WorldWideScience

Sample records for automotive emissions control

  1. Towards a sustainable automotive industry : experiences from the development of emission control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bauner, David

    2007-01-01

    From the mid-1970s and on, the contribution to air pollution of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from gasoline passenger cars in the developed world has been reduced through co-evolution of regulation and commercial introduction of catalytic emission control technology, now part of hundreds of millions of cars, trucks and buses worldwide. This dissertation is a disaggregated study of the global introduction of catalytic emission control technology as a measure to reduce local...

  2. Power train and emission control: allocation procedure by OBD-II system for automotive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Porag

    2017-06-01

    OBD-II, systems were designed to maintain low emissions of in use vehicles, including light and medium duty vehicles. In 1989, the California code of Regulations (CCR) known as OBD - II was adopted by the California Air Resource Board (CARB) and the objective to reduce hydrocarbon (HC) emission caused by malfunction of the vehicles emission control systems. OBD-II provides additional information to engineer for diagnosis and repair of emissions related problems. OBD-II, standardizes on the amount of memory (Freeze Frame) it uses to store the readings of the vehicle sensor when it logs on emission related Intermittent Trouble code (IT). The intent of OBD-II, systems is to detect most vehicle malfunctions when performance of a power train component or system deteriorates to the point that the vehicle’s HC emission exceed standard. The vehicle operator is notified at the time when the vehicle begins to marginally exceed emission standards, by illuminating the Malfunctions Indicator Light (MIL).

  3. Nonlinear estimation and control of automotive drivetrains

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear Estimation and Control of Automotive Drivetrains discusses the control problems involved in automotive drivetrains, particularly in hydraulic Automatic Transmission (AT), Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) and Automated Manual Transmission (AMT). Challenging estimation and control problems, such as driveline torque estimation and gear shift control, are addressed by applying the latest nonlinear control theories, including constructive nonlinear control (Backstepping, Input-to-State Stable) and Model Predictive Control (MPC). The estimation and control performance is improved while the calibration effort is reduced significantly. The book presents many detailed examples of design processes and thus enables the readers to understand how to successfully combine purely theoretical methodologies with actual applications in vehicles. The book is intended for researchers, PhD students, control engineers and automotive engineers. Hong Chen is a professor at the State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and...

  4. Optimization and optimal control in automotive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya; Steinbuch, Maarten; Re, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book demonstrates the use of the optimization techniques that are becoming essential to meet the increasing stringency and variety of requirements for automotive systems. It shows the reader how to move away from earlier  approaches, based on some degree of heuristics, to the use of  more and more common systematic methods. Even systematic methods can be developed and applied in a large number of forms so the text collects contributions from across the theory, methods and real-world automotive applications of optimization. Greater fuel economy, significant reductions in permissible emissions, new drivability requirements and the generally increasing complexity of automotive systems are among the criteria that the contributing authors set themselves to meet. In many cases multiple and often conflicting requirements give rise to multi-objective constrained optimization problems which are also considered. Some of these problems fall into the domain of the traditional multi-disciplinary optimization applie...

  5. Adverse effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho Bosupeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions for the period from 1997 to 2010 for diverse economies, as well as the relationships between carbon dioxide discharges and output. The study applies cointegration and causality tests to validate these associations. The results of the Johansen cointegration test depict long-run associations between the quantity of passenger cars and carbon dioxide emissions in France, Sweden, Spain, Hungary and Japan. In addition, significant relations were observed between output and carbon dioxide discharges in Spain, Canada, India and Japan. Changes in output had substantial impact on emissions in Germany, Canada and India. The results also show that the number of passenger cars influences the magnitude of emissions in multiple economies. In conclusion, the automotive industry has to be considered in policies that aim to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  6. Automotive emission standards. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning emission standards and air quality standards applied to automobile emissions. Included are federal and state regulations and policies regarding these emission standards. Techniques to meet emission standards are also addressed, involving fuel injection, catalysts, alternate engines, and automotive fuel refinery operations. Studies concerning implementation of automobile emission standards explore economic and environmental effects, testing and inspection procedures, and the automobile industry point of view. Most of the citations refer to gasoline engines, but a few pertain to diesel and other fuels. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Adverse effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Mpho Bosupeng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions for the period from 1997 to 2010 for diverse economies, as well as the relationships between carbon dioxide discharges and output. The study applies cointegration and causality tests to validate these associations. The results of the Johansen cointegration test depict long-run associations between the quantity of passenger cars and carbon dioxide emissions in France, Sweden, Spain, Hungary and Japa...

  8. Fmcw Mmw Radar For Automotive Longitudinal Control

    OpenAIRE

    David, William

    1997-01-01

    This report presents information on millimeter wave (MMW) radar for automotive longitudinal control. It addresses the fundamental capabilities and limitations of millimeter waves for ranging and contrasts their operation with that of conventional microwave radar. The report analyzes pulsed and FMCW radar configurations, and provides detailed treatment of FMCW radar operating at MMW frequency, its advantages and disadvantages as they relate to range and velocity measurements.

  9. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the Ontario automotive sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    A variety of options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the automotive sector in Ontario over the next decade were discussed. Each option was assessed in terms of practicality and implications for implementation. I was concluded that improvements in fuel economy anticipated from advancing technology, with or without new mandated standards, will not be enough to offset the impact of growth in vehicle fleet size and kilometres driven. If the goal is to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, other measures such as reducing the fleet size and vehicle kilometres travelled and accelerated vehicle retirement (scrappage) programs must be considered. Key constraints on expansion of the alternative fuel fleet were identified. These include: (1) limited availability of an adequate range of alternative fuel vehicles at competitive prices, (2) limited refuelling facility infrastructure in the case of natural gas, limited range and fuel storage capacity for natural gas; (3)current limited fuel ethanol production capacity, and (4) market perceptions of performance, reliability and safety. tabs

  10. Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends report is the authoritative reference for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions,...

  11. Assessment of Safety Standards for Automotive Electronic Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study that assessed and compared six industry and government safety standards relevant to the safety and reliability of automotive electronic control systems. These standards include ISO 26262 (Road Vehicles - ...

  12. Oil-refinery and automotive emissions of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitto, M.E.; Gordon, G.E.; Anderson, D.L.; Olmez, I.

    1991-01-01

    The concentration pattern of rare-earth elements (REEs) in emissions from oil refineries and newer-model automobiles shows a distortion from the crustal abundance pattern. The REEs arise from the zeolite cracking catalysts used in petroleum refining and emission-control substrates used in automobile catalytic converters, respectively. Ten petroleum cracking catalysts from four countries and 12 catalytic converters from five automobile manufacturers were characterized for their REE content. The cracking catalysts are highly enriched in light REEs, whereas the automobile catalysts are enriched primarily in Ce. Incorporation of zeolite catalysts into refined oil provides new atmospheric elemental signatures for tracing emissions from refineries and oil-fired power plants on a regional scale. Though both have enhanced La/REE ratios, emissions from these two sources can be distinguished by their La/V ratios. Although REE demand by the petroleum industry has dropped considerably in recent years, automobile catalytic converters containing REEs are expected to increase dramatically as more stringent emission regulations are adopted in Europe, Japan and the US

  13. Design of disturbances control model at automotive company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I. A.; Sari, D. K.; Astuti, P.; Teorema, M.

    2017-12-01

    The discussion was conducted at PT. XYZ which produces automotive components and motorcycle products. The company produced X123 type cylinder head which is a motor vehicle forming component. The disturbances in the production system has affected the company performance in achieving the target of Key Performance Indicator (KPI). Currently, the determination of the percentage of safety stock of cylinder head products is not in accordance to the control limits set by the company (60% - 80%), and tends to exceed the control limits that cause increasing the inventory wastage in the company. This study aims to identify the production system disturbances that occurs in the production process of manufacturing components of X123 type cylinder head products and design the control model of disturbance to obtain control action and determine the safety stock policy in accordance with the needs of the company. The design stage has been done based on the Disturbance Control Model which already existing and customized with the company need in controlling the production system disturbances at the company. The design of the disturbances control model consists of sub-model of the risk level of the disturbance, sub-model of action status, sub-model action control of the disturbance, and sub-model of determining the safety stock. The model can assist the automotive company in taking the decision to perform the disturbances control action in production system cylinder head while controlling the percentage of the safety stock.

  14. Pneumatic, PLC Controlled, Automotive Gear Shifting Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Muntaser Momani

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a gear shifting mechanism was designed and applied to make the shifting process faster and less destructible for the driver. The new device must be reliable, has a small dimensions, low construction and maintenance cost. This paper aims to improve gear shifting process using devices as: a manual four speed gear box, four pneumatic double acting cylinders, four pneumatic two position five ways directional control valves, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) LOGO unit, an electric...

  15. Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends report is the authoritative reference for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, fuel economy, and powertrain technology trends for new personal vehicles in the United States. The ??Trends?? report has been published annually since 1975 and covers all passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, minivans, and all but the largest pickup trucks and vans. This report does not provide formal compliance values for EPA CO2 emissions standards and NHTSA CAFE standards. The downloadable data are available in PDF or spreadsheet (XLS) formats.

  16. Control of chaotic vibration in automotive wiper systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zheng; Chau, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    Chaotic vibration has been identified in the automotive wiper system at certain wiping speeds. This irregular vibration not only decreases the wiping efficiency, but also degrades the driving comfort. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach to stabilize the chaotic vibration in the wiper system. The key is to employ the extended time-delay feedback control in such a way that the applied voltage of the wiper motor is online adjusted according to its armature current feedback. Based on a practical wiper system, it is verified that the proposed approach can successfully stabilize the chaotic vibration, and provide a wide range of wiping speeds

  17. Mapping automotive like controls to a general aviation aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Christopher G.

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop fly-by-wire control laws enabling a general aviation aircraft to be flown with automotive controls, i.e. a steering wheel and gas/brake pedals. There was a six speed shifter used to change the flight mode of the aircraft. This essentially allows the pilot to have control over different aspects of the flight profile such as climb/descend or cruise. A highway in the sky was used to aid in the navigation since it is not intuitive to people without flight experience how to navigate from the sky or when to climb and descend. Many believe that general aviation could become as widespread as the automobile. Every person could have a personal aircraft at their disposal and it would be as easy to operate as driving an automobile. The goal of this thesis is to fuse the ease of drivability of a car with flight of a small general aviation aircraft. A standard automotive control hardware setup coupled with variably autonomous control laws will allow new pilots to fly a plane as easily as driving a car. The idea is that new pilots will require very little training to become proficient with these controls. Pilots with little time to stay current can maintain their skills simply by driving a car which is typically a daily activity. A human factors study was conducted to determine the feasibility of the applied control techniques. Pilot performance metrics were developed to compare candidates with no aviation background and experienced pilots. After analyzing the relative performance between pilots and non-pilots, it has been determined that the control system is robust and easy to learn. Candidates with no aviation experience whatsoever can learn to fly an aircraft as safely and efficiently as someone with hundreds of hours of flight experience using these controls.

  18. Automotive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  19. In vitro assessment of human airway toxicity from major aldehydes in automotive emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafstroem, R.C. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1997-09-01

    Automotive exhausts can significantly contribute to the levels of reactive aldehydes, including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein, in urban air. The use of alcohols as an alternative fuel for gasoline or diesel may further increase these emissions. Since it is unclear if aldehyde inhalation may induce pathological states, including cancer, in human airways, the toxic properties of the above-mentioned aldehydes were studied in cultured target cell types. Each aldehyde modified vital cellular functions in a dose-dependent manner, and invariably inhibited growth and induced abnormal terminal differentiation. Decreases of cellular thiols and increases of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} were observed, and moreover, variable types and amounts of short-lived or persistent genetic damage were induced. The concentrations required for specified levels of a particular type of injury varied up to 10000-fold among the aldehydes. Overall, distinctive patterns of cytopathological activity were observed, which differed both qualitatively and quantitatively among the aldehydes. Finally, aldehydes inhibited DNA repair processes and increased cytotoxicity and mutagenesis in synergy with other known toxicants, indicating that aldehydes may also enhance damage by other constituents in automotive exhausts. In summary, the aldehydes, notably {sup m}u{sup M}-mM formaldehyde, caused pathological effects and induced mechanisms that relate to acute toxicity and cancer development in airway epithelial cells. Since `no-effect` levels may not exist for carcinogenic agents, the overall results support a need for elimination of aldehydes in automotive exhausts. 41 refs

  20. Models and optimization of solar-control automotive glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Russell Dale

    Efforts to develop automotive glasses with enhanced solar control characteristics have been motivated by the desire for increased consumer comfort, reduced air-conditioning loads, and improved fuel-economy associated with a reduction in the total solar energy transmitted into the automotive interior. In the current investigation, the base soda-lime-silicate glass (72.7 wt.% SiO 2, 14.2% Na2O, 10.0% CaO, 2.5% MgO, 0.6% Al2O 3 with 0.3 Na2SO4 added to the batch as a fining agent) was modified with Fe2O3 (0.0 to 0.8%), NiO (0.0 to 0.15%), CoO (0.0 to 0.15%), V2O5 (0.0 to 0.225%), TiO2 (0.0 to 1.5%), SnO (0.0 to 3.0%), ZnS (0.0 to 0.09%), ZnO (0.0 to 2.0%), CaF2 (0.0 to 2.0%), and P2O5 (0.0 to 2.0%) to exploit reported non-linear mechanistic interactions among the dopants by which the solar-control characteristics of the base glass can be modified. Due to the large number of experimental variables under consideration, a D-optimal experimental design methodology was utilized to model the solar-optical properties as a function of batch composition. The independent variables were defined as the calculated batch concentrations of the primary (Fe2O 3, NiO, CoO, V2O5) and interactive (CaF2 , P2O5, SnO, ZnS, ZnO, TiO2) dopants in the glass. The dependent variable was defined as the apparent optical density over a wavelength range of 300--2700 nm at 10 nm intervals. The model form relating the batch composition to the apparent optical density was a modified Lambert-Beer absorption law; which, in addition to the linear terms, contained quadratic terms of the primary dopants, and a series of binary and ternary non-linear interactions amongst the primary and interactive dopants. Utilizing the developed model, exceptional fit in terms of both the discrete response (the transmission curves) and the integrated response (visible and solar transmittance) were realized. Glasses utilizing Fe2O 3, CoO, NiO, V2O5, ZnO and P2O 5 have generated innovative glasses with substantially improved

  1. Potential energy consumption reduction of automotive climate control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Filip; Uddheim, Åsa; Dalenbäck, Jan-Olof

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Twenty-on energy saving measures for vehicle interior climate were evaluated. • Few single energy saving measures could reduce the energy use significantly. • The operation of the system in intermediate conditions determines the energy use. • Required heating/cooling of passenger compartment had small effect on energy use. - Abstract: In recent years fuel consumption of passenger vehicles has received increased attention by customers, the automotive industry, regulatory agencies and academia. One area which affect the fuel consumption is climate control systems. Twenty-one energy saving measures were evaluated regarding the total energy use for vehicle interior climate using simulation. Evaluated properties were heat flow into the passenger compartment, electrical and mechanical work. The simulation model included sub models of the passenger compartment, air-handling unit, Air Conditioning (AC) system, engine and engine cooling system. A real-world representative test cycle, which included tests in cold, intermediate and warm conditions, was used for evaluation. In general, few single energy saving measures could reduce the energy use significantly. The measures with most potential were increased blower efficiency with a reduction of 46% of the electrical work and increased AC-system disengage temperature with a reduction of 27% of the mechanical work. These results show that the operation of the climate control system had a large effect on the energy use, especially compared to the required heating and cooling of the passenger compartment. As a result energy saving measures need to address how heating and cooling is generated before reducing the heat flow into the passenger compartment.

  2. Examining the role of policy design and policy interaction in EU automotive emissions performance gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeete, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of the 2015 ‘Dieselgate’ scandal, the US and European governments publicly confronted automakers about their behaviour, which raised concerns about the integrity of the current emissions legislation regimes. In this article, I argue that ‘flexibilities’ within the EU's emissions legislative framework afforded automakers the opportunity to legally sidestep strict performance standards laid out in the law and resulted in a significant performance gap in real world driving emissions. This article provides a timely examination of EU emission legislation policy design and policy interaction within the European Union with the aim of explaining why the EU policy framework failed to regulate the regional automotive industry. Current research is mostly concerned with the typology and effectiveness of individual environmental policy instruments, be it regulatory or economic incentives, that aim to influence industry behaviour. This article approaches the current EU policy regime in a more holistic manner and focuses on the exploitation of weaknesses in the regulatory framework by private firms, which has received little academic attention in the innovation and transition literature. A major contribution of this article therefore is a body of primary qualitative interview data from industry elites concerning relevant emissions policies. - Highlights: • Significant performance gaps exist between stated and real-world car emissions. • Real-world performance gaps exist due to exploitation of flawed EU policy design. • Diesels have the widest performance gaps and are most harmful to air quality. • Policy interaction compounds EU air quality problems and promotes path-dependency. • Closing performance gaps requires policy revisions and more enforcement autonomy.

  3. Waste Gas And Particulate Control Measures For Laser Cutters In The Automotive Cloth Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, R. D.; Kulik, B. F.; Stoncel, R. J.; Tan, S. L.

    1986-11-01

    Demands for greater flexibility and accuracy in the manufacture of automobile trim parts has made single-ply laser cutting an attractive proposition. Lasers are able to cut a large variety of cloth types, from vinyls to velours. Unlike mechanically cut parts, which in the case of velours produce rough edges and dust problems, laster cutting of parts produces smooth edges, fumes and fine particulate. A detailed study of the nature of the laser effluent from a cross section of typical synthetic cloth found in an automotive trim plant was undertaken. Most samples were cut by a fast axial flow, 500 Watt, continuous wave CO2 laser. A 254 mm (10-inch) focussing optics package was used. The width of the kerf varied with the material, and values were determined at between 0.2 and 0.7 mm. Particle size distribution analysis and rates of particulate emission for each cloth were determined. Gases were collected in gas sample bags and analyzed using Fourier transform infrared analysis. Low boiling point organics were collected on activated charcoal tubes, identified on a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, and quantified on a gas chromatograph. Inorganic contaminants were collected on filter paper and analysed on an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. A number of different effluent control systems were evaluated. Due to the very fine and sticky nature of the particulate, filters capable of removing particulate sizes in the 10 μm or lower range, tend to clog rapidly. Laboratory scale models of wet scrubbers, and electrostatic precipitators were built and tested. The most effective dust and effluent gas control was given by a wet electrostatic precipitator. This system, in conjunction with a scrubber, should maintain emission levels within environmental standards.

  4. Adsorptive Waste Heat Based Air-Conditioning Control Strategy for Automotives

    OpenAIRE

    Indrasen Raghupatruni; Michael Glora; Ralf Diekmann; Thomas Demmer

    2015-01-01

    As the trend in automotive technology is fast moving towards hybridization and electrification to curb emissions as well as to improve the fuel efficiency, air-conditioning systems in passenger cars have not caught up with this trend and still remain as the major energy consumers amongst others. Adsorption based air-conditioning systems, e.g. with silica-gel water pair, which are already in use for residential and commercial applications, are now being considered as a tec...

  5. Model predictive control of a waste heat recovery system for automotive diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feru, E.; Willems, F.; De Jager, B.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a switching Model Predictive Control strategy is designed for an automotive Waste Heat Recovery system with two parallel evaporators. The objective is to maximize Waste Heat Recovery system output power, while satisfying safe operation under highly dynamic disturbances from the

  6. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Holloway

    2005-09-30

    Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the

  7. Control and resistance of work in the productive capital restructuring at automotive sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Santana Previtalli

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss technological and organizational innovation and implications for workers and trade-unions at automotive sector during the 90’s. We understand that innovation technology is linked with the class relation in the capitalism system and involve news forms of control of capital about labour and changing the dynamic class relations in the capitalism

  8. Development of Automotive Permanent Magnet Alternator with Fully Controlled AC/DC Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Tareq S. El-Hasan

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes the design of a three-phase axial flux permanent magnet alternator (AFPMA) that is characterized with an air-cored stator and two-rotor (ACSTR) configuration. The AFPMA is harnessed with fully controlled AC/DC converter using six bridge Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) capable to deliver a constant DC output power as an attempt to replace the Lundell alternator for automotive applications. First, the design methodology and analysis of the AFPMA is introduced. The ...

  9. Automotive Sensors and MEMS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonomura, Yutaka

    - Automotive sensors are used for emission gas purification, energy conservation, car kinematic performance, safety and ITS (intelligent transportation system). The comparison of the sensor characteristics was made for their application area. Many kinds of the principles are applied for the sensors. There are two types of sensors, such as physical and chemical one. Many of the automotive sensors are physical type such as mechanical sensors. And a gas sensor is a chemical type. The sensors have been remarkably developed with the advancement of the MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology. In this paper, gas, pressure, combustion pressure, acceleration, magnetic, and angular rate sensors for automotive use are explained with their features. The sensors are key devices to control cars in the engine, power train, chassis and safety systems. The environment resistance, long term reliability, and low cost are required for the automotive sensors. They are very hard to be resolved. However, the sensor technology contributes greatly to improving global environment, energy conservation, and safety. The applications of automotive sensors will be expanded with the automobile developments.

  10. Controlling polypropylene rheological properties by promoting organic peroxide during extrusion with improved properties for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlambang, Bayu; Sandytama

    2017-05-01

    Excellent stability and processability of Controlled-Rheology Polypropylene (CRPP) was mandatory parameters especially for automotive application. Selected organic peroxide which was used to control the rheology of PP should perform good stability in physical properties due to pre-process of compounding for automotive application. The common organic peroxide that widely used is 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-di-tert-butylperoxyhexane (DHBP). However, the problems that usually encountered are Melt Flow Index (MFI) stability, initial color, and the odor which come from decomposition process. Research and Development (RND) team of PT Chandra Asri Petrochemical, Tbk (CAP) did the study to change the type of organic peroxide to 3,6,9-triethyl-3,6,9,-trimethyl-l,4,7-triperoxonane (TETMTPA) which was intended to improve these inferiorities when using DHBP. The results indicate better MFT stability, better initial color, and less odor when using TETMTPA than DHBP. This superiority is very applicable particularly for automotive application. Detailed analysis about volatile decomposition product from both peroxide indicated CRPP with TETMTPA has lower volatile compound which result lower odor level than CRPP with DHBP.

  11. Elemental composition of current automotive braking materials and derived air emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulskotte, J. H. J.; Roskam, G. D.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Wear-related PM emissions are an important constituent of total PM emissions from road transport. Due to ongoing (further) exhaust emission reduction wear emissions may become the dominant PM source from road transport in the near future. The chemical composition of the wear emissions is crucial information to assess the potential health relevance of these PM emissions. Here we provide an elemental composition profile of brake wear emissions as used in the Netherlands in 2012. In total, 65 spent brake pads and 15 brake discs were collected in car maintenance shops from in-use personal cars vehicles and analyzed with XRF for their metal composition (Fe, Cu, Zn, Sn, Al, Si, Zr, Ti, Sb, Cr, Mo, Mn, V, Ni, Bi, W, P, Pb and Co). Since car, engine and safety regulations are not nationally determined but controlled by European legislation the resulting profiles will be representative for the European personal car fleet. The brake pads contained Fe and Cu as the dominant metals but their ratio varied considerably, other relatively important metals were Sn, Zn and Sb. Overall a rather robust picture emerged with Fe, Cu, Zn and Sn together making up about 80-90% of the metals present in brake pads. Because the XRF did not give information on the contents of other material such as carbon, oxygen and sulphur, a representative selection of 9 brake pads was further analyzed by ICP-MS and a carbon and sulphur analyzer. The brake pads contained about 50% of non-metal material (26% C, 3% S and the remainder mostly oxygen and some magnesium). Based on our measurements, the average brake pad profile contained 20% Fe, 10% Cu, 4% Zn and 3% Sn as the dominant metals. The brake discs consisted almost entirely of metal with iron being the dominant metal (>95%) and only traces of other metals (<1% for individual metals). Non-metal components in the discs were 2-3% Silicon and, according to literature, ∼3% carbon. The robust ratio between Fe and Cu as found on kerbsides has been used to

  12. A Fuzzy Rule-based Controller For Automotive Vehicle Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Hessburg, Thomas; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    1991-01-01

    A fuzzy rule-based controller is applied to lateral guidance of a vehicle for an automated highway system. The fuzzy rules, based on human drivers' experiences, are developed to track the center of a lane in the presence of external disturbances and over a range of vehicle operating conditions.

  13. Elemental composition of current automotive braking materials and derived air emission factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulskotte, J.H.J.; Roskam, G.D.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Wear-related PM emissions are an important constituent of total PM emissions from road transport. Due to ongoing (further) exhaust emission reduction wear emissions may become the dominant PM source from road transport in the near future. The chemical composition of the wear emissions is crucial

  14. 3. IFAC workshop: advances in automotive control. Vol. 1. Preprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    As the subject indicates, the aim of this workshop will be to discuss the latest advances related to motor vehicles, but also, and more generally, to exchange ideas between academic partners, car-manufacturers and subcontractors. The programme shows that a special effort has been made in this respect. No doubt plenary lectures are of great importance and the thematic sessions in the different sectors are the essence of such workshops; however, the discussions between experts in the different fields, the meetings between people from industry, universities and public or private laboratories, as well as the resulting exchange of ideas, are at least as important. Research is often criticized for providing merely theoretical results and for the insufficient number of its applications. But the motor vehicle offers a wide field of applications in which we can validate all techniques, tools and methods. This allows us to be involved in all the areas of fundamental research, in all the different possible approaches from fundamental research to technology transfer, and to observe the actual effects of our results. The increase in road traffic was a major problem of the past XXth century. It is clear that one the challenges of the XXIst century will be improve driving safety and comfort. The different work sessions concerning more control, driveline modelling, vehicle dynamics, electronic architecture, intelligent components, engine control, engine modelling, the modelling of combustion and turbocharging, diagnostics and subsystems. The quality of the papers and the diversity of their origins clearly shows the interest that we all take in this key sector of our research and industry. (orig.)

  15. The Role of Public and Private Protection in Disruptive Innovation: The Automotive Industry and the Emergence of Low-Emission Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkse, J.; Bohnsack, R.; Kolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the automotive industry, the need to move toward more sustainable trajectories of innovation has received much attention. Car manufacturers have started to develop lower emission alternatives for the internal combustion engine, particularly electric, hybrid, and fuel-cell vehicles. They face the

  16. Temperature control of an automotive engine cooling system utilizing a magneto-rheological fan clutch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok; Park, Young-Gee; Lee, Soojin

    2010-01-01

    In this note, the temperature control of an automotive engine cooling system is undertaken using a magneto-rheological (MR) fluid-based fan clutch (MR fan clutch in short). In order to achieve this goal, an appropriate size of controllable fan clutch using an MR fluid is firstly devised by considering the design parameters of a conventional fan clutch to reflect the practical application. Then, the principal design parameters of the MR fan clutch such as the length of the disc are optimally determined through finite element analysis. The drum-type MR fan clutch is manufactured and its time response to input current is experimentally evaluated. A robust sliding mode controller is then formulated by treating the time constant of the fan clutch system as an uncertain parameter. After identifying the relationship between angular velocity of the MR fan clutch and the temperature of the cooling system, the sliding mode controller is experimentally realized for the cooling system. It has been clearly demonstrated that the proposed sliding mode controller follows well the desired temperature with a small regulating error. It is expected from this feasibility work that the proposed control system associated with an MR fan clutch can be effectively utilized for the automotive cooling system to improve the fuel efficiency. (technical note)

  17. Control Method for Electromagnetic Unmanned Robot Applied to Automotive Test Based on Improved Smith Predictor Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new control method for an electromagnetic unmanned robot applied to automotive testing (URAT and based on improved Smith predictor compensator, and considering a time delay, is proposed. The mechanical system structure and the control system structure are presented. The electromagnetic URAT adopts pulse width modulation (PWM control, while the displacement and the current doubles as a closed-loop control strategy. The coordinated control method of multiple manipulators for the electromagnetic URAT, e.g., a skilled human driver with intelligent decision-making ability is provided, and the improved Smith predictor compensator controller for the electromagnetic URAT considering a time delay is designed. Experiments are conducted using a Ford FOCUS automobile. Comparisons between the PID control method and the proposed method are conducted. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve the accurate tracking of the target vehicle's speed and reduce the mileage derivation of autonomous driving, which meets the requirements of national test standards.

  18. Impact of recycling on cradle-to-gate energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of automotive lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jennifer B; Gaines, Linda; Sullivan, John; Wang, Michael Q

    2012-11-20

    This paper addresses the environmental burdens (energy consumption and air emissions, including greenhouse gases, GHGs) of the material production, assembly, and recycling of automotive lithium-ion batteries in hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and battery electric vehicles (BEV) that use LiMn(2)O(4) cathode material. In this analysis, we calculated the energy consumed and air emissions generated when recovering LiMn(2)O(4), aluminum, and copper in three recycling processes (hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical recycling) and examined the effect(s) of closed-loop recycling on environmental impacts of battery production. We aimed to develop a U.S.-specific analysis of lithium-ion battery production and in particular sought to resolve literature discrepancies concerning energy consumed during battery assembly. Our analysis takes a process-level (versus a top-down) approach. For a battery used in a BEV, we estimated cradle-to-gate energy and GHG emissions of 75 MJ/kg battery and 5.1 kg CO(2)e/kg battery, respectively. Battery assembly consumes only 6% of this total energy. These results are significantly less than reported in studies that take a top-down approach. We further estimate that direct physical recycling of LiMn(2)O(4), aluminum, and copper in a closed-loop scenario can reduce energy consumption during material production by up to 48%.

  19. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  20. Carbon emissions control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.U.

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to address a fundamental issue: the cost of slowing climate change. Experts in eight nations were asked to evaluate, using the best economic models available, the prospects for reducing fossil fuel-based carbon emissions in their respective nations. The nations selected as case studies include: the Soviet Union, Poland, the United States, Japan, Hungary, France, the United Kingdom, and Canada. As important contributors to the greenhouse effect, these industrialized nations must find ways to substantially reduce their emissions. This is especially critical given that developing nations' emissions are expected to rise in the coming decades in the search for economic development. Ten papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  1. Inventory and mitigation opportunities for HFC-134a emissions from nonprofessional automotive service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Tao; Potts, Winston; Collins, John F.; Austin, Jeff

    2014-12-01

    Many vehicle owners in the United States recharge their vehicles' air conditioning systems with small containers of hydrofluorocarbon-134a (HFC-134a, CH2FCF3), at a frequency estimated to be once every year on average. Such nonprofessional service produces immediate emissions of this potent greenhouse gas during service and from the residual heel in partially used containers. The nonprofessional operations are also associated with increased delayed refrigerant emissions that occur because owners are less likely to repair leaks than professional technicians. In California, an estimated 1.3 million nonprofessional service operations performed each year generate 0.27 ± 0.07 million metric ton CO2 equivalent (MMTCO2e) of immediate emissions and 0.54 ± 0.08 MMTCO2e of delayed emissions, using a Global Warming Potential of 1300 for HFC-134a. The immediate emissions can be largely mitigated by a regulation that requires self-sealing valves and improved labeling instructions on the containers, a deposit-return-recycling program for the containers, and a consumer education program. If 95% of the used containers were to be returned by consumers for recycling of the container heel, the annual immediate emissions would be reduced by 0.26 ± 0.07 MMTCO2e. In the United States, an estimated 24 million nonprofessional service operations are performed each year, generating 5.1 ± 1.4 MMTCO2e of immediate emissions and 10.4 ± 1.5 MMTCO2e of delayed emissions. Mitigation measures equivalent to the California regulation would reduce nationwide immediate emissions by 4.9 ± 1.4 MMTCO2e, if 95% of the used cans were returned for recycling. These business-as-usual emissions and mitigation potentials are projected to stay approximately constant until around 2022, and remain at significant levels into the 2030s.

  2. Comparative study of automotive, aircraft and biogenic emissions of aldehydes and aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, C S; Custodio, D; de Oliveira, R C S; Varandas, L S; Arbilla, G

    2010-02-01

    Air samples were collected in three well characterized locations in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: downtown, the idle and taxi way areas of the national airport and an urban forest, where the main emissions are from vehicular, aircraft and biogenic sources, respectively. Aldehydes and BTEX concentrations show a characteristic profile which may be attributed to the emission sources. Formaldehyde/acetaldehyde ratios, in the early morning, were 1.39, 0.62 and 2.22 in downtown, airport and forest, respectively. Toluene/benzene ratios, for downtown, airport and forest areas, were 1.11, 1.82 and 1.06, respectively. The results show that the impact of the urban emissions on the forest is negligible as well as the impact of aircraft emissions over the urban area.

  3. Reducing automotive emissions-The potentials of combustion engine technologies and the power of policy

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Christian; Magnusson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Reducing transport emissions, in particular vehicular emissions, is a key element for mitigating the risks of climate change. In much of the academic and public discourse the focus has been on alternative vehicle technologies and fuels (e.g. electric cars, fuel cells and hydrogen), whereas vehicles based on internal combustion engines have been perceived as close to their development limits. This paper offers a different perspective by demonstrating the accelerated improvement processes takin...

  4. Controlling radiated emissions by design

    CERN Document Server

    Mardiguian, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd edition of Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design has been updated to reflect the latest changes in the field. New to this edition is material related to technical advances, specifically super-fast data rates on wire pairs, with no increase in RF interference. Throughout the book, details are given to control RF emissions using EMC design techniques. This book retains the step-by-step approach for incorporating EMC into every new design from the ground up. It describes the selection of quieter IC technologies, their implementation into a noise-free printed circuit layout, and the gathering of these into a low emissions package. Also included is how to design an I/O filter, along with connectors and cable considerations. All guidelines are supported throughout with comprehensive calculated examples. Design engineers, EMC specialists, and technicians will benefit from learning about the development of more efficient and economical control of emissions.

  5. Alloy chemistry and microstructural control to meet the demands of the automotive Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The automotive Stirling engine now under development by DOE/NASA as an alternative to the internal combustion engine, imposes severe materials requirements for the hot portion of the engine. Materials selected must be low cost and contain a minimum of strategic elements so that availability is not a problem. Heater head tubes contain high pressure hydrogen on the inside and are exposed to hot combustion gases on the outside surface. The cylinders and regenerator housings must be readily castable into complex shapes having varying wall thicknesses and be amenable to brazing and welding operations. Also, high strength, oxidation resistance, resistance to hydrogen permeation, cyclic operation, and long-life are required. A research program conducted by NASA Lewis focused on alloy chemistry and microstructural control to achieve the desired properties over the life of the engine. Results of alloy selection, characterization, evaluation, and actual engine testing of selected materials are presented.

  6. On-road measurement of automotive particle emissions by ultraviolet lidar and transmissometer: instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosmüller, Hans; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Barber, Peter W; Kuhns, Hampden D; Keislar, Robert E; Watson, John G

    2003-11-01

    A novel vehicle emissions remote sensing system (VERSS) for the on-road measurement of fuel-based particulate matter (PM) emission factors is described. This system utilizes two complementary PM channels using an ultraviolet Lidar and transmissometer for the measurement of PM mass column content behind a passing vehicle. Ratioing the PM mass column content with the carbon mass column content, simultaneously measured with infrared absorption, yields the fuel-based PM mass emission factor. The transmissometer directly yields PM extinction coefficients without calibration, while the Lidar measurement of PM backscatter coefficients is calibrated through laboratory measurements of gases with well-known backscatter coefficients. The PM mass column content is calculated from these extinction and backscatter coefficients with the help of mass backscatter and extinction efficiencies obtained from theoretical calculations. This novel VERSS has been used extensively in a major air quality study, and example data are presented.

  7. Development of Automotive Permanent Magnet Alternator with Fully Controlled AC/DC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq S. El-Hasan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the design of a three-phase axial flux permanent magnet alternator (AFPMA that is characterized with an air-cored stator and two-rotor (ACSTR configuration. The AFPMA is harnessed with fully controlled AC/DC converter using six bridge Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs capable to deliver a constant DC output power as an attempt to replace the Lundell alternator for automotive applications. First, the design methodology and analysis of the AFPMA is introduced. The most effective parameters, such as rotor diameter, magnet thickness, number of turns, and winding thickness are determined. A smart digital control which facilitates the comparison between the magnitudes of the three-phase input signals instead of finding the zero crossing points is developed. Moreover, custom design comparators are specially designed and developed to generate adaptive signals that are fed into an Arduino Uno microcontroller. Accordingly, the Arduino generates the timely precise pulses that are necessary to maintain the appropriate triggering of the IGBTs. This technique allows the IGBTs to conduct in an adaptive manner to overcome the problem of asymmetrical voltage outputs from the AFPM alternator. The system is also capable of handling the variation in the speed of the AFPMA via the rigor code in Arduino that detects the change in the supply frequency and voltages in a real time process. The system is first analyzed via simulations using MATLAB/Simulink and then experimentally validated at certain speed and loading conditions. The preliminary tests results indicate that such system is capable to provide an efficient solution to satisfy automotive electric power demands.

  8. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  9. Advanced emergency braking controller design for pedestrian protection oriented automotive collision avoidance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Guo; Zejian, Ren; Pingshu, Ge; Jing, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Automotive collision avoidance system, which aims to enhance the active safety of the vehicle, has become a hot research topic in recent years. However, most of the current systems ignore the active protection of pedestrian and other vulnerable groups in the transportation system. An advanced emergency braking control system is studied by taking into account the pedestrians and the vehicles. Three typical braking scenarios are defined and the safety situations are assessed by comparing the current distance between the host vehicle and the obstacle with the critical braking distance. To reflect the nonlinear time-varying characteristics and control effect of the longitudinal dynamics, the vehicle longitudinal dynamics model is established in CarSim. Then the braking controller with the structure of upper and lower layers is designed based on sliding mode control and the single neuron PID control when confronting deceleration or emergency braking conditions. Cosimulations utilizing CarSim and Simulink are finally carried out on a CarSim intelligent vehicle model to explore the effectiveness of the proposed controller. Results display that the designed controller has a good response in preventing colliding with the front vehicle or pedestrian.

  10. Cancelation and its simulation using Matlab according to active noise control case study of automotive noise silencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfisyahrin; Isranuri, I.

    2018-02-01

    Active Noise Control is a technique to overcome noisy with noise or sound countered with sound in scientific terminology i.e signal countered with signals. This technique can be used to dampen relevant noise in accordance with the wishes of the engineering task and reducing automotive muffler noise to a minimum. Objective of this study is to develop a Active Noise Control which should cancel the noise of automotive Exhaust (Silencer) through Signal Processing Simulation methods. Noise generator of Active Noise Control is to make the opponent signal amplitude and frequency of the automotive noise. The steps are: Firstly, the noise of automotive silencer was measured to characterize the automotive noise that its amplitude and frequency which intended to be expressed. The opposed sound which having similar character with the signal source should be generated by signal function. A comparison between the data which has been completed with simulation calculations Fourier transform field data is data that has been captured on the muffler (noise silencer) Toyota Kijang Capsule assembly 2009. MATLAB is used to simulate how the signal processing noise generated by exhaust (silencer) using FFT. This opponent is inverted phase signal from the signal source 180° conducted by Instruments of Signal Noise Generators. The process of noise cancelation examined through simulation using computer software simulation. The result is obtained that attenuation of sound (noise cancellation) has a difference of 33.7%. This value is obtained from the comparison of the value of the signal source and the signal value of the opponent. So it can be concluded that the noisy signal can be attenuated by 33.7%.

  11. Management status of end-of-life vehicles and development strategies of used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjun; Chen, Ming

    2012-11-01

    Recycling companies play a leading role in the system of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in China. Automotive manufacturers in China are rarely involved in recycling ELVs, and they seldom provide dismantling information for recycling companies. In addition, no professional shredding plant is available. The used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China has yet to take shape because of the lack of supporting technology and profitable models. Given the rapid growth of the vehicle population and electronic control units in automotives in China, the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry requires immediate development. This paper analyses the current recycling system of ELVs in China and introduces the automotive product recycling technology roadmap as well as the recycling industry development goals. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of the current used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in China are analysed comprehensively based on the 'strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats' (SWOT) method. The results of the analysis indicate that this recycling industry responds well to all the factors and has good opportunities for development. Based on the analysis, new development strategies for the used automotive electronic control components recycling industry in accordance with the actual conditions of China are presented.

  12. Effective production control in an automotive industry: MRP vs. demand-driven MRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofa, Mohamad Jihan; Widyarto, Wahyu Oktri

    2017-06-01

    Material Requirements Planning (MRP) has deficiencies when dealing with current business environments, marked by a more complex network, a huge variety of products with longer lead time, and uncertain demands. This drives Demand-Driven MRP (DDMRP) approach to deal with those challenges. DDMRP is designed to connect the availability of materials and supplies directly from the actual condition using bills of materials (BOMs). Nevertheless, only few studies have scientifically proved the performance of DDMRP over MRP for controlling production and inventory control. Therefore, this research fills this gap by evaluating and comparing the performance of DDMRP and MRP in terms of level of effective inventory in the system. The evaluation was conducted through a simulation using data from an automotive company in Indonesia. The input parameters of scenarios were given for running the simulation. Based on the simulation, for the observed critical parts, DDMRP gave better results than MRP in terms of lead time and inventory level. DDMRP compressed the lead time part from 52 to 3 days (94% reduced) and, overall, the inventory level was in an effective condition. This suggests that DDMRP is more effective for controlling the production-inventory than MRP.

  13. Significance of factor describing visual control in the second management principle of Toyota in the automotive supply industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Mielczarek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research results in a scope of evaluation importance in visual control usage in the production processes of enterprises from automotive industry. The significance of visual control in a production process was characterized. An innovative BOST questionnaire survey was described as a tool for transformation of Toyota's management principles into questions. The survey questions from BOST study were described, which is used in evaluation of the visual control importance with reference to the second Toyota's management principle (question E3. The analysis of respondents preference in ranging factors of the second Toyota's management principle was conducted using comparative evaluation of Thurstone’s method, as well as the degree of similarity between these factors was indicated. A subjective factor was assessed by employees of automotive industry as one of less significant in the production process.

  14. Multi-objective design optimization and control of magnetorheological fluid brakes for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamieh, Hadi; Sedaghati, Ramin

    2017-12-01

    The magnetorheological brake (MRB) is an electromechanical device that generates a retarding torque through employing magnetorheological (MR) fluids. The objective of this paper is to design, optimize and control an MRB for automotive applications considering. The dynamic range of a disk-type MRB expressing the ratio of generated toque at on and off states has been formulated as a function of the rotational speed, geometrical and material properties, and applied electrical current. Analytical magnetic circuit analysis has been conducted to derive the relation between magnetic field intensity and the applied electrical current as a function of the MRB geometrical and material properties. A multidisciplinary design optimization problem has then been formulated to identify the optimal brake geometrical parameters to maximize the dynamic range and minimize the response time and weight of the MRB under weight, size and magnetic flux density constraints. The optimization problem has been solved using combined genetic and sequential quadratic programming algorithms. Finally, the performance of the optimally designed MRB has been investigated in a quarter vehicle model. A PID controller has been designed to regulate the applied current required by the MRB in order to improve vehicle’s slipping on different road conditions.

  15. The Importance of Systems for Controlling Logistics Costs in the Supply Chain: A Case Study from the Slovenian Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastjan Škerlič

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Participating in the automotive industry brings new responsibilities for suppliers who, in order to meet customer demands, must strive towards improving business processes, while at the same time reducing costs. These demands can disrupt the operations of companies that do not have a system for controlling logistics costs. On the other hand, customer demands can be the cause of other types of disruptions in companies that have such a system in place, stemming from an excessive focus on cost reduction. To tackle this problem, a survey was conducted on a sample of 30 Slovenian companies that operate as suppliers in the automotive industry. Its objective was to determine how different customer demands along the supply chain can affect the business processes of suppliers and the level of logistics costs. The survey revealed that companies that use a system for controlling logistics costs experience fewer disruptions in their business processes in their efforts to satisfy customer demands. These companies also display a higher level of integration of business processes and use a different approach when dealing with the various participants of the supply chain. The survey also sets clear participation guidelines for suppliers in the supply chain of the automotive industry and points out how companies can benefit from using a system for controlling logistics costs in other ways, aside from the cost controlling aspect.

  16. Automotive mechatronics operational and practical issues

    CERN Document Server

    Fijalkowski, B T

    2011-01-01

    This book presents operational and practical issues of automotive mechatronics with special emphasis on the heterogeneous automotive vehicle systems approach, and is intended as a graduate text as well as a reference for scientists and engineers involved in the design of automotive mechatronic control systems. As the complexity of automotive vehicles increases, so does the dearth of high competence, multi-disciplined automotive scientists and engineers. This book provides a discussion into the type of mechatronic control systems found in modern vehicles and the skills required by automotive scientists and engineers working in this environment. Divided into two volumes and five parts, Automotive Mechatronics aims at improving automotive mechatronics education and emphasises the training of students' experimental hands-on abilities, stimulating and promoting experience among high education institutes and produce more automotive mechatronics and automation engineers. The main subject that are treated are: VOLUME...

  17. Automotive mechatronics automotive networking, driving stability systems, electronics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    As the complexity of automotive vehicles increases this book presents operational and practical issues of automotive mechatronics. It is a comprehensive introduction to controlled automotive systems and provides detailed information of sensors for travel, angle, engine speed, vehicle speed, acceleration, pressure, temperature, flow, gas concentration etc. The measurement principles of the different sensor groups are explained and examples to show the measurement principles applied in different types. Contents Basics of mechatronics.- Architecture.- Electronic control unit.- Software development.- Basic principles of networking.- Automotive networking.- Bus systems.- Automotive sensors.- Sensor measuring principles.- Sensor types.- Electric actuators.- Electrohydraulic actuators.- Electronic transmission control.- Electronic transmission control unit.- Modules for transmission control.- Antilock braking system.- Traction control system.- Electronic stability program.- Automatic brake functions.- Hydraulic modu...

  18. Low Emission AMTEC Automotive Power System. Final report for Department of Energy Contract DE-FG02-94ER81696

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Thomas K.

    2001-04-17

    This program investigated the potential for Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) technology to be useful in automotive power system applications. AMTEC, a thermally regenerative electrochemical energy conversion system, converts heat into electricity from a heat source at 750 C to 850 C and a radiator at 200 C to 350 C. AMTEC uses external combustion with correspondingly low emission of NO{sub x} and hydrocarbons, and can tolerate essentially any hydrocarbon fuel. Efficiencies of 20% to 30% are projected to be feasible for systems of 25 kWe to 40 kWe peak output. The research program has shown that there are significant advantages to be achieved if AMTEC systems can be made cost effective for vehicle applications. Among these are (1) higher efficiency at part load than IC engines can yield, (2) omnifuel capability, and (3) low noise and low emission of pollutants. Demonstrated lifetimes already above 12,000 hours should be adequate for most vehicle applications. In major production, AMTEC costs are projected to reach $1/Watt, a value still too high for widespread automotive main power application. AMTEC's unique capabilities for low emissions, all-fuel operation, and insensitivity to ambient temperature, however, do make it a potential option for specialized vehicle applications needing these properties.

