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Sample records for automotive drum brakes

  1. Modeling of automotive drum brakes for squeal and parameter sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinchun; Krousgrill, Charles M.; Bajaj, Anil K.

    2006-01-01

    Many fundamental studies have been conducted to explain the occurrence of squeal in disc and drum brake systems. The elimination of brake squeal, however, still remains a challenging area of research. Here, a numerical modeling approach is developed for investigating the onset of squeal in a drum brake system. The brake system model is based on the modal information extracted from finite element models for individual brake components. The component models of drum and shoes are coupled by the shoe lining material which is modeled as springs located at the centroids of discretized drum and shoe interface elements. The developed multi degree of freedom coupled brake system model is a linear non-self-adjoint system. Its vibrational characteristics are determined by a complex eigenvalue analysis. The study shows that both the frequency separation between two system modes due to static coupling and their associated mode shapes play an important role in mode merging. Mode merging and veering are identified as two important features of modes exhibiting strong interactions, and those modes are likely candidates that lead to coupled-mode instability. Techniques are developed for a parameter sensitivity analysis with respect to lining stiffness and the stiffness of the brake actuation system. The influence of lining friction coefficient on the propensity to squeal is also discussed.

  2. Weight reduction of a standard brake drum: A design approach

    OpenAIRE

    D. Rambabu; R. Gopinath; U. Senthil rajan; G. B. Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    A Brake drum is specialized brake that uses the concept of friction to decelerate the vehicle speed. The deceleration is achieved by the assistance of the friction generated by a set of brake shoes or pad, when operator presses against a rotating brake drum. The material generally preferred for making the brake drum is grey cast iron or vermicular cast iron. The drum brake is highly efficient for hand brake and service brake applications. During the operation of drum brake excessive heating o...

  3. Weight reduction of a standard brake drum: A design approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rambabu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A Brake drum is specialized brake that uses the concept of friction to decelerate the vehicle speed. The deceleration is achieved by the assistance of the friction generated by a set of brake shoes or pad, when operator presses against a rotating brake drum. The material generally preferred for making the brake drum is grey cast iron or vermicular cast iron. The drum brake is highly efficient for hand brake and service brake applications. During the operation of drum brake excessive heating of brake drum may occur. This excessive heating occurs due to repeated or frequent contact of the brake shoes against the drum. This causes the drum to crack, oversize, extreme wear, out of round drums and also leads to vibration which while braking will leads to reduced brake drum life and braking efficiency. The Un-laden weight of the vehicle will result in increased fuel consumption, reduced payload and ride handling characteristics. The objective of the paper is to improve the thermal characteristics by incorporating fins in the brake drum and to reduce the un-laden weight of the vehicle by changing the rib thickness, wall thickness and base flange thickness. The design is done by using 3D CAD Modelling software and Hexahedral finite element model prepared by using CAE pre-processing software and Stiffness analysis. Design iterations are carried out by using Linear/Non-linear Finite Element Solvers, Stress Displacement and Temperature is post-processed for design validation. Optimized design solution obtained based on the comparison study between the iteration with rib thickness 75 mm, star shaped removal and wall thickness 17 mm has been chosen. 1.8Kg of weight is being reduced from the brake drum including fins.   Keywords: Drum Brake, 3D CAD Modelling, Para Metric Matrix, Structural Analysis, Fins.

  4. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Khairnar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the similar obtained from virtual Matlab/Simulink models for drum and disc brakes. The results evidenced that friction radius predominantly affects brake pressure and thus the friction coefficient, also the increase in contact force resulted with decrease in friction coefficient both for drum and disc brakes. Further it has been found that disc brakes exhibit gradual decrease of friction coefficient due to the equitable distribution of braking effort while drum brake presents sudden variations in friction coefficient. It can be revealed that frictional behaviour of disc brake is more consistent than drum brake.

  5. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    OpenAIRE

    H.P. Khairnar; V.M. Phalle; S. S. Mantha

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained hav...

  6. Topology Optimization in Automotive Brake Pedal Redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nizam Sudin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, automotive industry is continuing to strive for light weight vehicle in improving fuel efficiency and emissions reduction. To produce a better performance car it is important to design vehicles with optimum weight. In order to reduce the weight of vehicle without sacrificing its integrity, this project aims to employ topology optimization technique to propose an optimal design of an automotive component in early phase of product development. In this project the material used for an existing brake pedal is unchanged as this study focuses on reducing weight of existing brake pedal without material substitution. The digital model of an existing brake pedal was generated using CATIA V5 solid modelling software. Topology optimization was performed by using Altair Optistruct software under linear static stress analysis. Finally, a new light weight design brake pedal is proposed. The result of the study shows that the weight of a new designed brake pedal was 22% less as compared to an existing brake pedal without sacrificing its performance requirement.

  7. Detecting groan sources in drum brakes of commercial vehicles by TVA-FMEA

    OpenAIRE

    Karabay, Sedat; Baynal, Kasim; İğdeli, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the strategy followed by an automobile company for detecting the root causes of groan complaints related to rear drum brakes in commercial vehicles is presented using data collected from the sold troubled vehicles and from new vehicles from the production line, as well as the drum-brake test rig at the laboratory. Drum brake groan is often very intense and can cause large numbers of customer complaints. During a groan noise event, vehicle structure and suspension components a...

  8. Detecting groan sources in drum brakes of commercial vehicles by TVA-FMEA: a case study:

    OpenAIRE

    Baynal, Kasim; Igdeli, Cengiz; Karabay, Sedat

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the strategy followed by an automobile company for detecting the root causes of groan complaints related to rear drum brakes in commercial vehicles is presented using data collected from the sold troubled vehicles and from new vehicles from the production line, as well as the drum-brake test rig at the laboratory. Drum brake groan is often very intense and can cause large numbers of customer complaints. During a groan noise event, vehicle structure and suspension components a...

  9. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... drums/rotors. 393.47 Section 393.47 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation..., slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors. (a) General requirements. Brake components must be... on the lining shall not exceed 1.6 mm (1/16 inch). (g) Drums and rotors. The thickness of the...

  10. A Comparative Study on Automotive Brake Testing Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhar, Bhau Kashinath; Patil, Satyajit Ramchandra; Sawant, Suresh Maruti

    2016-06-01

    Performance testing of automotive brakes involves determination of stopping time, distance and deceleration level. Braking performance of an automobile is required to be ensured for various surfaces like dry, wet, concrete, bitumen etc. as well as for prolonged applications. Various brake testing standards are used worldwide to assure vehicle and pedestrian safety. This article presents methodologies used for automotive service brake testing for two wheelers. The main contribution of this work lies in comparative study of three main brake testing standards; viz. Indian Standards, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and European Economic Commission Standards. This study shall help the policy makers to choose the best criteria out of these three while formulating newer edition of testing standards.

  11. The Effect of Cashew to The Friction Performance Of Automotive Brake Linings

    OpenAIRE

    Timur, Mustafa; Kılıç, Halil; Sugözü, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Brake linings used in automotive disks are usually composed of various components. Expected properties from a brake lining are appropriate standart value of wear resist, friction coefficient and also economical value. Brake lining extremely warms up during braking due to friction. The braking performance of brake lining changes and braking lining is subject to mecanical deformation due to excessive temperature. In recent twenty years in consequence of fast development in automotive technology...

  12. Marble Waste Using Produced of Automotive Brake Pad of Friction Coefficient Different Pad Brake Pads With Comprasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Timur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brake linings used in automotive disks are usually composed of various components. Expected properties from a brake lining are appropriate standard value of wear resist, friction coefficient. Brake lining extremely warms up during braking due to friction. The braking performance of brake lining changes and braking lining is subject to mechanical deformation due to excessive temperature. In this study, it is aimed to revaluate the waste of marble dust in marble processing in Turkey. For this purpose, marble wastes are grinded to produce marble dust. The brake lining, which has new formulation, is produced by using various additive materials. The friction performances of the brake pads produced were compared with those of other firms and the results were show in graphics. Therefore, the effect of marble dust on braking performance is investigated. It is observed that a favorable result in braking performance is obtained using of marble dust.

  13. Analysis of heat conduction in a drum brake system of the wheeled armored personnel carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncioiu, A. M.; Truta, M.; Vedinas, I.; Marinescu, M.; Vinturis, V.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is an integrated study performed over the Braking System of the Wheeled Armored Personnel Carriers. It mainly aims to analyze the heat transfer process which is present in almost any industrial and natural process. The vehicle drum brake systems can generate extremely high temperatures under high but short duration braking loads or under relatively light but continuous braking. For the proper conduct of the special vehicles mission in rough terrain, we are talking about, on one hand, the importance of the possibility of immobilization and retaining position and, on the other hand, during the braking process, the importance movement stability and reversibility or reversibility, to an encounter with an obstacle. Heat transfer processes influence the performance of the braking system. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of analyzed vehicle wheels. In the present work a finite element model for the temperature distribution in a brake drum is developed, by employing commercial finite element software, ANSYS. These structural and thermal FEA models will simulate entire braking event. The heat generated during braking causes distortion which modifies thermoelastic contact pressure distribution drum-shoe interface. In order to capture the effect of heat, a transient thermal analysis is performed in order to predict the temperature distribution transitional brake components. Drum brakes are checked both mechanical and thermal. These tests aim to establish their sustainability in terms of wear and the variation coefficient of friction between the friction surfaces with increasing temperature. Modeling using simulation programs led eventually to the establishment of actual thermal load of the mechanism of brake components. It was drawn the efficiency characteristic by plotting the coefficient of effectiveness relative to the coefficient of friction shoe-drum. Thus induced

  14. Experimental Method for Analyzing Friction Phenomenon Related to Drum Brake Squeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. GLIŠOVIĆ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Automobile brakes have been intensively developed during past few decades, but the maximum motor’s power, that should amortized in vehicle brakes, has been significantly increased also. Most of the kinetic energy of the moving vehicles is transforming into heat through friction. But the small part of kinetic energy transforms into sound pressure and makes noise. Low frequency squeal of drum brakes is very intense and can lead to customers’ complain. The interaction between the brake system and the vehicle framework and suspension is often very substantial during occurrence of brake noise. Unfortunately, to solve this type of squeal problem is also difficult because of the large number of components involved. The other cause is attributed to self-excited vibration that is induced when the friction material has a negative slope in relation to the relative velocity. This paper illustrates an approach to experimental studies of drum brakes in road conditions in order to monitor changes in the coefficient of friction that can generate drum brake squeal at low frequencies.

  15. Investigation on hardness and impact resistance of automotive brake pad composed with rice husk dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, Shahril Anuar; Isa, Khairul Hafizee; Kassim, Masitah Abu; Mohamed, Zulkifli; Othman, Eliasidi Abu

    2012-06-01

    In this study, hardness and impact resistance properties of automotive brake pad composed with rice husk dust (RHD) were documented. RHD was mixed with other metallic and synthetic ingredients of automotive brake pad. To obtain RHD, rice husk was ground and dried to 1 - 3% moisture content. The RHD was screened to obtain different dust sizes (80 and 100-mesh) before it was mixed with other materials at different percentages of composition (10 and 30%). The mixture was then pressed to produce brake pad. Rockwell hardness testing machine was used in hardness determination, while Izod impact testing machine was used in impact resistance determination. Hardness resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 10% composition and 80-mesh size of RHD was significantly higher than 100-mesh. Hardness resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 30% composition and 100-mesh size of RHD was slightly higher than 80 mesh. However, based on analysis, the difference was not significant. According to the result, hardness resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 30% composition of RHD was higher than 10%. RHD has filled up the space and enhanced the micro structural behaviour of automotive brake pad. Impact resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 10% composition and 80-mesh size of RHD was insignificantly higher than 100-mesh. Impact resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 30% composition and 80-mesh size of RHD was significantly higher than 100 mesh. Large RHD size has increased the capability to resist high-rated impact loading. The impact energy was distributed over wider area for larger particle size. This factor has increased the impact resistance of automotive brake pad from large dust size. Impact resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 80-mesh size and 30% composition of RHD was higher than 10%. In contrast, impact resistance of automotive brake pad mixed with 100-mesh size and 10% composition of RHD was higher than 30%. However, the difference was not

  16. The Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Ecological Characteristics of Drum and Disk Wheel Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Revin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that automobile transport as well as industry are the main sources of air pollution. In addition to exhaust gases, the flow of traffic releases a cloud of dust, consisting of over 60% of micro- and ultramicroscopic particles with radius of 10.0–0.25 µm, which are formed due to wheel abrasion (caused by the road grip of a tyre and the use of the brake blocks (in braking. The products formed in the process of wearing of the wheel brake pads are also the sources of the mass of fine dispersed particles over an urban highway. The authors analyse and evaluate ecological characteristics of drum and disk wheel brakes of vehicles.Article in Russian

  17. Development of fly ash-based automotive brake lining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, S.; Chugh, Y.P. [South Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). College of Engineering

    2007-07-15

    Coal-fired power plants all over the world generate huge amounts of fly ash each year, 70 million tons of which are produced in the United States alone. Only 40% of all fly ashes generated in the USA find beneficial applications and rest have to be disposed off, which is burden for the generation industry. Fly ash particles possess certain characteristics that make them suitable for use in friction composites as a filter material. An attempt has been made through this research to incorporate more than 50wt% of fly ash particles in automotive brake lining friction composites. This paper presents the research carried out on development of friction composites, using fly ash obtained from a specific power plant in Illinois. Ingredients such as phenolic resin, aramid pulp, glass fiber, potassium titanate, graphite, aluminum fiber and copper powder were used in the composite development phase, in addition to the fly ash. The developed brake lining composites have exhibited consistent coefficients of friction in the range of 0.35-0.4, and wear rates lower than 12wt%.

  18. Fallback level concepts for conventional and by-wire automotive brake systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brake-by-wire represents the replacement of traditional brake components such as pumps, hoses, fluids, brake boosters, and master cylinders by electronic sensors and actuators. The different design of these brake concepts poses new challenges for the automotive industry with regard to availability and fallback levels in comparison to standard conventional brake systems. This contribution focuses on the development of appropriate fallback level concepts. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) techniques and field trials will be used to investigate the performance and the usability of such systems.

  19. Compression Strength Testing for Automotive Brake Pads Used in Earthquake Energy Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Voiculescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to calibrate a friction damper which uses automotive brake pads it is necessary to determine the compression behaviour of the friction material. This paper summarizes the experimental results obtained for a set of automotive brake pads made in Romania. These results are useful in order to determine the slip load level in a seismic energy dissipation mechanism which uses this type of friction pads. The paper presents the experimental set up and the compression behaviour curves obtained for a set of four commercial brake pads. The testing was performed by the author as a part of his research work, using a hydraulic compression press.

  20. Advanced Emergency Braking Controller Design for Pedestrian Protection Oriented Automotive Collision Avoidance System

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Lie; Ren Zejian; Ge Pingshu; Chang Jing

    2014-01-01

    Automotive collision avoidance system, which aims to enhance the active safety of the vehicle, has become a hot research topic in recent years. However, most of the current systems ignore the active protection of pedestrian and other vulnerable groups in the transportation system. An advanced emergency braking control system is studied by taking into account the pedestrians and the vehicles. Three typical braking scenarios are defined and the safety situations are assessed by comparing the cu...

  1. Effects of cooling rate on vermicular graphite percentage in a brake drum produced by one-step cored wire injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-shuang Feng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a vermicular graphite cast iron brake drum was produced by cored wire injection in a one-step method. Silica sand and low-density alumina-silicate ceramic were used as molding materials in order to investigate the effect of cooling rate on percentage of vermicular graphite and mechanical properties of the brake drum casting. Several thermocouples were inserted into the casting in the desired positions to measure the temperature change. By means of one-step cored wire injection, the two residual concentrations of Mg and RE were effectively controlled in the ranges of 0.013%-0.017% and 0.019%-0.025%, respectively, which are crucial for the production of vermicular graphite cast iron and the formation of vermicular graphite. In addition, the cooling rate had a significant effect on the vermicular graphite percentage. In the case of the silica mold brake drum casting, there was an obvious difference in the cooling rate with the wall change, leading to a change in vermicular graphite percentage from 70.8% to 90%. In the low-density alumina-silicate ceramic mold casting, no obvious change in temperature was detected by the thermocouples and the percentage of the vermicular graphite was stable at 85%. Therefore, the vermicular graphite cast iron brake drum with a better combination of mechanical properties could be obtained.

  2. Residual stresses in a cast iron automotive brake disc rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runout, and consequent juddering and pulsation through the brake pedal, is a multi-million dollar per year warranty problem for car manufacturers. There is some suspicion that the runout can be caused by relaxation of residual casting stresses when the disc is overheated during severe-braking episodes. We report here neutron-diffraction measurements of the levels and distribution of residual strains in a used cast iron brake disc rotor. The difficulties of measuring stresses in grey cast iron are outlined and three-dimensional residual-strain distributions are presented and their possible effects discussed

  3. Toxicity and mutagenicity of low-metallic automotive brake pad materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malachova, Katerina; Kukutschova, Jana; Rybkova, Zuzana; Sezimova, Hana; Placha, Daniela; Cabanova, Kristina; Filip, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Organic friction materials are standardly used in brakes of small planes, railroad vehicles, trucks and passenger cars. The growing transportation sector requires a better understanding of the negative impact related to the release of potentially hazardous materials into the environment. This includes brakes which can release enormous quantities of wear particulates. This paper addresses in vitro detection of toxic and mutagenic potency of one model and two commercially available low-metallic automotive brake pads used in passenger cars sold in the EU market. The model pad made in the laboratory was also subjected to a standardized brake dynamometer test and the generated non-airborne wear particles were also investigated. Qualitative "organic composition" was determined by GC/MS screening of dichloromethane extracts. Acute toxicity and mutagenicity of four investigated sample types were assessed in vitro by bioluminescence assay using marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and by two bacterial bioassays i) Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium His(-) and ii) SOS Chromotest using Escherichia coli PQ37 strain. Screening of organic composition revealed a high variety of organic compounds present in the initial brake pads and also in the generated non-airborne wear debris. Several detected compounds are classified by IARC as possibly carcinogenic to humans, e. g. benzene derivatives. Acute toxicity bioassay revealed a response of bacterial cells after exposure to all samples used. Phenolic resin and wear debris were found to be acutely toxic; however in term of mutagenicity the response was negative. All non-friction exposed brake pad samples (a model pad and two commercial pad samples) were mutagenic with metabolic activation in vitro. PMID:27179608

  4. Fundamentals of automotive and engine technology standard drives, hybrid drives, brakes, safety systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid drives and the operation of hybrid vehicles are characteristic of contemporary automotive technology. Together with the electronic driver assistant systems, hybrid technology is of the greatest importance and both cannot be ignored by today’s car drivers. This technical reference book provides the reader with a firsthand comprehensive description of significant components of automotive technology. All texts are complemented by numerous detailed illustrations. Contents History of the automobile.- History of the Diesel engine.- Areas of use for Diesel engines.- Basic principles of the Diesel engine.- Basic principles of Diesel fuel-injection.- Basic principles of the gasoline engine.- Inductive ignition system.- Transmissions for motor vehicles.- Motor vehicle safety.- Basic principles of vehicle dynamics.- Car braking systems.- Vehicle electrical systems.- Overview of electrical and electronic systems in the vehicle.- Control of gasoline engines.- Control of Diesel engines.- Lighting technology.- Elec...

  5. A method to achieve comparable thermal states of car brakes during braking on the road and on a high-speed roll-stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The temperature of a brake friction surface influences significantly the braking effectiveness. The paper describes a heat transfer process in car brakes. Using a developed program of finite element method, the temperature distributions in brake rotors (disc and drum brake) of a light truck have been calculated. As a preliminary consistency criterion of the brake thermal state in road and roll-stand braking conditions, a balance of the energy cumulated in the brake rotor has been taken into account. As the most reliable consistency criterion an equality of average temperatures of the friction surface has been assumed. The presented method allows to achieve on a roll-stand the analogical thermal states of automotive brakes, which are observed during braking in road conditions. Basing on this method, it is possible to calculate the braking time and force for a high-speed roll-stand. In contrast to the previous papers of the author, new calculation results have been presented.

  6. Evaluation of palm kernel fibers (PKFs for production of asbestos-free automotive brake pads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Ikpambese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, asbestos-free automotive brake pads produced from palm kernel fibers with epoxy-resin binder was evaluated. Resins varied in formulations and properties such as friction coefficient, wear rate, hardness test, porosity, noise level, temperature, specific gravity, stopping time, moisture effects, surface roughness, oil and water absorptions rates, and microstructure examination were investigated. Other basic engineering properties of mechanical overload, thermal deformation fading behaviour shear strength, cracking resistance, over-heat recovery, and effect on rotor disc, caliper pressure, pad grip effect and pad dusting effect were also investigated. The results obtained indicated that the wear rate, coefficient of friction, noise level, temperature, and stopping time of the produced brake pads increased as the speed increases. The results also show that porosity, hardness, moisture content, specific gravity, surface roughness, and oil and water absorption rates remained constant with increase in speed. The result of microstructure examination revealed that worm surfaces were characterized by abrasion wear where the asperities were ploughed thereby exposing the white region of palm kernel fibers, thus increasing the smoothness of the friction materials. Sample S6 with composition of 40% epoxy-resin, 10% palm wastes, 6% Al2O3, 29% graphite, and 15% calcium carbonate gave better properties. The result indicated that palm kernel fibers can be effectively used as a replacement for asbestos in brake pad production.

  7. Experimental Study on A New Type of Air-cooled Brake Drum's Braking Performance%自助风冷型制动鼓制动性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵悟; 杜木伟; 刘晨敏; 沈建军; 于宥源

    2013-01-01

    The structure and cooling mechanisms of a new type of air-cooled brake drum are introduced. Contrast test of temperature rising, brake torque and rotation speed are conducted by the inertia brake tester JF122C between the new type of air-cooled brake drum and the original brake drum. Meanwhile the strength and stiffness of the holes-drilled new type one are analyzed. The result of the contrast test proves that, compared with the original, the average maximum temperature of the new type of air-cooled brake drum is reduced by about 15℃, its average brake torque doesn't change much, and the initial revolving speed and declining trend of every test are alike, the strength and stiffness degrade little, i.e the new type of brake drum greatly improves heat radiating performance of the brake system while maintaining braking safety.%介绍了新型风冷式制动鼓的结构和降温机理.针对新型风冷式制动鼓和原车制动鼓,在JF122C惯性制动试验台上进行了制动鼓温升、制动力矩和转速对比试验,并分析了钻小孔后的新型制动鼓的强度和刚度.试验结果表明,与原车制动鼓相比,新型风冷式制动鼓平均最高温度降低约15℃,平均制动力矩没有明显改变,制动初始转速及下降趋势一致,强度和刚度也未下降.即新型制动豉在保证制动安全性的前提下,较好地改善了制动系统的散热性能.

  8. Automotive airborne brake wear debris nanoparticles and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimirova, Alena; Peikertova, Pavlina; Barancokova, Magdalena; Staruchova, Marta; Tulinska, Jana; Vaculik, Miroslav; Vavra, Ivo; Kukutschova, Jana; Filip, Peter; Dusinska, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle exhaust and non-exhaust processes play a significant role in environmental pollution, as they are a source of the finest particulate matter. Emissions from non-exhaust processes include wear-products of brakes, tires, automotive hardware, road surface, and traffic signs, but still are paid little attention to. Automotive friction composites for brake pads are composite materials which may consist of potentially hazardous materials and there is a lack of information regarding the potential influence of the brake wear debris (BWD) on the environment, especially on human health. Thus, we focused our study on the genotoxicity of the airborne fraction of BWD using a brake pad model representing an average low-metallic formulation available in the EU market. BWD was generated in the laboratory by a full-scale brake dynamometer and characterized by Raman microspectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy showing that it contains nano-sized crystalline metal-based particles. Genotoxicity tested in human lymphocytes in different testing conditions showed an increase in frequencies of micronucleated binucleated cells (MNBNCs) exposed for 48h to BWD nanoparticles (NPs) (with 10% of foetal calf serum in culture medium) compared with lymphocytes exposed to medium alone, statistically significant only at the concentration 3µg/cm(2) (p=0.032). PMID:27131798

  9. Analysis of Braking Characteristic for Tire Rotary-drum Machine%轮胎转鼓试验设备制动特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍晓东; 侯勇; 张绍国

    2012-01-01

    制动系统是转鼓试验设备重要的安全部件,通过分析制动系统的材料属性,建立了制动系统的简化模型.对盘式制动器在不同制动压力下的紧急制动过程进行仿真模拟,深入分析了制动系统在不同工作负荷下制动装置摩擦表面的应力、温度场分布情况以及有效的制动时间.对比不同工况下的计算结果,得到了制动盘和刹车片的应力和温度场分布规律,并且分析了制动压力与制动时间之间的关系.结果表明制动压力越大,制动时间越短,但制动系统温升越明显,相关结论为指导设备制动系统参数的合理选定提供了理论依据.%Braking system is an important safety component for the rotating, drum test equipment, through the analysis on the material properties of the braking system, the model of braking system was es-tablishea\\Emergency braking process of the disc brake was simulated under different pressure,and then friction surface stress, temperature field distribution and effective braking time of brake system in different workload stress were further analyzedAccording to the calculation results ,stress and temperature field distribution for braking disc and pad were obtained,and relationship between braking pressure and braking time was analyzed.The results show that as the braking pressure enhanced, the braking time is shorter,however, the temperature rise for braking system is more obvious.Conclusion provides a theoretical basis for brake system rational parameter selection.

  10. Optimal design of an automotive magnetorheological brake considering geometric dimensions and zero-field friction heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an optimal design of a magnetorheological (MR) brake for a middle-sized passenger car which can replace a conventional hydraulic disc-type brake. In the optimization, the required braking torque, the temperature due to zero-field friction of MR fluid, the mass of the brake system and all significant geometric dimensions are considered. After describing the configuration, the braking torque of the proposed MR brake is derived on the basis of the field-dependent Bingham and Herschel–Bulkley rheological model of the MR fluid. The optimal design of the MR brake is then analyzed taking into account available space, mass, braking torque and steady heat generated by zero-field friction torque of the MR brake. The optimization procedure based on the finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is proposed to obtain optimal geometric dimensions of the MR brake. Based on the proposed procedure, optimal solutions of single and multiple disc-type MR brakes featuring different types of MR fluid are achieved. From the results, the most effective MR brake for the middle-sized passenger car is identified and some discussions on the performance improvement of the optimized MR brake are described

  11. Constitutive model for flake graphite cast iron automotive brake discs: induced anisotropic damage model under complex loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustins, L.; Billardon, R.; Hild, F.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper details an elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model for automotive brake discs made of flake graphite cast iron. In a companion paper (Augustins et al. in Contin Mech Thermodyn, 2015), the authors proposed a one-dimensional setting appropriate for representing the complex behavior of the material (i.e., asymmetry between tensile and compressive loadings) under anisothermal conditions. The generalization of this 1D model to 3D cases on a volume element and the associated challenges are addressed. A direct transposition is not possible, and an alternative solution without unilateral conditions is first proposed. Induced anisotropic damage and associated constitutive laws are then introduced. The transition from the volume element to the real structure and the numerical implementation require a specific basis change. Brake disc simulations with this constitutive model show that unilateral conditions are needed for the friction bands. A damage deactivation procedure is therefore defined.

  12. Two-stage actuation system using DC motors and piezoelectric actuators for controllable industrial and automotive brakes and clutches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Vijay A.; Washington, Gregory N.; Bucknor, Norman K.

    2005-05-01

    High bandwidth actuation systems that are capable of simultaneously producing relatively large forces and displacements are required for use in automobiles and other industrial applications. Conventional hydraulic actuation mechanisms used in automotive brakes and clutches are complex, inefficient and have poor control robustness. These lead to reduced fuel economy, controllability issues and other disadvantages. This paper involves the design, development, testing and control of a two-stage hybrid actuation mechanism by combining classical actuators like DC motors and advanced smart material actuators like piezoelectric actuators. The paper also discusses the development of a robust control methodology using the Internal Model Control (IMC) principle and emphasizes the robustness property of this control methodology by comparing and studying simulation and experimental results.

  13. Constitutive model for flake graphite cast iron automotive brake discs: from macroscopic multiscale models to a 1D rheological description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustins, L.; Billardon, R.; Hild, F.

    2016-07-01

    One of the critical points of the thermomechanical fatigue design process is the correct description of the cyclic behavior of the material. This work focuses on the material of automotive brake discs, namely flake graphite cast iron. The specificity of this material is its asymmetric behavior under tensile and compressive loadings, which is due to the shape of graphite that acts as small cracks. Multiscale models inspired from the literature are first presented. They lead to a good description of the material behavior under cyclic loadings. An elastoviscoplastic constitutive model is then proposed in a one-dimensional setting in order to accurately describe cyclic tests from room temperature up to {600^{circ}{C}}.

  14. On Airborne Nano/Micro-Sized Particles Released from Low-Metallic Automotive Brakes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kukutschová, J.; Moravec, Pavel; Tomášek, V.; Matějka, V.; Smolík, Jiří; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Seidlerová, J.; Šafářová, K.; Filip, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 4 (2011), s. 998-1006. ISSN 0269-7491 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : brake wear debris * nano particles * oxidative wear Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.746, year: 2011

  15. Automotive Brake Materials: Characterization of Wear Products and Relevant Mechanisms at High Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Piyush Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Wear is an ubiquitous phenomenon affecting an extremely wide number of technological system, often determining their premature failure. In this regard, wear and friction behavior of friction materials and the characterization of wear debris from brake disc system is an important step to understand the dominant wear mechanisms active in a given tribological system, in order to improve its performances and to increase the expected lifetime. In the thesis, four tribological task has been perform...

  16. Effects of potassium titanate fiber on the wear of automotive brake linings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, M. L.; Mansfield, J. A.; Rhee, S. K.

    1977-01-01

    Asbestos reinforcing fiber in an automotive friction material was replaced by an experimental ingredient having better thermal stability, and the effects on wear and friction were studied. A friction materials test machine (SAE J661a) was used to determine friction and wear, under constant energy output conditions, as a function of temperature between 121 and 343 C (250 and 650 F). When potassium titanate fiber replaced one half of the asbestos in a standard commercial lining, with a 40 percent upward adjustment of phenolic resin content, wear above 204 C (400 F) was improved by 40% and friction by 30%. Tests on a full-scale inertial dynamometer supported the findings of the sample dynamometer tests. It was demonstrated that the potassium titanate fiber contributes directly to the improvement in wear and friction.

  17. 浅析逆向注油排气法在汽车液压制动系统中的应用%On the Application of Reverse Oiling and Exhaust Method in Automotive Hydraulic Braking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志维

    2014-01-01

    Automotive hydraulic braking system is the automotive braking device by using the brake fluid as the transmission media to make the wheel brakes work. The hydraulic braking system has the advantages of smooth braking and high sensitivity. Once the hydraulic braking system occur air resistance, it will cause braking weak, the braking force reducing and other failure, and reduce the braking performance of wheel brakes, so that will directly affects the car's braking performance and safety. This paper introduces an operation method overturning the traditional methods:reverse oiling and exhaust method. This method is simple and practical, and can greatly improve the maintenance efficiency.%汽车液压式制动系统是利用制动油液作为传力介质使车轮制动器工作的汽车制动装置,液压式制动系统具有制动平稳、制动灵敏度高等优点。而当液压制动系统一旦发生气阻时就会导致制动发软、制动力减小等故障,使车轮制动器的制动效能下降,直接影响汽车的制动性能和安全性。文章介绍一种颠覆传统操作方法:逆向注油排气法,这种方法简单实用,极大地提高了维修效率。

  18. Simulation and analysis of vehicle stability based on ADAMS/CAR differential brake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To improve the braking safety of automobiles, the author studied the effect of differential brake on the stabilities. To analyze the mechanical characteristics of differential brake, automotive subsystem models were built by applying ADAMS/CAR, and automotive mechanics simulation model was built by setting the main subsystems such as body, engine and brake. The simulation model studied the distribution mode of three kinds of differential brake, and beeline braking stability and turning braking stability wer...

  19. A Review of a Study on Disc Brake Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    With the development of the automotive industry, disc brake noise has become an issue of growing concern to the automotive industry and customers. In this paper, the types of disc brake noise have been discussed. Ajter that, the theories and models that have been proposed as an explanation of brake squeal are reviewed. On the basis of these theories and models, some example simulations of disc brake squeal which use the Finite Element method and mathematical model have been introduced.

  20. 机车制动机现场培训考试系统的研究%Research on the On-site Training Exam System of Automotive Braking Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲

    2015-01-01

    The on-site training exam system of automotive braking machine was devised and developed with the pneumatic technology on the basis of liquid mechanics theory aimed at the problems such as short time of cultivation for the locomotive drivers, insufficient experience, and unskilled degree of controlling the locomotive, low accuracy to the estimation of the phenomenon. It was applied in the training of steward and achieved distinct effect, enhanced the level for steward to operate braking machine and judge the train braking pipe accurately.%针对目前普遍存在机车司机培养时间短、 经验不足, 对机车操纵的熟练程度及对现象判断的准确性不高的问题, 采用气动技术、 依据流体力学理论, 设计开发了机车制动机现场培训考试系统. 经过在乘务员培训中的应用, 取得明显的效果, 提高了乘务员的制动机操作水平和对列车管判断的准确性.

  1. Simulation and analysis of vehicle stability based on ADAMS/CAR differential brake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To improve the braking safety of automobiles, the author studied the effect of differential brake on the stabilities. To analyze the mechanical characteristics of differential brake, automotive subsystem models were built by applying ADAMS/CAR, and automotive mechanics simulation model was built by setting the main subsystems such as body, engine and brake. The simulation model studied the distribution mode of three kinds of differential brake, and beeline braking stability and turning braking stability were simulated. It shows that differential brake can amend turning shortage of automobile brake and improve its braking stability, but the effect of automobile mass on its braking stability is great. So the distribution mode of braking force and the effect of mass change should be considered while differential brake is applied.

  2. 某车型轮毂与制动鼓不平衡量导致转向盘异常振动问题的分析研究%Research on Abnormal Vibration of Steering Wheel Caused by Unbalance of Wheel Hub and Brake Drum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高尚; 孔祥瑞; 郭万富; 巨建辉; 高铁石

    2014-01-01

    针对某轻型载货汽车转向盘异常振动问题,结合轮毂与制动鼓总成动平衡试验进行了分析研究,发现轮毂与制动鼓总成不平衡量超出技术要求是导致样车转向盘异常振动的主要影响因素。通过控制轮毂与制动鼓不平衡量,使样车的转向盘异常振动现象得到了有效控制。总结了解决此类转向盘异常振动问题的步骤,规范了类似转向盘异常振动问题的处理方法。%To eliminate abnormal vibration of steering wheel in a light-duty truck, we perform dynamic balance test of wheel hub and brake drum assembly, and conclude that the unbalance of wheel hub and brake drum assembly which goes beyond specification is the main factor to cause vibration of steering wheel. By controlling the unbalance of wheel hub and brake drum assembly, the abnormal vibration of steering wheel has been effectively controlled. This paper sums up the steps to solve such abnormal vibration in the steering wheel, and regulates the methods to solve the abnormal vibration of it.

  3. CFD design analysis of ventilated disc brakes

    OpenAIRE

    Pulugundla, Gautam

    2008-01-01

    This thesis reports the numerical investigation of the automotive ventilated disc brake rotor. Disc brakes operate on the principle of friction by converting kinetic energy into heat energy. The main objective of a disc brake rotor is to store this heat energy and dissipate it as soon as possible. This work is carried out in a area where there is very limited understanding. Commercial CFD code FLUENT was used for carrying out the simulations with the rotor rotating in still ...

  4. 汽车辅助制动系统及试验方法研究%Study on Automotive Auxiliary Braking System and Test Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 张雄; 刘翰东

    2013-01-01

    The authors introduce the type and principles of the auxiliary braking types, and describe the require-ments and test methods of typeⅡand typeⅡA tests. Through simulating the ramp test, they verify the meeting of the exhaust braking and the retarder braking to the standard, and put forward the relative recommendations.%介绍辅助制动装置的类型及原理,并对Ⅱ型和ⅡA型试验的要求和试验方法进行阐述。通过模拟坡道试验,验证排气制动和缓速器对标准的满足性,并给出相应建议。

  5. Gravity brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

  6. Automotive mechatronics automotive networking, driving stability systems, electronics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    As the complexity of automotive vehicles increases this book presents operational and practical issues of automotive mechatronics. It is a comprehensive introduction to controlled automotive systems and provides detailed information of sensors for travel, angle, engine speed, vehicle speed, acceleration, pressure, temperature, flow, gas concentration etc. The measurement principles of the different sensor groups are explained and examples to show the measurement principles applied in different types. Contents Basics of mechatronics.- Architecture.- Electronic control unit.- Software development.- Basic principles of networking.- Automotive networking.- Bus systems.- Automotive sensors.- Sensor measuring principles.- Sensor types.- Electric actuators.- Electrohydraulic actuators.- Electronic transmission control.- Electronic transmission control unit.- Modules for transmission control.- Antilock braking system.- Traction control system.- Electronic stability program.- Automatic brake functions.- Hydraulic modu...

  7. Calculation of rope winding drums in the construction of shaft hoists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbass, A.

    1984-12-01

    Three computer programs are described for calculating mechanical forces on large rope winding drums with diameters ranging from 3 to 6 m. The SEITRO program is used by the TAKRAF manufacturer to prove drum stability, as required by the TGL 13500 industrial standard. The two other programs determine mechanical stress distribution in the drum construction. Accuracy of these drum stability measurements is higher than those obtained by manual calculations. Various diagrams are provided showing stress distribution on the drum's surface as well as inside discs during drum start-up and braking. 8 references.

  8. A parametric FE modeling of brake for non-linear analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Ahmed, Yasser Fatouh, Wael Aly

    2014-01-01

    A parametric modeling of a drum brake based on 3-D Finite Element Methods (FEM) for non-contact analysis is presented. Many parameters are examined during this study such as the effect of drum-lining interface stiffness, coefficient of friction, and line pressure on the interface contact. Firstly, the modal analysis of the drum brake is also studied to get the natural frequency and instability of the drum to facilitate transforming the modal elements to non-contact elements. It is shown that ...

