. These small particles are made up of a number of components that include for example acids, such as nitrates and sulphates, as well as organic chemicals, metals and dust particles from the soil. Particulate matter comes from several sources, such as transportation emissions, industrial emissions, forest fires, cigarette smoke, volcanic ash and climate variations. Particles are divided into coarse particles with diameters less than 10 ..m, fine particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 ..m and ultra-fine particles with diameters less than 0.1 ..m. The particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas is a highly complex mixture of organic, inorganic, solid, volatile and partly volatile compounds. Many of these particles do not form until they reach the air. Many carcinogenic compounds have been found in diesel exhaust gas and it is considered carcinogenic to humans. Particulate matter can cause several health effects, such as premature death in persons with heart or lung disease, cancer, nonfatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function and an increase in respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing. It is estimated that in Finland about 1300 people die prematurely due to particles and the economic loss in the EU due to the health effects of particles can be calculated in the billions. Ultra-fine particles are considered to be the most harmful to human health. Ultrafine particles usually make the most of their quantity and surface area

  5. Study on Thermoelectric Generators Based on Exhaust Gas and Cryogenic Fuel for LNG Vehicles%面向 LNG 汽车的发动机排气与低温燃料温差发电器研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑江; 厉彦忠; 王春燕; 谭宏博

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the energy efficiency in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicles, thermoelectric generator (TEG) is suggested in recovering the waste heat of the exhaust gas (EG) and the cold energy of the LNG.The TEGs here get higher efficiency than conventional ones, for they work with heat sinks at cryogenic temperatures and there are large temperature differences between EG and LNG.Based on the analyzing of the typical fuel system in the small LNG vehicles, two recovery systems for the LNG vehicles are proposed and the correla_tive parameters of systems are calculated and analyzed.The generation efficiency of TEGs is calculated and the recovery power of each sys_tem is analyzed.It is concluded that the output power of the vaporizer system is larger than that of the self_warming system; TEG with opti_mized multi_layer material brings larger output power than that with single_layer material for both systems.%为实现液化天然气(LNG)汽车的节能,提出了利用温差发电器(TEG)回收发动机排气(EG)的废热和低温燃料的冷能。指出了基于冷源所在的低温区,以及 EG 与 LNG 之间的大温差这两个特点,TEG 的热电转换效率会高于常规。基于对小型 LNG汽车中典型燃料系统的分析,设计了进行能量回收的两种系统流程,计算了其中各状态点的参数﹑及各换热器中布置温差发电器后的热电转换效率,得到了系统总的回收功率。结果表明,汽化器系统的回收功率大于自复温系统;在两种系统中,合理选取多种材料相较于仅用单种材料,TEG 的回收功率更大。

  6. Study on Formation and Exhaust of Soot for a Heavy Duty Gas Turbine%某重型燃气轮机碳烟生成和排放研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力军; 杨海峰; 孙远伟; 阴松凯

    2014-01-01

    The rule of soot formation and emitted concentration had been three-dimensional simulated and analyzed for a heavy-duty gas turbine combustor under multi-power load by using one-step and two-step model respectively for studying the formation and emission laws of soot pollutant .Gas phase turbulent flow is simulated by Realizable k-εmodel, random movement of liquid fuel atomization par-ticles are simulated by Lagrange random walk model , and PDF combustion model is used to model combustion reaction .Numerical cal-culation had used SIMPLE pressure-velocity coupled method and second order upwind difference schemes .The calculation results show that the main reaction zone in combustor is fuel rich design and the main place of soot formation .The maximum combustor exhaust smoke number SN is between 0.082~0.86.These results contribute the theoretical basis for the soot formation rule and calculation method .%为了研究某重型燃气轮机碳烟(soot)污染物的生成和排放规律,在多种负荷条件下,分别应用碳烟的一步和二步生成模型,对某重型燃气轮机碳烟的生成和排放浓度进行了三维数值计算和分析。采用Realiz-ablek-ε湍流模型模拟湍流流动,用拉格朗日随机游走模型模拟雾化燃油颗粒的随机运动,用PDF燃烧模型模拟燃烧化学反应速率,压力速度耦合采用SIMPLE算法和二阶迎风格式。计算结果表明,燃烧室的主燃区为富油设计,是碳烟生成的主要场所。燃烧室出口的最大冒烟数SN在0.082~0.86之间。用二步法模型计算的碳烟生成浓度低于一步法,是碳烟生成与氧化二个因素综合作用的结果。计算结果为研究碳烟生成规律和计算方法提供了理论依据。