  19. An energy-saving set-point optimizer with a sliding mode controller for automotive air-conditioning/refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yanjun; Khajepour, Amir; Ding, Haitao; Bagheri, Farshid; Bahrami, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel two-layer energy-saving controller for automotive A/C-R system is developed. • A set-point optimizer at the outer loop is designed based on the steady state model. • A sliding mode controller in the inner loop is built. • Extensively experiments studies show that about 9% energy can be saving by this controller. - Abstract: This paper presents an energy-saving controller for automotive air-conditioning/refrigeration (A/C-R) systems. With their extensive application in homes, industry, and vehicles, A/C-R systems are consuming considerable amounts of energy. The proposed controller consists of two different time-scale layers. The outer or the slow time-scale layer called a set-point optimizer is used to find the set points related to energy efficiency by using the steady state model; whereas, the inner or the fast time-scale layer is used to track the obtained set points. In the inner loop, thanks to its robustness, a sliding mode controller (SMC) is utilized to track the set point of the cargo temperature. The currently used on/off controller is presented and employed as a basis for comparison to the proposed controller. More importantly, the real experimental results under several disturbed scenarios are analysed to demonstrate how the proposed controller can improve performance while reducing the energy consumption by 9% comparing with the on/off controller. The controller is suitable for any type of A/C-R system even though it is applied to an automotive A/C-R system in this paper.

  20. MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, Michael

    2013-01-01

    MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications reviews the use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in developing solutions to the unique challenges presented by the automotive and aerospace industries.Part one explores MEMS for a variety of automotive applications. The role of MEMS in passenger safety and comfort, sensors for automotive vehicle stability control applications and automotive tire pressure monitoring systems are considered, along with pressure and flow sensors for engine management, and RF MEMS for automotive radar sensors. Part two then goes on to explore MEMS for

  1. Leadership and New Technologies. New Security Issues for Management of Internet Connectivity and Remote Control in Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Cătălin Olteanu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to illustrate the importance of implementing new security policies for infotainment systems in automotive industry. A car is full of technology and is easier today to control car systems through an internet connection linked to car system infotainment. This is how it is possible to gain control of critical car systems. More than 84% of users doesn’t even know the risk of remote control of the car in the presence of Internet connection.

  2. Recurrent-neural-network-based identification of a cascade hydraulic actuator for closed-loop automotive power transmission control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Seung Han; Hahn, Jin Oh

    2012-01-01

    By virtue of its ease of operation compared with its conventional manual counterpart, automatic transmissions are commonly used as automotive power transmission control system in today's passenger cars. In accordance with this trend, research efforts on closed-loop automatic transmission controls have been extensively carried out to improve ride quality and fuel economy. State-of-the-art power transmission control algorithms may have limitations in performance because they rely on the steady-state characteristics of the hydraulic actuator rather than fully exploit its dynamic characteristics. Since the ultimate viability of closed-loop power transmission control is dominated by precise pressure control at the level of hydraulic actuator, closed-loop control can potentially attain superior efficacy in case the hydraulic actuator can be easily incorporated into model-based observer/controller design. In this paper, we propose to use a recurrent neural network (RNN) to establish a nonlinear empirical model of a cascade hydraulic actuator in a passenger car automatic transmission, which has potential to be easily incorporated in designing observers and controllers. Experimental analysis is performed to grasp key system characteristics, based on which a nonlinear system identification procedure is carried out. Extensive experimental validation of the established model suggests that it has superb one-step-ahead prediction capability over appropriate frequency range, making it an attractive approach for model-based observer/controller design applications in automotive systems

  3. 75 FR 24748 - Johnson Controls, Inc., Automotive Experience Division, Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid Through Hoover Universal, Greenfield, OH; Amended... their wages reported under a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account, under the name Hoover..., Inc., Automotive Experience Division, including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are...

  4. Automotive websites

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Todd A

    2006-01-01

    For anyone buying a new car, restoring an old favorite, collecting license plates or looking for motorsports information, the internet is the place to go and this is the book to help you get there. Now with over 650 internet addresses, this expanded and updated guide provides detailed descriptions and reviews of the biggest, best and most interesting automotive websites on the net. Beginning with a brief internet history and helpful hints, it aids the novice (or not so novice) user in picking through the countless automotive sites on the internet. Websites are arranged by topics such as afterm

  5. An online real time ultrasonic NDT system for the quality control of spot welding in the automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athi, N; Wylie, S R; Cullen, J D; Al-Jader, M; Al-Shamma'a, A I; Shaw, A

    2009-01-01

    Resistance spot welding is the main joining technique used for the fabrication of body-in-white structures in the automotive industry. The quality of the welds depends on the profile of the spot welding electrode cap. The increased use of zinc coated steel in the industry increases wear rate of the caps, making quality control more difficult. This paper presents a novel online real time ultrasonic NDE system for resistance spot welding which evaluates every weld as it is formed. SEM results are presented to show the alloying of the electrode caps.

  6. Two-stage actuation system using DC motors and piezoelectric actuators for controllable industrial and automotive brakes and clutches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Vijay A.; Washington, Gregory N.; Bucknor, Norman K.

    2005-05-01

    High bandwidth actuation systems that are capable of simultaneously producing relatively large forces and displacements are required for use in automobiles and other industrial applications. Conventional hydraulic actuation mechanisms used in automotive brakes and clutches are complex, inefficient and have poor control robustness. These lead to reduced fuel economy, controllability issues and other disadvantages. This paper involves the design, development, testing and control of a two-stage hybrid actuation mechanism by combining classical actuators like DC motors and advanced smart material actuators like piezoelectric actuators. The paper also discusses the development of a robust control methodology using the Internal Model Control (IMC) principle and emphasizes the robustness property of this control methodology by comparing and studying simulation and experimental results.

  7. Identification for automotive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hjalmarsson, Håkan; Re, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Increasing complexity and performance and reliability expectations make modeling of automotive system both more difficult and more urgent. Automotive control has slowly evolved from an add-on to classical engine and vehicle design to a key technology to enforce consumption, pollution and safety limits. Modeling, however, is still mainly based on classical methods, even though much progress has been done in the identification community to speed it up and improve it. This book, the product of a workshop of representatives of different communities, offers an insight on how to close the gap and exploit this progress for the next generations of vehicles.

  8. Automotive Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Ralph C.; And Others

    This curriculum guide, which was validated by vocational teachers and mechanics in the field, describes the competencies needed by entry-level automotive mechanics. This guide lists 15 competencies; for each competency, various tasks with their performance objective, student learning experiences, suggested instructional techniques, instructional…

  9. Application of bioethanol/RME/diesel blend in a Euro5 automotive diesel engine: Potentiality of closed loop combustion control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guido, Chiara; Beatrice, Carlo; Napolitano, Pierpaolo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effects of a bioethanol/biodiesel/diesel blend on Euro5 diesel engine. ► Potentiality of combustion control technology with alternative fuels. ► Strong smoke and NOx emissions reduction. ► No power penalties burning bioethanol blend by means of combustion control activation. -- Abstract: The latest European regulations require the use of biofuels by at least 10% as energy source in transport by 2020. This goal could be reached by means of the use of different renewable fuels; bioethanol (BE) is one of the most interesting for its low production cost and availability. BE usually replaces gasoline in petrol engines but it can be also blended in low concentrations to feed diesel engines. In this paper the results of an experimental activity aimed to study the impact of a BE/biodiesel/mineral diesel blend on performance and emissions in a last generation automotive diesel engine are presented. The tests were performed in steady-state in eight partial load engine conditions and at 2500 rpm in full load. Two fuel blends have been compared: the Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME)/diesel with 10% of biodiesel by volume (B10), and the BE/RME/diesel with 20% of BE and 10% of biodiesel by volume (E20B10). The experimental campaign was carried out on a 2.0 L diesel engine compliant with Euro5 regulation. The engine features the closed loop combustion control (CLCC), which enables individual and real-time control of injection phasing and cylinder inner torque by means of in-cylinder pressure sensors connected with the Electronic Control Unit (ECU). As expected, the results showed a strong smoke emissions reduction for E20B10 in all tested conditions, mainly due to the high oxygen content of BE. Also a reduction of NOx emissions were observed with BE addiction. The results confirm that the CLCC adoption enables a significant improvement in the robustness of the engine performance and emissions when blends with low heat content and very low cetane number (as BE

  10. Load estimator-based hybrid controller design for two-interleaved boost converter dedicated to renewable energy and automotive applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougrine, Mohamed; Benmiloud, Mohammed; Benalia, Atallah; Delaleau, Emmanuel; Benbouzid, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the development of a hybrid controller for a two-interleaved boost converter dedicated to renewable energy and automotive applications. The control requirements, resumed in fast transient and low input current ripple, are formulated as a problem of fast stabilization of a predefined optimal limit cycle, and solved using hybrid automaton formalism. In addition, a real time estimation of the load is developed using an algebraic approach for online adjustment of the hybrid controller. Mathematical proofs are provided with simulations to illustrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed controller despite different disturbances. Furthermore, a fuel cell system supplying a resistive load through a two-interleaved boost converter is also highlighted. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforc...

  12. Emissions control for sensitive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The Gorgon project needs almost no introduction. Located off the north-west coast of Western Australia, it is one of the world's largest natural gas projects, set on the environmentally sensitive Barrow Island. To protect the island's unique habitats, stringent environmental conditions have been imposed in terms of air, noise and light emissions, making the emission control system critical to the project's viability. Luhr Filter, specialists in dust and fume control solutions, were chosen by KMH Environmental to supply an emission control system for a waste incinerator facility serving the LNG processing plant on Barrow Island. KMH's preference was for a 'one stop' supplier of the entire pollution control system. This included a heat exchanger which had the added benefit of a compact build to fit in the limited real estate. The solution put forward was tailored to the unique environmental requirements of the Gorgon project. It was very much about collaboration and innovation to achieve the requisite results. KMH were also keen to limit the number of sub-contractors they had to deal with, and Luhr offered them a turn-key plant for the gas cleaning, integrating design and supply of all the equipment. Among the environmental requirements was that all putrescible waste created on-site - from the accommodation camps during the construction and, eventually, production phases - had to be incinerated rather than sent to landfill. The flue gas from the incinerators had to be treated in order to meet world-class environmental standards for emission of particulate, acid gases, metals and dioxins. KMH designed an incinerator system with primary and secondary combustion chambers in modular units to minimise labour requirements on site. The dry absorption system integrates Luhr's unique technologies for heat exchangers, absorption reactors, utilisation of the absorbent and the baghouse style filters with reverse pulse bag cleaning

  13. An assessment of consistence of exhaust gas emission test results obtained under controlled NEDC conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balawender, K.; Jaworski, A.; Kuszewski, H.; Lejda, K.; Ustrzycki, A.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements concerning emissions of pollutants contained in automobile combustion engine exhaust gases is of primary importance in view of their harmful impact on the natural environment. This paper presents results of tests aimed at determining exhaust gas pollutant emissions from a passenger car engine obtained under repeatable conditions on a chassis dynamometer. The test set-up was installed in a controlled climate chamber allowing to maintain the temperature conditions within the range from -20°C to +30°C. The analysis covered emissions of such components as CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, THC, and NMHC. The purpose of the study was to assess repeatability of results obtained in a number of tests performed as per NEDC test plan. The study is an introductory stage of a wider research project concerning the effect of climate conditions and fuel type on emission of pollutants contained in exhaust gases generated by automotive vehicles.

  14. Carbon composite manufacturing in automotive volume production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiger, Raphael; Pahl, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Lightweight constructions are a continuously increasing trend in the automotive industry. Main drivers for that trend are the challenging emission reduction targets regarding combustion engines and increasing ranges in electric mobility. This article presents different composite production methods...... and discusses their ability within mass production giving also an example within the automotive production....

  15. The use of fuzzy logic in quality control testing of automotive and tractor equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobko А.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the relevance of the research topics, defines goals and objectives, subject and object of research. On the basis of the literature analysis, the following eduction was made: not all the test methods in road and agricultural vehicles (tractors contribute to the effective implementation of the requirements of normative documents including international, inter-laboratory comparative tests. The approach in laboratory testing to the synthesis adaptive system of metrological assurance the use of fuzzy logic is proposed. These labs conduct testing of automotive and tractor equipment. The decision is under risk. The scheme of metrological assurance system covers all parties to ensure the necessary accuracy of measurements and tests; the necessary normative-technical documentation is provided; availability of measuring instruments and test equipment, standards and reference measures; availability of qualified personnel; the assurance that test results are accurate (correct and precision; provides effective decisions based on objective information.

  16. Life-cycle analysis of energy and greenhouse gas emissions of automotive fuels in India: Part 1 – Tank-to-Wheel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Patil, V.; Himabindu, M.; Ravikrishna, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    As part of a two-part life cycle efficiency and greenhouse gas emission analysis for various automotive fuels in the Indian context, this paper presents the first part, i.e., Tank-to-Wheel analysis of various fuel/powertrain configurations for a subcompact passenger car. The Tank-to-Wheel analysis was applied to 28 fuel/powertrain configurations using fuels such as gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and hydrogen with various conventional and hybrid electric powertrains. The gasoline-equivalent fuel economy and carbon dioxide emission results for individual fuel/powertrain configuration are evaluated and compared. It is found that the split hybrid configuration is best among hybrids as it leads to fuel economy improvement and carbon dioxide emissions reduction by 20–40% over the Indian drive cycle. Further, the engine efficiency, engine on-off time and regenerative braking energy assessment is done to evaluate the causes for higher energy efficiency of hybrid electric vehicles. The hybridization increases average engine efficiency by 10–60% which includes 19–23% of energy recovered at wheel through regenerative braking over the drive cycle. Overall, the Tank-to-Wheel energy use and efficiency results are evaluated for all fuel/powertrain configurations which show Battery Electric Vehicle, fuel cell vehicles and diesel hybrids are near and long term energy efficient vehicle configurations. - Highlights: • Tank-to-Wheel energy use & CO 2 emissions for subcompact car on Indian driving cycle. • Gasoline, diesel, CNG, LPG, hydrogen and electric vehicles are evaluated in this study. • First comprehensive Tank-to-Wheel analysis for India on small passenger car platform. • Parallel, series and split hybrid electric vehicles with various fuels are analysed.

  17. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  18. Efficiency Standard in automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, G.

    2008-01-01

    A technological transition in the transport sector could be only be possible with a convergence of objectives of the automotive and the fuel industries, which is not very simple to obtain. Fuel economy standards could differently reduce the growing trend of CO 2 emissions in this sector but regulators should avoid capture from domestic industry. [it

  19. Evaporation Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    -scale ventilated room when the emission is fully or partly evaporation controlled. The objective of the present research work has been to investigate the change of emission rates from small-scale experiments to full-scale ventilated rooms and to investigate the influence of the local air velocity field near...

  20. Development of A Web-Based Information System for Material Inventory Control: The Case of An Automotive Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjana Setyoandara Wibisono

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Inventory control is controlling the materials movement to fulfill the requirements. The materials can from the direct and indirect materials. the indirect materials are the materials that cannot be calculated according to the bill of materials. Indirect materials need safety stocks, so the requirements can always be fulfilled, means it need the control and monitoring of their levels. To control the movement of the materials, each department have roles to control and information that need to be shared. PT XYZ is an automotive assembler company, the company need a tool to control the indirect materials inbound and outbound and control its stock. This research is to have the tool that will be a web-based program because to share the information throughout the department of planning, production, and logistics. In developing and implementing the program itself, the RUP methodology is used to guide in doing this research with having four phases and activities that support the research. The result is the program itself have been successful to fulfilled the user requirements. The program shows the real time information for the levels of the materials and also the inbound and outbound of the materials for the user to monitor its levels.

  1. Controlling fugitive emissions from mechanical seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that enactment of the 1990 Federal Clean Air Amendments will sharply focus efforts in the process industries to reduce fugitive emissions. Moreover, state and local governments may be imposing stricter laws and regulations which will affect allowable fugitive emissions from U.S. refineries and process plants. Plants outside the U.S. have similar concerns. Clearly, mechanical seals for process pumps represent an enormous population and is one category of equipment destined for careful evaluation as a means to control fugitive emissions. Fugitive are unintentional emissions from valves, pumps, flanges, compressors, etc., as opposed to point-source emissions from stacks, vents and flares. Fugitive emissions do not occur as a part of normal plant operations, but result from the effects of: Malfunctions, Age, Lack of proper maintenance, Operator error, Improper equipment specification, Use of inferior technology, and externally caused damage

  2. Exhaust gas emissions from various automotive fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects on health, environment and energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlvik, P.; Brandberg, Aa.

    1999-12-01

    The main aim of the investigation has been to assess the effects on health and environment from various alternative fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects that can be identified and quantified, such as acidification, ozone formation, cancer risk and climate change, have been of primary interest but other effects, such as respiratory diseases, have also been investigated. Data have been collected through literature surveys for subsequent calculation of the mentioned effects in different time-frames. Corrections have been used to take into consideration the influence of climate, ageing and driving pattern. Emissions generated in fuel production have also been accounted for. The most significant and important differences between the fuels have been found for effects as ozone formation cancer risk and particulate emissions. Alternative fuels, such as methanol and methane (natural gas and biogas), significantly decrease the ozone formation in comparison to petrol, while ethanol, methanol and methane are advantageous concerning cancer risk. The particulate emissions are considerably higher for diesel engines fuelled by diesel oil and RME in comparison to the other fuels. In the future, the importance of acid emissions in the fuel production will increase since the NO x and SO x emissions will decrease from the vehicles. The emissions of climate gases could be significantly reduced by using non-fossil fuels but the efficiency of the drive train is also of importance. The technical development potential for further emission reductions is considerable for all fuels but the advantage for the best fuel options will remain in the future

  3. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  4. Evaluation of heavy metals in atmospheric emissions from automotive industry by total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Weber Neto, Jose, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de, E-mail: aesvives@unimep.b [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2009-07-01

    This study had as goal to determine heavy metals and other elements (Ba, Br, Ca, Pb, Cl, Cr, Sr, Fe, Mn, Ni, K, Si, Ti and Zn) in atmospheric pollutants generated by an automotive industry located in the city of Engenheiro Coelho, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The sampling and sample preparation procedures were based on methods established by the Company of Sanitation and Technology (CETESB L9.234) and also by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA - Method 29). The analysis was performed at XRF Beamline (D09B-XRF) in the Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory (Campinas/SP). A white beam of synchrotron radiation was used for sample and standard excitation which were irradiated by 100 seconds. For X-ray lines detection, a Ge (HP) detector with 150 eV of resolution at 5.9 keV was employed. For zinc, iron, barium, calcium and potassium, the values obtained were in the range of 30 mg/Nm{sup 3} and, for other elements, the concentrations were approximately 1 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The sum of As, Be, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Te and Zn concentration was compared with the limits established by CONAMA 264/1999 and SEMA 041/2002 resolutions (7.0 mg/Nm{sup 3}) and it was observed that, for all samples, sums are higher than the permissive value mainly due to the high concentration of zinc. Detection limits for SR-TXRF technique were 0.10 mug/Nm{sup 3} for Pb and 0.02 mug/Nm{sup 3} for Zn. (author)

  5. Evaluation of heavy metals in atmospheric emissions from automotive industry by total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Weber Neto, Jose; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de

    2009-01-01

    This study had as goal to determine heavy metals and other elements (Ba, Br, Ca, Pb, Cl, Cr, Sr, Fe, Mn, Ni, K, Si, Ti and Zn) in atmospheric pollutants generated by an automotive industry located in the city of Engenheiro Coelho, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The sampling and sample preparation procedures were based on methods established by the Company of Sanitation and Technology (CETESB L9.234) and also by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA - Method 29). The analysis was performed at XRF Beamline (D09B-XRF) in the Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory (Campinas/SP). A white beam of synchrotron radiation was used for sample and standard excitation which were irradiated by 100 seconds. For X-ray lines detection, a Ge (HP) detector with 150 eV of resolution at 5.9 keV was employed. For zinc, iron, barium, calcium and potassium, the values obtained were in the range of 30 mg/Nm 3 and, for other elements, the concentrations were approximately 1 mg/Nm 3 . The sum of As, Be, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Te and Zn concentration was compared with the limits established by CONAMA 264/1999 and SEMA 041/2002 resolutions (7.0 mg/Nm 3 ) and it was observed that, for all samples, sums are higher than the permissive value mainly due to the high concentration of zinc. Detection limits for SR-TXRF technique were 0.10 μg/Nm 3 for Pb and 0.02 μg/Nm 3 for Zn. (author)

  6. Acidic emissions control technology and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmel, T.E.; Waddell, J.T.; Adams, R.C. (Radian Corp. (US))

    1989-01-01

    This book describes acidic emissions control technology and costs. The objectives are: to identify and characterize stationary combustion and industrial sources of directly emitted acidic materials in the United States; to evaluate the feasibility of control technologies for these sources; and to estimate the costs of applying these control technologies. This book gives results of estimates, using a model plant approach, of costs for retrofitting selected acidic emission control systems to utility and industrial boilers, Claus sulfur recovery plants, catalytic cracking units, primary copper smelters, coke oven plants, primary aluminum smelters, and municipal solid waste incinerators.

  7. Control of Jovian Radio Emission by Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menietti, J. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Christopher, I.

    2001-01-01

    Galileo has been in orbit around Jupiter since December 1995 and a large database has been collected. We present the results of a survey of the plasma wave data for the frequency range 2.0 MHz to 5.6 MHz, the low frequency decametric (DAM) emissions. While the control of a portion of the radio emission by the moon lo is well known, and Ganymede control has been more recently indicated, we report that a small but significant portion of DAM emission is seen to be correlated with the orbital phase of Callisto. While the occurrence rate of emission controlled by Ganymede and Callisto is considerably less than for lo, the power levels can be nearly the same. We estimate the power of the Callisto-dependent emission to be approx. 70% of the Io-dependent radio emission and about the same as the Ganymede-dependent radio emission. This result indicates an Alfven current system associated with Callisto, and thus a significant interaction of the magnetosphere of Callisto with that of Jupiter as is believed to exist for both lo and Ganymede.

  8. Economic growth and carbon emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    The question about whether environmental improvement is compatible with continued economic growth remains unclear and requires further study in a specific context. This study intends to provide insight on the potential for carbon emissions control in the absence of international agreement, and connect the empirical analysis with theoretical framework. The Chinese electricity generation sector is used as a case study to demonstrate the problem. Both social planner and private problems are examined to derive the conditions that define the optimal level of production and pollution. The private problem will be demonstrated under the emission regulation using an emission tax, an input tax and an abatement subsidy respectively. The social optimal emission flow is imposed into the private problem. To provide tractable analytical results, a Cobb-Douglas type production function is used to describe the joint production process of the desired output and undesired output (i.e., electricity and emissions). A modified Hamiltonian approach is employed to solve the system and the steady state solutions are examined for policy implications. The theoretical analysis suggests that the ratio of emissions to desired output (refer to 'emission factor'), is a function of productive capital and other parameters. The finding of non-constant emission factor shows that reducing emissions without further cutting back the production of desired outputs is feasible under some circumstances. Rather than an ad hoc specification, the optimal conditions derived from our theoretical framework are used to examine the relationship between desired output and emission level. Data comes from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook and provincial information of electricity generation for the year of 1993-2003 are used to estimate the Cobb-Douglas type joint production by the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method. The empirical analysis shed light on the optimal

  9. Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Harley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation.

    Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.2 to 38 μg g (dry mass−1 h−1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.3 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b, with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production

  10. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key

  11. Mediator effect of statistical process control between Total Quality Management (TQM) and business performance in Malaysian Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M. F.; Rasi, R. Z.; Zakuan, N.; Hisyamudin, M. N. N.

    2015-12-01

    In today's highly competitive market, Total Quality Management (TQM) is vital management tool in ensuring a company can success in their business. In order to survive in the global market with intense competition amongst regions and enterprises, the adoption of tools and techniques are essential in improving business performance. There are consistent results between TQM and business performance. However, only few previous studies have examined the mediator effect namely statistical process control (SPC) between TQM and business performance. A mediator is a third variable that changes the association between an independent variable and an outcome variable. This study present research proposed a TQM performance model with mediator effect of SPC with structural equation modelling, which is a more comprehensive model for developing countries, specifically for Malaysia. A questionnaire was prepared and sent to 1500 companies from automotive industry and the related vendors in Malaysia, giving a 21.8 per cent rate. Attempts were made at findings significant impact of mediator between TQM practices and business performance showed that SPC is important tools and techniques in TQM implementation. The result concludes that SPC is partial correlation between and TQM and BP with indirect effect (IE) is 0.25 which can be categorised as high moderator effect.

  12. Intelligent Production Monitoring and Control based on Three Main Modules for Automated Manufacturing Cells in the Automotive Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Ulrich; Kretzschmann, Ralf; Algebra, A. Vargas Veronica

    2008-01-01

    The automotive industry is distinguished by regionalization and customization of products. As consequence, the diversity of products will increase while the lot sizes will decrease. Thus, more product types will be handled along the process chain and common production paradigms will fail. Although Rapid Manufacturing (RM) methodology will be used for producing small individual lot sizes, new solution for joining and assembling these components are needed. On the other hand, the non-availability of existing operational knowledge and the absence of dynamic and explicit knowledge retrieval minimize the achievement of on-demand capabilities. Thus, in this paper, an approach for an Intelligent Production System will be introduced. The concept is based on three interlinked main modules: a Technology Data Catalogue (TDC) based on an ontology system, an Automated Scheduling Processor (ASP) based on graph theory and a central Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) for real-time sensor/actor communication. The concept is being implemented in a laboratory set-up with several assembly and joining processes and will be experimentally validated in some research and development projects

  13. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, including uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking, a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  14. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, including uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking, a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  15. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, includimg uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  16. Escalation Practices in Automotive Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Jurejevčič

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: In automotive business many risk-involved situations occur and when detected, an escalation process takes place. Although defined and controlled by process guidelines and being supported by experts, escalation brings increased emotional pressure and stress for parties involved. Do escalation processes in automotive industry maintain all implied challenges? Purpose: The purpose of the article is to present current status of escalation processes and gaps between theory and practice cases. Results of the analysis are recommendations of good engineering practice derived also from actual experiences and learned lessons. Method: The method involves analysis of practical cases from automotive development process, lessons learned, anonymous survey of automotive engineers and classification of experiences. Results: Results of the survey have shown that the controlled escalation process for know-how related escalations is needed in order to establish the environment where the team is able to provide new, sometimes unconventional ideas for the problem to be solved. Organization: Presented recommendations and measures enable organization and managers to put the expertise and experiences of employees into action for problem solving during escalation. Originality: In this article some practices are presented that, although simple and some yet seen, with proper adjustment stemming from real life processes give a fruitful settlement of escalations in automotive development business.

  17. Automotive electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basshuysen, R. van [ed.; Baun, R. [comp.

    2000-10-01

    Electronic equipment is indispensable in modern motor cars for active and passive safety, exhaust and consumption monitoring or comfort. Electric and electronic systems today account for nearly 20 percent of the production cost of a normal passenger car, with an upward trend. Infotainment equipment is a growing market, which gets center stage in this issue. Further subjects discussed are current electronic and mechatronic applications as well as new developments in data transmission, development tools and constructional elements. [German] Ohne Elektronik sind moderne Automobile nicht mehr vorstellbar. Ob aktive oder passive Sicherheit, Abgas, Verbrauch oder Komfort - der Fortschritt im Autombil ist eng verknuepft mit der Einfuehrung neuer elektronischer Systeme und Komponenten. Obwohl meist nicht sehr auffaellig in einer Black-box verpackt, liegen die anteiligen Herstellungskosten fuer die Elektrik und Elektronik bei einem Mittelklassefahrzeug schon bei knapp 20 Prozent. Tendenz: Weiter steigend. Waehrend die Segnungen von ABS, ESP oder Motormanagement fuer den Kunden unsichtbar bleiben, tritt die Elektronik mit den Infotainment-Systemen ins Rampenlicht. Hochwertige Audio-Anlagen im Doppel-DIN-Format und grosse Farbbildschirme sitzen an prominenter Stelle im Armaturenbrett. Elektronische Systeme werden damit fuer den Kunden sichtbar, greifbar und erlebbar. Doch je mehr Funktionen integriert werden, desto wichtiger wird eine einfache Bedienung, die den Fahrer moeglichst wenig vom Verkehrsgeschehen ablenkt. Das ist leider keine Selbstverstaendlichkeit: Eine klare, einfache Bedienung wurde in der Vergangenheit schon bei so manchem simplen Cassetten-Radio schmerzlich vermisst. Infotainment im Automobil ist ein Wachstumsmarkt - und das Schwerpunkt-Thema der vorliegenden zweiten Ausgabe von 'Automotive Electronics'. Darueber hinaus beschaeftigt sich auch diese Ausgabe mit aktuellen Elektronik- und Mechatronik-Anwendungen und berichtet ueber neue Entwicklungen

  18. Assessment of the controllability of condensible emissions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shareef, G.S.; Waddell, J.T.

    1990-10-01

    The report gives results of a study to gain insights into the condensible emissions area from an air toxics perspective, with emphasis on controllability and chemical composition of these emissions. The study: compiled existing data on condensible emissions; determined the chemical composition of condensible emissions, where possible; identified source categories that are major emitters of condensibles; evaluated the effectiveness of various control devices in reducing condensible emissions; and evaluated how the performance of currently available control technologies can be improved to better control condensible emissions. Two data bases were developed: the Condensibles Data Base contains 43 emission source categories; the Specialized Condensibles Data Base focuses on the chemical composition of condensible emissions.

  19. A study on the environmental impact of automotive fuels in the quality of the air in metropolitan area of São Paulo period from 2001 to 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Waldir Nunes dos Santos Junior

    2006-01-01

    The environmental impact of the automotive fuels in the quality of the air is one of the great problems of the current world. The present work had as objective to evaluate the air quality in RMSP (Metropolitan Area of São Paulo), in the period from 2001 to 2005. It presents, mainly, a study of the impact of the emissions of gases for light automotive vehicles, taking into account the PROCONVE (Program of Control of Automotive Air Pollution). The methodology involved a comparative study of the...

  20. Experimental Active Control of Automotive Disc Brake Rotor Squeal Using Dither

    Science.gov (United States)

    CUNEFARE, K. A.; GRAF, A. J.

    2002-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation into the application of “dither” control for the active control and suppression of automobile disc brake squeal. Dither control is characterized by the application of a control effort at a frequency higher than the disturbance to be controlled. In the particular system considered here, a vibro-acoustic analysis of a disc brake system during squeal determined the acoustic squeal signature to be emanating from the brake rotor. This squeal was eliminated, and could even be prevented from occurring, through the application of a harmonic force with a frequency higher than the squeal frequency. The harmonic force was generated by a stack of piezoelectric elements placed within the brake's caliper piston. The harmonic force represented a small variation about the mean clamping force exerted by the brake upon the rotor. The high-frequency vibration in the brake system due to the action of the control system was not heard if an ultrasonic control frequency was used. More importantly, the active control system is shown to be able to prevent squeal from even occurring. This gives rise to a possible active control system integrated into the brake system of automobiles to prevent squeal.

  1. Automotive Powertrain Software Evaluation Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Powale, Kalkin

    2018-01-01

    The software is a key differentiator and driver of innovation in the automotive industry. The major challenges for software development are increasing in complexity, shorter time-to-market, increase in development cost and demand of quality assurance. The complexity is increasing due to emission legislations, variants of product and new communication technologies being interfaced with the vehicle. The shorter development time is due to competition in the market, which requires faster feedback...

  2. Automotive systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Winner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    This book reflects the shift in design paradigm in automobile industry. It presents future innovations, often referred as  “automotive systems engineering”.  These cause fundamental innovations in the field of driver assistance systems and electro-mobility as well as fundamental changes in the architecture of the vehicles. New driving functionalities can only be realized if the software programs of multiple electronic control units work together correctly. This volume presents the new and innovative methods which are mandatory to master the complexity of the vehicle of the future.

  3. Automotive vehicle sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  4. CFD simulation of flow-pressure characteristics of a pressure control valve for automotive fuel supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dazhuan; Li, Shiyang; Wu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct CFD method for flow-pressure characteristic of a pressure control valve. • Fitted and interpreted the constants of the spool hydraulic force equation. • Established a flow coefficient function of both valve opening and pressure drop. • Developed an indirect CFD method based on the valve-governing equations. - Abstract: This study aims to elaborate on specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation methods for fitting the flow-pressure curve of a pressure control valve, which is spring-load valve widely used in the automotive fuel supply system. Given that the couple mechanism exists between the flow field in the valve and the spring system, numerous researchers chose to fit the characteristic curve with experimental approaches but scarcely focused on CFD methods. A direct CFD method is introduced in this study to solve this problem. Two evaluation criteria are used to determine whether the internal flow is physically real. An experiment is conducted to verify the simulation results, and the accuracy of this CFD method is proved. However, it is designed to solve one operating condition with fixed spring parameters and the accuracy depends on the amount of operating conditions. Thus, an indirect CFD method is developed based on the well-elaborated valve-governing equations to improve the efficiency and broaden the application extension. This method aims to simulate the exact value of the equation constants to uncouple the flow by numerical method. It is capable of dealing with changed operating conditions and varied spring parameters, and the results are also verified. The visualization of the internal flow provides a better understanding of the flow fields in the valve. The valve gap directly influences the hydraulic force distribution on the spool and causes most pressure loss. The physical meaning of the function constants are explained based on the flow analysis

  5. Visual control as a key factor in a production process of a company from automotive branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Borkowski

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical basis for one type of control in enterprises – visual control. It presents the meaning of visual control in the Toyota Production System and BOST researches as a tool of measure, among other things, the importance of visual control in production companies. The level of importance of visual control usage as one of the production process elements in the analysed company was indicated. The usage of visual control is a main factor in a production process of the analyzed company, the factor which provides continuous help to employees to check whether the process differs from the standard. The characteristic progression of production process elements was indicated and the SW factor (the use of visual control took the third place, PE factor (interruption of production when it detects a problem of quality turned out to be the most important one, while the least important was the EU factor (granting power of attorney down. The main tools for this evaluation: an innovative BOST survey - Toyota's management principles in questions, in particular, the Pareto-Lorenz diagram, radar graph and series of importance as graphical interpretation tools, were used to present the importance of each factor in relation to individual assessments.

  6. Catalyst for automotive emissions control in next generation. Relation of the intelligent property to its structure

    CERN Document Server

    Mizuki, J; Tanaka, H

    2003-01-01

    We use X-ray diffraction and absorption to show that the perovskite-based Pd catalyst retains its high metal dispersion owing to structural responses to the fluctuations in exhaust-gas composition that occur in state-of-the-art petrol engines. We find that as the catalyst is cycled between oxidative and reductive atmospheres typically encountered in exhaust gas, Pd reversibly moves into and out of the perovskite lattice. This movement appears to suppress the growth of metallic Pd particles, and hence explains the retention of high catalytic activity. (J.P.N.)

  7. The impact of decentralised control on firm-level inventory: evidence from the automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Holweg, M.; Williams, G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of decentralised control on finished goods inventory levels in a distribution system, and to identify the factors that determine the overall inventory level. Design/methodology/approach: The authors' study is based on a mixed method

  8. Control-Oriented Models for Real-Time Simulation of Automotive Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavina N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A control-oriented model of a Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT was developed for real-time Hardware In the Loop (HIL applications, to support model-based development of the DCT controller and to systematically test its performance. The model is an innovative attempt to reproduce the fast dynamics of the actuation system while maintaining a simulation step size large enough for real-time applications. The model comprehends a detailed physical description of hydraulic circuit, clutches, synchronizers and gears, and simplified vehicle and internal combustion engine sub-models. As the oil circulating in the system has a large bulk modulus, the pressure dynamics are very fast, possibly causing instability in a real-time simulation; the same challenge involves the servo valves dynamics, due to the very small masses of the moving elements. Therefore, the hydraulic circuit model has been modified and simplified without losing physical validity, in order to adapt it to the real-time simulation requirements. The results of offline simulations have been compared to on-board measurements to verify the validity of the developed model, which was then implemented in a HIL system and connected to the Transmission Control Unit (TCU. Several tests have been performed on the HIL simulator, to verify the TCU performance: electrical failure tests on sensors and actuators, hydraulic and mechanical failure tests on hydraulic valves, clutches and synchronizers, and application tests comprehending all the main features of the control actions performed by the TCU. Being based on physical laws, in every condition the model simulates a plausible reaction of the system. A test automation procedure has finally been developed to permit the execution of a pattern of tests without the interaction of the user; perfectly repeatable tests can be performed for non-regression verification, allowing the testing of new software releases in fully automatic mode.

  9. Making aerospace technology work for the automotive industry, introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    NASA derived technology already in use in the automotive industry include: (1) developments in electronics design, computer systems, and quality control methods for line testing of cars and trucks; (2) a combustion analysis computer program for automotive engine research and development; (3) an infrared scanner and television display for analyzing tire design and performance, and for studying the effects of heat on the service life of V-belts, shock mounts, brakes, and rubber bearings; (4) exhaust gas analyzers for trouble shooting and emissions certification; (5) a device for reducing noise from trucks; and (6) a low cost test vehicle for measuring highway skid resistance. Services offered by NASA to facilitate access to its technology are described.

  10. Emission Control Technologies for Thermal Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihalani, S. A.; Mishra, Y.; Juremalani, J.

    2018-03-01

    Coal thermal power plants are one of the primary sources of artificial air emissions, particularly in a country like India. Ministry of Environment and Forests has proposed draft regulation for emission standards in coal-fired power plants. This includes significant reduction in sulphur-dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and mercury emissions. The first step is to evaluate the technologies which represent the best selection for each power plant based on its configuration, fuel properties, performance requirements, and other site-specific factors. This paper will describe various technology options including: Flue Gas Desulfurization System, Spray Dryer Absorber (SDA), Circulating Dry Scrubber (CDS), Limestone-based Wet FGD, Low NOX burners, Selective Non Catalytic Reduction, Electrostatic Precipitator, Bag House Dust Collector, all of which have been evaluated and installed extensively to reduce SO2, NOx, PM and other emissions. Each control technology has its advantages and disadvantages. For each of the technologies considered, major features, potential operating and maintenance cost impacts, as well as key factors that contribute to the selection of one technology over another are discussed here.

  11. Hybrid Electric Power Train and Control Strategies Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Frank

    2006-05-31

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) offer societal benefits through their ability to displace the use of petroleum fuels. Petroleum fuels represent a polluting and politically destabilizing energy carrier. PHEV technologies can move transportation away from petroleum fuel sources by enabling domestically generated electricity and liquids bio-fuels to serve as a carrier for transportation energy. Additionally, the All-Electric-Range (AER) offered by PHEVs can significantly reduce demand for expensive and polluting liquid fuels. The GATE funding received during the 1998 through 2004 funding cycle by the UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center (HEVC) was used to advance and train researchers in PHEV technologies. GATE funding was used to construct a rigorous PHEV curriculum, provide financial support for HEVC researchers, and provide material support for research efforts. A rigorous curriculum was developed through the UC Davis Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Department to train HEVC researchers. Students' research benefited from this course work by advancing the graduate student researchers' understanding of key PHEV design considerations. GATE support assisted HEVC researchers in authoring technical articles and producing patents. By supporting HEVC researchers multiple Master's theses were written as well as journal articles and publications. The topics from these publications include Continuously Variable Transmission control strategies and PHEV cross platform controls software development. The GATE funding has been well used to advance PHEV systems. The UC Davis Hybrid Electric Vehicle Center is greatly appreciative for the opportunities GATE funding provided. The goals and objectives for the HEVC GATE funding were to nourish engineering research in PHEV technologies. The funding supplied equipment needed to allow researchers to investigate PHEV design sensitivities and to further optimize system components. Over a dozen PHEV

  12. Electronic control units for automotive electrical power systems communication and networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrinath, A.; Emadi, A. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL(United States)

    2004-11-01

    The last decade has seen a resurgence of advanced technologies being implemented in automobiles. Functions that were considered highly complex and difficult to be implemented are not only being provided but various other facilities are also being built on those very functions. Everything from engine control to multimedia and infotainment services is implemented in today's automobiles. This has been due largely to the strides made by the electronics as well as the communications industry. The emergence of the concept of providing the customer with all possible services has led to an explosion of implementation of high-end electronics, each providing a facility of its own. When so many devices are being embedded in a car, there also has to be a mechanism that should regulate the way in which data transfer takes place. It is the objective of this paper to provide an insight into most of the communication protocols that are being used, as well as technologies that are under development in the automobile industry of today. Various protocols and their modus operandi are explained, with schematics completing the picture. (author)

  13. Advanced Catalytic Converter in Gasoline Enginer Emission Control: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust emission from automobile source has become a major contributor to the air pollution and environmental problem. Catalytic converter is found to be one of the most effective tools to reduce the overwhelming exhaust pollutants in our environment. The development of sustainable catalytic converter still remains a critical issue due to the stringent exhaust emission regulations. Another issue such as price and availability of the precious metal were also forced the automotive industry to investigate the alternatives for producing a better replacement for the material used in catalytic converter. This paper aims at reviewing the present development and improvement on the catalytic converter used on the reduction of exhaust emission in order to meet the regulations and market demand. The use of new catalyst such as to replace the noble metal material of Platinum (Pt, Palladium (Pd and Rhodium (Rh has been reviewed. Material such as zeolite, nickel oxide and metal oxide has been found to effectively reduce the emission than the commercial converter. The preparation method of the catalyst has also evolved through the years as it is to ensure a good characteristic of a good monolith catalyst. Ultrasonic treatment with combination of electroplating technique, citrate method and Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO has been found as the latest novel preparation method on producing an effective catalyst in reducing the exhaust emission.

  14. Identification of optimum friction stir spot welding process parameters controlling the properties of low carbon automotive steel joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Lakshminarayanan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir spot welding is a novel solid state process that has recently received considerable attention from various industries including automotive sectors due to many advantages over the resistance spot welding. However to apply this technique, the process parameters must be optimized to obtain improved mechanical properties compared to resistance spot welding. To achieve this, in this investigation, design of experiments was used to conduct the experiments for exploring the interdependence of the process parameters. A second order quadratic model for predicting the lap shear tensile strength of friction stir spot welded low carbon automotive steel joints was developed from the experimental obtained data. It is found that dwell time plays a major role in deciding the joint properties, which is followed by rotational speed and plunge depth. Further optimum process parameters were identified for maximum lap shear tensile strength using numerical and graphical optimization techniques.

  15. Recycling of automotive aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jirang; Roven, Hans Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    With the global warming of concern, the secondary aluminum stream is becoming an even more important component of aluminum production and is attractive because of its economic and environmental benefits. In this work, recycling of automotive aluminum is reviewed to highlight environmental benefits of aluminum recycling, use of aluminum alloys in automotive applications, automotive recycling process, and new technologies in aluminum scrap process. Literature survey shows that newly developed t...

  16. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  17. Savannah River Plant airborne emissions and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukes, E.K.; Benjamin, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) was established to produce special nuclear materials, principally plutonium and tritium, for national defense needs. Major operating facilities include three nuclear reactors, two chemical separations plants, a fuel and target fabrication plant, and a heavy-water rework plant. An extensive environmental surveillance program has been maintained continuously since 1951 (before SRP startup) to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in a 1200-square-mile area centered on the plant, and the radiation exposure of the population resulting from SRP operations. This report provides data on SRP emissions, controls systems, and airborne radioactive releases. The report includes descriptions of current measurement technology. 10 references, 14 figures, 9 tables

  18. Measuring and controlling greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrier, Herve; LAFONT, Bruno; Fischer, Severin; Leonard, Damien; Tutenuit, Claire

    2011-05-01

    As providing a reporting of their greenhouse gas emissions has become mandatory for a large number of French companies, this publication proposes a methodology to perform an assessment or measurement, and a control of such emissions. In its first part, it explains why measurements are required: indication of concerned gases, international consensus to limit temperature rise, definition and chronology of the main steps adopted at the international level and which must be considered in the approach adopted by enterprises in this respect. It outlines the benefits of such a measurement for the enterprise in terms of competitiveness, personnel commitment, new markets and products, image, compliance with the law, operational and financial aspects, and so on. It identifies the various stakeholders to be informed: civil society, financial community, public authorities, clients and consumers, personnel, suppliers. It outlines the diversity and evolution of legal frameworks at the international level as well as at national levels. While evoking many examples of French companies (SNCF, EDF, Seche Environnement, RTE, Michelin, Arcelormittal, AREVA, Air France, EADS-Airbus, AXA, Veolia, and so on), the next part addresses how to measure emissions. It outlines the complexity of the methodological landscape with its various criteria, evokes the various existing standards, outlines the distinction between organisation-based, product-based and project-based approaches, and the distinction between direct and indirect emissions in relationship with the notion of scope. It comments the existence of sector-based methodologies and guidelines, and discusses some difficulties and methodological decisions. The third part proposes some lessons learned from the experience which could lead to a harmonisation of methodologies, proposes a synthesis of reporting approaches, outlines risks and opportunities related to communication

  19. The impact of global warming on the automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannappel, Ralf

    2017-08-01

    One cause of global warming of the earth's atmosphere is the emission of human made gases (methane, CO2, nitrous oxygen, etc.) into the environment. Of the total global CO2 emissions the transportation sector contributes to about 14%. In order to control the emissions of the automotive sector, in all major countries (USA, Europe, China, Japan) of the world, tough emissions targets were being set to reduce the vehicle traffic's contribution of CO2. These are derived from the global climate conference' target to limit the maximum temperature increase of the earth of 2 degrees Celsius until 2100. In order to achieve these stringent targets the automotive industry will face a major change in its drivetrain. It will move from combustion to electrical engines. The technical realization of these engines will most likely be battery and fuel cell driven propulsion systems. In order to achieve that transition a major effort is required in 4 industrial areas, i.e. growing electrical charging infrastructure, lowering battery cost, increasing the battery-electric vehicle ranges and developing new environmental friendly hydrogen production methods.

  20. Implications of diesel emissions control failures to emission factors and road transport NOx evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Papadimitriou, Giannis; Ligterink, Norbert; Hausberger, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Diesel NOx emissions have been at the forefront of research and regulation scrutiny as a result of failures of late vehicle technologies to deliver on-road emissions reductions. The current study aims at identifying the actual emissions levels of late light duty vehicle technologies, including Euro 5 and Euro 6 ones. Mean NOx emission factor levels used in the most popular EU vehicle emission models (COPERT, HBEFA and VERSIT+) are compared with latest emission information collected in the laboratory over real-world driving cycles and on the road using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS). The comparison shows that Euro 5 passenger car (PC) emission factors well reflect on road levels and that recently revealed emissions control failures do not call for any significant corrections. However Euro 5 light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and Euro 6 PCs in the 2014-2016 period exhibit on road emission levels twice as high as used in current models. Moreover, measured levels vary a lot for Euro 6 vehicles. Scenarios for future evolution of Euro 6 emission factors, reflecting different degree of effectiveness of emissions control regulations, show that total NOx emissions from diesel Euro 6 PC and LCV may correspond from 49% up to 83% of total road transport emissions in 2050. Unless upcoming and long term regulations make sure that light duty diesel NOx emissions are effectively addressed, this will have significant implications in meeting future air quality and national emissions ceilings targets.