  9. Structure Analysis at the Micro Iron Pour at Gray Brake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melya D. Sebayang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of gray cast iron brake drum as the material is the most appropriate choice, because it has properties which have good heat conductivity, hardness, toughness, good friction properties and the ability to absorb vibration. The purpose of this study to determine the ratio of the microstructure on both original material drum that is new and original drum ex-wear. With the aim of analysis is expected to be used as basis in planning the development of better vehicle brakes. Of all the test results it can be mentioned chemical composition of test results with the main alloying elements, to drum new original: C 4:13%, 2:51% Si, 0.15% S, 0.65% Mn, 0.0054% P, and the original drum ex-wear: C 4:13%, 2:17% Si, 0.15% S, 0.53% Mn, 0.0054% P. So the comparison of properties of the resulting structure after the testing process on each drum is the hardness and resistance to wear and tear on a new original drum better when compared with the original drum ex-wear.

  10. Experimental Identification of Brake Pad Material Properties—A Step Towards a Better Prediction of Brake Squeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornig, Sylwia; Hochlenert, Daniel; von Wagner, Utz

    2010-09-01

    Automotive brake squeal is a disruptive high frequency sound radiation phenomenon generated by friction-induced self-excited vibrations of the brake system. The brake system loses its stability and starts oscillating in a limit cycle with amplitudes limited by nonlinearities, the main origin of the nonlinearities being brake lining material. In order to perform a reliable brake squeal prediction using established mathematical-mechanical models, the knowledge of the lining material properties is of great importance. The present paper deals with the experimental identification of lining material properties, expecially referring to the elastic properties. Since these strongly vary depending on the operating conditions of brake systems, it is necessary to reproduce the operating conditions during brake squeal as close as possible in experimental setups. In this context a special test rig, the test data evaluation and the experimentally determined nonlinear elastic brake lining properties are presented. Assuming these brake lining properties to be the prominent source of the nonlinearity, a nonlinear stability analysis is performed on a realistic disk brake model. The results referring to brake squeal are discussed, whereas basic phenomena known from operating experience of brake systems can be explained on the basis of this analysis.

  11. 汽车刹车片用铁铜基摩擦材料的研究%Study of Fe and Cu-based P/M friction materials for automotive brake pads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文革; 罗启文; 张剑; 崔婷婷

    2012-01-01

    A kind of iron-copper based fricition material for automotive brake pad was prepared by powder metallurgy technology; mixing of electrolytic copper powder with particle size of 53 -14祄 and iron, graphite, titanium, nickel, silica, aluminum oxide and vulcanized molybdenum powder, compaction forming at 450 - SSOMPa, hot pressing sintering at 1 000t and pressure of 2. 5 - 2. SMPa for 1 - 2h. The microstmcture consist of iron and copper, ceramic, carbide and additives, the density and hardness of the friction materials is 5.57 g/cm3 and 227HV, respectively. By the wear testing, the wear rate and friction factor of the friction materials is 0. 002 6 g/min and 0.45,respectively. The influence factor of the friction materials is normal presser and rotate speed, the failure mechansm is adhere wear at first and grinding compound wear mostly.%采用粉末冶金热压技术制备铁铜基刹车片材料,进行磨损试验和扫描电镜观察.结果表明:将粒度53~74 μ,m的电解Cu粉、Fe粉、石墨、Ti、Ni、SiO2、Al2O3 MoS2混合均匀,于450~550MPa的压制压力下模压成形,在1 000℃、2.5~2.8MPa压力下N2保护热压1~2h,可制备出汽车刹车片用铁铜基摩擦材料.其显微组织由粘结的基体Fe、Cu相,耐磨的陶瓷、碳化物相和一些润滑相所构成;所制备材料的密度为5.57 g/cm3,平均硬度是227HV.影响其摩擦性能的主要因素是法向压力和转速,与钢的磨损速率为0.002 6 g/min,摩擦系数0.45;磨损的失效机理是先期粘着磨损,随后转化为磨料磨损,但以磨料磨损为主.

  12. Retardation-controlled safety brake at the test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, A.; Schroeder, R.; Sondermann, W.

    1989-02-01

    A double-drum winding installation is thought to require a retardation-controlled safety brake. The investigations needed for the design acceptance of such a braking installation have so far only been possible on an actual winding installation. This has not ruled out that the commissioning procedure of the whole installation could be delayed or endangered. The use of a simulator developed by the WBK Rope Testing Station, which replicates the behaviour of braked masses in the winding installation, made it possible for the first time to transfer a major part of the necessary investigations to the test site.

  13. Evaluation of Wear in Aftermarket Brake Pads for Enhancing Braking Performance in a Passenger Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zaki Bahrom

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the high demands from the independence automotive service centers; there are many aftermarket brake pads available at spare parts shops and sold at reasonable prices. Several types of brake pads are available in the market such as semi-metallic and Non-Asbestos brake pads. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the wear of after-market brake pad performance under the normal driving conditions (highway and non-highway. Three types of aftermarket brake pads that mainly used and sold by independent service shop were selected in this study.  The data of the wear in thicknesses losses and weight percentage losses were recorded. The results show that brake pad of non- Asbestos Organic type gives the highest wear loss and create a lot of dust. For semi-metallic brake pad type, the result shows the lowest mass loss. Therefore, it is important to select the suitable type of after-market brake pads in order to get balance between cost and quality.

  14. Unvented Drum Handling Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This drum-handling plan proposes a method to deal with unvented transuranic drums encountered during retrieval of drums. Finding unvented drums during retrieval activities was expected, as identified in the Transuranic (TRU) Phase I Retrieval Plan (HNF-4781). However, significant numbers of unvented drums were not expected until excavation of buried drums began. This plan represents accelerated planning for management of unvented drums. A plan is proposed that manages unvented drums differently based on three categories. The first category of drums is any that visually appear to be pressurized. These will be vented immediately, using either the Hanford Fire Department Hazardous Materials (Haz. Mat.) team, if such are encountered before the facilities' capabilities are established, or using internal capabilities, once established. To date, no drums have been retrieved that showed signs of pressurization. The second category consists of drums that contain a minimal amount of Pu isotopes. This minimal amount is typically less than 1 gram of Pu, but may be waste-stream dependent. Drums in this category are assayed to determine if they are low-level waste (LLW). LLW drums are typically disposed of without venting. Any unvented drums that assay as TRU will be staged for a future venting campaign, using appropriate safety precautions in their handling. The third category of drums is those for which records show larger amounts of Pu isotopes (typically greater than or equal to 1 gram of Pu). These are assumed to be TRU and are not assayed at this point, but are staged for a future venting campaign. Any of these drums that do not have a visible venting device will be staged awaiting venting, and will be managed under appropriate controls, including covering the drums to protect from direct solar exposure, minimizing of container movement, and placement of a barrier to restrict vehicle access. There are a number of equipment options available to perform the venting. The

  15. Waste drum refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-carbon steel, radioactive waste containers (55-gallon drums) are experiencing degradation due to moisture and temperature fluctuations. With thousands of these containers currently in use; drum refurbishment becomes a significant issue for the taxpayer and stockholders. This drum refurbishment is a non-intrusive, portable process costing between 1/2 and 1/25 the cost of repackaging, depending on the severity of degradation. At the INEL alone, there are an estimated 9,000 drums earmarked for repackaging. Refurbishing drums rather than repackaging can save up to $45,000,000 at the INEL. Based on current but ever changing WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), this drum refurbishment process will restore drums to a WIPP acceptable condition plus; drums with up to 40% thinning o the wall can be refurbished to meet performance test requirements for DOT 7A Type A packaging. A refurbished drum provides a tough, corrosion resistant, waterproof container with longer storage life and an additional containment barrier. Drums are coated with a high-pressure spray copolymer material approximately .045 inches thick. Increase in internal drum temperature can be held to less than 15 F. Application can be performed hands-on or the equipment is readily adaptable and controllable for remote operations. The material dries to touch in seconds, is fully cured in 48 hours and has a service temperature of -60 to 500 F. Drums can be coated with little or no surface preparation. This research was performed on drums however research results indicate the coating is very versatile and compatible with most any material and geometry. It could be used to provide abrasion resistance, corrosion protection and waterproofing to almost anything

  16. Brake force estimation for electromechanical vehicle brakes; Bremskraft-Rekonstruktion fuer elektromechanische Fahrzeugbremsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, R. [Continental Teves (Germany)

    1999-06-01

    Due to the increasing safety and comfort demands of the customer, the functionality of modern brake systems has grown continuously in the last years. However, implementation of the extended functionality in conventional brake hydraulics makes active electronic intervention necessary and therefore requires a lot of technical effort. In recent years the automotive supplier industry has started to develop brake systems which have electromechanical brake actuators generating the brake forces at the individual wheels. Electromechanically actuated wheel brakes need to be operated in a closed control loop. This paper introduces a new method to reconstruct the needed feedback value brake force from easy to measure signals. (orig.) [Deutsch] Aufgrund des gestiegenen Sicherheits- und Komfortbewusstseins der Fahrzeugkaeufer ist die Funktionsvielfalt moderner Bremssysteme in den letzten Jahren staendig gewachsen. Die Umsetzung der erweiterten Funktionalitaet mittels konventioneller Bremsenhydraulik ist jedoch durch den elektronischen, aktiven Eingriff sehr aufwendig. In den letzten Jahren hat daher die Automobilzulieferindustrie begonnen, Bremssysteme zu entwickeln, bei denen die Bremskraft an den einzelnen Raedern von elektromechanischen Bremsaktuatoren aufgebracht wird. Elektromechanisch betaetigte Radbremsen muessen im geschlossenen Regelkreis betrieben werden. Der vorliegende Beitrag, der im Rahmen einer Forschungskooperation zwischen Continental Teves und dem Institut fuer Automatisierungstechnik der TU Darmstadt entstand stellt ein Verfahren vor, mit dem die dafuer benoetigte Rueckfuehrungsgroesse `Bremskraft` aus einfach messbaren Signalen rekonstruiert werden kann. (orig.)

  17. TGV disc brake squeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, X.; Foy-Margiocchi, F.; Nguyen, Q. S.; Gautier, P. E.

    2006-06-01

    The discomfort generated by the noise emission of braking systems in trains has aroused recently many studies on the mechanical modelling of brake noise in France. A theoretical and numerical discussion on the phenomenon of brake squeal is given in this paper in relation with some experimental data. This study is based upon a flutter instability analysis giving unstable modes of the brake system under the contact and Coulomb friction.

  18. Analysis of nanoparticles released from the car brakes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švábenská, Eva; Roupcová, Pavla; Schneeweiss, Oldřich

    Ostrava: Tanger, 2015. ISBN 978-80-87294-59-8. [NANOCON 2015. International Conference /7./. Brno (CZ), 14.10.2015-16.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : nanoparticles * wear debris * automotive brake Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  19. Zavorne ploščice iz karboniziranega materiala za zavorne diske iz C/C-SiC: Carbonised-material-based brake pads for a C/C-SiC composite brake disc:

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Zmago

    2001-01-01

    Letely the brake discs from carbon-fibre-reinforced carbon composites infiltrated by silicon (LSI-process) have become very interesting for automotive brakes applications. Composite materials with a hard SiC layer on the surface of the disc (C/C-SiC) or composites with the fibre-reinforced ceramic structure (C/SiC) need the right brake-lining materials. The results of our new-brake-lining-material investigation for C/C-SiC brake discs are presented. The influence of some particular additives ...

  20. Numerical Modeling of Disc Brake System in Frictional Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belhocine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Safety aspect in automotive engineering has been considered as a number one priority in development of new vehicle. Each single system has been studied and developed in order to meet safety requirement. Instead of having air bag, good suspension systems, good handling and safe cornering, there is one most critical system in the vehicle which is brake systems. The objective of this work is to investigate and analyse the temperature distribution of rotor disc during braking operation using ANSYS Multiphysics. The work uses the finite element analysis techniques to predict the temperature distribution on the full and ventilated brake disc and to identify the critical temperature of the rotor by holding account certain parameters such as; the material used, the geometric design of the disc and the mode of braking. The analysis also gives us, the heat flux distribution for the two discs.

  1. Experimental investigations for uncertainty quantification in brake squeal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, A.; Massa, F.; Lallemand, B.; Tison, T.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve the correlation between the experimental and the numerical prediction of unstable frequencies for automotive brake systems considering uncertainty. First, an experimental quantification of uncertainty and a discussion analysing the contributions of uncertainty to a numerical squeal simulation are proposed. Frequency and transient simulations are performed considering nominal values of model parameters, determined experimentally. The obtained results are compared with those derived from experimental tests to highlight the limitation of deterministic simulations. The effects of the different kinds of uncertainty detected in working conditions of brake system, the pad boundary condition, the brake system material properties and the pad surface topography are discussed by defining different unstable mode classes. Finally, a correlation between experimental and numerical results considering uncertainty is successfully proposed for an industrial brake system. Results from the different comparisons reveal also a major influence of the pad topography and consequently the contact distribution.

  2. Rotating drum filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Donald

    1990-01-01

    A perforated drum (10) rotates in a coaxial cylindrical housing (18) having three circumferential ports (19,22,23), and an axial outlet (24) at one end. The axis (11) is horizontal. A fibrous filter medium (20) is fed through a port (19) on or near the top of the housing (81) by a distributing mechanism (36) which lays a uniform mat (26) of the desired thickness onto the rotating drum (10). This mat (26) is carried by the drum (10) to a second port (23) through which dirty fluid (13) enters. The fluid (13) passes through the filter (26) and the cleaned stream (16) exits through the open end (15) of the drum (10) and the axial port (24) in the housing (18). The dirty filter material (20) is carried on to a third port (22) near the bottom of the housing (18) and drops into a receiver (31) from which it is continuously removed, cleaned (30), and returned (32) to the charging port (36) at the top. To support the filter mat, the perforated cylinder may carry a series of tines (40), shaped blades (41), or pockets, so that the mat (26) will not fall from the drum (10) prematurely. To minimize risk of mat failure, the fluid inlet port (23) may be located above the horizontal centerline (11).

  3. Variable friction device for structural control based on duo-servo vehicle brake: Modeling and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liang; Downey, Austin; Laflamme, Simon; Taylor, Douglas; Ricles, James

    2015-07-01

    Supplemental damping can be used as a cost-effective method to reduce structural vibrations. In particular, passive systems are now widely accepted and have numerous applications in the field. However, they are typically tuned to specific excitations and their performances are bandwidth-limited. A solution is to use semi-active devices, which have shown to be capable of substantially enhanced mitigation performance. The authors have recently proposed a new type of semi-active device, which consists of a variable friction mechanism based on a vehicle duo-servo drum brake, a mechanically robust and reliable technology. The theoretical performance of the proposed device has been previously demonstrated via numerical simulations. In this paper, we further the understanding of the device, termed Modified Friction Device (MFD) by fabricating a small scale prototype and characterizing its dynamic behavior. While the dynamics of friction is well understood for automotive braking technology, we investigate for the first time the dynamic behavior of this friction mechanism at low displacements and velocities, in both forward and backward directions, under various hydraulic pressures. A modified 3-stage dynamic model is introduced. A LuGre friction model is used to characterize the friction zone (Stage 1), and two pure stiffness regions to characterize the dynamics of the MFD once the rotation is reversed and the braking shoes are sticking to the drum (Stage 2) and the rapid build up of forces once the shoes are held by the anchor pin (Stage 3). The proposed model is identified experimentally by subjecting the prototype to harmonic excitations. It is found that the proposed model can be used to characterize the dynamics of the MFD, and that the largest fitting error arises at low velocity under low pressure input. The model is then verified by subjecting the MFD to two different earthquake excitations under different pressure inputs. The model is capable of tracking the

  4. Rotary drum separator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Michael R. (Inventor); Murdoch, Karen (Inventor); Scull, Timothy D. (Inventor); Fort, James H. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A rotary phase separator system generally includes a step-shaped rotary drum separator (RDS) and a motor assembly. The aspect ratio of the stepped drum minimizes power for both the accumulating and pumping functions. The accumulator section of the RDS has a relatively small diameter to minimize power losses within an axial length to define significant volume for accumulation. The pumping section of the RDS has a larger diameter to increase pumping head but has a shorter axial length to minimize power losses. The motor assembly drives the RDS at a low speed for separating and accumulating and a higher speed for pumping.

  5. The influence of tyre contact patch and on the stopping distance of automotive vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Selig, Michael; Ball, Andrew; Ash, J.; Schmidt, K.

    2012-01-01

    This contribution presents the experimental tests results about the influence of the tyre contact patch on the stopping distance of automotive vehicles. The objective of the performed tests is the evaluation of the effect of tyre inflation pressure, hence the resulting tyre contact patch on the braking system and the brake distance. The conditions of the experiment are a dry and level road surface without steering inputs. To record scientific results, a brake robot system is used. The benefit...

  6. Evaluation of the deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust with and without added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation: Interim results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysotile has been frequently used in the past in manufacturing brakes and continues to be used in brakes in many countries. This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake dust or crocidolite asbestos. No significant pathological response was observed at any time point in either the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. The long chrysotile fibers (> 20 μm) cleared quickly with T1/2 estimated as 30 and 33 days, respectively in the brake dust and the chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. In contrast, the long crocidolite fibers had a T1/2 > 1000 days and initiated a rapid inflammatory response in the lung following exposure resulting in a 5-fold increase in fibrotic response within 91 days. These results provide support that brake dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • We evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite produced pathological response - Wagner 4 interstitial fibrosis by 32d

  7. A parametric FE modeling of brake for non-linear analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed,Ibrahim; Fatouh, Yasser [Automotive and Tractors Technology Department, Faculty of Industrial Education, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt); Aly, Wael [Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technology Department, Faculty of Industrial Education, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-07-01

    A parametric modeling of a drum brake based on 3-D Finite Element Methods (FEM) for non-contact analysis is presented. Many parameters are examined during this study such as the effect of drum-lining interface stiffness, coefficient of friction, and line pressure on the interface contact. Firstly, the modal analysis of the drum brake is also studied to get the natural frequency and instability of the drum to facilitate transforming the modal elements to non-contact elements. It is shown that the Unsymmetric solver of the modal analysis is efficient enough to solve this linear problem after transforming the non-linear behavior of the contact between the drum and the lining to a linear behavior. A SOLID45 which is a linear element is used in the modal analysis and then transferred to non-linear elements which are Targe170 and Conta173 that represent the drum and lining for contact analysis study. The contact analysis problems are highly non-linear and require significant computer resources to solve it, however, the contact problem give two significant difficulties. Firstly, the region of contact is not known based on the boundary conditions such as line pressure, and drum and friction material specs. Secondly, these contact problems need to take the friction into consideration. Finally, it showed a good distribution of the nodal reaction forces on the slotted lining contact surface and existing of the slot in the middle of the lining can help in wear removal due to the friction between the lining and the drum. Accurate contact stiffness can give a good representation for the pressure distribution between the lining and the drum. However, a full contact of the front part of the slotted lining could occur in case of 20, 40, 60 and 80 bar of piston pressure and a partially contact between the drum and lining can occur in the rear part of the slotted lining.

  8. A parametric FE modeling of brake for non-linear analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ahmed, Yasser Fatouh, Wael Aly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A parametric modeling of a drum brake based on 3-D Finite Element Methods (FEM for non-contact analysis is presented. Many parameters are examined during this study such as the effect of drum-lining interface stiffness, coefficient of friction, and line pressure on the interface contact. Firstly, the modal analysis of the drum brake is also studied to get the natural frequency and instability of the drum to facilitate transforming the modal elements to non-contact elements. It is shown that the Unsymmetric solver of the modal analysis is efficient enough to solve this linear problem after transforming the non-linear behavior of the contact between the drum and the lining to a linear behavior. A SOLID45 which is a linear element is used in the modal analysis and then transferred to non-linear elements which are Targe170 and Conta173 that represent the drum and lining for contact analysis study. The contact analysis problems are highly non-linear and require significant computer resources to solve it, however, the contact problem give two significant difficulties. Firstly, the region of contact is not known based on the boundary conditions such as line pressure, and drum and friction material specs. Secondly, these contact problems need to take the friction into consideration. Finally, it showed a good distribution of the nodal reaction forces on the slotted lining contact surface and existing of the slot in the middle of the lining can help in wear removal due to the friction between the lining and the drum. Accurate contact stiffness can give a good representation for the pressure distribution between the lining and the drum. However, a full contact of the front part of the slotted lining could occur in case of 20, 40, 60 and 80 bar of piston pressure and a partially contact between the drum and lining can occur in the rear part of the slotted lining.

  9. Pulsar Braking Indices Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Johnston, S; Johnston, Simon; Galloway, David

    1999-01-01

    Using the standard equation for the slowdown of a neutron star, we derive a formula for the braking index via integration rather than the conventional differentiation. The new formula negates the need to measure the second time derivative of the rotation frequency. We show that the method gives similar braking indices for PSR B1509-58 and the Crab pulsar to those already in the literature. We point out that our method is useful for obtaining the braking indices of moderate aged pulsars without the need for long, phase-connected timing solutions. We applied the method to 20 pulsars and discuss the implications of the results. We find that virtually all the derived braking indices are dominated by the effects of (unseen) glitches, the recovery from which corrupts the value of the frequency first derivative. However, any real, large, positive braking index has implications for magnetic field decay and offers support to recent models of pulsar evolution.

  10. WIND BRAKING OF MAGNETARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, H. [Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011 (China); Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J. [KIAA and School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Song, L. M., E-mail: tonghao@xao.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2013-05-10

    We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with L{sub x}<- E-dot{sub rot} may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

  11. WIND BRAKING OF MAGNETARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with Lxrot may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

  12. Wind Braking of Magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H.; Xu, R. X.; Song, L. M.; Qiao, G. J.

    2013-05-01

    We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with L_x{rot may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

  13. Recycling glass fibre-reinforced plastics in the automotive sector

    OpenAIRE

    Regenfelder, M.; Faller, J; Dully, S.; Perthes, H.; Williams, I. D.; den Boer, E.; Obersteiner, G.; Scherhaufer, S.

    2014-01-01

    The automotive sector is facing the challenge to become more resource-efficient in the manufacture of cars and their components. One approach is to increase the share of recycled materials. This paper presents the results of a case study for the automotive sector of the EU-funded Zerowin project. A safety-relevant component of the braking system was selected for manufacture using a mechanically recycled composite plastic material (polyethylene terephthalate reinforced with short glas...

  14. Optimal design of a novel hybrid MR brake for motorcycles considering axial and radial magnetic flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents an optimal solution of a new type of motorcycle brake featuring different smart magnetorheological (MR) fluids. In this study, typical types of commercial MR fluid are considered there for the design of a motorcycle MR brake; MRF-122-2ED (low yield stress), MRF-132-DG (medium yield stress) and MRF-140-CG (high yield stress). As a first step, a new configuration featuring a T-shaped drum MR brake is introduced and a hybrid concept of magnetic circuit (using both axial and radial magnetic flux) to generate braking force is analyzed based on the finite element method. An optimal design of the MR brake considering the required braking torque, the temperature due to friction of the MR fluid, the mass of the brake system and all significant geometric dimensions is then performed. For the optimization, the finite element analysis (FEA) is used to achieve principal geometric dimensions of the MR brake. In addition, the size, mass and power consumption of three different MR motorcycle brakes are quantitatively analyzed and compared. (paper)

  15. Digital radiography of drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been estimated that there are approximately 1.4 million drums buried or stored at sites within the Department of Energy complex. Most of those drums are filled with a mixture of low level radioactive waste debris but a significant number contain relatively high density, contaminated and/or radioactive substances, such as sludge, grout, sand, and moderator water. Nondestructive Examination and Nondestructive Assay acceptance criteria for transportation to and storage of low-level waste containers at long-term repositories such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico have been established so that waste generators are fully aware that free liquids are to be minimized, mixed waste is undersirable, and that transuranic elements must be less than specified limits

  16. drum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Erik

    Denne By og Byg Anvisning giver vejledning om planlægning, projektering og udførelse af vådrum i overensstemmelse med kravene i Bygningsreglement, 1995 og Bygningsreglement for småhuse, 1998. Anvisningen beskriver, hvordan gulve og vægge udføres, så der opnås størst mulig sikkerhed mod skader fra...

  17. A Secure Mechanism to Supervise Automotive Sensor Network by Client on Smart Phone

    OpenAIRE

    T R Yashavanth,; Ravi S Malashetty,; V R Udupi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal on design of a secure client on smart phone to monitor automotive sensor network. Recently, more and more vehicles, such as BMW X5, are connected from outside via smart phone [3]. From smart phone, users can use the internet resources in automotive. Users can monitor the automotives by using their smart phones. When the automotive is moving or stolen by robber, alert information will be reported to users and users can even brake their automotive via smart phone ...

  18. Development of hydraulic brake actuator for active brake control; Active brake seigyoyo yuatsu booster no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Y.; Hattori, M. Sugisawa, M.; Nishii, M. [Aisin Seiki Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Recently, application of active brake control systems of the vehicle are increasing. (Vehicle stability control, Panic brake assist ) We have developed a new hydraulic brake actuator for active brake control systems. New hydraulic brake actuator is composed of the three parts. (Hydraulic booster unit, Power supply unit, Control valve unit) This report describes the construction of the new hydraulic booster unit. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Braking System Modeling and Brake Temperature Response to Repeated Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaini Dalimus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Braking safety is crucial while driving the passenger or commercial vehicles. Large amount of kinetic energy is absorbed by four brakes fitted in the vehicle. If the braking system fails to work, road accident could happen and may result in death. This research aims to model braking system together with vehicle in Matlab/Simulink software and measure actual brake temperature. First, brake characteristic and vehicle dynamic model were generated to estimate friction force and dissipated heat. Next, Arduino based prototype brake temperature monitoring was developed and tested on the road. From the experiment, it was found that brake temperature tends to increase steadily in long repeated deceleration and acceleration cycle.

  20. Anisotropy in rotating drums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povall, Timothy; McBride, Andrew; Govender, Indresan

    2015-11-01

    An anisotropic relationship between the stress and the strain rate has been observed in two-dimensional simulations of rotating drums. The objective of this work is to investigate the structure of the constitutive relation using three-dimensional discrete-element-method simulations of a rotating drum containing identical rigid spheres for a range of rotational speeds. Anisotropy is quantified from the alignment of the stress and strain rate tensors, with the strain rate computed using a least-squares fit. It is shown that in certain regions there is a strong anisotropic relationship, regardless of the speed of rotation. The effective friction coefficient is examined in order to determine the phase space in which the μ (I) rheology is valid. Lastly, a depth-averaged approach through the flowing layer is employed to determine the relationship between the velocity tangential to the equilibrium surface and the height of the flowing layer. A power-law relationship that approaches linear at high speeds is observed. Supported by NRF/DST Scarce Skills (South Africa).

  1. Development of brake assist system. Summary of hydraulic brake assist system; Brake assist system no kaihatsu. Ekiatsushiki brake assist system no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, M.; Ota, M.; Shimizu, S. [Toyota, Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have already developed vacuum-booster-type Brake Assist System that supplies additional braking power when panic braking is recognized. We are convinced that the expansion of Brake Assist System will become more important issue in the future. Therefore we have developed hydraulic Brake Assist System with increasing its controllability and reducing its discomfort. This system have a brake pressure sensor to detect emergency braking operation and an antilock device to supply additional braking power. 8 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Development of mechanical brake assist; Mechanical brake assist no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, M.; Shingyoji, S.; Nakamura, I.; Tagawa, T.; Saito, Y.; Ishihara, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Yoshida, M. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have recognized that there are drivers who cannot apply strong brake pedal force , in spite of the necessity of hard braking in emergencies. We have developed a `mechanical brake assist system` which assists drivers appropriately, according to the drivers` characteristics based on studying the characteristic`s of conditions of drivers applying the brake pedal force in emergency conditions. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. 49 CFR 393.52 - Brake performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake performance. 393.52 Section 393.52... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.52 Brake performance. (a) Upon application of its service brakes... braking force is measured by a performance-based brake tester which meets the requirements of...

  4. Development of combined brake system on front and rear brakes for scooter; Scooter yo zenkorin rendo brake system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Y.; Itabashi, T.; Shinohara, S.; Honda, Y. [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Scooters need appropriate front and rear wheel braking power distribution and each of front and rear brakes have been operated using right and left levers. This time, a low cost brakes with cable type combined brake system for small size scooter and a brakes with hydraulic type combined brake system for middle size scooter have been developed to obtain appropriate front and rear wheel braking power distribution. Both systems use convenient left lever to operate. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Miniature rotating transmissive optical drum scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert (Inventor); Parrington, Lawrence (Inventor); Rutberg, Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A miniature rotating transmissive optical scanner system employs a drum of small size having an interior defined by a circumferential wall rotatable on a drum axis, an optical element positioned within the interior of the drum, and a light-transmissive lens aperture provided at an angular position in the circumferential wall of the drum for scanning a light beam to or from the optical element in the drum along a beam azimuth angle as the drum is rotated. The miniature optical drum scanner configuration obtains a wide scanning field-of-view (FOV) and large effective aperture is achieved within a physically small size.

  6. Wind braking of magnetars

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, H; Song, L M; Qiao, G J

    2012-01-01

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are magnetar candidates. During their studies, the magnetic dipole braking mechanism is often assumed. This will result in a high surface dipole field for most AXPs and SGRs. It will also bring several problems challenging the magnetar interpretation. Alternatively, it is possible that AXPs and SGRs are braked down by a particle wind which also originates from magnetic field decay. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with strong multipole field. A strong dipole field is no longer required. Recent challenging observations of magnetars may be explained naturally in the wind braking scenario: (1) The supernova energetics of those associated with magnetars are of normal value; (2) The non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) The problem posed by the low-magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeater; (4) The relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars ; (5) A decreasing period derivative during magnetar ou...

  7. Drum inspection robots: Application development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE), drums containing mixed and low level stored waste are inspected, as mandated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and other regulations. The inspections are intended to prevent leaks by finding corrosion long before the drums are breached. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) has sponsored efforts towards the development of robotic drum inspectors. This emerging application for mobile and remote sensing has broad applicability for DOE and commercial waste storage areas. Three full scale robot prototypes have been under development, and another project has prototyped a novel technique to analyze robotically collected drum images. In general, the robots consist of a mobile, self-navigating base vehicle, outfitted with sensor packages so that rust and other corrosion cues can be automatically identified. They promise the potential to lower radiation dose and operator effort required, while improving diligence, consistency, and documentation

  8. Automotive sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Jiri; Illing, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Sensors are an essential component of most electronic systems in the car. They deliver input parameters for comfort features, engine and emission control as well as for the active and passive safety systems. New technologies such as silicon micromachining play an important role for the introduction of these sensors in all vehicle classes. The importance and use of these sensor technologies in today"s automotive applications will be shown in this article. Finally an outlook on important current developments and new functions in the car will be given.

  9. Comparative analysis into the tractor-trailer braking dynamics: tractor with single axle brakes, tractor with all wheel brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasoiu, Mircea; Ispas, Nicolae

    2014-06-01

    The paper elaborates a mathematical model in order to conduct a study into the dynamics of tractor-trailer systems during braking. The braking dynamics is analyzed by considering two versions for the braking system: 1) braking applied on the rear axle and 2) braking applied on all four wheels. In both versions the trailer is braked on all wheels. The mathematical model enables us to determine and graphically illustrate the evolution of the following parameters: braking deceleration, braking speed and the distance traveled by the tractor during braking. The mathematical model elaborated is applied on a tractor-trailer system completing transportation works.

  10. Experiments with airplane brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Franz

    1931-01-01

    This report begins by examining the forces on the brake shoes. For the determination of the load distribution over the shoes it was assumed that the brake linings follow Hooke's law, are neatly fitted and bedded in by wear. The assumption of Hooke's law, that is, the proportionality between compression of the lining and the absorption of force, is fulfilled to a certain extent for the loading, as becomes apparent from the load tests described further on. But there is a material discrepancy at unloading. From the load distribution we merely defined the position of the normal force resultant, while for the rest, the effect of the distribution was disregarded in the comparison of the different shoe dispositions.

  11. Tether Deployer And Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Joseph A.; Alexander, Charles M.

    1993-01-01

    Design concept promises speed, control, and reliability. Scheme for deploying tether provides for fast, free, and snagless payout and fast, dependable braking. Developed for small, expendable tethers in outer space, scheme also useful in laying transoceanic cables, deploying guidance wires to torpedoes and missiles, paying out rescue lines from ship to ship via rockets, deploying antenna wires, releasing communication and power cables to sonobuoys and expendable bathythermographs, and in reeling out lines from fishing rods.

  12. Brake assembly including torque monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a brake assembly for selectively braking rotation of an input shaft extending from a control rod drive having a longitudinal centerline axis, the shaft being rotatable for selectively inserting and withdrawing a control rod in a nuclear reactor vessel. It comprises a stationary base; an annular bearing mounted to the base; a brake mounted to the bearing; a backing plate mounted to the bearing; a first braking pad fixedly joined to the backing plate; a rotor disc fixedly connected to the input shaft and disposed adjacent to the first pad; a second braking pad disposed adjacent to the rotor disc; and means for selectively clamping the first and second pads against the rotor disc for braking the input shaft; means for torsionally restraining the brake including: a pin extending outwardly from the backing plate toward the base; and a spring extending from the base to the pin and generally perpendicular to the centerline axis; and means for monitoring the angle for monitoring braking torque capability of the brake

  13. Solid waste drum array fire performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, R.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Haecker, C.F. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States); Beitel, J.J.; Gottuck, D.T.; Rhodes, B.T.; Bayier, C.L. [Hughes Associates, Inc., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated waste are a major concern in DOE waste storage facilities. This report is the second of two reports on fire testing designed to provide data relative to the propagation of a fire among storage drum arrays. The first report covers testing of individual drums subjected to an initiating fire and the development of the analytical methodology to predict fire propagation among storage drum arrays. This report is the second report, which documents the results of drum array fire tests. The purpose of the array tests was to confirm the analytical methodology developed by Phase I fire testing. These tests provide conclusive evidence that fire will not propagate from drum to drum unless an continuous fuel source other than drum contents is provided.

  14. Solid waste drum array fire performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated waste are a major concern in DOE waste storage facilities. This report is the second of two reports on fire testing designed to provide data relative to the propagation of a fire among storage drum arrays. The first report covers testing of individual drums subjected to an initiating fire and the development of the analytical methodology to predict fire propagation among storage drum arrays. This report is the second report, which documents the results of drum array fire tests. The purpose of the array tests was to confirm the analytical methodology developed by Phase I fire testing. These tests provide conclusive evidence that fire will not propagate from drum to drum unless an continuous fuel source other than drum contents is provided

  15. A Secure Mechanism to Supervise Automotive Sensor Network by Client on Smart Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T R Yashavanth,

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal on design of a secureclient on smart phone to monitor automotive sensornetwork. Recently, more and more vehicles, such asBMW X5, are connected from outside via smartphone [3]. From smart phone, users can use theinternetresources in automotive.Users can monitorthe automotives by using their smart phones. Whenthe automotive is moving or stolen byrobber, alertinformation will be reported to users and users caneven brake their automotive via smart phone inemergency status by sending control command tothe vehicle information gateway. So client softwarein smart phone is required to monitor the sensornetwork in automotives.In order to preventmalicious attack on the client software by maliciousattackers which are usually the robbers, thereshould be a mechanism provided to the clientswhich offers security by considering few criteria’slike power of computation, level of security andconsumption of power. This proposed method usesIDEA for the encryption of all the messages since

  16. Techno-economic requirements for automotive composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Scot

    1993-01-01

    New technology generally serves two main goals of the automotive industry: one is to enable vehicles to comply with various governmental regulations and the other is to provide a competitive edge in the market. The latter goal can either be served through improved manufacturing and design capabilities, such as computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing, or through improved product performance, such as anti-lock braking (ABS). Although safety features are sometimes customer driven, such as the increasing use of airbags and ABS, most are determined by regulations as outlined by the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS). Other standards, set by the Environmental Protection Agency, determine acceptable levels of emissions and fuel consumption. State governments, such as in California, are also setting precedent standards, such as requiring manufacturers to offer zero-emission vehicles as a certain fraction of their sales in the state. The drive to apply new materials in the automobile stems from the need to reduce weight and improve fuel efficiency. Topics discussed include: new lightweight materials; types of automotive materials; automotive composite applications; the role for composite materials in automotive applications; advantages and disadvantages of composite materials; material substitution economics; economic perspective; production economics; and composite materials production economics.

  17. ON OPTIMUM DESIGN OF THE SHEARER DRUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaoChidong; ChenChong

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of the model experiments, a software for optimum design of the shearer drum has been developed, and the main parameters of a shearer drum also have been optimized. The combination of the techniques of optimization with the model experiment makes the designing and theoretical systems of the shearer drum more perfect.

  18. Offline Analysis of Independent Guarded Assertions in Automotive Integration Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo; Kobetski, Avenir; Sundmark, Daniel; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The size and complexity of software in automotive systems have increased steadily over the last decades. Modern vehicles typically contain numerous electrical control units (ECUs), and more and more features require real-time interaction between several dedicated ECUs (e.g., gearbox, brake and engine control units) in order to perform their tasks. Since system safety and reliability must not be adversely affected by this increase in complexity, proper quality assurance is a must. Such quality...

  19. Cubic Silicon Carbide: a promising material for automotive application

    OpenAIRE

    Attolini, Giovanni; Bosi, Matteo; Rossi, Francesca; Watts, Bernard Enrico; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2008-01-01

    carbide is a material that possesses properties that make it desirable in electronic, structural and sensor applications. As a wide band gap semiconductor it can be used in high power, high temperature electronics and harsh environments. Its hardness, wear resistance, chemical inertness, and thermal conductivity find uses ranging from disc brakes to micron scale sensors and actuators. The automotive industry faces some important challenges since it has obligations to manufacture safe, clean, ...

  20. Bygningers vådrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Erik

    Publikationen er udarbejdet i tilknytning til bygningsreglementet og viser hvordan gulve og vægge i vådrum kan udføres med blandt andet træ og træbaserede materialer, der ikke er gennemimprægneret mod råd og svamp. De konstruktionsforslag der beskrives er godkendt af boligministeriet....