  7. Automotive Vehicle Including a Security Arrangement Provided with an Inflatable Protective Bag

    OpenAIRE

    Chevroulet, Tristan; Béroud, Jean-Claude

    1996-01-01

    The invention concerns an automotive vehicle. This vehicle comprises a dashboard , steering control handles distanced from the dashboard, the dashboard comprising a compartment closed by a flap and in which is arranged a protective bag of supple material at least partially gas-tight, the bag being coupled to a gas source and one or more accelerometers for automatically releasing the gas source in response to abnormal behaviour of the vehicle, in that the bag spreads out, in the inflated state...

  8. 8th DFO Automotive conference - European automotive coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The present CD-ROM of the DFO Conference ''European Automotive Coating'' held on the 14th and 15th May 2001 in Dresden, Germany, contents the following contributions: Contents (1) Plenary Lecture-Car Body Painting in the Digital Factory (2) Off-line painting of a smc Oe tailgate in topcoat colour; (3) Twincure UV - New Concepts for the Surface Treatment of Glass-Fiber-Reinforced; Plastics; (4) New Concepts for Exterior Coating - ''Funktionsschicht 3'' First Experiences and the ''Ludwigsfelde Concept''; (5) Application techniques in the light of new automation concepts in automotive painting; (6) Automatic Management System for Car Body Pretreatment; (7) Surface Inspection on Bodies in White in Automotive Industry; (8) Online Measurement and Control of E-coat Bath Parameters in a Car Body Paint Shop - Development until Maturity for Manufacturing - Practical Experiences; (9) Automated Process Diagnosis; (10) Wavescan DOI Oe Challenge or Data Overkill; (11) Robot Aided Online Metrology for Quality Assurance and Process Control of Coated Surfaces; (12) Physical Simulation of Film Thickness Distribution and Transfer Efficiency in the Electrostatically Supported Painting process; (13) Offline Simulation of the Coating Process with High-Speed Bell and Pneumatic Atomizers; (14) Top coat simulation - First applications and results; (15) Virtual color design. (AKF) (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende zweisprachige (Deutsch/Englisch) CD-ROM der DFO-Tagung ''European Automotive Coating'' vom 14. und 15. Mai 2001 beinhaltet die folgenden Beitraegen: Inhaltsverzeichnis (1) Leitvortrag ''Die Automobillackierung in der digitalen Fabrik''; (2) Off-line Lackierung von SMC-Heckklappen in Decklackfarbe; (3) Hybrid UV-Haertung - Neue Konzepte zur Oberflaechenveredelung von glasfaserverstaerkten Duroplasten; (4) Neue Konzepte fuer die Aussenhautlackierung - Fukntionsschicht 3 - Erste

  9. Study on Variable Capacity Control Mechanism of Scroll Compressor for Automotive Air Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Takahisa; Shigeoka, Tetsuo

    As for the automotive air conditioner, (1) to keep the automotive cabin temperature in a comfortable region, (2) to improve driving feeling, (3) to drive the air conditioning system economically through all seasons, are universally required. Recently, from these points, compressors with variable capacity control mechanism for automotive air conditioners have been remarkably requested. We have developed a scroll comoressor with variable capacity control mechanism. The capacity control mechanism, which changes the channel area of the bypass hole continuously, according to the suction gas pressure and the discharge gas pressure, has been developed. In this report, we describe the mechanism of variable capacity control and the performance simulation program that has been developed for the scroll compressor. Further, we describe the measuring results of cylinder pressure behavior, the results of energy loss analysis and the effect of comfort, drivability, power saving in the refrigerating cycle using the developed capacity control compressor.