  1. Experimental Validation of a Virtual Engine-Out NOx Sensor for Diesel Emission Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escobar Valdivieso, D.; Mentink, P.; Külah, S.; Forrai, A.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by automotive emissions legislations, a Virtual NOx sensor is developed. This virtual sensor consists of a real-time, phenomenological model that computes engine-out NOx by using the measured in-cylinder pressure signal from a single cylinder as its main input. The implementation is made

  2. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  3. Automotive Industry in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter; Govindaraju, V.G.R. Chandran

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains the evolution and assesses the development of the Malaysian automotive industry within the premise of infant industry and trade protection framework as well as extended arguments of infant industry using a global value chain perspective. The Malaysian automotive industry...

  4. Controlling nanowire emission profile using conical taper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The influence of a conical taper on nanowire light emission is studied. For nanowires with divergent output beams, the introduction of tapers improves the emission profile and increase the collection efficiency of the detection optics.......The influence of a conical taper on nanowire light emission is studied. For nanowires with divergent output beams, the introduction of tapers improves the emission profile and increase the collection efficiency of the detection optics....

  5. Evaluation of a randomized controlled trial in the management of chronic lower back pain in a French automotive industry: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Hala; Brosset, Nicolas; Guillaume, Marion; Delore-Milles, Emilie; Tafflet, Muriel; Buchholz, Frédéric; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate a specific workplace intervention for the management of chronic lower back pain among employees working in assembly positions in the automotive industry. Randomized controlled trial. On site at the workplace of a French automotive manufacturer. Subjects (N=75 volunteers) were recruited on site and randomly assigned to either an experimental group (n=37) or a control group (n=38). The experimental group followed a supervised 60-minute session, 3 times per week, of muscle strengthening, flexibility, and endurance training during 2 months. The control group received no direct intervention. Evaluation took place at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months. Pain related parameters were evaluated using validated questionnaires and scales translated into French (Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale, Rolan Morris Disability Questionnaire, Dallas Pain Questionnaire, and the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia). Perceived pain intensity was evaluated using the numerical rating scale, and physical outcome measures were evaluated using specific indicators (flexibility, Biering-Sorensen Test, Shirado test). The multivariate analysis of variance, t test, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used for statistical analysis. We observed a significant beneficial effect (P<.025) for the experimental group at 2 and 6 months in pain parameters, specific flexibility, and in back functions, and a significant improvement at 6 months in the control group for the perceived pain intensity, anterior flexion, flexibility of quadriceps, and Dallas Pain Questionnaire's work recreational score. An increase in the practice of physical activity outside the workplace was noted in both groups at 2 months but persisted at 6 months for the experimental group. This study reinforces the multiple health benefits of physical activity and physical therapy modalities in the workplace by assisting individuals at risk who have chronic LBP. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by

  6. Antenna Arrays and Automotive Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This book throws a lifeline to designers wading through mounds of antenna array patents looking for the most suitable systems for their projects. Drastically reducing the research time required to locate solutions to the latest challenges in automotive communications, it sorts and systematizes material on cutting-edge antenna arrays that feature multi-element communication systems with enormous potential for the automotive industry. These new systems promise to make driving safer and more efficient, opening up myriad applications, including vehicle-to-vehicle traffic that prevents collisions, automatic toll collection, vehicle location and fine-tuning for cruise control systems. This book’s exhaustive coverage begins with currently deployed systems, frequency ranges and key parameters. It proceeds to examine system geometry, analog and digital beam steering technology (including "smart" beams formed in noisy environments), maximizing signal-to-noise ratios, miniaturization, and base station technology that ...

  7. National Automotive Center - NAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Encouraged by the advantages of collaboration, the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) worked with the Secretary of the...

  8. Emissions inventories and options for control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swart, R.J.; Van Amstel, A.R.; Van den Born, G.J.; Kroeze, C. [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1995-11-01

    In 1990, little was known about the emissions of greenhouse gases in the Netherlands, notably those of the non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases. Uncertainties included the causes, the emissions factors and the regional distribution of emissions. The main objectives of the project at that time were formulated as follows: (a) provide information for prioritizing greenhouse gas emissions research in the Netherlands; (b) provide input data for global models (later shifted to the EDGAR-project); and (c) support national and international policy development. The emphasis of the project was on non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases, notably methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). While state-of-the-art information from international research would be used and analyzed, the focus of the project was on the Dutch emissions and their causes. Information was drawn from literature research, discussions with national and international experts, and experimental information from several projects. 2 figs., 12 refs.

  9. Automotive fuel efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    For at least the remainder of this century, the United States faces a growing dependence on imported oil. Costs are substantial, and they will mount. In June 1992, net imports provided nearly 50% of supplies, and their cost was $4.3 billion. Cost of net imports of motor vehicles and parts amounted to $3.0 billion. The two items combined totaled more than the negative trade balance of $6.6 billion. The light-duty highway fleet alone accounted for 38.2% of U.S. oil consumption in 1988. Correspondingly, the fleet was a substantial emitter of air pollutants - NO x , CO, and nonmethane hydrocarbons. In addition, it was a major source of CO 2 . The twin problems of oil imports and pollution would be ameliorated if the fuel economy if cars and trucks could be improved and their emissions were also reduced. In principle, the mileage of US automobiles could be substantially improved. But on purchasing a car, U.S. buyers rank fuel efficiency eight when making their choice. They are attracted to options that lower mileage. Consumers also tend to prefer large cars over small ones for reasons of safety. Increasingly, buyers are purchasing light trucks and vans that have inferior fuel efficiency. As a result of the above trends, the average mileage of the US automotive fleet has been diminishing. As long as fuel is available at comparatively low prices and there is no federal requirement for better mileage, improvement is unlikely. Moreover, even if improvements were mandated, change would be slow

  10. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission in Beijing and discusses the following mitigation strategies: Improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through e.g. Inspection Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles and road infrastructure and traffic policies. (Author)

  11. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission in Beijing and discusses the following mitigation strategies: Improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through e.g. Inspection Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles and road infrastructure and traffic policies. (Author)

  12. Automotive sensors: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosser, S J

    2007-01-01

    This paper will provide a review of past, present and future automotive sensors. Today's vehicles have become highly complex sophisticated electronic control systems and the majority of innovations have been solely achieved through electronics and the use of advanced sensors. A range of technologies have been used over the past twenty years including silicon microengineering, thick film, capacitive, variable reluctance, optical and radar. The automotive sensor market continues to grow with respect to vehicle production level in recognition of the transition to electronically controlled electrically actuated systems. The environment for these sensors continues to be increasingly challenging with respect to robustness, reliability, quality and cost

  13. Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

    1993-01-01

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission es...

  14. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European Emission Control Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldanová, J.; Fridell, E.; Winnes, H.; Holmin-Fridell, S.; Boman, J.; Jedynska, A.; Tishkova, V.; Demirdjian, B.; Joulie, S.; Bladt, H.; Ivleva, N. P.; Niessner, R.

    2013-12-01

    .1-0.8% and 0.1-0.6% of fuel S converted to PM sulphate for HFO and MGO, respectively. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images of the collected PM showed three different types of particles: relatively pure soot; char and char-mineral particles; and amorphous, probably organic particles containing inorganic impurities. The maps of elements obtained from STEM showed a heterogeneous composition of primary soot particles with respect to the trace metals and sulphur. Temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) of PM showed higher soot oxidation reactivity compared to automotive diesel soot, PM from the HFO exhaust being more reactive than PM from the MGO exhaust. Oxidative potential measured as the rate of consumption of Dithiothreitol (DTT) was for the first time measured on PM from ship exhaust. The obtained values were between 0.01 and 0.04 nmol DTT min-1 μg-1 PM, which is quite similar to oxidative potentials of PM collected at urban and traffic sites. The data obtained during the experiments add information about emission factors for both gaseous and PM-bound compounds from ship engines using different fuels and under different engine-load conditions. Observed variability of the EFs illustrates uncertainties of these emission factors as a result of influences from fuel and lubricant composition, from differences between individual engines and from the differences in sampling conditions.

  15. Online Traffic Signal Control for Reducing Vehicle Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Toshihiko; Otokita, Tohru; Niikura, Satoshi

    In Japan, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by vehicles have been increasing year by year and it is well known that CO2 causes a serious global warming problem. For urban traffic control systems, there is a great demand for realization of signal control measures as soon as possible due to the urgency of the recent environmental situation. This paper describes a new traffic signal control for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions on an arterial road. First, we develop a model for estimating the emissions using the traffic delay and the number of stops a driver makes. Second, to find the optimal control parameters, we introduce a random search method with rapid convergence suitable for an online traffic control. We conduct experiments in Kawasaki to verify the effectiveness of our method. The experiments show that our approach decreases not only the emissions but also congestion and travel time significantly, compared to the method implemented in the real system.

  16. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; Schijndel, J. van; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  17. Emission control with route optimization in solid waste collection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Emission control with route optimization in solid waste collection process: A case study. Omer Apaydin M Talha Gonullu ... This study was performed in Trabzon City with 39 districts, a shortest path model was used in order to optimize solid waste collection/hauling processes to minimize emission. Unless it performs route ...

  18. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  19. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE. PROGRAM OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    INFORMATIONAL TOPICS COVERED IN THE TEXT MATERIALS AND SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILMS FOR A 2-YEAR, 55 MODULE PROGRAM IN AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE ARE GIVEN. THE 30 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1" ARE AVAILABLE AS VT 005 655 - VT 005 684, AND THE 25 MODULES FOR "AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2" ARE AVAILABLE…

  20. Standardized Curriculum for Automotive Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: automotive mechanics I and II. The six units in automotive mechanics I are as follows: orientation and safety; tools, equipment, and manuals; measurement; automotive engines; basic electrical systems; and fuel systems. Automotive…

  1. Automotive NVH technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nijman, Eugenius; Priebsch, Hans-Herwig

    2016-01-01

    This book presents seven chapters examining selected noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) topics that are highly relevant for automotive vehicle development. These include applications following the major trends toward increased passenger comfort, vehicle electrification and lightweight design. The authors of the seven chapters, all of which are experts from the automotive industry and academia, present the foremost challenges and potential solutions in this demanding field. Among others, applications for sound optimization in downsized engines, noise optimization in electric powertrains, weight reduction options for exhaust systems, porous materials description, and the vibro-acoustic analysis of geared systems are discussed.

  2. Self-organized global control of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyuan; Fenn, Daniel J.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2010-09-01

    There is much disagreement concerning how best to control global carbon emissions. We explore quantitatively how different control schemes affect the collective emission dynamics of a population of emitting entities. We uncover a complex trade-off which arises between average emissions (affecting the global climate), peak pollution levels (affecting citizens’ everyday health), industrial efficiency (affecting the nation’s economy), frequency of institutional intervention (affecting governmental costs), common information (affecting trading behavior) and market volatility (affecting financial stability). Our findings predict that a self-organized free-market approach at the level of a sector, state, country or continent can provide better control than a top-down regulated scheme in terms of market volatility and monthly pollution peaks. The control of volatility also has important implications for any future derivative carbon emissions market.

  3. Diffusion and Evaporation-Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus

    is proposed. The interest has been focused on the emission of vapours and gases as no particulate emissions have been considered. The methods used are numerical calculations by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and full-scale laboratory experiments. It was found that the emission is a strong function of air...... change rate, local air velocity and local turbulence intensity as the mass transfer coefficient increases in proportion to these parameters. The experimental results moreover exhibit the behaviour of a diffusion-controlled emission process at the end of the experiments. A simplified version of the model...... proposed was applied to investigate the influence of source diffusion coefficient and air velocity on the concentration distribution. The findings show that the mass transfer coefficient increases in proportion to the velocity when the emission is controlled by evaporation from the surface. As to diffusion...

  4. Fatigue life of automotive rubber jounce bumper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, R S; Ali, Aidy

    2010-01-01

    It is evident that most rubber components in the automotive industry are subjected to repetitive loading. Vigorous research is needed towards improving the safety and reliability of the components. The study was done on an automotive rubber jounce bumper with a rubber hardness of 60 IRHD. The test was conducted in displacement-controlled environment under compressive load. The existing models by Kim, Harbour, Woo and Li were adopted to predict the fatigue life. The experimental results show strong similarities with the predicted models.

  5. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, Mikhail; Sigsgaard, Charlotte; Tagesson, Torbern

    2013-01-01

    controlling methane emission, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 emissions were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010) despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table). Late-season bursts of CH4...... short-term control factors (temperature and water table). Our findings suggest the importance of multiyear studies with a continued focus on shoulder seasons in Arctic ecosystems....

  6. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Brighigna, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen fueled vehicles may just be the answer to the air pollution problem in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives. This paper examines the feasibility of hydrogen as an automotive fuel by analyzing the following aspects: the chemical-physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems; current production technologies and commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. With reference to recent trial results being obtained in the USA, an assessment is also made of the feasibility of the use of methane-hydrogen mixtures as automotive fuels. The paper concludes with a review of progress being made by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) in the development of fuel storage and electronic fuel injection systems for hydrogen powered vehicles

  7. Exhaust gas emissions from various automotive fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects on health, environment and energy utilization; Avgasemissioner fraan laetta fordon drivna med olika drivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlvik, P.; Brandberg, Aa. [Ecotraffic RandD AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The main aim of the investigation has been to assess the effects on health and environment from various alternative fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects that can be identified and quantified, such as acidification, ozone formation, cancer risk and climate change, have been of primary interest but other effects, such as respiratory diseases, have also been investigated. Data have been collected through literature surveys for subsequent calculation of the mentioned effects in different time-frames. Corrections have been used to take into consideration the influence of climate, ageing and driving pattern. Emissions generated in fuel production have also been accounted for. The most significant and important differences between the fuels have been found for effects as ozone formation cancer risk and particulate emissions. Alternative fuels, such as methanol and methane (natural gas and biogas), significantly decrease the ozone formation in comparison to petrol, while ethanol, methanol and methane are advantageous concerning cancer risk. The particulate emissions are considerably higher for diesel engines fuelled by diesel oil and RME in comparison to the other fuels. In the future, the importance of acid emissions in the fuel production will increase since the NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions will decrease from the vehicles. The emissions of climate gases could be significantly reduced by using non-fossil fuels but the efficiency of the drive train is also of importance. The technical development potential for further emission reductions is considerable for all fuels but the advantage for the best fuel options will remain in the future.

  8. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  9. Diesel Catalytic Converters As Emission Control Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Banna, S.; El Deen, O.N.

    2004-01-01

    Internal combustion engines are devices that generate work from combustion reactions. Combustion products under high pressure produce work by expansion through a turbine or piston. The combustion reactions inside these engines are not necessarily neutralizing or complete and air pollutants are produced. There are three major types of internal combustion engine(l) in use today: I) the spark ignition engine, which is used primarily in automobiles; 2) the diesel engine, which is used in large vehicles and industrial systems where cycle efficiency offers advantages over the more compact and lighter-weight spark ignition engine and; 3) the gas turbine, which is used in aircraft due to its high power/weight ratio and is also used for stationary power generation. Each of these types of engine is an important source of atmospheric pollutants. Automobiles are the one of the major source of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides. Probably more than any other combustion system, the design of automobile engines is now being guided by requirements to reduce emissions of these pollutants. While substantial progress has been made in emission reduction, automobiles remain important sources of air pollutants

  10. Future automotive materials: Evolution or revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardmore, P.

    1990-01-01

    An exciting era is evolving in the application of new materials technologies to automotive applications. The desire on the part of the automobile industry to completely satisfy the customers while concurrently meeting increasing demands and regulations for stringent emission control and fuel efficiency is opening a plethora of opportunities for new materials. In many cases, materials solutions are the only mechanisms for resolving some of the upcoming issues. The materials scientist and engineer will therefore have a primary role to play and will assume a position of significance hithertofore unseen in the automobile industry. The nature of the industry dictates that changes are primarily evolutionary with respect to chronology but nevertheless some of the future material changes will be revolutionary in nature. This presentation will treat three primary systems of the vehicle separately, based on the different materials approaches which will be adopted. These areas are: (1) skin panels, (2) structures, and (3) powertrains. The competition between a variety of new materials in these 3 systems will be discussed in detail with the various tradeoffs being outlined. Amongst the more prominent of the new breed of materials will be new steel technologies, structural plastics (FRP), aluminum alloys (conventional and rapidly solidified), titanium alloys, metal matrix composites and smart materials (electrorheological fluids, etc.). The pace of development and application is accelerating rapidly and the impetus is likely to increase.

  11. Control strategies for vehicular NOx emissions in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Min; Zhang Yuanhang; Raufer, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Guangzhou is a city in southern China that has experienced very rapid economic development in recent years. The city's air has very high concentrations of various pollutants, including sulphur dioxide (SO 2 , oxides of nitrogen (NOx), ozone (O 3 ) and particulate. This paper reviews the changes in air quality in the city over the past 15 years, and notes that a serious vehicular-related emissions problem has been superimposed on the traditional coal-burning problem evident in most Chinese cities. As NOx concentrations have increased, oxidants and photochemical smog now interact with the traditional SO 2 and particulate pollutants, leading to increased health risks and other environmental concerns. Any responsible NOx control strategy for the city must include vehicle emission control measures. This paper reviews control strategies designed to abate vehicle emissions to fulfill the city's air quality improvement target in 2010. A cost-effectiveness analysis suggests that, while NOx emission control is expensive, vehicular emission standards could achieve a relatively sizable emissions reduction at reasonable cost. To achieve the 2010 air quality target of NOx, advanced implementation of EURO3 standards is recommended, substituting for the EURO2 currently envisioned in the national regulations Related technical options, including fuel quality improvements and inspection/maintenance (I/M) upgrades (ASM or IM240) are assessed as well. (author)

  12. Future Automotive Aftertreatment Solutions: The 150°C Challenge Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zammit, Michael; DiMaggio, Craig L.; Kim, Chang H.; Lambert, Christine; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Parks, James E.; Howden, Ken

    2013-10-15

    With future fuel economy standards enacted, the U.S. automotive manufacturers (OEMs) are committed to pursuing a variety of high risk/highly efficient stoichiometric and lean combustion strategies to achieve superior performance. In recognition of this need, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has partnered with domestic automotive manufacturers through U.S. DRIVE to develop these advanced technologies. However, before these advancements can be introduced into the U.S. market, they must also be able to meet increasingly stringent emissions requirements. A significant roadblock to this implementation is the inability of current catalyst and aftertreatment technologies to provide the required activity at the much lower exhaust temperatures that will accompany highly efficient combustion processes and powertrain strategies. Therefore, the goal of this workshop and report is to create a U.S. DRIVE emission control roadmap that will identify new materials and aftertreatment approaches that offer the potential for 90% conversion of emissions at low temperature (150°C) and are consistent with highly efficient combustion technologies currently under investigation within U.S. DRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) programs.

  13. Effects of a Dual-Loop Exhaust Gas Recirculation System and Variable Nozzle Turbine Control on the Operating Parameters of an Automotive Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Zamboni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of NOX emissions and fuel consumption are the main topics in engine development, forcing the adoption of complex techniques and components, whose interactions have to be clearly understood for proper and reliable operations and management of the whole system. The investigation presented in this paper aimed at the development of integrated control strategies of turbocharging, high pressure (HP and low pressure (LP exhaust gas recirculation (EGR systems for better NOX emissions and fuel consumption, while analyzing their reciprocal influence and the resulting variations of engine quantities. The study was based on an extended experimental program in three part load engine operating conditions. In the paper a comparison of the behavior of the main engine sub-systems (intake and exhaust circuits, turbocharger turbine and compressor, HP and LP EGR loops in a wide range of operating modes is presented and discussed, considering open and closed loop approaches for variable nozzle turbine (VNT control, and showing how these affect engine performance and emissions. The potential of significant decrease in NOX emissions through the integration of HP and LP EGR was confirmed, while a proper VNT management allowed for improved fuel consumption level, if an open loop control scheme is followed. At higher engine speed and load, further actions have to be applied to compensate for observed soot emissions increase.

  14. Rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2015-01-01

    Rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers is dealt with in this book encompassing the widely working field of small turbomachines under real operating conditions at the very high rotor speeds up to 300000 rpm. The broadly interdisciplinary field of turbocharger rotordynamics involves 1) Thermodynamics and Turbo-Matching of Turbochargers 2) Dynamics of Turbomachinery 3) Stability Analysis of Linear Rotordynamics with the Eigenvalue Theory 4) Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Rotordynamics with the Bifurcation Theory 5) Bearing Dynamics of the Oil Film using the Two-Phase Reynolds Equation 6) Computation of Nonlinear Responses of a Turbocharger Rotor 7) Aero and Vibroacoustics of Turbochargers 8) Shop and Trim Balancing at Two Planes of the Rotor 9) Tribology of the Bearing Surface Roughness 10) Design of Turbocharger Platforms using the Similarity Laws The rotor response of an automotive turbocharger at high rotor speeds is studied analytically, computationally, and experimentally. Due to the nonlinear character...

  15. METHOD OF HYDROGEN FEEDING FOR AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abramchuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On basis of analysis of various methods of hydrogen feeding for automotive engine supply methods of multipoint hydrogen distribution with microprocessor-based control are proposed.

  16. Towards an Integrated Assessment Model for Tropospheric Ozone-Emission Inventories, Scenarios and Emission-control Options

    OpenAIRE

    Olsthoorn, X.

    1994-01-01

    IIASA intends to extend its RAINS model for addressing the issue of transboundary ozone air pollution. This requires the development of a VOC-emissions module, VOCs being precursors in ozone formation. The module should contain a Europe-wide emission inventory, a submodule for developing emission scenarios and a database of measures for VOC-emission control, including data about control effectiveness and control costs. It is recommended to use the forthcoming CORINAIR90 inventory for construc...

  17. PARADOXES OF AUTOMOTIVE EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Grabaurov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a historical analysis of tendencies pertaining to automotive evolution. It has been shown how motivation to higher speed and capacity had made it possible to manufacture automobiles with several hundred horsepower capacity. Traffic speed in the cities is rather less than technical capabilities of automobiles; there are serious ecological and traffic safety problems. Solution of serious traffic safety problems is possible only while developing clever automobiles for clever traffic roads within the framework of intelligent transportation systems.

  18. Soil acidification in China: is controlling SO2 emissions enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Duan, Lei; Xing, Jia; Larssen, Thorjorn; Nielsen, Chris P; Hao, Jiming

    2009-11-01

    Facing challenges of increased energy consumption and related regional air pollution, China has been aggressively implementing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and phasing out small inefficient units in the power sector in order to achieve the national goal of 10% reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emissions from 2005 to 2010. In this paper, the effect of these measures on soil acidification is explored. An integrated methodology is used, combining emission inventory data, emission forecasts, air quality modeling, and ecological sensitivities indicated by critical load. National emissions of SO(2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(X)), particulate matter (PM), and ammonia (NH(3)) in 2005 were estimated to be 30.7, 19.6, 31.3, and 16.6 Mt, respectively. Implementation of existing policy will lead to reductions in SO(2) and PM emissions, while those of NO(X) and NH(3) will continue to rise, even under tentatively proposed control measures. In 2005, the critical load for soil acidification caused by sulfur (S) deposition was exceeded in 28% of the country's territory, mainly in eastern and south-central China. The area in exceedance will decrease to 26% and 20% in 2010 and 2020, respectively, given implementation of current plans for emission reductions. However, the exceedance of the critical load for nitrogen (N, combining effects of eutrophication and acidification) will double from 2005 to 2020 due to increased NO(X) and NH(3) emissions. Combining the acidification effects of S and N, the benefits of SO(2) reductions during 2005-2010 will almost be negated by increased N emissions. Therefore abatement of N emissions (NO(X) and NH(3)) and deposition will be a major challenge to China, requiring policy development and technology investments. To mitigate acidification in the future, China needs a multipollutant control strategy that integrates measures to reduce S, N, and PM.

  19. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, D.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Sglavo, V.; ENEA, Rome

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the technical/economic feasibility of the use of hydrogen as an automotive fuel is made based on analyses of the following: the chemical- physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems - with water vapour injection, cryogenic injection, and the low or high pressure injection of hydrogen directly into the combustion chamber; the current commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. The paper concludes that, considering current costs for hydrogen fuel production, distribution and use, at present, the employment of hydrogen fuelled vehicles is feasible only in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives

  20. FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress are selected from nearly 2,000 papers submitted to the 34th FISITA World Automotive Congress, which is held by Society of Automotive Engineers of China (SAE-China ) and the International Federation of Automotive Engineering Societies (FISITA). This proceedings focus on solutions for sustainable mobility in all areas of passenger car, truck and bus transportation. Volume 8: Vehicle Design and Testing (II) focuses on: •Automotive Reliability Technology •Lightweight Design Technology •Design for Recycling •Dynamic Modeling •Simulation and Experimental Validation •Virtual Design, Testing and Validation •Testing of Components, Systems and Full Vehicle Above all researchers, professional engineers and graduates in fields of automotive engineering, mechanical engineering and electronic engineering will benefit from this book.   SAE-China is a national academic organization composed of enterprises and professionals who focus on research, design a...

  1. Emissions inventories and options for control. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swart, R.J.; Van Amstel, A.R.; Van den Born, G.J.; Kroeze, C.

    1995-10-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project `Social causes of the greenhouse effect, emissions inventories and options for control`. The objectives of the project, that started in 1990, were to support the development of a comprehensive Dutch climate policy and to identify gaps in the knowledge about sources of greenhouse gases. The four phases of the project are summarized. In the first phase, a first national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions was made, capturing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the ozone precursors carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} ) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). In the second phase, the acquired expertise was used to support the development of Guidelines for National Emissions Inventories by the joint OECD/IPCC programme through workshop organization and participation in the international planning group. In the third phase, a detailed analysis was performed of the sources of methane, its current and future emissions and the options for control. Finally, a similar analysis was performed for nitrous oxide. In these studies, it was found that policies not specifically aiming at mitigating climate change, would help to control the emissions of the non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases. While for methane, national emissions would even decrease because of measures in the livestock management and waste disposal sectors, for nitrous oxide the reductions in agricultural emissions would be outweighed by increases, especially in the transportation sector. The project shows that the application of more detailed information leads to differences with the Guidelines, both because of the limited number of source categories in the Guidelines and because of different, locally specific emissions factors. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs.

  2. Air pollution emission under control?; Luchtverontreinigende emissies onder controle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeek, R.; Smokers, R. [TNO Mobility / Sustainable Transport and Logistics, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The air-polluting emissions of lorries and inland shipping needs to adhere to increasingly strict requirements. As a result, the emissions of new vehicles and vessels in 2020 will only be a fraction of the emissions of for example 1990. How does it work out in practice? Is it useful to switch to alternative fuels in the coming years, such as for example natural gas and biofuels? Or will all air-polluting emission problems have been solved in the near future, allowing for full focus on energy use and CO2 reduction?. [Dutch] De luchtverontreinigende emissies van vrachtauto's en binnenvaartschepen moeten aan steeds strengere eisen voldoen. Daardoor zullen de emissies van nieuwe voer- en vaartuigen in 2020 nog maar een fractie zijn in vergelijking tot bijvoorbeeld 1990. Werkt het allemaal goed in de praktijk? En heeft het de komende jaren nog zin om over te stappen naar alternatieve brandstoffen zoals aardgas en biobrandstoffen? Of zijn alle problemen rond de luchtverontreinigende emissies straks van de baan en kunnen we de focus geheel richten op energieverbruik en CO2-reductie?.

  3. Application of commercial sensor manufacturing methods for NOx/NH3 mixed potential sensors for emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, Eric L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Mark A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sekhar, Praveen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williamson, Todd [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garzon, Fernando H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort is to develop a low cost on-board Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x})/Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) sensor that can not only be used for emissions control but has the potential to improve efficiency through better monitoring of the combustion process and feedback control in both vehicle and stationary systems. Over the past decade, Los AJamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed a unique class of electrochemical gas sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen and nitrogen oxides. These sensors are based on the mixed-potential phenomenon and are a modification of the existing automotive lambda (oxygen) sensor and have the potential to meet the stringent sensitivity, selectivity and stability requirements of an on-board emissions/engine control sensor system. The current state of the art LANL technology is based on the stabilization of the electrochemical interfaces and relies on an externally heated, hand-made, tape cast device. We are now poised to apply our patented sensing principles in a mass production sensor platform that is more suitable for real world engine-out testing such as on dynamometers for vehicle applications and for exhaust-out testing in heavy boilers/SCR systems in power plants. In this present work, our goal is to advance towards commercialization of this technology by packaging the unique LANL sensor design in a standard automotive sensor-type platform. This work is being performed with the help of a leading US technical ceramics firm, utilizing commercial manufacturing techniques. Initial tape cast platforms with screen printed metal oxide and Pt sensor electrodes have shown promising results but also clearly show the need for us to optimize the electrode and electrolyte compositions/morphologies and interfaces of these devices in order to demonstrate a sensitive, selective, and stable NO{sub x} sensor. Our previous methods and routes to preparing stable and reproducible mixed potential sensors

  4. Controlling spontaneous emission of light by photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Photonic bandgap crystals were proposed almost two decades ago as a unique tool for controlling propagation and emission of light. Since then the research field of photonic crystals has exploded and many beautiful demonstrations of the use of photonic crystals and fibers for molding light...... propagation have appeared that hold great promises for integrated optics. These major achievements solidly demonstrate the ability to control propagation of light. In contrast, an experimental demonstration of the use of photonic crystals for timing the emission of light has so far lacked. In a recent...... publication in Nature, we have demonstrated experimentally that both the direction and time of spontaneous emission can be controlled, thereby confirming the original proposal by Eli Yablonovich that founded the field of photonic crystals. We believe that this work opens new opportunities for solid...

  5. Switching sliding mode force tracking control of piezoelectric-hydraulic pump-based friction element actuation systems for automotive transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi-Woo; Wang, K. W.

    2009-08-01

    In this study, a nonlinear sliding-mode controller is designed for force tracking of a piezoelectric-hydraulic pump (PHP)-based actuation system, which is developed to replace the current electro-hydraulic actuation systems for automatic transmission (AT) friction elements, such as band brakes or clutches. By utilizing the PHP, one can eliminate the various hydraulic components (oil pump, regulating valve and control valve) in current ATs and achieve a simpler configuration with more efficient operation. With the derived governing equation of motion of the PHP-based actuation system integrated with the friction element (band brake), a switching control law is synthesized based on the sliding-mode theory. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed control law, its force tracking performance for the engagement of a friction element during an AT 1\\to 2 up-shift is examined experimentally. It is shown that one can successfully track the desired force trajectory for AT shift control with small tracking error. This study demonstrates the potential of the PHP as a new controllable actuation system for AT friction elements.

  6. Controls of nitrous oxide emission after simulated cattle urine deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    Urine deposited during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential for N2O emissions from urine patches is high, and a better understanding of controls is needed. This study investigated soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and N2O emissions from cattle urine, and effe......Urine deposited during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential for N2O emissions from urine patches is high, and a better understanding of controls is needed. This study investigated soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and N2O emissions from cattle urine......, and effects of increasing urinary N to 1000 kg N ha−1 or delaying nitrification by amendment of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD). Soil N2O concentration profiles and mineral N dynamics were monitored. The study was a randomized block experiment initiated in May 2012, in which urine deposition...... vegetation index (RVI). Compared to unamended urine, emissions of N2O were significantly higher with urea-amendment, and lower with DCD amendment, also when expressed as proportions of N applied. Soil mineral N dynamics showed that N2O emissions were closely linked to nitrification activity...

  7. Acidification policy - control of acidifying emissions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, B.

    1992-01-01

    Since the mid-eighties total annual acidifying emissions have started to decline in West Germany. There was considerable impact on this positive trend in air pollution by the control of SO 2 and NO x emissions from large boilers, which were reduced by more than 80%. Corresponding control programmes have been established for other groups of sources as well as other pollutants and - with unification - for East Germany. The driving force behind this development was and still is first of all the legal principle of anticipatory action or precaution which means in practical terms 'emission minimization'. This cornerstone of German clean air legislation is the most powerful components of Germany's 'acidification policy', as it requires policy-makers to draw up new or review existing regulations for emission reduction based on requirements according to the state of the art and forces operators to apply the most modern ways and means of operation. This paper describes the system used in Germany to deal with air pollution, the emission minimization strategy, and the actions against acidifying emissions based thereon. In addition, an outlook on what might be necessary to cope with the challenges of a sustainable development concerning acidification is given. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Coal-fueled diesel technology development Emissions Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    GEESI Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a CWS fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size Emissions Control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation.Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine Emissions Characteristics and to evaluate Emissions Control concepts such a Barrier filtration, Granular bed filtration, and Cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical Emissions Control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the Envelope Filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration Envelope Filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This Envelope Filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  9. Get Your Automotive Program Nationally Certified!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Automotive programs that nationally certified enhance student recruitment and give students better employment opportunities. Technicians who earn the Automotive Service Excellence credential have joined the ranks of professionals in the automotive service industry. (Author/JOW)

  10. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, M.; Sigsgaard, C.; Tagesson, T.

    2013-01-01

    The northern latitudes are experiencing disproportionate warming relative to the mid-latitudes, and there is growing concern about feedbacks between this warming and methane production and release from high-latitude soils. Studies of methane emissions carried out in the Arctic, particularly those....... The measurements show clear seasonal dynamics in methane emission. The start of the growing season and the increase in CH4 fluxes were strongly related to the date of snowmelt. Within each particular growing season, CH4 fluxes were highly correlated with the soil temperature (R-2 > 0.75), which is probably...... controlling methane emission, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 emissions were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010) despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table). Late-season bursts of CH4...

  11. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.

    1997-01-01

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates

  12. Automotive Chassis; Automotive Mechanics-Basic: 9043.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive chassis course is designed to familiarize the beginning student of the history and development of the automobile with basic concepts common to the automobile industry, and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. It is one quinmester in a series of quinmester outlines…

  13. Automotive Engines; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive engines course studies and demonstrates the theory and principles of operation of the automotive four stroke cycle engine. The student will develop an understanding of the systems necessary to make the engine perform as designed, such as cooling, fuel, ignition and lubrication. This is a one or two quinmester credit course of 45…

  14. Bosch automotive electrics and automotive electronics. Systems and components, networking and hybrid drive. 5. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    Complete reference guide to automotive electrics and electronics. The significance of electrical and electronic systems has increased considerably in the last few years and this trend is set to continue. The characteristics feature of innovative systems is the fact that they can work together in a network. This requires powerful bus systems that the electronic control units can use to exchange information. Networking and the various bus systems used in motor vehicles are the prominent new topic in the 5th edition of the ''Automotive Electric, Automotive Electronics'' technical manual. The existing chapters have also been updated, so that this new edition brings the reader up to date on the subjects of electrical and electronic systems in the motor vehicle.

  15. Les nouveaux carburants pour l'automobile. Carburants oxygénés : emploi et émissions New Automotive Fuels. Oxygenated Fuels: Their Use and Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibet J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A la lumière de résultats nouveaux obtenus à l'IFP et de publications récentes sur le sujet, on étudie les principales répercussions de l'emploi de carburants oxygénés sur les émissions de polluants à l'échapement et sur les risques possibles associés à la manipulation des produits. Les polluants examinés sont les alkyles de plomb, l'oxyde de carbone, les oxydes d'azote, les produits imbrûlés, les aldéhydes et les hydrocarbures aromatiques polynucléaires. Les émissions de fumées et de particules solides par les moteurs diesel font aussi l'objet de quelques commentaires. On aborde également les problèmes de pertes par évaporation et on fournit quelques informations sur la toxicité des alcools et des aldéhydes. L'étude fait apparaître un besoin réel de nouvelles recherches dans le domaine, mais elle indique déjà que l'emploi de produits organiques oxygénés comme carburants ne devrait pas changer l'ordre de grandeur des niveaux de polluants. In the light of new results from IFP and recent publications on the subject, this article examines the main repercussions of the use of oxygenated fuelss on pollutant exhauts emissions and on possible risks associated with the handling of products. The pollutants examined are lead alkyls, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned products, aldehydes and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Emissions of smoke and solid particles by diesel engines are also the subject of various comments. Likewise, the article takes up the problem of losses by evaporation, and some information is provided on the toxicity of alcohols and aldehydes. This study reveals the real need for further research in the field, but it already shows that the use of oxygenated organic products as fuels should not bring about much change in the order of magnitude of pollutant levels.

  16. Emissions inventories and options for control SUMMARY REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart RJ; Amstel AR van; Born GJ van den; Kroeze C; MTV; LAE

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project "Social causes of the greenhouse effect ; emissions inventories and options for control", funded by the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP) and the Environment Directorate of the Ministry of Housing,

  17. Development and Evaluation of an Emissions Control Decision Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    AA-AO67 358 DECISION- CIENCE APPLICATIONS INC ARLINGTON VA F/S 17/9 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF AN EMISSIONS CONTROL DECISION AID--ETC(U) JUL 80 a F...Association Office of Educational Affairs LCDR J. A. Sears 1200 17th Street, N.W. Department of MIS Washington, D.C. 20036 College of Business

  18. Automotive component failures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyes, AM

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available [ However\\ in the presence of a stress concentration the ultimate tensile stress can be exceeded before the ultimate shear stress is reached\\ resulting in a tensile failure 0 [ 2[6[ Metallo`raphy and Ener`y Dispersive Spectroscopy "EDS# A microspecimen...\\ Vol[ 4\\ No[ 1\\ pp[ 018 030\\ 0887 0887 Elsevier Science Ltd[ All rights reserved\\ Pergamon Printed in Great Britain 0249 5296:87 ,08[99 9[99 PII] S0249 5296"87#99909 6 AUTOMOTIVE COMPONENT FAILURES A[ M[ HEYES Advanced Engineering and Testing...

  19. The automotive transmission book

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert; Jürgens, Gunter; Najork, Rolf; Pollak, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    This book presents essential information on systems and interactions in automotive transmission technology and outlines the methodologies used to analyze and develop transmission concepts and designs. Functions of and interactions between components and subassemblies of transmissions are introduced, providing a basis for designing transmission systems and for determining their potentials and properties in vehicle-specific applications: passenger cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and motorcycles. With these fundamentals the presentation provides universal resources for both state-of-the-art and future transmission technologies, including systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  20. Ultracapacitors for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashtiani, Cyrus [DaimlerChrysler Corp., CIMS 526-00-00, 1870 Technology Dr., Troy, MI 48083 (United States); Wright, Randy; Hunt, Gary [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 834415-3830 (United States)

    2006-03-21

    In response to a growing consensus in the auto industry that ultracapacitors can potentially play a key role in the modern vehicle power distribution network, a task force was created at the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to tackle issues facing the fledging industry. The task force embarked on first developing and establishing standards for performance and abuse tolerance of ultracapacitors in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and National Labs. Subsequently, potential applications in the automotive industry were identified and a consensus requirement specification was drawn as a development guide for the industry. (author)

  1. Automotive Fuel and Exhaust Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, James F.; And Others

    Materials are provided for a 14-hour course designed to introduce the automotive mechanic to the basic operations of automotive fuel and exhaust systems incorporated on military vehicles. The four study units cover characteristics of fuels, gasoline fuel system, diesel fuel systems, and exhaust system. Each study unit begins with a general…

  2. Reliability in automotive ethernet networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fabio L.; Campelo, Divanilson R.; Yan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular.......This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular....

  3. Portuguese agriculture and the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions-can vegetables control livestock emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourao, Paulo Reis; Domingues Martinho, Vítor

    2017-07-01

    One of the most serious externalities of agricultural activity relates to greenhouse gas emissions. This work tests this relationship for the Portuguese case by examining data compiled since 1961. Employing cointegration techniques and vector error correction models (VECMs), we conclude that the evolution of the most representative vegetables and fruits in Portuguese production are associated with higher controls on the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions. Reversely, the evolution of the output levels of livestock and the most representative animal production have significantly increased the level of CO 2 (carbon dioxide) reported in Portugal. We also analyze the cycle length of the long-term relationship between agricultural activity and greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, we highlight the case of synthetic fertilizers, whose values of CO 2 have quickly risen due to changes in Portuguese vegetables, fruit, and animal production levels.

  4. A Comparative Energetic Analysis of Active and Passive Emission Control Systems Adopting Standard Emission Test Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Algieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at analysing and comparing the thermal performances of active and passive aftertreatment systems. A one-dimensional transient model has been developed in order to evaluate the heat exchange between the solid and the exhaust gas and to estimate the energy effectiveness of the apparatus. Furthermore, the effect of the engine operating conditions on the performances of emission control systems has been investigated considering standard emission test cycles. The analysis has demonstrated that the active flow control presents the higher thermal inertia and it appears more suitable to maintain the converter initial temperature level for a longer time after variations in engine load. Conversely, the traditional passive flow control is preferable when rapid “cooling” or “heating” of the solid phase is requested. Moreover, the investigation has highlighted the significant influence of the cycle time and converter length on the energetic performances of the aftertreatment apparatus.

  5. Characterization and Control of Nanoparticle Emission during 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ohhun; Yoon, Chungsik; Ham, Seunghon; Park, Jihoon; Lee, Jinho; Yoo, Danbi; Kim, Yoojin

    2017-09-19

    This study aimed to evaluate particle emission characteristics and to evaluate several control methods used to reduce particle emissions during three-dimensional (3D) printing. Experiments for particle characterization were conducted to measure particle number concentrations, emission rates, morphology, and chemical compositions under manufacturer-recommended and consistent-temperature conditions with seven different thermoplastic materials in an exposure chamber. Eight different combinations of the different control methods were tested, including an enclosure, an extruder suction fan, an enclosure ventilation fan, and several types of filter media. We classified the thermoplastic materials as high emitter (>10 11 #/min), medium emitters (10 9 #/min -10 11 #/min), and low emitters (HEPA) filter had the highest removal effectiveness (99.95%) of nanoparticles. Our recommendations for reducing particle emissions include applying a low temperature, using low-emitting materials, and instituting control measures like using an enclosure around the printer in conjunction with an appropriate filter (e.g., HEPA filter) during 3D printing.

  6. Control of Several Emissions during Olive Pomace Thermal Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Miranda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25–750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min−1. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene, sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide, 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor.

  7. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  8. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  9. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Thoughts about automotive industry in 2050 with respect to the objective of division by 4 of CO{sub 2} emissions; Reflexions sur l'automobile de 2050 face a l'objectif de division du CO{sub 2} par le facteur 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douaud, A.

    2005-07-01

    The long-term strategy of the automotive industry is to minimize its CO{sub 2} emissions and to progressively abandon petroleum. Today, the diesel technology is the most efficient in terms of CO{sub 2} emissions and the hybrid technology will be the medium-term challenge with the development of biofuels and synthetic fuels from biomass. According to the author, there is no certitude that the hydrogen fuel cell will be tomorrows' automobile engine and the nuclear option would be necessary to produce huge quantities of hydrogen without CO{sub 2} emissions. The alternate strategies with interesting potentialities remain the electric-powered vehicle supplied with batteries or supplied with methanol fuel cells, methanol being obtained by biomass transformation. (J.S.)

  11. Towards industry strength mapping of AUTOSAR automotive functionality on multicore architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avasalcai, Cosmin Florin; Budhrani, Dhanesh; Pop, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The automotive electronic architectures have moved from federated architectures, where one function is implemented in one ECU (Electronic Control Unit), to distributed architectures, consisting of several multicore ECUs. In addition, multicore ECUs are being adopted because of better performance......, cost, size, fault-tolerance and power consumption. Automotive manufacturers use AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR) as the standardized software architecture for ECUs. With AUTOSAR, the functionality is modeled as a set of software components composed of subtasks, called runnables...

  12. Control of mercury emissions: policies, technologies, and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Whee Rhee Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Owing to the Minamata Convention on Mercury and the Global Mercury Partnership, policies and regulations on mercury management in advanced countries were intensified by a mercury phaseout program in the mercury control strategy. In developing countries, the legislative or regulatory frameworks on mercury emissions are not established specifically, but mercury management is designed...

  13. Automotive Stirling engine: Mod II design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nightingale, N.P.

    1986-10-01

    The design of an automotive Stirling engine that achieves the superior fuel economy potential of the Stirling cycle is described. As the culmination of a 9-yr development program, this engine, designated the Mod II, also nullifies arguments that Stirling engines are heavy, expensive, unreliable, and demonstrate poor performance. Installed in a General Motors 1985 Chevrolet Celebrity car, this engine has a predicted combined fuel economy on unleaded gasoline of 17.5 km/L (41 mi/gal) - a value 50% above the current vehicle fleet average. The Mod II Stirling engine is a four-cylinder V-drive design with a single crankshaft. The engine is also equipped with all the controls and auxiliaries necessary for automotive operation. 35 figs.

  14. A Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engines are energy efficient, but their particulate (soot emissions are responsible of severe environmental and health problems. This review provides a survey on published information regarding diesel soot emission, its adverse effects on the human health, environment, vegetations, climate, etc. The legislations to limit diesel emissions and ways to minimize soot emission are also summarized. Soot particles are suspected to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; impact agriculture productivity, soiling of buildings; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. The review covers important recent developments on technologies for control of particulate matter (PM; diesel particulate filters (DPFs, summarizing new filter and catalyst materials and DPM measurement. DPF technology is in a state of optimization and cost reduction. New DPF regeneration strategies (active, passive and plasma-assisted regenerations as well as the new learning on the fundamentals of soot/catalyst interaction are described. Recent developments in diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC are also summarized showing potential issues with advanced combustion strategies, important interactions on NO2 formation, and new formulations for durability. Finally, systematic compilation of the concerned newer literature on catalytic oxidation of soot in a well conceivable tabular form is given. A total of 156 references are cited. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 2nd June 2010, Revised: 17th June 2010; Accepted: 24th June 2010[How to Cite: R. Prasad, V.R. Bella. (2010. Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5(2: 69-86. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.794.69-86][DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.2.794.69-86 || or local:   http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/794 ]Cited by in: ACS 1 |

  15. Evaluation of emission control strategies to reduce ozone pollution in the Paso del Norte region using a photochemical air quality modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Victor Hugo

    Air pollution emissions control strategies to reduce ozone precursor pollutants are analyzed by applying a photochemical modeling system. Simulations of air quality conditions during an ozone episode which occurred in June, 2006 are undertaken by increasing or reducing area source emissions in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Two air pollutants are primary drivers in the formation of tropospheric ozone. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) undergo multiple chemical reactions under favorable meteorological conditions to form ozone, which is a secondary pollutant that irritates respiratory systems in sensitive individuals especially the elderly and young children. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to limit ambient air pollutants such as ozone by establishing an 8-hour average concentration of 0.075 ppm as the threshold at which a violation of the standard occurs. Ozone forms primarily due reactions in the troposphere of NOx and VOC emissions generated primarily by anthropogenic sources in urban regions. Data from emissions inventories indicate area sources account for ˜15 of NOx and ˜45% of regional VOC emissions. Area sources include gasoline stations, automotive paint bodyshops and nonroad mobile sources. Multiplicity of air pollution emissions sources provides an opportunity to investigate and potentially implement air quality improvement strategies to reduce emissions which contribute to elevated ozone concentrations. A baseline modeling scenario was established using the CAMx photochemical air quality model from which a series of sensitivity analyses for evaluating air quality control strategies were conducted. Modifications to area source emissions were made by varying NOx and / or VOC emissions in the areas of particular interest. Model performance was assessed for each sensitivity analysis. Normalized bias (NB) and normalized error (NE) were used to identify

  16. Automotive Marketing Methods and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    The report is a comprehensive examination of the current marketing practices, marketing methodologies, and decision-making processes utilized by the domestic automotive industry. The various marketing elements, such as products, consumer behavior, sa...