  1. Automotive electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basshuysen, R. van [ed.; Baun, R. [comp.

    2000-10-01

    Electronic equipment is indispensable in modern motor cars for active and passive safety, exhaust and consumption monitoring or comfort. Electric and electronic systems today account for nearly 20 percent of the production cost of a normal passenger car, with an upward trend. Infotainment equipment is a growing market, which gets center stage in this issue. Further subjects discussed are current electronic and mechatronic applications as well as new developments in data transmission, development tools and constructional elements. [German] Ohne Elektronik sind moderne Automobile nicht mehr vorstellbar. Ob aktive oder passive Sicherheit, Abgas, Verbrauch oder Komfort - der Fortschritt im Autombil ist eng verknuepft mit der Einfuehrung neuer elektronischer Systeme und Komponenten. Obwohl meist nicht sehr auffaellig in einer Black-box verpackt, liegen die anteiligen Herstellungskosten fuer die Elektrik und Elektronik bei einem Mittelklassefahrzeug schon bei knapp 20 Prozent. Tendenz: Weiter steigend. Waehrend die Segnungen von ABS, ESP oder Motormanagement fuer den Kunden unsichtbar bleiben, tritt die Elektronik mit den Infotainment-Systemen ins Rampenlicht. Hochwertige Audio-Anlagen im Doppel-DIN-Format und grosse Farbbildschirme sitzen an prominenter Stelle im Armaturenbrett. Elektronische Systeme werden damit fuer den Kunden sichtbar, greifbar und erlebbar. Doch je mehr Funktionen integriert werden, desto wichtiger wird eine einfache Bedienung, die den Fahrer moeglichst wenig vom Verkehrsgeschehen ablenkt. Das ist leider keine Selbstverstaendlichkeit: Eine klare, einfache Bedienung wurde in der Vergangenheit schon bei so manchem simplen Cassetten-Radio schmerzlich vermisst. Infotainment im Automobil ist ein Wachstumsmarkt - und das Schwerpunkt-Thema der vorliegenden zweiten Ausgabe von 'Automotive Electronics'. Darueber hinaus beschaeftigt sich auch diese Ausgabe mit aktuellen Elektronik- und Mechatronik-Anwendungen und berichtet ueber neue Entwicklungen

  2. Automotive Aluminium Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelas, B. des

    2000-07-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview on the contribution of aluminium recycling in the supply of new aluminium for automotive applications. Based on a presentation on how the global European automotive aluminium supply requirements are met, an analysis of the present and future contribution of automotive aluminium recycling is first presented. Current situation and future developments for automotive aluminium recycling practices are then commented, together with an outline on design principles for easier aluminium recycling. (orig.)

  3. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  4. Automotive vehicle sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an introduction to the field of automotive vehicle sensors. It contains a prototype data base for companies working in automotive vehicle sensors, as well as a prototype data base for automotive vehicle sensors. A market analysis is also included.

  5. Pulsar braking: magnetodipole vs. wind

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, H

    2015-01-01

    Pulsars are good clocks in the universe. One fundamental question is that why they are good clocks? This is related to the braking mechanism of pulsars. Nowadays pulsar timing is done with unprecedented accuracy. More pulsars have braking indices measured. The period derivative of intermittent pulsars and magnetars can vary by a factor of several. However, during pulsar studies, the magnetic dipole braking in vacuum is still often assumed. It is shown that the fundamental assumption of magnetic dipole braking (vacuum condition) does not exist and it is not consistent with the observations. The physical torque must consider the presence of the pulsar magnetosphere. Among various efforts, the wind braking model can explain many observations of pulsars and magnetars in a unified way. It is also consistent with the up-to-date observations. It is time for a paradigm shift in pulsar studies: from magnetic dipole braking to wind braking. As one alternative to the magnetospheric model, the fallback disk model is also...

  6. Pulsar braking: magnetodipole vs. wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Pulsars are good clocks in the universe. One fundamental question is that why they are good clocks? This is related to the braking mechanism of pulsars. Nowadays pulsar timing is done with unprecedented accuracy. More pulsars have braking indices measured. The period derivative of intermittent pulsars and magnetars can vary by a factor of several. However, during pulsar studies, the magnetic dipole braking in vacuum is still often assumed. It is shown that the fundamental assumption of magnetic dipole braking (vacuum condition) does not exist and it is not consistent with the observations. The physical torque must consider the presence of the pulsar magnetosphere. Among various efforts, the wind braking model can explain many observations of pulsars and magnetars in a unified way. It is also consistent with the up-to-date observations. It is time for a paradigm shift in pulsar studies: from magnetic dipole braking to wind braking. As one alternative to the magnetospheric model, the fallback disk model is also discussed.

  7. Structural integrity evaluation of transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 4,400 Transuranic (TRU) waste drums have been found to contain standing rain water in the drum annulus, liner, or both. This has caused some pitting corrosion damage to the inside surface of the drums. A dewatering plan is underway to inspect these drums and determine their reusability. The drums will then be stored inside the weather enclosures to mitigate the corrosion problem. The storage and any subsequent handling may extend to next 20 years until these drums are transported for final disposal at Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report evaluates the loading conditions during storage and handling at SRS to ensure that these drums maintain their structural integrity. Structural analyses and fracture analyses have been performed to evaluate the storage and handling loading conditions of the drums. The analyses are based on the observation that the general corrosion will not be a concern in the weather enclosures. However, the pitting corrosion will continue to exist. Structural analyses using finite element techniques show that the drums containing 150 lbs to 800 lbs TRU waste could be safely handled under these conditions. Fracture analyses show that a drum containing 800 lbs of TRU waste could be safely handled provided a cluster of through wall corrosion pits is less than 4.0in. long. Some conclusions are derived from the drop tests performed at Sandia Labs. Drop tests at Sandia Labs were performed on new drums, however, some general observations can be made for the reusable SRS TRU drums (with some corrosion pitting) which are structurally sound and will have only limited corrosion in the future due to improved storage conditions. It is believed that the TRU drums, which have high ductility, will not fail (walls split apart) due to a postulated 10 foot drop. However, some drums which might develop localized pitting due to extended storage in the weather enclosures might fail in the event of a drop depending upon the location of corroded areas

  8. Elevated drum testing Phase 1 test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important part of the Hanford environmental mission is the packaging, transportation, and storage of solid radioactive wastes in metal drums. Presently storage drums are placed four to a wooden pallet with the drums banded to each other. Palletized drums are stacked three units high in pre-engineered steel structures in the 200 Area of the Hanford site. Permitted storage space is expensive to construct, maintain, and operate. Storage capacity is increased if additional drum can be stacked within existing facilities and a cost savings over new construction realized. The purpose of this plan is to outline the testing required to provide the safety criteria for elevated (i.e., tiers of four high) drum storage. The major safety concern with elevated drum storage is the danger of a significant fire in the storage facility. The major fire load within the storage facilities is combustible material contained in the drums. If a seismic event, fork lift accident, or other credible incident were to cause drum failure or lid separation, combustible material could be available for fuel. To increase the initial burn in the facilities, the drums must spill their combustible contents, making them free for ignition. If it can be shown that there is not sufficient damage to the drums to allow for release of their solid contents, then the data used for safety documentation will be re-examined. Preliminary tests conducted in the configurations detailed in this test plan have shown that drums maintain their integrity; that is the drum covers remain attached and the drums do not breach. These tests will be conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company, Equipment Development organization, who is the designated DOE Center of Excellence to conduct drop tests for Department of Transportation (DOT) certification of DOE designed packages and containers

  9. Transient switching control strategy from regenerative braking to anti-lock braking with a semi-brake-by-wire system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Xujian; Wang, Xiangyu; Liu, Yahui; Song, Jian; Ran, Xu

    2016-02-01

    Regenerative braking is an important technology in improving fuel economy of an electric vehicle (EV). However, additional motor braking will change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle, leading to braking instability, especially when the anti-lock braking system (ABS) is triggered. In this paper, a novel semi-brake-by-wire system, without the use of a pedal simulator and fail-safe device, is proposed. In order to compensate for the hysteretic characteristics of the designed brake system while ensure braking reliability and fuel economy when the ABS is triggered, a novel switching compensation control strategy using sliding mode control is brought forward. The proposed strategy converts the complex coupling braking process into independent control of hydraulic braking and regenerative braking, through which a balance between braking performance, braking reliability, braking safety and fuel economy is achieved. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy is effective and adaptable in different road conditions while the large wheel slip rate is triggered during a regenerative braking course. The research provides a new possibility of low-cost equipment and better control performance for the regenerative braking in the EV and the hybrid EV.

  10. Thermal Characterisation of Brake Pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramousse, Séverine; Høj, Jakob Weiland; Sørensen, O. T.

    2001-01-01

    The chemical-physical decomposition processes that occur in a brake pad heated to 1000degreesC have been studied. This temperature can be reached when a brake pad is applied. Thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis were used in combination with evolved gas analysis, and image analysis...... using a scanning electron microscope.A brake pad is essentially a mixture of iron, carbon and binder. Combined techniques have been used, because of chemical reaction overlap, to determine how and at what temperature the binder decomposes, the coal and graphite combust and the iron oxidises.This work...

  11. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • Evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology in lung or pleural cavity observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite quickly

  12. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, D.M., E-mail: davidb@itox.ch [Consultant in Toxicology, Geneva (Switzerland); Rogers, R.A., E-mail: rarogers5@yahoo.com [Rogers Imaging, Needham, MA (United States); Sepulveda, R. [Rogers Imaging, Needham, MA (United States); Kunzendorf, P., E-mail: Peter.Kunzendorf@GSA-Ratingen.de [GSA Gesellschaft für Schadstoffanalytik mbH, Ratingen (Germany); Bellmann, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Ernst, H., E-mail: Heinrich.ernst@item.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Creutzenberg, O. [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Phillips, J.I., E-mail: jim.phillips@nioh.nhls.ac.za [National Institute for Occupational Health, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg South Africa and Department of Biomedical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • Evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology in lung or pleural cavity observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite quickly

  13. Performance analysis of a waste heat recovery thermoelectric generation system for automotive application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A new automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generator and its “four-TEGs” system are constructed, and the performance characteristics of system are discussed through road test and revolving drum test. - Highlights: • The automotive thermoelectric generator system was constructed and studied. • Road test and revolving drum test were used to measure the output power. • A performance of 201.7 V (open circuit voltage)/944 W obtained. - Abstract: Thermoelectric power generators are one of the promising green energy sources. In this case study, an energy-harvesting system which extracts heat from an automotive exhaust pipe and turns the heat into electricity by using thermoelectric power generators (TEGs) has been constructed. The test bench is developed to analysis the performance of TEG system characteristics, which are undertaken to assess the feasibility of automotive applications. Based on the test bench, a new system called “four-TEGs” system is designed and assembled into prototype vehicle called “Warrior”, through the road test and revolving drum test table, characteristics of the system such as hot-side temperature, cold-side temperature, open circuit voltage and power output are studied, and a maximum power of 944 W was obtained, which completely meets the automotive application. The present study shows the promising potential of using this kind of thermoelectric generator for low-temperature waste heat recovery vehicle

  14. Selection of magnetorheological brake types via optimal design considering maximum torque and constrained volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research focuses on optimal design of different types of magnetorheological brakes (MRBs), from which an optimal selection of MRB types is identified. In the optimization, common types of MRB such as disc-type, drum-type, hybrid-types, and T-shaped type are considered. The optimization problem is to find the optimal value of significant geometric dimensions of the MRB that can produce a maximum braking torque. The MRB is constrained in a cylindrical volume of a specific radius and length. After a brief description of the configuration of MRB types, the braking torques of the MRBs are derived based on the Herschel–Bulkley model of the MR fluid. The optimal design of MRBs constrained in a specific cylindrical volume is then analysed. The objective of the optimization is to maximize the braking torque while the torque ratio (the ratio of maximum braking torque and the zero-field friction torque) is constrained to be greater than a certain value. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is employed to obtain optimal solutions of the MRBs. Optimal solutions of MRBs constrained in different volumes are obtained based on the proposed optimization procedure. From the results, discussions on the optimal selection of MRB types depending on constrained volumes are given. (paper)

  15. The Role of Solid Lubricants for Brake Friction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Österle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This review article comprises of three parts. Firstly, reports of brake manufacturers on the beneficial impact of solid lubricants for pad formulations are surveyed. Secondly, since tribofilms were identified to play a crucial role in friction stabilization and wear reduction, the knowledge about tribofilm structures formed during automotive braking was reviewed comprehensively. Finally, a model for simulating the sliding behavior of tribofilms is suggested and a review on modelling efforts with different model structures related to real tribofilms will be presented. Although the variety of friction composites involved in commercial brake systems is very broad, striking similarities were observed in respect to tribofilm nanostructures. Thus, a generalization of the tribofilm nanostructure is suggested and prerequisites for smooth sliding performance and minimal wear rates have been identified. A minimum of 13 vol % of soft inclusions embedded in an iron oxide based tribofilm is crucial for obtaining the desired properties. As long as the solid lubricants or their reaction products are softer than magnetite, the main constituent of the tribofilm, the model predicts smooth sliding and minimum wear.

  16. Hardware-in-the-loop of Simulation for a Hydraulic Antilock Brake System

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman A. Aly

    2013-01-01

    Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) of simulation policy is used as a rapid and economical tool for developing automotive systems effectively and for dangerous situations tests such as extreme road conditions or high travelling speeds. A method for building a HIL of simulation a hydraulic Antilock Braking System (ABS) based on MATLAB/Simulink is presented in this paper. The system is implemented for research purposes as well as for the application in educational process. It can help the user heighteni...

  17. Analysis of the minimum swerving distance for the development of a motorcycle autonomous braking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Federico; Savino, Giovanni; Pierini, Marco; Baldanzini, Niccolò

    2013-10-01

    In the recent years the autonomous emergency brake (AEB) was introduced in the automotive field to mitigate the injury severity in case of unavoidable collisions. A crucial element for the activation of the AEB is to establish when the obstacle is no longer avoidable by lateral evasive maneuvers (swerving). In the present paper a model to compute the minimum swerving distance needed by a powered two-wheeler (PTW) to avoid the collision against a fixed obstacle, named last-second swerving model (Lsw), is proposed. The effectiveness of the model was investigated by an experimental campaign involving 12 volunteers riding a scooter equipped with a prototype autonomous emergency braking, named motorcycle autonomous emergency braking system (MAEB). The tests showed the performance of the model in evasive trajectory computation for different riding styles and fixed obstacles. PMID:23792616

  18. The coke drum thermal kinetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldescu, Maria M.; Romero, Sim; Larson, Mel [KBC Advanced Technologies plc, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The coke drum thermal kinetic dynamics fundamentally affect the coker unit yields as well as the coke product properties and unit reliability. In the drum the thermal cracking and polymerization or condensation reactions take place in a semi-batch environment. Understanding the fundamentals of the foaming kinetics that occur in the coke drums is key to avoiding a foam-over that could result in a unit shutdown for several months. Although the most dynamic changes with time occur during drum filling, other dynamics of the coker process will be discussed as well. KBC has contributed towards uncovering and modelling the complexities of heavy oil thermal dynamics. (author)

  19. Brake Performance Analysis of ABS for Eddy Current and Electrohydraulic Hybrid Brake System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an eddy current and electro-hydraulic hybrid brake system to solve problems such as wear, thermal failure, and slow response of traditional vehicle brake system. Mathematical model was built to calculate the torque of the eddy current brake system and hydraulic brake system and analyze the braking force distribution between two types of brake systems. A fuzzy controller on personal computer based on LabVIEW and Matlab was designed and a set of hardware in the loop system was constructed to validate and analyze the performance of the hybrid brake system. Through lots of experiments on dry and wet asphalt roads, the hybrid brake system achieves perfect performance on the experimental bench, the hybrid system reduces abrasion and temperature of the brake disk, response speed is enhanced obviously, fuzzy controller keeps high utilization coefficient due to the optimal slip ratio regulation, and the total brake time has a smaller decrease than traditional hydraulic brake system.

  20. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF CRANE BRAKE PARAMETERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The high failure rate of crane brake results from improper choice of braking torque. The mathematical model of reliability for the crane brake parameters is introduced. Based on large amount of actual data the parameter reliabilities of 5~50 t general overhead travelling cranes are calculated,the probabilities that the braking torque is less than the static torque acting on the axle when the load moves down are obtained. Moreover,the ways to improve the reliability of brake parameters are discussed,the most reasonable values of braking safety coefficient are given.

  1. Nonlinear transient and chaotic interactions in disc brake squeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-04-01

    In automotive disc-brake squeal, most numerical studies have been focussed on the prediction of unstable vibration modes in the frequency domain using the complex eigenvalue analysis. However, the magnitude of the positive real part of a complex eigenvalue is an unreliable indicator of squeal occurrence. Although nonlinearities have been shown to play a significant role in brake squeal, transient nonlinear time domain analyses have rarely been applied owing to high computational costs. Here the complex eigenvalue analysis, the direct steady-state analysis and the transient nonlinear time domain analysis are applied to an isotropic pad-on-disc finite element model representing a simple model of a brake system. While in this investigation, in-plane pad-mode instabilities are not detected by the complex eigenvalue analysis, the dissipated energy obtained by the direct steady-state analysis of the model subjected to harmonic contact pressure excitation is negative at frequencies of pad modes, indicating a potential for instabilities. Transient nonlinear time domain analysis of the pad and disc dynamics reveal that in-plane pad vibrations excite a dominant out-of-plane disc mode. For intermittently chaotic pad motion, the disc dynamics is quasi-periodic; and for chaotic motion of the pad, a toroidal attractor is found for the disc's out-of-plane motion. Nonlinear interactions between the pad and the disc highlight that different parts in a brake system display different dynamic behaviour and need to be analysed separately. The type II intermittency route to chaos could be the cause for the experimentally observed instantaneous mode squeal.

  2. The influence of tyre contact patch and on the stopping distance of automotive vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, M.; Ball, A.; Ash, J.; Schmidt, K.

    2012-05-01

    This contribution presents the experimental tests results about the influence of the tyre contact patch on the stopping distance of automotive vehicles. The objective of the performed tests is the evaluation of the effect of tyre inflation pressure, hence the resulting tyre contact patch on the braking system and the brake distance. The conditions of the experiment are a dry and level road surface without steering inputs. To record scientific results, a brake robot system is used. The benefit of a robotic system is the elimination of the interfering variable driver, who is not able to apply the brake system at the same time with the same force. State-of-the-art data acquisition tools are used to log the data.

  3. The influence of tyre contact patch and on the stopping distance of automotive vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution presents the experimental tests results about the influence of the tyre contact patch on the stopping distance of automotive vehicles. The objective of the performed tests is the evaluation of the effect of tyre inflation pressure, hence the resulting tyre contact patch on the braking system and the brake distance. The conditions of the experiment are a dry and level road surface without steering inputs. To record scientific results, a brake robot system is used. The benefit of a robotic system is the elimination of the interfering variable driver, who is not able to apply the brake system at the same time with the same force. State-of-the-art data acquisition tools are used to log the data.

  4. Automotive factory network renewal

    OpenAIRE

    Scicluna, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this applied thesis was to plan, implement, and study the upgrading the network infrastructure in Valmet Automotive Oy, specifically in its Uusikaupunki factory. Valmet Automotive is a Finnish automotive service provider, focusing on premium vehicles, convertible roof systems and electric vehicles. The objective was to plan and implement a networking infrastructure that could support the load of a factory in full-scale production, while ensuring near-constant availability. T...

  5. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  6. One-trip drum operating instruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruff, D.T.

    1994-10-01

    The one trip system is a bagless transfer system for egress of waste from gloveboxes into 55 gallon one-trip drums. The contents of this document give an overview of the assembly, loading, and handling of the one-trip drum for use in the WRAP-1 plant.

  7. One-trip drum operating instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The one trip system is a bagless transfer system for egress of waste from gloveboxes into 55 gallon one-trip drums. The contents of this document give an overview of the assembly, loading, and handling of the one-trip drum for use in the WRAP-1 plant

  8. Magnetic braking in ultracompact binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Angular momentum loss in ultracompact binaries, such as the AM Canum Venaticorum stars, is usually assumed to be due entirely to gravitational radiation. Motivated by the outflows observed in ultracompact binaries, we investigate whether magnetically coupled winds could in fact lead to substantial additional angular momentum losses. We remark that the scaling relations often invoked for the relative importance of gravitational and magnetic braking do not apply, and instead use simple non-empirical expressions for the braking rates. In order to remove significant angular momentum, the wind must be tied to field lines anchored in one of the binary's component stars; uncertainties remain as to the driving mechanism for such a wind. In the case of white dwarf accretors, we find that magnetic braking can potentially remove angular momentum on comparable or even shorter timescales than gravitational waves over a large range in orbital period. We present such a solution for the 17-minute binary AM CVn itself which a...

  9. Brakes, brake control and driver assistance systems function, regulation and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Braking systems have been continuously developed and improved throughout the last years. Major milestones were the introduction of antilock braking system (ABS) and electronic stability program. This reference book provides a detailed description of braking components and how they interact in electronic braking systems. Contents Motor vehicle safety.- Basic principles of vehicle dynamics.- Car braking systems.- Car braking-system components.- Wheel brakes.- Antilock breaking systems.- Traction control system.- Electronic stability program.- Automatic brake functions.- Hydraulic modulator.- Sensors for brake control.- Sensotronic brake control.- Active steering.- Occupant protection systems.- Driver assistance systems.- Adaptive cruise control.- Parking systems.- Instrumentation.- Orientation methods.- Navigation systems.- Workshop technology. The target groups Motor-vehicle technicians in education and vocational training Master-mechanics and technicians in garage-workshops Teachers and lecturers in vocation...

  10. Sound analysis of a cup drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Young Physicists’ Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide tournament that evaluates a high-school student's ability to solve various physics conundrums that have not been fully resolved in the past. The research presented here is my solution to the cup drum problem. The physics behind a cup drum has never been explored or modelled. A cup drum is a musical instrument that can generate different frequencies and amplitudes depending on the location of a cup held upside-down over, on or under a water surface. The tapping sound of a cup drum can be divided into two components: standing waves and plate vibration. By individually researching the nature of these two sounds, I arrived at conclusions that could accurately predict the frequencies in most cases. When the drum is very close to the surface, qualitative explanations are given. In addition, I examined the trend of the tapping sound amplitude at various distances and qualitatively explained the experimental results. (paper)

  11. BRAKING OF HIGH-SPEED PASSENGER TRAINS WITH REGARD TO THE OPERATION OF AN ELECTROMAGNETIC RAIL BRAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Je. Naumenko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The research of the braking process of high-speed passenger train with the use of compressed-air, electropneumatic and electromagnetic track brakes is carried out. The dependences of braking distance on motion speed for vehicles equipped by block or disk brakes as well as for a case of electromagnetic track brakes used in addition to existing braking means.

  12. 汽车用胶管的发展%Development of Automotive Hose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙克俭

    2014-01-01

    介绍汽车液压制动胶管、汽车动力转向胶管和汽车制冷系统胶管等的主体材料、结构及其发展。DOT4和DOT5等新型制动液以及二氧化碳和HFO-1234yf等新型制冷剂的应用对胶管性能提出了更高的要求。随着汽车电子制动系统和电动转向系统的发展,汽车胶管在制动和转向这2个领域的应用将有所减少。%The development of materials and hose structure for automotive hydraulic brake hose, power steering hose and cooling system hose is presented in this paper. With the use of new brake lfuid DOT4 and DOT5, new refrigerant carbon dioxide and HFO-1234yf, the performance requirements on automotive hoses are raised. At the same time, as the increasing use of electronic braking system and electronic power steering system, the usage of automotive hose in the braking and steering systems would be reduced.

  13. Kentucky's Automotive Certification Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Office of Vocational Education.

    The state of Kentucky recognized a need to standardize automotive mechanics training throughout the state and to establish minimum guidelines for the quality of instruction in such programs. To meet these needs, the Office of Vocational Education selected the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) and began the certification…

  14. Automotive Industry in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter; Govindaraju, V.G.R. Chandran

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains the evolution and assesses the development of the Malaysian automotive industry within the premise of infant industry and trade protection framework as well as extended arguments of infant industry using a global value chain perspective. The Malaysian automotive industry...

  15. Automotive Technology Skill Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Tom; Asay, Don; Evans, Richard; Barbie, Bill; Herdener, John; Teague, Todd; Allen, Scott; Benshoof, James

    2009-01-01

    The standards in this document are for Automotive Technology programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school automotive program. Minimally, the student will complete a three-year program to achieve all standards. Although these exit-level standards are designed…

  16. 49 CFR 238.231 - Brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake system. 238.231 Section 238.231... Equipment § 238.231 Brake system. Except as otherwise provided in this section, on or after September 9... train's primary brake system shall be capable of stopping the train with a service application from...

  17. Compact, Lightweight Servo-Controllable Brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovchik, Christopher S.; Townsend, William; Guertin, Jeffrey; Matsuoka, Yoky

    2010-01-01

    Compact, lightweight servo-controllable brakes capable of high torques are being developed for incorporation into robot joints. A brake of this type is based partly on the capstan effect of tension elements. In a brake of the type under development, a controllable intermediate state of torque is reached through on/off switching at a high frequency.

  18. On the potential of uncertainty analysis for prediction of brake squeal propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Oberst, Sebastian; Lai, Joseph C. S.

    2016-09-01

    Brake squeal is a source of significant warranty-related claims for automotive manufacturers because it is annoying and is often perceived by customers as a safety concern. A brake squeal analysis is complex due to changing environmental and operating conditions, high sensitivity to manufacturing and assembly tolerances as well as the not so well understood role of nonlinearities. Although brake squeal is essentially a nonlinear problem, the standard analysis tool in industry is the linear complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) which may under-predict or over-predict the number of unstable vibration modes. A nonlinear instability analysis is more predictive than CEA but is still computationally too expensive to be used routinely in industry for a full brake finite element model. Also, although the net work analysis of a linearised brake system has shown potential in predicting the origin of brake squeal, it has not been extensively used. In this study, the net work of an analytical viscously damped self-excited 4-dof friction oscillator with cubic contact force nonlinearity is compared with the instability prediction using the CEA and a nonlinear instability analysis. Results show that both the net work analysis and CEA under-predict the instability because of their inability to detect the sub-critical Hopf bifurcation. Then, the uncertainty analysis is applied to examine if it can improve instability prediction of a nonlinear system using linear methods and its limitations. By applying a variance-based global sensitivity analysis to parameters of the oscillator, suitable candidates for an uncertainty analysis are identified. Results of uncertainty analyses by applying polynomial chaos expansions to net work and CEA correlate well with those of the nonlinear analysis, hence demonstrating the potential of an uncertainty analysis in improving the prediction of brake squeal propensity using a linear method.

  19. LOAD DISTRIBUTION ON DRUMS OF DOUBLE DRIVE BELT CONVEYOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛河; 苏清祖; 马胜利

    1999-01-01

    The double drum drive is widely used on the mine belt conveyor, which are divided the rigid connected double drums and separately driving double drums according to connected method of two drums. Because of the change of real work condition, the load distribution is changed on the two drive drums, which may produce a slippage between a drum and belt. Slippage may intensify the wear of the drum, and sometimes causing the fire of the belt. This restricts the development toward narrow belt, high velocity and large power of belt conveyor. In this paper, the factors affecting the load distribution of two drums of double drum belt conveyor are'systematically analyzed and some computing formulas derived, by these formulas, the actual load distribution onthe two drums of rigid connected or separately driving belt conveyor can be separately calculated. These formulas also can be as the theory base for adjusting the driving force of two drums.

  20. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  1. FIFTY-FIVE GALLON DRUM STANDARD STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-five gallon drums are routinely used within the U.S. for the storage and eventual disposal of fissionable materials as Transuranic or low-level waste. To support these operations, criticality safety evaluations are required. A questionnaire was developed and sent to selected Endusers at Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site to solicit current practices. This questionnaire was used to gather information on the kinds of fissionable materials packaged into drums, the models used in performing criticality safety evaluations in support of operations involving these drums, and the limits and controls established for the handling and storage of these drums. The completed questionnaires were reviewed and clarifications solicited through individual communications with each Enduser to obtain more complete and consistent responses. All five sites have similar drum operations involving thousands to tens of thousands of fissionable material waste drums. The primary sources for these drums are legacy (prior operations) and decontamination and decommissioning wastes at all sites except Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results from this survey and our review are discussed in this paper

  2. Seismic behavior analysis of piled drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In general, low level radioactive waste is packed in drums and stored in a warehouse being piled vertically, or laid horizontally. To observe the behavior of piled drums during an earthquake, an experimental study was reported. The experimental study is limited by the vibrating platform capacity. To carry out these tests up to the supporting limit is not recommended, in view of the vibrating platform curing as well as the operators' security. It is very useful to develop the analytical method for simulating the behavior of the drums. In this report, a computer program of piled drum's dynamic motion is shown, and the analytical result is referred to the experimental result. From the result of experiment on piled drums, the sliding effect has been found to be very important for the stability of drum, and the rocking motion observed, showing a little acceleration is less than the static estimated value. Behavior of piled drums is a complex phenomena comprising of sliding, rocking and jumping

  3. TRU drum corrosion task team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During routine inspections in March 1996, transuranic (TRU) waste drums stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) were found with pinholes and leaking fluid. These drums were overpacked, and further inspection discovered over 200 drums with similar corrosion. A task team was assigned to investigate the problem with four specific objectives: to identify any other drums in RWMC TRU storage with pinhole corrosion; to evaluate the adequacy of the RWMC inspection process; to determine the precise mechanism(s) generating the pinhole drum corrosion; and to assess the implications of this event for WIPP certifiability of waste drums. The task team investigations analyzed the source of the pinholes to be Hcl-induced localized pitting corrosion. Hcl formation is directly related to the polychlorinated hydrocarbon volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste. Most of the drums showing pinhole corrosion are from Content Code-003 (CC-003) because they contain the highest amounts of polychlorinated VOCs as determined by headspace gas analysis. CC-001 drums represent the only other content code with a significant number of pinhole corrosion drums because their headspace gas VOC content, although significantly less than CC-003, is far greater than that of the other content codes. The exact mechanisms of Hcl formation could not be determined, but radiolytic and reductive dechlorination and direct reduction of halocarbons were analyzed as the likely operable reactions. The team considered the entire range of feasible options, ranked and prioritized the alternatives, and recommended the optimal solution that maximizes protection of worker and public safety while minimizing impacts on RWMC and TRU program operations

  4. TRU drum corrosion task team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooda, K.E.; Lavery, C.A.; Zeek, D.P.

    1996-05-01

    During routine inspections in March 1996, transuranic (TRU) waste drums stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) were found with pinholes and leaking fluid. These drums were overpacked, and further inspection discovered over 200 drums with similar corrosion. A task team was assigned to investigate the problem with four specific objectives: to identify any other drums in RWMC TRU storage with pinhole corrosion; to evaluate the adequacy of the RWMC inspection process; to determine the precise mechanism(s) generating the pinhole drum corrosion; and to assess the implications of this event for WIPP certifiability of waste drums. The task team investigations analyzed the source of the pinholes to be Hcl-induced localized pitting corrosion. Hcl formation is directly related to the polychlorinated hydrocarbon volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste. Most of the drums showing pinhole corrosion are from Content Code-003 (CC-003) because they contain the highest amounts of polychlorinated VOCs as determined by headspace gas analysis. CC-001 drums represent the only other content code with a significant number of pinhole corrosion drums because their headspace gas VOC content, although significantly less than CC-003, is far greater than that of the other content codes. The exact mechanisms of Hcl formation could not be determined, but radiolytic and reductive dechlorination and direct reduction of halocarbons were analyzed as the likely operable reactions. The team considered the entire range of feasible options, ranked and prioritized the alternatives, and recommended the optimal solution that maximizes protection of worker and public safety while minimizing impacts on RWMC and TRU program operations.

  5. 49 CFR 178.504 - Standards for steel drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel drums. 178.504 Section 178.504...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.504 Standards for steel drums. (a) The following are identification codes for steel drums: (1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and (2) 1A2...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drums and containers. 1915.173 Section 1915.173 Labor... Vessels, Drums and Containers, Other Than Ship's Equipment § 1915.173 Drums and containers. (a) Shipping drums and containers shall not be pressurized to remove their contents. (b) A temporarily...

  7. Eddy current braking experiment using brake disc from aluminium series of A16061 and A17075

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electromagnetic braking using eddy current was studied, focused on two series of aluminium as the brake disc which are A16061 and A17075. This paper presents the comparison for both series in a few varied parameters related to eddy current braking such as air-gap, number of turns and brake disc thickness. Optical tachometer has been used along with PULSE analyzer to capture the speed (rpm) and time (s). The findings shows that the smaller the air-gap, the larger of electromagnet turns and the thicker disc thickness is, will generate higher braking torque to stop the rotational motion of disc brake and give great performance for eddy current braking. Thos parameters that been evaluated also addressed a potential on expanding this knowledge to develop an electromagnetic braking system to replace the conventional braking system.

  8. A Sludge Drum in the APNea System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensley, D.

    1998-11-17

    The assay of sludge drums pushes the APNea System to a definite extreme. Even though it seems clear that neutron based assay should be the method of choice for sludge drums, the difficulties posed by this matrix push any NDA technique to its limits. Special emphasis is given here to the differential die-away technique, which appears to approach the desired sensitivity. A parallel analysis of ethafoam drums will be presented, since the ethafoam matrix fits well within the operating range of the AIWea System, and, having been part of the early PDP trials, has been assayed by many in the NDA community.

  9. Laser metrology — a diagnostic tool in automotive development processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeck, Manfred-Andreas; Hentschel, Werner

    2000-08-01

    Laser measurement techniques are widely used in automotive development processes. Applications at Volkswagen are presented where laser metrology works as a diagnostic tool for analysing and optimising complex coupled processes inside and between automotive components and structures such as the reduction of a vehicle's interior or outer acoustic noise, including brake noise, and the combustion analysis for diesel and gasoline engines to further reduce fuel consumption and pollution. Pulsed electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) and holographic interferometry are used for analysing the knocking behaviour of modern engines and for correct positioning of knocking sensors. Holographic interferometry shows up the vibrational behaviour of brake components and their interaction during braking, and allows optimisation for noise-free brake systems. Scanning laser vibrometry analyses structure-born noise of a whole car body for the optimisation of its interior acoustical behaviour.Modern engine combustion concepts such as in direct-injection (DI) gasoline and diesel engines benefit from laser diagnostic tools which permit deeper insight into the in-cylinder processes such as flow generation, fuel injection and spray formation, atomisation and mixing, ignition and combustion, and formation and reduction of pollutants. The necessary optical access inside a cylinder is realised by so-called 'transparent engines' allowing measurements nearly during the whole engine cycle. Measurement techniques and results on double-pulse particle image velocimetry (PIV) with a frequency-doubled YAG laser for in-cylinder flow analysis are presented, as well as Mie-scattering on droplets using a copper vapour laser combined with high-speed filming, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) with an excimer laser for spray and fuel vapour analysis.

  10. Over-Pressurized Drums: Their Causes and Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Fred; Kuntamukkula, Murty; Quigley, David; Robertson, Janeen; Freshwater, David

    2009-07-10

    Having to contend with bulging or over-pressurized drums is, unfortunately, a common event for people storing chemicals and chemical wastes. (Figure 1) The Department of Energy alone reported over 120 incidents of bulging drums between 1992 and 1999 (1). Bulging drums can be caused by many different mechanisms, represent a number of significant hazards and can be tricky to mitigate. In this article, we will discuss reasons or mechanisms by which drums can become over-pressurized, recognition of the hazards associated with and mitigation of over-pressurized drums, and methods that can be used to prevent drum over-pressurization from ever occurring. Drum pressurization can represent a significant safety hazard. Unless recognized and properly mitigated, improperly manipulated pressurized drums can result in employee exposure, employee injury, and environmental contamination. Therefore, recognition of when a drum is pressurized and knowledge of pressurized drum mitigation techniques is essential.

  11. The eigenspectra of Indian musical drums

    CERN Document Server

    Sathej, G

    2008-01-01

    In a family of drums used in the Indian subcontinent, the circular drum head is made of material of non-uniform density. Remarkably, and in contrast to a circular membrane of uniform density, the low eigenmodes of the non-uniform membrane are harmonic. In this work we model the drum head by a non-uniform membrane whose density varies smoothly between two prescribed values. Using a Fourier-Chebyshev spectral collocation method we obtain the eigenmodes and eigenvalues of the drum head. For a suitable choice of parameters, which we find by optimising a cost function, the eigenspectra obtained from our model are in excellent agreement with experimental values. Our model and the numerical method should find application in numerical sound synthesis.

  12. How dangerous are these waste drums really?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statement by the chairman of the GDCH experts group 'Nuclear Chemistry', concerning the hazardous potential of the radioactive waste drums allegedly shipped back to the German operators with false labels after conditioning in Mol. (RB)

  13. National Automotive Center - NAC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Encouraged by the advantages of collaboration, the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) worked with the Secretary of the...

  14. Making aerospace technology work for the automotive industry, introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    NASA derived technology already in use in the automotive industry include: (1) developments in electronics design, computer systems, and quality control methods for line testing of cars and trucks; (2) a combustion analysis computer program for automotive engine research and development; (3) an infrared scanner and television display for analyzing tire design and performance, and for studying the effects of heat on the service life of V-belts, shock mounts, brakes, and rubber bearings; (4) exhaust gas analyzers for trouble shooting and emissions certification; (5) a device for reducing noise from trucks; and (6) a low cost test vehicle for measuring highway skid resistance. Services offered by NASA to facilitate access to its technology are described.

  15. Automotive Software & Service Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Zauner, Andreas; Hoffmann, Holger; Leimeister, Jan Marco; Krcmar, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Automotive Software und Services (ASS) sind zentrale Innovationstreiber in der Automobilindustrie und gewinnen zunehmend an Bedeutung. In diesem Arbeitsbericht beschreiben wir die aktuellen Herausforderungen bei der Erstellung von ASS sowie Entwicklungstrends in der Dom?ne, jeweils aus Sicht der wesentlichen Stakeholder in der Industrie auf Basis von 21 Experteninterviews. Dazu geben wir einen ?berblick ?ber bestehende Automotive Software und beschreiben unser methodisches Vorgehen bei der Da...