  10. Development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) automotive auxiliary power unit (APU) fueled by gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and the development progress of a 3 to 5 auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a gasoline fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This fuel cell was supplied reformate gas (reactant) by a partial oxidation (POx) catalytic reformer utilizing liquid gasoline and designed by Delphi Automotive Systems. This reformate gas consists mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen and was fed directly in to the SOFC stack without any additional fuel reformer processing. The SOFC stack was developed by Global Thermoelectric and operates around 700oC. This automotive APU produces power to support future 42 volt vehicle electrical architectures and loads. The balance of the APU, designed by Delphi Automotive Systems, employs a packaging and insulation design to facilitate installation and operation on-board automobiles. (author)

  11. Understanding Exhaustive Pattern Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Libin

    2011-01-01

    Pattern learning in an important problem in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Some exhaustive pattern learning (EPL) methods (Bod, 1992) were proved to be flawed (Johnson, 2002), while similar algorithms (Och and Ney, 2004) showed great advantages on other tasks, such as machine translation. In this article, we first formalize EPL, and then show that the probability given by an EPL model is constant-factor approximation of the probability given by an ensemble method that integrates exponential number of models obtained with various segmentations of the training data. This work for the first time provides theoretical justification for the widely used EPL algorithm in NLP, which was previously viewed as a flawed heuristic method. Better understanding of EPL may lead to improved pattern learning algorithms in future.

  12. Low exhaust temperature electrically heated particulate matter filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2012-02-14

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, a sensor, a heating element, and a control module. The PM filter includes with an upstream end that receives exhaust gas, a downstream end and multiple zones. The sensor detects a temperature of the exhaust gas. The control module controls current to the heating element to convection heat one of the zones and initiate a regeneration process. The control module selectively increases current to the heating element relative to a reference regeneration current level when the temperature is less than a predetermined temperature.

  13. Ecological effects and environmental fate of solid rocket exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, B.; Stout, I. J.; Mickus, J.; Vickers, D.; Madsen, B.

    1974-01-01

    Specific target processes were classified as to the chemical, chemical-physical, and biological reactions and toxic effects of solid rocket emissions within selected ecosystems at Kennedy Space Center. Exposure of Citris seedlings, English peas, and bush beans to SRM exhaust under laboratory conditions demonstrated reduced growth rates, but at very high concentrations. Field studies of natural plant populations in three diverse ecosystems failed to reveal any structural damage at the concentration levels tested. Background information on elemental composition of selected woody plants from two terrestrial ecosystems is reported. LD sub 50 for a native mouse (peromysous gossypinus) exposed to SRM exhaust was determined to be 50 ppm/g body weight. Results strongly indicate that other components of the SRM exhaust act synergically to enhance the toxic effects of HCl gas when inhaled. A brief summary is given regarding the work on SRM exhaust and its possible impact on hatchability of incubating bird eggs.

  14. Long term continuous use of auto LPG causes thermal pitting in automotive S. I. engine parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandloi, R.K.; Rehman, A. [Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal (India). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2010-07-01

    The increasing cost of liquid hydrocarbons in recent years accompanied by the tough rules and regulations regarding exhaust emissions has stimulated interest in alternative fuels for automotive engines. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) has been suggested as a convenient, clean burning less pollutant fuel. Therefore it is also known as green fuel. However, the selection of an alternative fuel is not the end of the task. The selected fuel has to be exploited to its best capacity to serve the task for which it was chosen. Fuel consumption and heat losses from the engine are related; in a country like ours fuel consumption can be improved by optimizing the amount of heat generated in combustion chamber and surroundings. Since LPG burns cleaner with less carbon build-up, oil contamination, engine wear is reduced and the life of some components such as piston rings, and bearings is much longer than with gasoline. The high octane of LPG also minimizes wear from engine knock. On the other hand in the LPG-run SI Engine it is observed that the hot spots lead to surface pitting on the Engine Cylinder Block, Head, Valves, Valve stem and clearance increase in Valve guides. Apart from this, with some time it may lead to development of cracks and distortion in Cylinder Heads. This can be attributed to rise in temperature of the damaged / pitted area near combustion chamber. Experimental research into the use of LPG in spark ignition outboard engines presented with bottled LPG dosed gaseous form. The aim of the study was to determine the basic parameters and quantify the emission index, when LPG is used instead of gasoline. The results obtained indicate that with the use of LPG, specific fuel consumption, CO{sub 2} and CO emissions were much lower without noticeable power loss but in contrast, NO{sub x} emissions were much higher.