  17. The European automotive LPG market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The European automotive LPG market could reach at least 4 % of the European fuel market in 2005 versus 1 % in 1990. This would represent a rise of about 35 % in automotive LPG sales (from 2,4 million tonnes in 1997 to 7 million tonnes estimated for 2005). This was underlined by Alain Deleuse, Primagaz group's Marketing Director, in the paper he delivered at the AEGPL Budapest Convention. We publish large excepts of this paper. (author)

  18. Automotive LED lamp lighted appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Lawrence G.; Bennett, Larry R.

    2001-05-01

    The automotive optical engineer has an entirely new set of rules to follow for a 'smooth lighted appearance' with the introduction of LEDs into the automotive signal lighting market. To move away from the 'polka-dot' appearance long associated with the usage of LEDs as the light source for automotive lighting, and give the consumer a smooth lighted appearance to his lamp, there are several optical parameters that must be observed. The number and type of LEDs used, the size of the optical elements used, the spacing of the optical elements, plus many other factors all play a critical role and must be considered in the solution to the 'smooth lighted appearance' in an automotive signal lamp. The 'smooth lighted appearance' in an automotive signal lamp has long been a difficult problem to which there is more than one solution. The most visually pleasing and effective solution is not always the most easily obtainable solution since photometry requirements and smooth lighted appearance can be diametric goals. Subsequently the most cost effective and the easily 'doable' solution may not give the ultimate in aesthetically pleasing results for the consumer. Therefore, it is the purpose and intent of this paper to outline the parameters that need to be considered to obtain a 'smooth lighted appearance' for an automotive signal lamp, and to clarify the methods and 'tools' that are required to meet this goal.

  19. DOE Project: Optimization of Advanced Diesel Engine Combustion Strategies "University Research in Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control" Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, Rolf; Foster, D.; Ghandhi, J.; Rothamer, D.; Rutland, C.; Sanders, S.; Trujillo, M.

    2012-10-26

    The goal of the present technology development was to increase the efficiency of internal combustion engines while minimizing the energy penalty of meeting emissions regulations. This objective was achieved through experimentation and the development of advanced combustion regimes and emission control strategies, coupled with advanced petroleum and non-petroleum fuel formulations. To meet the goals of the project, it was necessary to improve the efficiency of expansion work extraction, and this required optimized combustion phasing and minimized in-cylinder heat transfer losses. To minimize fuel used for diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, soot emissions were also minimized. Because of the complex nature of optimizing production engines for real-world variations in fuels, temperatures and pressures, the project applied high-fidelity computing and high-resolution engine experiments synergistically to create and apply advanced tools (i.e., fast, accurate predictive models) developed for low-emission, fuel-efficient engine designs. The companion experiments were conducted using representative single- and multi-cylinder automotive and truck diesel engines.

  20. Control of inhomogeneous materials strength by method of acoustic emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Носов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguous connection between the results of acoustic emission control and the strength of materials makes acoustic-emission diagnosis ineffective and actualizes the problem of strength and metrological heterogeneity. Inhomogeneity is some deviation from a certain norm. The real object is always heterogeneous, homogeneity is an assumption that simplifies the image of the object and the solution of the tasks associated with it. The need to consider heterogeneity is due to the need to clarify a particular task and is a transition to a more complex level of research. Accounting for heterogeneity requires the definition of its type, criterion and method of evaluation. The type of heterogeneity depends on the problem being solved and should be related to the property that determines the function of the real object, the criterion should be informative, and the way of its evaluation is non-destructive. The complexity of predicting the behavior of heterogeneous materials necessitates the modeling of the destructive process that determines the operability, the formulation of the inhomogeneity criterion, the interpretation of the Kaiser effect, as showing inhomogeneity of the phenomenon of non-reproduction of acoustic emission (AE activity upon repeated loading of the examined object.The article gives an example of modeling strength and metrological heterogeneity, analyzes and estimates the informative effect of the Kaiser effect on the danger degree of state of diagnosed object from the positions of the micromechanical model of time dependencies of AE parameters recorded during loading of structural materials and technical objects.

  1. Coherent control of spontaneous emission near a photonic band edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldeyohannes, Mesfin; John, Sajeev

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the coherent control of spontaneous emission for a three-level atom located within a photonic band gap (PBG) material, with one resonant frequency near the edge of the PBG. Spontaneous emission from the three-level atom can be totally suppressed or strongly enhanced depending on the relative phase between the steady-state control laser coupling the two upper levels and the pump laser pulse used to create an excited state of the atom in the form of a coherent superposition of the two upper levels. Unlike the free-space case, the steady-state inversion of the atomic system is strongly dependent on the externally prescribed initial conditions. This non-zero steady-state population is achieved by virtue of the localization of light in the vicinity of the emitting atom. It is robust to decoherence effects provided that the Rabi frequency of the control laser field exceeds the rate of dephasing interactions. As a result, such a system may be relevant for a single-atom, phase-sensitive optical memory device on the atomic scale. The protected electric dipole within the PBG provides a basis for a qubit to encode information for quantum computations. A detailed literature survey on the nature, fabrication and applications of PBG materials is presented to provide context for this research. (phd tutorial)

  2. Catalytic Converter Developed By Washcoat Of γ-Alumina On Nickel Oxide (Nio Catalyst In FeCrAl Substrate For Exhaust Emission Control : A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile exhaust emission control is one of the trending issues in automobile research field. The existing catalytic converter using the noble metals of platinum (Pt, palladium (Pd and rhodium (Rd recently were in limited supply and higher in cost. There is a need for the automotive industry to produce ultra-low emitting vehicles at a reasonable cost. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of methods of fabrication of modified catalytic converter by approaching FeCrAl as a substrate which treated using ultrasonic bath technique to improve the exhaust emission control. The modified catalytic converter preparation will involve the ultrasonic bath process of FeCrAl foil which has fabricated as metallic monolith coated by γ-Al2O3 powder. Nickel as catalyst material will be prepared using electroplating process. The oxidation test will be conducted using a tube and automatic furnace in temperature of 1100°C for 100 hours. Mitsubishi 4G93 1800cc Petrol E.F.I with a multi -gas analyzer equipped with a hydraulic dynamometer will be used for emission measurements of HC, CO, and NOx in varying speed and load for both conditions with and without catalytic converter. The result will expect the γ-Al2O3 as the washcoat material that fully embedded to FeCrAl substrate with the combination of ultrasonic and electroplating technique will effectively convert the CO, NOx and HC to CO2, NO2 and H2O which means that catalytic converter is effective to improve exhaust emission control of diesel engine. The FeCrAl substrate as a metallic catalytic converter which coated by γ-Al2O3 using ultrasonic and nickelelectroplating technique may improve the exhaust emission control.

  3. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodak, I.V.; Kushnir, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described

  4. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described.

  5. Bosch automotive electrics and automotive electronics systems and components, networking and hybrid drive

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The significance of electrical and electronic systems has increased considerably in the last few years and this trend is set to continue. The characteristics feature of innovative systems is the fact that they can work together in a network. This requires powerful bus systems that the electronic control units can use to exchange information. Networking and the various bus systems used in motor vehicles are the prominent new topic in the 5th edition of the "Automotive Electric, Automotive Electronics" technical manual. The existing chapters have also been updated, so that this new edition brings the reader up to date on the subjects of electrical and electronic systems in the motor vehicle. Content Electrical and electronical systems – Basic principles of networking - Examples of networked vehicles – Bus systems – Architecture of electronic systems – Mechatronics – Elektronics – Electronic control Units – Software – Sensors – Actuators – Hybrid drives – Vehicle electrical system – Start...

  6. 78 FR 36776 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Emission Control System Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... respond, including through the use of appropriate automated electronic, mechanical, or other technological...) directs EPA to provide certification to those manufacturers or builders of automotive aftermarket parts... or builders of automotive aftermarket parts. Respondent's obligation to respond: voluntary. Estimated...

  7. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DIMETHYLAMINE VAPORS EMISSION: HERBICIDE PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Arsenijević

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D-DMA, is usually prepared by mixing a dimethylamine (DMA aqueous solution with a solid 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The vapors of the both, reactants and products, are potentially hazardous for the environment. The contribution of DMA vapors in overall pollution from this process is most significant, concerning vapor pressures data of these pollutants. Therefore, the control of the air pollution in the manufacture and handling of methylamines is very important. Within this paper, the optimal air pollution control system in preparation of 2,4-D-DMA was developed for the pesticides manufacturing industry. This study employed the simple pollution prevention concept to reduce the emission of DMA vapors at the source. The investigations were performed on the pilot plant scale. To reduce the emission of DMA vapors, the effluent gases from the herbicide preparation zone were passed through the packed bed scrubber (water - scrubbing medium, and the catalytic reactor in sequence. The end result is a substantially improved air quality in the working area, as well as in the urbanized areas located near the chemical plant.

  8. The effects of emission control strategies on light-absorbing carbon emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Olson, Michael R; Liu, Z Gerald; Schauer, James J

    2015-06-01

    Control of atmospheric black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) has been proposed as an important pathway to climate change mitigation, but sources of BC and BrC are still not well understood. In order to better identify the role of modern heavy-duty diesel engines on the production of BC and BrC, emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine operating with different emission control strategies were examined using a source dilution sampling system. The effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) on light-absorbing carbon (LAC) was evaluated at three steady-state engine operation modes: idle, 50% speed and load, and 100% speed and load. LAC was measured with four different engine configurations: engine out, DOC out, DPF out, and engine out with an altered combustion calibration. BC and BrC emission rates were measured with the Aethalometer (AE-31). EC and BC emission rates normalized to the mass of CO₂emitted increased with increasing engine speed and load. Emission rates normalized to brake-specific work did not exhibit similar trends with speed and load, but rather the highest emission rate was measured at idle. EC and OC emissions were reduced by 99% when the DOC and DPF architecture was applied. The application of a DPF was equally effective at removing 99% of the BC fraction of PM, proving to be an important control strategy for both LAC and PM. BC emissions were unexpectedly increased across the DOC, seemingly due to a change aerosol optical properties. Removal of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow due to simulated EGR cooler failure caused a large increase in OC and BrC emission rates at idle, but had limited influence during high load operation. LAC emissions proved to be sensitive to the same control strategies effective at controlling the total mass of diesel PM. In the context of black carbon emissions, very small emission rates of brown carbon were measured over a range of control technologies and engine operating

  9. Automated Boiler Combustion Controls for Emission Reduction and Efficiency Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    In the late 1980s, then President Bush visited Krakow, Poland. The terrible air quality theremotivated him to initiate a USAID-funded program, managed by DOE, entitled "Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program." The primary objective of this program was to encourage the formation of commercial ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and/or services to reduce pollution from low-emission sources in Krakow, Poland. This program led to the award of a number of cooperative agreements, including one to Control Techtronics International. The technical objective of CTI's cooperative agreement is to apply combustion controls to existing boiler plants in Krakow and transfer knowledge and technology through a joint U.S. and Polish commercial venture. CTI installed automatic combustion controls on five coal boilers for the district heating system in Krakow. Three of these were for domestic hot-water boilers, and two were for steam for industrial boilers. The following results have occurred due to the addition of CTI's combustion controls on these five existing boilers: ! 25% energy savings ! 85% reduction in particulate emissions The joint venture company CTI-Polska was then established. Eleven additional technical and costing proposals were initiated to upgrade other coal boilers in Krakow. To date, no co-financing has been made available on the Polish side. CTI-Polska continues in operation, serving customers in Russia and Ukraine. Should the market in Poland materialize, the joint venture company is established there to provide equipment and service.

  10. Design of lightweight multi-material automotive bodies using new material performance indices of thin-walled beams for the material selection with crashworthiness consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xintao; Zhang, Hongwei; Wang, Shuxin; Zhang, Lianhong; Ko, Jeonghan

    2011-01-01

    Currently, automotive bodies are constructed usually using a single material, e.g. steel or aluminum. Compared to single-material automotive bodies, multi-material automotive bodies allow optimal material selection in each structural component for higher product performance and lower cost. This paper presents novel material performance indices and procedures developed to guide systematic material selection for multi-material automotive bodies. These new indices enable to characterize the crashworthiness performance of complex-shaped thin-walled beams in multi-material automotive bodies according to material types. This paper also illustrates the application of these performance indices and procedures by designing a lightweight multi-material automotive body. These procedures will help to design a lightweight and affordable body favored by the automotive industry, thus to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Design and testing of an independently controlled urea SCR retrofit system for the reduction of NOx emissions from marine diesels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek R; Bedick, Clinton R; Clark, Nigel N; McKain, David L

    2009-05-15

    Diesel engine emissions for on-road, stationary and marine applications are regulated in the United States via standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A major component of diesel exhaust that is difficult to reduce is nitrogen oxides (NOx). Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has been in use for many years for stationary applications, including external combustion boilers, and is promising for NOx abatement as a retrofit for mobile applications where diesel compression ignition engines are used. The research presented in this paper is the first phase of a program focused on the reduction of NOx by use of a stand-alone urea injection system, applicable to marine diesel engines typical of work boats (e.g., tugs). Most current urea SCR systems communicate with engine controls to predict NOx emissions based on signals such as torque and engine speed, however many marine engines in use still employ mechanical injection technology and lack electronic communication abilities. The system developed and discussed in this paper controls NOx emissions independentof engine operating parameters and measures NOx and exhaust flow using the following exhaust sensor inputs: absolute pressure, differential pressure, temperature, and NOx concentration. These sensor inputs were integrated into an independent controller and open loop architecture to estimate the necessary amount of urea needed, and the controller uses pulse width modulation (PWM) to power an automotive fuel injector for airless urea delivery. The system was tested in a transient test cell on a 350 hp engine certified at 4 g/bhp-hr of NOx, with a goal of reducing the engine out NOx levels by 50%. NOx reduction capabilities of 41-67% were shown on the non road transient cycle (NRTC) and ICOMIA E5 steady state cycles with system optimization during testing to minimize the dilute ammonia slip to cycle averages of 5-7 ppm. The goal of 50% reduction of NOx can be achieved dependent upon cycle. Further

  12. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal

  13. Air Pollutant Emissions Projections for the Cement and Steel Industry in China and the Impact of Emissions Control Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    China’s cement and steel industry accounts for approximately half of the world’s total cement and steel production. These two industries are two of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and two of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, the cement industry is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of its industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of its total national PM emissions. The Chinese steel industry contributed to approximately 20 percent of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and 27 percent of PM emissions for all key manufacturing industries in China in 2013. In this study, we analyzed and projected the total PM and SO2 emissions from the Chinese cement and steel industry from 2010–2050 under three different scenarios: a Base Case scenario, an Advanced scenario, and an Advanced EOP (end-of-pipe) scenario. We used bottom-up emissions control technologies data and assumptions to project the emissions. In addition, we conducted an economic analysis to estimate the cost for PM emissions reductions in the Chinese cement industry using EOP control technologies, energy efficiency measures, and product change measures. The results of the emissions projection showed that there is not a substantial difference in PM emissions between the Base Case and Advanced scenarios, for both the cement and steel industries. This is mainly because PM emissions in the cement industry caused mainly by production process and not the fuel use. Since our forecast for the cement production in the Base Case and Advanced scenarios are not too different from each other, this results in only a slight difference in PM emissions forecast for these two scenarios. Also, we assumed a similar share and penetration rate of control technologies from 2010 up to 2050 for these two scenarios for the cement and steel industry. However, the Advanced EOP

  14. Closing the Loop with Sensors in Commercial Building Systems: Applying Lessons from Automotive Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantese, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    Automotive systems have evolved extensively over the past 50 years, providing a fully integrated system of sub-systems that work in concert for optimal vehicle level closed loop control. In this talk we look at several automotive sub-systems: stability and control, safety and security, emissions and comfort, diagnostics and maintenance, infotainment and communications; with an eye toward understanding their technology drivers and associated value propositions. Conversely, we examine how commercial building systems currently are represented as a collection of sub-systems that often work independently of each other for local optimization, often relying upon open loop control systems developed and installed decades ago. Reasoning primarily by analogy we explore opportunities for energy and efficiency, comfort and environment, and safety/security; asking whether there is sufficient value associated with a new class of building sensors and how those technologies might be brought to bear in improving performance. Finally, we examine the fundamental architecture of detection systems built upon sensing elements, with the aim of understanding trade-offs between: detection, false alarm rate, power, and cost.

  15. Closing the Loop with Sensors in Commercial Building Systems: Applying Lessons from Automotive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantese, Joseph [United Technologies Corporation' s Research Center (United States)

    2011-08-17

    Automotive systems have evolved extensively over the past 50 years, providing a fully integrated system of sub-systems that work in concert for optimal vehicle level closed loop control. In this talk we look at several automotive sub-systems: stability and control, safety and security, emissions and comfort, diagnostics and maintenance, infotainment and communications; with an eye toward understanding their technology drivers and associated value propositions. Conversely, we examine how commercial building systems currently are represented as a collection of sub-systems that often work independently of each other for local optimization, often relying upon open loop control systems developed and installed decades ago. Reasoning primarily by analogy we explore opportunities for energy and efficiency, comfort and environment, and safety/security; asking whether there is sufficient value associated with a new class of building sensors and how those technologies might be brought to bear in improving performance. Finally, we examine the fundamental architecture of detection systems built upon sensing elements, with the aim of understanding trade-offs between: detection, false alarm rate, power, and cost.

  16. Closing the Loop with Sensors in Commercial Building Systems: Applying Lessons from Automotive Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantese, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Automotive systems have evolved extensively over the past 50 years, providing a fully integrated system of sub-systems that work in concert for optimal vehicle level closed loop control. In this talk we look at several automotive sub-systems: stability and control, safety and security, emissions and comfort, diagnostics and maintenance, infotainment and communications; with an eye toward understanding their technology drivers and associated value propositions. Conversely, we examine how commercial building systems currently are represented as a collection of sub-systems that often work independently of each other for local optimization, often relying upon open loop control systems developed and installed decades ago. Reasoning primarily by analogy we explore opportunities for energy and efficiency, comfort and environment, and safety/security; asking whether there is sufficient value associated with a new class of building sensors and how those technologies might be brought to bear in improving performance. Finally, we examine the fundamental architecture of detection systems built upon sensing elements, with the aim of understanding trade-offs between: detection, false alarm rate, power, and cost.

  17. Carbon footprint of automotive ignition coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huey-Ling; Chen, Chih-Ming; Sun, Chin-Huang; Lin, Hung-Di

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, environmental issues, such as climate change and global warming due to the excessive development of industry, have attracted increasing attention of citizens worldwide. It is known that CO2 accounts for the largest proportion of greenhouse gases. Therefore, how to reduce CO2 emissions during the life cycle of a product to lessen its impact on environment is an important topic in the industrial society. Furthermore, it is also of great significance to cut down the required energy so as to lower its production costs during the manufacturing process nowadays. This study presents the carbon footprint of an automotive ignition coil and its partial materials are defined to explore their carbon emissions and environmental impact. The model IPCC GWP100a calculates potential global greenhouse effect by converting them into CO2 equivalents. In this way, the overall carbon footprint of an ignition coil can be explored. By using IPCC GWP100a, the results display that the shell has the most carbon emissions. The results can help the industry reduce the carbon emissions of an ignition coil product.

  18. Reducing Diesel Engine Emission Using Reactivity Controlled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasib Ghazal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several automobile manufacturers are interested in investigating of dual fuel internal combustion engines, due to high efficiencand low emissions. Many alternative fuels have been used in dual fuel mode for IC engine, such as methane, hydrogen, and natural gas. In the present study, a reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI engine using gasoline/diesel (G/D dual fuel has been investigated. The effectof mixing gasoline with diesel fuel on combustion characteristic, engine performance and emissions has been studied. The gasoline was injected in the engine intake port, to produce a homogeneous mixture with air. The diesel fuel was injected directly to the combustion chamber during compression stroke to initiate the combustion process. A direct injection compression ignition engine has been built and simulated using ANSYS Forte professional code. The gasoline amount in the simulation varied from (50%-80% by volume. The diesel fuel was injected to the cylinder in two stages. The model has been validated and calibrated for neat diesel fuel using available data from the literature. The results show that the heat release rate and the cylinder pressure increased when the amount of added gasoline is between 50%-60% volume of the total injected fuels, compared to the neat diesel fuel. Further addition of gasoline will have a contrary effect. In addition, the combustion duration is extended drastically when the gasoline ratio is higher than 60% which results in an incomplete combustion. The NO emission decreased drastically as the gasoline ratio increased. Moreover, addition of gasoline to the mixture increased the engine power, thermal efficienc and combustion efficienc compared to neat diesel fuel.

  19. Evolution of the Automotive Body Coating Process—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson K. Akafuah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Automotive coatings and the processes used to coat automobile surfaces exemplify the avant-garde of technologies that are capable of producing durable surfaces, exceeding customers’ expectations of appearance, maximizing efficiency, and meeting environmental regulations. These accomplishments are rooted in 100 years of experience, trial-and-error approaches, technique and technology advancements, and theoretical assessments. Because of advancements directed at understanding the how, why, when, and where of automobile coatings, the progress in controlling droplets and their deposition attributes, and the development of new technologies and paint chemistries, a comprehensive and up-to-date review of automobile coatings and coating technologies was considered to be of value to industrial practitioners and researchers. Overall, the critical performance factors driving the development and use of advanced automotive coatings and coating technologies are (a aesthetic characteristics; (b corrosion protection; (c mass production; (d cost and environmental requirements; and (e appearance and durability. Although the relative importance of each of these factors is debatable, the perfection of any one at the expense of another would be unacceptable. Hence, new developments in automotive coatings are described and discussed in the following review, and then related to improvements in production technologies and paints. Modern automotive coating procedures are also discussed in detail. Finally, an extrapolation into the future of automotive coating is offered with a view of the developments and technologies needed for an increasingly efficient and more sustainable coatings industry.

  20. Change management methodologies trained for automotive infotainment projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostean, G.; Volker, S.; Hutanu, A.

    2017-01-01

    An Automotive Electronic Control Units (ECU) development project embedded within a car Environment is constantly under attack of a continuous flow of modifications of specifications throughout the life cycle. Root causes for those modifications are for instance simply software or hardware implementation errors or requirement changes to satisfy the forthcoming demands of the market to ensure the later commercial success. It is unavoidable that from the very beginning until the end of the project “requirement changes” will “expose” the agreed objectives defined by contract specifications, which are product features, budget, schedule and quality. The key discussions will focus upon an automotive radio-navigation (infotainment) unit, which challenges aftermarket devises such as smart phones. This competition stresses especially current used automotive development processes, which are fit into a 4 Year car development (introduction) cycle against a one-year update cycle of a smart phone. The research will focus the investigation of possible impacts of changes during all phases of the project: the Concept-Validation, Development and Debugging-Phase. Building a thorough understanding of prospective threats is of paramount importance in order to establish the adequate project management process to handle requirement changes. Personal automotive development experiences and Literature review of change- and configuration management software development methodologies led the authors to new conceptual models, which integrates into the structure of traditional development models used in automotive projects, more concretely of radio-navigation projects.

  1. The evolution of shipping emissions and the costs of recent and forthcoming emission regulations in the northern European emission control area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Kalli, J.; Kukkonen, J.

    2013-06-01

    An extensive inventory of marine exhaust emissions is presented in the northern European emission control area (ECA) in 2009 and 2011. The emissions of SOx, NOx, CO2, CO and PM2.5 were evaluated using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM). We have combined the information on individual vessel characteristics and position reports generated by the Automatic Identification System (AIS). The emission limitations from 2009 to 2011 have had a significant impact on reducing the emissions of both SOx and PM2.5. The predicted emissions of SOx originated from IMO-registered marine traffic have been reduced by 33%, from 322 ktons to 217 ktons, in the ECA from 2009 to 2011. The corresponding predicted reduction of PM2.5 emissions was 20%, from 74 ktons to 59 ktons. The highest CO2 and PM2.5 emissions in 2011 were located in the vicinity of the coast of the Netherlands, in the English Channel, near the South-Eastern UK and along the busiest shipping lines in the Danish Straits and the Baltic Sea. The changes of emissions and the financial costs caused by various regulative actions since 2005 were also evaluated, based on the increased direct fuel costs. We also simulated the effects and direct costs associated with the forthcoming switch to low-sulfur distillate fuels in 2015. According to the projections for the future, there will be a reduction of 85% in SOx emissions and a~reduction of 50% in PM2.5 emissions in 2015, compared with the corresponding shipping emissions in 2011 in the ECA. The corresponding relative increase in fuel costs for all shipping varied between 10% and 63%, depending on the development of the prices of fuels and the use of the sulfur scrubber equipment.

  2. Automotive fuels and internal combustion engines: a chemical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, T J; Kaiser, E W; Farrell, J T

    2006-04-01

    Commercial transportation fuels are complex mixtures containing hundreds or thousands of chemical components, whose composition has evolved considerably during the past 100 years. In conjunction with concurrent engine advancements, automotive fuel composition has been fine-tuned to balance efficiency and power demands while minimizing emissions. Pollutant emissions from internal combustion engines (ICE), which arise from non-ideal combustion, have been dramatically reduced in the past four decades. Emissions depend both on the engine operating parameters (e.g. engine temperature, speed, load, A/F ratio, and spark timing) and the fuel. These emissions result from complex processes involving interactions between the fuel and engine parameters. Vehicle emissions are comprised of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO, nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and particulate matter (PM). VOCs and NO(x) form photochemical smog in urban atmospheres, and CO and PM may have adverse health impacts. Engine hardware and operating conditions, after-treatment catalysts, and fuel composition all affect the amount and composition of emissions leaving the vehicle tailpipe. While engine and after-treatment effects are generally larger than fuel effects, engine and after-treatment hardware can require specific fuel properties. Consequently, the best prospects for achieving the highest efficiency and lowest emissions lie with optimizing the entire fuel-engine-after-treatment system. This review provides a chemical perspective on the production, combustion, and environmental aspects of automotive fuels. We hope this review will be of interest to workers in the fields of chemical kinetics, fluid dynamics of reacting flows, atmospheric chemistry, automotive catalysts, fuel science, and governmental regulations.

  3. Japanese automotive transportation sector's impact upon global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaseki, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    Automobiles are still increasing in number in Japan. If this continues, CO 2 emissions in this sector may increase through the first half of the 21st century. Consequently, a study of measures for reducing these CO 2 emissions is essential. In this paper, possible automotive technologies, improvements in fuel consumption and the introduction of electric vehicles are discussed. These measures are then evaluated for the Japanese case. Furthermore, market penetration of these technologies is evaluated, using life-cycle cost analysis based on initial cost and annual fuel cost. It is concluded that reducing CO 2 emissions to 1995 levels by 2010 is possible. This would require the simultaneous implementation of fuel-consumption improvements and the introduction of electric vehicles. However, automotive consumers would be reluctant to accept these technologies, particularly electric vehicles, because of their high purchase-price and low benefits in terms of operating economy. Acceptance will require financial and institutional support from the public sector in introducing these automotive technologies into the Japanese transportation sector. (author)

  4. Emission spectra of dimethoxybenzenes by controlled electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Teiichiro; Imasaka, Totaro; Toyoda, Minoru; Tsuji, Masaharu; Ishibashi, Nobuhiko

    1975-01-01

    The emission spectra of o-, m-, and p-dimethoxybenzenes under controlled electron impact excitation (200 eV) were measured in the 220 - 450 nm region at very low pressures. The photoemissions of the excited parent species and such fragment species as H, CH, CO, and CO + were observed and assigned. The relative intensities of the photoemissions of the parent species were compared with those of the fluorescence spectra (photoexcitation) in an n-hexane solution. The excited parent species, H, and CH were concluded to be produced in one-electron processes; however, the CO + species were assumed to be produced in both one- and two-electron processes, and the relative contributions are evaluated. It was concluded that the rate of the predissociation of o-dimethoxybenzene was faster than those of the other two isomers, and the observed characteristics of o-dimethoxybenzene had something to do with this faster rate. (auth.)

  5. Maritime routing and speed optimization with emission control areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholt, Kjetil; Gausel, Nora T.; Rakke, Jørgen G.

    2015-01-01

    Strict limits on the maximum sulphur content in fuel used by ships have recently been imposed in some Emission Control Areas (ECAs). In order to comply with these regulations many ship operators will switch to more expensive low-sulphur fuel when sailing inside ECAs. Since they are concerned about...... minimizing their costs, it is likely that speed and routing decisions will change because of this. In this paper, we develop an optimization model to be applied by ship operators for determining sailing paths and speeds that minimize operating costs for a ship along a given sequence of ports. We perform...... a computational study on a number of realistic shipping routes in order to evaluate possible impacts on sailing paths and speeds, and hence fuel consumption and costs, from the ECA regulations. Moreover, the aim is to examine the implications for the society with regards to environmental effects. Comparisons...

  6. Integrated transportation and energy sector CO2 emission control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the mutual benefits of integrating strategies for future energy and transport CO2 emissions control. The paper illustrates and quantifies the mutual benefits of integrating the transport and the energy sector in the case of Denmark. Today this issue is very relevant in Denmark...... due to the high share of fluctuating renewable energy produced in the country. In the future, such issue will apply to other countries who plan to use a high share of renewable energy. In short, the energy sector can help the transport sector to replace oil by renewable energy and combined heat...... and power production (CHP), while the transport sector can assist the energy system in integrating a higher degree of intermittent energy and CHP. Two scenarios for partial conversion of the transport fleet have been considered. One is battery cars combined with hydrogen fuel cell cars, while the other...

  7. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  8. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exposure to automotive pollution increases plasma susceptibility to oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, James E; Coombes, Jeff S; Geraghty, Dominic P; Fraser, David I

    2002-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein oxidation is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Plasma susceptibility to oxidation may be used as a marker of low-density lipoprotein oxidation and thus predict atherosclerotic risk. In this study the authors investigated the relationship between plasma susceptibility to oxidation and exposure to automotive pollution in a group of automobile mechanics (n = 16) exposed to high levels of automotive pollution, vs. matched controls (n = 13). The authors induced plasma oxidation by a free radical initiator and they determined susceptibility to oxidation by (1) change in absorbance at 234 nm, (2) lag time to conjugated diene formation, and (3) linear slope of the oxidation curve. Mechanics had significantly higher values (mean +/- standard error) for change in absorbance (1.60 +/- 0.05 vs. 1.36 +/- 0.05; p automotive pollutants increases plasma susceptibility to oxidation and may, in the long-term, increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis.

  10. Making aerospace technology work for the automotive industry - Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    In many cases it has been found that advances made in one technical field can contribute to other fields. An investigation is in this connection conducted concerning subjects from contemporary NASA programs and projects which might have relevance and potential usefulness to the automotive industry. Examples regarding aerospace developments which have been utilized by the automotive industry are related to electronic design, computer systems, quality control experience, a NASA combustion scanner and television display, exhaust gas analyzers, and a device for suppressing noise propagated through ducts. Projects undertaken by NASA's center for propulsion and power research are examined with respect to their value for the automotive industry. As a result of some of these projects, a gas turbine engine and a Stirling engine might each become a possible alternative to the conventional spark ignition engine.

  11. Impacts of Aging Emission Control Systems on In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Cados, T.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks are a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) in urban environments, contributing to persistent ozone and particulate matter air quality problems. Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems have become standard equipment on new trucks. Particle filters can also be installed as a retrofit on older engines. Prior work has shown that exhaust filters and SCR systems effectively reduce BC and NOx emission rates by up to 90 and 80%, respectively (Preble et al., ES&T 2015). There is concern, however, that DPFs may promote the formation of ultrafine particles (UFP) and increase tailpipe emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Additionally, urea-based SCR systems for NOx control may form nitrous oxide (N2O), an important contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. The effectiveness of these emission controls has been thoroughly evaluated in the laboratory, but the long-term durability of in-use systems and their impacts on co-emitted species have not been well characterized. To evaluate the in-use performance of DPF and SCR systems, pollutant emissions from thousands of diesel trucks were measured over several years at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Pollutants present in the exhaust plumes of individual trucks were measured at high time resolution (≥1 Hz) as trucks passed under a mobile lab stationed on an overpass. Fuel-based emission factors (g pollutant emitted per kg fuel burned) were calculated for individual trucks and linked via recorded license plates to vehicle attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control systems. Use of DPFs reduced the BC emission rate by up to 95% at both locations. SCR systems were more effective at reducing NOx emissions under the uphill, highway driving conditions at the Caldecott Tunnel. The emission rates of co-emitted species NO2, UFP, and N2O depended on driving

  12. Automotive Mechanics. Student Learning Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge Vocational-Technical Center, Winter Haven, FL.

    These 33 learning guides are self-instructional packets for 33 tasks identified as essential for performance on an entry-level job in automotive mechanics. Each guide is based on a terminal performance objective (task) and 1-9 enabling objectives. For each enabliing objective, some or all of these materials may be presented: learning steps…

  13. Automotive the Future of Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ir. Frank Rieck; ir. Cees Machielse; Ron van Duin

    2017-01-01

    Will the Automotive era come to an end in the 21th century? Looking at today’s environmental and economic challenges of the use of last century technology cars and listening to some trend watchers one could think so. Cars can be regarded, as an old school status product indeed, for which there is

  14. On Ugliness and the Automotive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The function of this essay is to to see what consequences a consideration of ugliness in automotive styling has for the theories of three writers on aesthetics in design: David Pye, Roger Scruton and Ralf Weber. As such, the concepts of beauty and ugliness will be treated in brief before moving...

  15. Future perspectives on automotive CAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensler, Henry; Eller, Tom; Kabat vel Job, Alexander; Magoulas, Nikolaos; Yigit, Emrah; Van Tongeren, A.

    2014-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) is an integral part of today’s automotive design process. Very often OEM’s rely solely on software vendors to provide appropriate solutions. On the other hand, some companies still use in-house developed software for specific applications. It is, however, a

  16. Automotive, the Future of Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieck, Frank; Machielsen, C.; van Duin, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Will the Automotive era come to an end in the 21th century? Looking at today’s environmental and economic challenges of the use of cars based on last century technology and listening to some trend watchers one could think so. Cars can be regarded, as an old school status product indeed, for which

  17. Innovative Technology in Automotive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John

    2007-01-01

    Automotive Technology combines hands-on training along with a fully integrated, interactive, computerized multistationed facility. Our program is a competency based, true open-entry/open-exit program that utilizes flexible self-paced course outlines. It is designed around an industry partnership that promotes community and economic development,…

  18. Greenhouse gases - an up-date on the contribution of automotive fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution to global emissions of greenhouse gases from automotive fuels. The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Change are explained briefly. Data is presented on the global warming potential of automobile emissions, actual measured emission rates and greenhouse gas emissions as CO 2 equivalents. It is concluded that insufficient data exists to assess accurately the contribution of automotive fuel use to all the important greenhouse gases. Over short timescales (say 20 years) low emission technologies do show significant reductions in CO 2 equivalent emissions compared with current technology vehicles. However, in the longer term, fuel economy rather than emissions of non-CO 2 gases, is likely to become the determining factor. (UK)

  19. Emissions control of volatile organic compounds in petroleum industry; Controle de emissoes de compostos organicos volateis na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierres, Ricardo; Moreira, Andrea Cristina de Castro Araujo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). P e D de Energia e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel (PDEDS)

    2004-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds are among the most common pollutants emitted by refining processes. The sources of these emissions should be controlled for preserving the ambient air quality. This article outlines the main factors to be considered for defining an effective emissions control strategy and compares the major characteristics of the available control technologies. (author)

  20. State Estimation in the Automotive SCR DeNOx Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Guofeng; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Duwig, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is a widely applied diesel engine exhaust gas after-treatment technology. For effective NOx removal in a transient operating automotive application, controlled dosing of urea can be used to meet the increasingly restrictive legislations...

  1. Performance of Automotive SLI Battery under Constant Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this project, a cost-effective 12V battery charge controller was developed to implement constant current constant voltage charge algorithm in small-sized stand-alone solar PV systems. The algorithm was tested on automotive SLI battery instead of deep-cycle PV battery to further reduce overall system cost. The battery ...

  2. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNicol, Gavin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  3. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  4. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S

  5. Contribution to the conception, the modelling and the control of automotive power train and of electric converters; Contribution a la conception, la modelisation et la commande du groupe motopropulseur automobile et de convertisseurs d`energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidan, P.

    1998-12-14

    The overall work presented in this thesis globally deals with the conception, the modelling and the control of some applied systems. The first part is devoted to the automotive domain. It concerns the still actualized context of energy savings and reduction of atmospheric pollution, by the improvement of the engine/drive-train control and more particularly of the spark-ignition engine control. In this aim, a first investigation deals with the fuel/air ratio control during the transient phases and suggests the use of an intake manifold pressure control by means of an electric throttle actuator, in order to control the air filling. An original strategy of simultaneous control of fuel and air fillings is then proposed. Another improvement method by an electrical assistance of the engine using a self-controlled synchronous machine drive, is also developed. In the frame of idle-speed control, a prototype allows to show the contribution of this assistance in term of stability and consumption reduction. The second part of the report principally deals with the modelling and the control of electric converters. After a first section describing a methodology of a control-oriented modelling for some classes of static converters, an example of a design of the whole converter-controller is suggested. On the basis of a fourth order voltage switched-mode inverter which should operate as a function generator, the close interaction between filtering quality, structure design and control performances is analyzed and a solution is proposed. For every subject taken up, some prospective features are suggested as well. (author) 37 refs.

  6. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Alendorf; D. K. Ottensen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  7. An overview of exhaust emissions regulatory requirements and control technology for stationary natural gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, H.N.; Hay, S.C.; Shade, W.N. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a practical overview of stationary natural gas engine exhaust emissions control technology and trends in emissions regulatory requirements is presented. Selective and non-selective catalytic reduction and lean burn technologies are compared. Particular emphasis is focussed on implications of the Clean Air Act of 1990. Recent emissions reduction conversion kit developments and a practical approach to continuous monitoring are discussed

  8. Emission control strategies for short-chain chloroparaffins in two semi-hypothetical case cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Revitt, M.; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten

    2012-01-01

    The short-chain chloroparaffins (SCCP), (C10-13 chloroalkanes) are identified in the European Water Framework Directive, as priority hazardous substances. Within the ScorePP project, the aim is to develop emission control strategies that can be employed to reduce emissions from urban areas...... Technologies (BAT) and stormwater/CSO management were the most favorable in reducing emissions into the environment....

  9. Estimation of automobile emissions and control strategies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesamani, K S

    2010-03-15

    Rapid, but unplanned urban development and the consequent urban sprawl coupled with economic growth have aggravated auto dependency in India over the last two decades. This has resulted in congestion and pollution in cities. The central and state governments have taken many ameliorative measures to reduce vehicular emissions. However, evolution of scientific methods for emission inventory is crucial. Therefore, an attempt has been made to estimate the emissions (running and start) from on-road vehicles in Chennai using IVE model in this paper. GPS was used to collect driving patterns. The estimated emissions from motor vehicles in Chennai in 2005 were 431, 119, 46, 7, 4575, 29, and 0.41 tons/days respectively for CO, VOC, NO(x), PM, CO(2,) CH(4) and N(2)O. It is observed from the results that air quality in Chennai has degraded. The estimation revealed that two and three-wheelers emitted about 64% of the total CO emissions and heavy-duty vehicles accounted for more than 60% and 36% of the NO(x) and PM emissions respectively. About 19% of total emissions were that of start emissions. It is also estimated that on-road transport contributes about 6637 tons/day CO(2) equivalent in Chennai. This paper has further examined various mitigation options to reduce vehicular emissions. The study has concluded that advanced vehicular technology and augmentation of public transit would have significant impact on reducing vehicular emissions.

  10. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide...

  11. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European emission control areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moldanová, J.; Fridell, E.; Winnes, H.; Holmin-Fridell, S.; Boman, J.; Jedynska, A.; Tishkova, V.; Demirdjian, B.; Joulie, S.; Bladt, H.; Ivleva, N.P.; Niessner, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper emission factors (EFs) for particulate matter (PM) and some sub-components as well as gaseous substances were investigated in two onboard measurement campaigns. Emissions from two 4-stroke main engines were measured under stable-load conditions. The impact of varying engine load on the

  12. COST EFFECTIVE VOC EMISSION CONTROL STARTEGIES FOR MILITARY, AEROSPACE,AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTH OPERATIONS: COMBINING IMPROVED VENTILATION SYSTEMS WITH INNOVATIVE, LOW COST EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a full-scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified for recirculation ventilation; the booth exhaust streams are vented to an innovative volatile organic compound (VOC) emission control system having extremely low operating costs. ...

  13. Control of odour emission in wastewater treatment plants by direct and undirected measurement of odour emission capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarra, T; Giuliani, S; Naddeo, V; Belgiorno, V

    2012-01-01

    Odour emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered to be the main causes of disturbance noticed by the exposed population and have relevant impacts on both tourism economy and land costs. Odour impact from WWTPs is generated by primary and secondary odour emissions. Primary odour emissions are related especially to the wastewater type and variability discharged into the sewer and directed to the WWTP, and to the wastewater collection and sewage system. Secondary odours are related to the treatment units of the plant. Several studies describe the key role of primary odour emissions and how they are strongly related to odour impacts of WWTPs. In this way, a opportune characterization of the emission capacity of primary odour could be an effective way to control odour emission in the WWTPs. In this study the odour emission capacity (OEC) of different domestic sewers was described and investigated; a correlation between the OEC and the main physical-chemical parameters of wastewater quality was also carried out. Results of this study identify the optimum conditions for sampling and measuring OEC in wastewaters and define its dependence by wastewater quality. These results can contribute to setting the standards for the maximum odourant content of wastewater that are discharged into the publicly owned sewage system.

  14. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  15. The effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic characteristics of an automotive catalytic converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Tariq

    2008-01-01

    Automotive catalytic converters, which are employed to reduce engine exhaust emissions, are subjected to highly transient conditions during a typical driving cycle. These transient conditions arise from changes in driving mode, the hysteresis and flow lags of the feedback control system, and result in fluctuations of air-fuel ratio, exhaust gas flow rates and temperatures. The catalyst performance is also strongly influenced by the oxygen storage capacity. This paper presents a computational investigation of the effect of oxygen storage capacity on the dynamic behavior of an automotive catalytic converter subjected to modulations in exhaust gases. The modulations are generated by forcing the temporal variations in exhaust gases air-fuel ratio, gas flow rates and temperatures. The study employs a single-channel based, one-dimensional, non-adiabatic model. The results show that the imposed modulations cause a significant departure in the catalyst behavior from its steady behavior, and the oxygen storage capacity plays an important role in determining the catalyst's response to the imposed modulations. Modulations and oxygen storage capacity are found to have relatively greater influence on the catalyst's performance near stoichiometric conditions

  16. Análise das práticas de planejamento e controle da produção em fornecedores da cadeia automotiva brasileira Manufacturing planning and control practices: a survey research on the Brazilian automotive supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Mesquita

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As empresas do segmento automotivo estão inseridas em um mercado bastante competitivo e sujeito às oscilações da economia. As montadoras, agentes de maior poder na cadeia de suprimentos, aderiram às práticas just-in-time e, posteriormente, ao lean production, visando aumento da eficiência e redução de estoques. Este trabalho apresenta uma análise das práticas de planejamento e controle da produção dos fornecedores da cadeia automotiva brasileira. Neste propósito, realizou-se um survey junto aos fornecedores de primeira e segunda camada, utilizando-se como instrumento de coleta de dados um questionário auto-aplicado. Dentre os resultados obtidos, destacam-se: (i ausência de diferenças significativas entre fornecedores nível um e dois; (ii necessidade de aprimorar a coordenação cliente-fornecedor; (iii busca de "ferramentas" mais eficientes para programação da produção ("programação finita"; (iv grande lacuna entre teoria e prática em programação da produção, atividade crítica para o desempenho dos fornecedores.Automotive suppliers are part of a constantly changing business environment that is subject to oscillations in the economy. Automobile assemblers, the major influence over the rest of the supply chain, have adopted some Japanese management practices (JIT, lean production etc in order to achieve higher efficiency and lower inventories. This work aims to identify how suppliers along the chain have adjusted to this new situation concerning, mainly, production and inventory planning as well as control. A research was conducted showing that, nonuniformly, suppliers fulfill demand requests satisfactorily in spite of the poor coordination of their nearest clients, low inventory accuracy, and high stock level of raw materials and finished goods. It was also detected that there are no significant performance differences between first and second tier suppliers. It is particularly noteworthy to highlight a special need

  17. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  18. 16 CFR 306.10 - Automotive fuel rating posting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automotive fuel rating posting. 306.10... AUTOMOTIVE FUEL RATINGS, CERTIFICATION AND POSTING Duties of Retailers § 306.10 Automotive fuel rating posting. (a) If you are a retailer, you must post the automotive fuel rating of all automotive fuel you...

  19. Cost-effective control of SO2 emissions in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cofala, J.; Amann, M.; Gyarfas, F.; Schoepp, F.; Boudri, J.C.; Hordijk, L.; Kroeze, C.; Li Junfeng,; Dai Lin, D.; Panwar, T.S.; Gupta, S.

    2004-01-01

    Despite recent efforts to limit the growth of SO2 emissions in Asia, the negative environmental effects of sulphur emissions are likely to further increase in the future. This paper presents an extension of the RAINS-Asia integrated assessment model for acidification in Asia with an optimisation

  20. Fugitive Emission Control for the APE 1236 Deactivation Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    at Tooele Army Depot ( TEAD ) to contain fugitive emissions. A monitoring system was designed and installed to measure and record the effects of...door brought the average pressure to negative and the TEAD furnace into compliance with fugitive emissions requirements. DISCLAIMER: The contents...Pollutants NI National Instruments Corporation RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act TEAD Tooele Army Depot UPS uninterrupted power supply

  1. Vehicular Diesel control emissions benefit assessment in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reynoso, J.; Jazcilevich, A. D.; Ruiz-Suarez, L.; Cruz-Nuñez, X.; Rojas, A. R.; Tripp, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Diesel vehicles contribute in an important proportion to the particle and black carbon (BC) ambient concentrations in urban areas. These pollutants can effect the climate and health. The average age of the Diesel fleet in Mexico is 15 year-old. An introduction of new technologies and retrofit systems can reduce emissions from this type of vehicles. A set of policies were selected and applied in order to identify their economic benefits in health. An air quality model was used to obtain ambient concentrations from the emissions and specific methodology for emissions inventory adjustment was developed for this project. Preliminary results show an important benefit due to the improvement of the emissions reduction from the Diesel fleet. PM2.5 differences for reduction scenario case 1 and base case. Output from WRF-chem using 2005 Naional Emissions Inventory Reductions obtained using data from the initial fleet, fleet temporal variation and substitution policies.