  16. 49 CFR 230.77 - Foundation brake gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 230.77 Section 230.77... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.77 Foundation brake gear. (a) Maintenance. Foundation brake gear...) Distance above the rails. No part of the foundation brake gear of the steam locomotive or tender shall...

  17. 49 CFR 570.55 - Hydraulic brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic brake system. 570.55 Section 570.55... 10,000 Pounds § 570.55 Hydraulic brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with hydraulic brake systems. (a) Brake system failure indicator. The hydraulic brake system failure...

  18. Electromagnetic braking for Mars spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    Aerobraking concepts are being studied to improve performance and cost effectiveness of propulsion systems for Mars landers and Mars interplanetary spacecraft. Access to megawatt power levels (nuclear power coupled to high-storage inductive or capacitive devices) on a manned Mars interplanetary spacecraft may make feasible electromagnetic braking and lift modulation techniques which were previously impractical. Using pulsed microwave and magnetic field technology, potential plasmadynamic braking and hydromagnetic lift modulation techniques have been identified. Entry corridor modulation to reduce loads and heating, to reduce vertical descent rates, and to expand horizontal and lateral landing ranges are possible benefits. In-depth studies are needed to identify specific design concepts for feasibility assessments. Standing wave/plasma sheath interaction techniques appear to be promising. The techniques may require some tailoring of spacecraft external structures and materials. In addition, rapid response guidance and control systems may require the use of structurally embedded sensors coupled to expert systems or to artificial intelligence systems.

  19. Falling Magnets and Electromagnetic Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbreath, Christopher; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2009-03-01

    The slow fall of a rare earth magnet through a copper pipe is a striking example of electromagnetic braking; this remarkable phenomenon has been the subject of a number of scientific paper s [1, 2]. In a pipe having radius R and wall thickness D, the terminal velocity of the falling magnet is proportional to (R̂4)/D. It is interesting to ask what happens in the limit as D becomes very large. We report our experimental observations and theoretical predictions of the dependence of the terminal velocity on pipe radius R for large D. [1] Y. Levin, F.L. da Silveira, and F.B. Rizzato, ``Electromagnetic braking: A simple quantitative model''. American Journal of Physics, 74(9): p. 815-817 (2006). [2] J.A. Pelesko, M. Cesky, and S. Huertas, Lenz's law and dimensional analysis. American Journal of Physics, 3(1): p. 37-39. 2005.

  20. What brakes the Crab pulsar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čadež, A.; Zampieri, L.; Barbieri, C.; Calvani, M.; Naletto, G.; Barbieri, M.; Ponikvar, D.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Optical observations provide convincing evidence that the optical phase of the Crab pulsar follows the radio one closely. Since optical data do not depend on dispersion measure variations, they provide a robust and independent confirmation of the radio timing solution. Aims: The aim of this paper is to find a global mathematical description of Crab pulsar's phase as a function of time for the complete set of published Jodrell Bank radio ephemerides (JBE) in the period 1988-2014. Methods: We apply the mathematical techniques developed for analyzing optical observations to the analysis of JBE. We break the whole period into a series of episodes and express the phase of the pulsar in each episode as the sum of two analytical functions. The first function is the best-fitting local braking index law, and the second function represents small residuals from this law with an amplitude of only a few turns, which rapidly relaxes to the local braking index law. Results: From our analysis, we demonstrate that the power law index undergoes "instantaneous" changes at the time of observed jumps in rotational frequency (glitches). We find that the phase evolution of the Crab pulsar is dominated by a series of constant braking law episodes, with the braking index changing abruptly after each episode in the range of values between 2.1 and 2.6. Deviations from such a regular phase description behave as oscillations triggered by glitches and amount to fewer than 40 turns during the above period, in which the pulsar has made more than 2 × 1010 turns. Conclusions: Our analysis does not favor the explanation that glitches are connected to phenomena occurring in the interior of the pulsar. On the contrary, timing irregularities and changes in slow down rate seem to point to electromagnetic interaction of the pulsar with the surrounding environment.

  1. Friction Wear Property of Brake Materials by Copper-based Powder Metallurgy With Various Brake Speeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-xiu; GAO Hong-xia; WEI Xiu-lan

    2004-01-01

    The experiment is conducted on MM-1000 friction test machine, which tests friction wear property of copper-based brake materials by powder metallurgy at different brake speeds. It shows that the coefficient of friction and wear volume are greatly influenced by brake speed. When the brake speed is 4000 r/min, which is a bit higher, the material still has a higher coefficient of friction with 0.47. When the brake speed is over 4000r/min, the coefficient of friction decreased rapidly. When the brake speed is 3000r/min, the material's wear is in its minimum. That is to say no matter how higher or lower the brake speed is the wear volume is bigger relatively. With the brake speed of the lower one it mainly refers to fatigue wear; while of higher one it mainly refers to abradant and oxidation wear.

  2. Frictional couplings of wheel with a rail in a brake control system of rail vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Discussion on use of frictional coupling of wheel with a rail for detection of surface condition of track ways in coal mine undergrounds is the paper objective.Design/methodology/approach: The method for detection of surface condition of track ways is based on using of dedicated converter installed on the locomotive chassis with active part in a form of “tracking wheel” that moves on the rail surface together with the locomotive. The converter is equipped with a system for torque load and a sensor measuring its rotational speed. Change of track surface is determined by momentary changes in rotational speed of “tracking wheel” due to its slippage.Findings: The described method for detection of track ways surface condition enables to generate information signal which transferred to master braking control system of the locomotive eliminates excessive slippage during braking.Research limitations/implications: The presented results confirm rightness of accepted method for detection of track ways surface condition indicating for necessity of modification of developed test rig to get repeatable information about current track surface.Originality/value: The method for detection of track ways surface condition is the novelty approach to braking of rail locomotives used in the mining industry. It is also an alternative option to the present solutions based on known ABS (Anti-Lock Braking System system used in automotive industry.

  3. Aerodynamic investigations of ventilated brake discs.

    OpenAIRE

    Parish, D.; MacManus, David G.

    2005-01-01

    The heat dissipation and performance of a ventilated brake disc strongly depends on the aerodynamic characteristics of the flow through the rotor passages. The aim of this investigation was to provide an improved understanding of ventilated brake rotor flow phenomena, with a view to improving heat dissipation, as well as providing a measurement data set for validation of computational fluid dynamics methods. The flow fields at the exit of four different brake rotor geometrie...

  4. Evaluation of overturning capacity of low level radioactive waste drum during earthquake. Part 2. Investigation of drum weight distribution effect and drum columns interaction by numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical analysis case study is carried out for three layered and four layered low level radioactive waste drums by numerical models based on the results of shaking table test. First of all, numerical analysis results about drums displacement due to uplift and sliding on pallets during earthquake are compared with the experimental results and it is shown good agreement in both results. By this analytical model effects of drum weight distribution along height direction and drum columns interaction followed by each other drum's collisions on overturning capacity during earthquake are researched. From numerical analysis results the limit acceleration which is minimum value of input acceleration at storage building floor when three layered or four layered waste drums overturn is researched. It is shown that overturning capacity during earthquake decline when height of gravity center of three layered and four layered drums get large. So it is available to get down height of gravity center by controlling drum weight distribution along height direction. And as effect of drum columns interaction it is indicated that overturning capacity of single column arrangement drums is larger than that of many columns arrangement drums because phase deference between drum columns occur and decrease vibration amplitude by each other collisions. (author)

  5. Dynamics of Braking Vehicles: From Coulomb Friction to Anti-Lock Braking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of braking of wheeled vehicles is studied using the Coulomb approximation for the friction between road and wheels. The dependence of the stopping distance on the mass of the vehicle, on the number of its wheels and on the intensity of the braking torque is established. It is shown that there are two regimes of braking, with and…

  6. Metabolic Demands of Heavy Metal Drumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The drum set involves dynamic movement of all four limbs. Motor control studies have been done on drum set playing, yet not much is known about the physiological responses to this activity. Even less is known about heavy metal drumming. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic responses and demands of heavy metal drumming. Methods: Five semi-professional male drummers (mean ± SD age = 27.4 ± 2.6 y, height = 177.2 ± 3.8 cm, body mass = 85.1 ± 17.8 kg performed four prescribed and four self-selected heavy metal songs. Oxygen consumption (VO2, minute ventilation (VE and respiratory exchange ratio (RER were measured using a metabolic cart.  Heart rate (HR was measured using a heart rate monitor. VO2max was determined using a graded cycle ergometer test. Results: The results indicated a metabolic cost of 6.3 ± 1.4 METs and heart rate of 145.1 ± 15.7 beats·min-1 (75.4 ± 8.3% of age-predicted HRmax. VO2 peak values reached approximately 90% of the drummer’s VO2max when performing at the fastest speeds. According to these results, heavy metal drumming may be considered vigorous intensity activity (≥ 6.0 METs. The relative VO2max of 40.2 ± 9.5 mL·kg·min-1 leads to an aerobic fitness classification of “average” for adult males. Conclusions: The metabolic demands required during heavy metal drumming meet the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for the development of health related fitness. Keywords: Drum set, Exercise physiology, VO2, Music

  7. Gas formation in drum waste packages of Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas composition measurements have been carried out by mass spectrometry analysis of samples taken from the headspace of ten drum waste packages generated and temporarily stored at Paks NPP. Four drums contained compacted solid waste, three drums were filled with grouted (solidified) sludge and three drums contained solid waste without compaction. The drums have been equipped with a special gas outlet system to make repeated sampling possible. Based on the first measurements significant differences in the gas composition and the rate of gas generation among the drums were found. (author)

  8. The drum in Shamanism: some reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Hultkrantz

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Shamanism has not been restricted to northern Eurasia and the American Arctic, although it was here that it received its most remarkable forms. It is thus central to consider whether the drum is an integrative part of shamanism and should be examined against a general, and not a regional background. It is important to distinguish Arctic shamanism from other forms of shamanism. Arctic shamanism has a stronger profile than other varieties of shamanism, partly because of its intensity, accentuated to a certain extent by the harsh climate and environment, but also explained by the remarkable position of the shaman in an otherwise unstratified social structure. In the great variety of shamanic forms which exist south of the Arctic Subarctic zone, the drum, with a few exceptions, does not have such a prominent role. The position of the drum in other areas south of the Arctic obviously depends upon the position of shamanism. It is known that the drum is an ancient shamanic symbol in hunting culture, and where horticulture and agriculture supplanted old hunting cultures, shamanism gradually retreated. Priests and cult servants replaced shamans and the way for the trance was no longer necessary. In later shamanism outside the Arctic area the drum has gradually lost its significance.

  9. The Saami shamanic drum in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Y. Pentikäinen

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available What is the history of the drum, which once arrived from the Saami area in northernmost Europe to the collections of an Italian museum, L. Pigorini museum? At the moment, it is the only Saami drum the existence of which is certain in Italy. Saami drums were probably popular objects of export in the 17th and 18th centuries. Missionaries and explorers brought dozens of drums from various parts of Lappmark to be sold and shipped to the private collections of noblemen and other interested people all over Continental Europe. Some of these drums later on found their way to the museums, many became lost or are still somewhere, to be traced by future investigations of local museums and private collections. There clearly has been a special interest towards the most northern corner of the European continent in the Mediterranean countries, particularly in Italy. The correspondence and other descriptions bear evidence about shamanism as the most illuminating and appealing manifestation of the ancient culture and religion of the exotic people living behind the circumpolar zone at the edge of the universe.

  10. Automotive Corporate Strategy in CEE

    OpenAIRE

    Kadlecová, Petra

    2009-01-01

    The diploma thesis shows the status of the automotive industry in the Czech Republic. It shows the trends in the Czech automotive industry in short theoretical presentation. There is a trend of the future competition from developing countries, other problems are growing raw material prices or government's limits in CO2 production. The companies connected to the automotive industry are reacting. The relevant information about the status and reactions of the Czech automotive industry companies,...

  11. Analysis and Design of Circular Plate MR Fluids Brake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yan; Lin Chang-Hua; Li Hui; Zhou Jing

    2004-01-01

    A magnetorheological (MR) fluids brake is a device to achieve brake by shear force of MR fluids. A MR rotary brake has the property that its braking torque changes quickly in response to an external magnetic field. In this study, the design method of the circular plate MR fluids brake is investigated theoretically. The equation of the torque transmitted by the MR fluids in the brake is derived to provide the theoretical foundation in the design of the brake. Based on this equation, after mathematically manipulated, the calculations of the volume, thickness and width of the MR fluids within the circular plate MR fluids brake are yield.

  12. Research on Heat-Mechanical Coupling of Ventilated Disc Brakes under the Condition of Emergency Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuelong; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Wenxian; Zhang, Yang

    Taking the ventilated disc brake in some company as research object, and using UG to build 3D models of brake disc and pad, and making use of ABAQUS/Standard to set up two parts' finite element model, via the decelerated motion of actual simulation brake disc, which gets ventilated disc brake in the case of emergency breaking in time and space distribution of conditions of temperature and stress field, summarizes the distribution of temperature field and stress field, proves complex coupling between temperature, stress, and supplies the direct basis for brake's fatigue life analysis.

  13. TENDENCIES IN AUTOMOTIVE TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    U. D. Antushenay; T. R. Kisel

    2008-01-01

    The paper contains an analysis of export of transport services provided by the Republic automotive transport. Structure of expenses associated with operation of automotive transport facilities is presented in the paper. The paper cites directions pertaining to development of international automotive transportation.

  14. Identification for automotive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hjalmarsson, Håkan; Re, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Increasing complexity and performance and reliability expectations make modeling of automotive system both more difficult and more urgent. Automotive control has slowly evolved from an add-on to classical engine and vehicle design to a key technology to enforce consumption, pollution and safety limits. Modeling, however, is still mainly based on classical methods, even though much progress has been done in the identification community to speed it up and improve it. This book, the product of a workshop of representatives of different communities, offers an insight on how to close the gap and exploit this progress for the next generations of vehicles.

  15. Automotive NVH technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nijman, Eugenius; Priebsch, Hans-Herwig

    2016-01-01

    This book presents seven chapters examining selected noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) topics that are highly relevant for automotive vehicle development. These include applications following the major trends toward increased passenger comfort, vehicle electrification and lightweight design. The authors of the seven chapters, all of which are experts from the automotive industry and academia, present the foremost challenges and potential solutions in this demanding field. Among others, applications for sound optimization in downsized engines, noise optimization in electric powertrains, weight reduction options for exhaust systems, porous materials description, and the vibro-acoustic analysis of geared systems are discussed.

  16. REPORT on the TRUCK BRAKE LINING WORKSHOP and FLEET OPERATORS' SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.J.

    2003-02-03

    The report summarizes what transpired during brake linings-related workshop held at the Fall 2003 meeting of the Technology and Maintenance Council (TMC) in Charlotte, NC. The title of the workshop was ''Developing a Useful Friction Material Rating System''. It was organized by a team consisting of Peter Blau (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), Jim Britell (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), and Jim Lawrence (Motor and Equipment Manufacturers Association). The workshop was held under the auspices of TMC Task Force S6 (Chassis), chaired by Joseph Stianche (Sanderson Farms, Inc.). Six invited speakers during the morning session provided varied perspectives on testing and rating aftermarket automotive and truck brake linings. They were: James R. Clark, Chief Engineer, Foundation Brakes and Wheel Equipment, Dana Corporation, Spicer Heavy Axle and Brake Division; Charles W. Greening, Jr, President, Greening Test Labs; Tim Duncan, General Manager, Link Testing Services;Dennis J. McNichol, President, Dennis NationaLease; Jim Fajerski, Business Manager, OE Sales and Applications Engineering, Federal Mogul Corporation; and Peter J. Blau, Senior Materials Development Engineer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The afternoon break-out sessions addressed nine questions concerning such issues as: ''Should the federal government regulate aftermarket lining quality?''; ''How many operators use RP 628, and if so, what's good or bad about it?''; and ''Would there be any value to you of a vocation-specific rating system?'' The opinions of each discussion group, consisting of 7-9 participants, were reported and consolidated in summary findings on each question. Some questions produced a greater degree of agreement than others. In general, the industry seems eager for more information that would allow those who are responsible for maintaining truck brakes to make better, more informed choices

  17. Chimpanzee drumming: a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Valérie; Poulin, Nicolas; Charlotte Curé; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species, the great apes. Although beating on tree roots and body parts does occur in these species, it has, musically speaking, little in common with human drumming. Researchers suggest that for manual beating in great apes to be compared to human drumming, it should at least be structurally even, a necessary quality to elicit entrainment (beat induction in others). Here we report an episode of spontaneous drumming by a captive chimpanzee that approaches the structural and contextual characteristics usually found in musical drumming. This drumming differs from most beating episodes reported in this species by its unusual duration, the lack of any obvious context, and rhythmical properties that include long-lasting and dynamically changing rhythms, but also evenness and leisureliness. This performance is probably the first evidence that our capacity to drum is shared with our closest relatives. PMID:26080900

  18. Nondestructive testing of waste drum integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive techniques have been investigated to evaluate the structural integrity of low-level transuranic waste drums that have been buried in the ground for up to 15 years. Measurements of artificially corroded samples evaluated suitability, accuracy and rapidity with which commercially available instruments and transducers could perform the examination. Several available instruments have thickness measuring capability and probably could be tailored with a relatively minor amount of effort for precise measurement of the relatively thin wall thickness of a drum or bin. The ultrasonic method was shown capable of providing precise measurement of wall thickness for most critical areas of a drum. Some data were lost due to dents, rust, seams and labels. However, this work characterized the capability of the technique, and it can now be assessed against the need as repository requirements are more completely identified

  19. Is the steel drum the answer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present low-level radioactive waste packaging is dominated by the use of 55-gallon drums, while larger sizes are being utilized because of economic incentives. The use of steel with its inherent corrosion tendencies results in potential problems at the burial site. The use of advanced fiberglass material is being proposed for low-level radwaste containers. While fiberglass has a price penalty when compared with the 55-gallon drum, its benefits make it an attractive waste burial material. Fiberglass covered drums or containers offer a number of advantages over aluminum, steel, plastic, and wood for the storage of nuclear waste. The design characteristics, construction features, and material capability are discussed in detail

  20. Landing and Braking of Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breguet, Louis

    1929-01-01

    In the numerical examples, we have considered an airplane landing in calm air in a fixed direction after crossing the border (with its obstacles) at a height of 30 m. Its stopping point is at a distance D from the obstacle, comprising: a distance D(sub 1) in regular gliding flight; a distance D(sub 2) in levelling off; a distance D(sub 3) in taxying on the ground. The calculations enable us to make out the following table, which gives an idea of the improvements to be expected in the use of various possible methods of braking in the air and on the ground.

  1. Constraining the braking indices of magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z. F.; Li, X.-D.; Wang, N.; Yuan, J. P.; Wang, P.; Peng, Q. H.; Du, Y. J.

    2016-02-01

    Because of the lack of long-term pulsed emission in quiescence and the strong timing noise, it is impossible to directly measure the braking index n of a magnetar. Based on the estimated ages of their potentially associated supernova remnants (SNRs), we estimate the values of the mean braking indices of eight magnetars with SNRs, and find that they cluster in the range of 1-42. Five magnetars have smaller mean braking indices of 1 wind-aided braking. The larger mean braking indices of n > 3 for the other three magnetars are attributed to the decay of external braking torque, which might be caused by magnetic field decay. We estimate the possible wind luminosities for the magnetars with 1 3, within the updated magneto-thermal evolution models. Although the constrained range of the magnetars' braking indices is tentative, as a result of the uncertainties in the SNR ages due to distance uncertainties and the unknown conditions of the expanding shells, our method provides an effective way to constrain the magnetars' braking indices if the measurements of the SNR ages are reliable, which can be improved by future observations.

  2. 49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A...

  3. 14 CFR 27.921 - Rotor brake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor brake. 27.921 Section 27.921... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.921 Rotor brake. If there is a means to control the rotation of the rotor drive system independently of the engine, any limitations...

  4. 14 CFR 29.921 - Rotor brake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor brake. 29.921 Section 29.921... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.921 Rotor brake. If there is a means to control the rotation of the rotor drive system independently of the engine, any limitations...

  5. Operation peculiarities of airplane brake systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Г. Докучаев

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed is the loading of airplane brake systems. Complex methods are proposed for investi­gation of highly loaded brake systems. The results of investigation of the influence of various factors on technical condition of friction units are given

  6. TRU Drum Headspace Gas Analysis System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has approximately 10,000 Transuranic (TRU) waste drums whose final disposition is the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Each drum, prior to shipment to WIPP, must be inspected and tested to certify that is meets the WIPP requirements for acceptance. One, of many requirements, is the analysis of the TRU drum vapor space for hydrogen, methane, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DOE Carlsbad Area Office has published two documents specifying the analytical methodologies and the quality assurance requirements for analyzing TRU drum vapor space.The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was contracted by the Solid Waste Division of SRS to specify, assemble, and test a system that would satisfy the WIPP requirements for drum headspace gas analysis. Since no single vendor supplies a complete system, analytical instrumentation and supporting components were integrated into a configuration that performed that required analyses. This required both software and hardware design and modifications. The major goal of the design team was to integrate commercially available instrumentation and equipment into a seamless production process. The final output of the process is an analytical report formatted to the specifications outlined in the WIPP Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). SRTC has assembled the necessary analytical instrumentation and installed it in a mobile trailer to perform the TRU drum vapor space analyses. This mobile trailer had previously housed instrumentation for reactor tank inspections. As a cost savings it was decided to renovate and install the instrumentation in this trailer to eliminate the need of building or modifying permanent structures. This also allows for portability to meet future analytical needs on or off site.This task was divided into three sub tasks: headspace gas sampling, gas analysis and system component integration, and sample canister cleaning. The following sections

  7. Development and Theoretic Validation of Model of Drum Level Sloshing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xiao-ling; LIU Xiao-feng; SU Ming

    2007-01-01

    In order to develop a feasible model of drum level sloshing, the mechanism of drum level sloshing was analyzed, and the model of drum level sloshing was developed on the Easy5 software flat. The thermodynamic property of the model was validated by using the reference model, which was set up by using the method of lump parameter. The results indicate that the model can precisely reflect the phenomena of thermodynamic property inside drum, and the numeric error is within 1 %. And the hydraulic property of the model was validated by the analytical theory of liquid sloshing, and the results indicate that the hydraulic property inside drum can also be correctly reflected by the model, and the sloshing period error is within 5 %. The important work was done for exploring modeling for drum level sloshing, research of drum level sloshing and precision controlling of drum level.

  8. Method and apparatus for electromagnetically braking a motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electromagnetic braking system and method is provided for selectively braking a motor using an electromagnetic brake having an electromagnet, a permanent magnet, a rotor assembly, and a brake pad. The brake assembly applies when the electromagnet is de-energized and releases when the electromagnet is energized. When applied the permanent magnet moves the brake pad into frictional engagement with a housing, and when released the electromagnet cancels the flux of the permanent magnet to allow a leaf spring to move the brake pad away from the housing. A controller has a DC/DC converter for converting a main bus voltage to a lower braking voltage based on certain parameters. The converter utilizes pulse-width modulation (PWM) to regulate the braking voltage. A calibrated gap is defined between the brake pad and permanent magnet when the brake assembly is released, and may be dynamically modified via the controller.

  9. New technical solutions of using rolling stock electrodynamical braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some theoretical and practical problems associated with the use of traction motor are operating in the generator mode (in braking. Mathematical and graphical relationships of electrodynamic braking, taking into account the requirements raised to braking systems in rail transport are presented. The latter include discontinuity of braking process, braking force regulation, depending on the locomotive speed, mass, type of railway and other parameters. Schematic diagrams of the locomotive braking and ways of controlling the braking force by varying electric circuit parameters are presented. The authors suggested contact-free regulation method of braking resistor for controlling braking force in rheostatic braking, and resistor parameters regulate with pulse regulation mode by semiconductor devices, such as new electrical components for rolling stock – IGBT transistors operating in the key mode. Presenting energy savings power systems, which are using regenerative braking-returning energy and diesel engine or any form of hybrid traction vehicles systems, circuit diagrams, electrical parameters curves.

  10. What brakes the Crab pulsar?

    CERN Document Server

    Čadež, A; Barbieri, C; Calvani, M; Naletto, G; Barbieri, M; Ponikvar, D

    2015-01-01

    Optical observations provide convincing evidence that the optical phase of the Crab pulsar follows the radio one closely. Since optical data do not depend on dispersion measure variations, they provide a robust and independent confirmation of the radio timing solution. The aim of this paper is to find a global mathematical description of Crab pulsar's phase as a function of time for the complete set of published Jodrell Bank radio ephemerides (JBE) in the period 1988-2014. We apply the mathematical techniques developed for analyzing optical observations to the analysis of JBE. We break the whole period into a series of episodes and express the phase of the pulsar in each episode as the sum of two analytical functions. The first function is the best-fitting local braking index law, and the second function represents small residuals from this law with an amplitude of only a few turns, which rapidly relaxes to the local braking index law. From our analysis, we demonstrate that the power law index undergoes "inst...

  11. Bringing Excellence to Automotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Večeřa, Pavel; Paulová, Iveta

    2012-12-01

    Market situation and development in recent years shows, that organization's ability to meet customer requirements is not enough. Successful organizations are able to exceed the expectations of all stakeholders. They are building their excellence systematically. Our contribution basically how the excellence in automotive is created using EFQM Excellence Model in Total Quality Management.

  12. Automotive Emission Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Billy D.; Ragazzi, Ronald

    This guide designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in the area of automotive emission control curriculum includes four areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  13. Automotive Power Trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of automotive power trains and certain auxiliary equipment. The course contains six study units covering basic power trains; clutch principles and operations; conventional…

  14. Unsteady-state VOC transport in vented waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of unsteady-state volatile organic compound (VOC) transport in a vented waste drum has been developed. Model predictions of the VOC concentration in the innermost layer of confinement and the drum headspace are compared to measurements in lab-scale simulated waste drums

  15. 49 CFR 178.508 - Standards for fiber drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.508 Standards for fiber drums. (a) The... heads of the drum and their joints must be of a design appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the drum. (4) The assembled packaging must be sufficiently water-resistant so as not to...

  16. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum...

  17. 21 CFR 886.4230 - Ophthalmic knife test drum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic knife test drum. 886.4230 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4230 Ophthalmic knife test drum. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic knife test drum is a device intended to test the keenness of ophthalmic...

  18. 汽车主动空气阻力制动系统仿真研究%Simulation study on initiative sir power brake system of the vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付强; 赵立杰; 孙雪玲

    2012-01-01

    针对汽车防抱制动时地面制动力存在极限值无法更有效的缩减制动距离问题,提出了新型汽车主动空气阻力制动(APB)系统,分析其工作原理并进行控制模型基础仿真研究.阐述主动空气阻力制动系统理论可行性,依据压缩空气喷气助力原理的反作用应用于汽车制动系统,利用MATLAB/Simulink建立新型汽车制动系统动力学模型和APB仿真模型.设计了仿真试验,对比实施APB控制的车速与轮速曲线,试验结果表明APB控制达到缩减制动距离和制动时间的目的.%A new vehicle air power brake system (APB)is put forwarded in this paper to resolve that the braking distance can t be effective curtailed because of the maximum ground braking force during vehicle braking.Then its working principle and research on the basic simulation of control model is analyzed, in which the academic feasibility of initiative air power brake system is expatiatedAccording to the principle of compressed air power reaction against the brake system,a dynamics model of a new automotive brake system and simulation model of ABS+APB are established based on MATLAB/Simulink.i4/ierw/a/Y the simulated tests are designed to compare with the curve of vehicle speed and wheel velocity with APB, which result indicates that the cehicle speed and wheel velcocity controlled by APB can reduce braking distances and braking time.

  19. A Secure Mechanism to Supervise Automotive Sensor Network by Client on Smart Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T R Yashavanth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal on design of a secure client on smart phone to monitor automotive sensor network. Recently, more and more vehicles, such as BMW X5, are connected from outside via smart phone [3]. From smart phone, users can use the internet resources in automotive. Users can monitor the automotives by using their smart phones. When the automotive is moving or stolen by robber, alert information will be reported to users and users can even brake their automotive via smart phone in emergency status by sending control command to the vehicle information gateway. So client software in smart phone is required to monitor the sensor network in automotives. In order to prevent malicious attack on the client software by malicious attackers which are usually the robbers, there should be a mechanism provided to the clients which offers security by considering few criteria’s like power of computation, level of security and consumption of power. This proposed method uses IDEA for the encryption of all the messages since IDEA has high level of security and suitable to implement in software and also demands on computational power is less. Record management set is being suggested for the storage of critical data which is a Java MIDlet based mechanism. Between client software and its gateway a communication management on transaction is also proposed. The verification of the key updating process is verified with model checking in UPPAAL [7].

  20. Evaluation of residue drum storage safety risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to determine if any potential safety problems exist in the residue drum backlog at the Rocky Flats Plant. Plutonium residues stored in 55-gallon drums were packaged for short-term storage until the residues could be processed for plutonium recovery. These residues have now been determined by the Department of Energy to be waste materials, and the residues will remain in storage until plans for disposal of the material can be developed. The packaging configurations which were safe for short-term storage may not be safe for long-term storage. Interviews with Rocky Flats personnel involved with packaging the residues reveal that more than one packaging configuration was used for some of the residues. A tabulation of packaging configurations was developed based on the information obtained from the interviews. A number of potential safety problems were identified during this study, including hydrogen generation from some residues and residue packaging materials, contamination containment loss, metal residue packaging container corrosion, and pyrophoric plutonium compound formation. Risk factors were developed for evaluating the risk potential of the various residue categories, and the residues in storage at Rocky Flats were ranked by risk potential. Preliminary drum head space gas sampling studies have demonstrated the potential for formation of flammable hydrogen-oxygen mixtures in some residue drums

  1. 78 FR 14546 - Seagull Maritime Agencies Private Ltd. v. Gren Automotive, Inc., Centrus Automotive Distributors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Seagull Maritime Agencies Private Ltd. v. Gren Automotive, Inc., Centrus Automotive Distributors Inc., and... Limited (``SMA''), hereinafter ``Complainant,'' against Gren Automotive, Inc. (``Gren''), Centrus Automotive Distributors Inc. (``Centrus'') and Mr. Liu Shao hereinafter ``Respondents.'' Complainant...

  2. 78 FR 58518 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Benteler Automotive Corporation (Automotive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Benteler Automotive Corporation (Automotive Suspension and Body Components); Duncan, South Carolina Benteler Automotive Corporation (Benteler... produce automotive suspension components and subassemblies using certain foreign-status components....

  3. Chimpanzee drumming : a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, Valerie; Poulin, Nicolas; Cure, Charlotte; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species, the great apes. Although beating on tree roots and body parts does occur in these species, it has, musically speaking, little in common with human drumming. Researchers suggest that for manual beat...

  4. Thermal comfort findings: Scenario at Malaysian automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmad Rasdan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the findings of thermal comfort assessment at Malaysian automotive industry. Nine critical workstations were chosen as subjects for the study in order to determine the thermal comfort among workers at Malaysian automotive industry. The human subjects for the study comprises of the operators from tire receiving, dashboard assembly, drum tester, body assembly, seat assembly, door check assembly, stamping workstation, engine sub assembly and paint shop of the factory. The environmental factors such as Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT, relative humidity, air velocity, illuminance were measured using BABUC A apparatus and Thermal Comfort Measurement equipment. Through questionnaire survey, the demographic data of subjects and their perceptions on thermal comfort at each workstation were assessed based on ISO Standard 7730 and thermal sensation scale using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV. Then, Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD is used to estimate the thermal satisfaction of occupants. The results indicated that most of the workstations of the automotive industry are considered as uncomfortable. Tire receiving station is considered having better working environment compared to other stations with lowest PMV index of 1.09 to 1.41 and PPD of 46%. Meanwhile, the engine sub assembly station and paint shop of assembly are considered the worst thermal environment with the PMV index values ranging between 2.1 to 2.9 and PPD values of 81% to 99%. Therefore, these two workstations are considered not comfortable because the thermal sensation scale is warm and almost hot.

  5. Diesel Technology: Brakes. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, Robert; Scarberry, Terry; Kellum, Mary

    This document contains teacher and student materials for a course on brakes in the diesel technology curriculum. The course consists of 12 units organized in three sections. The three units of the introductory section cover: (1) brakes; (2) wheel bearings and seals; and (3) antilock brake systems. The second section, Hydraulic Brakes, contains the…

  6. History and evolution of warning labels for automotive friction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelovich, Luda M; Thuett, Kerry A; Chapman, Pamela S; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2014-04-01

    There have been claims over the years that asbestos-containing product manufacturers did not sufficiently warn end users early enough regarding the potential health hazards associated with their products (1930s-1990s). To address this issue, we compared the content of the warnings associated with asbestos-containing friction products (brakes, clutches, and gaskets) manufactured by the US automotive industries to what was expected by regulatory agencies during the time period in which an understanding of asbestos health hazards was being developed. We ended our evaluation around 1990, since asbestos-containing manufacturer supplied automotive products were functionally removed from commerce by 1985 in the United States. We assessed the warnings issued in users' manuals, technical service bulletins, product packaging materials, and labels placed on products themselves. Based on our evaluation, regulatory agencies had no guidelines regarding specific warning language for finished friction products, particularly when a product contained encapsulated asbestos fibers (i.e., modified by a bonding agent). Even today, federal regulations do not require labeling on encapsulated products when, based on professional judgment or sampling, user exposure is not expected to exceed the OSHA PEL. We concluded that, despite limited regulatory guidance, the US automotive industry provided adequate warnings with regards to its friction products. PMID:24518387

  7. Nonlinear Coupling Characteristics Analysis of Integrated System of Electromagnetic Brake and Frictional Brake of Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since theoretical guidance is lacking in the design and control of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake, this paper aims to solve this problem and explores the nonlinear coupling characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake. This paper uses the power bond graph method to establish nonlinear coupling mathematical model of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake and conducts the contrastive analysis on the dynamic characteristics based on this mathematical model. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the nonlinear coupling mathematical model proposed above is verified on the hardware in the loop simulation platform, and nonlinear coupling characteristics of the integrated system are also analyzed through experiments.

  8. The influence of various pressures in pneumatic tyre on braking process of car with anti-lock braking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian HADRYŚ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article has been presented the influence of various pressures inpneumatic tyre of passenger car Fiat Panda 1.3 JTD with anti-lock braking system on chosen parameters of braking process: course of braking deceleration, maximum value of deceleration, braking distances.

  9. Screw-released roller brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A screw-released roller brake including an input drive assembly, an output drive assembly, a plurality of locking sprags, a mechanical tripper nut for unlocking the sprags, and a casing therefor. The sprags consist of three dimensional (3-D) sprag members having pairs of contact surface regions which engage respective pairs of contact surface regions included in angular grooves or slots formed in the casing and the output drive assembly. The sprags operate to lock the output drive assembly to the casing to prevent rotation thereof in an idle mode of operation. In a drive mode of operation, the tripper is either self actuated or motor driven and is translated linearly up and down against a spline and at the limit of its travel rotates the sprags which unlock while coupling the input drive assembly to the output drive assembly so as to impart a turning motion thereto in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.

  10. An Australian study to evaluate worker exposure to chrysotile in the automotive service industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, P; Patience, K; Apthorpe, L; Willcocks, D

    1999-07-01

    A study was conducted in Sydney, Australia, in 1996 to investigate the current exposure levels, control technologies, and work practices in five service garages (four car and one bus), three brake bonding workshops, and one gasket processing workshop. This study formed part of the assessment of chrysotile as a priority existing chemical under the Australian National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme. A total of 68 (11 personal and 57 area) air samples were collected, in accordance with the Australian standard membrane filter method. Fiber concentrations were determined by the traditional phase contrast microscopy (PCM) method and 16 selected samples were analyzed by the more powerful transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Chrysotile exposure of car mechanics measured by PCM was typically below the reportable detection limit of 0.05 f/mL, irrespective of whether disc brake, drum brake, or clutch was being serviced. These low levels can be attributed to the wet cleaning or aerosol spray methods used in recent years to replace the traditional compressed air jet cleaning. In the three brake shoe relining workshops, task-specific exposure reached up to 0.16 f/mL in the processes of cutting and radius grinding. TEM results were generally higher, due to its higher resolution power. The median diameter on samples taken from the service garages (passenger cars), as determined by TEM, was 0.5-1.0 micron; and was between 0.2-0.5 micron for the brake bonding and gasket processing workshops, while that for the bus service depot was 0.1-0.2 micron. Most of the respirable fibers (84%, mainly forsterite) from the bus service depot were below 0.2 micron in diameter which is the resolution limit of PCM. In the brake bonding and gasket cutting workshops, 34 percent and 44 percent of the chrysotile fibers were below 0.2 micron in diameter. PMID:10461401

  11. An Intelligent Regenerative Braking Strategy for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhibin Song; Weimin Li; Guoqing Xu; Kun Xu

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative braking is an effective approach for electric vehicles (EVs) to extend their driving range. A fuzzy-logic-based regenerative braking strategy (RBS) integrated with series regenerative braking is developed in this paper to advance the level of energy-savings. From the viewpoint of securing car stability in braking operations, the braking force distribution between the front and rear wheels so as to accord with the ideal distribution curve are considered to prevent vehicles from ex...

  12. An Intelligent Regenerative Braking Strategy for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Guoqing Xu; Weimin Li; Kun Xu; Zhibin Song

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative braking is an effective approach for electric vehicles (EVs) to extend their driving range. A fuzzy-logic-based regenerative braking strategy (RBS) integrated with series regenerative braking is developed in this paper to advance the level of energy-savings. From the viewpoint of securing car stability in braking operations, the braking force distribution between the front and rear wheels so as to accord with the ideal distribution curve are considered to prevent vehicles from ex...