  15. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 29.1123 Section 29.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust... by operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping... operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration and inertia loads...

  17. Treatment of power utilities exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koermer, Gerald

    2012-05-15

    Provided is a process for treating nitrogen oxide-containing exhaust produced by a stationary combustion source by the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in the presence of a reductant comprising hydrogen, followed by ammonia selective catalytic reduction to further reduce the nitrogen oxide level in the exhaust.

  18. Exhaust particle number and size distribution from a diesel engine with gas-to- liquids fuel%发动机燃用GTL柴油的排气颗粒数量及粒径分布规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丕强; 鲍锡君; 胡志远; 楼狄明

    2012-01-01

    以一台汽车电控高压共轨柴油机为样机,采用发动机尾气颗粒粒径谱仪EEPS研究了发动机燃用天然气制油(GTL柴油)的排气颗粒数量及粒径分布规律.所用燃油分别为纯柴油(GO)、纯GTL柴油(G100)及GTL柴油掺混比为10%、20%的燃料(分别表示为G10、G20).试验工况为最大转矩转速1500r·min^-1和标定转速2300r·min^-1的负荷特性试验,负荷百分比分别为10%、25%、50%、75%和100%.结果表明:无论燃用柴油,还是GTL柴油或混合燃料,该机排气颗粒数量随粒径变化大都呈现明显的双峰对数分布状态,其排气核态颗粒的峰值粒径在10nm附近,聚集态颗粒峰值集中出现在40-50mm之间.随着GTL柴油配比的增加,各工况下不同粒径的颗粒数量大都持续下降,其中,排气核态颗粒数量明显下降,在高速高负荷下更为显著;而聚集态颗粒也较纯柴油有一定的降幅,其中,G20和G100柴油更为明显.%Exhaust particle number and size distribution of an electronic control high-pressure common-rail diesel engine, fueled with gas-to-liquids (GTL) , are studied by an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer ( EEPS). The fuels are pure diesel fuel (GO) , pure GTL fuel (G100) , G10 and G20 with GTL blend ratios of 10% and 20%. Two typical engine speeds of 1500 r· min^-1 and 2300 r·min^-1 are tested, with the load ratios of 10% , 25% , 50%, 75% and 100% , respectively. The results show the size distribution of particle number from the engine has clear bimodal logarithmic distribution, with a nucleation mode peak value around 10nm particle diameter, and an accumulation mode peak value in 40 nm to 50 nm particle diameter. With the increasing blend ratio of GTL fuel, the number of nucleation mode particles decreases significantly, and has greater decline at high speed engine operating conditions. The number of accumulation mode particles of GTL fuel

  19. 78 FR 36633 - National Automotive Sampling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... crash data files are made available to the public; and Examine using new data collection methods and... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Automotive Sampling System AGENCY: National Highway... Automotive Sampling System (NASS) or Data Modernization (DataMod). NHTSA announces that it will hold a...

  20. A comprehensive framework for automotive sustainability assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jasinski, D.; Meredith, J.; Kirwan, K.

    2016-01-01

    Business efficiency, stakeholder pressure and the need for legislative compliance compel the automotive sector to design and manufacture fuel-efficient, low-impact, environmentally responsible and sustainable vehicles. Managing and responding to these multiple and sometimes conflicting interests requires the measurement of economic, environmental and societal performance. Although a number of automotive sustainability measures are mentioned within the literature, there is no singl...