  2. New trends in emission control in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Radzimirski, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses recent changes in the European legislation for exhaust emissions from motor vehicles. It starts with a comprehensive explanation of both the structure and range of applicability of new regulations, such as Euro 5 and Euro 6 for light-duty vehicles and Euro VI for heavy-duty vehicles. Then it introduces the most important issues in in-service conformity and conformity of production for vehicles, describing the latest procedures for performing exhaust emissions tests under both bench and operating conditions. Subsequently, it reports on portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) and their application for assessing the emissions of gaseous and particulate matter alike, under actual operating conditions and in all transport modes. Lastly, the book presents selected findings from exhaust emissions research on engines for a variety of transport vehicles, such as light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, as well as non-road vehicles, which include farm tractors, groundwork and forest machinery, diese...

  3. Advanced Materials for Automotive Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisza, M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper some recent material developments will be overviewed mainly from the point of view of automotive industry. In car industry, metal forming is one of the most important manufacturing processes imposing severe restrictions on materials; these are often contradictory requirements, e.g. high strength simultaneously with good formability, etc. Due to these challenges and the ever increasing demand new material classes have been developed; however, the more and more wide application of high strength materials meeting the requirements stated by the mass reduction lead to increasing difficulties concerning the formability which requires significant technological developments as well. In this paper, the recent materials developments will be overviewed from the point of view of the automotive industry

  4. GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES IN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ISAC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The automotive sector is characterised by a relatively low trade/salesratio. While the production of most automotive producers in the world is spread over variouscountries in the value chain, the brands are still considered to reflect some national identity.Internationalisation strategies may change over the lifecycle of the product and automakerstend to pursue diametrically opposed strategies. In mature markets, it is about managing whatgoes on beneath a static surface; in emerging markets’ dynamic environments, companies muststrategically position themselves to benefit from growth opportunities. However, without theright strategy and execution in mature markets, it is clear that traditional OEMs cannot profitfrom emerging markets-the persistence of structural issues in mature market operationseventually will rob all but the most resilient competitors of the opportunity to compete inemerging markets.

  5. Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Eva; Revitt, D. Mike; Ledin, Anna; Lundy, Lian; Holten Lützhøft, Hans-Christian; Wickman, Tonie; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2011-01-01

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on ‘Source control options for reducing emissions of Priority Pollutants’ (ScorePP), seven emission control strategies (ECSs) were developed and tested within a semi-hypothetical case city (SHCC) to evaluate their potential to reduce the emission of selected Eur...

  6. Environmental consequences of invasive species: greenhouse gas emissions of insecticide use and the role of biological control in reducing emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimpel, George E; Yang, Yi; Hill, Jason D; Ragsdale, David W

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We estimate that the manufacture, transport, and application of insecticides against soybean aphid results in approximately 10.6 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent greenhouse gasses being emitted per hectare of soybeans treated. Given the acreage sprayed, this has led to annual emissions of between 6 and 40 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses in the United States since the invasion of soybean aphid, depending on pest population size. Emissions would be higher were it not for the development of a threshold aphid density below which farmers are advised not to spray. Without a threshold, farmers tend to spray preemptively and the threshold allows farmers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological control of the soybean aphid, which can be substantial. We find that adoption of the soybean aphid economic threshold can lead to emission reductions of approximately 300 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year in the United States. Previous studies have documented that biological control agents such as lady beetles are capable of suppressing aphid densities below this threshold in over half of the soybean acreage in the U.S. Given the acreages involved this suggests that biological control results in annual emission reductions of over 200 million kg of CO2 equivalents. These analyses show how interactions between invasive species and organisms that suppress them can interact to affect greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. Environmental consequences of invasive species: greenhouse gas emissions of insecticide use and the role of biological control in reducing emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Heimpel

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We estimate that the manufacture, transport, and application of insecticides against soybean aphid results in approximately 10.6 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses being emitted per hectare of soybeans treated. Given the acreage sprayed, this has led to annual emissions of between 6 and 40 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses in the United States since the invasion of soybean aphid, depending on pest population size. Emissions would be higher were it not for the development of a threshold aphid density below which farmers are advised not to spray. Without a threshold, farmers tend to spray preemptively and the threshold allows farmers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological control of the soybean aphid, which can be substantial. We find that adoption of the soybean aphid economic threshold can lead to emission reductions of approximately 300 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year in the United States. Previous studies have documented that biological control agents such as lady beetles are capable of suppressing aphid densities below this threshold in over half of the soybean acreage in the U.S. Given the acreages involved this suggests that biological control results in annual emission reductions of over 200 million kg of CO2 equivalents. These analyses show how interactions between invasive species and organisms that suppress them can interact to affect greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Controlling spontaneous emission dynamics in semiconductor micro cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, B.

    Spontaneous emission of light can be controlled, cavity quantum electrodynamics tells us, and many experiments in atomic physics demonstrated this fact. In particular, coupling an emitter to a resonant photon mode of a cavity can enhance its spontaneous emission rate: this is the so-called Purcell effect. Though appealing it might seem to implement these concepts for the benefit of light-emitting semiconductor devices, great care has to be taken as to which emitter/cavity system should be used. Semiconductor quantum boxes prove to be good candidates for witnessing the Purcell effect. Also, low volume cavities having a high optical quality in other words a long photon storage time are required. State-of-the-art fabrication techniques of such cavities are presented and discussed.We demonstrate spontaneous emission rate enhancement for InAs/GaAs quantum boxes in time-resolved and continuous-wave photoluminescence experiments. This is done for two kinds of cavities, namely GaAs/AlAs micropillars (global enhancement by a factor of 5), and GaAs microdisks (global enhancement by a factor of 20). Prospects for lasers, light-emitting diodes and single photon sources based on the Purcell effect are discussed. L'émission spontanée de lumière peut être contrôlée, ainsi que nous l'enseigne l'électrodynamique quantique en cavité, ce fait a été démontré expérimentalement en physique atomique. En particulier, coupler un émetteur à un mode photonique résonnant d'une cavité peut exalter son taux d'émission spontanée : c'est l'effet Purcell. Bien qu'il semble très prometteur de mettre en pratique ces concepts pour améliorer les dispositifs semi-conducteurs émetteurs de lumière, le choix du système émetteur/cavité est crucial. Nous montrons que les boîtes quantiques semi-conductrices sont des bons candidats pour observer l'effet Purcell. Il faut par ailleurs des cavités de faible volume ayant une grande qualité optique en d'autres mots un long temps de

  9. Modern materials for automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovorun T. P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The car industry uses a tremendous number of materials to build cars, including iron, aluminum, steel, glass, rubber, petroleum products, copper, steel and others. These materials have evolved greatly over the decades, becoming more sophisticated, better built, and safer. They've changed as new automotive manufacturing technologies have emerged over the years, and they're used in increasingly innovative ways. This article is devoted to systematization information on the introduction and application of modern materials in the automotive industry. Given both domestic and foreign sources of information, it follows that car manufacturers are constantly pushing to create the lightest cars possible to increase speed and power. Research and development into lightweight materials is essential for lowering their cost, increasing their ability to be recycled, enabling their integration into vehicles, and maximizing their fuel economy benefits. Light weighting without loss of strength and speed properties is the present, and the future, of the automotive manufacturing industry. It brings innovative materials to the frontline of design.

  10. Reducing CO2 emissions in temperature-controlled road transportation using the LDVRP model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellingwerf, Helena M.; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Vorst, van der Jack G.A.J.; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M.

    2018-01-01

    Temperature-controlled transport is needed to maintain the quality of products such as fresh and frozen foods and pharmaceuticals. Road transportation is responsible for a considerable part of global emissions. Temperature-controlled transportation exhausts even more emissions than ambient

  11. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. 3280.308 Section 3280.308 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood...

  12. On-road vehicle emission control in Beijing: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Wang, Renjie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Bohong; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2011-01-01

    Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced rapid motorization since 1990; a trend that is likely to continue. The growth in vehicles and the corresponding emissions create challenges to improving the urban air quality. In an effort to reduce the impact of vehicle emissions on urban air quality, Beijing has adopted a number of vehicle emission control strategies and policies since the mid 1990 s. These are classified into seven categories: (1) emission control on new vehicles; (2) emission control on in-use vehicles; (3) fuel quality improvements; (4) alternative-fuel and advanced vehicles; (5) economic policies; (6) public transport; and (7) temporal traffic control measures. Many have proven to be successful, such as the Euro emission standards, unleaded gasoline and low sulfur fuel, temporal traffic control measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, etc. Some, however, have been failures, such as the gasoline-to-LPG taxi retrofit program. Thanks to the emission standards for new vehicles as well as other controls, the fleet-average emission rates of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) by each major vehicle category are decreasing over time. For example, gasoline cars decreased fleet-average emission factors by 12.5% for CO, 10.0% for HC, 5.8% for NO(X), and 13.0% for PM(10) annually since 1995, and such a trend is likely to continue. Total emissions for Beijing's vehicle fleet increased from 1995 to 1998. However, they show a clear and steady decrease between 1999 and 2009. In 2009, total emissions of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) were 845,000 t, 121,000 t, 84,000 t, and 3700 t, respectively; with reductions of 47%, 49%, 47%, and 42%, relative to 1998. Beijing has been considered a pioneer in controlling vehicle emissions within China, similar to the role of California to the U.S. The continued rapid growth of vehicles, however, is challenging Beijing's policy-makers.

  13. Rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinjoh, Hirohumi

    2006-01-01

    The usage of rare earth metals for automotive exhaust catalysts is demonstrated in this paper. Rare earth metals have been widely used in automotive catalysts. In particular, three-way catalysts require the use of ceria compounds as oxygen storage materials, and lanthana as both a stabilizer of alumina and a promoter. The application for diesel catalysts is also illustrated. Effects of inclusion of rare earth metals in automotive catalysts are discussed

  14. SUPPLIER SELECTION CRITERIA OF TURKISH AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRLER , Araş. Gör. İbrahim

    2007-01-01

    Supplier selection in supply chain management becomes more important due to the competition between supply chains rather than companies. Managing the supply chain is an important but complex issue for automotive manufacturers. This increases the importance of effective supplier selection in automotive industry. In this study, in order to investigate the supplier selection in supply chain management a questionnaire is applied to companies of Turkish Automotive Industry which is being affected ...

  15. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  16. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

  17. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables

  18. Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure.

  19. International Congress of Automotive and Transport Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ispas, Nicolae

    2017-01-01

    The volume will include selected and reviewed papers from CONAT - International Congress of Automotive and Transport Engineering to be held in Brasov, Romania, in October 2016. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in automotive vehicles and environment, advanced transport systems and road traffic, heavy and special vehicles, new materials, manufacturing technologies and logistics, accident research and analysis and innovative solutions for automotive vehicles. The conference will be organized by SIAR (Society of Automotive Engineers from Romania) in cooperation with FISITA. .

  20. Predictive emission monitoring system (PEMS) for emission control in biomass fired plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnevie, H.; Sarkoezi, L.; Trenkle, S.

    1996-08-01

    An alternative method for estimation of NO x -emissions from biomass fired plants has been investigated. The method, 'Predictive emission monitoring' (PEMS), implicates the creation of a mathematical formula. The formula expresses the relations between NO x -emissions and various operating and external parameters, such as flue gas temperature, excess combustion air and heat load. In this study the applicability of PEMS has been tested for two plants both of type travelling stokers. The most important results of the study are: PEMS is suitable for emission monitoring for some types of biomass fired plants (for example travelling stokers) even if the plant is fired with fuel with varying water content. In most cases it should be sufficient if the relation is based on oxygen level in the flue gas and plant load, with the possible addition of flue gas temperature and/or furnace temperature rate. These parameters are usually measured in any case, which means that no additional investment in instrumentation is necessary. In this study many measured parameters (for example the throttle levels) did not affect the NO x -emissions. A PEMS relation is only applicable for a specific plant and for a fixed validity range. Thus the function should be performed in such a way that it covers the limits of the operating parameters of the plant. Usage of different fuels or drift optimization can only be done within the validity range. Good combustion conditions could be necessary to receive a usable PEMS-function. Before creating the PEMS-function the combustion and the emission levels must be optimized. In plants with very fluctuating combustion, for example fixed stokers, it is possible that PEMS leads to not satisfying results. The total cost for a PEM-function can be calculated to be about 50-70% compared to a CEM during a period of a decade. 8 refs, 13 figs, 15 tabs, 8 appendices

  1. Intertemporal Permit Trading for the Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, P. [Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, M.S. 6205, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rubin, J. [Margaret Chase Smith Center for Public Policy, Department of Resource, Economics and Policy, The University of Maine, 5715 Coburn, Orono, Maine (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper integrates two themes in the intertemporal permit literature through the construction of an intertemporal banking system for a pollutant that creates both stock and flow damages. A permit banking system for the special case of a pollutant that only causes stock damages is also developed. This latter, simpler case corresponds roughly to the greenhouse gas emission reduction regime proposed by the U.S. Department of State as a means of fulfilling the U.S. commitment to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. This paper shows that environmental regulators can achieve the socially optimal level of emissions and output through time by setting the correct total sum of allowable emissions, and specifying the correct intertemporal trading ratio for banking and borrowing. For the case of greenhouse gases, we show that the optimal growth rate of permit prices, and therefore the optimal intertemporal trading rate, has the closed-form solution equal to the ratio of current marginal stock damages to the discounted future value of marginal stock damages less the decay rate of emissions in the atmosphere. Given a non-optimal negotiated emission path we then derive a permit banking system that has the potential to lower net social costs by adjusting the intertemporal trading ratio taking into account the behavior of private agents. We use a simple numerical simulation model to illustrate the potential gains from various possible banking systems. 24 refs.

  2. Intertemporal Permit Trading for the Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiby, P.; Rubin, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper integrates two themes in the intertemporal permit literature through the construction of an intertemporal banking system for a pollutant that creates both stock and flow damages. A permit banking system for the special case of a pollutant that only causes stock damages is also developed. This latter, simpler case corresponds roughly to the greenhouse gas emission reduction regime proposed by the U.S. Department of State as a means of fulfilling the U.S. commitment to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. This paper shows that environmental regulators can achieve the socially optimal level of emissions and output through time by setting the correct total sum of allowable emissions, and specifying the correct intertemporal trading ratio for banking and borrowing. For the case of greenhouse gases, we show that the optimal growth rate of permit prices, and therefore the optimal intertemporal trading rate, has the closed-form solution equal to the ratio of current marginal stock damages to the discounted future value of marginal stock damages less the decay rate of emissions in the atmosphere. Given a non-optimal negotiated emission path we then derive a permit banking system that has the potential to lower net social costs by adjusting the intertemporal trading ratio taking into account the behavior of private agents. We use a simple numerical simulation model to illustrate the potential gains from various possible banking systems. 24 refs

  3. Multi-channel automotive night vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gang; Wang, Li-jun; Zhang, Yi

    2013-09-01

    A four-channel automotive night vision system is designed and developed .It is consist of the four active near-infrared cameras and an Mulit-channel image processing display unit,cameras were placed in the automobile front, left, right and rear of the system .The system uses near-infrared laser light source,the laser light beam is collimated, the light source contains a thermoelectric cooler (TEC),It can be synchronized with the camera focusing, also has an automatic light intensity adjustment, and thus can ensure the image quality. The principle of composition of the system is description in detail,on this basis, beam collimation,the LD driving and LD temperature control of near-infrared laser light source,four-channel image processing display are discussed.The system can be used in driver assistance, car BLIS, car parking assist system and car alarm system in day and night.

  4. Determining organic pollutants in automotive industry sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Wonghon, Audrey L; von Mühlen, Carin

    2012-12-01

    In Brazil, the policy for disposing industrial sludge is changing from an emphasis on using controlled landfills to other treatment or co-processing methods; however, the monitoring of organic pollutants is not mandatory. The present study evaluated two general screening methods for organic pollutants in sludge generated in an automotive industrial complex in southern Brazil. The screening was performed using Soxhlet and sonication extractions and Gas Chromatograph coupled with Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/qMS). It was concluded that both techniques were effective and that most of the compounds identified were alkanes, phenols and esters. Important pollutants were detected in the sludge, which confirms the necessity of monitoring this type of residue.

  5. Nano-crystalline P/M aluminium for automotive applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummert, K; Schattevoy, R; Broda, M; Knappe, M; Beiss, P; Klubberg, F; Schubert, T H; Leuschner, R

    2009-01-01

    The reduction of total vehicle weight and lowering of moving masses within the engine are key elements to overcome future emission challenges of the automotive industry. Within a German BMBF funded project the melt spinning technology will be driven to a series production status. The very fast cooling condition of the melt leads to a nano-structure of the aluminium material. This results in new material properties of known alloys. The strength increases dramatically without lowered forming behaviour. With this process the freedom of designing complex alloys is very flexible. Different alloys have been investigated for several applications, where high strength at room and elevated temperatures and/or high wear resistance is required. This paper presents some results regarding the processing, microstructure and mechanical properties of a developed Al-Ni-Fe alloy. This joined research project with partners from the automotive industry as well as automotive suppliers and universities is funded by the German BMBF 'NanoMobile' Program under Project number 03X3008.

  6. Delay-feedback control strategy for reducing CO2 emission of traffic flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Dong; Zhu, Wen-Xing

    2015-06-01

    To study the signal control strategy for reducing traffic emission theoretically, we first presented a kind of discrete traffic flow model with relative speed term based on traditional coupled map car-following model. In the model, the relative speed difference between two successive running cars is incorporated into following vehicle's acceleration running equation. Then we analyzed its stability condition with discrete control system stability theory. Third, we designed a delay-feedback controller to suppress traffic jam and decrease traffic emission based on modern controller theory. Last, numerical simulations are made to support our theoretical results, including the comparison of models' stability analysis, the influence of model type and signal control on CO2 emissions. The results show that the temporal behavior of our model is superior to other models, and the traffic signal controller has good effect on traffic jam suppression and traffic CO2 emission, which fully supports the theoretical conclusions.

  7. Diesel emission control: Catalytic filters for particulate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Fino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European diesel engine industry represents a vital sector across the Continent, with more than 2 million direct work positions and a turnover of over 400 billion Euro. Diesel engines provide large paybacks to society since they are extensively used to transport goods, services and people. In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the emissions from diesel engines which, like gasoline engine emissions, include carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Diesel engines also produce significant levels of particulate matter (PM, which consists mostly of carbonaceous soot and a soluble organic fraction (SOF of hydrocarbons that have condensed on the soot.

  8. ENSO controls on dust emissions from large ephemeral lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, R. G.; Mahowald, N. M.; Eckardt, F.; Ross, S.

    2004-12-01

    Mineral aerosols (desert dust) interact with global climate and biogeochemistry. Recent research has suggested that the most significant sources of mineral aerosols are associated with topographic lows in drylands that contain contemporary or old ephemeral lakes, and that complex relationships may exist between surface water, hydrology and these desert dust sources. Most mineral aerosol emissions are observed in the northern hemisphere. Here, the identification of key processes acting within the dust source areas using remote sensing is far from straightforward; and currently inconclusive. This has implications for the generation and testing of dust emission models, and for estimating the relative impacts of natural and anthropogenic dust emission processes. In the southern hemisphere, dust emissions from a range of relatively discrete dust sources, centred on contemporary ephemeral lake basins, may provide an opportunity to constrain some of the emission processes and forcing mechanisms at regional scales. Research here involves the study of processes occurring within the dust source areas of southern Africa, southern America, and Australia. Using time-series of monthly TOMS, AVHRR, gridded climate data, surface climate data, and occasional gauged hydrological inputs, the relationship between dust emissions and surface processes have been investigated for a 20-year period (1982-2002) for large ephemeral lakes. The sources investigated were: (i) Etosha Pan, Namibia (location: 16oE, 18oS: area c.4800km2), (ii) The Makgadikgadi Pans, Botswana (location: 21oS, 26oE; area c.4480km2 (Ntwetwe Pan) and c.1116 km2 (Sua pan), (iii) Lake Eyre, Australia (location 27oS 137oE, area c.9300km2) and (iv) Salar de Uyuni (area c.10580km2) and Salar de Coipasa (area c.2220km2) located at approx. 20oS 67oW in Bolivia. For most of these lakes, findings show a significant relationship between anomalies in TOMS AI and the timing/extent of inundation; confirming a link between each

  9. Diffusion-controlled reference material for VOC emissions testing: proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S S; Liu, Z; Little, J C; Howard-Reed, C; Nabinger, S J; Persily, A

    2010-10-01

    Because of concerns about indoor air quality, there is growing awareness of the need to reduce the rate at which indoor materials and products emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To meet consumer demand for low emitting products, manufacturers are increasingly submitting materials to independent laboratories for emissions testing. However, the same product tested by different laboratories can result in very different emissions profiles because of a general lack of test validation procedures. There is a need for a reference material that can be used as a known emissions source and that will have the same emission rate when tested by different laboratories under the same conditions. A reference material was created by loading toluene into a polymethyl pentene film. A fundamental emissions model was used to predict the toluene emissions profile. Measured VOC emissions profiles using small-chamber emissions tests compared reasonably well to the emissions profile predicted using the emissions model, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed approach to create a diffusion-controlled reference material. To calibrate emissions test chambers and improve the reproducibility of VOC emission measurements among different laboratories, a reference material has been created using a polymer film loaded with a representative VOC. Initial results show that the film's VOC emission profile measured in a conventional test chamber compares well to predictions based on independently determined material/chemical properties and a fundamental emissions model. The use of such reference materials has the potential to build consensus and confidence in emissions testing as well as 'level the playing field' for product testing laboratories and manufacturers.

  10. A proposed centralised distribution model for the South African automotive component industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline J. Naude

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article explores the possibility of developing a distribution model, similar to the model developed and implemented by the South African pharmaceutical industry, which could be implemented by automotive component manufacturers for supply to independent retailers. Problem Investigated: The South African automotive components distribution chain is extensive with a number of players of varying sizes, from the larger spares distribution groups to a number of independent retailers. Distributing to the smaller independent retailers is costly for the automotive component manufacturers. Methodology: This study is based on a preliminary study of an explorative nature. Interviews were conducted with a senior staff member from a leading automotive component manufacturer in KwaZulu Natal and nine participants at a senior management level at five of their main customers (aftermarket retailers. Findings: The findings from the empirical study suggest that the aftermarket component industry is mature with the role players well established. The distribution chain to the independent retailer is expensive in terms of transaction and distribution costs for the automotive component manufacturer. A proposed centralised distribution model for supply to independent retailers has been developed which should reduce distribution costs for the automotive component manufacturer in terms of (1 the lowest possible freight rate; (2 timely and controlled delivery; and (3 reduced congestion at the customer's receiving dock. Originality: This research is original in that it explores the possibility of implementing a centralised distribution model for independent retailers in the automotive component industry. Furthermore, there is a dearth of published research on the South African automotive component industry particularly addressing distribution issues. Conclusion: The distribution model as suggested is a practical one and should deliver added value to automotive

  11. Automotive Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P.

    2015-03-01

    Considerable fuel energy, as much as 70%, is not converted to useful work by internal combustion engines but is instead rejected as waste heat, and more than half of the waste heat, nearly 40% of fuel energy, is contained in vehicle exhaust gas. This provides an opportunity to recover some of the wasted fuel energy and convert it from heat into useful work, subject to the laws of thermodynamics, and thereby improve vehicle energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) materials have been extensively researched and TE devices are now being developed for operation at high temperatures corresponding to automotive exhaust gases for direct solid-state conversion of heat into electricity. This has stimulated substantial progress in the development of practical TE generator (TEG) systems for large-scale commercialization. A significant enabler of this progress has been the US Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program through funding for low cost solutions for automotive TE waste heat recovery to improve fuel economy. Our current project at General Motors has culminated in the identification of the potential supply chain for all components and assembly of an automotive TEG. A significant focus has been to develop integrated and iterative modeling tools for a fully optimized TEG design that includes all components and subsystems (TE modules, heat exchangers, thermal interfaces, electrical interconnects, power conditioning, and vehicle integration for maximal use of TEG power). We have built and tested a new, low-cost Initial TEG prototype based on state-of-the-art production-scale skutterudite TE modules, novel heat exchanger designs, and practical solutions to the many technical challenges for optimum TEG performance. We will use the results for our Initial TEG prototype to refine our modeling and design tools for a Final automotive TEG system prototype. Our recent results will be presented. Thanks to: J.R. Salvador, E.R. Gundlach, D. Thompson, N.K. Bucknor, M

  12. MICROALLOYED STEELS FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debanshu Bhattacharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two major drivers for the use of newer steels in the automotive industry are fuel efficiency and increased safety performance. Fuel efficiency is mainly a function of weight of steel parts, which in turn, is controlled by gauge and design. Safety is determined by the energy absorbing capacity of the steel used to make the part. All of these factors are incentives for the U.S. automakers to use both Highly Formable and Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS to replace the conventional steels used to manufacture automotive parts in the past. AHSS is a general term used to describe various families of steels. The most common AHSS is the dual-phase steel that consists of a ferrite-martensite microstructure. These steels are characterized by high strength, good ductility, low tensile to yield strength ratio and high bake hardenability. Another class of AHSS is the complex-phase or multi-phase steel which has a complex microstructure consisting of various phase constituents and a high yield to tensile strength ratio. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP steels is another class of AHSS steels finding interest among the U.S. automakers. These steels consist of a ferrite-bainite microstructure with significant amount of retained austenite phase and show the highest combination of strength and elongation, so far, among the AHSS in use. High level of energy absorbing capacity combined with a sustained level of high n value up to the limit of uniform elongation as well as high bake hardenability make these steels particularly attractive for safety critical parts and parts needing complex forming. A relatively new class of AHSS is the Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P steels. These steels seem to offer higher ductility than the dual-phase steels of similar strengths or similar ductility as the TRIP steels at higher strengths. Finally, martensitic steels with very high strengths are also in use for certain parts. The most recent initiative in the area of AHSS

  13. Advances in LEDs for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jy; Peddada, Rao; Spinger, Benno

    2016-03-01

    High power LEDs were introduced in automotive headlights in 2006-2007, for example as full LED headlights in the Audi R8 or low beam in Lexus. Since then, LED headlighting has become established in premium and volume automotive segments and beginning to enable new compact form factors such as distributed low beam and new functions such as adaptive driving beam. New generations of highly versatile high power LEDs are emerging to meet these application needs. In this paper, we will detail ongoing advances in LED technology that enable revolutionary styling, performance and adaptive control in automotive headlights. As the standards which govern the necessary lumens on the road are well established, increasing luminance enables not only more design freedom but also headlight cost reduction with space and weight saving through more compact optics. Adaptive headlighting is based on LED pixelation and requires high contrast, high luminance, smaller LEDs with high-packing density for pixelated Matrix Lighting sources. Matrix applications require an extremely tight tolerance on not only the X, Y placement accuracy, but also on the Z height of the LEDs given the precision optics used to image the LEDs onto the road. A new generation of chip scale packaged (CSP) LEDs based on Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) have been developed to meet these needs, offering a form factor less than 20% increase over the LED emitter surface footprint. These miniature LEDs are surface mount devices compatible with automated tools for L2 board direct attach (without the need for an interposer or L1 substrate), meeting the high position accuracy as well as the optical and thermal performance. To illustrate the versatility of the CSP LEDs, we will show the results of, firstly, a reflector-based distributed low beam using multiple individual cavities each with only 20mm height and secondly 3x4 to 3x28 Matrix arrays for adaptive full beam. Also a few key trends in rear lighting and impact on LED light

  14. Using Technology to Enhance an Automotive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Denis Ashton uses technology in his automotive technology program at East Valley Institute of Technology (EVIT) to positively impact student outcomes. Ashton, the department chair for the automotive programs at EVIT, in Mesa, Arizona, says that using an interactive PowerPoint curriculum makes learning fun for students and provides immediate…

  15. Dynamic and Acoustic Characterisation of Automotive Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Curà

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the dynamic and acoustic characterisation of an automotive wheel. In particular, an experimental research activity previously performed by the authors about the dynamic behaviour of automotive wheels has been extended to the acoustic field.

  16. Veranderende automotive wereld vraagt om verandering onderwijs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.C. Nas

    2011-01-01

    Met dit document wil ik de lezer een nieuwe invalshoek tonen op mobiliteit (Driving Guidance) en een andere benadering van automotive hbo onderwijs. De wereld om ons heen verandert en deze nieuwe wereld zal een ander type automotive ingenieur eisen. Dit is een korte weergave van een lezing voor de

  17. Bioelectrochemical approach for control of methane emission from wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shentan; Feng, Xiaojuan; Li, Xianning

    2017-10-01

    To harvest electricity and mitigate methane emissions from wetlands, a novel microbial fuel cell coupled constructed wetland (MFC-CW) was assembled with an anode placing in the rhizosphere and a cathode on the water surface. Plant-mediated methane accounted for 71-82% of the total methane fluxes. The bioanode served as an inexhaustible source of electron acceptors and resulted in reduced substantial methane emissions owing to electricigens outcompeting methanogens for carbon and electrons when substrate was deficient. However, when supplying sufficient organic carbon, both electricity and methane increased, indicating that electrogenesis and methanogenesis could co-exist in harmony. Direct methane emission (diffusion/ebullition) and plant-mediated methane emission were affected by operating conditions. Methanogenesis was significantly suppressed (∼98%) at HRT of 96h and with external resistance of 200Ω, accompanied with improved coulombic efficiency of 14.9% and current density of 187mA/m 2 . Contrarily, change of electrode polarity in the rhizosphere led to more methane efflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards the Formal Verification of a Distributed Real-Time Automotive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Erik; Mueller, Christian; Shadrin, Andrey; Tverdyshev, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    We present the status of a project which aims at building, formally and pervasively verifying a distributed automotive system. The target system is a gate-level model which consists of several interconnected electronic control units with independent clocks. This model is verified against the specification as seen by a system programmer. The automotive system is implemented on several FPGA boards. The pervasive verification is carried out using combination of interactive theorem proving (Isabelle/HOL) and model checking (LTL).

  19. Investigations of the Impact of Biodiesel Metal Contaminants on Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookshear, D. W.; Lance, M. J.; McCormick, Robert L.; Toops, T. J.

    2017-02-27

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel with the potential to displace a portion of petroleum use. However, as with any alternative fuel, in order to be a viable choice it must be compatible with the emissions control devices. The finished biodiesel product can contain up to 5 ppm Na+K and 5 ppm Ca+Mg, and these metal impurities can lead to durability issues with the devices used to control emissions in diesel vehicles. Significant work has been performed to understand how the presence of these metals impacts each individual component of diesel emissions control systems, and this chapter summarizes the findings of these research efforts.

  20. Field emission to control tip-sample distance in magnetic probe recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Fèbre, A.J.; Lüttge, Regina; Abelmann, Leon; Lodder, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    An integrated method using field-emission to control the tip-sample distance for non-contact magnetic probe recording is presented, adopting the exponential relation between current and electric field as feedback. I/V characteristics that correspond well to field emission theory are measured using a

  1. Developing a Reference Material for Diffusion-Controlled Formaldehyde Emissions Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of formaldehyde from building materials can contaminate indoor air and create significant risks to human health. The need to control formaldehyde emissions from indoor materials is made more urgent by the prevailing drive to improve building energy by decreasing ventil...

  2. CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control following the release of "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress" in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPA's December 2000 de...

  3. Systematic Field Study of NO(x) Emission Control Methods for Utility Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartok, William; And Others

    A utility boiler field test program was conducted. The objectives were to determine new or improved NO (x) emission factors by fossil fuel type and boiler design, and to assess the scope of applicability of combustion modification techniques for controlling NO (x) emissions from such installations. A statistically designed test program was…

  4. Soil physiochemical controls on trace gas emissions for a North Dakota mollisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantification of trace gas emissions and an increased understanding of soil controls on emissions during freeze-thaw cycles are essential to refine climate change models. Six similar, intact soil cores were collected to a depth of 80 cm from an undisturbed prairie in central North Dakota. Trace g...

  5. Control of Atmospheric Emissions in the Wood Pulping Industry, Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, E. R.; And Others

    Volume 3 contains chapters 9 through 13 of the final report on the control of atmospheric emissions in the wood pulping industry. These chapters deal with the following topics: sampling and analytical techniques; on-going research related to reduction of emissions; research and development recommendations; current industry investment and operating…

  6. Development and Application of a Virtual NOx Sensor for Robust Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.; Seykens, X.; Escobar Valdivieso, D.

    2017-01-01

    To meet future emission targets, it becomes increasingly important to optimize the synergy between engine and aftertreatment system. By using an integrated control approach minimal fluid (fuel and DEF) consumption is targeted within the constraints of emission legislation during real-world

  7. Mockup Didatic Set for Students Development in Automotive Electronic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Delatore

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The automotive engineering education area, specifically on internal combustion engine, requires the use of suitable systems, capable to simulate, test and obtain specifics data from its operation. Automotive engines are so complex due to it is a mix of engineering subjects, so, a mockup was created to help its study. The mockup is an exactly the same engine that equips a vehicle, but assembled in a mechanical base, equipped with all the necessary components for running it up. The objective of this work is to develop a mockup with a suitable Electronic Control Unit (ECU board, in order to obtain the sensors/actuators signals from the engine and control some important engine functions by using an external ECU, so that the students may test their own strategies, compare with the original ECU.

  8. Modeling Nitrous Oxide emissions and identifying emission controlling factors for a spruce forest ecosystem on drained organic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongxing; Kasimir, Åsa; Jansson, Per-Erik; Svensson, Magnus; Meyer, Astrid; Klemedtsson, Leif

    2015-04-01

    High Nitrous Oxide (N2O) emission has been identified in hemiboreal forests on drained organic soils. However, the controlling factors regulating the emissions have been unclear. To examine the importance of different factors on the N2O emission in a spruce forest on drained organic soil, a process-based model, CoupModel, was calibrated by the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method. The calibrated model reproduced most of the high resolution data (total net radiation, soil temperature, groundwater level, net ecosystem exchange, etc.) very well, as well as accumulated measured N2O emissions, but showed difficulties to capture all the measured emission peaks. Parameter uncertainties could be reduced by combining selected criteria with the measurement data. The model showed the N2O emissions during the summer to be controlled mainly by the competition between plants and microbes while during the winter season snow melt periods are important. The simulated N budget shows >100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to be in circulation between soil and plants and back again. Each year the peat mineralization adds about 60 kg N ha-1 and atmospheric deposition 12 kg N ha-1. Most of the mineralized litter and peat N is directly taken up by the plants but only a part accumulates in the plant biomass. As long as no timber is harvested the main N loss from the system is through nitrate leaching (30 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and gas emissions (20 kg N ha-1 yr-1), 55% as NO, 27% as N2O and 18% as N2. Regarding N2O gas emissions, our modeling indicates denitrification to be the most responsible process, of the size 6 kg N ha-1 yr-1, which could be compared to 0.04 kg N ha-1 yr-1 from nitrification. Our modelling also reveal 88% of the N2O mainly to be produced by denitrification in the capillary fringe (c.a. 40-60 cm below soil surface) of the anaerobic zone using nitrate produced in the upper more aerobic layers. We conclude N2O production/emission to be controlled mainly by the complex

  9. Control and treatment of sulfur oxides emissions; Prevention et traitement des emissions d`oxydes de soufre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The conference on the control and treatment of sulfur oxides emissions has held in Le Havre the 4. and 5. december, 1997. The aim of this conference was to promote the information on the different treatment technologies and to contribute on the one hand to the supporting and revival of the environmental protection and on the other hand to the desulfurization programs. It has allowed to recall too the technical and financial support of the Ademe to the manufacturers. (O.M.)

  10. Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2008-10-17

    This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

  11. Electrically heated catalysts for cold-start emission control on gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimrich, M.J.; Albu, S.; Ahuja, M.

    1992-01-01

    Cold-start emissions from current technology vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can account for over 80 percent of the emissions produced during the Federal Test Procedure (FTP). Excessive pollutants can be emitted for a period of one to two minutes following cold engine starting, partially because the catalyst has not reached an efficient operating temperature. Electrically heated catalysts, which are heated prior to engine starting, have been identified as a potential strategy for controlling cold-start emissions. This paper summarizes the emission results of three gasoline-fueled and three methanol-fueled vehicles equipped with electrically heated catalyst systems. Results from these vehicles demonstrate that heated catalyst technology can provide FTP emission levels of nonmethane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) that show promise of meeting the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standards established by the California Air Resources Board

  12. Control of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions from restaurant operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynot, J; Quinn, G; Perryman, P; Votlucka, P

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes efforts to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions from restaurant operations, including application of an existing control method to a new equipment type. Commercial charbroiling in the South Coast Air Basin results in emissions of approximately 10 tons/day of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and 1.3 tons/day of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over a seven-year period, the South Coast Air Quality Management District worked with industry to develop test methods for measuring emissions from various cooking operations, evaluate control technologies, and develop a rule to reduce these emissions. Of the two basic types of charbroilers--chain-driven and underfired--underfired produce four times the emissions when equivalent amounts of product are cooked. Cost-effective control technology is currently available only for chain-driven charbroilers. The application of flameless catalytic oxidizers to chain-driven charbroilers was found to effectively reduce emissions by at least 83% and is cost-effective. The catalysts have been used worldwide at restaurants for several years. Research efforts are underway to identify control options for underfired charbroilers. Implementation of Rule 1138, Control of Emissions from Restaurant Operations, adopted November 14, 1997, will result in reductions of 0.5 tons/day of PM2.5 and 0.2 tons/day of VOCs. Future rules will result in reductions from underfired charbroilers and possibly other restaurant equipment when cost-effective solutions are available.

  13. Impact of emission control on regional air quality in the Pearl Delta River region, southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Xuejiao, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China has been suffering from air quality issues and the government has implemented a series of strategies in controlling emissions. In an attempt to provide scientific support for improving air quality, the paper investigates the concerning past-to-present air quality data and assesses air quality resulting from emission control. Statistical data revealed that energy consumption doubled from 2004 to 20014 and vehicle usage increased significantly from 2006 to 2014. Due to the effect of control efforts, primary emission of SO2, NOx and PM2.5 decreased resulting in ambient concentrations of SO2, NO2 and PM10 decreased by 66%, 20% and 24%, respectively. However, O3 increased 19% because of the increase of VOC emission. A chemical transport model, the Community Multi-scale Air Quality, was employed to evaluate the responses of nitrate, ammonium, SOA, PM2.5 and O3 to changes in NOx, VOC and NH3 emissions. Three scenarios, a baseline scenario, a CAP scenario (control strength followed as past tendency), and a REF scenario (strict control referred to latest policy and plans), were conducted to investigate the responses and mechanisms. NOx controlling scenarios showed that NOx, nitrate and PM2.5 reduced by 1.8%, 0.7% and 0.2% under CAP and reduced by 7.2%, 1.8% and 0.3% under REF, respectively. The results indicated that reducing NOx emission caused the increase of atmospheric oxidizability, which might result in a compensation of PM2.5 due to the increase of nitrate or sulfate. NH3 controlling scenarios showed that nitrate was sensitive to NH3 emission in PRD, with nitrate decreased by 0 - 10.6% and 0 - 48% under CAP and REF, respectively. Since controlling NH3 emissions not only reduced ammonium but also significantly reduced nitrate, the implement of NH3 controlling strategy was highly suggested. The VOC scenarios revealed that though SOA was not the major component of PM2.5, controlling VOC emission might take effect in southwestern PRD

  14. Monitoring and evaluation of production processes an analysis of the automotive industry

    CERN Document Server

    Panda, Anton; Pandová, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    This book presents topics on monitoring and evaluation of production processes in the automotive industry. Regulation of production processes is also described in details. The text deals with the implementation and evaluation of these processes during the mass production of components useful in the automotive industry. It evaluates the effects and results achieved after implementation in practice. The book takes into account the different methodologies of the world's automakers and applicable standards, such as standard EN ISO 9001 and the requirements of VDA and ISO/TS 16949. The content is used to those working with the development, production and quality control of new products in the demanding automotive industry. The information provided may also be useful to engineers and technical staff in organizations working with series production and production of spare parts for the automotive and other demanding industries. The content presented was written based on discussions with various companies and organiza...

  15. Recovery of platinum-group metals (PGMS from spent automotive catalysts: Part II: Automotive catalysts: Structures and principle of operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Mile D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic converters are incorporated into motor vehicle emission systems (passenger cars, trucks and other motor vehicles, as well as civil and agricultural machines, as of lately to reduce air pollution as well as to meet the emission standards. Their purpose is to convert toxic emissions generated by combustion of liquid fossil fuels into less harmful products. In catalytic converters, rhodium is used for the reduction of gasses, whereas platinum and palladium are used for the oxidation of gasses. This paper presents the structure and operating principle of automotive catalysts in view of the fact that cars are the most prevalent motor vehicles worldwide and due to the fact that the production of cars with gasoline and diesel engines will dominate until at least 2020.

  16. Energy and Environmental Challenges for the Japanese Automotive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    The turn of the century is proving to be a period of turmoil and uncertainty for the automotive industry. The industry confronts growing worldwide demands for greater environmental quality, but now benefits from an emerging technological revolution that provides them with the tools to respond effectively to those demands. Rapid innovation is occurring in lightweight materials, various ICE powertrain enhancements made possible by computer controls, energy conversion processes, energy storage, ...

  17. Venturi/Vortex Scrubber Technology for Controlling/Recycling Chromium Electroplating Emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hay, K

    1999-01-01

    ...) above the plating tank. Venturi/Vortex Scrubber Technology (VVST) was designed to control chromium electroplating emissions by collecting the gas bubbles before they burst at the solution's surface...

  18. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  19. Supply chain management problems at South African automotive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problems that automotive component manufacturers (ACMs) experience in automotive supply chains is an important contemporary issue. The role of ACMs in the competitiveness and survival of the automotive industry has never been as pronounced. Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs, also known as automotive

  20. The role of the Federal Relighting Initiative in emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, A.K.; Purcell, C.W.; Friedman, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Federal Relighting Initiative (FRI), under the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), has developed a comprehensive process to assist federal agencies in meeting the nation's energy mandate. This mandate states that federal facilities must use 20% less energy by the year 2000, based on 1985 consumption levels. Because lighting accounts for about 40% of total federal electricity consumption, the FRI was conceived to help reduce energy use in this important area while improving lighting quality and increasing productivity through relighting. Selected federal rules and regulations provide guidance on the types of energy efficiency techniques required, life-cycle costing methods and lighting levels that should be employed to achieve the federal mandate. Although the central focus of this paper is on the environment, this paper takes the perspective that the energy efficiency gains achieved through the FRI would produce both environmental and economic benefits for the United States. For example, improvements in energy efficiency would reduce electricity demand, and would consequently reduce the emissions associated with fossil fuel combustion for power production. These reduced emissions include carbon dioxide, which is associated with the potential for global climate change, and heavy metals, which pose a potential health threat to humans and aquatic ecosystems. Economic benefits of the FRI would include reduced federal expenditures on energy or, possibly, avoiding new power plant construction.This paper begins with a brief overview of the FRI process. Next, current lighting energy use in federal buildings is evaluated and the potential future energy savings achievable through full implementation of the FRI are estimated. The paper then translates these energy savings into avoided emissions of carbon dioxide and heavy metals and into avoided fuel expenditures

  1. Controlling the spontaneous emission of a superconducting transmon qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, A A; Schreier, J A; Johnson, B R; Chow, J M; Koch, Jens; Gambetta, J M; Schuster, D I; Frunzio, L; Devoret, M H; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J

    2008-08-22

    We present a detailed characterization of coherence in seven transmon qubits in a circuit QED architecture. We find that spontaneous emission rates are strongly influenced by far off-resonant modes of the cavity and can be understood within a semiclassical circuit model. A careful analysis of the spontaneous qubit decay into a microwave transmission-line cavity can accurately predict the qubit lifetimes over 2 orders of magnitude in time and more than an octave in frequency. Coherence times T1 and T_{2};{*} of more than a microsecond are reproducibly demonstrated.

  2. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assali, S.; Laehnemann, J.; Vu, Thi Thu Trang

    2017-01-01

    -blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement...... of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier...

  3. 76 FR 51901 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of Emissions of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ...-21-25 ``Control of VOC emissions from reinforced plastic composites production operations,'' which...)(2).) List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... material. (A) An October 25, 2010, letter from Robert F. Hodanbosi, Chief Division of Air Pollution Control...

  4. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  5. 76 FR 20598 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of Emissions of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... version of 3745-21-07 that is contained in Ohio's SIP. (K)(1)--Lists emission units subject to the control... approvable because it is consistent with the control requirements in the prior version of 3745-21-07 that is... control requirements in the prior version of 3745- 21-07 that is contained in Ohio's SIP. IV. Statutory...

  6. Control of GHG emission at the microbial community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insam, H; Wett, B

    2008-01-01

    All organic material eventually is decomposed by microorganisms, and considerable amounts of C and N end up as gaseous metabolites. The emissions of greenhouse relevant gases like carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides largely depend on physico-chemical conditions like substrate quality or the redox potential of the habitat. Manipulating these conditions has a great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Such options are known from farm and waste management, as well as from wastewater treatment. In this paper examples are given how greenhouse gas production might be reduced by regulating microbial processes. Biogas production from manure, organic wastes, and landfills are given as examples how methanisation may be used to save fossil fuel. Methane oxidation, on the other hand, might alleviate the problem of methane already produced, or the conversion of aerobic wastewater treatment to anaerobic nitrogen elimination through the anaerobic ammonium oxidation process might reduce N2O release to the atmosphere. Changing the diet of ruminants, altering soil water potentials or a change of waste collection systems are other measures that affect microbial activities and that might contribute to a reduction of carbon dioxide equivalents being emitted to the atmosphere.

  7. Prospects for MEMS in the Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard DIXON

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An automotive sector as a growth market for MEMS sensors is analyzed in the article. The automotive sector accounted for $1.6 billion, making this the second biggest opportunity after IT peripherals and inkjet print heads. By 2011 the market will top $2.2 billion, a CAGR of around 7%. The main applications in revenues terms are, in order, pressure sensors, gyroscopes, accelerometers and flow sensors and this will remain so for the foreseeable future. Automotive companies are forced to innovate as a result of competition and price pressures.

  8. Plant-wide modelling and control of nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo

    % of those CO2 equivalents comes from N2O emissions. It becomes therefore relevant, within the context of reducing the carbon footprint of wastewater treatment (WWT) systems, to develop control strategies aimed at the minimization of the emissions of this gas. Till now, few operation strategies have been....... However, in full-scale continuously-aerated wastewater treatment systems such control strategies cannot be implemented. Furthermore, the available control strategies developed for N2O emissions are not online, namely they do not change the operating conditions automatically as a function of on...... environments and a multi-criteria evaluation, taking into account not only the N2O emissions but also the effluent quality and the operational costs, is carried out. This is because the reduction of the carbon footprint of WWT plants cannot be achieved at the expense of worse effluent quality and unreasonably...