  13. Rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2015-01-01

    Rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers is dealt with in this book encompassing the widely working field of small turbomachines under real operating conditions at the very high rotor speeds up to 300000 rpm. The broadly interdisciplinary field of turbocharger rotordynamics involves 1) Thermodynamics and Turbo-Matching of Turbochargers 2) Dynamics of Turbomachinery 3) Stability Analysis of Linear Rotordynamics with the Eigenvalue Theory 4) Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Rotordynamics with the Bifurcation Theory 5) Bearing Dynamics of the Oil Film using the Two-Phase Reynolds Equation 6) Computation of Nonlinear Responses of a Turbocharger Rotor 7) Aero and Vibroacoustics of Turbochargers 8) Shop and Trim Balancing at Two Planes of the Rotor 9) Tribology of the Bearing Surface Roughness 10) Design of Turbocharger Platforms using the Similarity Laws The rotor response of an automotive turbocharger at high rotor speeds is studied analytically, computationally, and experimentally. Due to the nonlinear character...

  14. The development of the brake system for the Mercedes-Benz Vito; Entwicklung der Bremsanlage fuer den Vito von Mercedes-Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, M.; Spielmann, W.

    1996-05-01

    The new Mercedes Vito is a vehicle which was designed to meet both the requirements of tough city van operation and the sophisticated demands of private buyers seeking a car-like multi-purpose vehicle. The vehicle is fitted with disc brakes all round and, in the majority of the European markets, with ABS/ABD as standard. Its hydraulic brake system, using floating-caliper wheel brakes, is diagonally divided and equipped with a vacuum brake booster and automatic load-sensing brake pressure control. In addition to meeting the customary requirements made on van brakes, the target in development was to fulfil the higher demans made on car brakes in terms of comfort and high speed. For the first time, system development was commissioned to the brake manufacturer ITT Automotive Europe; this step followed logically from the approach adopted in the development of the brake system for the Sprinter. As a result of this approach, the scope of brake testing performed by the vehicle manufacturer was substantially reduced. Close cooperation also permitted the vehicle manufacturer to gain sufficient know-how so as to be able to control future developments in a target-oriented manner. The prerequisite for this is the existence of Detailed specifications dockets for Development and testing, including requirement profiles, test programs, test specifications and schedules. The positive results of testing prior to the approval for series production and problem-free operation during large-scale testing by customers prove that this approach can also be applied to future projects. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der neue Vito von Mercedes-Benz ist serienmaessig mit vier Scheibenbremsen und fuer die meisten europaeischen Maerkte mit ABS und ABD ausgeruestet. Zum Einsatz kommt eine diagonal aufgeteilte hydraulische Bremsanlage mit Vakuum-Hilfskraftunterstuetzung und automatisch lastabhaengiger Bremskraftaufteilung (ALB). Als Radbremsen werden an der Vorderachse Faustsattelbremsen, an der Hinterachse

  15. Dynamics of braking vehicles: from Coulomb friction to anti-lock braking systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of braking of wheeled vehicles is studied using the Coulomb approximation for the friction between road and wheels. The dependence of the stopping distance on the mass of the vehicle, on the number of its wheels and on the intensity of the braking torque is established. It is shown that there are two regimes of braking, with and without sliding. The advantage of using an anti-lock braking system (ABS) is put in evidence, and a quantitative estimate of its efficiency is proposed and discussed

  16. FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the FISITA 2012 World Automotive Congress are selected from nearly 2,000 papers submitted to the 34th FISITA World Automotive Congress, which is held by Society of Automotive Engineers of China (SAE-China ) and the International Federation of Automotive Engineering Societies (FISITA). This proceedings focus on solutions for sustainable mobility in all areas of passenger car, truck and bus transportation. Volume 8: Vehicle Design and Testing (II) focuses on: •Automotive Reliability Technology •Lightweight Design Technology •Design for Recycling •Dynamic Modeling •Simulation and Experimental Validation •Virtual Design, Testing and Validation •Testing of Components, Systems and Full Vehicle Above all researchers, professional engineers and graduates in fields of automotive engineering, mechanical engineering and electronic engineering will benefit from this book.   SAE-China is a national academic organization composed of enterprises and professionals who focus on research, design a...

  17. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the technical/economic feasibility of the use of hydrogen as an automotive fuel is made based on analyses of the following: the chemical- physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems - with water vapour injection, cryogenic injection, and the low or high pressure injection of hydrogen directly into the combustion chamber; the current commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. The paper concludes that, considering current costs for hydrogen fuel production, distribution and use, at present, the employment of hydrogen fuelled vehicles is feasible only in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives

  18. Characterization of In-Drum Drying Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few years ago Krsko NPP decided to introduce In-Drum Drying technology for treatment and conditioning of evaporator concentrates and spent ion resins. The main reason to employ this technology was the need for waste volume reduction and experience with vermiculite-cement solidification that proved inadequate for Krsko NPP. Use of In-Drum Drying technology was encouraged by good experience in the field at some German and Spanish NPP's. In the paper, solidification techniques in vermiculite-cement matrix and In-Drum Drying System are described briefly. The resulting waste forms (so called solidification and dryer products) and containers that are used for interim storage of these wastes are described as well. A comparison of the drying versus solidification technology is performed and advantages as well as disadvantages are underlined. Experience gained during seven years of system operation has shown that crying technology resulted in volume reduction by factor of 20 for evaporator concentrates, and by factor of 5 for spent ion resin. Special consideration is paid to the characterization of dryer products. For evaporator concentrates the resulting waste form is a solid salt block with up to 5% bound water. It is packaged in stainless steel drums (net volume of 200 l) with bolted lids and lifting rings. The fluidized spent ion resins (primary and blow-down) are sluiced into the spent resin drying tank. The resin is dewatered and dried by electrical jacket heaters. The resulting waste (i.e. fine granulates) is directly discharged into a shielded stainless steel drum with bolted lid and lifting rings. Characterization of both waste forms has been performed in accordance with recommendations given in Characterization of Radioactive Waste Forms and Packages issued by International Atomic Energy Agency, 1997. This means that radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, biological and thermal properties of the waste form has been taken into consideration. In the paper

  19. Hunting Plan Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for administration of hunting activity and for development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Morgan Brake...

  20. Integration of Gas Nitrocarburising and Oxidising in a Mass Production Line for Brake Pistons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gero Walkowiak; Dieter M(u)ller; Uwe Zeibig

    2004-01-01

    The combination of wear- and corrosion resistance is a demand to a multitude of automotive parts. Several metallic coatings as hard/soft chromium or electroless nickel have been the conventional surface protection e.g. on parts as brake pistons and shock absorber or gas spring piston rods. The Corr-I-Dur(R) process - a special gasnitrocarburising and oxidising technology - has a huge potential not only in substituting those coatings but also in delivering surfaces with higher quality.The benefits of the replacement of soft chromium with Corr-I-Dur(R) and the implementation of the process in the customers production line with an annual capacity of 17 million brake pistons is described in this presentation. Starting with the demands on wear- and corrosion resistance the way of process development and the design of applicative equipment is shown. The result is a tailor-made surface solution with superior quality for deep drawn brake pistons. Two main disadvantagesoutgassing of the chromium layer and reduced corrosion resistance on the inner diameter - are eliminated by the replacement with Corr-I-Dur(R). The process-sure achievement of enhanced corrosion resistance, uniform layer thickness, negligible distortion as well as environmental and economical advantages make Corr-I-Dur(R) an excellence choice for this application.

  1. Method and apparatus for wind turbine braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Corneliu; Teichmann, Ralph; Avagliano, Aaron; Kammer, Leonardo Cesar; Pierce, Kirk Gee; Pesetsky, David Samuel; Gauchel, Peter

    2009-02-10

    A method for braking a wind turbine including at least one rotor blade coupled to a rotor. The method includes selectively controlling an angle of pitch of the at least one rotor blade with respect to a wind direction based on a design parameter of a component of the wind turbine to facilitate reducing a force induced into the wind turbine component as a result of braking.

  2. Constraining the Braking Indices of Magnetars

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Z F; Wang, N; Yuan, J P; Peng, Q H; Du, Y J

    2015-01-01

    Due to the lack of long term pulsed emission in quiescence and the strong timing noise, it is impossible to directly measure the braking index $n$ of a magnetar. Based on the estimated ages of their potentially associated supernova remnants (SNRs), we estimate the values of $n$ of nine magnetars with SNRs, and find that they cluster in a range of $1\\sim$41. Six magnetars have smaller braking indices of $13$ for other three magnetars are attributed to the decay of external braking torque, which might be caused by magnetic field decay. We estimate the possible wind luminosities for the magnetars with $13$ within the updated magneto-thermal evolution models. We point out that there could be some connections between the magnetar's anti-glitch event and its braking index, and the magnitude of $n$ should be taken into account when explaining the event. Although the constrained range of the magnetars' braking indices is tentative, our method provides an effective way to constrain the magnetars' braking indices if th...

  3. Automated visual inspection of brake shoe wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shengfang; Liu, Zhen; Nan, Guo; Zhang, Guangjun

    2015-10-01

    With the rapid development of high-speed railway, the automated fault inspection is necessary to ensure train's operation safety. Visual technology is paid more attention in trouble detection and maintenance. For a linear CCD camera, Image alignment is the first step in fault detection. To increase the speed of image processing, an improved scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) method is presented. The image is divided into multiple levels of different resolution. Then, we do not stop to extract the feature from the lowest resolution to the highest level until we get sufficient SIFT key points. At that level, the image is registered and aligned quickly. In the stage of inspection, we devote our efforts to finding the trouble of brake shoe, which is one of the key components in brake system on electrical multiple units train (EMU). Its pre-warning on wear limitation is very important in fault detection. In this paper, we propose an automatic inspection approach to detect the fault of brake shoe. Firstly, we use multi-resolution pyramid template matching technology to fast locate the brake shoe. Then, we employ Hough transform to detect the circles of bolts in brake region. Due to the rigid characteristic of structure, we can identify whether the brake shoe has a fault. The experiments demonstrate that the way we propose has a good performance, and can meet the need of practical applications.

  4. DEGRADATION EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER DRUMS AND TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Vormelker, P.

    2009-07-31

    Heavy water with varying chemistries is currently being stored in over 6700 drums in L- and K-areas and in seven tanks in L-, K-, and C-areas. A detailed evaluation of the potential degradation of the drums and tanks, specific to their design and service conditions, has been performed to support the demonstration of their integrity throughout the desired storage period. The 55-gallon drums are of several designs with Type 304 stainless steel as the material of construction. The tanks have capacities ranging from 8000 to 45600 gallons and are made of Type 304 stainless steel. The drums and tanks were designed and fabricated to national regulations, codes and standards per procurement specifications for the Savannah River Site. The drums have had approximately 25 leakage failures over their 50+ years of use with the last drum failure occurring in 2003. The tanks have experienced no leaks to date. The failures in the drums have occurred principally near the bottom weld, which attaches the bottom to the drum sidewall. Failures have occurred by pitting, crevice and stress corrosion cracking and are attributable, in part, to the presence of chloride ions in the heavy water. Probable degradation mechanisms for the continued storage of heavy water were evaluated that could lead to future failures in the drum or tanks. This evaluation will be used to support establishment of an inspection plan which will include susceptible locations, methods, and frequencies for the drums and tanks to avoid future leakage failures.

  5. SITUATION IN RUSSIAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY AND AUTOMOTIVE MARKET IN CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Starkova, Nadezhda; Tolstova, Alisa; Ubogova, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Todays situation of Russian automotive industry and automotive market has been analyzed. Main factors influencing for their position have been revealed, short-term forecast of development has been presented. Directions for stabilization of situation in production and sales of cars in Russia have been formulated.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF BRAKE PADS THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY ON PASSANGER CAR BRAKE SYSTEM EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag D Milenković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In phase of vehicle braking system designing, besides of mechanical characteristics, it is also necessary to take under consideration the system's thermal features. This is because it is not enough just to achieve proper braking power, for the brake system to be effective but equally important thing is the dissipation of heat to the environment. Heat developed in the friction surfaces dissipate into the environment over the disk in one hand and through the brake linings and caliper, in the other. The striving is to make that greatest amount of heat to dissipate not threw the brake pads but threw disc. The experimental researching of heat transfer process taking place at vehicle brakes was made in the R&D Center of "Zastava automobili" car factory in order to increase the efficiency of brake system. The standard laboratory and road test procedures were used, according to factory quality regulations. The modern equipment such as thermo camera, thermo couples, torque transducers, signal amplifiers, optical speed measuring system and laptop computer were used. In this paper will be shown the part of the experimental researching, which refers to the thermal conductivity of brake pad friction linings.

  7. Geometric optimal design of a magneto-rheological brake considering different shapes for the brake envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When designing a magneto-rheological brake (MRB), it is well known that the shape of the brake envelope significantly affects the performance characteristics of the brake. In this study, different shapes for the MR brake envelope, such as rectangular, polygonal or spline shape, are considered and the most suitable shape identified. MRBs with different envelope shapes are introduced followed by the derivation of the braking torque based on Bingham-plastic behavior of the magneto-rheological fluid (MRF). Optimization of the design of the MRB with different envelope shapes is then done. The optimization problem is to find the optimal value for the significant geometric dimensions of the MRB that can produce a certain required braking torque while the brake mass is minimized. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is employed to obtain optimal solutions for the MRBs. From the results, the most suitable shape for the brake envelope is identified and discussed with the reduction of mass. In addition, the results of the analysis are compared with the experimental results to verify the proposed optimal design characteristics. (paper)

  8. Size limitation on zebra mussels consumed by freshwater drum may preclude the effectiveness of drum as a biological controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P., III; Love, Joy G.

    1995-01-01

    The septa lengths of bivalve shells were used to estimate shell lengths of the largest zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) crushed and consumed by freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) to determine if size limitation could preclude the effectiveness of drum as a biological controller of the zebra mussel. We examined gut samples of drum (273 to 542 mm long) collected from western Lake Erie in 1991, found the largest mussel (shell length = 21.4 mm) in the 11th largest drum (TL = 405 mm), and observed a reduction of mussel size in larger drum. The lack of a relationship between mussel size and drum size for larger specimens suggests that either drum prefer smaller mussels or the gape between the upper and lower pharyngeal teeth restricts drum feeding to zebra mussels of limited size. Although drum may reduce zebra mussel populations, because of the apparent size limitation of prey it is unlikely that drum would be fully effective as a biological controller; thus, this fish should not be introduced beyond its native range for that purpose.

  9. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants' Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Gerson

    Full Text Available In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early music perception and cognition.

  10. Braking Index of Isolated Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Hamil, Oliver Q; Urbanec, Martin; Urbancova, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities $\\Omega$, and their time derivatives that show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. The commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) from a rotating magnetized body. The calculated energy loss by a rotating pulsar with a constant moment of inertia is assumed proportional to a model dependent power of $\\Omega$. This relation leads to the power law $\\dot{\\Omega}$ = -K $\\Omega^{\\rm n}$ where $n$ is called the braking index. The MDR model predicts $n$ exactly equal to 3. Selected observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of $n$, individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1$ <$ n $ < $ 2.8, which is consistently less than the predictions of the MDR model. In spite of an extensive investigation of various modifications of the MDR model, no satisfactory explanation of observation has been found yet. The aim of this work is t...

  11. Neutrons put the brakes on stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don't you hate it when you're driving along, put your foot on the brake and feel that juddering feeling through the pedal? It happens when the disc brake rotors become distorted through normal use of the brakes. To the car manufacturing industry it's called runout, and is a multimillion dollar warranty problem each year. Not to mention a pain for drivers! Dr Maurice Ripley and Dr Oliver Kirstein from the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) wanted to figure out whether runout is caused by residual stresses from the manufacturing process or by normal use of the brake, so they decided to test and compare a used and new brake disc. 'To picture what metal looks like at the atomic level, imagine spheres stacked evenly around each other in all three dimensions,' explained Kirstein. The spheres represent atoms in the metal and the structure is called a metallic lattice.' We're familiar with the idea that metal expands when it gets hot - the atoms get excited with the heat and have the energy to move further away from each other, so spaces between the atoms in the lattice get larger. 'When parts of the metal are heated up and cool down at different rates, you may end up with a distorted lattice with some parts expanded and others not,' explained Kirstein. 'This unevenness in the lattice creates residual stress.' While a bunch of methods were available to test the discs, Kirstein and Ripley picked neutrons from ANSTO's HIFAR (High Flux Australian Reactor) as their tool of choice. 'Neutrons allow us to look at the inside of the metal without damaging it,' said Kirstein. 'They can penetrate through the iron, so we were able to take measurements at a series of points at different depths through the brake disc.' Word around the car industry is that when residual stresses are relaxed through heating of the brake disc during use, the discs could potentially distort, causing the runout and that juddering feeling. But everyone was clueless as to what

  12. Embedded Automotive System Development Process

    OpenAIRE

    Langenwalter, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Model based design enables the automatic generation of final-build software from models for high-volume automotive embedded systems. This paper presents a framework of processes, methods and tools for the design of automotive embedded systems. A steer-by-wire system serves as an example.

  13. Reliability in automotive ethernet networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fabio L.; Campelo, Divanilson R.; Yan, Ying;

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular.......This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular....

  14. Automotive systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Winner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    This book reflects the shift in design paradigm in automobile industry. It presents future innovations, often referred as  “automotive systems engineering”.  These cause fundamental innovations in the field of driver assistance systems and electro-mobility as well as fundamental changes in the architecture of the vehicles. New driving functionalities can only be realized if the software programs of multiple electronic control units work together correctly. This volume presents the new and innovative methods which are mandatory to master the complexity of the vehicle of the future.

  15. The automotive transmission book

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert; Jürgens, Gunter; Najork, Rolf; Pollak, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    This book presents essential information on systems and interactions in automotive transmission technology and outlines the methodologies used to analyze and develop transmission concepts and designs. Functions of and interactions between components and subassemblies of transmissions are introduced, providing a basis for designing transmission systems and for determining their potentials and properties in vehicle-specific applications: passenger cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and motorcycles. With these fundamentals the presentation provides universal resources for both state-of-the-art and future transmission technologies, including systems for electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

  16. Automotive battery technology

    CERN Document Server

    Watzenig, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The use of electrochemical energy storage systems in automotive applications also involves new requirements for modeling these systems, especially in terms of model depth and model quality. Currently, mainly simple application-oriented models are used to describe the physical behavior of batteries. This book provides a step beyond of state-of-the-art modeling showing various different approaches covering following aspects: system safety, misuse behavior (crash, thermal runaway), battery state estimation and electrochemical modeling with the needed analysis (pre/post mortem). All this different approaches are developed to support the overall integration process from a multidisciplinary point-of-view and depict their further enhancements to this process.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF THE DRUM REMAINING LIFETIME IN THERMAL POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav M Živković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper analysis of stress and thermal-elastic-plastic strain of the drum is performed. Influence of modified thickness, yield stress and finite element model of welded joint between pipe and drum on assessment of the remaining lifetime of the drum in the thermal power plant is analyzed. Two analyses are compared. In the first, drum is modeled by shell and by 3D finite elements with projected geometrical and material data of drum. Then, the drum is modeled by shell and by 3D finite elements with modified thickness and yield stress. The analysis show that detailed modeling of stress concentration zones is necessary. Adequate modeling gives lower maximal effective plastic strain and increased number of cycles and, in that case, 3D finite elements are better comparing to shell finite elements.

  18. Remote radioactive waste drum inspection with an autonomous mobile robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An autonomous mobile robot is being developed to perform remote surveillance and inspection task on large numbers of stored radioactive waste drums. The robot will be self guided through narrow storage aisles and record the visual image of each viewable drum for subsequent off line analysis and archiving. The system will remove the personnel from potential exposure to radiation, perform the require inspections, and improve the ability to assess the long term trends in drum conditions

  19. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1998-09-29

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum.

  20. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) steel drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluations necessary to demonstrate that the steel drum packaging system meets the transportation safety requirements of HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments, for an onsite packaging containing Type B quantities of solid and liquid radioactive materials. The basic component of the steel drum packaging system is the 208 L (55-gal) steel drum

  1. 85-GAL DRUM AND NUCFIL-007LS FILTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JB WOODBURY

    2009-06-30

    {sm_bullet} 55-gallon drums were overpacked into 85-gallon drums {sm_bullet} ANucFiI-007LS long-stem filter was installed- NucFiI certified the use of NucFiI-007LS filters in 8S-gallon drums as DOT 7AType A - Wood wedges were used during the tests to center and . stabilize the inner 55-gallon drums {sm_bullet} During inspection, afew filters were found to be loose, canted, and/or with RTV seals broken - No contamination or loss of container integrity {sm_bullet} Discovered in November 2008 U.

  2. Numerical Experiments with Non-linear Double Membrane Drums

    OpenAIRE

    Torin, A.; S. Bilbao

    2013-01-01

    Drums with two membranes are very common; snare drums, tom-toms and bass drums can be found in Western music, but there are examples in Eastern music, as well (the Indian mridangam, the Japanese taiko, etc.) These instruments can have considerable physical dimensions; bass drum heads can sometimes reach a radius of half a meter. Given the size, the low tension at which the membranes are generally tuned and the amplitude of vibrations, it is unlikely that a linear model could capture the most ...

  3. 77 FR 51649 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    .... Wet Brake Test E. Heat Fade Test F. Parking Brake System Test G. Antilock Brake System (ABS.... Other ABS-Related Comments H. Partial Failure Test--Split Service Brake System I. Power-Assisted Braking..., Motorcycle Brake Systems, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, 73 FR 54020 (Sept. 17, 2008) (hereinafter ``FMVSS...

  4. Chimpanzee drumming : a spontaneous performance with characteristics of human musical drumming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufour, Valerie; Poulin, Nicolas; Cure, Charlotte; Sterck, Elisabeth H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the quintessential role that music plays in human societies by enabling us to release and share emotions with others, traces of its evolutionary origins in other species remain scarce. Drumming like humans whilst producing music is practically unheard of in our most closely related species,

  5. Special closures for steel drum shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this program was to develop special lid closures for typical, steel drum, radioactive material shipping containers. Previous experience and testing had shown that the existing container was adequate to withstand the required environmental tests for certification, but that the lid and closure were just marginally effective. Specifically, the lid closure failed to consistently maintain a tight seal between the container and the lid after drop tests, thus causing the package contents to be vulnerable in the subsequent fire test. Recognizing the deficiency, the United States Energy Research and Development Administration requested the development of new closure(s) which would: (1) be as strong and resistant to a drop as the bottom of the container; (2) have minimal economic impact on the overall container cost; (3) maximize the use of existing container designs; (4) consider crush loads; and (5) result in less dependence on personnel and loading procedures. Several techniques were evaluated and found to be more effective than the standard closure mechanism. Of these, three new closure techniques were designed, fabricated, and proven to be structurally adequate to provide containment when a 454-kg drum was drop tested from 9.14-m onto an unyielding surface. The three designs were: (1) a 152-mm long lid extension or skirt welded to the standard drum lid, (2) a separate inner lid, with 152-mm long skirt and (3) C-clamps used at the container-lid interface. Based upon structural integrity, economic impact, and minimal design change, the lid extension is the recommended special closure

  6. Special closures for steel drum shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this program was to develop special lid closures for standard, steel drum, radioactive material shipping containers. Previous experience and testing had shown that the existing container was adequate to withstand the required environmental tests for certification, but that the lid and closure was just marginally effective. Specifically, the lid closure failed to consistently maintain a tight seal between the container and the lid after drop tests, thus causing the package contents to be vulnerable in the subsequent fire test. Recognizing the deficiency, the United States Energy Research and Development Administration requested the development of new closures which would: (1) be as strong and resistant to a drop as the bottom of the container; (2) have minimal economic impact on the overall container cost; (3) maximize the use of existing container designs; (4) consider crush loads; and (5) result in less dependence on personnel and loading procedures. Several techniques were evaluated and found to be more effective than the standard closure mechanism. Of these, three new closure techniques were designed, fabricated, and proven to be structurally adequate to provide containment when a 454-kg drum was drop tested from 9.14m onto an unyielding surface. The three designs were: (1) a 152-mm long lid extension or skirt welded to the standard drum lid, (2) a separate inner lid, with 152-mm long skirt, and (3) C-clamps used at the container-lid interface. Based upon structural integrity, economic impact, and minimal design change, the lid extension is the recommended special closure. (author)

  7. ACTIVE FRONT STEERING DURING BRAKING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Deling; CHEN Li; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Yong

    2008-01-01

    An active front steering (AFS) intervention control during braking for vehicle stability is presented. Based on the investigation of AFS mechanism, a simplified model of steering system is established and integrated with vehicle model. Then the AFS control on vehicle handling dynamics during braking is designed. Due to the difficulties associated with the sideslip angle measurement of vehicle, a state observer is designed to provide real time estimation. Thereafter, the controller with the feedback of both sideslip and yaw angle is implemented. To evaluate the system control, the proposed AFS controlled vehicle has been tested in the Hardware-in-the-loop-simulation (HILS) system and compared with that of conventional vehicle. Results show that AFS can improve vehicle lateral stability effectively without reducing the braking performance.

  8. Mechanical Modeling of a WIPP Drum Under Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jeffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-25

    Mechanical modeling was undertaken to support the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) technical assessment team (TAT) investigating the February 14th 2014 event where there was a radiological release at the WIPP. The initial goal of the modeling was to examine if a mechanical model could inform the team about the event. The intention was to have a model that could test scenarios with respect to the rate of pressurization. It was expected that the deformation and failure (inability of the drum to contain any pressure) would vary according to the pressurization rate. As the work progressed there was also interest in using the mechanical analysis of the drum to investigate what would happen if a drum pressurized when it was located under a standard waste package. Specifically, would the deformation be detectable from camera views within the room. A finite element model of a WIPP 55-gallon drum was developed that used all hex elements. Analyses were conducted using the explicit transient dynamics module of Sierra/SM to explore potential pressurization scenarios of the drum. Theses analysis show similar deformation patterns to documented pressurization tests of drums in the literature. The calculated failure pressures from previous tests documented in the literature vary from as little as 16 psi to 320 psi. In addition, previous testing documented in the literature shows drums bulging but not failing at pressures ranging from 69 to 138 psi. The analyses performed for this study found the drums failing at pressures ranging from 35 psi to 75 psi. When the drums are pressurized quickly (in 0.01 seconds) there is significant deformation to the lid. At lower pressurization rates the deformation of the lid is considerably less, yet the lids will still open from the pressure. The analyses demonstrate the influence of pressurization rate on deformation and opening pressure of the drums. Analyses conducted with a substantial mass on top of the closed drum demonstrate that the

  9. Cookoff Modeling of a WIPP waste drum (68660)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Michael L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-24

    A waste drum located 2150 feet underground may have been the root cause of a radiation leak on February 14, 2014. Information provided to the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) was used to describe the approximate content of the drum, which included an organic cat litter (Swheat Scoop®, or Swheat) composed of 100% wheat products. The drum also contained various nitrate salts, oxalic acid, and a nitric acid solution that was neutralized with triethanolamine (TEA). CTH-TIGER was used with the approximate drum contents to specify the products for an exothermic reaction for the drum. If an inorganic adsorbent such as zeolite had been used in lieu of the kitty litter, the overall reaction would have been endothermic. Dilution with a zeolite adsorbent might be a useful method to remediate drums containing organic kitty litter. SIERRA THERMAL was used to calculate the pressurization and ignition of the drum. A baseline simulation of drum 68660 was performed by assuming a background heat source of 0.5-10 W of unknown origin. The 0.5 W source could be representative of heat generated by radioactive decay. The drum ignited after about 70 days. Gas generation at ignition was predicted to be 300-500 psig with a sealed drum (no vent). At ignition, the wall temperature increases modestly by about 1°C, demonstrating that heating would not be apparent prior to ignition. The ignition location was predicted to be about 0.43 meters above the bottom center portion of the drum. At ignition only 3-5 kg (out of 71.6 kg total) has been converted into gas, indicating that most of the material remained available for post-ignition reaction.

  10. The level control of the boiler drum

    OpenAIRE

    He, Chenhui

    2014-01-01

    Level control uses the boiler drum as a controlled object, and uses the level as a controller value. By making sure the level control is attached accurately we get better dynamic performance. I use the cascade control to make the difference to the traditional control. In this thesis, I summarize many problems with the level control in the steam boiler field as the false level phenomenon. I design three methods for the level control process system with different ways. I make the final choi...

  11. Hillside, Morgans Brake, and Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuges Deer Harvest Records are from 2008 and 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These harvest data are from Hillside, Morgans Brake, and Mathews Brake NWRs during the 2008 and 2014 deer seasons. They measure weight, antler size, prevalence of...

  12. Biweekly Waterfowl Counts from Mathews Brake, Morgan Brake, and Hillside National Wildlife Refuges in 2001 and 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Biweekly Waterfowl Counts from Mathews Brake, Morgan Brake, and Hillside National Wildlife Refuges conducted from October 2001 to February 2002

  13. Central Mississippi Refuges: Yazoo, Panther Swamp, Hillside, Morgan Brake & Bathews Brake: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yazoo, Hillside, Panther Swamp, Morgan Brake, and Mathews Brake NWRs covers refuge activities during 2001. The report begins with a...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1404 - Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. 75.1404... Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. Each locomotive and haulage car used in an underground coal mine... brakes, locomotives and haulage cars shall be subject to speed reduction gear, or other similar...

  15. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  16. The braking indices in pulsar emission models

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, F; Gil, J; Gil, Janusz

    2003-01-01

    Using the method proposed in a previous paper, we calculate pulsar braking indices in the models with torque contributions from both inner and outer accelerating regions, assuming that the interaction between them is negligible. We suggest that it is likely that the inverse Compton scattering induced polar vacuum gap and the outer gap coexist in the pulsar magnetosphere. We include the new near threshold vacuum gap models with curvature-radiation and inverse Compton scattering induced cascades, respectively; and find that these models can well reproduce the measured values of the braking indices.

  17. Tank-automotive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  18. 49 CFR 178.507 - Standards for plywood drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.507 Standards for plywood drums. (a) The..., with their grains crosswise. (3) The body and heads of the drum and their joints must be of a design...) The wood used must be well-seasoned, commercially dry and free from any defect likely to lessen...

  19. Radiogenic gas accumulation in TRU waste storage drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted over a four-year time span to determine the effect of high-activity transuranic (TRU) waste on the atmosphere within TRU waste storage drums typical of those generated in Savannah River Plant operation. Routine gas composition analyses showed that a significant amount of hydrogen can accumulate in drums that contain high alpha activity, and that flammable gas mixtures could form in such drums in spite of the radiolytic consumption of oxygen. According to this study, gas pressure accumulation does not pose a threat to the integrity of the TRU waste containers that are now being stored at the Savannah River Plant. Therefore, the 20-year storage criterion is still viable. However, the continued avoidance of a perfectly gas-tight drum seal (e.g., epoxy, metal welding) is recommended. The test drums will continue to be monitored

  20. Hillside, Morgan Brake, and Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuges Reforestation Plan for 1992-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan addresses the history of reforestation at Hillside National Wildlife Refuge and its two satellite refuges, Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge and...

  1. Real-world emission factors for antimony and other brake wear related trace elements: size-segregated values for light and heavy duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Lienemann, Peter; Hill, Matthias; Figi, Renato; Richard, Agnes; Furger, Markus; Rickers, Karen; Falkenberg, Gerald; Zhao, Yongjing; Cliff, Steven S; Prevot, Andre S H; Baltensperger, Urs; Buchmann, Brigitte; Gehrig, Robert

    2009-11-01

    Hourly trace element measurements were performed in an urban street canyon and next to an interurban freeway in Switzerland during more than one month each, deploying a rotating drum impactor (RDI) and subsequent sample analysis by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF). Antimony and other brake wear associated elements were detected in three particle size ranges (2.5-10, 1-2.5, and 0.1-1 microm). The hourly measurements revealed that the effect of resuspended road dust has to be taken into account for the calculation of vehicle emission factors. Individual values for light and heavy duty vehicles were obtained for stop-and-go traffic in the urban street canyon. Mass based brake wear emissions were predominantly found in the coarse particle fraction. For antimony, determined emission factors were 11 +/- 7 and 86 +/- 42 microg km(-1) vehicle(-1) for light and heavy duty vehicles, respectively. Antimony emissions along the interurban freeway with free-flowing traffic were significantly lower. Relative patterns for brake wear related elements were very similar for both considered locations. Beside vehicle type specific brake wear emissions, road dust resuspension was found to be a dominant contributor of antimony in the street canyon. PMID:19924925

  2. The European automotive LPG market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European automotive LPG market could reach at least 4 % of the European fuel market in 2005 versus 1 % in 1990. This would represent a rise of about 35 % in automotive LPG sales (from 2,4 million tonnes in 1997 to 7 million tonnes estimated for 2005). This was underlined by Alain Deleuse, Primagaz group's Marketing Director, in the paper he delivered at the AEGPL Budapest Convention. We publish large excepts of this paper. (author)

  3. Multicore scheduling in automotive ECUs

    OpenAIRE

    Monot, Aurélien; Navet, Nicolas; Bavoux, Bernard; Simonot-Lion, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    As the demand for computing power is quickly increasing in the automotive domain, car manufacturers and tier-one suppliers are gradually introducing multicore ECUs in their electronic architectures. Additionally, these multicore ECUs offer new features such as higher levels of parallelism which eases the espect of the safety requirements introduced by the ISO 26262 and can be taken advantage of in various other automotive use-cases. These new features involve also more complexity in the desig...

  4. Study on reduction method of brake squeal; Brake naki teigen shuho ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, T.; Okada, Y. [Aisin Seiki Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The reduction of brake squeal is an important technological subject in terms of making vehicles quieter. In our research, we carried out a modal analysis from the caliper to the installation bracket during generating brake squeal to identify the places that influence the squeal. Based on this, we studied proposals to reduce the squeal, and have reduced the squeal noise at about 5 kHz as reported in this paper. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  5. Wear determination in braking systems by radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friction and wear behaviour of friction couples has been tested applying loads and sliding speeds. The determination was carried out by direct measurements of the lining material and by surface activation of the opposite material with protons. The application limits of several braking materials could be determined and compared

  6. Massive star models with magnetic braking

    CERN Document Server

    Meynet, Georges; Maeder, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic fields at the surface of a few early-type stars have been directly detected. These fields have magnitudes between a few hundred G up to a few kG. In one case, evidence of magnetic braking has been found. We investigate the effects of magnetic braking on the evolution of rotating ($\\upsilon_{\\rm ini}$=200 km s$^{-1}$) 10 M$_\\odot$ stellar models at solar metallicity during the main-sequence (MS) phase. The magnetic braking process is included in our stellar models according to the formalism deduced from 2D MHD simulations of magnetic wind confinement by ud-Doula and co-workers. Various assumptions are made regarding both the magnitude of the magnetic field and of the efficiency of the angular momentum transport mechanisms in the stellar interior. When magnetic braking occurs in models with differential rotation, a strong and rapid mixing is obtained at the surface accompanied by a rapid decrease in the surface velocity. Such a process might account for some MS stars showing strong mixing and low surfa...

  7. Electric disc brakes hold nuclear aircraft carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, the U.S.S. Nimitz and the soon-to-be-completed U.S.S. Dwight D. Eisenhower, use electric disc brakes to stop and hold lines on warping and mooring capstans during docking maneuvers and mooring operations

  8. Asbestos free friction composition for brake linings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arnab Ganguly; Raji George

    2008-02-01

    An asbestos free friction material composite for brake linings is synthesized containing fibrous reinforcing constituents, friction imparting and controlling additives, elastomeric additives, fire retarding components and a thermosetting resin. The composite shows exemplary friction characteristics and has great resistance to wear and shows good temperature stability.

  9. Innovation of Electromagnetic Brake for Rail Vehicles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulrych, B.; Doležel, Ivo

    Opole : Technical University of Opole, 2005, s. 650-653. ISBN 83-88492-74-8. [International Symposium on Electrical Machines SME 2005 /41./. Opole-Jarnoltówek (PL), 14.06.2005-17.06.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : electromagnetic brake * electromagnetic field * numerical analysis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  10. Ceramics for use in brakes and clutches; Keramik fuer den Einsatz in Bremsen und Kupplungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, A.; Arslan, A.; Herbst, D. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Maschinenkonstruktionslehre und Kraftfahrzeugbau

    2001-05-01

    A further increase in the power density of clutches and brakes is hardly possible using conventional friction materials. Although friction linings on the basis of sintered metals allow higher power densities than organic linings, they have serious disadvantages with regard to comfort, which means that they cannot be used in vehicles. The use of innovative ceramic materials here is promising, as is shown by the following article from the Institute of Machine Design and Automotive Engineering of the University of Karlsruhe. (orig.) [German] Eine weitere Steigerung der Leistungsdichte von Kupplungen und Bremsen ist mit herkoemmlichen Reibewerkstoffen fast nicht mehr moeglich. Reibbelaege auf der Basis von Sintermetallen erlauben eine hoehere Leistung als organische Reibbelaege, jedoch haben sie gravierende Nachteile in Bezug auf Komforteigenschaften, so dass sie im Pkw nicht eingesetzt werden koennen. Erfolg verspricht die Anwendung von neuartigen keramischen Werkstoffen, mit denen sich der folgende Aufsatz des Instituts fuer Maschinenkonstruktionslehre und Kraftfahrzeugbau der Universitaet Karlsruhe naeher befasst. (orig.)