  9. Automotive Technology and Human Factors Research: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoyuki Akamatsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of automotive technology development and human factors research, largely by decade, since the inception of the automobile. The human factors aspects were classified into primary driving task aspects (controls, displays, and visibility, driver workspace (seating and packaging, vibration, comfort, and climate, driver’s condition (fatigue and impairment, crash injury, advanced driver-assistance systems, external communication access, and driving behavior. For each era, the paper describes the SAE and ISO standards developed, the major organizations and conferences established, the major news stories affecting vehicle safety, and the general social context. The paper ends with a discussion of what can be learned from this historical review and the major issues to be addressed. A major contribution of this paper is more than 180 references that represent the foundation of automotive human factors, which should be considered core knowledge and should be familiar to those in the profession.

  10. Novel thermocouples for automotive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gierth

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of temperatures in engine and exhaust systems in automotive applications is necessary for thermal protection of the parts and optimizing of the combustion process. State-of-the-art temperature sensors are very limited in their response characteristic and installation space requirement. Miniaturized sensor concepts with a customizable geometry are needed. The basic idea of this novel sensor concept is to use thick-film technology on component surfaces. Different standardized and especially nonstandard material combinations of thermocouples have been produced for the validation of this technology concept. Application-oriented measurements took place in the exhaust system of a test vehicle and were compared to standard laboratory conditions.

  11. Parametric studies on automotive radiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliet, C.; Oliva, A.; Castro, J.; Perez-Segarra, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a set of parametric studies performed on automotive radiators by means of a detailed rating and design heat exchanger model developed by the authors. This numerical tool has been previously verified and validated using a wide experimental data bank. A first part of the analysis focuses on the influence of working conditions on both fluids (mass flows, inlet temperatures) and the impact of the selected coolant fluid. Following these studies, the influence of some geometrical parameters is analysed (fin pitch, louver angle) as well as the importance of coolant flow lay-out on the radiator global performance. This work provides an overall behaviour report of automobile radiators working at usual range of operating conditions, while significant knowledge-based design conclusions have also been reported. The results show the utility of this numerical model as a rating and design tool for heat exchangers manufacturers, being a reasonable compromise between classic ε - NTU methods and CFD

  12. Technology Transfer in the Global Automotive Value Chain. Lessons from the Turkish Automotive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    M. Teoman Pamukçu; Alper Sönmez

    2011-01-01

    The automotive industry is one of the main contributors to value added, employment and exports of the Turkish economy and it has undergone major changes since the mid-nineties. Most of the automotive manufacturers in Turkey are either joint ventures or wholly-owned affiliates of multinational companies. Literature on global value chains point to the possibility of technology transfer occurring through backward linkages from automotive manufacturers to their suppliers. We test for the existenc...

  13. Synthesis of Carbon Dots with Multiple Color Emission by Controlled Graphitization and Surface Functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiang; Qu, Dan; Yang, Dongxue; Nie, Bing; Zhao, Yikang; Fan, Hongyou; Sun, Zaicheng

    2018-01-01

    Multiple-color-emissive carbon dots (CDots) have potential applications in various fields such as bioimaging, light-emitting devices, and photocatalysis. The majority of the current CDots to date exhibit excitation-wavelength-dependent emissions with their maximum emission limited at the blue-light region. Here, a synthesis of multiple-color-emission CDots by controlled graphitization and surface function is reported. The CDots are synthesized through controlled thermal pyrolysis of citric acid and urea. By regulating the thermal-pyrolysis temperature and ratio of reactants, the maximum emission of the resulting CDots gradually shifts from blue to red light, covering the entire light spectrum. Specifically, the emission position of the CDots can be tuned from 430 to 630 nm through controlling the extent of graphitization and the amount of surface functional groups, COOH. The relative photoluminescence quantum yields of the CDots with blue, green, and red emission reach up to 52.6%, 35.1%, and 12.9%, respectively. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the CDots can be uniformly dispersed into epoxy resins and be fabricated as transparent CDots/epoxy composites for multiple-color- and white-light-emitting devices. This research opens a door for developing low-cost CDots as alternative phosphors for light-emitting devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Laser method of acoustical emission control from vibrating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    For limitation of the noise in environment, the necessity occurs of determining and location of sources of sounds emitted from surfaces of many machines and devices, assuring in effect the possibility of suitable constructional changes implementation, targeted at decreasing of their nuisance. In the paper, the results of tests and calculations are presented for plane surface sources emitting acoustic waves. The tests were realized with the use of scanning laser vibrometer which enabled remote registration and the spectral analysis of the surfaces vibrations. The known hybrid digital method developed for determination of sound wave emission from such surfaces divided into small finite elements was slightly modified by distinguishing the phase correlations between such vibrating elements. The final method being developed may find use in wide range of applications for different forms of vibrations of plane surfaces.

  15. Electrification of the transportation sector: Is there a need for restructuring the automotive parts suppliers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaslan, A. Ebru

    The future of the transportation sector has significant implications for the mitigation of climate change through reduced GHG emissions as well as achieving energy efficiency and energy independence. Battery-powered, plug-in, and hybrid electric vehicles are widely seen as the greatest source of a solution. This thesis analyzes the historical development and growth of the automotive industry as well as the restructuring toward the next generation technologies in comparison with the U.S. and China to shed light on the question of how a developing country can structure its strategies to be able to upgrade and be competitive over time. Conventional business models can become obsolete. Companies will find it difficult to maintain their market position unless they gain new perspectives on the outlook of the industry as a whole, and take into account the successful business models of tomorrow. The potential for further growth of the Turkish automotive supplier base particularly in the next generation of automotive technologies is therefore highly dependent on policies and strategies at the national level as much as its dependence on the global strategies of the automotive industry's major players. In this sense, the key questions that motivate this study are whether there are foreseeable technological changes and product-segmentation strategies that could significantly enhance the competitiveness of local Turkish suppliers of automotive components. The thesis builds on the theory of innovative enterprise and evolutionary agglomeration to examine the competitive potential of the Konya Auto Part Suppliers' Cluster in Turkey.

  16. Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace. Final report, September 20, 1989--March 20, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.

    1993-03-01

    One of the major obstacles to the successful development and commercialization of a coal-fired residential furnace is the need for a reliable, cost-effective emission control system. Tecogen is developing a novel, integrated control system to control NO{sub x}SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. Under a previous contract with PETC (Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor to control NO{sub x}emission. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emission.

  17. Evolution of NOx emissions in Europe with focus on road transport control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reis

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available European emission trends of nitrogen oxides since 1880 and up to present are presented here and are linked to the evolution of road transport emissions. Road transport has been the dominating source of NOx emissions since 1970, and contributes with 40% to the total emissions in 2005. Five trend regimes have been identified between 1880 and 2005. The first regime (1880–1950 is determined by a slow increase in fuel consumption all over Europe. The second regime (1950–1980 is characterized by a continued steep upward trend in liquid fuel use and by the introduction of the first regulations on road traffic emissions. Reduction in fuel consumption determines the emission trends in the third regime (1980–1990 that is also characterized by important differences between Eastern and Western Europe. Emissions from road traffic continue to grow in Western Europe in this period, and it is argued here that the reason for this continued NOx emission increase is related to early inefficient regulations for NOx in the transport sector. The fourth regime (1990–2000 involves a turning point for road traffic emissions, with a general decrease of emissions in Europe during that decade. It is in this period that we can identify the first emission reductions due to technological abatement in Western Europe. In the fifth regime (2000–2005, the economic recovery in Eastern Europe imposes increased emission from road traffic in this area. Western European emissions are on the other hand decoupled from the fuel consumption, and continue to decrease. The implementation of strict measures to control NOx emissions is demonstrated here to be a main reason for the continued Western European emission reductions. The results indicate that even though the effectiveness of European standards is hampered by a slow vehicle turnover, loopholes in the type-approval testing, and an increase in diesel consumption, the effect of such technical abatement measures is traceable

  18. Highly controlled, reproducible measurements of aerosol emissions from combustion of a common African biofuel source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslett, Sophie L.; Thomas, J. Chris; Morgan, William T.; Hadden, Rory; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James D.; Williams, Paul I.; Keita, Sekou; Liousse, Cathy; Coe, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    Particulate emissions from biomass burning can both alter the atmosphere's radiative balance and cause significant harm to human health. However, due to the large effect on emissions caused by even small alterations to the way in which a fuel burns, it is difficult to study particulate production of biomass combustion mechanistically and in a repeatable manner. In order to address this gap, in this study, small wood samples sourced from Côte D'Ivoire in West Africa were burned in a highly controlled laboratory environment. The shape and mass of samples, available airflow and surrounding thermal environment were carefully regulated. Organic aerosol and refractory black carbon emissions were measured in real time using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and a Single Particle Soot Photometer, respectively. This methodology produced remarkably repeatable results, allowing aerosol emissions to be mapped directly onto different phases of combustion. Emissions from pyrolysis were visible as a distinct phase before flaming was established. After flaming combustion was initiated, a black-carbon-dominant flame was observed during which very little organic aerosol was produced, followed by a period that was dominated by organic-carbon-producing smouldering combustion, despite the presence of residual flaming. During pyrolysis and smouldering, the two phases producing organic aerosol, distinct mass spectral signatures that correspond to previously reported variations in biofuel emissions measured in the atmosphere are found. Organic aerosol emission factors averaged over an entire combustion event were found to be representative of the time spent in the pyrolysis and smouldering phases, rather than reflecting a coupling between emissions and the mass loss of the sample. Further exploration of aerosol yields from similarly carefully controlled fires and a careful comparison with data from macroscopic fires and real-world emissions will help to deliver greater constraints on the

  19. multilevel buck converter for automotive electrical load

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    MULTILEVEL BUCK CONVERTER FOR AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRICAL LOAD. E. T. Yabefa1,* and D. Ebregbe2. 1ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT, BAYELSA STATE COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCE (BYCAS) YENAGOA, BAYELSA STATE NIGERIA. 2ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, NIGER DELTA UNIVERSITY, ...

  20. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    CERN Document Server

    CAERC, Tsinghua University

    2014-01-01

    This book identifies and addresses key issues of automotive energy in China. It covers demography, economics, technology and policy, providing a broad perspective to aid in the planning of sustainable road transport in China.

  1. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  2. INFLUENCE OF AUTOMOTIVE CLUSTERS IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin BORDEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an overview of the evolution in the automotive sector in the process of regional development. The fundamental changes made by the component supplier sector improved the regional development and manufacturing process. Automotive industry is one of the modern sectors in many countries that benefits of a high technology impact and creates jobs that reduces unemployment across Europe. The auto industry changed cities, regions and countries into poles of development and it becomes more and more efficient. The high foreign direct investments from the automotive sector play an important role in regional development process. Continuous changes are being made in the economy, society, and company; in conclusion the automotive clusters will always be a subject of analysis.

  3. Air pollutant emissions and their control with the focus on waste incineration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeschau, Margit [Wandschneider + Gutjahr, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    This text and practical handbook thoroughly presents the control of air pollutant emissions from combustion processes focusing on waste incinerators. Special characteristics are emphasised and the differences to emission control from combustion processes with other fuels are explained. The author illustrates the origin and effects of air pollutants from incineration processes, the mechanics of their appearance in the incineration process, primary and secondary measures for their reduction, processes of measuring the emissions as well as the methods of disposing the residues. In particular, the pros and cons of procedural steps and their appropriate combination under various conditions are emphasised. Moreover, the book contains information and analyses of the emissions situation, the consumption of operating materials and of backlog quantities as well as of the cost structure of waste incinerators with regard to their applied control system. Furthermore, the author explicates the contemporary legal, scientific and technological developments and their influence on air pollutant emission control. An evaluation of the status quo of air pollutant control at waste incinerators in Germany, practical examples about possible combinations and typical performance data complete the content. Accordingly, this book is a guideline for planing a reasonable overall concept of an air pollutant control that takes the location and the segregation tasks into consideration.

  4. Emission estimates for some acidifying and greenhouse gases and options for their control in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipatti, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-11-01

    This thesis presents estimates and options for control of anthropogenic ammonia (NH{sub 3}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and some halocarbon emissions in Finland. Ammonia is an air pollutant which contributes to both acidification and nitrogen eutrophication of ecosystems. Its emissions are mainly caused by livestock manure. In Finland the anthropogenic emissions of NH{sub 3} have been estimated to be approximately 44 Gg in 1985 and 43 Gg in 1990. In the 1990`s the emissions have declined due to the reduced number of cattle and voluntary implementation of emission reducing measures. The impact of NH{sub 3} emissions on acidification is serious but in Finland it is less than the impact of the other acidifying gases sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). All three gases and their transformation products are transported by the atmosphere up to distances of hundreds or even more than a thousand kilometres. NH{sub 3} emissions can be reduced with relatively cost-effective measures and the measures can partly replace the implementation of more costly abatement measures on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions needed to lower the acidifying deposition in Finland. The other gases studied in this thesis are greenhouse gases. Some of the gases also deplete stratospheric ozone. Finnish anthropogenic CH{sub 4} emissions have been estimated to be around 250 Gg per year during the 1990`s. The emissions come mainly from landfills and agricultural sources (enteric fermentation and manure). The significance of other CH{sub 4} sources in Finland is minor. The potential to reduce the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions is estimated to be good. Landfill gas recovery offers an option to reduce the emissions significantly at negligible cost if the energy produced can be utilised in electricity and/or heat production. Measures directed at reducing the emissions from livestock manure management are more costly, and the achievable reduction in the emissions

  5. A Multiobjective Optimization Model in Automotive Supply Chain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein Sadrnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the new decade, green investment decisions are attracting more interest in design supply chains due to the hidden economic benefits and environmental legislative barriers. In this paper, a supply chain network design problem with both economic and environmental concerns is presented. Therefore, a multiobjective optimization model that captures the trade-off between the total logistics cost and CO2 emissions is proposed. With regard to the complexity of logistic networks, a new multiobjective swarm intelligence algorithm known as a multiobjective Gravitational search algorithm (MOGSA has been implemented for solving the proposed mathematical model. To evaluate the effectiveness of the model, a comprehensive set of numerical experiments is explained. The results obtained show that the proposed model can be applied as an effective tool in strategic planning for optimizing cost and CO2 emissions in an environmentally friendly automotive supply chain.

  6. Automotive perspective on laser material processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper a broad review is given of the development and use of laser processing in the automotive industry. a brief introduction to the major types of processing lasers and related systems is followed by a summary of the major processing regimes. Examples are given of the automotive industry's use of lasers in a variety of applications, from heat treating and welding, to cutting and marking

  7. SELECTION METHOD FOR AUTOMOTIVE PARTS RECONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Florin NITOI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents technological methods for metal deposition, costs calculation and clasification for the main process that helps in automotive technologies to repair or to increase pieces properties. Paper was constructed based on many technological experiments that starts from practicans and returns to them. The main aim is to help young engineers or practicians engineers to choose the proper reconditioning process with the best information in repairing pieces from automotive industry.

  8. Multi-lateral emission trading: lessons from inter-state NOx control in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, A.

    2001-01-01

    Marketable emission permit mechanisms are increasingly proposed as efficient means of managing environmental pollution problems such as greenhouse gas emissions. Existing examples of emissions trading in the literature have so far been limited to domestic efforts put in place through the action of a national legislature, which has no parallel in international politics. This paper examines two efforts to establish multi-lateral emissions trading for nitrogen oxides among various states with the US. One, the Ozone Transport Commission's NO x Budget program is a success. The other, the Ozone Transport Assessment Group and the federal government's subsequent NO x SIP Call has not resulted in a multi-lateral emissions control program, let alone an efficient, market-based one. Due to the relative similarities of the states (compared to highly heterogeneous nations of the world) these are ''best case'' examples, and explaining the vast differences in outcomes will help explain the potential and the challenges in developing an international emission trading program to control greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  9. Variable Emissive Smart Radiator for Dynamic Thermal Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trending towards reduced power and mass budget on satellites with a longer mission life, there is a need for a reliable thermal control system that is more efficient...

  10. Technology for controlling emissions of oxides of nitrogen from supersonic cruise aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, G. M.; Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Various experiments are sponsored and conducted by NASA to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling aircraft engine emissions into the upper atmosphere. Of particular concern are the oxide of nitrogen (NOx) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NOx emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  11. An optimal control model for reducing and trading of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huaying; Liang, Jin

    2016-03-01

    A stochastic optimal control model of reducing and trading for carbon emissions is established in this paper. With considerations of reducing the carbon emission growth and the price of the allowances in the market, an optimal policy is searched to have the minimum total costs to achieve the agreement of emission reduction targets. The model turns to a two-dimension HJB equation problem. By the methods of reducing dimension and Cole-Hopf transformation, a semi-closed form solution of the corresponding HJB problem under some assumptions is obtained. For more general cases, the numerical calculations, analysis and comparisons are presented.

  12. Modelling global methane emissions from livestock: Biological and nutritional controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    The available observations of methane production from the literature have been compiled into a ruminant methane data base. This data base includes 400 treatment mean observations of methane losses from cattle and sheep, and minor numbers of measurements from other species. Methane loss varied from 2.0 to 11.6 percent of dietary gross energy. Measurements included describe the many different weights and physiological states of the animals fed and diets ranging from all forage to all concentrate diets or mixtures. An auxiliary spreadsheet lists approximately 1000 individual animal observations. Many important concepts have emerged from our query and analysis of this data set. The majority of the world's cattle, sheep, and goats under normal husbandry circumstances likely produce methane very close to 6 percent of their daily diets gross energy (2 percent of the diet by weight). Although individual animals or losses from specific dietary research circumstances can vary considerably, the average for the vast majority of groups of ruminant livestock are likely to fall between 5.5 to 6.5 percent. We must caution, however, that little experimental data is available for two-thirds of the world's ruminants in developing countries. Available evidence suggests similar percentage of emissions, but this supposition needs confirmation. More importantly, data is skimpy or unavailable to describe diet consumption, animal weight, and class distribution.

  13. Phase control of the quantum statistics of collective emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleinert, M.-O.; von Zanthier, J.; Agarwal, G. S.

    2018-02-01

    We report nonclassical aspects of the collective behavior of two atoms in a cavity by investigating the photon statistics and photon distribution over a very broad domain of parameters. Starting with the dynamics of two atoms radiating in phase into the cavity, we study the photon statistics for arbitrary interatomic phases as revealed by the second-order intensity correlation function at zero time, g(2 )(0 ) , and the Mandel Q parameter. We find that the light field can be tuned from antibunched to (super-)bunched as well as nonclassical to classical behavior by merely modifying the atomic position. The highest nonclassicality in the sense of the smallest Q parameter is found when spontaneous emission, cavity decay, coherent pumping, and atom-cavity coupling are of comparable magnitude. We introduce a quantum version of the negative binomial distribution with its parameters directly related to Q and g(2 )(0 ) and discuss its range of applicability. We also examine the Klyshko parameter, which highlights the nonclassicality of the photon distribution.

  14. Technological substitution options for controlling greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, E.B.; Burgess, J.C.; Pearce, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with technological options for greenhouse gas substitution. The authors interpret the term substitution to exclude energy conservation/efficiency measures, investments in afforestation (sinks), and greenhouse gas removal or abatement technologies. Their working definition of greenhouse gas substitution includes (1) replacement technologies, for example, substituting a greenhouse gas technology with a nongreenhouse gas technology; and (2) reduction technologies, for example, substituting a greenhouse gas technology with an alternative technology that reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Essentially, replacement technologies involve 100 percent reduction in CO 2 ; reduction technologies involve a partial reduction in CO 2 . Of the man-made sources of greenhouse gases, energy is the most important and is expected to contribute to at least half of the global warming effect in the near future. The majority of this impact is from fossil fuel combustion as a source of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), although fossil fuels also contribute significantly to methane (CH 4 ), to nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and to low-level ozone (O 3 ) through production of various nitrogen gases (NO x ) and carbon monoxide (CO). This study analyzes the available greenhouse gas substitutions and their costs. The authors concentrate particularly on substitutions for fossil-fuel combustion and CFC production and consumption. They conclude by summarizing the potential for greenhouse gas substitution, the cost-effectiveness of the various options and the design of incentives for substitution

  15. Automotive fuels from biomass via gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wennan

    2010-01-01

    There exists already a market of bio-automotive fuels i.e. bioethanol and biodiesel produced from food crops in many countries. From the viewpoint of economics, environment, land use, water use and chemical fertilizer use, however, there is a strong preference for the use of woody biomass and various forest/agricultural residues as the feedstock. Thus, the production of 2nd generation of bio-automotive fuels i.e. synthetic fuels such as methanol, ethanol, DME, FT-diesel, SNG and hydrogen through biomass gasification seems promising. The technology of producing synthetic fuels is well established based on fossil fuels. For biomass, however, it is fairly new and the technology is under development. Starting from the present market of the 1st generation bio-automotive fuels, this paper is trying to review the technology development of the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels from syngas platform. The production of syngas is emphasized which suggests appropriate gasifier design for a high quality syngas production. A number of bio-automotive fuel demonstration plant will be presented, which gives the state of the art in the development of BTS (biomass to synthetic fuels) technologies. It can be concluded that the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels are on the way to a breakthrough in the transport markets of industrial countries especially for those countries with a strong forest industry. (author)

  16. DEMONSTRATION OF AN ADVANCED INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SIMULTANEOUS EMISSIONS REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzanne Shea; Randhir Sehgal; Ilga Celmins; Andrew Maxson

    2002-02-01

    The primary objective of the project titled ''Demonstration of an Advanced Integrated Control System for Simultaneous Emissions Reduction'' was to demonstrate at proof-of-concept scale the use of an online software package, the ''Plant Environmental and Cost Optimization System'' (PECOS), to optimize the operation of coal-fired power plants by economically controlling all emissions simultaneously. It combines physical models, neural networks, and fuzzy logic control to provide both optimal least-cost boiler setpoints to the boiler operators in the control room, as well as optimal coal blending recommendations designed to reduce fuel costs and fuel-related derates. The goal of the project was to demonstrate that use of PECOS would enable coal-fired power plants to make more economic use of U.S. coals while reducing emissions.

  17. Effects of biochar on the emissions, soil distribution, and nematode control of 1,3-dichloropropene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of a rice husk-derived biochar to the surface of a sandy loam soil chamber reduced soil-air emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) from 42% in a control (no biochar) to 8%. The difference in emissions was due to adsorption of 1,3-D onto the biochar, measured as 32.5%. The remaining 1,3...

  18. MSc degree in color technology for the automotive sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Verdu, F.; Perales, E.; Chorro, E.; Viqueira, V.; Gilabert, E.

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, the measurement and management of color quality of the gonio-apparent materials is complex, but highly demanded in many industrial sectors, as automotive, cosmetics, plastics for consumer electronics, printing inks, architectural coatings, etc. It is necessary to control complex instrumentation and to do visual assessments of texture and color differences to get, for instance, a visual harmony in car bodies; and a profound knowledge of physics and chemistry of special-effect pigments for their optical formulation to obtain attractive visual effects in coatings, plastics, etc, combining among them and with solid pigments. From University of Alicante, for the academic year 2013-14, we are organizing the first MSc degree in Color Technology for the Automotive Sector, with a design of contents embracing CIE colorimetry and visual perception, included the AUDI2000 color difference formula, instrumentation and color management software, fundamentals of coatings and plastics in the automotive sector, and, optical formulation of pigments. The MSc syllabus, with 60 ECTS, is designed to be taught in two semesters: from September to February with on classroom theoretical and practical activities, and, from March to June at virtual level, with internships of training in some companies. Therefore, the MSc Thesis would be the performance report during the internship in companies or research institutions. Some multinational companies, both as car makers and coatings and plastics providers, from European and non-European countries have already shown their support and interest in welcoming students for specific training, even some job offers when the first MSc edition finishes.

  19. Prototyping of automotive components with variable width and depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyrathna, B.; Rolfe, B.; Harrasser, J.; Sedlmaier, A.; Ge, Rui; Pan, L.; Weiss, M.

    2017-09-01

    Roll forming enables the manufacturing of longitudinal components from materials that combine high strength with limited formability and is increasingly used in the automotive industry for the manufacture of structural and crash components. An extension of conventional roll forming is the Flexible Roll Forming (FRF) process where the rolls are no longer fixed in space but are free to move which enables the forming of components with variable cross section over the length of the part. Even though FRF components have high weight saving potential the technology has found only limited application in the automotive industry. A new flexible forming facility has recently been developed that enables proof of concept studies and the production of FRF prototypes before a full FRF line is built; this may lead to a wider uptake of the FRF technology in the automotive industry. In this process, the pre-cut blank is placed between two clamps and the whole set up moves back and forth; a forming roll that is mounted on a servo-controlled platform with six degrees of freedom forms the pre-cut blank to the desired shape. In this study an initial forming concept for the flexible roll forming of an automotive component with variable height is developed using COPRA® FEA RF. This is followed by performing experimental prototyping studies on the new concept forming facility. Using the optical strain measurement system Autogrid Compact, material deformation, part shape and wrinkling severity are analysed for some forming passes and compared with the numerical results. The results show that the numerical model gives a good representation of material behaviour and that with increasing forming severity wrinkling issues need to be overcome in the process.

  20. Alternative control technology document: Control of VOC emissions from the application of agricultural pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    In many States, some of the ozone nonattainment areas are comprised primarily of agricultural counties where a potentially significant contribution to the ozone may result from area sources of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) emissions. A potential source of VOC emissions in agricultural counties is the release of organic compounds from the application of agricultural pesticides. The report provides technical information that State and local agencies can consider while developing strategies for reducing VOC emissions

  1. Under actuated air path control of diesel engines for low emissions and high efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Criens, C.; Willems, F.P.T.; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for feedback control using the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve and Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) of a diesel engine. The controller effectively counteracts disturbances in NOx and PM emissions while maintaining the fuel efficiency. It is shown that by using a

  2. PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY AND MULTIPOLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents estimates of the performance and cost of both powdered activated carbon (PAC) and multipollutant control technologies that may be useful in controlling mercury emissions. Based on currently available data, cost estimates for PAC injection range are 0.03-3.096 ...

  3. Historic and future trends of vehicle emissions in Beijing, 1998-2020: A policy assessment for the most stringent vehicle emission control program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Wu, Xiaomeng; Li, Mengliang; Ge, Yunshan; Liang, Bin; Xu, Yueyun; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Huan; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2014-06-01

    As a pioneer in controlling vehicle emissions within China, Beijing released the Clean Air Action Plan 2013-2017 document in August 2013 to improve its urban air quality. It has put forward this plan containing the most stringent emission control policies and strategies to be adopted for on-road vehicles of Beijing. This paper estimates the historic and future trends and uncertainties in vehicle emissions of Beijing from 1998 to 2020 by applying a new emission factor model for the Beijing vehicle fleet (EMBEV). Our updated results show that total emissions of CO, THC, NOx and PM2.5 from the Beijing vehicle fleet are 507 (395-819) kt, 59.1 (41.2-90.5) kt, 74.7 (54.9-103.9) kt and 2.69 (1.91-4.17) kt, respectively, at a 95% confidence level. This represents significant reductions of 58%, 59%, 31% and 62%, respectively, relative to the total vehicle emissions in 1998. The past trends clearly posed a challenge to NOx emission mitigation for the Beijing vehicle fleet, especially in light of those increasing NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) which have partly offset the reduction benefit from light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs). Because of recently announced vehicle emission controls to be adopted in Beijing, including tighter emissions standards, limitations on vehicle growth by more stringent license control, promotion of alternative fuel technologies (e.g., natural gas) and the scrappage of older vehicles, estimated vehicle emissions in Beijing will continue to be mitigated by 74% of CO, 68% of THC, 56% of NOx and 72% of PM2.5 in 2020 compared to 2010 levels. Considering that many of the megacities in China are facing tremendous pressures to mitigate emissions from on-road vehicles, our assessment will provide a timely case study of significance for policy-makers in China.

  4. Influence of pavement macrotexture on PM10 emissions from paved roads: A controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Swarup; James, David E.

    2012-12-01

    This paper investigates influence of pavement macrotexture on paved road PM10 emissions. This study was conducted on different paved roadway types (local, collector and minor arterial) in the Las Vegas Valley, Nevada. Pavement macrotexture was measured using the ASTM E 965 sand patch method and the Digital Surface Roughness Meter™ (DSRM™). A controlled constant soil loading with known PM10 fraction was applied to cleaned road surfaces. The Desert Research Institute's (DRI) Mini-PI-SWERL™ (Portable In-Situ Wind ERosion Lab) was used to estimate PM10 mass emissions and cumulative mass emitted from pavement surfaces. PM10 mass emissions using controlled applied soil loadings generally declined with increasing pavement macrotexture at all applied shear levels. The relationships were statistically significant, and indicate that pavement macrotexture may need to be included in future development of revised paved road PM10 emissions factors. A change in the slope of emitted PM10 mass and pavement macrotexture occurred between 0.8 and 0.9 mm mean texture depth (MTD). Anomalies in PM10 mass emissions were observed at MTDs exceeding 1.2 mm. Two-way frequency distributions of pavement surface features obtained from DSRM measurements were analyzed to explain the observed anomalies. Results showed that pavement surface feature size distributions may influence on PM10 emissions from paved roads at similar MTDs. PM10 mass emissions were found to linearly depend on adjusted mode size of the pavement surface aggregate. A sharp decrease in friction velocities, computed from wind erosion theory, at MTDs above 0.9 mm matched an observed sharp decrease in PM10 emissions rates at MTDs above 0.9 mm, indicating that classical wind erosion theory could be adapted for non-erodible pavement surfaces and linearly relate PM10 emissions rates to applied shear stress at an aerodynamic roughness height of 0.075 mm.

  5. Controls on boreal peat combustion and resulting emissions of carbon and mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlenberg, Andrew J.; Turetsky, Merritt R.; Thompson, Dan K.; Branfireun, Brian A.; Mitchell, Carl P. J.

    2018-03-01

    Warming in the boreal forest region has already led to changes in the fire regime. This may result in increasing fire frequency or severity in peatlands, which could cause these ecosystems to shift from a net sink of carbon (C) to a net source of C to the atmosphere. Similar to C cycling, peatlands serve as a net sink for mercury (Hg), which binds strongly to organic matter and accumulates in peat over time. This stored Hg is also susceptible to re-release to the atmosphere during peat fires. Here we investigate the physical properties that influence depth of burn in experimental peat columns and the resulting emissions of CO, CO2, CH4, and gaseous and particulate Hg. As expected, bulk density and soil moisture content were important controls on depth of burn, CO2 emissions, and CO emissions. However, our results show that CH4 and Hg emissions are insensitive to combustion temperature or fuel moisture content. Emissions during the burning of peat, across a wide range of moisture conditions, were associated with low particulate Hg and high gaseous Hg release. Due to strong correlations between total Hg and CO emissions and because high Hg emissions occurred despite incomplete combustion of total C, our results suggest that Hg release during peat burning is governed by the thermodynamics of Hg reduction more so than by the release of Hg associated with peat combustion. Our measured emissions ratios, particularly for CH4:CO2, are higher than values typically used in the upscaling of boreal forest or peatland fire emissions. These emission ratios have important implications not only for our understanding of smouldering chemistry, but also for potential influences of peat fires on the Earth’s climate system.

  6. Impact of the Volkswagen emissions control defeat device on US public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Steven R. H.; Speth, Raymond L.; Eastham, Sebastian D.; Dedoussi, Irene C.; Ashok, Akshay; Malina, Robert; Keith, David W.

    2015-11-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has alleged that Volkswagen Group of America (VW) violated the Clean Air Act (CAA) by developing and installing emissions control system ‘defeat devices’ (software) in model year 2009-2015 vehicles with 2.0 litre diesel engines. VW has admitted the inclusion of defeat devices. On-road emissions testing suggests that in-use NOx emissions for these vehicles are a factor of 10 to 40 above the EPA standard. In this paper we quantify the human health impacts and associated costs of the excess emissions. We propagate uncertainties throughout the analysis. A distribution function for excess emissions is estimated based on available in-use NOx emissions measurements. We then use vehicle sales data and the STEP vehicle fleet model to estimate vehicle distance traveled per year for the fleet. The excess NOx emissions are allocated on a 50 km grid using an EPA estimate of the light duty diesel vehicle NOx emissions distribution. We apply a GEOS-Chem adjoint-based rapid air pollution exposure model to produce estimates of particulate matter and ozone exposure due to the spatially resolved excess NOx emissions. A set of concentration-response functions is applied to estimate mortality and morbidity outcomes. Integrated over the sales period (2008-2015) we estimate that the excess emissions will cause 59 (95% CI: 10 to 150) early deaths in the US. When monetizing premature mortality using EPA-recommended data, we find a social cost of ˜450m over the sales period. For the current fleet, we estimate that a return to compliance for all affected vehicles by the end of 2016 will avert ˜130 early deaths and avoid ˜840m in social costs compared to a counterfactual case without recall.

  7. Impact of the Volkswagen emissions control defeat device on US public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, Steven R H; Speth, Raymond L; Dedoussi, Irene C; Ashok, Akshay; Malina, Robert; Eastham, Sebastian D; Keith, David W

    2015-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has alleged that Volkswagen Group of America (VW) violated the Clean Air Act (CAA) by developing and installing emissions control system ‘defeat devices’ (software) in model year 2009–2015 vehicles with 2.0 litre diesel engines. VW has admitted the inclusion of defeat devices. On-road emissions testing suggests that in-use NO x emissions for these vehicles are a factor of 10 to 40 above the EPA standard. In this paper we quantify the human health impacts and associated costs of the excess emissions. We propagate uncertainties throughout the analysis. A distribution function for excess emissions is estimated based on available in-use NO x emissions measurements. We then use vehicle sales data and the STEP vehicle fleet model to estimate vehicle distance traveled per year for the fleet. The excess NO x emissions are allocated on a 50 km grid using an EPA estimate of the light duty diesel vehicle NO x emissions distribution. We apply a GEOS-Chem adjoint-based rapid air pollution exposure model to produce estimates of particulate matter and ozone exposure due to the spatially resolved excess NO x emissions. A set of concentration-response functions is applied to estimate mortality and morbidity outcomes. Integrated over the sales period (2008–2015) we estimate that the excess emissions will cause 59 (95% CI: 10 to 150) early deaths in the US. When monetizing premature mortality using EPA-recommended data, we find a social cost of ∼$450m over the sales period. For the current fleet, we estimate that a return to compliance for all affected vehicles by the end of 2016 will avert ∼130 early deaths and avoid ∼$840m in social costs compared to a counterfactual case without recall. (letter)

  8. Environmental Controls on Wildfire Emission Factors in Alaska during the Summer of 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, E. B.

    2016-12-01

    Boreal forests contain significant reservoirs of organic carbon and are subject to severe wildfires. Boreal fire emissions are important to quantify with respect to climate and ecosystem dynamics, especially within the rapidly changing climate of the Northern Hemisphere. The amount and composition of emissions from fires is highly variable and dependent on environmental conditions such as local weather, soil moisture, and land cover type. Emission factors are regularly used to estimate the composition of fire emissions. We investigated environmental controls on boreal forest fire emission factors in Alaska during the summer of 2015. A high-resolution fire emissions inventory was combined with an atmospheric transport model to estimate fire contribution to trace gas variability at an in-situ observational tower. Periods of high fire influence at the tower were identified, and emission ratios for CO, CO2, and CH4 were calculated for these times. Individual fire contributions to the trace gas signals observed at the tower were isolated utilizing the fire emissions inventory combined with an atmospheric transport model. Environmental conditions including soil moisture, meteorology, land and tree cover, fire type (smoldering vs. flaming), and burn severity were associated with individual fires that contributed to the trace gas signal at the tower. We found that soil moisture derived from the SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) satellite was correlated with burned area and that local daily meteorological variables, including vapor pressure deficit and temperature, explained some of the variance in emission factors. The results from this study may enable improved estimates of boreal fire emissions during a period of rapidly changing environmental conditions.

  9. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assali, S.; Lähnemann, J.; Vu, TTT; Jöns, K.D.; Gagliano, L; Verheijen, M. A.; Akopian, N.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Haverkort, J. E.M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the

  10. The challenge to NOx emission control for heavy-duty diesel vehicles in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. He

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available China's new "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" set a target for total NOx emission reduction of 10% for the period of 2011–2015. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs have been considered a major contributor to NOx emissions in China. Beijing initiated a comprehensive vehicle test program in 2008. This program included a sub-task for measuring on-road emission profiles of hundreds of HDDVs using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS. The major finding is that neither the on-road distance-specific (g km−1 nor brake-specific (g kWh−1 NOx emission factors for diesel buses and heavy-duty diesel trucks improved in most cases as emission standards became more stringent. For example, the average NOx emission factors for Euro II, Euro III and Euro IV buses are 11.3 ± 3.3 g km−1, 12.5 ± 1.3 g km−1, and 11.8 ± 2.0 g km−1, respectively. No statistically significant difference in NOx emission factors was observed between Euro II and III buses. Even for Euro IV buses equipped with SCR systems, the NOx emission factors are similar to Euro III buses. The data regarding real-time engine performance of Euro IV buses suggest the engine certification cycles did not reflect their real-world operating conditions. These new on-road test results indicate that previous estimates of total NOx emissions for HDDV fleet may be significantly underestimated. The new estimate in total NOx emissions for the Beijing HDDV fleet in 2009 is 37.0 Gg, an increase of 45% compared to the previous study. Further, we estimate that the total NOx emissions for the national HDDV fleet in 2009 are approximately 4.0 Tg, higher by 1.0 Tg (equivalent to 18% of total NOx emissions for vehicle fleet in 2009 than that estimated in the official report. This would also result in 4% increase in estimation of national anthropogenic NOx emissions. More effective control measures (such as promotion of CNG buses and a new in-use compliance testing program are urged to secure the goal of total NOx

  11. Automotive History and Development of the Automobile; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive history and development of the automobile course is designed to familiarize the beginning student with basic concepts common to the automobile history and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. A course outline is provided and seven pages of post-tests are included in the…

  12. Automotive Electrical and Electronic Systems I; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive electrical and electronic system I course is designed as one of a group of quinmester courses offered in the field of automotive mechanics. General information will be given along with technical knowledge, basic skills, attitudes and values that are required for job entry level. The nine week (135 clock hour) course overcomes some…

  13. Secondary-Postsecondary Curriculum Development in Automotive Mechanics. Automotive Electrical Competencies. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepner, Ronald

    Developed as part of a competency-based curriculum in automotive mechanics which is usable by students at both the secondary and postsecondary levels, this learning package focuses on automotive electrical systems. It is the first unit to be published in a series of eight which will cover the eight subject areas on the national certification…

  14. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium... Assistance on March 18, 2010, applicable to workers of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson... have occurred involving workers in support of the Anderson, South Carolina location of Plastic Omnium...

  15. Dynamics of Non-Controlled Emission of Methane from Arico's landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, C.; Echeita, A.; Lima, R.; Nolasco, D.; Salazar, J.; Hernández, P.; Pérez, N.

    2002-12-01

    Landfills are one of the largest anthropogenic source of methane emissions to the atmosphere. In order to achieve CH4 emission control at landfills, avoiding gas migration into the near surroundings and reducing gas emission through its surface, landfill gas has to be collected and either flared or utilized by means of gas extraction systems. However, these systems might not reach a high efficiency and non-controlled biogenic CH4 emissions to the atmosphere could be an important fraction of the CH4 produced by a landfill. The goal of this study is to evaluate the non-controlled biogenic CH4 emission from Arico's landfill (0.33 Km2; Tenerife, Canary Islands) where urban solid waste disposal rate is about 1,500 td-1. In order to estimate the temporal evolution of non-controlled biogenic CH4 emissions from Arico's landfill, two surface flux surveys of about 500 sampling sites were performed in 1999 and 2001. Non-controlled biogenic CO2 emission rate measurements were performed by means of a NDIR spectrophotometer according to the accumulation chamber method. At each sampling site, landfill gases were also collected at 40 cm deep using a metallic probe. Samples were analyzed within 24 hours for major, minor and trace gas components using a VARIAN microGC QUAD. Non-controlled biogenic CH4 emission rate was estimated by multiplying surface CO2 efflux times CO2/CH4 weight ratio at each sampling site, respectively. Surface CH4 efflux rates for the 1999 and 2001 surveys ranged from negligible values up to 1,647.3 and 103.2 gm-2d-1, respectively. Spatial distribution of the surface CH4 efflux rate showed a non-uniform pattern in the landfill for both surveys. This observation is related to the actual use of the landfill, which is still operative, as well as to the evolution of the landfill's heterogeneity and anisotropy through time. For the 1999 and 2001 surveys, the total output of non-controlled biogenic CH4 emission from Arico's landfill were estimated about 15.7 and 1

  16. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alternative to Method 3B, the manual method for measuring the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide... total gaseous organic mass emissions as carbon at the inlet and outlet of the add-on control device... measured total gaseous organic mass emissions as carbon. (5) Alternatively, any other test method or data...

  17. Methanator fueled engines for pollution control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliostro, D. E.; Winkler, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    A methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is compared with other methods proposed to control pollution due to automobile exhaust emissions. The comparison is made with respect to state of development, emission factors, capital cost, operational and maintenance costs, performance, operational limitations, and impact on the automotive industries. The methanator fueled Otto-cycle engine is projected to meet 1975 emission standards and operate at a lower relative total cost compared to the catalytic muffler system and to have low impact. Additional study is required for system development.

  18. Dynamic acoustic control of individual optically active quantum dot-like emission centers in heterostructure nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Matthias; Kinzel, Jörg B; Schülein, Florian J R; Heigl, Michael; Rudolph, Daniel; Morkötter, Stefanie; Döblinger, Markus; Bichler, Max; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Finley, Jonathan J; Koblmüller, Gregor; Wixforth, Achim; Krenner, Hubert J

    2014-05-14

    We probe and control the optical properties of emission centers forming in radial heterostructure GaAs-Al0.3Ga0.7As nanowires and show that these emitters, located in Al0.3Ga0.7As layers, can exhibit quantum-dot like characteristics. We employ a radio frequency surface acoustic wave to dynamically control their emission energy, and occupancy state on a nanosecond time scale. In the spectral oscillations, we identify unambiguous signatures arising from both the mechanical and electrical component of the surface acoustic wave. In addition, different emission lines of a single emission center exhibit pronounced anticorrelated intensity oscillations during the acoustic cycle. These arise from a dynamically triggered carrier extraction out of the emission center to a continuum in the radial heterostructure. Using finite element modeling and Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin theory we identify quantum tunneling as the underlying mechanism. These simulation results quantitatively reproduce the observed switching and show that in our systems these emission centers are spatially separated from the continuum by >10.5 nm.

  19. [VOC emission situation and control measures of gas station in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min-Jia; Hao, Ji-Ming; Wang, Li-Tao

    2006-08-01

    The emission factor is used to estimate the volatile organic compound (VOC) emission caused by gas station. After considering the economical, social and population factors, the activity rate was modified, and then the fuel consumption and VOC emission trend in the next 20 years can be predicted. The result shows the VOC emission from gas station in China 2002 was 187.6kt and this number will increase to 1196kt in 2030 if no further control measures will be implemented. And the economic loss caused by gasoline vapor arrived to 0.75 billion RMB in 2002 and will be 4.78 billion RMB in 2030. The cost-benefit approach of the commercially available gasoline vapor recovery technologies in China included Stage I, Stage II and on-board refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) were analyzed, and the result shows introducing these three systems will bring larger reduce of VOC emission, and the combination of them can do a even better job. Compared with Stage II, ORVR is more efficient and cheaper, but it will take long time to implement ORVR. And it will take at least 11 years in China to convert to ORVR above 80%. So Stage II vapor recovery system may be a short term option while ORVR should be treated as the ultimate solution for controlling the vapor emission from gas stations in the future.

  20. The control of emissions from nuclear power reactors in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, D.J.; Neil, B.C.J.; Chatterjee, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors in Canada are of the CANDU pressurised heavy water design. These are located in the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick. Most of the nuclear generating capacity is in the province of Ontario which has 16 commissioned reactors with a total capacity of 11,500 MWe. There are four reactors under construction with an additional capacity of 3400 MWe. Nuclear power currently accounts for approximately 50% of the electrical power generation of Ontario. Regulation of the reactors is a Federal Government responsibility administered by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) which licenses the reactors and sets occupational and public dose limits

  1. Optimal control of photoelectron emission by realistic waveforms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Solanpää, J.; Ciappina, Marcelo F.; Räsänen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 17 (2017), s. 1784-1792 ISSN 0950-0340 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : above-threshold ionization * optimal control * waveforms Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.328, year: 2016

  2. Implementing Automotive Telematics for Fleet Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Azzopardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of Usage-Based Insurance for automotive covers over conventional rating methods have been discussed in literature for over four decades. Notwithstanding their adoption in insurance markets has been slow. This paper seeks to establish the viability of introducing fleet Telematics-Based Insurance by investigating the perceptions of insurance operators, tracking service providers and corporate fleet owners. At its core, the study involves a SWOT-analysis to appraise Telematics-Based Insurance against conventional premium rating systems. Twenty five key stakeholders in Malta, a country with an insurance industry that represents others in microcosm, were interviewed to develop our analysis. We assert that local insurers have interests in such insurance schemes as enhanced fleet management and monitoring translate into an improved insurance risk. The findings presented here have implications for all stakeholders as we argue that telematics enhance fleet management, TBI improves risk management for insurers and adoption of this technology is dependent on telematics providers increasing the perceived control by insurers over managing this technology.

  3. On the Effects of NOx Emission Control and Drought on an Ozone-Polluted Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusede, S.; Geddes, J.; Buysse, C. E.; Esperanza, A.; Najacht, E.; Anderson, J. F.; Bailey, C. B.; Munyan, J.

    2017-12-01

    Regulatory emission controls are typically designed to reduce ozone when ozone is highest. However, high ozone concentrations are often asynchronous with periods of the greatest ozone harm to plants and ecosystems, particularly during drought. Because ozone production chemistry is nonlinear, emissions reductions designed to be effective in polluted cities may have a range of effects on downwind ecosystems. Here, we investigate the influence of regional NOx emission controls on ozone pollution in Sequoia National Park (SNP). First, we show that steep declines in NOx throughout the region have had smaller impacts in SNP than in cities upwind, and that these reductions have been least effective at times of day and year when plants are most sensitive to ozone. Second, in recent years (2012-2015), California experienced the worst drought in recorded history. We present observational evidence of the ozone response in SNP to drought conditions, finding that the drought altered the chemical sensitivity of local ozone production to NOx emissions and, hence, the effectiveness of NOx emission controls. We show that drought impacts on the ozone sensitivity to NOx have persisted at least two years since the drought ended.

  4. The economic impact of emission peaking control policies and China's sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the goals of national sustainable development, the peaking control of CO2 emissions is pivotal, as well as other pollutants. In this paper, we build a Chinese inter-regional CGE model and simulate 13 policies and their combinations. By analyzing the energy consumptions, coal consumptions, relating emissions and their impacts on GDP, we found that with the structure adjustment policy, the proportion of coal in primary fossil fuels in 2030 will decrease from 53% to 48% and CO2 emissions will decrease by 11.3%–22.8% compared to the baseline scenario. With the energy intensity reduction policy, CO2 emissions will decrease by 33.3% in 2030 and 47.8% in 2050 than baseline scenario. Other pollutants will also be controlled as synergetic effects. In this study we also find that although the earlier the peaking time the better for emission amounts control, the economic costs can not be ignored. The GDP will decrease by 2.96%–8.23% under different scenarios. Therefore, integrated policy solutions are needed for realizing the peaks package and more targeted measures are required to achieve the peaks of other pollutants earlier.