  11. Pedestrian injury mitigation by autonomous braking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Erik; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Eriksson, Dick; Nentwich, Matthias; Fredriksson, Rikard; Smith, Kip

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate the potential effectiveness of a pedestrian injury mitigation system that autonomously brakes the car prior to impact. The effectiveness was measured by the reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians. The database from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) was queried for pedestrians hit by the front of cars from 1999 to 2007. Case by case information on vehicle and pedestrian velocities and trajectories were analysed to estimate the field of view needed for a vehicle-based sensor to detect the pedestrians one second prior to the crash. The pre-impact braking system was assumed to activate the brakes one second prior to crash and to provide a braking deceleration up to the limit of the road surface conditions, but never to exceed 0.6 g. New impact speeds were then calculated for pedestrians that would have been detected by the sensor. These calculations assumed that all pedestrians who were within a given field of view but not obstructed by surrounding objects would be detected. The changes in fatality and severe injury risks were quantified using risk curves derived by logistic regression of the accident data. Summing the risks for all pedestrians, relationships between mitigation effectiveness, sensor field of view, braking initiation time, and deceleration were established. The study documents that the effectiveness at reducing fatally (severely) injured pedestrians in frontal collisions with cars reached 40% (27%) at a field of view of 40 degrees. Increasing the field of view further led to only marginal improvements in effectiveness. PMID:20728647

  12. MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, Michael

    2013-01-01

    MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications reviews the use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in developing solutions to the unique challenges presented by the automotive and aerospace industries.Part one explores MEMS for a variety of automotive applications. The role of MEMS in passenger safety and comfort, sensors for automotive vehicle stability control applications and automotive tire pressure monitoring systems are considered, along with pressure and flow sensors for engine management, and RF MEMS for automotive radar sensors. Part two then goes on to explore MEMS for

  13. Heat load limits for TRU drums on pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the Trans-Uranic (TRU) waste generated at SRS is packaged in 55 gallon, galvanized steel drums and stored on concrete pads that are exposed to the weather. It was necessary to compute how much heat can be generated by the waste in these drums without exceeding the temperature limits of the contents of the drum. This report documents the calculation of heat load limits for the drum, which depend on the temperature limits of the contents of the drum. The applicable temperature limits for the contents of the drum are the melting temperature of the polyethylene liner, 284 ± 8 F, the combustion temperature of paper, 450 F and the decomposition temperature of anionic resin, 190 F. One part of the analysis leading to the heat load limits was the collection of weather records on solar flux, wind speed and air temperature. Another part of the task was an experimental measurement of two important properties of the drum lid, the emittance and the absorptance. As used here, emittance is the rate at which an object emits infrared thermal radiation divided by the rate at which a perfect black body at the same temperature emits thermal radiation. Absorptance is the rate at which an object absorbs solar radiation divided by the rate at which a perfect black body absorbs radiation. For nine locations on each of eight typical weathered drum lids the measured emittance ranged from 0.73 ± 0.05 to 1.00 ± 0.07 (95% confidence level) and the average emittance for the eight lids was 0.85. For the eight drum lids the measured absorptance ranged from 0.64 ± 0.07 to 0.79 ± 0.07 with an average absorptance for the eight lids of 0.739

  14. 汽车转向防抱死制动控制系统研究%Research on steering antilock braking control system for vehicles.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李果; 刘华伟

    2012-01-01

    为了研究解决车辆转向过程中防抱死制动稳定性问题,设计了一种由执行级、协调级组成的分层控制系统,在执行级,设计了基于遗传算法的汽车ABS最优滑模控制器;设计了基于遗传算法的汽车转向滑模控制器.在协调级,针对制动和转向两个子系统提出协调控制方案,给出具体协调策略.用仿真结果验证所设计控制算法的稳定性和有效性.%It is to study a new hierarchical intelligent control system in the vehicle's steering antilock brake stability fields. A layered control system consisting of the execution layer and the cooperation layer is designed. On the execution layer, optimal sliding mode controller based on genetic algorithms is designed for the automotive brake controller. Optimal sliding mode controller based on genetic algorithms is designed for the automotive steering controller. On the cooperation layer, this paper provides coordination control scheme and gives a specific coordination strategy for two subsystem of braking and steering. The stability and the validity of the control algorithm are validated by simulation results.

  15. Elemental composition of current automotive braking materials and derived air emission factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulskotte, J.H.J.; Roskam, G.D.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Wear-related PM emissions are an important constituent of total PM emissions from road transport. Due to ongoing (further) exhaust emission reduction wear emissions may become the dominant PM source from road transport in the near future. The chemical composition of the wear emissions is crucial inf

  16. Effect of ZrSiO4 on the Friction Performance of Automotive Brake Friction Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Friction-wear properties of the ZrSiO4 reinforced samples were measured and compared with those of plain bronze based ones. For this purpose, density, hardness, friction coefficient wear behaviour of the samples were tested. Microstructures of samples before and after sintering and worn surfaces were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the wear types were determined. The optimum friction-wear behaviour was obtained in the sample compacted at 500 MPa and sintered at 820℃. Density of the final samples decreased with increasing the amount of reinforcing elements (ZrSiO4) before pre-sintering. However after sintering, there is no change in density of the samples including reinforcing elements (ZrSiO4). With increasing friction surface temperature, a reduction in the friction coefficient of the samples was observed.However, the highest reductions in the friction coefficients were observed in the as-received samples containing 0,5% reinforced ZrSiO4. The SEM images of the sample indicated that while bronze-based break lining material without ZrSiO4 showed abrasive wear behaviour, increasing the amount of ZrSiO4 resulted a change in abrasive to adhesive wear mechanism. All samples exhibited friction-wear values, which were within the values shown in SAE-J661 standard. With increasing the amount of reinforcing ZrSiO4, wear resistance of the samples was increased. However samples reinforced with 5% and 6% ZrSiO4 showed the best results.

  17. An Intelligent Regenerative Braking Strategy for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Song

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is an effective approach for electric vehicles (EVs to extend their driving range. A fuzzy-logic-based regenerative braking strategy (RBS integrated with series regenerative braking is developed in this paper to advance the level of energy-savings. From the viewpoint of securing car stability in braking operations, the braking force distribution between the front and rear wheels so as to accord with the ideal distribution curve are considered to prevent vehicles from experiencing wheel lock and slip phenomena during braking. Then, a fuzzy RBS using the driver’s braking force command, vehicle speed, battery SOC, battery temperature are designed to determine the distribution between friction braking force and regenerative braking force to improve the energy recuperation efficiency. The experimental results on an “LF620” prototype EV validated the feasibility and effectiveness of regenerative braking and showed that the proposed fuzzy RBS was endowed with good control performance. The maximum driving range of LF620 EV was improved by 25.7% compared with non-RBS conditions.

  18. Automotive Sensors and MEMS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonomura, Yutaka

    - Automotive sensors are used for emission gas purification, energy conservation, car kinematic performance, safety and ITS (intelligent transportation system). The comparison of the sensor characteristics was made for their application area. Many kinds of the principles are applied for the sensors. There are two types of sensors, such as physical and chemical one. Many of the automotive sensors are physical type such as mechanical sensors. And a gas sensor is a chemical type. The sensors have been remarkably developed with the advancement of the MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology. In this paper, gas, pressure, combustion pressure, acceleration, magnetic, and angular rate sensors for automotive use are explained with their features. The sensors are key devices to control cars in the engine, power train, chassis and safety systems. The environment resistance, long term reliability, and low cost are required for the automotive sensors. They are very hard to be resolved. However, the sensor technology contributes greatly to improving global environment, energy conservation, and safety. The applications of automotive sensors will be expanded with the automobile developments.

  19. Dynamic simulation of hydrodynamic model of drum level wave action and sloshing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In order to build the model of the drum level wave action and sloshing, based on the method of modularization modeling,the hydrodynamic model of drum level wave action and sloshing was developed, and dynamic simulation researches were carried out based on the model. The results indicate that both drum level and drum length have functional relations with period of drum level wave action and sloshing. When the drum level decreases or drum length increases, the period of drum level wave action and sloshing increases, density of liquid and number of sub-module division have little influence on the period of drum level wave action and sloshing. The model was validated by the analytical solution theory of liquid's wave action and sloshing in cuboid container, and the 3D graphics of drum level wave action and sloshing was also obtained. The model can dynamically reflect the rules of wave action and sloshing of water in the container exactly.

  20. 49 CFR 571.135 - Standard No. 135; Light vehicle brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the braking ratio of the vehicle. Antilock brake system or ABS means a portion of a service brake... neutral. (b) For an EV that is equipped with both ABS and RBS that is part of the service brake system, the ABS must control the RBS. S5.2. Parking brake system. Each vehicle shall be equipped with...

  1. Friction characteristics of a brake friction material under different braking conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The tribological behavior of the brake material is well depending on interfacial temperature and friction conditions. • The friction performance is influenced by the material heterogeneity and its anisotropy. • The friction performance depended on the nature, morphology and orientation of constituents. - Abstract: As the evaluation of the tribological properties of the brake lining material is important for the braking performance identification, a pad-on-disc friction and wear tests of a commercial brake pad material against cast iron disc were conducted under low, middle and severe conditions. Three experiments via (t1), (t2) and (t3) with different sliding speeds and nominal contact pressure were conducted. Tests were performed with the pad in periodic sliding contact for 30 cycles. The scanning electronic microscopic (SEM) analysis with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) was used to characterize the rubbed surface. The results showed that during the run-in period, the coefficient of friction increases steadily. For the friction mechanism: (i) at lower conditions, a stable friction film was generated on the surface of the brake pad, providing excellent friction stability with less wear, (ii) at middle conditions, fibers were agglomerated and were not contributed more, and (iii) at higher conditions, contact plates were identified which were accommodated the speed and the load

  2. Supplier Selection in the Thai Automotive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nopprach, Somsupa

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses agglomeration theory to analyze the impact of Thai government policies on the development of the Thai automotive industry and cluster formation in Central and Eastern Thailand. Using cross-section data on 162 auto-parts suppliers from the Thailand Automotive Directory 2003-2004, the paper examines the criteria of supplier selection in the Thai automotive industry. Using logit models and cross-section data on 162 auto-parts suppliers from the Thailand Automotive Directory 2003-...

  3. Braking Resistor Scheme for Transient Stability Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abazari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems in power systems design is increasing the damping of the swing amplitude and also to increase the critical time in transient stability. One of the best techniques is to use resistor braking. However, their performance in power systems, duration of their activity and their place of installation are of great importance. In this paper by using of some of devices in power electronics and by precies modeling of the network and optimal controller is designed which leads as to our final objective. In fact resistor braking are effectively attract additive energy which is a result of disturbances and help us to improve the stability of overall system.

  4. Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliore, P G [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Miller, L S [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Quandt, G A

    1995-04-01

    Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).

  5. Modeling of a Hydraulic Braking System

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to derive an analytical model representing a reduced form of a mine hoist hydraulic braking system. Based primarily on fluid mechanical and mechanical physical modeling, along with a number of simplifying assumptions, the analytical model will be derived and expressed in the form of a system of differential equations including a set of static functions. The obtained model will be suitable for basic simulation and analysis of system dynamics, with the aim to cap...

  6. An Intelligent Auxiliary Vacuum Brake System

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Chia-Chang; Lin, Jhih-Yu; Li, Shih-Fan; Li, Jiun-Yi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper focuses on designing an intelligent, compact, reliable, and robust auxiliary vacuum brake system (VBS) with Kalman filter and self-diagnosis scheme. All of the circuit elements in the designed system are integrated into one programmable system-on-chip (PSoC) with entire computational algorithms implemented by software. In this system, three main goals are achieved: (a) Kalman filter and hysteresis controller algorithms are employed within PSoC chip by software to sur...

  7. Bernoulli effect at free revolving flow braking

    OpenAIRE

    Budarin, V. A.

    2013-01-01

    In this research paper, analytical equations for the calculation of radial flow due to the braking on the flat surface plane of revolving flow were obtained. The calculation method is based on the use of pressure force balance equation, viscid friction and inertia. Three motion equations for incompressible, polytropic and isothermal flow were obtained, the type of a cumulative curve for the incompressible flow has been shown. Possibility of the use of radial flow for the compression of water ...

  8. Braking Resistor Scheme for Transient Stability Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Abazari

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important problems in power systems design is increasing the damping of the swing amplitude and also to increase the critical time in transient stability. One of the best techniques is to use resistor braking. However, their performance in power systems, duration of their activity and their place of installation are of great importance. In this paper by using of some of devices in power electronics and by precies modeling of the network and optimal controller is designed which...

  9. Application Research of Developed Drummed Nuclear Waste Neutron Counting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The application researches such as variety of factors affecting the measurement, calibrating etc. are need before the drummed nuclear waste neutron counting system (WNC) can be really put into use after installed at the site.

  10. A-Ha. Drum'n'bassi supernimi FABIO

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    7.sept. annab norra menukaim popansambel A-Ha Tallinnas Lauluväljakul kontserdi, kus presenteerib ka oma viimast albumit "Lifelines". 14. sept.tuleb drum'n'bassi spetsialist Fabio Tallinna üritusele Circulation

  11. Comparison trials on drum rotors. Vergleichsversuche an Trommellaeufern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merdian, J.; Sawani, N.; Scholz, M.

    1993-08-01

    Two drum rotor wheels with different impeller configurations with blades bent considerable forwards, were tested both aerodynamically as well as acoustically. The results obtained were compared with published test results. (orig.)

  12. Failure analysis in locomotive Bogie Brake-Hanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAVNEET SINGH1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Breakage of brake riggings in WAP7 locomotives has been a matter of concern since 2004, almost afterits commencement of manufacturing, which is having same bogie design as that in WAG9 locomotives. Both ofthese bogies are having TBU/PBU assembly for brakes, but breakage of brake hangers in WAG9 locomotivesare unheard off. Both the inner as well as outer hangers are breaking. However, the cases of breakage of innerhangers towards bogie frame are much more with 80% of the total failures. This paper deliberates to understandthe various failures in locomotive Bogie Brake-Hanger and on root cause analysis for the failure of Brakehanger. In this paper we analyze the characteristics of brake hanger using FEA software.The goal of the project is to develop a high-speed train system capable of reaching the maximum speedand to secure its key technologies, one of which is the braking technology.

  13. Development and evaluation of a drum seeder for onion

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    To achieve optimum yield of onion by placing the seeds at a certain depth in lines, a manually operated drum seeder for onion has been designed, fabricated and tested in Farm Machinery and Postharvest Process (FMP) Engineering Division of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI). The seeder is suitable for the small farmers who have practice of direct seeding of onion under dry land cultivation. The seeder consists of a frame, a PVC drum, furrow openers, furrow closer, wheels and han...

  14. Influence of drum motion parameters on shearer cutting properties

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Songyong; Changlong DU; Chenxu LUO

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the influence of motionparameters of shearer drum on shearer cutting properties,an embedded system for cutting load test that can identify thecutting resistance indirectly were developed and put into test experimentunderground. The analysis results indicated that in the case of pullingspeed being constant, when pulling speed is small, the cuttingresistance nonlinearly declined and cutting specific energy consumption (CSEC)increases nonlinearly with the increase of the drum r...

  15. Possibilities of rotating drums in ultra-high-speed cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study shows that it is possible to produce a drum rotating at a peripheral speed of 500m/s. A prototype has actually reached this speed and confirmed the feasibility of the system. It is driven by an electric motor and is made of titanium covered with boron fibres. The main performances to be expected of cameras (whole-image, slit or spectrographic) using such a drum is described

  16. Degradation of transuranic waste drums in underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford site is one of several U.S. Department of Energy locations that has transuranic radioactive Waste in storage, resulting from nuclear weapons material production. Transuranic waste has extremely long-lived radionuclides requiring great care in management; such waste is slated for eventual disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Most of this waste is stored in 208-ell (55-gal) drums below ground. At the Hanford site 37 641 drums are stored in several trenches. The drums were stacked up to five high with plywood sheeting between the layers and on top of the stacks. Plastic tarps were used to cover the drums and the plywood, with several feet of earth backfilled on top of the plastic. A fraction of the drums (∼20%) were covered only with earth, not with plywood and plastic. The drums are either painted low-carbon steel or galvanized low-carbon steel. They have been placed in storage from 1970 to 1988, resulting in between 7 and 25 yr of storage. The environment is either soil or air atmosphere. The air atmosphere environment also includes, for some drum surfaces, contact with the underside of the tarp. The temperature of the air atmosphere is relatively uniform. Year-round measurements have not been taken, but available data suggest that the temperature span should be from ∼ 10 to 30 degrees C (50 to 86 degrees F). Humidity in underground storage module mock-ups has been measured at nearly 90% during testing in the summer months. Subsequent tests have shown that the humidity probably drops to 50 to 60% during other seasons. This report describes results of a project to inspect the condition of the waste drums

  17. Elastoplastic finite element analysis for wet multidisc brake during lasting braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhanling

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressed to serious heat degradation problem of the braking continuously performed in the drag brake application for a long time, finite element analysis for bidirectional thermal-structure coupling is adopted to investigate temperature and stress when material properties are temperature-dependent. Based on the constitutive relations of heat transfer and strain-stress, three-dimensional transient finite element equilibrium equations with many kinds of boundary conditions for bidirectional thermal-structure coupling were derived. And it was originally presented that start time, location, severity and evolution laws of plastic deformation were depicted using dimensionless stress distribution contour with the yield limit related to temperature. The change laws of plastic element number and contact area versus braking time were expressed by plasticity ratio and contact ratio curves, respectively. The laws revealed by the numerical calculation results are in accordance with the objective perception and reasoning.

  18. Drum Sound Detection in Polyphonic Music with Hidden Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Paulus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for transcribing drums from polyphonic music using a network of connected hidden Markov models (HMMs. The task is to detect the temporal locations of unpitched percussive sounds (such as bass drum or hi-hat and recognise the instruments played. Contrary to many earlier methods, a separate sound event segmentation is not done, but connected HMMs are used to perform the segmentation and recognition jointly. Two ways of using HMMs are studied: modelling combinations of the target drums and a detector-like modelling of each target drum. Acoustic feature parametrisation is done with mel-frequency cepstral coefficients and their first-order temporal derivatives. The effect of lowering the feature dimensionality with principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis is evaluated. Unsupervised acoustic model parameter adaptation with maximum likelihood linear regression is evaluated for compensating the differences between the training and target signals. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on a publicly available data set containing signals with and without accompaniment, and compared with two reference methods. The results suggest that the transcription is possible using connected HMMs, and that using detector-like models for each target drum provides a better performance than modelling drum combinations.

  19. The Friction of Vehicle Brake Tandem Master Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, M. J.; Chang, H.; Tsung, T. T.; Lin, H. M.

    2006-10-01

    The behaviour of an elastomeric seal for vehicle brake Tandem master cylinder is measured and analyzed in temperature and brake fluids changed. Working conditions are simulated for different piston rod velocity and cylinder supply pressure, in temperature rising, brakefluid boundary and Nanoaluminum oxide brakefluid oxide brakefluid lubrication. The result shows that Nanoaluminum oxide brakefluid with its ball shape can highly reduce friction coefficient to avoid seal excessive wear and reduce slick slip in brake applications.

  20. Low-impact friction materials for brake pads

    OpenAIRE

    Bonfanti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art friction materials for applications in disc brake systems are constituted by composite materials, specifically formulated to ensure proper friction and wear performances, under the sliding contact conditions of braking events. The bases of typical friction compound formulations usually include 10 to 30 different components bonded with a polymeric binder cross-linked in situ. Main requests to be fulfilled during braking are an adequate friction efficiency and enough mechanical...

  1. The Friction of Vehicle Brake Tandem Master Cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of an elastomeric seal for vehicle brake Tandem master cylinder is measured and analyzed in temperature and brake fluids changed. Working conditions are simulated for different piston rod velocity and cylinder supply pressure, in temperature rising, brakefluid boundary and Nanoaluminum oxide brakefluid oxide brakefluid lubrication. The result shows that Nanoaluminum oxide brakefluid with its ball shape can highly reduce friction coefficient to avoid seal excessive wear and reduce slick slip in brake applications

  2. Effect of Titanium on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Gray Cast Iron for Automotive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfi, M.; Gorini, D.; Pola, A.; La Vecchia, G. M.

    2016-07-01

    Lamellar gray cast iron, with a mainly pearlitic microstructure, is widely used in the automotive industry, mostly in the manufacturing of brake disks. This work analyzes in depth the effects of small variations of titanium content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of cast iron brake disks. For this purpose, eight different heats of EN-GJL-250 cast iron were selected, with a similar chemical composition but with different titanium contents, varying from 0.013 to 0.031%. The drops in mechanical strength and hardness values measured on the high-Ti samples were correlated to microstructural variations quantitatively observed by means of optical and scanning electron microscope. It was found that titanium combines to form titanium nitrides, suppressing the beneficial microstructural effects of nitrogen at solidification. Residual nitrogen, if present in sufficient quantity, promotes the nucleation of primary austenite from the liquid and the formation of a fine microstructure, with small eutectic cells and lower graphite content. Such a microstructure provides brake disks with better mechanical properties. The interpretation of results was further supported by thermal analysis and thermodynamic calculations.

  3. Compact Hybrid Automotive Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.

    1986-01-01

    Power train proposed for experimental vehicle powered by internal combustion engine and electric motor. Intended for front-wheel drive automobile, power train mass produced using existing technology. System includes internal-combustion engine, electric motor, continuously variable transmission, torque converter, differential, and control and adjustment systems for electric motor and transmission. Continuously variable transmission integrated into hydraulic system that also handles power steering and power brakes. Batteries for electric motor mounted elsewhere in vehicle.

  4. Transport in rotary drums and ball mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains investigations into the influence exerted by operating conditions, material properties and geometry of the apparatus and of the discharge plate on the transport behaviour of narrow quartz sand fractions in a model apparatus. The transport coefficients are determined in residence time experiments with Na-24-labelling. The dependence obtained between the transport coefficients and the experimental parameters permits a coherent interpretation if the assumption is made that the two types of transport occur in different phases of radial motion: Convection takes place during ascend while axial dispersion is generated in the falling and ranging process. Furthermore, a model has been developed for evaluating the throughput of rotary drums and ball mills, respectively; it is based on the assumption that the throughput is governed by the material flux through the discharge plate. The efflux takes place only in the ascending zone as a result of gravity and centrifugal forces acting parallel to the discharge plate. A deduced relationship describing the material flow through the discharge apertures in connection with the calculable zone of ascend leads to an expression allowing to determine the mass flow rate as a function of material properties, operating conditions and geometry of the discharge plate. A comparison between experimental and calculated data shows good agreement. (orig.)

  5. Automotive Electronics. Teacher Edition (Revised).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Howard C.; Heiserman, Russell L.

    This learning module addresses computers and their applications in contemporary automobiles. The text provides students with information on automotive microcomputers and hands-on activities that will help them see how semiconductors and digital logic devices fit into the modern repair facility. The module contains nine instructional units that…

  6. Automotive Technologies. State Competency Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    This document, which lists the technical automotive technologies competencies identified by representatives from business, industry, and labor as well as technical educators throughout Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations in developing college tech prep programs that will prepare students from secondary through post-secondary…

  7. Human factors in automotive innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terken, J.; Ham, J.; Hoedemaeker, M.

    2011-01-01

    Many automotive innovations affect the driver's task and/or the driving experience. In this paper we argue that successful innovation in these cases requires that due attention is given to Human Factors issues in the course of the innovation process. We support this claim by examples from several re

  8. Innovative Technology in Automotive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John

    2007-01-01

    Automotive Technology combines hands-on training along with a fully integrated, interactive, computerized multistationed facility. Our program is a competency based, true open-entry/open-exit program that utilizes flexible self-paced course outlines. It is designed around an industry partnership that promotes community and economic development,…

  9. Automotive Cooling and Lubricating Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide new mechanics with a source of study materials to assist them in becoming more proficient in their jobs. The course contains four study units covering automotive cooling system maintenance, cooling system repair, lubricating systems, and lubrication…

  10. A Model Predictive Control Allocation Approach to Hybrid Braking of Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Satzger, Clemens; Pinto de Castro, Ricardo; Buente, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    With the recent emergence of electric drivetrains, a faster and energy efficient braking actuator - the electric motor - has become available to complement the operation of the traditional friction brakes. The decision on how to split the braking torque among the friction brake and the electric motor is one of the main issues of such hybrid braking systems. With this challenge in mind, a new model predictive control allocation (MPCA) approach for hybrid braking is proposed. In comparison to s...

  11. Research on Modeling and Control of Regenerative Braking for Brushless DC Machines Driven Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-ping Wen; Chuan-wei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve energy utilization rate of battery-powered electric vehicle (EV) using brushless DC machine (BLDCM), the model of braking current generated by regenerative braking and control method are discussed. On the basis of the equivalent circuit of BLDCM during the generative braking period, the mathematic model of braking current is established. By using an extended state observer (ESO) to observe actual braking current and the unknown disturbances of regenerative braking system, ...

  12. Speciation of Sb in airborne particulate matter, vehicle brake linings, and brake pad wear residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrica, D.; Bardelli, F.; Dongarrà, G.; Tamburo, E.

    2013-01-01

    Insights into the speciation of Sb in samples of brake linings, brake pad wear residues, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 were obtained combining several well established and advanced characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption spectroscopy (SR-XAS). The advantage of SR-XAS is that samples do not undergo any chemical treatment prior to measurements, thus excluding possible alterations. These analyses revealed that the samples of wheel rims dust, road dust, and atmospheric particulate matter are composed by an admixture of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in different relative abundances. Brake linings turned out to be composed by Sb(III) oxide (Sb2O3) and stibnite (Sb2S3). Stibnite was also detected in some of the particulate matter samples. The obtained data suggest that Sb2S3 during the brake abrasion process is easily decomposed forming more stable compounds such as antimony mixed oxidic forms. Sb redox speciation, in particular and well studied circumstances, may enhance the potential and selectivity of this element as a tracer of motor vehicle emissions in apportioning studies.

  13. Quality control of cast brake discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stawarz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The largest industrial application so far have the gray cast irons which are characterized by low tensile and bending strength, while at the same time they have good ultimate comprehensive strength. Additionally, the fatigue strength of gray cast irons is comparatively low and they are only to some extend sensitive for the surface waters effects. Cast iron is the material, which is comparatively easy to be processed, and for this reason – it is not expensive. Brake discs are exploited in particularly hard conditions. They must be resistant both against the thermal fatigue and abrasion wearing (at dry friction as well as against seizing, corrosion and mechanical load [1-3]. The gray cast iron, better than other materials, fulfills all the requirements necessary for making the material for the casts resistant against such tough conditions. This work reflects the researches aiming to define the quality of cast brake discs (ventilated and non-ventilated ones upon a period of their exploitation in real conditions. The following researches were performed: evaluations of the disc surface condition, measurement of disc thickness, examination of run – out flank and metallographic analysis. In order to more detailed recognition of mechanisms and reasons of brake discs wearing in real conditions, one should conduct additional examinations: computer analysis of the microstructure, chemical composition analysis, etc., as well as study of the technology of their production in foundries, where they are manufactured [4]. By obtaining the full set of the mentioned above data one can draw final conclusions and remove causes of possible defects.

  14. Mapping automotive like controls to a general aviation aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Christopher G.

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop fly-by-wire control laws enabling a general aviation aircraft to be flown with automotive controls, i.e. a steering wheel and gas/brake pedals. There was a six speed shifter used to change the flight mode of the aircraft. This essentially allows the pilot to have control over different aspects of the flight profile such as climb/descend or cruise. A highway in the sky was used to aid in the navigation since it is not intuitive to people without flight experience how to navigate from the sky or when to climb and descend. Many believe that general aviation could become as widespread as the automobile. Every person could have a personal aircraft at their disposal and it would be as easy to operate as driving an automobile. The goal of this thesis is to fuse the ease of drivability of a car with flight of a small general aviation aircraft. A standard automotive control hardware setup coupled with variably autonomous control laws will allow new pilots to fly a plane as easily as driving a car. The idea is that new pilots will require very little training to become proficient with these controls. Pilots with little time to stay current can maintain their skills simply by driving a car which is typically a daily activity. A human factors study was conducted to determine the feasibility of the applied control techniques. Pilot performance metrics were developed to compare candidates with no aviation background and experienced pilots. After analyzing the relative performance between pilots and non-pilots, it has been determined that the control system is robust and easy to learn. Candidates with no aviation experience whatsoever can learn to fly an aircraft as safely and efficiently as someone with hundreds of hours of flight experience using these controls.

  15. 49 CFR 570.5 - Service brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Friction materials. On each brake the thickness of the lining or pad shall not be less than one thirty... CFR 571.105, on every new passenger car manufactured on or after January 1, 1968, and on other types... from loose material, oil, or grease. The service brakes shall be applied at a vehicle speed of 20...

  16. 49 CFR 570.59 - Service brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Friction materials. On each brake, the thickness of the lining or pad shall not be less than one thirty-second of an inch over the fastener, or one-sixteenth of an inch over the brake shoe on bonded linings or... percent grade), dry, smooth, hard-surfaced road that is free from loose material, oil or grease....

  17. Nuclear criticality safety for drums at Babcock and Wilcox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Babcock and Wilcox Company (B ampersand W) operates a nuclear fuel facility in Lynchburg, Virginia, processing uranium over the full range of possible enrichments (depleted to 97.65 wt% 235U). Nuclear fuel is produced for defense programs and for various research and test reactors worldwide. The facility has a uranium recovery operation that handles scrap produced at B ampersand W as well as scrap from other U.S. Department of Energy sites. B ampersand W also has a down-blending operation that is currently completing the down-blending of the fully enriched Project Sapphire Uranium to commercial-grade fuel (4 Wt% 235U). The facility generates approximately two hundred 55-gal drums of radioactive waste each month. Just a few years ago the number of waste drums on-site stood at ∼5000; however, through an aggressive waste reduction program, this number has been reduced to ∼2000. B ampersand W strives to avoid storing uranium scrap in 55-gal drums; however, there are approximately sixty-four 55-gal drums of scrap on-site. Scrap is that material from which the uranium is recovered because of financial, contractual, or regulatory considerations; waste is that material destined for disposal. Whether waste or scrap, nuclear criticality safety is of paramount concern in the handling, processing, and storing of uranium-bearing drums at B ampersand W. Any shipment complies with applicable U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and U.S. Department of Transportation regulations

  18. The Saami shaman's drum and the star horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sommarström

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to examine the possible influences of stellar constellations on the positioning of the drum figures on the drums used by the Saami people during the 17th and 18th centuries. Certain of the drum figures seem to have a similar position to corresponding figures on traditional star maps, both with respect to single star constellations and to some members of the Zodiac circle. The most general correspondences between star maps and the painted designs on drums depend on the existence of a cross for determining the four cardinal points in both cases. The star constellations compared here with the drum-figures are in fact peripheral Saami skies. It is hard to believe that they can have played any vital role in their capacity as star symbols within the frame of the Saamis' own astral cosmology. It is more probable that the earthly meanings of most of the figures were more important to the drummer.

  19. 16 CFR 306.10 - Automotive fuel rating posting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automotive fuel rating posting. 306.10... AUTOMOTIVE FUEL RATINGS, CERTIFICATION AND POSTING Duties of Retailers § 306.10 Automotive fuel rating posting. (a) If you are a retailer, you must post the automotive fuel rating of all automotive fuel...

  20. Design of haptic master featuring small-sized MR brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Han Gyeol; Choi, Seung-Bok; Sohn, Jung Woo

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a new type of haptic master featuring small-sized MR brake is proposed and its performances are evaluated. The proposed haptic master consists of base frame, stick grip and small-sized four MR brakes for 3-DOF rotational motion and 1-DOF gripper motion. To obtain large braking torque under limited small size of MR brake, dual tapered shape inner magnetic core is proposed and its performance is evaluated via both numerical estimation and experimental test. After design and implementation of control algorithm, it has been demonstrated through experiment that the proposed actuator has good performances on tracking control of desired torques. Then, a new haptic master device is designed and constructed by adopting the proposed MR brakes and light weight frame structures. It is verified that the proposed haptic master device is effective for the real application in the field.

  1. Development of Asbestos - Free Brake Pad Using Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Aigbodion

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of asbestos-free brake pad using bagasse was investigated with a view to replace the use of asbestos whose dust is carcinogenic. The bagasse were sieve into sieve grades of 100, 150, 250, 350 and 710µm. the sieve bagasse was used in production of brake pad in ratio of 70%bagasse-30%resin using compression moulding. The properties examined are microstructure analysis, hardness, compressive strength, density, flame resistance, water and oil absorption. The microstructure reveals uniform distribution of resin in the bagasse. The results obtained showed that the finer the sieve size the better the properties. The results obtained in this work were compared with that of commercial brake pad (asbestos based and optimum formulation laboratory brake pad Palm Kernel Shell based (PKS, the results are in close agreement. Hence bagasse can be used in production of asbestos-free brake pad.

  2. Radial brake assembly for a control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a brake assembly for a control rod drive for selectively preventing travel of a control rod in a nuclear reactor vessel. It comprises a shaft having a longitudinal centerline axis; means for selectively rotating the shaft in a first direction and in a second direction, opposite to the first direction; a stationary housing having a central aperture receiving the shaft; a frame fixedly joined to the housing and having a guide hole; a rotor disc fixedly connected to the shaft for rotation therewith and having at least one rotor tooth extending radially outwardly from a perimeter thereof, the rotor tooth having a locking surface and an inclined surface extending therefrom in a circumferential direction; a brake member disposed adjacent to the rotor disc perimeter and including a base, at least one braking tooth having a locking surface extending therefrom in a circumferential direction, and a plunger extending radially outwardly from the base and slidably joined to the frame through the guide hole; the rotor tooth and the braking tooth being complementary to each other; and means for selectively positioning the brake member in a deployed position abutting the rotor disc perimeter for allowing the braking tooth locking surface to contact the rotor tooth locking surface for preventing rotation of the shaft in the first direction, and in a retracted position spaced radially away from the rotor disc for allowing the rotor disc and the shaft to rotate without restraint from the brake member, the positioning means including a tubular solenoid fixedly joined to the frame and having a central bore disposed around the brake member plunger and effective for sliding the brake member plunger relative to the frame for positioning the brake member in the deployed and retracted positions

  3. GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES IN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ISAC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The automotive sector is characterised by a relatively low trade/salesratio. While the production of most automotive producers in the world is spread over variouscountries in the value chain, the brands are still considered to reflect some national identity.Internationalisation strategies may change over the lifecycle of the product and automakerstend to pursue diametrically opposed strategies. In mature markets, it is about managing whatgoes on beneath a static surface; in emerging markets’ dynamic environments, companies muststrategically position themselves to benefit from growth opportunities. However, without theright strategy and execution in mature markets, it is clear that traditional OEMs cannot profitfrom emerging markets-the persistence of structural issues in mature market operationseventually will rob all but the most resilient competitors of the opportunity to compete inemerging markets.

  4. Antenna Arrays and Automotive Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This book throws a lifeline to designers wading through mounds of antenna array patents looking for the most suitable systems for their projects. Drastically reducing the research time required to locate solutions to the latest challenges in automotive communications, it sorts and systematizes material on cutting-edge antenna arrays that feature multi-element communication systems with enormous potential for the automotive industry. These new systems promise to make driving safer and more efficient, opening up myriad applications, including vehicle-to-vehicle traffic that prevents collisions, automatic toll collection, vehicle location and fine-tuning for cruise control systems. This book’s exhaustive coverage begins with currently deployed systems, frequency ranges and key parameters. It proceeds to examine system geometry, analog and digital beam steering technology (including "smart" beams formed in noisy environments), maximizing signal-to-noise ratios, miniaturization, and base station technology that ...

  5. Advanced Materials for Automotive Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper some recent material developments will be overviewed mainly from the point of view of automotive industry. In car industry, metal forming is one of the most important manufacturing processes imposing severe restrictions on materials; these are often contradictory requirements, e.g. high strength simultaneously with good formability, etc. Due to these challenges and the ever increasing demand new material classes have been developed; however, the more and more wide application of high strength materials meeting the requirements stated by the mass reduction lead to increasing difficulties concerning the formability which requires significant technological developments as well. In this paper, the recent materials developments will be overviewed from the point of view of the automotive industry

  6. Rejuvenation of automotive fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Langlois, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A process for rejuvenating fuel cells has been demonstrated to improve the performance of polymer exchange membrane fuel cells with platinum/ionomer electrodes. The process involves dehydrating a fuel cell and exposing at least the cathode of the fuel cell to dry gas (nitrogen, for example) at a temperature higher than the operating temperature of the fuel cell. The process may be used to prolong the operating lifetime of an automotive fuel cell.

  7. Automotive stamped part fatigue design

    OpenAIRE

    Caudoux Mélanie; Facchinetti Matteo Luca; Raynal Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue design of automotive axle parts is of prior concern because of these are high safety parts and they are expected to drive the overall vehicle mass reduction. In this framework, the stamping process is widely used to form axle parts, before assembling them by welding. Consequently, the mechanical and physical characteristics of the blank sheet are modified, having a strong influence on the fatigue behavior. In this paper, we address the consequences of the stamped process on the fatigu...

  8. Computational intelligence in automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokhorov, Danil (ed.) [Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing (TEMA), Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Toyota Technical Center

    2008-07-01

    What is computational intelligence (CI)? Traditionally, CI is understood as a collection of methods from the fields of neural networks (NN), fuzzy logic and evolutionary computation. This edited volume is the first of its kind, suitable to automotive researchers, engineers and students. It provides a representative sample of contemporary CI activities in the area of automotive technology. The volume consists of 13 chapters, including but not limited to these topics: vehicle diagnostics and vehicle system safety, control of vehicular systems, quality control of automotive processes, driver state estimation, safety of pedestrians, intelligent vehicles. All chapters contain overviews of state of the art, and several chapters illustrate their methodologies on examples of real-world systems. About the Editor: Danil Prokhorov began his technical career in St. Petersburg, Russia, after graduating with Honors from Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation in 1992 (MS in Robotics). He worked as a research engineer in St. Petersburg Institute for Informatics and Automation, one of the institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He came to the US in late 1993 for Ph.D. studies. He became involved in automotive research in 1995 when he was a Summer intern at Ford Scientific Research Lab in Dearborn, MI. Upon his graduation from the EE Department of Texas Tech University, Lubbock, in 1997, he joined Ford to pursue application-driven research on neural networks and other machine learning algorithms. While at Ford, he took part in several production-bound projects including neural network based engine misfire detection. Since 2005 he is with Toyota Technical Center, Ann Arbor, MI, overseeing important mid- and long-term research projects in computational intelligence. (orig.)

  9. Noise Radiation from Automotive Turbochargers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenrui, Wang

    2011-01-01

    Turbochargers are now commonly used in modern automotive engines, which increase the density of air entering the engine to produce more power. This device not only greatly improves the degree of engine efficiency, but also reduces the pollutant emissions. However, one of the important issues which must be considered is the noise from turbochargers. This noise can radiate either after propagation through the intake and exhaust ducts or via induced vibrations in the turbocharger housing. Here t...

  10. CAE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE LAMP

    OpenAIRE

    Vaibhav Wakchaure*; G.V.R Seshagiri Rao

    2015-01-01

    This Paper work is focused on the different FE analysis performed for the automotive lamps. Front fog lamp is designed according to the mounting position given in the panel and the light output requirement. In this paper different type of CAE analysis performed to qualify the physical test requirement the objective of this analysis is to find the optimum size design of lamp to qualify the test & output as per customer requirement. In this paper Static, vibration & fatigue analysis...

  11. Device for filling a drum with radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To provide a buffle at a lower portion within a hopper to form an annular outlet opening, thereby preventing pellets charged from being one-sided toward the center of a drum can and reducing in size gaps due to the angle of repose to increase a filling quantity. Structure: Pellets coveyed by a conveyor drop into a hopper. The hopper is secured to a frame, and has a conical buffle mounted in the central portion at the lower end thereof. The buffle is retained on a center line of the drum by means of a plurality of arms, and the outlet opening of the hopper assumes an annular configuration. The dropped pellets once impinge upon the buffle and pass through the outlet opening and then accumulated at a position of a concentric cylinder of the drum can. The use of this device results in smaller gaps and in a greater filling quantity. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. Applications of thin coatings in automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Louda

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Use of thin coatings in automotive industry give economic and ecological savings. This is evoke by reducing of weight of used construction elements and currently by increasing of their service life and with that connected elevating of nanomaterials manufacture qualities.Design/methodology/approach: In the paper was disscussed the possibility of applications of thin coating in automotive industry.Findings: The paper shows the examples of thin coatings application in automotive industry.Practical implications: Through the assimilation, improvement, and generation of new technologies, the coating community, as a major supplier to the very large automotive industry, will continue to thrive, grow, and maintain its environmental stewardship in the global marketplace.Originality/value: Applications of thin coatings in automotive industry is and with nanotechnology together will be in centre of interest of automotive industry in near future.

  13. Case studies of corrosion of mixed waste and transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents three case studies of corrosion of waste drums at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Corrosion was not anticipated by the waste generators, but occurred because of subtle chemical or physical mechanisms. In one case, drums of a cemented transuranic (TRU) sludge experienced general and pitting corrosion. In the second instance, a chemical from a commercial paint stripper migrated from its primary containment drums to chemically attack overpack drums made of mild carbon steel. In the third case, drums of mixed low level waste (MLLW) soil corroded drum packaging even though the waste appeared to be dry when it was placed in the drums. These case studies are jointly discussed as ''lessons learned'' to enhance awareness of subtle mechanisms that can contribute to the corrosion of radioactive waste drums during interim storage

  14. 77 FR 8255 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum Superfund...

  15. Simulation based design of automotive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schiehlen, Werner

    1993-01-01

    The design of automotive systems using simulation tools features cost reduction and quality enhancement. This paper presents two basic approaches. The rust approach deals with the application of CAD data bases to the evaluation of input data for multibody system formalisms, most adequate for automotive system modeling. An object oriented data model for multibody systems is presented. The second approach covers the development of an integrated simulation tool for automotive vehicles and the co...

  16. Applications of thin coatings in automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    P. Louda

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Use of thin coatings in automotive industry give economic and ecological savings. This is evoke by reducing of weight of used construction elements and currently by increasing of their service life and with that connected elevating of nanomaterials manufacture qualities.Design/methodology/approach: In the paper was disscussed the possibility of applications of thin coating in automotive industry.Findings: The paper shows the examples of thin coatings application in automotive industr...

  17. Systems thinking in designing automotive textiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Pammi; Muthu, Subramanian Senthilkannan; Taylor, Iain; Schulz, Rita; Beverley, Katharine J.; Day, Claire L.; Tipi, Nicoleta S.

    2015-01-01

    We present the complexities in terms of designing automotive exterior seating materials (seat coverings and interior linings) at Sage Automotive Interiors (UK), which is a division of a global international automotive textile supplier with headquarters in the US. Sustainability and innovation are emphasized in documents communicating the company’s vision. Using a case study approach, we consider the current design, development and manufacture process and examine it for the potential for feedb...

  18. Paint selection for coating radioactive-waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is concluded that although the white epoxy Paint Sample E is suitable for coating waste drums, the additional pretreated costs of grit blasting prior to paint application would preclude adoption of that paint system. The specified 10.0-mil coating thickness of that coating would also incur higher costs. The Vorac epoxy-phenolic base paint (buff or yellow) was the only other paint that exhibited suitable corrosion and impact resistance required for coating the waste drums. In addition, that paint does not require a grit-blasted substrate or other costly pretreatment prior to coating

  19. A 1024-channel, magnetic-drum, time analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1024-channel time analyser with channel widths 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 μs (±0.1 μs) has been designed and built for work with a mechanical neutron chopper. Choice of the smallest channel width, 0.2 μs, was determined by the minimum duration of neutron pulses obtained with the mechanical chopper. A magnetic-drum memory system with a fast electrostatic temporary memory was employed. The data on the magnetic drum is recorded on an automatic register and on standard punched cards, which enable it to be handled in any computer. (author)

  20. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Drum, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Scott A.; Orrell, Alice C.; Solana, Amy E.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Hand, James R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Rowley, Steven; Nesse, Ronald J.

    2010-10-20

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Drum, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Drum took place on May 4 and 5, 2010.

  1. Environmental Conditions in Water Storage Drums and Influences on Aedes aegypti inTrinidad, West Indies

    OpenAIRE

    Hemme, Ryan R; Tank, Jennifer L.; Chadee, Dave D; Severson, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Water storage drums are often a primary breeding site for Aedes aegypti in developing countries. Habitat characteristics can impact both adult and larval fitness and survival, which may potentially influence arbovirus transmission. Our objective was to compare fundamental environmental differences in water drums based on the presence or absence of larvae in Trinidad. Drums were categorized according to the larval status, and if the drum was constructed of steel or plastic. Water samples were ...

  2. 49 CFR 236.554 - Rate of pressure reduction; equalizing reservoir or brake pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or brake pipe. 236.554 Section 236.554 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...; Locomotives § 236.554 Rate of pressure reduction; equalizing reservoir or brake pipe. The equalizing-reservoir pressure or brake-pipe pressure reduction during an automatic brake application shall be at a rate not...

  3. Optimal design of a disc-type MR brake for middle-sized motorcycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quoc-Hung; Jeon, Juncheol; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2011-03-01

    This research work focuses on optimal design of a disc-type magneto-rheological (MR) brake that can replace a conventional hydraulic brake (CHB) of middle-sized motorcycles. Firstly, a MR brake configuration is proposed considering the available space and the simplicity to replace a CHB by the proposed MR brake. An optimal design of the proposed MR brake is then performed considering the required braking torque, operating temperature, mass and size of the brake. In order to perform the optimization of the brake, the braking torque of the brake is analyzed based on Herschel-Bulkley rheological model of MR fluid. The constrain on operating temperature of the MR brake is determined by considering the steady temperature of the brake when the motorcycle is cruising and the temperature increase during a braking process. An optimization procedure based on finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is employed to obtain optimal geometric dimensions of the MR brake. Optimal solution of the MR brake is then presented and simulated performance of the optimized brake is shown with remarkable discussions.

  4. 49 CFR 571.121 - Standard No. 121; Air brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... brakes. Antilock brake system or ABS means a portion of a service brake system that automatically... reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the material may be inspected at... control lines and reservoirs that minimizes damage in field operations. Air brake system means a...

  5. Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

  6. The Oral Tradition in the Sankofa Drum and Dance Ensemble: Student Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Juliet

    2009-01-01

    The Sankofa Drum and Dance Ensemble is a Ghanaian drum and dance ensemble that focusses on music in the Ewe tradition. It is based in an elementary school in the Greater Toronto Area and consists of students in Grade 4 through Grade 8. Students in the ensemble study Ghanaian traditional Ewe drumming and dancing in the oral tradition. Nine students…

  7. Analytical and experimental evaluation of solid waste drum fire performance volumes I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecker, C.F., [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States); Rhodes, B.T.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuk, D.T.; Beyler, C.L.; Rosenbaum, E.R., [Hughes Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1995-04-28

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated wastes are a major concern in DOE facilities design for long term storage of solid wastes in drums. These facilities include drums stored in pallet arrays and in rack storage systems. This report details testing in this area

  8. 77 FR 24200 - American Drum & Pallet, Memphis, Shelby County, TN; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... AGENCY American Drum & Pallet, Memphis, Shelby County, TN; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental... settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the American Drum and Pallet Superfund Site...-04- 2012-3770 or Site name American Drum & Pallet Superfund Site by one of the following methods:...

  9. 77 FR 47840 - American Drum and Pallet Company Site; Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee; Notice of settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... AGENCY American Drum and Pallet Company Site; Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee; Notice of settlement... Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the American Drum and Pallet... Drum and Pallet Company Site by one of the following methods:...

  10. Reference drums used in calibration of a plastic scintillation counter in a 4π counting geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chin-Hsien; Yuan, Ming-Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this study, two kinds of reference drums were developed. One type was constructed with nine layers of large-area sources filled with different materials having five different densities. The other type of reference drums was constructed with nine rod sources filled with the same materials of different densities. The efficiency calibration of a plastic scintillation counter in 4π counting geometry using these two kinds of drums showed that rod-source drums resulted in higher counting efficiency than layered source drums. The counting rates obtained from rod-source drums were closer to those obtained from a standard drum with water solution than counting rates from drums with layered sources. The results of this study recommend to use reference drums with rod-sources to compensate the drawbacks of standard drums with water solution of not being able to adjust the density of material. The proposed reference drums improve the accuracy of radioactivity analysis for waste drums of different densities. PMID:26651167

  11. 49 CFR 178.506 - Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... aluminum. 178.506 Section 178.506 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... drums other than steel or aluminum. (a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum: (1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and (2) 1N2 for a removable...

  12. Research on Modeling and Control of Regenerative Braking for Brushless DC Machines Driven Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ping Wen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve energy utilization rate of battery-powered electric vehicle (EV using brushless DC machine (BLDCM, the model of braking current generated by regenerative braking and control method are discussed. On the basis of the equivalent circuit of BLDCM during the generative braking period, the mathematic model of braking current is established. By using an extended state observer (ESO to observe actual braking current and the unknown disturbances of regenerative braking system, the autodisturbances rejection controller (ADRC for controlling the braking current is developed. Experimental results show that the proposed method gives better recovery efficiency and is robust to disturbances.

  13. Finite element analysis of advanced bicycle precision brake disk forming technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Dyi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the bicycle has become an environmentally friendly transportation. The bicycle can be divided into mountain bicycle and highway bicycle. Safe driving is the prior consideration. The bicycle braking system can be divided into oil pressure disk brakes and mechanical disk brakes. The brake disk system is one indispensable component of the safe system. In accordance to overall weight consideration of the bike, the brake disk should also focus on the lightweight design. This paper discussed an innovative brake disk forming technology for 6061 aluminum alloy by the rigid-plastic finite element analysis. The simulation parameters include geometric shapes of the brake disk and mold, die temperature, and friction factors. The stress and strain in forming, brake deformation and vibration modal analysis of brake disk in riding were studied. The paper is expected to offer some precision bicycle brake disk manufacture knowledge for industry.

  14. 8th DFO Automotive conference - European automotive coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The present CD-ROM of the DFO Conference ''European Automotive Coating'' held on the 14th and 15th May 2001 in Dresden, Germany, contents the following contributions: Contents (1) Plenary Lecture-Car Body Painting in the Digital Factory (2) Off-line painting of a smc Oe tailgate in topcoat colour; (3) Twincure UV - New Concepts for the Surface Treatment of Glass-Fiber-Reinforced; Plastics; (4) New Concepts for Exterior Coating - ''Funktionsschicht 3'' First Experiences and the ''Ludwigsfelde Concept''; (5) Application techniques in the light of new automation concepts in automotive painting; (6) Automatic Management System for Car Body Pretreatment; (7) Surface Inspection on Bodies in White in Automotive Industry; (8) Online Measurement and Control of E-coat Bath Parameters in a Car Body Paint Shop - Development until Maturity for Manufacturing - Practical Experiences; (9) Automated Process Diagnosis; (10) Wavescan DOI Oe Challenge or Data Overkill; (11) Robot Aided Online Metrology for Quality Assurance and Process Control of Coated Surfaces; (12) Physical Simulation of Film Thickness Distribution and Transfer Efficiency in the Electrostatically Supported Painting process; (13) Offline Simulation of the Coating Process with High-Speed Bell and Pneumatic Atomizers; (14) Top coat simulation - First applications and results; (15) Virtual color design. (AKF) (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende zweisprachige (Deutsch/Englisch) CD-ROM der DFO-Tagung ''European Automotive Coating'' vom 14. und 15. Mai 2001 beinhaltet die folgenden Beitraegen: Inhaltsverzeichnis (1) Leitvortrag ''Die Automobillackierung in der digitalen Fabrik''; (2) Off-line Lackierung von SMC-Heckklappen in Decklackfarbe; (3) Hybrid UV-Haertung - Neue Konzepte zur Oberflaechenveredelung von glasfaserverstaerkten Duroplasten; (4) Neue Konzepte fuer die Aussenhautlackierung - Fukntionsschicht 3 - Erste

  15. MODIFICATION OF FLAKE REINFORCED FRICTION BRAKE COMPOSITE MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    According to the recent development trend and need of the friction brake material, the flake reinforced friction brake material has been made out by adjusting the recipe and techniques. The two-dimensional flake vermiculite is selected as the reinforced stuffing of the material; the modified resin is used as the basal bed of the material. The tests manifest that the properties of mechanics are high, the friction coefficients are suitable and stable,and especially in high temperatures the wear is low. It is an excellent friction brake material.

  16. New Phase-coherent Measurements of Pulsar Braking Indices

    CERN Document Server

    Livingstone, M A; Gavriil, F P; Manchester, R N; Gotthelf, E V; Kuiper, L; Livingstone, Margaret A.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Manchester, Richard N.; Kuiper, Lucien

    2007-01-01

    Pulsar braking indices offer insight into the physics that underlies pulsar spin-down. Only five braking indices have been measured via phase-coherent timing; all measured values are less than 3, the value expected from magnetic dipole radiation. Here we present new measurements for three of the five pulsar braking indices, obtained with phase-coherent timing for PSRs J1846-0258 (n=2.65+/-0.01), B1509-58 (n=2.839+/-0.001) and B0540-69 (n=2.140+/-0.009). We discuss the implications of these results and possible physical explanations for them.

  17. Gravitational waves from pulsars with measured braking index

    CERN Document Server

    de Araujo, Jose C N; Costa, Cesar A

    2016-01-01

    We study the putative emission of gravitational waves (GWs) in particular for pulsars with measured braking index. We show that the appropriate combination of both GW emission and magnetic dipole brakes can naturally explain the measured braking index, when the surface magnetic field and the angle between the magnetic dipole and rotation axes are time dependent. Then we discuss the detectability of these very pulsars by aLIGO and the Einstein Telescope. We call attention to the realistic possibility that aLIGO can detect the GWs generated by at least some of these pulsars, such as Vela, for example.

  18. Cycling and wind: does sidewind brake?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that the presence of wind is crucial for the practice of numerous outdoor sports. Among them, the case of cycling competition is especially important because the speeds that are developed are perfectly comparable with moderate or strong winds, giving rise to great variability in race times. Conversely, the sidewind seems to behave as neutral in the race, and nevertheless all the cyclists know the difficulties that it causes. In this brief paper we show that the sidewind also produces an appreciable braking as a consequence of the quadratic dependence of the aerodynamic drag force on the air speed. Our work presents an interesting problem of mechanics and physics of fluids, which may be suitable as a task for intermediate level students in university courses

  19. A Pulsar Eases Off the Brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    In 2006, pulsar PSR 18460258 unexpectedly launched into a series of energetic X-ray outbursts. Now a study has determined that this event may have permanently changed the behavior of this pulsar, raising questions about our understanding of how pulsars evolve.Between CategoriesA pulsar a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation can be powered by one of three mechanisms:Rotation-powered pulsars transform rotational energy into radiation, gradually slowing down in a predictable way.Accretion-powered pulsars convert the gravitational energy of accreting matter into radiation.Magnetars are powered by the decay of their extremely strong magnetic fields.Astronomical classification often results in one pesky object that doesnt follow the rules. In this case, that object is PSR 18460258, a young pulsar categorized as rotation-powered. But in 2006, PSR 18460258 suddenly emitted a series of short, hard X-ray bursts and underwent a flux increase behavior that is usually only exhibited by magnetars. After this outburst, it returned to normal, rotation-powered-pulsar behavior.Since the discovery of this event, scientists have been attempting to learn more about this strange pulsar that seems to straddle the line between rotation-powered pulsars and magnetars.Unprecedented DropOne way to examine whats going on with PSR 18460258 is to evaluate whats known as its braking index, a measure of how quickly the pulsars rotation slows down. For a rotation-powered pulsar, the braking index should be roughly constant. The pulsar then slows down according to a fixed power law, where the slower it rotates, the slower it slows down.In a recent study, Robert Archibald (McGill University) and collaborators report on 7 years worth of timing observations of PSR 18460258 after its odd magnetar-like outburst. They then compare these observations to 6.5 years of data from before the outburst. The team finds that the braking index for this bizarre

  20. Comparisonal Analysis of Manuevering and Braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Žukas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article covers the possibility of avoiding a traffic accident considering a car driver who is fallen in a dangerous situation. In such a case, the driver can choose one of the following ways: hard braking or one of the types of maneuvering, including turning off, turning with straightening or changing a line regarding road surface type (dry asphalt, wet asphalt or snowy asphalt. The article also proposes formulas for calculating road distance the car travels till dead stop. Moreover, the tables display theoretical values taking into account various car speeds and road surfaces. The pictures help with determining the most suitable type of action in light of road and weather conditions as well as car speed. The pictures clearly show the dependence of road length on movement speed. At the end of the article, conclusions are proposed.Article in Lithuanian

  1. Method of estimating maximum VOC concentration in void volume of vented waste drums using limited sampling data: Application in transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles as well as limited waste drum sampling data. The model consists of a series of material balance equations describing steady-state VOC transport from each distinct void volume in the drum. The primary model input is the measured drum headspace VOC concentration. Model parameters are determined or estimated based on available process knowledge. The model effectiveness in estimating VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement was examined for vented waste drums containing different waste types and configurations. This paper summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions in vented transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste

  2. Small-Scale Experiments.10-gallon drum experiment summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, David M.

    2015-02-05

    A series of sub-scale (10-gallon) drum experiments were conducted to characterize the reactivity, heat generation, and gas generation of mixtures of chemicals believed to be present in the drum (68660) known to have breached in association with the radiation release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) on February 14, 2014, at a scale expected to be large enough to replicate the environment in that drum but small enough to be practical, safe, and cost effective. These tests were not intended to replicate all the properties of drum 68660 or the event that led to its breach, or to validate a particular hypothesis of the release event. They were intended to observe, in a controlled environment and with suitable diagnostics, the behavior of simple mixtures of chemicals in order to determine if they could support reactivity that could result in ignition or if some other ingredient or event would be necessary. There is a significant amount of uncertainty into the exact composition of the barrel; a limited sub-set of known components was identified, reviewed with Technical Assessment Team (TAT) members, and used in these tests. This set of experiments was intended to provide a framework to postulate realistic, data-supported hypotheses for processes that occur in a “68660-like” configuration, not definitively prove what actually occurred in 68660.

  3. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html. PMID:21913285

  4. Segregation of Granular Mixtures in a Rotating Drum

    OpenAIRE

    Puri, Sanjay; Hayakawa, Hisao

    1999-01-01

    We formulate a phenomenological model for the segregation of binary mixtures of rough and smooth granular materials in a rotating drum. Our model successfully replicates a range of experimental behaviours, e.g., rapid radial segregation; slow axial segregation; and nonuniform radial structure of axial bands. We present some analytical results and detailed numerical results for our model.

  5. Influence of drum motion parameters on shearer cutting properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyong LIU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence of motionparameters of shearer drum on shearer cutting properties,an embedded system for cutting load test that can identify thecutting resistance indirectly were developed and put into test experimentunderground. The analysis results indicated that in the case of pullingspeed being constant, when pulling speed is small, the cuttingresistance nonlinearly declined and cutting specific energy consumption (CSECincreases nonlinearly with the increase of the drum rotating speed; whenpulling speed is large, cutting resistance approximately linearly decreases andCSEC linearly increases with the increase of the drum rotating speed; in thecase of drum rotating speed being constant, the cutting resistance presentslinearly reducing form with pulling speed increasing its value in the range ofhigher speed and increases nonlinearly with pulling speed increasing its valuein the range of lower speed, and CSEC decreases nonlinearly with the increaseof the pulling speed. The consistency of the theoretical analysis and the testresults confirmed the reliability of the proposed embedded system whichprovides an effective way for the detection and analysis of mine shaft cuttingload and also provides the instruction for shearer speed-changing cutting coal.

  6. Statistical modelling applied to the contents of waste drums - 16085

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma spectrometry is widely used to determine the radioactive content of waste drums. However, the results of such surveys often result in large numbers of limit-of-detection (LOD) results. In this paper we will show how simple statistical methods can be used to obtain useful information on the average drum activities, even in these unfavourable circumstances. Results from measurements on 60Co, 152Eu, 154Eu activities in drums of waste from decommissioning of the GLEEP reactor suggest that these activities are log-normally distributed with geometric standard deviations (GSD) ranging from 3-4. This statistical model can be used to extract information from 235U, 234mPa and 234Th datasets which show only LOD activity results. In a repository of N drums, each with activity < L, the total activity is clearly < NL. However, we can use the lognormal model to make a much stronger statement about the total waste activity. This model is developed quantitatively in the paper. (authors)

  7. Convective heat transfer analysis in aggregates rotary drum reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat transport characterisation inside rotary drum dryer has a considerable importance linked to many industrial applications. The present paper deals with the heat transfer analysis from experimental apparatus installed in a large-scale rotary drum reactor applied to the asphalt materials production. The equipment including in-situ thermal probes and external visualization by mean of infrared thermography gives rise to the longitudinal evaluation of inner and external temperatures. The assessment of the heat transfer coefficients by an inverse methodology is resolved in order to accomplish a fin analysis of the convective mechanism inside baffled (or flights) rotary drum. The results are discussed and compared with major results of the literature. -- Highlights: ► A thermal and flow experimentation is performed on a large-scale rotary drum. ► Four working points is chosen in the frame of asphalt materials production. ► Evaluation of the convective transfer mechanisms is calculated by inverse method. ► The drying stage is performed in the combustion area. ► Wall/aggregates heat exchanges have a major contribution in the heating stage

  8. Flow Straightener for a Rotating-Drum Liquid Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Coin, James R.; Converse, David G.; Rethke, Donald W.

    2004-01-01

    A flow straightener has been incorporated into a rotary liquid separator that originally comprised an inlet tube, a shroud plate, an impeller, an inner drum, an outer drum, a housing, a pitot tube, and a hollow shaft motor. As a consequence of the original geometry of the impeller, shroud, inner drum, and hollow shaft, swirl was created in the airflow inside the hollow shaft during operation. The swirl speed was large enough to cause a significant pressure drop. The flow straightener consists of vanes on the back side of the shroud plate. These vanes compartmentalize the inside of the inner drum in such a way as to break up the flow path and thereby stop the air from swirling; as a result, the air enters the hollow shaft with a predominantly axial velocity instead of a swirl. Tests of the rotary liquid separator at an airflow rate of 10 cu ft/min (0.0047 cu m/s) revealed that the dynamic pressure drop was 8 in. of water (approx.=2 kPa) in the absence of the flow straightener and was reduced to 1 in. of water (approx.=0.25 kPa) in the presence of the flow straightener.

  9. Development of New Drummed Nuclear Waste Neutron Counting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Li-qun; XU; Xiao-ming; BAI; Lei; LI; Xin-jun; GU; Shao-gang; HE; Li-xia; WANG; Mian

    2012-01-01

    <正>The development of a new neutron counting system (Fig. 1) for 200 L drummed radioactive waste measurement has been accomplished in this year. This waste neutron counting system is mainly used for solid radioactive waste classification. It is based on the passive neutron counting technique. The amount of radionuclide contained in the waste is

  10. JUSTIFICATION FOR A LIMIT OF 15 PERCENT HYDROGEN IN A 55-GALLON DRUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of 15% hydrogen in air in a waste drum is used as the concentration at which the drum remains intact in the case of a deflagration. The following describes what could happen to the drum if 15% hydrogen or more in air were ignited. Table 2 of the Savannah River report WSRC-TR-90-165 ''TRU Drum Hydrogen Explosion Tests'' provides the results of tests performed in 55-gallon drums filled with hydrogen and air mixtures. The hydrogen-air mixtures were ignited by a hot-wire igniter. The results of the tests are shown in Table 1. They concluded that drums can withstand deflagration involving hydrogen concentration up to 15% hydrogen. Testing was performed at Idaho Falls and documented in a letter from RH Beers, Waste Technology Programs Division, EG and G Idaho, to CP Gertz, Radioactive Waste Technology Branch, DOE dated Sept. 29, 1983. In these tests, 55-gallon drums were filled with hydrogen-air mixtures which were ignited. The results in Table 2.2 showed that ignition for drums containing 11% and 14% hydrogen, the drum lid remained on the drum. Ignition in drum with 30% hydrogen resulted in lid loss. It is concluded from the results of these two tests that, for uncorroded drums, a 15% hydrogen in air mixture will not result in loss of drum integrity (i.e., lid remains on, walls remain intact). The drum walls however, may be thinned due to corrosion. The effect of the deflagration on thinner walls is assessed next. Assume a 15% hydrogen in air mixture exists in a drum. The pressure assuming adiabatic isochoric complete combustion (AICC) conditions is 69 psig (using the same deflagration pressure calculation method as in HNF-19492, ''Revised Hydrogen Deflagration Analysis which got 82 psig for 20% hydrogen in air)

  11. Occupational hygiene in a Finnish drum composting plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Outi; Nykänen, Jenni; Nivukoski, Ulla; Himanen, Marina; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari

    2005-01-01

    Bioaerosols (microbes, dust and endotoxins) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were determined in the working air of a drum composting plant treating source-separated catering waste. Different composting activities at the Oulu drum composting plant take place in their own units separated by modular design and constructions. Important implication of this is that the control room is a relatively clean working environment and the risk of exposure to harmful factors is low. However, the number of viable airborne microbes was high both in the biowaste receiving hall and in the drum composting hall. The concentration (geometric average) of total microbes was 21.8 million pcs/m3 in the biowaste receiving hall, 13.9 million pcs/m3 in the drum composting hall, and just 1.4 million pcs/m3 in the control room. Endotoxin concentrations were high in the biowaste receiving hall and in the drum composting hall. The average (arithmetic) endotoxin concentration was over the threshold value of 200 EU/m3 in both measurement locations. In all working areas, the average (arithmetic) dust concentrations were in a low range of 0.6-0.7 mg/m3, being below the Finnish threshold value of 5 mg/m3. In the receiving hall and drum composting hall, the concentrations of airborne microbes and endotoxins may rise to levels hazardous to health during prolonged exposure. It is advisable to use a respirator mask (class P3) in these areas. Detected volatile organic compounds were typical compounds of composting plants: carboxylic acids and their esters, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and terpenes. Concentrations of VOCs were much lower than the Finnish threshold limit values (Finnish TLVs), many of the quantified compounds exceeded their threshold odour concentrations (TOCs). Primary health effects due VOCs were not presumable at these concentrations but unpleasant odours may cause secondary symptoms such as nausea and hypersensitivity reactions. This situation is typical of composting plants where

  12. Electronic technique application in automotive industry and development trend%电子技术在汽车工业中的应用与发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾泽宇

    2012-01-01

    Briefly introduce the application situation of modern electronic technique in automotive ABS system and drive anti-slip system,automotive dynamic control system and electronic brake distribution system, automotive electronic control suspension,automotive electronic control dynamic steering system,safety air bag, door lock emergency release system and GPS rescue system,expound the development trend of automotive electronic technique.%简要地介绍了现代电子技术在汽车制动防抱死系统与驱动防滑系统、汽车动态控制系统与电子制动力分配系统、汽车电控悬架、汽车电控动力转向系统、安全气囊、门锁紧急施放系统与GPS救援系统等方面的应用情况,阐述了汽车电子技术的发展趋势。

  13. Sensor Data Fusion in Automotive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lytrivis, Panagiotis; Thomaidis, George; Amditis, Angelos

    2009-01-01

    This chapter has summarized the state-of-the-art in sensor data fusion for automotive applications, showing that this is a relatively new discipline in the automotive research area, compared to signal processing, image processing or radar processing. Thus, there is a

  14. A comprehensive framework for automotive sustainability assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jasinski, D.; Meredith, J.; Kirwan, K.

    2016-01-01

    Business efficiency, stakeholder pressure and the need for legislative compliance compel the automotive sector to design and manufacture fuel-efficient, low-impact, environmentally responsible and sustainable vehicles. Managing and responding to these multiple and sometimes conflicting interests requires the measurement of economic, environmental and societal performance. Although a number of automotive sustainability measures are mentioned within the literature, there is no singl...

  15. 77 FR 37471 - National Automotive Sampling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Automotive Sampling System AGENCY: National Highway... comments. SUMMARY: The NHTSA is conducting a comprehensive review of the National Automotive...

  16. Using Technology to Enhance an Automotive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Denis Ashton uses technology in his automotive technology program at East Valley Institute of Technology (EVIT) to positively impact student outcomes. Ashton, the department chair for the automotive programs at EVIT, in Mesa, Arizona, says that using an interactive PowerPoint curriculum makes learning fun for students and provides immediate…

  17. Advances in automotive control 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiencke, U.; Gissinger, G.L. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the 3rd IFAC Workshop 'Advances in Automotive Control', held in Karlsruhe, Germany on 28-30 March 2001, was to discuss the latest advances in relation to motor vehicles. The increase in road traffic in the 20th century was a major problem, and one of the challenges of the 21st century will be to improve driving safety and comfort. The proceedings covers: driveline control; driveline modelling; vehicle dynamics; electronic architecture; intelligent components; engine control; diagnostics; subsystems; engine modelling; and modelling of combustion and turbo-charging. 28 of the papers are abstracted here.

  18. Calculation of calibration factors and layout criteria for gamma scanning of waste drums from nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper present a procedure to calculate calibration factors for converting the measured gamma rate of waste drums into activity content and a layout and free release measurement criterion for waste drums. A computer program is developed that simulates drum scanning technique, which calculates calibration factors and eliminates laborious experimental measurements. The calculated calibration factors exhibit good agreement with experimentally determined values. By checking the calculated calibration factors for trial equipment layouts (including the waste drum and the scanning facility) using the layout and free release measurement criterion, a layout can be achieved that clearly determines whether there can be free release of a waste drum

  19. Brake Pedal Displacement Measuring System based on Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Displacement of brake pedal was an important characteristic of driving behavior. This paper proposed a displacement measure algorithm based on machine vision. Image of brake pedal was captured by camera from left side, and images were processed in industry computer. Firstly, average smooth algorithm and wavelet transform algorithm were used to smooth the original image consecutively. Then, edge extracting method which combined Roberts’s operator with wavelet analysis was used to identify the edge of brake pedal. At last, least square method was adopted to recognize the characteristic line of brake pedal’s displacement. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method takes the advantages of Roberts’s operator and wavelet transform, it can obtain better measurement result as well as linear displacement sensors

  20. 49 CFR 229.57 - Foundation brake gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.57... to the wheel to prevent localized thermal stress in the edge of the rim or the flange....

  1. Fishery Management Plan for Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge - 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan was prepared by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service for Morgan Brake National Wildlife Refuge. Data was provided by the Refuge and Area Office...

  2. Fishery Management Plan for Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge - 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This management plan was prepared by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for Mathew's Brake National Wildlife Refuge. Data was provided by the refuge and area office...

  3. Fishing Plan for Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge - 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal calls for the opening of Mathews Brake NWR to sport fishing. General regulations pertaining to licenses, creel limits, and methods of taking fish will...

  4. Deployable Engine Air-Brake for Drag Management Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc, proposes an SBIR program to demonstrate an innovative engine air-brake (EAB) technology that uses a deployable swirl vane mechanism to switch...

  5. Deployable Engine Air-Brake for Drag Management Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc., (ATA) proposes a Phase II SBIR program to demonstrate an innovative engine air-brake (EAB) technology that uses a deployable swirl vane...

  6. Handy Brake National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Handy Brake National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan provides a longterm vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern...

  7. Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  8. Power Modulation Investigation for High Temperature (175-200 degrees Celcius) Automotive Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCluskey, F. P.

    2007-04-30

    Hybrid electric vehicles were re-introduced in the late 1990s after a century dominated by purely internal combustion powered engines[1]. Automotive players, such as GM, Ford, DaimlerChrysler, Honda, and Toyota, together with major energy producers, such as BPAmoco, were the major force in the development of hybrid electric vehicles. Most notable was the development by Toyota of its Prius, which was launched in Japan in 1997 and worldwide in 2001. The shift to hybrids was driven by the fact that the sheer volume of vehicles on the road had begun to tax the ability of the environment to withstand the pollution of the internal combustion engine and the ability of the fossil fuel industry to produce a sufficient amount of refined gasoline. In addition, the number of vehicles was anticipated to rise exponentially with the increasing affluence of China and India. Over the last fifteen years, major advances have been made in all the technologies essential to hybrid vehicle success, including batteries, motors, power control and conditioning electronics, regenerative braking, and power sources, including fuel cells. Current hybrid electric vehicles are gasoline internal combustion--electric motor hybrids. These hybrid electric vehicles range from micro-hybrids, where a stop/start system cuts the engine while the vehicle is stopped, and mild hybrids where the stop/start system is supplemented by regenerative braking and power assist, to full hybrids where the combustion motor is optimized for electric power production, and there is full electric drive and full regenerative braking. PSA Peugeot Citroen estimates the increased energy efficiency will range from 3-6% for the micro-hybrids to 15-25% for the full hybrids.[2] Gasoline-electric hybrids are preferred in US because they permit long distance travel with low emissions and high gasoline mileage, while still using the existing refueling infrastructure. One of the most critical areas in which technology has been

  9. Stability analysis and μ-synthesis control of brake systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lignon, Sylvain; Sinou, Jean-Jacques; Jezequel, Louis

    2006-01-01

    The concept of friction-induced brake vibrations, commonly known as judder, is investigated. Judder vibration is based on the class of geometrically induced or kinematic constraint instability. After presenting the modal coupling mechanism and the associated dynamic model, a stability analysis as well as a sensitivity analysis have been conducted in order to identify physical parameters for a brake design avoiding friction-induced judder instability. Next, in order to reduce the size of the i...

  10. Stability analysis and \\mu-synthesis control of brake systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lignon, Sylvain; Sinou, Jean-Jacques; Jezequel, Louis

    2008-01-01

    The concept of friction-induced brake vibrations, commonly known as judder, is investigated. Judder vibration is based on the class of geometrically induced or kinematic constraint instability. After presenting the modal coupling mechanism and the associated dynamic model, a stability analysis as well as a sensitivity analysis have been conducted in order to identify physical parameters for a brake design avoiding friction-induced judder instability. Next, in order to reduce the size of the i...

  11. 49 CFR 393.55 - Antilock brake systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 105 (49 CFR 571.105, S5.5). (b) ABS malfunction indicators for... with an antilock brake system that meets the requirements of FMVSS No. 121 (49 CFR 571.121, S5.1.6.1(b... equipped with an antilock brake system that meets the requirements of FMVSS No. 121 (49 CFR 571.121,...

  12. AASPT Carbon/Carbon Aircraft Brake Disk Granted MPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Xi'an Chaoma Technology Co. Ltd. was issued Parts Manufacturer Approval (PMA) for Carbon/Carbon aircraft brake disk for Airbus 320 series by Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC). The company is held by Academy of Aerospace Solid Propulsion Technology (AASPT), a subsidiary of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC). It is the first approval given to a Chinese company to design and produce brakes for main civilian aircraft.

  13. OPTIMAL EMERGENCY VEHICLE BRAKING CONTROL BASED ON DYNAMIC FRICTION MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Olmos, L.; L. Álvarez-Icaza

    2005-01-01

    A dynamic friction model for the tire-road interface is used in an optimal control scheme for emergency braking of vehicles. The controller sets a target relative velocity curve that the vehicle must track in order to achieve braking in minimum time. It is shown that this curve corresponds to the solution of a minimum time optimal control problem. The final goal of the control is to improve the safety levels in highway transportation.

  14. OPTIMAL EMERGENCY VEHICLE BRAKING CONTROL BASED ON DYNAMIC FRICTION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Olmos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic friction model for the tire-road interface is used in an optimal control scheme for emergency braking ofvehicles. The controller sets a target relative velocity curve that the vehicle must track in order to achieve braking inminimum time. It is shown that this curve corresponds to the solution of a minimum time optimal control problem.The final goal of the control is to improve the safety levels in highway transportation.

  15. Fatigue behaviour of coke drum materials under thermal-mechanical cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke drums are vertical pressure vessels used in the delayed coking process in petroleum refineries. Significant temperature variation during the delayed coking process causes damage in coke drums in the form of bulging and cracking. There were some studies on the fatigue life estimation for the coke drums, but most of them were based on strain-fatigue life curves at constant temperatures, which do not consider simultaneous cyclic temperature and mechanical loading conditions. In this study, a fatigue testing system is successfully developed to allow performing thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF test similar to the coke drum loading condition. Two commonly used base and one clad materials of coke drums are then experimentally investigated. In addition, a comparative study between isothermal and TMF lives of these materials is conducted. The experimental findings lead to better understanding of the damage mechanisms occurring in coke drums and more accurate prediction of fatigue life of coke drum materials.