  5. Characterization of particle bound organic carbon from diesel vehicles equipped with advanced emission control technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbin, Payam; Ning, Zhi; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2009-07-01

    A chassis dynamometer study was carried out by the University of Southern California in collaboration with the Air Resources Board (CARB) to investigate the physical, chemical, and toxicological characteristics of diesel emissions of particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty vehicles. These heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) were equipped with advanced emission control technologies, designed to meet CARB retrofit regulations. A HDDV without any emission control devices was used as the baseline vehicle. Three advanced emission control technologies; continuously regenerating technology (CRT), zeolite- and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction technologies (Z-SCRT and V-SCRT), were tested under transient (UDDS) (1) and cruise (80 kmph) driving cycles to simulate real-world driving conditions. This paper focuses on the characterization of the particle bound organic species from the vehicle exhaust. Physical and chemical properties of PM emissions have been reported by Biswas et al. Atmos. Environ. 2008, 42, 5622-5634) and Hu et al. (Atmos. Environ. 2008, submitted) Significant reductions in the emission factors (microg/mile) of particle bound organic compounds were observed in HDDV equipped with advanced emission control technologies. V-SCRT and Z-SCRT effectively reduced PAHs, hopanes and steranes, n-alkanes and acids by more than 99%, and often to levels below detection limits for both cruise and UDDS cycles. The CRT technology also showed similar reductions with SCRT for medium and high molecular weight PAHs, acids, but with slightly lower removal efficiencies for other organic compounds. Ratios of particle bound organics-to-OC mass (microg/g) from the baseline exhaust were compared with their respective ratios in diesel fuel and lubricating oil, which revealed that hopanes and steranes originate from lubricating oil, whereas PAHs can either form during the combustion process or originate from diesel fuel itself. With the introduction of emission control

  6. Fuel saver based on electromagnetic induction for automotive engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, Houtman P.; Sibarani, Maradu

    2007-12-01

    In the considered research is designed and analyzed the performance of the fuel saver which is based on electromagnetic induction for automotive diesel engine. The fuel saver which is based on permanent magnet has sold in market and its performance has tested. In comparison to the former fuel saver, in the proposed work is produced fuel saver which is based on electromagnetic induction. The considered research is the continuation of my former work. Performance of the produced fuel saver which is installed in the fuel line of internal combustion engine rig is compared to the performance of the standard internal combustion engine rig Speed of the engine, wire diameter of coil, and number of coil which is coiled in the winding of the the fuel saver are chosen as the testing variables. The considered research has succeeded to design the fuel saver which is based on electromagnetic induction for saving the automotive fuel consumption. Results of the research show that the addition of the fuel saver which is based on electromagnetic induction to the flow of the diesel fuel can significantly save the automative fuel consumption. In addition the designed fuel saver can reduce the opacity of the emission gas.

  7. Measurement of Soot Deposition in Automotive Components Using Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekveld, David; Liu, Liaohui; Harrison, Andrew; Gill, Spencer; Harvel, Glenn; Chang, Jen-Shih

    2008-01-01

    About 40% of air pollution is generated by vehicles and transportation. The particulate matter (PM) emission significantly impacts human health. Fine particles below 2.5 μm (PM2.5) can enter the lungs and lead to respiratory problems. These particles not only influence human health, but also reduce the capability of many automobile exhaust heat exchanging devices. Neutron radiography is a non-destructive method of analyzing carbonaceous PM. While neutron radiography has been demonstrated for soot measurement in the past, the application has not considered the presence of unburned hydrocarbons, significant amounts of moisture nor examined complex geometrical configurations. The purpose of this work is to study a reliable non-destructive testing methodology using neutron radiography for measurement of soot distribution in automotive components. A soot standard (aluminium target) was designed and manufactured as a calibration tool. The standard is radiographed and used to measure the differences between various soot thickness and compositions. The radiograph images are analyzed to determine a calibration curve based upon the composition of the materials which can then be used for analysis of the automotive components. Experiments are performed using a diesel engine to produce soot deposits on exhaust piping. Soot distribution on exhaust piping is measured using neutron radiography. (authors)

  8. Green competitiveness research on Chinese automotive enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhui Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: More and more executives of automobileindustry in China start to recognize the concept of green competitiveness recently. However, relatively less research attention has been devoted to the consideration of measurement. This paper aims to find empirical approach to quantify green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The connotation of green competitiveness is explored and one suite of evaluation index system has been proposed with four dimensions including environmental, resource, capability and knowledge.Design/methodology/approach: By introducing the factor analysis method, green competitiveness has been measured through an empirical analysis of 24 automotive enterprises within China.Findings: The results indicate that those elements, such as enterprise resource possession and utilization; environment, responsibility and knowledge; profitability; management efficiency, have significant effect on the green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The further analysis also unveils the advantages and disadvantages of green competitiveness for each company and the direction for improvement.Research limitations/implications: Guide regulators and managers of automobile industry to take some measures to enhance their green competitive advantage.Practical implications: Provide practical methods to measure green competitiveness for automotive enterprises.Originality/value: This paper proposes an evaluation index system of green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The suggestions of our research will be beneficial to enterprise executives and industry regulators.

  9. Computational design of an automotive twist beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benki Aalae

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the automotive industry has known a remarkable development in order to satisfy the customer requirements. In this paper, we will study one of the components of the automotive which is the twist beam. The study is focused on the multicriteria design of the automotive twist beam undergoing linear elastic deformation (Hooke׳s law. Indeed, for the design of this automotive part, there are some criteria to be considered as the rigidity (stiffness and the resistance to fatigue. Those two criteria are known to be conflicting, therefore, our aim is to identify the Pareto front of this problem. To do this, we used a Normal Boundary Intersection (NBI algorithm coupling with a radial basis function (RBF metamodel in order to reduce the high calculation time needed for solving the multicriteria design problem. Otherwise, we used the free form deformation (FFD technique for the generation of the 3D shapes of the automotive part studied during the optimization process.

  10. Combustion Dynamics and Control for Ultra Low Emissions in Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Future aircraft engines must provide ultra-low emissions and high efficiency at low cost while maintaining the reliability and operability of present day engines. The demands for increased performance and decreased emissions have resulted in advanced combustor designs that are critically dependent on efficient fuel/air mixing and lean operation. However, all combustors, but most notably lean-burning low-emissions combustors, are susceptible to combustion instabilities. These instabilities are typically caused by the interaction of the fluctuating heat release of the combustion process with naturally occurring acoustic resonances. These interactions can produce large pressure oscillations within the combustor and can reduce component life and potentially lead to premature mechanical failures. Active Combustion Control which consists of feedback-based control of the fuel-air mixing process can provide an approach to achieving acceptable combustor dynamic behavior while minimizing emissions, and thus can provide flexibility during the combustor design process. The NASA Glenn Active Combustion Control Technology activity aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines by providing experiments tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. The intent is to allow the technology maturity of active combustion control to advance to eventual demonstration in an engine environment. Work at NASA Glenn has shown that active combustion control, utilizing advanced algorithms working through high frequency fuel actuation, can effectively suppress instabilities in a combustor which emulates the instabilities found in an aircraft gas turbine engine. Current efforts are aimed at extending these active control technologies to advanced ultra-low-emissions combustors such as those employing multi-point lean direct injection.

  11. Neural-network-based navigation and control of unmanned aerial vehicles for detecting unintended emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargarzadeh, H.; Nodland, David; Thotla, V.; Jagannathan, S.; Agarwal, S.

    2012-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are versatile aircraft with many applications, including the potential for use to detect unintended electromagnetic emissions from electronic devices. A particular area of recent interest has been helicopter unmanned aerial vehicles. Because of the nature of these helicopters' dynamics, high-performance controller design for them presents a challenge. This paper introduces an optimal controller design via output feedback control for trajectory tracking of a helicopter UAV using a neural network (NN). The output-feedback control system utilizes the backstepping methodology, employing kinematic, virtual, and dynamic controllers and an observer. Optimal tracking is accomplished with a single NN utilized for cost function approximation. The controller positions the helicopter, which is equipped with an antenna, such that the antenna can detect unintended emissions. The overall closed-loop system stability with the proposed controller is demonstrated by using Lyapunov analysis. Finally, results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design for positioning the helicopter for unintended emissions detection.

  12. Technology Reinvestment Program/Advanced ``Zero Emission'' Control Valve (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Napoleon

    1998-12-01

    The objectives of this effort are to determine, develop and demonstrate the feasibility of significantly reducing the cost and expanding the applications for a family of Advanced Zero Emissions Control Valves that meets the fugitive emissions requirements of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. This program is a direct technology spin-off from the valve technology that is critical to the US Navy's Nuclear Powered Fleet. These zero emissions valves will allow the Hydrocarbon and Chemical Processing Industries, etc., to maintain their competitiveness and still meet environmental and safety requirements. Phase 2 is directed at refining the basic technologies developed during Phase 1 so that they can be more readily selected and utilized by the target market. In addition to various necessary certifications, the project will develop a full featured digital controller with ``smart valve'' growth capability, expanding valve sizes/applications and identifying valve materials to permit applications in severe operational environments.

  13. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U.S. Volume 3. Techniques for controlling emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Technological, social, economic and political techniques for controlling emission are summarized for environmental pollutants introduced into air, water and land resources. Chemical, radiological and physical factors are discussed

  14. Regional differences in Chinese SO2 emission control efficiency and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. Q.; Wang, Y.; Ma, Q.; Yao, Y.; Xie, Y.; He, K.

    2015-06-01

    SO2 emission control has been one of the most important air pollution policies in China since 2000. In this study, we assess regional differences in SO2 emission control efficiencies in China through the modeling analysis of four scenarios of SO2 emissions, all of which aim to reduce the national total SO2 emissions by 8% or 2.3 Tg below the 2010 emissions level, the target set by the current twelfth Five-Year Plan (FYP; 2011-2015), but differ in spatial implementation. The GEOS-Chem chemical transport model is used to evaluate the efficiency of each scenario on the basis of four impact metrics: surface SO2 and sulfate concentrations, population-weighted sulfate concentration (PWC), and sulfur export flux from China to the western Pacific. The efficiency of SO2 control (β) is defined as the relative change of each impact metric to a 1% reduction in SO2 emissions from the 2010 baseline. The S1 scenario, which adopts a spatially uniform reduction in SO2 emissions in China, gives a β of 0.99, 0.71, 0.83, and 0.67 for SO2 and sulfate concentrations, PWC, and export flux, respectively. By comparison, the S2 scenario, which implements all the SO2 emissions reduction over North China (NC), is found most effective in reducing national mean surface SO2 and sulfate concentrations and sulfur export fluxes, with β being 1.0, 0.76, and 0.95 respectively. The S3 scenario of implementing all the SO2 emission reduction over South China (SC) has the highest β in reducing PWC (β = 0.98) because SC has the highest correlation between population density and sulfate concentration. Reducing SO2 emissions over Southwest China (SWC) is found to be least efficient on the national scale, albeit with large benefits within the region. The difference in β by scenario is attributable to the regional difference in SO2 oxidation pathways and the source-receptor relationship. Among the three regions examined here, NC shows the largest proportion of sulfate formation through gas

  15. Stochastic Lot-Sizing under Carbon Emission Control for Profit Optimisation in MTO Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggravating global warming has heightened the imminent need by the world to step up forceful efforts on curbing emission of greenhouse gases. Although manufacturing is a major resource of carbon emission, few research works have studied the impacts of carbon constraints on manufacturing, leading to environmentally unsustainable production strategies and operations. This paper incorporates carbon emission management into production planning for make-to-order (MTO manufacturing. This paper proposes a model that solves lot-sizing problems to maximise profits under carbon emission caps. The model adopts stochastic interarrival times for customer orders to enhance the practicality of the results for real-world manufacturing. Numerical experiments show that reducing carbon emission undercuts short-term profits of a company. However, it is conducive to the company’s market image as being socially responsible which would attract more customers who concern about environmental protection. Hence, reducing carbon emission in manufacturing is beneficial to long-term profitability and sustainability. The results provide managerial insights into manufacture operations for balancing profitability and carbon control.

  16. Impacts of temporary traffic control measures on vehicular emissions during the Asian games in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Yingzhi; Shen, Xianbao; Wang, Xintong; Wu, Ye; He, Kebin

    2013-01-01

    To guarantee good traffic and air quality during the 16th Asian Games in Guangzhou, China, the government carried out two traffic control Drills before the Games and adopted traffic control measures during the Games. Vehicle activities before and during the first and second Drills, and during the Games, were surveyed. Based on the data under investigation, the impacts of control measures on traffic volumes and driving characteristics were analyzed during the first and second Drills, and the Games. The emission reduction of traffic control measures was also evaluated during the three stages using the MOBILE-China model. The results show that there were significant effects of implementing temporary traffic control measures on transportation activity and vehicular emissions. During the first and second Drills, and the Games, the average traffic volumes in monitored roads decreased, and the average speed of vehicles increased significantly The co-effects of traffic flow reduction, traffic congestion improvement, and the banning of high-emitting vehicles helped to greatly reduce the estimated emissions from motor vehicles in Guangzhou during the first and second Drills, and the Games. Estimated vehicular emissions were reduced by 38-52% during the first Drill and 28-36% for the second Drill. During the Asian Games, vehicular emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NO), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter Guangzhou in the future. In addition, the effects of temporary transportation control measures will provide important awareness to other cities that will be hosting large-scale activities similar to the Asian Games.

  17. Evaluation of diesel fleet emissions and control policies from plume chasing measurements of on-road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chui Fong; Rakowska, Agata; Townsend, Thomas; Brimblecombe, Peter; Chan, Tat Leung; Yam, Yat Shing; Močnik, Griša; Ning, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are an important source of urban air pollution. Diesel fuelled vehicles, although constituting a relatively small fraction of fleet population in many cities, are significant contributors to the emission inventory due to their often long mileage for goods and public transport. Recent classification of diesel exhaust as carcinogenic by the World Health Organization also raises attention to more stringent control of diesel emissions to protect public health. Although various mandatory and voluntary based emission control measures have been implemented in Hong Kong, there have been few investigations to evaluate if the fleet emission characteristics have met desired emission reduction objectives and if adoption of an Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) programme has been effective in achieving these objectives. The limitations are partially due to the lack of cost-effective approaches for the large scale characterisation of fleet based emissions to assess the effectiveness of control measures and policy. This study has used a plume chasing method to collect a large amount of on-road vehicle emission data of Hong Kong highways and a detailed analysis was carried out to provide a quantitative evaluation of the emission characteristics in terms of the role of high and super-emitters in total emission reduction, impact of after-treatment on the multi-pollutants reduction strategy and the trend of NO2 emissions with newer emission standards. The study revealed that not all the high-emitters are from those vehicles of older Euro emission standards. Meanwhile, there is clear evidence that high-emitters for one pollutant may not be a high-emitter for another pollutant. Multi-pollutant control strategy needs to be considered in the enactment of the emission control policy which requires more comprehensive retrofitting technological solutions and matching I/M programme to ensure the proper maintenance of fleets. The plume chasing approach used in this study also

  18. Diffusion-controlled toluene reference material for VOC emissions testing: international interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Reed, Cynthia; Liu, Zhe; Cox, Steven; Leber, Dennis; Samarov, Dan; Little, John C

    2014-04-01

    The measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from building products and materials by manufacturers and testing laboratories, and the use of the test results for labeling programs, continue to expand. One issue that hinders wide acceptance for chamber product testing is the lack of a reference material to validate test chamber performance. To meet this need, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Virginia Tech (VT) have developed a prototype reference material that emits a single VOC similar to the emissions of a diffusion-controlled building product source with a dynamic emissions profile. The prototype material has undergone extensive testing at NIST and a pilot interlaboratory study (ILS) with four laboratories. The next development step is an evaluation of the prototype source in multiple-sized chambers of 14 laboratories in seven countries. Each laboratory was provided duplicate specimens and a test protocol. Study results identified significant issues related to the need to store the source at a subzero Celsius temperature until tested and possible inconsistencies in large chambers. For laboratories using a small chamber and meeting all the test method criteria, the results were very encouraging with relative standard deviations ranging from 5% to 10% across the laboratories. Currently, the chamber performance of laboratories conducting product VOC emissions testing is assessed through interlaboratory studies (ILS) using a source with an unknown emission rate. As a result, laboratory proficiency can only be based on the mean and standard deviation of emission rates measured by the participating ILS laboratories. A reference material with a known emission rate has the potential to provide an independent assessment of laboratory performance as well as improve the quality of interlaboratory studies. Several international laboratories with different chamber testing systems demonstrated the ability to measure the emission rate

  19. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: CONTROL OF AIR EMISSIONS FROM MATERIALS HANDLING DURING REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This bulletin presents an overview discussion on the importance of and methods for controlling emissions into the air from materials handling processes at Superfund or other hazardous waste sites. It also describes several techniques used for dust and vapor suppress ion that have...

  20. Assessment of Uinta Basin Oil and Natural Gas Well Pad Pneumatic Controller Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the fall of 2016, a field study was conducted in the Uinta Basin Utah to improve information on oil and natural gas well pad pneumatic controllers (PCs) and emission measurement methods. A total of 80 PC systems at five oil sites (supporting six wells) and three gas sites (sup...

  1. Notification: Evaluating the Internal Controls for EPA's Vehicle Emissions Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY17-0009, Mar 6, 2017. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research to determine whether the EPA’s existing internal controls are effective at detecting and preventing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty on-road vehicle emissions fraud.

  2. Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Revitt, D. M.; Ledin, A.

    2011-01-01

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on “Source Control Options for Reducing Emissions of Priority ...

  3. Realization of a gamma emission tomography by a servo-controlled camera and bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmentier, M.; Gunzman, D.; Bidet, R.

    1979-01-01

    A gamma-camera and a whole-body bed were connected to a minicomputer which controlled automatically their movements. By combining horizontal displacement of the bed with vertical displacement and rotation of the camera we were able to obtain the equivalent of camera rotation around the bed. This method provides an inexpensive way of realizing gamma emission tomography [fr

  4. EMISSION TEST REPORT, OMSS FIELD TEST ON CARBON INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses results of a parametric evaluation of powdered activated carbon for control of mercury (Hg) emission from a municipal waste cornbustor (MWC) equipped with a lime spray dryer absorber/fabric filter (SD/FF). The primary test objectives were to evaluate the effe...

  5. Automotive Radar Sensors in Silicon Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Vipul

    2013-01-01

    This book presents architectures and design techniques for mm-wave automotive radar transceivers. Several fully-integrated transceivers and receivers operating at 22-29 GHz and 77-81 GHz are demonstrated in both CMOS and SiGe BiCMOS technologies. Excellent performance is achieved indicating the suitability of silicon technologies for automotive radar sensors.  This book bridges an existing gap between information available on dependable system/architecture design and circuit design.  It provides the background of the field and detailed description of recent research and development of silicon-based radar sensors.  System-level requirements and circuit topologies for radar transceivers are described in detail. Holistic approaches towards designing radar sensors are validated with several examples of highly-integrated radar ICs in silicon technologies. Circuit techniques to design millimeter-wave circuits in silicon technologies are discussed in depth.  Describes concepts and fundamentals of automotive rada...

  6. Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Worm Control in Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew G. Coulter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There are currently little or no data on the role of endemic disease control in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from livestock. In the present study, we have used an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-compliant model to calculate GHG emissions from naturally grazing lambs under four different anthelmintic drug treatment regimes over a 5-year study period. Treatments were either “monthly” (NST, “strategic” (SPT, “targeted” (TST or based on “clinical signs” (MT. Commercial sheep farming practices were simulated, with lambs reaching a pre-selected target market weight (38 kg removed from the analysis as they would no longer contribute to the GHG budget of the flock. Results showed there was a significant treatment effect over all years, with lambs in the MT group consistently taking longer to reach market weight, and an extra 10% emission of CO2e per kg of weight gain over the other treatments. There were no significant differences between the other three treatment strategies (NST, SPT and TST in terms of production efficiency or cumulated GHG emissions over the experimental period. This study has shown that endemic disease control can contribute to a reduction in GHG emissions from animal agriculture and help reduce the carbon footprint of livestock farming.

  7. Dual-fuelling of a direct-injection automotive diesel engine by diesel and compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Mohammadi Kosha, A.; Mosseibi, A.; Moshirabadi, J.; Gangi, A.; Moghadaspour, M.

    2000-01-01

    Application of Compressed Natural Gas in diesel engines has always been important, especially in the field of automotive engineering. This is due to easy accessibility, better mixing quality and good combustion characteristics of the Compressed Natural Gas fuel. In this study the application of Compressed Natural Gas fuel along with diesel oil in a heavy duty direct-injection automotive diesel engine is experimentally investigated. In order to convert a diesel engine into a diesel-gas one, the so called m ixed diesel-gas a pproach has been used and for this purpose a carbureted Compressed Natural Gas fuel system has been designed and manufactured. For controlling quantity of Compressed Natural Gas, the gas valve is linked to the diesel fuel injection system by means of a set of rods. Then, the dual-fuel system is adjusted so that, at full load conditions, the quantity of diesel fuel is reduced to 20% and 80% of its equivalent energy is substituted by Compressed Natural Gas fuel. Also injection pressure of pilot jet is increased by 11.4%. Performance and emission tests are conducted under variation of load and speed on both diesel and diesel-gas engines. Results show that, with equal power and torque, the diesel-gas engine has the potential to improve overall engine performance and emission. For example, at rated power and speed, fuel economy increases by 5.48%, the amount of smoke decreases by 78%, amount of CO decreases by 64.3% and mean exhaust gas temperature decreases by 6.4%

  8. A novel fuzzy-logic control strategy minimizing N2O emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    A novel control strategy for achieving low N2O emissions and low effluent NH4+ concentration is here proposed. The control strategy uses the measurements of ammonium and nitrate concentrations in inlet and outlet of the aerobic zone of a wastewater treatment plant to calculate a ratio indicating...... was implemented using the fuzzy logic approach. It was comprehensively tested for different model structures and different sets of model parameters with regards to its ability of mitigating N2O emissions for future applications in real wastewater treatment plants. It is concluded that the control strategy...... is useful for those plants having AOB denitrification as the main N2O producing process. However, in treatment plants having incomplete NH2OH oxidation as the main N2O producing pathway, a cascade controller configuration adapting the oxygen supply to respect only the effluent ammonium concentration limits...

  9. New Energy-Efficient Electromagnetic Clutch for Automotive Air Conditioning Compressors

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgart, Rico; van der Seylberg, Frank; Aurich, Joerg; von Unwerth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Even if the air conditioning is switched off, the internal combustion engine in today’s cars continues to drive the common compressor. To avoid resulting power losses, the automotive industry aspires to apply electromagnetic clutches. When the air conditioning is used, however, CO2-emission increases significantly because the electromag-netic coil consumes electricity. The CO2-reduction per year is consequently very low, which is why new compressor clutches were developed that do not require ...

  10. Ultrapulse welding: A new joining technique. [for automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    The ultrapulse process is a resistance welding process that utilizes unidirectional current of high magnitude for a very short time with a precisely controlled dynamic force pulse. Peak currents of up to 220,000 amperes for two to ten milliseconds are used with synchronized force pulses of up to nine thousand pounds. The welding current passing through the relatively high resistance of the interface between the parts that are being joined results in highly localized heating. Described is the UPW process as it applies to the automotive industry.

  11. 16 CFR 306.5 - Automotive fuel rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automotive fuel rating. 306.5 Section 306.5... RATINGS, CERTIFICATION AND POSTING Duties of Refiners, Importers and Producers § 306.5 Automotive fuel rating. If you are a refiner, importer, or producer, you must determine the automotive fuel rating of all...

  12. Best Practices in School-to-Careers: The Automotive Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Employer Leadership Council, Washington, DC.

    This document highlights the school-to-careers (STC) partnerships connecting workplace experiences to classroom learning to prepare students for successful employment in the automotive industry. First, the current state of the automotive industry is reviewed and the role of STC in addressing automotive service needs is explained. Next, the…

  13. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands.

  14. Process and technological options for odorous emissions control in wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernuschi, S.; Torretta, V.

    1996-01-01

    The emissions of odorous substances together with noise and issues related to proper architectural design within the existing territorial context, have certainly to be considered one of the most significant environmental effects determined by wastewater treatment plants particularly in the most frequent case of their localization in dense urban areas. Following a brief introduction on the chemical properties of odorous compounds and the corresponding methods for representing their concentration levels in air, present work reports on the main qualitative and quantitative characteristics of odorous emissions originating from single unit operations of typical wastewater treatment plants and on the technological and process options available for their control

  15. Role of sectoral and multi-pollutant emission control strategies in improving atmospheric visibility in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Zhuang, Guoshun; Lin, Yanfen

    2014-01-01

    The Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system is used to investigate the response of atmospheric visibility to the emission reduction from different sectors (i.e. industries, traffic and power plants) in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Visibility improvement from exclusive reduction of NO x or VOC emission was most inefficient. Sulfate and organic aerosol would rebound if NO x emission was exclusively reduced from any emission sector. The most efficient way to improve the atmospheric visibility was proven to be the multi-pollutant control strategies. Simultaneous emission reductions (20–50%) on NO x , VOC and PM from the industrial and mobile sectors could result in 0.3–1.0 km visibility improvement. And the emission controls on both NO x (85%) and SO 2 (90%) from power plants gained the largest visibility improvement of up to 4.0 km among all the scenarios. The seasonal visibility improvement subject to emission controls was higher in summer while lower in the other seasons. -- Highlights: • Atmospheric visibility in the Yangtze River Delta is modeled and evaluated. • Responses of visibility changes to various emission reduction scenarios are compared. • Sulfate aerosol will increase if only NO x emission is reduced. • The multi-pollutant control strategy is most efficient for improving visibility. -- Responses of visibility changes to various emission reduction scenarios are compared. The multi-pollutant control strategy is most efficient for improving visibility in YRD, China

  16. 5th International Conference on Sustainable Automotive Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Subic, Aleksandar; Trufin, Ramona

    2014-01-01

    This book captures selected peer reviewed papers presented at the 5th International Conference on Sustainable Automotive Technologies, ICSAT 2013, held in Ingolstadt, Germany. ICSAT is the state-of-the-art conference in the field of new technologies for transportation. The book brings together the work of international researchers and practitioners under the following interrelated headings: fuel transportation and storage, material recycling, manufacturing and management costs, engines and emission reduction. The book provides a very good overview of research and development activities focused on new technologies and approaches capable of meeting the challenges to sustainable mobility. About the Editors: Prof. Dr. Jörg Wellnitz is the Dean of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Hochschule Ingolstadt, Germany. Prof. Dr. Aleksandar Subic is the Head of the School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, Australia. Ramona Trufin, M.A. is the coordinator of the Facul...

  17. Enabling Automotive Innovation: Tales from a Physicist in Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Frederick

    Measurements and instrumentation play an obvious and critical technical role in the automotive industry to assure compliance with government and industry standards such as emissions and fuel economy. Less obvious and equally critical is the role they play in innovative materials for future transportation needs. In today's open innovation environment, where research is distributed among industrial, academic, and government lab partners, the ability to capture, validate, and incorporate both internal and external inventions combines a deep knowledge base and the research tools to evaluate advanced materials and processes. Examples of the impact of measurements and instrumentation on internal, external, and shared research will be given from the experiences of the author and his research colleagues.

  18. Evaluation of VOC emission measurement methods for paint spray booths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, B M; Nelson, T P

    1995-03-01

    Interest in regulations to control solvent emissions from automotive painting systems is increasing, especially in ozone nonattainment areas. Therefore, an accurate measurement method for VOC emissions from paint spray booths used in the automotive industry is needed to ascertain the efficiency of the spray booth capture and the total emissions. This paper presents the results of a laboratory study evaluating potential VOC sampling and analytical methods used in estimating paint spray booth emissions, and discusses these results relative to other published data. Eight test methods were selected for evaluation. The accuracy of each sampling and analytical method was determined using test atmospheres of known concentration and composition that closely matched the actual exhaust air from paint spray booths. The solvent mixture to generate the test atmospheres contained a large proportion of polar, oxygenated hydrocarbons such as ketones and alcohols. A series of identical tests was performed for each sampling/analytical method with each test atmosphere to assess the precision of the methods. The study identified significant differences among the test methods in terms of accuracy, precision, cost, and complexity.

  19. Electrohydraulic Forming of Near-Net Shape Automotive Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovaschenko, Sergey F.

    2013-09-26

    The objective of this project was to develop the electrohydraulic forming (EHF) process as a near-net shape automotive panel manufacturing technology that simultaneously reduces the energy embedded in vehicles and the energy consumed while producing automotive structures. Pulsed pressure is created via a shockwave generated by the discharge of high voltage capacitors through a pair of electrodes in a liquid-filled chamber. The shockwave in the liquid initiated by the expansion of the plasma channel formed between two electrodes propagates towards the blank and causes the blank to be deformed into a one-sided die cavity. The numerical model of the EHF process was validated experimentally and was successfully applied to the design of the electrode system and to a multi-electrode EHF chamber for full scale validation of the process. The numerical model was able to predict stresses in the dies during pulsed forming and was validated by the experimental study of the die insert failure mode for corner filling operations. The electrohydraulic forming process and its major subsystems, including durable electrodes, an EHF chamber, a water/air management system, a pulse generator and integrated process controls, were validated to be capable to operate in a fully automated, computer controlled mode for forming of a portion of a full-scale sheet metal component in laboratory conditions. Additionally, the novel processes of electrohydraulic trimming and electrohydraulic calibration were demonstrated at a reduced-scale component level. Furthermore, a hybrid process combining conventional stamping with EHF was demonstrated as a laboratory process for a full-scale automotive panel formed out of AHSS material. The economic feasibility of the developed EHF processes was defined by developing a cost model of the EHF process in comparison to the conventional stamping process.

  20. Power Modulation Investigation for High Temperature (175-200 degrees Celcius) Automotive Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCluskey, F. P.

    2007-04-30

    Hybrid electric vehicles were re-introduced in the late 1990s after a century dominated by purely internal combustion powered engines[1]. Automotive players, such as GM, Ford, DaimlerChrysler, Honda, and Toyota, together with major energy producers, such as BPAmoco, were the major force in the development of hybrid electric vehicles. Most notable was the development by Toyota of its Prius, which was launched in Japan in 1997 and worldwide in 2001. The shift to hybrids was driven by the fact that the sheer volume of vehicles on the road had begun to tax the ability of the environment to withstand the pollution of the internal combustion engine and the ability of the fossil fuel industry to produce a sufficient amount of refined gasoline. In addition, the number of vehicles was anticipated to rise exponentially with the increasing affluence of China and India. Over the last fifteen years, major advances have been made in all the technologies essential to hybrid vehicle success, including batteries, motors, power control and conditioning electronics, regenerative braking, and power sources, including fuel cells. Current hybrid electric vehicles are gasoline internal combustion--electric motor hybrids. These hybrid electric vehicles range from micro-hybrids, where a stop/start system cuts the engine while the vehicle is stopped, and mild hybrids where the stop/start system is supplemented by regenerative braking and power assist, to full hybrids where the combustion motor is optimized for electric power production, and there is full electric drive and full regenerative braking. PSA Peugeot Citroen estimates the increased energy efficiency will range from 3-6% for the micro-hybrids to 15-25% for the full hybrids.[2] Gasoline-electric hybrids are preferred in US because they permit long distance travel with low emissions and high gasoline mileage, while still using the existing refueling infrastructure. One of the most critical areas in which technology has been

  1. Precious Metals in Automotive Technology: An Unsolvable Depletion Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Bardi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of the 20th century, various devices have been developed in order to reduce the emissions of harmful substances at the exhaust pipe of combustion engines. In the automotive field, the most diffuse and best known device of this kind is the “three way” catalytic converter for engines using the Otto cycle designed to abate the emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and unburnt hydrocarbons. These catalytic converters can function only by means of precious metals (mainly platinum, rhodium and palladium which exist in a limited supply in economically exploitable ores. The recent increase in prices of all mineral commodities is already making these converters significantly expensive and it is not impossible that the progressive depletion of precious metals will make them too expensive for the market of private cars. The present paper examines how this potential scarcity could affect the technology of road transportation worldwide. We argue that the supply of precious metals for automotive converters is not at risk in the short term, but that in the future it will not be possible to continue using this technology as a result of increasing prices generated by progressive depletion. Mitigation methods such as reducing the amounts of precious metals in catalysts, or recycling them can help but cannot be considered as a definitive solution. We argue that precious metal scarcity is a critical factor that may determine the future development of road transportation in the world. As the problem is basically unsolvable in the long run, we must explore new technologies for road transportation and we conclude that it is likely that the clean engine of the future will be electric and powered by batteries.

  2. Marine Diesel Engine Control to meet Emission Requirements and Maintain Maneuverability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars

    2018-01-01

    International shipping has been reported to account for 13% of global NOx emissions and 2.1% of global green house gas emissions. Recent restrictions of NOx emissions from marine vessels have led to the development of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for large two-stroke diesel engines. Meanwhile......, the same engines have been downsized and derated to optimize fuel efficiency. The smaller engines reduce the possible vessel acceleration, and to counteract this, the engine controller must be improved to fully utilize the physical potential of the engine. A fuel index limiter based on air/fuel ratio...... was recently developed [1], but as it does not account for EGR, accelerations lead to excessive exhaust smoke formation which could damage the engine when recirculated. This paper presents two methods for extending a fuel index limiter function to EGR engines. The methods are validated through simulations...

  3. Source Classification Framework for an optimized European wide Emission Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Donner, Erica; Ledin, Anna

    2011-01-01

    environment. This should be obtained through reducing releases or phasing out of discharges said chemicals. In order to appropriately design emission control strategies (ECSs) and monitor releases before and after implementation of various measures it is required to identify pollution sources and releases......, and thereby establish an appropriate inventory containing such information. Suited for this purpose a Source Classification Framework (SCF) was developed. It consists of harmonized European classification codes for economic activities and emission processes combined with the CAS# for the PS as well...... as an urban structure descriptor. It also includes a release profile descriptor and when ever possible the release factor describing the extent of PS release from a given pollution source, i.e. commodity or activity. It has been possible to establish PS emission inventories for a given catchment of an urban...

  4. Two-dimensional sub-half-wavelength atom localization via controlled spontaneous emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ren-Gang; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2011-12-05

    We propose a scheme for two-dimensional (2D) atom localization based on the controlled spontaneous emission, in which the atom interacts with two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Due to the spatially dependent atom-field interaction, the position probability distribution of the atom can be directly determined by measuring the resulting spontaneously emission spectrum. The phase sensitive property of the atomic system leads to quenching of the spontaneous emission in some regions of the standing-waves, which significantly reduces the uncertainty in the position measurement of the atom. We find that the frequency measurement of the emitted light localizes the atom in half-wavelength domain. Especially the probability of finding the atom at a particular position can reach 100% when a photon with certain frequency is detected. By increasing the Rabi frequencies of the driving fields, such 2D sub-half-wavelength atom localization can acquire high spatial resolution.

  5. A Polymer Film Dye Laser with Spatially Modulated Emission Controlled by Transversely Distributed Pumping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurab V. Wardosanidze

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial modulation of laser emission controlled by the structure of excitation light field was demonstrated. A dye doped polymer film as an active medium was sandwiched between two laser mirrors forming a laser cell. The pumping was performed by an interference pattern formed with two mutually coherent beams of the second harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (532 nm and located in the plane of the laser cell. The laser emission was observed normally on the plane of the cell. The cross section of the obtained laser emission was modulated in intensity with an interval between maximums depending on the period of the pumping interference pattern. Thus, the emitted light field qualitatively looks like diffraction from an elementary dynamic hologram, that is, a holographic diffraction grating.

  6. Land Surface Microwave Emissivities Derived from AMSR-E and MODIS Measurements with Advanced Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncet, Jean-Luc; Liang, Pan; Galantowicz, John F.; Lipton, Alan E.; Uymin, Gennady; Prigent, Catherine; Grassotti, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A microwave emissivity database has been developed with data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and with ancillary land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the same Aqua spacecraft. The primary intended application of the database is to provide surface emissivity constraints in atmospheric and surface property retrieval or assimilation. An additional application is to serve as a dynamic indicator of land surface properties relevant to climate change monitoring. The precision of the emissivity data is estimated to be significantly better than in prior databases from other sensors due to the precise collocation with high-quality MODIS LST data and due to the quality control features of our data analysis system. The accuracy of the emissivities in deserts and semi-arid regions is enhanced by applying, in those regions, a version of the emissivity retrieval algorithm that accounts for the penetration of microwave radiation through dry soil with diurnally varying vertical temperature gradients. These results suggest that this penetration effect is more widespread and more significant to interpretation of passive microwave measurements than had been previously established. Emissivity coverage in areas where persistent cloudiness interferes with the availability of MODIS LST data is achieved using a classification-based method to spread emissivity data from less-cloudy areas that have similar microwave surface properties. Evaluations and analyses of the emissivity products over homogeneous snow-free areas are presented, including application to retrieval of soil temperature profiles. Spatial inhomogeneities are the largest in the vicinity of large water bodies due to the large water/land emissivity contrast and give rise to large apparent temporal variability in the retrieved emissivities when satellite footprint locations vary over time. This issue will be dealt with in the future by

  7. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 5. Multinational Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  8. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 6. Foreign Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  9. Energy scenarios for Switzerland and emission control, estimated with a normative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kypreos, S.

    1990-06-01

    The reported work presents results of the IEA-ETSAP project (International Energy Agency - Energy Technology Systems Analysis Project) concerning the interrelations among energy use, emissions to the atmosphere and the cost of emission control. The energy simulation model SMEDE, which has been developed at PSI and applies the engineering simulation (bottom up) approach, and the IEA optimization model MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) have been used to analyse the energy demand and supply system of Switzerland. The purpose of this analysis is to identify technical options and their cost for reducing the energy dependent atmospheric emissions in Switzerland to the levels of the 'clean air concept'. The study addresses also the question of the feasibility and the economic implications of reducing the CO 2 emissions to the levels recommended by the Toronto conference. The implications of a stringent 'clean air concept' and these of the Toronto recommendations have been analysed under different nuclear supply options i.e. an unconstrained nuclear supply case (reference), a nuclear status-quo (moratorium) and under the conditions of a nuclear phase-out programme by the year 2025. The main conclusions of this analysis indicate that the emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide could be reduced back to the levels of 1950 respectively 1960, by the introduction of emission control technologies which go above the present performance limits defined by the 'clean air ordinance' (LRV). A probable time horizon to satisfy the NO x constraints is the year 2000 and not 1995. Organizational measures necessary to improve the air quality in cities are complementary to the measures proposed in this analysis. (author) figs., tabs., 18 refs

  10. TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES DONALDSON COMPANY INC.SERIES 6100 DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST MUFFLER AND SPIRACLE CLOSED CRANKCASE FILTRATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is on an environmental verification of the emissions characteristics of a Donaldson Corp. catalytic muffler and catalyic crankcase emissions control. It was found the systems reduced emissions.

  11. IT Systems in Aid of Welding Processes Quality Management in the Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restecka M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important issue for the producers nowadays is to meet the requirements of customers, satisfying their perceived but also the unperceived needs. In order to control the quality of welding processes correctly one must have knowledge of welding drawings, symbols, designs of welded joints, welding procedures, requirements set in codes and standards, also have knowledge of the techniques of inspection and testing connected with the automotive industry. The article shows ways to increase quality in the industry through the use of robotization and computerization. Presented examples and application of IT systems in aid of welding processes quality management in the automotive industry.

  12. Radiative forcing associated with particulate carbon emissions resulting from the use of mercury control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guangxing; Penner, Joyce E; Clack, Herek L

    2014-09-02

    Injection of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents into the flue gas of coal fired power plants with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is the most mature technology to control mercury emissions for coal combustion. However, the PAC itself can penetrate ESPs to emit into the atmosphere. These emitted PACs have similar size and optical properties to submicron black carbon (BC) and thus could increase BC radiative forcing unintentionally. The present paper estimates, for the first time, the potential emission of PAC together with their climate forcing. The global average maximum potential emissions of PAC is 98.4 Gg/yr for the year 2030, arising from the assumed adoption of the maximum potential PAC injection technology, the minimum collection efficiency, and the maximum PAC injection rate. These emissions cause a global warming of 2.10 mW m(-2) at the top of atmosphere and a cooling of -2.96 mW m(-2) at the surface. This warming represents about 2% of the warming that is caused by BC from direct fossil fuel burning and 0.86% of the warming associated with CO2 emissions from coal burning in power plants. Its warming is 8 times more efficient than the emitted CO2 as measured by the 20-year-integrated radiative forcing per unit of carbon input (the 20-year Global Warming Potential).

  13. Design and development of an automotive propulsion system utilizing a Rankine cycle engine (water based fluid). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demler, R.L.

    1977-09-01

    Under EPA and ERDA sponsorship, SES successfully designed, fabricated and tested the first federally sponsored steam powered automobile. The automobile - referred to as the simulator - is a 1975 Dodge Monaco standard size passenger car with the SES preprototype Rankine cycle automotive propulsion system mounted in the engine compartment. In the latter half of 1975, the simulator successfully underwent test operations at the facilities of SES in Watertown, Massachusetts and demonstrated emission levels below those of the stringent federally established automotive requirements originally set for implementation by 1976. The demonstration was accomplished during testing over the Federal Driving Cycle on a Clayton chassis dynamometer. The design and performance of the vehicle are described.

  14. Market Opportunities for Automotive Components Used in Non-automotive Applications Manufacturing : Estonian Industrial Market

    OpenAIRE

    Kalajärv, Jaana

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines the opportunities available for automotive components in the Esto-nian non-automotive industrial market. The literature review part is mainly covers the theory of marketing research, because of the approach chosen for this paper. Only small part of marketing research process is re-searched closer in literature review section, because of the scope of the research. Three most relevant steps for the thesis are chosen from research process for further more in-vestigation,...

  15. Degradation of automotive materials in palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, M.A.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2012-01-01

    As compared to petroleum diesel, biodiesel is more corrosive for automotive materials. Studies on the characterization of corrosion products of fuel exposed automotive materials are scarce. Automotive fuel system and engine components are made from different ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The present study aims to investigate the corrosion products of different types of automotive materials such as copper, brass, aluminum and cast iron upon exposure to diesel and palm biodiesel. Changes in fuel properties due to exposure of different materials were also examined. Degradation of metal surface was characterized by digital camera, SEM/EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fuel properties were examined by measuring TAN (total acid number), density and viscosity. Among the metal investigated, copper is found to be least resistant in biodiesel and formed comparatively more corrosion products than other metals. Upon exposure of metals in biodiesel, TAN number crosses the limit given by standard while density and viscosity remain within the acceptable range of limit. -- Highlights: ► Order of incompatible metals in palm biodiesel: copper > brass > aluminum > cast iron. ► The possible reactions for the degradation of copper and cast iron have been discussed. ► For metal exposed biodiesel, only TAN number crosses the limit while density and viscosity remain within the limit. ► Copper and copper based alloy (brass) increase TAN number comparatively more than other metals.

  16. Automotive Mechanics Occupational Performance Survey. Interim Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcher, Sidney D.; Leiter, Paul B.

    The purpose of this federally-funded interim report is to present the results of a task inventory analysis survey of automotive mechanics completed by project staff within the Instructional Systems Design Program at the Center for Vocational and Technical Education. Intended for use in curriculum development for vocational education programs in…

  17. Orientation: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The first six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the basic theory and practice of a beginning course at the secondary and post-secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction…

  18. Basic Automotive Mechanics. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a basic automotive mechanics program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of Occupational…

  19. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 15 terminal objectives for a basic automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hours daily) course for organized classroom and shop experiences designed to enable the student to develop…

  20. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 10 terminal objectives for an intermediate automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course for specialized classrooms, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the…

  1. A listening test system for automotive audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Geoff, Martin; Minnaar, Pauli

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a system for simulating automotive audio through headphones for the purposes of conducting listening experiments in the laboratory. The system is based on binaural technology and consists of a component for reproducing the sound of the audio system itself and a component...

  2. PERFORMANCE OF AN AUTOMOTIVE BUMPER FROM LALLOH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work presented here is the production of an automotive Bumper from Lalloh plant (Corchorus tridenL.) fibre reinforced epoxy composite and its performance evaluation using the drop weight test method. An impact test was carried out on the bumper using a test rig modeled after the Dynatup Model 8150 drop weight test ...

  3. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on steel grade, on the rolling direction as well as on the loading rate. Stretch zones ... This interaction is demonstrated at a fracture surface as a bounded transition between initiatory crack (e.g., fatigue) and either ... The materials examined in this study are three grades of thin automotive steel sheets: XSG,. HR 45 and DP.

  4. International Conference on Vehicle and Automotive Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Bolló, Betti

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the first vehicle engineering and vehicle industry conference. It captures the outcome of theoretical and practical studies as well as the future development trends in a wide field of automotive research. The themes of the conference include design, manufacturing, economic and educational topics.

  5. Training Issues for the European Automotive Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankbaar, B.

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of the results of an investigation carried out for the European Commission. Aims to identify themes and issues in the field of continuing training in the European automotive industry. A large number of interviews were carried out in all the major car manufacturing countries of

  6. Training issues for the European automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankbaar, B.

    1999-01-01

    Provides an overview of the results of an investigation carried out for the European Commission. Aims to identify themes and issues in the field of continuing training in the European automotive industry. A large number of interviews were carried out in all the major car manufacturing countries of

  7. Environmental Innovation Dynamics in the Automotive industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, O

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the innovation dynamics induced by environmental policy in the automotive industry. It examines car fuel efficiency programs in the EU, the US and Japan. It concludes that existing programs have not yet succeeded in promoting radical and breakthrough technologies, but that, at

  8. The impact of climate change and emissions control on future ozone levels: Implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Kim, Young-Min; Gao, Yang; Fu, Joshua S; Chang, Howard H; Liu, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Overwhelming evidence has shown that, from the Industrial Revolution to the present, human activities influence ground-level ozone (O 3 ) concentrations. Past studies demonstrate links between O 3 exposure and health. However, knowledge gaps remain in our understanding concerning the impacts of climate change mitigation policies on O 3 concentrations and health. Using a hybrid downscaling approach, we evaluated the separate impact of climate change and emission control policies on O 3 levels and associated excess mortality in the US in the 2050s under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). We show that, by the 2050s, under RCP4.5, increased O 3 levels due to combined climate change and emission control policies, could contribute to an increase of approximately 50 premature deaths annually nationwide in the US. The biggest impact, however, is seen under RCP8.5, where rises in O 3 concentrations are expected to result in over 2,200 additional premature deaths annually. The largest increases in O 3 are seen in RCP8.5 in the Northeast, the Southeast, the Central, and the West regions of the US. Additionally, when O 3 increases are examined by climate change and emissions contributions separately, the benefits of emissions mitigation efforts may significantly outweigh the effects of climate change mitigation policies on O 3 -related mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using satellite data to guide emission control strategies for surface ozone pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X.; Fiore, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Surface ozone (O3) has adverse effects on public health, agriculture and ecosystems. As a secondary pollutant, ozone is not emitted directly. Ozone forms from two classes of precursors: NOx and VOCs. We use satellite observations of formaldehyde (a marker of VOCs) and NO2 (a marker of NOx) to identify areas which would benefit more from reducing NOx emissions (NOx-limited) versus areas where reducing VOC emissions would lead to lower ozone (VOC-limited). We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to develop a set of threshold values that separate the NOx-limited and VOC-limited conditions. Combining these threshold values with a decadal record of satellite observations, we find that U.S. cities (e.g. New York, Chicago) have shifted from VOC-limited to NOx-limited ozone production regimes in the warm season. This transition reflects the NOx emission controls implemented over the past decade. Increasing NOx sensitivity implies that regional NOx emission control programs will improve O3 air quality more now than it would have a decade ago.

  10. Simultaneous control of emission localization and two-photon absorption efficiency in dissymmetrical chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretiak, Sergei [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to demonstrate that combined spectral tuning of fluorescence and two-photon absorption (TPA) properties of multipolar chromophores can be achieved by introduction of slight electronic chemical dissymmetry. In that perspective, two novel series of structurally related chromophores have been designed and studied: a first series based on rod-like quadrupolar chromophores bearing different electron-donating (D) end groups and a second series based on three-branched octupolar chromophores built from a trigonal donating moiety and bearing various acceptor (A) peripheral groups. The influence of the electronic dissymmetry is investigated by combined experimental and theoretical studies of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of dissymmetric chromophores compared to their symmetrical counterparts. In both types of systems (i.e. quadrupoles and octupoles) experiments and theory reveal that excitation is essentially delocalized and that excitation involves synchronized charge redistribution between the different D and A moieties within the multipolar structure (i.e. concerted intramolecular charge transfer). In contrast, the emission stems only from a particular dipolar subunit bearing the strongest D or A moieties due to fast excitation localization after excitation prior to emission. Hence control of emission characteristics (polarization and emission spectrum) in addition to localization can be achieved by controlled introduction of electronic dissymmetry (i.e. replacement of one of the D or A end-groups by a slightly stronger D{prime} or A{prime} units). Interestingly dissymmetrical functionalization of both quadrupolar and octupolar compounds does not lead to significant loss in TPA responses and can even be beneficial due to the spectral broadening and peak position tuning that it allows. This study thus reveals an original molecular engineering route strategy allowing major TPA enhancement in multipolar structures due to concerted

  11. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  12. Simulation and testing of new control methods for achieving low emissions in gas turbine engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, P.M.

    1995-09-01

    In the past few years, development of clean burning land-based industrial gas turbines have been the focus for many manufacturers. This effort lead to the development of the LM6000 dry low emission engine. As a part of the control system, a real time mathematical model of the engine was included. This model is used to control the air and fuel low paths to the engine`s new combustor. A real time simulator was needed to simulate the control system hardware and engine. A brief discussion and some basic concepts of the combustor, along with a full discussion on the development of the real time simulator, follows in this paper.

  13. Combustion Mode Design with High Efficiency and Low Emissions Controlled by Mixtures Stratification and Fuel Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on the combustion mode design with high efficiency and low emissions controlled by fuel reactivity and mixture stratification that have been conducted in the authors’ group, including the charge reactivity controlled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion, stratification controlled premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI combustion, and dual-fuel combustion concepts controlled by both fuel reactivity and mixture stratification. The review starts with the charge reactivity controlled HCCI combustion, and the works on HCCI fuelled with both high cetane number fuels, such as DME and n-heptane, and high octane number fuels, such as methanol, natural gas, gasoline and mixtures of gasoline/alcohols, are reviewed and discussed. Since single fuel cannot meet the reactivity requirements under different loads to control the combustion process, the studies related to concentration stratification and dual-fuel charge reactivity controlled HCCI combustion are then presented, which have been shown to have the potential to achieve effective combustion control. The efforts of using both mixture and thermal stratifications to achieve the auto-ignition and combustion control are also discussed. Thereafter, both charge reactivity and mixture stratification are then applied to control the combustion process. The potential and capability of thermal-atmosphere controlled compound combustion mode and dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI/highly premixed charge combustion (HPCC mode to achieve clean and high efficiency combustion are then presented and discussed. Based on these results and discussions, combustion mode design with high efficiency and low emissions controlled by fuel reactivity and mixtures stratification in the whole operating range is proposed.

  14. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. 77 FR 55898 - Request for Comments on a Renewal of a Previously Approved Information Collection: Automotive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ...: Kenneth R. Katz, Fuel Economy Division, Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and Consumer Programs... Fuel Economy Reports ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In compliance with the Paperwork... Part 537, Automotive Fuel Economy Reports. OMB Control Number: 2127-0019. Type of Request: Renewal of a...

  16. Hierarchical modeling of automotive sensor front-ends for structural diagnosis of aging faults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Wan, J.; Zhao, Yong

    2012-01-01

    The semiconductor industry for automotive applications is growing rapidly. This is because advanced electronics is now being developed to monitor and control many vital functions previously handled purely mechanical. In addition hybrid and pure electrical cars are emerging. Parts of these electronic

  17. Biogenic versus abiogenic emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands and options for emission control in tomato cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluimers, J.C.; Kroeze, C.; Bakker, E.J.; Challa, H.; Hordijk, L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, present-day emissions of greenhouse gases and acidifying compounds from agriculture are analysed at the farm level. Quantitative estimates are given for these emissions from three nested systems in the Netherlands: the agricultural sector, greenhouse horticulture, and tomato

  18. Application of acoustic emission testing to quality control: examples and forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumousseau, P.

    1979-01-01

    A several years experience to evaluate and promote acoustic emission in the field of mechanical industries has permitted to recognize the domains of industrial interest. The first is detection of defective parts according to emissivity. Examples concerning forged, cast or welded fabrications are presented. It is concluded that signal processing is decisive but that its sophistication must be graded according to the case considered. The second is control of welding process. Examples concerning submerged arc, TIG and electron-beam welds are analyzed. It appears that automatic control is chiefly possible for welding under vacuum or inert gaz conditions. The third is monitoring of pressure vessels during hydrotest or in-service. Problems concerning materials behaviour, wave propagation, location accuracy are reviewed. To conclude prospects of future development are evaluated. Via signal processing the most important progresses are needed in characterization of defect severity and life time prediction. Importance of improving transducer calibration and codifying methods is also outlined [fr

  19. Application of horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, P M; Dawande, S D

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum products have wide range of volatility and are required to be stored in bulk. The evaporation losses are significant and it is a economic as well as environmental concern, since evaporative losses of petroleum products cause increased VOC in ambient air. Control of these losses poses a major problem for the storage tank designers. Ever rising cost of petroleum products further adds to the gravity of the problem. Condensation is one of the technologies for reducing volatile organic compounds emissions. Condensation is effected by condenser, which is basically a heat exchanger and the heat exchanger configuration plays an important role. The horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger is a promising configuration that finds an application in VOC control. This paper attempts to understand underlying causes of emissions and analyse the option of horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger as vent condenser.

  20. Development of emissions inventory and identification of sources for priority control in the middle reaches of Yangtze River Urban Agglomerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaowei; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Lang, Jianlei; Ren, Zhenhai; Sun, Chao

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents the first attempt to investigate the emission source control of the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River Urban Agglomerations (MRYRUA), one of the national urban agglomerations in China. An emission inventory of the MRYRUA was developed as inputs to the CAMx model based on county-level activity data obtained by full-coverage investigation and source-based spatial surrogates. A classification technology method for priority control of atmospheric emission sources was introduced and applied in the MRYRUA for the evaluation of the emission sources control on the region-scale and city-scale, respectively. The results demonstrated that the emission sources in the Hefei-centered urban agglomerations contributed the biggest on the mean PM 2.5 concentrations of the MRYRUA and should be taken the priority to control. The emission sources in the Ma'anshan city, Xiangtan city, Hefei city and Wuhan city were the bigger contributors on the mean PM 2.5 concentrations of the MRYRUA among the cities and should be taken the priority to control. In generally, emission sources in cities along the Yangtze River and the tributary should be given the special attention for the regional air quality target attainments. This study can give an understanding of Chinese emissions and provide a valuable preference to policy makers for finding effective mitigation measures and control strategies for reducing national and regional air pollution in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Modern techniques for the emissions control in thermal electric stations; Tecnicas modernas para el control de emisiones en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo Millares, C. A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the techniques and the control equipment for emissions in thermal stations that have the highest possibilities of being considered in the immediate future in the national energy panorama and the established frame for the environmental normativity. The pollutant compounds subject to revision are the nitrogen and sulfur oxides and unburned particles. [Espanol] Se presentan las tecnicas y equipos de control de emisiones para centrales termoelectricas que tienen mayores posibilidades de ser consideradas en el futuro inmediato dentro del panorama energetico nacional y el marco establecido por la normatividad ambiental. Los compuestos contaminantes sujetos a revision son los oxidos de nitrogeno y azufre y las particulas inquemadas.

  2. A Novel Vaping Machine Dedicated to Fully Controlling the Generation of E-Cigarette Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Soulet, Sébastien; Pairaud, Charly; Lalo, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    The accurate study of aerosol composition and nicotine release by electronic cigarettes is a major issue. In order to fully and correctly characterize aerosol, emission generation has to be completely mastered. This study describes an original vaping machine named Universal System for Analysis of Vaping (U-SAV), dedicated to vaping product study, enabling the control and real-time monitoring of applied flow rate and power. Repeatability and stability of the machine are demonstrated on flow ra...

  3. Advanced combustion, emission control, health impacts, and fuels merit review and peer evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-10-01

    This report is a summary and analysis of comments from the Advisory Panel at the FY 2006 DOE National Laboratory Advanced Combustion, Emission Control, Health Impacts, and Fuels Merit Review and Peer Evaluation, held May 15-18, 2006 at Argonne National Laboratory. The work evaluated in this document supports the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE in making its funding decisions for the upcoming fiscal year.

  4. Intelligent emissions controller for substance injection in the post-primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifman, Jaques; Feldman, Earl E.; Wei, Thomas Y. C.; Glickert, Roger W.

    2003-01-01

    The control of emissions from fossil-fired boilers wherein an injection of substances above the primary combustion zone employs multi-layer feedforward artificial neural networks for modeling static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected substances into the upper region of the furnace and the emissions exiting the furnace. Multivariable nonlinear constrained optimization algorithms use the mathematical expressions from the artificial neural networks to provide the optimal substance distribution that minimizes emission levels for a given total substance injection rate. Based upon the optimal operating conditions from the optimization algorithms, the incremental substance cost per unit of emissions reduction, and the open-market price per unit of emissions reduction, the intelligent emissions controller allows for the determination of whether it is more cost-effective to achieve additional increments in emission reduction through the injection of additional substance or through the purchase of emission credits on the open market. This is of particular interest to fossil-fired electrical power plant operators. The intelligent emission controller is particularly adapted for determining the economical control of such pollutants as oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) and carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by fossil-fired boilers by the selective introduction of multiple inputs of substances (such as natural gas, ammonia, oil, water-oil emulsion, coal-water slurry and/or urea, and combinations of these substances) above the primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers.

  5. Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, E; Revitt, D M; Ledin, A; Lundy, L; Holten Lützhøft, H C; Wickman, T; Mikkelsen, P S

    2011-01-01

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on 'Source control options for reducing emissions of Priority Pollutants' (ScorePP), seven emission control strategies (ECSs) were developed and tested within a semi-hypothetical case city (SHCC) to evaluate their potential to reduce the emission of selected European priority hazardous substances (PHSs) to surface waters. The ECSs included (1) business-as-usual, (2) full implementation of relevant European (EU) directives, (3) ECS2 in combination with voluntary options for household, municipalities and industry, (4) ECS2 combined with industrial treatment and best available technologies (BAT), (5) ECS2 in combination with stormwater and combined sewer overflow treatment, (6) ECS2 in combination with advanced wastewater treatment, and (7) combinations of ECS3-6. The SHCC approach was chosen to facilitate transparency, to allow compensating for data gaps and to decrease the level of uncertainty in the results. The selected PHSs: cadmium (Cd), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), nonylphenol (NP) and pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE) differ in their uses and environmental fate and therefore accumulate in surface waters to differing extents in response to the application of alternative ECS. To achieve the required reduction in PHS levels in urban waters the full implementation of existing EU regulation is prioritised and feasible combinations of managerial and technological options (source control and treatment) can be highly relevant for mitigating releases.

  6. Effects of Mixture Stratification on Combustion and Emissions of Boosted Controlled Auto-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hunicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The stratification of in-cylinder mixtures appears to be an effective method for managing the combustion process in controlled auto-ignition (CAI engines. Stratification can be achieved and controlled using various injection strategies such as split fuel injection and the introduction of a portion of fuel directly before the start of combustion. This study investigates the effect of injection timing and the amount of fuel injected for stratification on the combustion and emissions in CAI engine. The experimental research was performed on a single cylinder engine with direct gasoline injection. CAI combustion was achieved using negative valve overlap and exhaust gas trapping. The experiments were performed at constant engine fueling. Intake boost was applied to control the excess air ratio. The results show that the application of the late injection strategy has a significant effect on the heat release process. In general, the later the injection is and the more fuel is injected for stratification, the earlier the auto-ignition occurs. However, the experimental findings reveal that the effect of stratification on combustion duration is much more complex. Changes in combustion are reflected in NOX emissions. The attainable level of stratification is limited by the excessive emission of unburned hydrocarbons, CO and soot.

  7. Comparison of Quality Engineering Practices in Malaysian and Indonesian Automotive Related Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Nilda Tri; Sha'ri Mohd, Yusof; Irianto, Dradjad

    2016-02-01

    The main motivating factor driving this research is to find differences between the automotive related companies in Malaysia and Indonesia with regard to quality engineering (QE) implementation. A comparative study between Malaysia and Indonesia provides the opportunity to gain perspective and thorough understanding of the similarities and differences on the critical factors for successful QE practices in the context of both these countries. Face to face interviews are used to compare the QE practices in two automotive companies in Malaysia and Indonesia, respectively. The findings of study showed that both countries have clear quality objectives to achieving zero defects in processes and products and total customer satisfaction. Top and middle management in both countries were found to be directly involved in quality improvement on the shop floor to provide On-The-Job training and actively encourage team members to perform quality problem solving through the formation of quality control circles (QCC) particularly in Indonesia automotive industry. In Malaysia automotive industry, the implementation was not fully effective, but they have started to cultivate those values in the daily execution. Based on the case study results and analysis, the researcher has provided suggestions for both countries as an improvement plan for successful QE implementation. These recommendations will allow management to implement appropriate strategies for better QE implementation which hopefully can improve company's performance and ultimately the making the automotive industry in both countries to reach world class quality. It is strongly believed that the findings of this study can help Malaysia and Indonesia automotive industries in their efforts to become more effective and competitive.

  8. Past and future cadmium emissions from municipal solid-waste incinerators in Japan for the assessment of cadmium control policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Kyoko, E-mail: kyoko.ono@aist.go.jp

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Cd emissions from municipal solid waste incinerators were estimated for 1970–2030. • Emissions peaked in 1973 (11.1 t) at levels ten times that in 2010 (1.2 t). • In the 1970s, the main source was pigments, but after 2000, it was Ni-Cd batteries. • The effects of two Cd control policies were compared. • Banning Cd use reduced emissions more than intensive collection of batteries. -- Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a harmful pollutant emitted from municipal solid-waste incinerators (MSWIs). Cd stack emissions from MSWIs have been estimated between 1970 and 2030 in Japan. The aims of this study are to quantify emitted Cd by category and to analyze Cd control policies to reduce emissions. Emissions were estimated using a dynamic substance flow analysis (SFA) that took into account representative waste treatment flows and historical changes in emission factors. This work revealed that the emissions peaked in 1973 (11.1 t) and were ten times those in 2010 (1.2 t). Emission from MSWIs was two-thirds of that from non-ferrous smelting in 2010. The main Cd emission source was pigment use in the 1970s, but after 2000 it had shifted to nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries. Future emissions were estimated for 2030. Compared to the business-as-usual scenario, an intensive collection of used Ni-Cd batteries and a ban on any future use of Ni-Cd batteries will reduce emissions by 0.09 and 0.31 t, respectively, in 2030. This approach enables us to identify the major Cd emission source from MSWIs, and to prioritize the possible Cd control policies.

  9. Quantifying Emission Controls of CO and NOx During the Victory Day Military Parade through Inverse Modelling with Ensemble Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Tang, X.; Wang, Z.

    2016-12-01

    During the China Victory Day Parade in 2015, temporary emission control measures were conducted over Beijing and surrounding regions to guarantee the air quality of Beijing. This offers a great opportunity to explore the ability and limitations of the top-down emission estimation. In this study, we employed an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in coupling with a Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) to establish a high temporal and spatial resolution emission inversion estimation scheme. The scheme enables to assimilated more than 400 surface observations of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxides (NO2) into a 5km×5km resolution model to inversely adjust the a priori emission inventory based on the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) for the base year of 2010. Fifty ensemble members and an offline hourly inverse analysis were employed during the four-week inverse period. Results suggested that the inverse estimation scheme significantly reduced the biases in the a prior emission inventory. Therefore, a new emission inventory was obtained and served as the base to compare with the inverse emission inventory during the China Victory Day Parade. Comparison between the new base emission inventory and the inverse emission inventory during the China Victory Day Parade revealed the temporal and spatial characters of the emission control measures over Beijing and surrounding areas. Significant emission reductions were found in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and surrounding areas. Meanwhile, NOx showed more reductions in areas around Beijing due to more rigorous vehicle control. This study highlighted the advantages and limitations of the EnKF-based emission estimation scheme. The uncertainties related to observation network, sampling strategy, and meteorological errors were also discussed.

  10. Remote sensing of dust source characteristics and emission controls on a large playa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robert; Eckardt, Frank; Vickery, Kathryn; Wiggs, Giles; Hipondoka, Martin; Murray, Jonathan; Brindley, Helen; King, James; Nield, Jo; Thomas, David; Washington, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Playas are ephemeral, endorheic lake systems that are common arid regions which have been identified as both regionally and globally significant sources of mineral dust. Emissions of dust from large playas can therefore impact significantly on regional climate through a range of land/atmosphere interactions. Nevertheless our understanding of spatial and temporal controls on dust emission from these environments at scales relevant to climate models, are poorly understood. Etosha Pan is a large playa situated in semi-arid northern Namibia. It sits in a basin 1000 m amsl, has a surface area of approximately 5000 km2. This playa has been identified as one of the largest sources of mineral dust in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, to uncover sub-basin scale controls on mineral dust emissions, multiple time-series of remote sensing data (2004-2014) for this playa are presented. These depict: (a) mineral aerosol concentration in the vicinity of the playa, and (b) the surface hydrology of the playa basin. Seasonal wind velocities/direction data are also presented (ERA-Interim), and together with aerosol characterisation, they depict clear seasonality in dust emission/transport, significant inter-annual variability in aerosol loadings, and evidence of inter-event variability in plume chemistry. The gross spatial and temporal behaviour of the dust cycle of this ephemeral lake can be directly related to inherent variability in groundwater depth and periods of surface inundation. In most years, surface water interacts with Etosha Pan can also experience extensive periods of flooding and inundation (>80% basin cover, lasting for up to 12 months). Data from these wet and dry periods, in conjunction with locations of observed dust plumes emanating from the playa surface, allow us to identify direct links between dust emission and surface hydrology; thereby allowing, for the first time, a characterisation of the emission potential of the playa surface. These observations provide a

  11. Best management practices for the control of benzene emissions from glycol dehydrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The effective management of benzene emissions from the upstream oil and gas industry in Canada was discussed. The processing of natural gas makes use of any one of following three glycols for dehydration: triethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and ethylene glycol. The three factors that influence the need for dehydration are: (1) process requirements for water content in the gas stream, (2) potential for hydrate formation, and (3) corrosion protection. Alternatives to glycol dehydration include: (1) methanol or glycol injection, (2) separator packages, and (3) line heaters. An overview of the main properties of benzene was also presented. Human health risks and risk controls associated with exposure to benzene in the workplace and in domestic environments were reviewed. Industry, recognizing its responsibility, has agreed to minimize health risks related to benzene emissions from glycol dehydrator operations by progressively reducing benzene emissions. A target of 90 per cent reduction from the 1995 national emissions baseline has been established for the year 2005. 23 refs., 4 tabs

  12. MODELLING AND CONTROL OF POWER-SPLIT HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE USING FUZZY LOGIC METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadpour, Ebrahim; Khajavi, Mehrdad Nouri

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, automotive manufactures increasingly have lead to development of hybrid vehicles due to energy consumption growing and increased emissions. the power-split hybrids due to the simultaneous using of speed and torque couplings has integrated advantage of series and parallel hybrid systems and minimize their disadvantages , however the power-split hybrids control strategy is far more complex than other types. Generally the control strategy tries to use the optimize operating point of HE...

  13. Control of emissions from stationary combustion sources: Pollutant detection and behavior in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licht, W.; Engel, A.J.; Slater, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Stationary combustion resources continue to be significant sources of NOx and SOx pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. This volume considers four problem areas: (1) control of emissions from stationary combustion sources, particularly SOx and NOx (2) pollutant behavior in the atmosphere (3) advances in air pollution analysis and (4) air quality management. Topics of interest include carbon slurries for sulfur dioxide abatement, mass transfer in the Kellogg-Weir air quality control system, oxidation/inhibition of sulfite ion in aqueous solution, some micrometeorological methods of measuring dry deposition rates, Spanish moss as an indicator of airborne metal contamination, and air quality impacts from future electric power generation in Texas

  14. Cooperative Research and Development Agreement Final Report for Cooperative Research and Development Agreement Number ORNL93-0237 Adhesive Bonding Technologies for Automotive Structural Composites; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeman, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    In 1993, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to conduct research and development that would overcome technological hurdles to the adhesive bonding of current and future automotive materials. This effort is part of a larger Department of Energy (DOE) program to promote the use of lighter weight materials in automotive structures for the purpose of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing environmental pollutant emissions. In accomplishing this mission, the bonding of similar and dissimilar materials was identified as being of primary importance to the automotive industry since this enabling technology would give designers the freedom to choose from an expanded menu of low mass materials for component weight reduction. The research undertaken under this CRADA addresses the following areas of importance: bulk material characterization, structural fracture mechanics, modeling/characterization, process control and nondestructive evaluation (PC/NDE), manufacturing demonstration, and advanced processing. For the bulk material characterization task, the individual material properties of the adherends and adhesives were characterized. This included generating a database of mechanical and physical properties, after identifying and developing standard test methods to obtain properties. The structural fracture mechanics task concentrated on test development to characterize the fracture toughness of adhesively bonded joints subjected to Mode I, Mode II and mixed-mode conditions. Standard test procedures for quantifying an adhesive/adherend system's resistance to crack growth were developed for use by industry. In the modeling/characterization task, fracture mechanics-based design guidelines and predictive methodologies have been developed which will facilitate iteration on design concepts for bonded joints while alleviating the need for extensive testing

  15. Preliminary performance and operating results from the integrated dry NOx/SO2 emissions control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, T.; Schott, G.; Smith, R.; Muzio, L.; Jones, D.; Mali E.; Arrigoni, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Integrated Dry NO x /SO 2 Emissions Control System was installed at Public Service Company of Colorado's Arapaho 4 generating station in 1992 in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This full scale 100 MWe demonstration combines low-NO x burners, overfire air, and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) for NO x control and dry sorbent injection with humidification for SO 2 control. Operation and testing of the Integrated Dry NO x /SO 2 Emissions Control System began in August 1992 and will continue through mid 1994. Preliminary results of the NO x control technologies show that the original system goal of 70% NO x removal has been easily met and that NO x removals of up to 80% are possible at full load with the combustion and SNCR systems. Testing of the dry sorbent injection system with low sulfur coal began in April 1993 using a calcium-based reagent. A maximum SO 2 removal of 40% has been achieved with duct injection of commercial calcium hydroxide and humidification to a 25 degrees F approach to saturation. Sodium-based dry sorbent injection is expected to achieved up to a 70% SO 2 reduction

  16. A heat exchanger analogy of automotive paint ovens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Preetham P.

    2013-01-01

    Computational prediction of vehicle temperatures in an automotive paint oven is essential to predict paint quality and manufacturability. The complex geometry of vehicles, varying scales in the flow, transient nature of the process, and the tightly coupled conjugate heat transfer render the numerical models computationally very expensive. Here, a novel, simplified model of the oven is developed using an analogy to a three-stream cross flow heat exchanger that transfers heat from air to a series of moving bodies and supporting carriers. The analogous heat exchanger equations are developed and solved numerically. Steady state Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are carried out to model the flow field and to extract the heat transfer coefficients around the body and carriers. The air temperature distribution from the CFD models is used as a boundary condition in the analogous model. Correction coefficients are used in the analogy to take care of various assumptions. These are determined from existing test data. The same corrections are used to predict air temperatures for a modified configuration of the oven and a different vehicle. The method can be used to conduct control volume analysis of ovens to determine energy efficiency, and to study new vehicle or oven designs. -- Highlights: • Analogy of an automotive paint oven as a three stream cross flow heat exchanger. • The three streams are vehicle bodies, carriers and hot air. • Convection coefficients and inlet air stream temperatures from steady CFD simulations. • Analogy useful for overall energy efficiency analysis of conveyor ovens in general

  17. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Nielsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005–2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions of anthropogenic SO2, CO, and total primary PM (particulate matter in 2010 are estimated to have been 89%, 108%, and 87% of those in 2005, respectively, suggesting successful emission control of those species despite fast growth of the economy and energy consumption during the period. The emissions of NOx and CO2, however, are estimated to have increased by 47% and 43%, respectively, indicating that they remain largely determined by the growth of energy use, industrial production, and vehicle populations. Based on application of a Monte-Carlo framework, estimated uncertainties of SO2 and PM emissions increased from 2005 to 2010, resulting mainly from poorly understood average SO2 removal efficiency in flue gas desulfurization (FGD systems in the power sector, and unclear changes in the penetration levels of dust collectors at industrial sources, respectively. While emission trends determined by bottom-up methods can be generally verified by observations from both ground stations and satellites, clear discrepancies exist for given regions and seasons, indicating a need for more accurate spatial and time distributions of emissions. Limitations of current emission control polices are analyzed based on the estimated emission trends. Compared with control of total PM, there are fewer gains in control of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols, the PM components most responsible for damages to public health and effects on radiative forcing. A much faster

  18. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005-2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions of anthropogenic SO2, CO, and total primary PM (particulate matter) in 2010 are estimated to have been 89%, 108%, and 87% of those in 2005, respectively, suggesting successful emission control of those species despite fast growth of the economy and energy consumption during the period. The emissions of NOx and CO2, however, are estimated to have increased by 47% and 43%, respectively, indicating that they remain largely determined by the growth of energy use, industrial production, and vehicle populations. Based on application of a Monte-Carlo framework, estimated uncertainties of SO2 and PM emissions increased from 2005 to 2010, resulting mainly from poorly understood average SO2 removal efficiency in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems in the power sector, and unclear changes in the penetration levels of dust collectors at industrial sources, respectively. While emission trends determined by bottom-up methods can be generally verified by observations from both ground stations and satellites, clear discrepancies exist for given regions and seasons, indicating a need for more accurate spatial and time distributions of emissions. Limitations of current emission control polices are analyzed based on the estimated emission trends. Compared with control of total PM, there are fewer gains in control of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols, the PM components most responsible for damages to public health and effects on radiative forcing. A much faster decrease of alkaline base

  19. Verification of a level-3 diesel emissions control strategy for transport refrigeration units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewalla, Umesh

    Transport Refrigeration Units (TRUs) are refrigeration systems used to control the environment of temperature sensitive products while they are being transported from one place to another in trucks, trailers or shipping containers. The TRUs typically use an internal combustion engine to power the compressor of the refrigeration unit. In the United States TRUs are most commonly powered by diesel engines which vary from 9 to 40 horsepower. TRUs are capable of both heating and cooling. The TRU engines are relatively small, inexpensive and do not use emissions reduction techniques such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). A significant number of these engines operate in highly populated areas like distribution centers, truck stops, and other facilities which make them one of the potential causes for health risks to the people who live and work nearby. Diesel particulate matter (PM) is known for its adverse effects on both human beings and the environment. Considering these effects, regulatory bodies have imposed limitations on the PM emissions from a TRU engine. The objective of this study was to measure and analyze the regulated emissions from a TRU engine under both engine out and particulate filter system out conditions during pre-durability (when the filter system was new) and post-durability test (after the filter system was subjected to 1000 hours in-field trial). The verification program was performed by the Center for Alternative Fuel, Engines and Emissions (CAFEE) at West Virginia University (WVU). In this program, a catalyzed silicon carbide (SiC) diesel particulate filter (DPF) was evaluated and verified as a Level-3 Verified Diesel Emissions Control Strategy (VDECS) (. 85% PM reduction) under California Air Resources Board (CARB) regulations 2702 [1]. The emissions result showed that the filter system reduced diesel PM by a percentage of 96 +/- 1 over ISO 8178-C1 [2] cycle and 92 +/- 5 over EPA TRU [3] cycle, qualifying as a Level 3 VDECS. The percentage

  20. A Novel Vaping Machine Dedicated to Fully Controlling the Generation of E-Cigarette Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulet, Sébastien; Pairaud, Charly; Lalo, Hélène

    2017-10-14

    The accurate study of aerosol composition and nicotine release by electronic cigarettes is a major issue. In order to fully and correctly characterize aerosol, emission generation has to be completely mastered. This study describes an original vaping machine named Universal System for Analysis of Vaping (U-SAV), dedicated to vaping product study, enabling the control and real-time monitoring of applied flow rate and power. Repeatability and stability of the machine are demonstrated on flow rate, power regulation and e-liquid consumption. The emission protocol used to characterize the vaping machine is based on the AFNOR-XP-D90-300-3 standard (15 W power, 1 Ω atomizer resistance, 100 puffs collected per session, 1.1 L/min airflow rate). Each of the parameters has been verified with two standardized liquids by studying mass variations, power regulation and flow rate stability. U-SAV presents the required and necessary stability for the full control of emission generation. The U-SAV is recognised by the French association for standardization (AFNOR), European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and International Standards Organisation (ISO) as a vaping machine. It can be used to highlight the influence of the e-liquid composition, user behaviour and nature of the device, on the e-liquid consumption and aerosol composition.

  1. A Novel Vaping Machine Dedicated to Fully Controlling the Generation of E-Cigarette Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Soulet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The accurate study of aerosol composition and nicotine release by electronic cigarettes is a major issue. In order to fully and correctly characterize aerosol, emission generation has to be completely mastered. This study describes an original vaping machine named Universal System for Analysis of Vaping (U-SAV, dedicated to vaping product study, enabling the control and real-time monitoring of applied flow rate and power. Repeatability and stability of the machine are demonstrated on flow rate, power regulation and e-liquid consumption. The emission protocol used to characterize the vaping machine is based on the AFNOR-XP-D90-300-3 standard (15 W power, 1 Ω atomizer resistance, 100 puffs collected per session, 1.1 L/min airflow rate. Each of the parameters has been verified with two standardized liquids by studying mass variations, power regulation and flow rate stability. U-SAV presents the required and necessary stability for the full control of emission generation. The U-SAV is recognised by the French association for standardization (AFNOR, European Committee for Standardization (CEN and International Standards Organisation (ISO as a vaping machine. It can be used to highlight the influence of the e-liquid composition, user behaviour and nature of the device, on the e-liquid consumption and aerosol composition.

  2. Controllable Synthesis of Organic Microcrystals with Tunable Emission Color and Morphology Based on Molecular Packing Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Zhou; Liao, Liang-Sheng; Wang, Xue-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Organic microcrystals are of essential importance for high fluorescence efficiency, ordered molecular packing mode, minimized defects, and smooth shapes, which are extensively applied in organic optoelectronics. The molecular packing mode significantly influences the optical/electrical properties of organic microcrystals, which makes the controllable preparation of organic microcrystals with desired molecular packing mode extremely important. In the study, yellow-emissive α phase organic microcrystals with rectangular morphology and green-emissive β phase perylene microcrystals with rhombic morphology are separately prepared by simply controlling the solution concentration. The distinct molecular staking modes of the H/J-aggregate are found in these two types of perylene microcrystals, which contribute to the different emission color, morphology, and radiative decay rate. What is more interesting, the α-doped β phase and the β-doped α phase organic microcrystals can also be fabricated by modulating the evaporation rate from 100 to 10 µL min -1 . The findings can contribute to the future development of organic optoelectronics at the microscale. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Ammonia and carbon dioxide emissions by stabilized conventional nitrogen fertilizers and controlled release in corn crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Lima de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The market of stabilized, slow and controlled release nitrogen (N fertilizers represents 1% of the world fertilizer consumption. On the other hand, the increase in availability, innovation and application of these technologies could lead to the improvement of N use efficiency in agroecossystems and to the reduction of environmental impacts. The objective of this study was to quantify agronomic efficiency relative index, ammonia volatilization, and CO2 emissions from conventional, stabilized and controlled release N fertilizers in corn summer crop. The experiment was carried out in a corn crop area located in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, without irrigation. All treatments were applied in topdressing at rate of 150 kg ha-1 N. N-NH3 losses from N fertilizers were: Granular urea (39% of the applied N = prilled urea (38% > urea coated with 16% S0 (32% = blend of urea + 7.9% S0 + polymers + conventional urea (32% > prilled urea incorporated at 0.02 m depth (24% > urea + 530 mg kg-1 of NBPT (8% = Hydrolyzed leather (9% > urea + thermoplastic resin (3% = ammonium sulfate (1% = ammonium nitrate (0.7%. Thermoplastic resin coated urea, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate presented low values of cumulative CO2 emissions in corn crop. On the other hand, hydrolyzed leather promoted greater C-CO2 emission, when compared with other nitrogen fertilizers.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  5. Core-shell conjugated microporous polymers: a new strategy for exploring color-tunable and -controllable light emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanhong; Nagai, Atsushi; Jiang, Donglin

    2013-02-25

    A core-shell strategy is demonstrated for designing a conjugated microporous polymer that allows the tuning of light emission over a wide wavelength range in a controlled manner. The polymers not only emit efficiently with an eight-fold enhanced luminescence but also sustain light emissions, irrespective of solvent and state.

  6. Lightweight Steel Solutions for Automotive Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hong Woo; Kim, Gyosung; Park, Sung Ho

    2010-01-01

    Recently, improvement in fuel efficiency and safety has become the biggest issue in worldwide automotive industry. Although the regulation of environment and safety has been tightened up more and more, the majority of vehicle bodies are still manufactured from stamped steel components. This means that the optimized steel solutions enable to demonstrate its ability to reduce body weight with high crashworthiness performance instead of expensive light weight materials such as Al, Mg and composites. To provide the innovative steel solutions for automotive industry, POSCO has developed AHSS and its application technologies, which is directly connected to EVI activities. EVI is a technical cooperation program with customer covering all stages of new car project from design to mass production. Integrated light weight solutions through new forming technologies such as TWB, hydroforming and HPF are continuously developed and provided for EVI activities. This paper will discuss the detailed status of these technologies especially light weight steel solutions based on innovative technologies.

  7. Security threats to automotive CAN networks-Practical examples and selected short-term countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Tobias; Kiltz, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The IT security of automotive systems is an evolving area of research. To analyse the current situation and the potentially growing tendency of arising threats we performed several practical tests on recent automotive technology. With a focus on automotive systems based on CAN bus technology, this article summarises the results of four selected tests performed on the control systems for the window lift, warning light and airbag control system as well as the central gateway. These results are supplemented in this article by a classification of these four attack scenarios using the established CERT taxonomy and an analysis of underlying security vulnerabilities, and especially, potential safety implications. With respect to the results of these tests, in this article we further discuss two selected countermeasures to address basic weaknesses exploited in our tests. These are adaptations of intrusion detection (discussing three exemplary detection patterns) and IT-forensic measures (proposing proactive measures based on a forensic model). This article discusses both looking at the four attack scenarios introduced before, covering their capabilities and restrictions. While these reactive approaches are short-term measures, which could already be added to today's automotive IT architecture, long-term concepts also are shortly introduced, which are mainly preventive but will require a major redesign. Beneath a short overview on respective research approaches, we discuss their individual requirements, potential and restrictions.

  8. A case for closed-loop recycling of post-consumer PET for automotive foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedell, Matthew; Brown, Matthew; Kiziltas, Alper; Mielewski, Deborah; Mukerjee, Shakti; Tabor, Rick

    2018-01-01

    Striving to utilize sustainable material sources, polyester polyols made via glycolysis and esterification of recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rPET) scrap were used to synthesize flexible polyurethane (PU) foams typically found in automotive interior applications. The objective of this endeavor was to ascertain if a closed-loop model could be established with the discarded PET feedstock. In five separate formulations, up to 50% of the total polyol content (traditionally derived from petroleum-based feedstock) was replaced with the afore-mentioned sustainable recycled polyols. These foams underwent mechanical, thermal, morphological, and physical characterization testing to determine feasibility for use in an automotive interior. Young's modulus, tensile stress at maximum load, tear resistance, and compression modulus all increased by combined averages of 121%, 67%, 32%, and 150% over the control petroleum-based formulation, respectively, in foams possessing 50% rPET polyol content. Thermal stability also increased with sustainable polyol content; thermogravimetric analysis showed that 50% mass loss temperature increased by an average of 20 °C in foams containing 30% recycled polyol. Properties of density and SAG factor remained within 5% of the control petroleum-based reference foams. After comparing these findings to traditional polyols, a compelling argument can be made for the use of post-consumer automotive and industrial feedstocks in developing high-performing interior automotive PU foams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of emission control areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholt, Kjetil; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2015-01-01

    fuel oil (HFO) outside the ECA and switch to low-sulfur fuel such as marine gas oil (MGO) inside the ECA. As the prices of these two fuels are generally very different, so may be the speeds that the ship will sail at outside and inside the ECA. The first optimization problem examined by the paper......This paper deals with two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of Emission Control Areas (ECAs) with strict limits on sulfur emissions. For ships crossing in and out of ECAs, such as deep-sea vessels, one of the common options for complying with these limits is to burn heavy...... considers an extension of the model of Ronen (1982) in which ship speeds both inside and outside the ECA are optimized. The second problem is called the ECA refraction problem, due to its conceptual similarity with the refraction problem when light travels across two different media, and also involves...

  10. A Comparison of Emission Taxes and Permit Markets for Controlling Correlated Externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplan, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an answer to the question: Are emission taxes an efficient and self-enforcing mechanism to control correlated externality problems? By 'correlated externalities' we mean multiple pollutants that are jointly produced by a single source but cause differentiated regional and global externalities. By 'self-enforcing' we mean a mechanism that accounts for the endogeneity that exists between competing jurisdictions in the setting of environmental policy within a federation of regions. This mechanism incorporates sequential decision making among the jurisdictions and therefore determines an equilibrium based on the concept of subgame perfection. We find that, unlike joint domestic and international tradable permit markets, joint emission taxes and a hybrid scheme of permits and taxes are neither efficient nor self-enforcing

  11. Tradeable CO2 emission permits for cost-effective control of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosobud, R.F.; South, D.W.; Daly, T.A.; Quinn, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    Many current global warming mitigation policy proposals call for large, near-term reductions in CO 2 emissions, thereby entailing high initial carbon emission tax rates or permit prices. This paper claims that these high initial tax rates or permit prices are not cost-effective in achieving the desired degree of climate change control. A cost-effective permit system is proposed and described that, under certain assumptions, would allow markets to optimally lead permit prices along a gradually increasing trajectory over tie. This price path presents the Hotelling result and would ease the abrupt, inefficient, and costly adjustments imposed on the fossil fuel and other industries in current proposals. This finding is demonstrated using the Argonne Model, a linear programming energy- environmental-economic model that allows for intertemporal optimization of consumer energy well-being. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Colorado SIP: 5 CCR 1001-13, Reg 11, Motor Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program—Part A, General Provisions, Area of Applicability, Schedules for Obtaining Certification of Emissions Control, Definitions, Exemptions, and Clean Screening/Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado SIP: 5 CCR 1001-13, Reg 11, Motor Vehicle Emissions Inspection Program—Part A, General Provisions, Area of Applicability, Schedules for Obtaining Certification of Emissions Control, Definitions, Exemptions, and Clean Screening/Remote Sensing

  13. Directions for computational mechanics in automotive crashworthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James A.; Khalil, T. B.

    1993-01-01

    The automotive industry has used computational methods for crashworthiness since the early 1970's. These methods have ranged from simple lumped parameter models to full finite element models. The emergence of the full finite element models in the mid 1980's has significantly altered the research direction. However, there remains a need for both simple, rapid modeling methods and complex detailed methods. Some directions for continuing research are discussed.

  14. Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-04-11

    An advanced vehicle powertrain systems analysis tool, the Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) provides a simple way to compare powertrains and estimate the impact of technology improvements on light-, medium- and heavy-duty vehicle efficiency, performance, cost, and battery life. Created by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, FASTSim accommodates a range of vehicle types - including conventional vehicles, electric-drive vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles - and is available for free download in Microsoft Excel and Python formats.

  15. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets. L' AMBRIŠKO1,∗ and L PEŠEK2. 1Institute of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering,. Technical University of Košice, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovak Republic. 2Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Metallurgy,. Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, ...

  16. Occupational skin diseases in automotive industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakut, Yunus; Uçmak, Derya; Akkurt, Zeynep Meltem; Akdeniz, Sedat; Palanci, Yilmaz; Sula, Bilal

    2014-03-01

    Studies on occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry are few. To investigate the prevalence of occupational skin diseases in workers of the automotive industry. Between September and December 2011, a total of 405 workers from the automotive repair industry in Diyarbakır were interviewed. They were active workers in the repair industry who had been employed for at least six months. Business owners, sellers of spare parts and accounting officers were not included. The employees were examined at their workplaces and the working conditions were observed. Detailed dermatological examination was performed. The mean age of the 405 workers who participated in the study was 27.7 ± 10.3. The mean working time of employees was 13.3 ± 10.4 years. All of the employees were male. Dermatological diseases were not detected in 144 out of 405 workers (35.6%) and at least one condition was diagnosed in 261 (64.4%). The most frequent diagnosis was callus, hyperkeratosis, clavus (27.7%), followed by nail changes (16.8%) and superficial mycoses (12.1%). Contact dermatitis was seen at a rate of 5.9%. Traumatic lesions such as hyperkeratotic lesions and nail changes were found most frequently. Traumatic lesions were common among individuals who did not use gloves. Most nail changes were localized leuconychia, a finding not reported in the studies on automotive industry workers. In accordance with the literature, irritant contact dermatitis was observed in patients with a history of atopy and who had been working for a long time. Occupational skin diseases comprise an important field in dermatology, deserving much attention. Further studies on occupational dermatology are necessary.

  17. Lean tool used in the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Ingaldi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper basic concepts of Lean Manufacturing were presented. A company specializing in the development of vehicle dynamics, driver assistance systems, brake systems, seat belt sand electronics technology was characterized. The company is engaged in designing and manufacturing world-class products for the automotive market. The Lean tools used in the production hall, such as Yamazumi chart, machine motion analysis, MTM method and timing, were presented.

  18. INNOVATION LEAN PRINCIPLES IN AUTOMOTIVE GREEN MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Sabadka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, industries such as automotive and manufacturing industries deal with a lot of environmental regulations. Lean is a production strategy whose fundamental principles drive the industry towards a more effective production of goods and services. The eco-efficiency concept is primary to sustainable development and intends to provide more value with less environmental impact. The aim of this study is to identify and explore the contributions of Lean to reduce environmental impacts that naturally result from industrial activity.

  19. Exhaust constituent emission factors of printed circuit board pyrolysis processes and its exhaust control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Hung-Lung, E-mail: hlchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Kuo-Hsiung [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Recycling of waste printed circuit boards is an important issue. • Pyrolysis is an emerging technology for PCB treatment. • Emission factors of VOCs are determined for PCB pyrolysis exhaust. • Iron-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was employed for the exhaust control. -- Abstract: The printed circuit board (PCB) is an important part of electrical and electronic equipment, and its disposal and the recovery of useful materials from waste PCBs (WPCBs) are key issues for waste electrical and electronic equipment. Waste PCB compositions and their pyrolysis characteristics were analyzed in this study. In addition, the volatile organic compound (VOC) exhaust was controlled by an iron-impregnated alumina oxide catalyst. Results indicated that carbon and oxygen were the dominant components (hundreds mg/g) of the raw materials, and other elements such as nitrogen, bromine, and copper were several decades mg/g. Exhaust constituents of CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and NOx, were 60–115, 0.4–4.0, 1.1–10, 30–95, and 0–0.7 mg/g, corresponding to temperatures ranging from 200 to 500 °C. When the pyrolysis temperature was lower than 300 °C, aromatics and paraffins were the major species, contributing 90% of ozone precursor VOCs, and an increase in the pyrolysis temperature corresponded to a decrease in the fraction of aromatic emission factors. Methanol, ethylacetate, acetone, dichloromethane, tetrachloromethane and acrylonitrile were the main species of oxygenated and chlorinated VOCs. The emission factors of some brominated compounds, i.e., bromoform, bromophenol, and dibromophenol, were higher at temperatures over 400 °C. When VOC exhaust was flowed through the bed of Fe-impregnated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the emission of ozone precursor VOCs could be reduced by 70–80%.

  20. Effects of engineering controls on radioactive air emissions from the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehne, D.P.; Poston, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Under federal regulations set forth in 40 CFR 61, releases of radioactive airborne effluents from a Department of Energy facility must be limited so that no member of the public receives more than 0.10 mSv (10 mrem) effective dose equivalent annually. At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) has implemented engineering controls to ensure that emissions remain below this limit. At the accelerator's beam stop, a delay line was constructed to delay radioactivity and allow for decay prior to emission. Also, an air scrubber was built at the beam stop to remove excess water, acids, tritium, and carbon dioxide from the air stream. This paper describes the effectiveness of these emissions control efforts. Using a flow-through ionization chamber and high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, the delay line was shown to reduce overall facility emissions by 26%. The scrubber effectiveness at removing tritium was found by collecting grab samples of the air stream on silica gel, both upstream and downstream of the scrubber. Preliminary results show this tritium removal effectiveness to be greater than 95%. Removal of carbon dioxide (containing radioactive 11 C) was determined by two Methods. First, a plastic scintillation detector monitored activity absorbed by water in the scrubber. The second method used a small-scale model scrubbing system to analyze scrubber performance with an HPGe detector. Different scenarios were examined with this model system, including varying the pH of the scrubber water and using catalytic conversion to convert all carbon in the air to carbon dioxide form. The highest removal effectiveness of the model system was greater than 95%, under high pH and complete conversion of all carbon forms to CO 2