  16. Automotive Battery Modelling and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Hammad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of vehicle battery performance is typically addressed by testing the battery under specific operation conditions by using a model to represent the test results. Approaches for representing test results range from simple statistical models to neural networks to complex, physics-based models. Basing the model on test data could be problematical when testing becomes impractical with many years life time tests. So, real time estimation of battery performance, an important problem in automotive applications, falls into this area. In vehicles it is important to know the state of charge of the batteries in order to prevent vehicle stranding and to ensure that the full range of the vehicle operation is exploited. In this paper, several battery models have studied including analytical, electrical circuits, stochastic and electro- chemical models. Valve Regulated Lead Acid “VRLA” battery has been modelled using electric circuit technique. This model is considered in the proposed Battery Monitoring System “BMS”. The proposed BMS includes data acquisition, data analysis and prediction of battery performance under a hypothetical future loads. Based on these criteria, a microprocessor based BMS prototype had been built and tested in automotive Lab,. The tests show promising results that can be used in industrial applications

  17. Automotive stamped part fatigue design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caudoux Mélanie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue design of automotive axle parts is of prior concern because of these are high safety parts and they are expected to drive the overall vehicle mass reduction. In this framework, the stamping process is widely used to form axle parts, before assembling them by welding. Consequently, the mechanical and physical characteristics of the blank sheet are modified, having a strong influence on the fatigue behavior. In this paper, we address the consequences of the stamped process on the fatigue design and how they may be effectively taken into account in the automotive industry. Actually, the coupling between the stamping process and the fatigue design is under development at PSA Peugeot Citroën Company since several years. Such an analysis deals with some major topics: thickness variation, plastic hardening and deformation, and residual stress. All of these ingredients result in fatigue criteria evolutions: it is important to stress that the stamping process can have advantageous or disadvantageous consequences on the fatigue design. This is here highlighted on some examples, dealing with front and rear axles.

  18. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  19. Predict optimize the friction characteristics of brake pads; Brake pad no masatsu tokusei no yosoku to saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saotome, H. [Nissin Kogyo Co., Tokyo (Japan); Kato, T. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The effect of the friction and the wear properties of brake pads were experimentally studied using a test rig of scale of 1/10 of the system used in a commercial car. The experimental data were investigated by the Multiple Regression Analysis and the Neural Network, and the effects of volume % of components on the friction and the wear properties were predicted. In addition the components of brake pads are optimized by Genetic Algorithms. 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Thermal measurement of brake pad lining surfaces during the braking process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowski, Tadeusz; Polakowski, Henryk; Kastek, Mariusz; Baranowski, Pawel; Damaziak, Krzysztof; Małachowski, Jerzy; Mazurkiewicz, Łukasz

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the test campaign concept and definition and the analysis of the recorded measurements. One of the most important systems in cars and trucks are brakes. The braking temperature on a lining surface can rise above 500°C. This shows how linings requirements are so strict and, what is more, continuously rising. Besides experimental tests, very supportive method for investigating processes which occur on the brake pad linings are numerical analyses. Experimental tests were conducted on the test machine called IL-68. The main component of IL-68 is so called frictional unit, which consists of: rotational head, which convey a shaft torque and where counter samples are placed and translational head, where samples of coatings are placed and pressed against counter samples. Due to the high rotational speeds and thus the rapid changes in temperature field, the infrared camera was used for testing. The paper presents results of analysis registered thermograms during the tests with different conditions. Furthermore, based on this testing machine, the numerical model was developed. In order to avoid resource demanding analyses only the frictional unit (described above) was taken into consideration. Firstly the geometrical model was performed thanks to CAD techniques, which in the next stage was a base for developing the finite element model. Material properties and boundary conditions exactly correspond to experimental tests. Computations were performed using a dynamic LS-Dyna code where heat generation was estimated assuming full (100%) conversion of mechanical work done by friction forces. Paper presents the results of dynamic thermomechanical analysis too and these results were compared with laboratory tests.

  1. Intelligently Controllable Walker with Magnetorheological Fluid Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takehito; Tanida, Sosuke; Tanaka, Toshimasa; Kobayashi, Keigo; Mitobe, Kazuhisa

    Caster walkers are supporting frames with casters and wheels. These tools are regularly utilized as life support tools or walking rehabilitation tools in hospitals, nursing homes and individual residences. Users of the walkers can easily move it thanks to its wheels and casters. However falling accidents often happen when it moves without users. The falling accident is very serious problem and one of leading causes of secondary injuries. In the other case, it is hard to move to desired directions if users have imbalance in their motor functions or sensory functions, e.g., hemiplegic patients. To improve safeness and operability of the walkers, we installed compact MR fluid brakes on the wheels and controlled walking speed and direction of the walker. We named this intelligently controllable walker, “i-Walker” and discussed on the control methods and experimental results in this paper. Preliminary trials for direction control of the first-generation of the i-Walker (i-Walker1) are presented. On the basis of the results, we improved the control method and hardware of the i-Walker1, and developed the second-generation (i-Walker2). System description and experimental results of the i-Walker2 are also described. The i-Walker2 has better operability and lower energy consumption than that of the i-Walker1. The line-tracing controller of the i-Walker2 well controls human motions during walking experiments on the target straight line.

  2. Green innovation adoption in automotive supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zailani, Suhaiza; Govindan, Kannan; Iranmanesh, Mohammad;

    2015-01-01

    Green innovation has currently been receiving a great deal of international attention because of the growing concern of consumers, governments, and the community as a whole with regard to the degradation of natural resources and environmental pollution. The automotive sector is one of the leading...... generators of industrial waste that affect the quality of the natural environment. This study aims to investigate the determinants of green innovation adoption and its effect on firm performance. Data were gathered by surveying 153 firms in the Malaysian automotive supply chain industry. Data were analyzed......). These results have important implications for designing strategic plans for the Malaysian automotive industry....

  3. Designing the sound of a cut-off drum

    CERN Document Server

    Martinetti, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The spectral action in noncommutative geometry naturally implements an ultraviolet cut-off, by counting the eigenvalues of a (generalized) Dirac operator lower than an energy of unification. Inverting the well known question "how to hear the shape of a drum ?", we ask what drum can be designed by hearing the truncated music of the spectral action ? This makes sense because the same Dirac operator also determines the metric, via Connes distance. The latter thus offers an original way to implement the high-momentum cut-off of the spectral action as a short distance cut-off on space. This is a non-technical presentation of the results of http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.2605

  4. Low tension graphene drums for electromechanical pressure sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Raj N.; Mathew, John P.; Borah, Abhinandan; Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    2016-03-01

    We present a process to fabricate electromechanical pressure sensors using multilayer graphene in a sealed drum geometry. The drum resonators are fabricated on insulating sapphire substrates with a local back gate for direct radio frequency ({\\text{}}{{rf}}) actuation and detection of the mechanical modes. Using this scheme, we show the detection and electrostatic tuning of multiple resonant modes of the membrane up to 200 MHz. The geometry of the device also helps in attaining low tensile stress in the membrane, thereby giving high gate tunability (∼1 MHz/V) of the resonator modes. We study the resonant frequency shifts in the presence of helium gas and demonstrate a sensing capability of 1 Torr pressure in a cryogenic environment.

  5. Reliability modeling of hydraulic system of drum shearer machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEYED HADI Hoseinie; MOHAMMAD Ataie; REZA Khalookakaei; UDAY Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The hydraulic system plays an important role in supplying power and its transition to other working parts of a coal shearer machine.In this paper,the reliability of the hydraulic system of a drum shearer was analyzed.A case study was done in the Tabas Coal Mine in Iran for failure data collection.The results of the statistical analysis show that the time between failures (TBF)data of this system followed the 3-parameters Weibull distribution.There is about a 54% chance that the hydraulic system of the drum shearer will not fail for the first 50 h of operation.The developed model shows that the reliability of the hydraulic system reduces to a zero value after approximately 1 650 hours of operation.The failure rate of this system decreases when time increases.Therefore,corrective maintenance(run-to-failure)was selected as the best maintenance strategy for it.

  6. Temperature control of an automotive engine cooling system utilizing a magneto-rheological fan clutch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note, the temperature control of an automotive engine cooling system is undertaken using a magneto-rheological (MR) fluid-based fan clutch (MR fan clutch in short). In order to achieve this goal, an appropriate size of controllable fan clutch using an MR fluid is firstly devised by considering the design parameters of a conventional fan clutch to reflect the practical application. Then, the principal design parameters of the MR fan clutch such as the length of the disc are optimally determined through finite element analysis. The drum-type MR fan clutch is manufactured and its time response to input current is experimentally evaluated. A robust sliding mode controller is then formulated by treating the time constant of the fan clutch system as an uncertain parameter. After identifying the relationship between angular velocity of the MR fan clutch and the temperature of the cooling system, the sliding mode controller is experimentally realized for the cooling system. It has been clearly demonstrated that the proposed sliding mode controller follows well the desired temperature with a small regulating error. It is expected from this feasibility work that the proposed control system associated with an MR fan clutch can be effectively utilized for the automotive cooling system to improve the fuel efficiency. (technical note)

  7. An accident-tolerant control drum system for a small space reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An accident-tolerant control drum system for space reactor was proposed. • The neutronic performance of the proposed control drum system was investigated. • The new system improved reactor safety during various launch accidents. • A mass reduction can be achieved as well by adopting the new system. - Abstract: In this paper, an accident-tolerant control drum system was proposed to enhance the safety of space reactors in various launch accidents and the safety enhancement was demonstrated for a LEU-fueled and a HEU-fueled space reactors. The space reactors with an accident-tolerant control drum system remain subcritical even when all the control drums are missing while the reactors with a control rod system become supercritical when a control rod is missing without any damage in reflector. The heterogeneous LEU-fueled space reactor with an accident-tolerant control drum system remains subcritical even when it is immersed in dry sand, wet sand, or water with two adjacent control drums are rotated to the operation position. The HEU-fueled space reactor with an accident-tolerant control drum system remains subcritical even when it is immersed in various surrounding materials with one or two control drums rotated to the operation position depending on the thickness of the reflector. Besides the safety enhancement, a reduction of the total reactor mass was achieved by adopting an accident-tolerant control drum system instead of a control rod system

  8. Gastrointestinal anthrax after an animal-hide drumming event - New Hampshire and Massachusetts, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    On December 24, 2009, a woman aged 24 years from New Hampshire was confirmed to have gastrointestinal anthrax on the basis of clinical findings and a Bacillus anthracis blood culture isolate. Her symptoms began on December 5. One day before symptom onset, she had participated in a drumming event at a community organization's building where animal-hide drums of multiple ages and origins were played. This report describes the case and subsequent investigation, which identified 84 persons potentially exposed to anthrax, including those persons at the drumming event and those who lived or worked at the event site. Review of New Hampshire disease surveillance data and clinical microbiology records for periods before and after the event identified no additional anthrax cases. Initial qualitative environmental testing of the event site yielded three positive samples (two from drum heads and one composite sample of three electrical outlets in the main drumming room). Wider, targeted, semi-quantitative environmental testing of the site and additional drums yielded six positive samples (two from one drum and four from environmental locations in the building). These results suggested that aerosolization of spores from drumheads had occurred. All isolates obtained from environmental and drum samples matched the patient's isolate by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis using eight loci (MLVA-8). Public health agencies and persons with exposure to animal-hide drums should be aware of the potential, although remote, risk for anthrax exposure associated with these drums. PMID:20651643

  9. Technology Transfer in the Global Automotive Value Chain. Lessons from the Turkish Automotive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    M. Teoman Pamukçu; Alper Sönmez

    2011-01-01

    The automotive industry is one of the main contributors to value added, employment and exports of the Turkish economy and it has undergone major changes since the mid-nineties. Most of the automotive manufacturers in Turkey are either joint ventures or wholly-owned affiliates of multinational companies. Literature on global value chains point to the possibility of technology transfer occurring through backward linkages from automotive manufacturers to their suppliers. We test for the existenc...

  10. Does Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) Certification Enhance Job Performance of Automotive Service Technicians?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolo, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) certification of automotive service technicians in independent dealerships enhanced job performance. Descriptive survey methodology was used to gather information for 100 automotive technicians (50 ASE-certified and 50 non-certified technicians) located in 50 different work sites. Each siteâ s service manager was asked to complete a questionnaire and a rating scale for two technicians, one ASE certified and on...

  11. Parametric studies on automotive radiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a set of parametric studies performed on automotive radiators by means of a detailed rating and design heat exchanger model developed by the authors. This numerical tool has been previously verified and validated using a wide experimental data bank. A first part of the analysis focuses on the influence of working conditions on both fluids (mass flows, inlet temperatures) and the impact of the selected coolant fluid. Following these studies, the influence of some geometrical parameters is analysed (fin pitch, louver angle) as well as the importance of coolant flow lay-out on the radiator global performance. This work provides an overall behaviour report of automobile radiators working at usual range of operating conditions, while significant knowledge-based design conclusions have also been reported. The results show the utility of this numerical model as a rating and design tool for heat exchangers manufacturers, being a reasonable compromise between classic ε - NTU methods and CFD

  12. Squeal analysis of ventilated disc brake using ansys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdel-Naser, Ibrahim Ahmed, Essam Allam, Sabry Allam, Shawki Abouel-seoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that automobile brakes can generate several kinds of noises. Among them is squeal, a noise in the 1-15 kHz range. It is commonly accepted that brake squeal is initiated by instability due to the friction forces, leading to self excited vibrations. To predict the onset of brake instability, a modal analysis of the prestressed structure can be performed on an improved dynamic finite element model of ventilated disc brake with friction coupling. An unsymmetric stiffness matrix is a result of the friction coupling between the brake pad and disc; this may lead to complex eigenfrequencies. The complex eigenvalue method (Unsymmetric solver used to analyse mode shapes associated with the predicted natural frequency. Creating the element of Matrix27 between the ventilated disc and pad was very important in studying the squeal of the coupled ventilated disc brake. The results demonstrated that the FEM for the coupled ventilated rotor and pad showed a good interaction between the non-linear contact and the linear modal analysis. Furthermore, the unsymmetric solver showed that the modes of the coupled disc-pad contained two types of mode. The first type was normal mode, which did not contain an imaginary part while the second type was complex mode that contained real and imaginary parts. Moreover, complex eigenvalue analysis predicted always more unstable modes than the number of squeal frequencies that really occur in the brake system. The maximum squeal index was observed at mode 16 and at frequency of 4083 Hz with instability of 480 sec-1. However; the tendency of instability (TOI for the system at contact stiffness of 1 GN/m was 59 that gave the lowest instability of the system.

  13. Nye vådrum i gamle boliger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibstrup Eriksen, S.; Hommel-Hansen, O.; Woetmann Nielsen, C.;

    Hvert år udføres mange nye badeværelser, såkaldte vådrum, som led i modernisering og forbedring af den gamle boligmasse. Da kvalitetsbrist både ved projektering og udførelse har været årsag til et stort antal følgeskader, og da der stadig er mange boliger, som skal have etableret badeværelser, er...

  14. The evolution of harmonic Indian musical drums: A mathematical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Samuel; Gauthier, Claude; Léger, Sophie

    2006-03-01

    We explain using mathematics how harmonic musical drums were discovered by Indian artisans and musicians more than 2000 years ago. To this end, we introduce a harmonic error function which measures the quality of the harmonic relationship and degeneracy of the first modes of vibration of a centrally symmetric loaded membrane. We explain that although the tabla configuration found by the ancient Indians is the most natural one, other configurations exist and some are harmonically superior to the classical one.

  15. A MODULAR STORE FOR DRUMS OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, J.; Holden, G.

    2003-02-27

    Currently, the United Kingdom has no facility for the disposal of any waste above the low level category, indicating that all intermediate and high level waste, apart from spent fuel, has to be stored on the site of origin. To meet this storage requirement, nuclear sites are resorting to converting existing buildings or contemplating the construction of dedicated facilities, resulting in considerable cost implications. These financing aspects not only concern the construction strategy but also impinge on the ultimate decommissioning costs associated with each particular nuclear site. This paper reports on an investigation to apply the commercially available interlocking hollow block system to the design of a store for drums of radioactive waste. This block system can be quickly, and cost effectively, erected and filled with a choice of dense material. Later, the store can be dismantled with a minimum of disposable radioactive waste and the complete facility re - erected at another location if required, considerably reducing both capital construction and decommissioning costs. The investigation also encompassed a detailed review of the equipment required to place the drums of waste into the store, resulting in a scheme for a remotely operated vehicle that did not rely on umbilical control cables. The drum handler design included for 100% redundancy of all functions, meaning that whichever component failed, the handler was always recoverable to effect the necessary repair. The ultimate aim of the waste drum store review was to produce a facility that was as safe as a conventionally constructed unit, but at a lower overall building and decommissioning cost.

  16. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE DRUM BOILER SUPERHEATED STEAM TEMPERATURE.

    OpenAIRE

    Juravliov A.A.; Sit M.L.; Poponova O.B.; Sit B.B.; Zubatii A.L.

    2006-01-01

    The control system of the temperature of the superheated steam of the drum boiler is examined. Main features of the system are the PI-controller in the external control loop and introduction of the functional component of the error signal of the external control loop with the negative feedback of the error signal between the prescribed value of steam flowrate and the signal of the steam flowrate in the exit of the boiler in the internal control loop.

  17. Modelling and predictive control of a drum-type boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Molloy, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Boilers generate steam continuously and on a large scale. Controlling the boiler process is extremely difficult - it is a highly nonlinear process, its dynamics vary with load and it is strongly multivariable. It is also inherently unstable due to the integrator effect of the drum. In addition, boilers are commonly used in situations where the load can change suddenly and without prior warning. Traditionally, boilers have been controlled by Single-Input, Single-Output (SISO) Proportional ...

  18. Impact Energy and Sound Intensity of a Klong Tad Drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adit Mangharam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A steel ball was dropped onto the center of a traditional Thai Klong Tad (กลองทัด drum from different heights. The relationship between the impact energy and the maximum sound intensity produced was examined for heights ranging from 0.23 to 0.59 meters above the drumhead. A proportional relationship was found between the two variables.

  19. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE DRUM BOILER SUPERHEATED STEAM TEMPERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravliov A.A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The control system of the temperature of the superheated steam of the drum boiler is examined. Main features of the system are the PI-controller in the external control loop and introduction of the functional component of the error signal of the external control loop with the negative feedback of the error signal between the prescribed value of steam flowrate and the signal of the steam flowrate in the exit of the boiler in the internal control loop.

  20. Handling 78,000 drums of mixed-waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now know as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) prepared two mixed-waste surface impoundments for closure by removing the sludge and contaminated pond-bottom clay and attempting to process it into durable, nonleachable, concrete monoliths. Interim, controlled, above-ground storage of the stabilized waste was planned until final disposition. The strategy for disposal included delisting the stabilized pond sludge from hazardous to nonhazardous and disposing of the delisted monoliths as radioactive waste. Because of schedule constraints and process design and control deficiencies, ∼46,000 drums of material in various stages of solidification and ∼32,000 drums of unprocessed sludge are presently being stored. In addition, the abandoned treatment facility still contains ∼16,000 gal of raw sludge. Such conditions do not comply with the requirements set forth by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) for the storage of listed waste. Various steps are being taken to bring the storage of ∼78,000 drums of mixed waste into compliance with RCRA. This paper (1) reviews the current situation, (2) discusses the plan for remediation of regulatory noncompliances, including decanting liquid from stabilized waste and dewatering untreated waste, and (3) provides an assessment of alternative raw-waste treatment processes. 1 ref., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Study of Stress Sources and Critical Stress Combinations for the Input Shaft of a Longitudinally Mounted Four Speed Automotive Automatic Transmission Model

    OpenAIRE

    N A Abdel-halim

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper; two models of the input shaft for a Longitudinal Mounted four Speed Automotive Automatic Transmission for the first time were introduced to describe the input shaft critical loads. In the first model; the DC (Direct Clutch) connects two gears together. This gives no change in the set torque (the set output torque equal to the set input torque). In the second model; the ODB (Over Drive Brake) fixes one element of the planetary set. This is resulting, the gear set gives r...

  2. Energy system feasibility study of an Otto cycle/Stirling cycle hybrid automotive engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, Barry; McGovern, Jim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of utilising a Stirling cycle engine as an exhaust gas waste heat recovery device for an Otto cycle internal combustion engine (ICE) in the context of an automotive power plant. The hybrid arrangement would produce increased brake power output for a given fuel consumption rate when compared to an ICE alone. The study was dealt with from an energy system perspective with design practicalities such as power train integration, location of auxiliaries, manufacture costs and other general plant design considerations neglected. The study necessitated work in two distinct areas: experimental assessment of the performance characteristics of an existing automotive Otto cycle ICE and mathematical modelling of the Stirling cycle engine based on the output parameters of the ICE. It was subsequently found to be feasible in principle to generate approximately further 30% useful power in addition to that created by the ICE by using a Stirling cycle engine to capture waste heat expelled from the ICE exhaust gases over the complete range of engine operating speeds. (author)

  3. Study of LED modulation effect on the photometric quantities and beam homogeneity of automotive lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, Petr; Hanulak, Patrik; Jaros, Jakub; Papes, Martin; Latal, Jan; Siska, Petr; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2015-07-01

    This paper discusses the implementation of a light emitting diode based visible light communication system for optical vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications in road safety applications. The widespread use of LEDs as light sources has reached into automotive fields. For example, LEDs are used for taillights, daytime running lights, brake lights, headlights, and traffic signals. Future in the optical vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications will be based on an optical wireless communication technology that using LED transmitter and a camera receiver (OCI; optical communication image sensor). Utilization of optical V2V communication systems in automotive industry naturally brings a lot of problems. Among them belongs necessity of circuit implementation into the current concepts of electronic LED lights control that allows LED modulation. These circuits are quite complicated especially in case of luxury cars. Other problem is correct design of modulation circuits so that final vehicle lightning using optical vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication meets standard requirements on Photometric Quantities and Beam Homogeneity. Authors of this article performed research on optical vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication possibilities of headlight (Jaguar) and taillight (Skoda) in terms of modulation circuits (M-PSK, M-QAM) implementation into the lamp concepts and final fulfilment of mandatory standards on Photometric Quantities and Beam Homogeneity.

  4. Nonlinear estimation and control of automotive drivetrains

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear Estimation and Control of Automotive Drivetrains discusses the control problems involved in automotive drivetrains, particularly in hydraulic Automatic Transmission (AT), Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) and Automated Manual Transmission (AMT). Challenging estimation and control problems, such as driveline torque estimation and gear shift control, are addressed by applying the latest nonlinear control theories, including constructive nonlinear control (Backstepping, Input-to-State Stable) and Model Predictive Control (MPC). The estimation and control performance is improved while the calibration effort is reduced significantly. The book presents many detailed examples of design processes and thus enables the readers to understand how to successfully combine purely theoretical methodologies with actual applications in vehicles. The book is intended for researchers, PhD students, control engineers and automotive engineers. Hong Chen is a professor at the State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and...

  5. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  6. Sustainable automotive energy system in China

    CERN Document Server

    CAERC, Tsinghua University

    2014-01-01

    This book identifies and addresses key issues of automotive energy in China. It covers demography, economics, technology and policy, providing a broad perspective to aid in the planning of sustainable road transport in China.

  7. Prosthetic leg powered by MR brake and SMA wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Munguia, Vicente; Calderon, Jose

    2014-04-01

    Current knee designs for prosthetic legs rely on electric motors for both moving and stationary states. The electric motors draw an especially high level of current to sustain a fixed position. The advantage of using magnetorheological (MR) fluid is that it requires less current and can have a variable braking torque. Besides, the proposed prosthetic leg is actuated by NiTinol wire, a popular shape memory alloy (SMA). The incorporation of NiTinol gives the leg more realistic weight distribution with appropriate arrangement of the batteries and wires. The prosthesis in this research was designed with MR brake as stopping component and SMA wire network as actuating component at the knee. The MR brake was designed with novel non-circular shape for the rotor that improved the braking torque while minimizing the power consumption. The design also helped simplify the control of braking process. The SMA wire network was design so that the knee motion was actively rotated in both directions. The SMA wires were arranged and played very similar role as the leg's muscles. The study started with the overall solid design of the knee including both MR and SMA parts. Theoretical models were derived and programmed in Simulink for both components. The simulation was capable of predicting the power required for moving the leg or hold it in a fixed position for a certain amount of time. Subsequently, the design was prototyped and tested to validate the theoretical prediction. The theoretical models were updated accordingly to correlate with the experimental data.

  8. Sound field control in the automotive environment

    OpenAIRE

    Cheer, Jordan; Elliott, Stephen; Jung, Woomin

    2015-01-01

    Active control of engine and road noise in the automotive environment has been investigated within the automotive industry for around 20 years. This interest is due to both the potential to reduce vehicle noise, and the ability to remove passive noise control treatments and, therefore, improve fuel efficiency. The most successful commercial systems have generally used the loudspeakers of the car audio system to globally control engine or road noise at low frequencies. It is also possible to u...

  9. Super High Strength Steel for automotive applications

    OpenAIRE

    CONFENTE, Mario; SCHNEIDER, Emmanuel; BOMONT, Olivier; LESCALIER, Christophe; BOMONT-ARZUR, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Intensive weight savings and out-sizing programs are developed in automotive industry and lead to increase the mechanical properties of the material of the automotive parts. ArcelorMittal has developed specific steel grades known as Super High Strength Steels which are designed for both high ductility and toughness and fatigue resistance. This paper investigates machinability for a drilling operation using an experimental methodology. One of the materials is a new low bainitic steel grade. Ex...

  10. Virtual Tryout Technologies for Preparing Automotive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    It is important to reduce the weight of the automotive and to shorten the development period for reduction of CO2 discharge. For these purpose, virtual tryout technologies have been introduced automotive industry. Every process from stamping to assembly for car development has introduced CAD design and numerical simulation such as forming simulation, dimensional accuracy simulation such as forming simulation, dimensional accuracy simulation and so on. In this paper, sheet metal forming simula...

  11. Automotive perspective on laser material processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a broad review is given of the development and use of laser processing in the automotive industry. a brief introduction to the major types of processing lasers and related systems is followed by a summary of the major processing regimes. Examples are given of the automotive industry's use of lasers in a variety of applications, from heat treating and welding, to cutting and marking

  12. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Automotive Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Domeij Bäckryd, Rebecka

    2013-01-01

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) can be used as an effective tool to improve the design of automotive structures. Large-scale MDO problems typically involve several groups who must work concurrently and autonomously for reasons of efficiency. When performing MDO, a large number of designs need to be rated. Detailed simulation models used to assess automotive design proposals are often computationally expensive to evaluate. A useful MDO process must distribute work to the groups inv...

  13. INFLUENCE OF AUTOMOTIVE CLUSTERS IN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin BORDEI

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an overview of the evolution in the automotive sector in the process of regional development. The fundamental changes made by the component supplier sector improved the regional development and manufacturing process. Automotive industry is one of the modern sectors in many countries that benefits of a high technology impact and creates jobs that reduces unemployment across Europe. The auto industry changed cities, regions and countries into poles of development and it beco...

  14. Architecting and Modeling Automotive Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Larses, Ola

    2005-01-01

    Dealing properly with electronics and software will be a strong competitive advantage in the automotive sector in the near future. Electronics are driving current innovations and are at the same time becoming a larger part of the cost of the vehicle. In order to be successful as an automotive manufacturer, innovations must be introduced in the vehicle without compromising the final price tag. Also, the electronics has to compete with, and win over, the dependability of well known and proven m...

  15. Operationalising luxury in the premium automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bridle, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents an Action Research project investigating the use of customers’ perceptions of premium and luxury cars within the premium automotive industry. The research was sponsored by Jaguar Land Rover (JLR), a UK-based automotive manufacturer. An inductive, phenomenological approach was adopted in which JLR’s Premiumness Research Programme (PRP) was used as a case study to build an understanding of the consumer’s perception of luxury, to discover how to communic...

  16. Comparative Advantage in the Asian Automotive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Somsupa Nopprach

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyze determinants of Asian countries' comparative advantage in the automotive industry. The effects of supporting industries, factor availability, factor intensity, transportation costs, and of the scale of foreign investment in the industry on the level of countries' comparative advantage are on focus. The results highlight the importance of strong supporting industries in raising a country's comparative advantage in the automotive industry. Furthermore, it is found th...

  17. Fire testing of 55 gallon metal waste drums for dry waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary goal of this test program was to conduct a series of fire test to provide information on the fire performance of 55 gallon metal waste drums used for solid waste disposal at Department Of Energy (DOE) facilities. This program was limited in focus to three different types of 55 gallon drums, one radiant heat source, and one specific fire size. The initial test was a single empty 55 gallon drum exposed to a standard ASTME-119 time temperature curve for over 10 minutes. The full scale tests involved metal drums exposed to a 6' diameter flammable liquid fire for a prescribed period of time. The drums contained simulated dry waste materials of primarily class A combustibles. The test results showed that a conventional 55 gallon drum with a 1in. bung would blow its lid consistently

  18. A verification calculation of drum and pulley overhead travelling crane on gamma irradiator ISG-500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been verified the calculation of drum and pulleys on cranes as facility the gamma irradiator ISG-500. Drum is a device for rolling steel ropes while the pulley is a circular pieces called disks, and both of which are made from metal or non-metal to transmit motion and force. It has been verified the calculation of forces on the drum, drum diameter and length, and pressuring force occurred on the drums. Likewise to the pulley, the pulley diameter calculations verification, size of disc and shaft power pulleys. From the verification results, it will be obtained whether the data drums and pulley device are safe or not safe to be used. (author)

  19. Automotive fuels from biomass via gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exists already a market of bio-automotive fuels i.e. bioethanol and biodiesel produced from food crops in many countries. From the viewpoint of economics, environment, land use, water use and chemical fertilizer use, however, there is a strong preference for the use of woody biomass and various forest/agricultural residues as the feedstock. Thus, the production of 2nd generation of bio-automotive fuels i.e. synthetic fuels such as methanol, ethanol, DME, FT-diesel, SNG and hydrogen through biomass gasification seems promising. The technology of producing synthetic fuels is well established based on fossil fuels. For biomass, however, it is fairly new and the technology is under development. Starting from the present market of the 1st generation bio-automotive fuels, this paper is trying to review the technology development of the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels from syngas platform. The production of syngas is emphasized which suggests appropriate gasifier design for a high quality syngas production. A number of bio-automotive fuel demonstration plant will be presented, which gives the state of the art in the development of BTS (biomass to synthetic fuels) technologies. It can be concluded that the 2nd generation bio-automotive fuels are on the way to a breakthrough in the transport markets of industrial countries especially for those countries with a strong forest industry. (author)

  20. Optimal design of a magneto-rheological brake absorber for torsional vibration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research presents an optimal design of a magneto-rheological (MR) brake absorber for torsional vibration control of a rotating shaft. Firstly, the configuration of an MR brake absorber for torsional vibration control of a rotating shaft system is proposed. Then, the braking torque of the MR brake is derived based on the Bingham plastic model of the MR fluid. By assuming that the behaviour of the MR brake absorber is similar to that of a dry friction torsional damper, the optimal braking torque to control the torsional vibration is determined and validated by simulation. The optimal design problem of the MR brake absorber is then developed and a procedure to solve the optimal problem is proposed. Based on the proposed optimal design procedure, the optimal design of a specific rotating shaft system is performed. Vibration control performance of the shaft system employing the optimized MR brake absorber is then investigated through simulation and discussion on the results is given. (paper)

  1. Freshwater Fish Survey of Mathews Brake Water Body - 1980 and 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A Freshwater Fish Survey of Mathews Brake water body including land not within Mathews Brake NWR. Methods included Electroshocker, creel census, and seine.

  2. 49 CFR 571.116 - Standard No. 116; Motor vehicle brake fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WHEN ADDING BRAKE FLUID. (2) KEEP BRAKE FLUID CLEAN AND DRY. Contamination with dirt, water, petroleum... paraffin. Do not use a standard with an age exceeding three months. (1) Potassium hydrogen phthalate...

  3. Pharyngeal teeth of the freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) a predator of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P., III

    1997-01-01

    The morphology of pharyngeal teeth of freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) was studied to determine changes that occur during growth of drum that may relate to consumption of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by larger fish. Pharyngeal teeth were of three types. Cardiform teeth were replaced by villiform teeth, which were replaced by molariform teeth as the size class of drum increased. Molariform teeth comprised over 85% of total surface area of dentition in fish 265 mm long.

  4. Variation in movement patterns of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) inferred from conventional tagging and ultrasonic telemetry

    OpenAIRE

    Bacheler, Nathan M.; Paramore, Lee M.; Burdick, Summer M.; Buckel, Jeffrey A.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    We used 25 years of conventional tagging data (n= 6173 recoveries) and 3 years of ultrasonic telemetry data (n=105 transmitters deployed) to examine movement rates and directional preferences of four age classes of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in estuarine and coastal waters of North Carolina. Movement rates of conventionally tagged red drum were dependent on the age, region, and season of tagging. Age-1 and age-2 red drum tagged along the coast generally moved along the coast, wherea...

  5. The Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray Spectrum Measured by the Telescope Array's Middle Drum Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Douglas; Collaboration, Matt Wood for the Telescope Array

    2011-01-01

    The Telescope Array's Middle Drum fluorescence detector was constructed using refurbished telescopes from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment. As such, there is a direct comparison between these two experiments' fluorescence energy spectra. An energy spectrum has been calculated based on one year of collected data by the Middle Drum site of Telescope Array and agrees well with the HiRes monocular spectra. The quality of the Middle Drum results has also been determined to show goo...

  6. Characterization of void volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. This final report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions for transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste

  7. Characterization of voic volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. This final report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions for transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste

  8. Incidence of the leech Actinobdella pediculata on freshwater drum in Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bur, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    Actinobdella pediculata (Glossiphoniidae), a freshwater leech, was found attached to freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) from western Lake Erie during 1991 through 1993. The animal was first observed during routine examinations of freshwater drum collected in May 1991. The leeches were usually attached to the inside, lower portion of the opercula near the isthmus. Incidence of attachment increased with freshwater drum age and length. No noticeable adverse effects on the fish from attachment by the leech were noted.

  9. Characterization of voic volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1994-12-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. This final report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions for transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.

  10. Characterization of void volume VOC concentration in vented TRU waste drums. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.J.

    1995-08-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles and limited waste drum sampling data. This final report summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions for transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste.

  11. Nondestructive assays of 55-gallon drums containing uranium and transuranic waste using passive-active shufflers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A passive-active neutron shuffler for 55-gal. drums of waste has been characterized using more than 1500 active and 500 passive assays on drums with 28 different matrices. Flux-monitor corrections have been improved, the assay accuracy with localized fissile materials in a drum has been characterized, and improvements have been suggested. Minimum detectable masses for 235U with active assays and 240Pueff with passive assays are presented for the various amounts of moderators and absorbers studied

  12. W-026, acceptance test report TRU empty drum compactor (submittal number-sign 634)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 10/19/96 and 10/21/96, the 06/04/96 version of the Empty Drum Compactor Acceptance Test Procedure was used to perform tests by INET Corporation at the Hanford WRAP facility. The INET compaction components were installed in the Diversified glovebox. The Diversified glovebox and cart and the INET compaction components, EDC HPU and drum centering device constitute the Empty Drum Compactor

  13. Surrogate models for efficient stability analysis of brake systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechak, Lyes; Gillot, Frédéric; Besset, Sébastien; Sinou, Jean-Jacques

    2015-07-01

    This study assesses capacities of the global sensitivity analysis combined together with the kriging formalism to be useful in the robust stability analysis of brake systems, which is too costly when performed with the classical complex eigenvalues analysis (CEA) based on finite element models (FEMs). By considering a simplified brake system, the global sensitivity analysis is first shown very helpful for understanding the effects of design parameters on the brake system's stability. This is allowed by the so-called Sobol indices which discriminate design parameters with respect to their influence on the stability. Consequently, only uncertainty of influent parameters is taken into account in the following step, namely, the surrogate modelling based on kriging. The latter is then demonstrated to be an interesting alternative to FEMs since it allowed, with a lower cost, an accurate estimation of the system's proportions of instability corresponding to the influent parameters.

  14. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to a safe speed in an expected trajectory. The simulating test system is also designed, and the testing results show that the vehicle can be quickly stabilized and kept in the original track after tire blowout with the emergency braking system described in the paper.

  15. Dynamics Models of Interacting Torques of Hydrodynamic Retarder Braking Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic retarder is a kind of assist braking device, which can transfer the vehicle kinetic energy into the heat energy of working medium. There are complicated three-dimensional viscous incompressible turbulent flows in hydrodynamic retarder, so that it is difficult to represent the parameters changing phenomenon and investigate the interactional law. In order to develop a kind of reliable theoretical model for internal flow field, in this study, the dynamics models of interacting torques between impellers and working fluid were constructed based on braking energy transfer principle by using Euler theory to describe the flow state in view of time scale. The model can truly represent the dynamic braking process.

  16. Braking Performance of a Biomimetic Squid-Like Underwater Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.Mahbubar Rahman; Sinpei Sugimori; Hiroshi Miki; Risa Yamamoto; Yugo Sanada; Yasuyuki Toda

    2013-01-01

    In this study,the braking performance of the undulating fin propulsion system ofa biomimetic squid-like underwater robot was investigated through free run experiment and simulation of the quasi-steady mathematical model.The quasi-steady equations of motion were solved using the measured and calculated hydrodynamic forces and compared with free-run test results.Various braking strategies were tested and discussed in terms of stopping ability and the forces acting on the stopping stage.The stopping performance of the undulating fin propulsion system tured out to be excellent considering the short stopping time and short stopping distance.This is because of the large negative thrust produced by progressive wave in opposite direction.It was confirmed that the undulating fin propulsion system can effectively perform braking even in complex underwater explorations.

  17. What can the braking indices tell us about pulsars' nature?

    CERN Document Server

    Yue, Y L; Zhu, W W

    2006-01-01

    As a result of observational difficulties, braking indices of only six rotation-powered pulsars are obtained with certainty, all of which are remarkably smaller than the value ($n=3$) expected for pure magnetodipole radiation model. This is still a real fundamental question not being well answered after nearly forty years of the discovery of pulsar. The main problem is that we are shamefully not sure about the dominant mechanisms that result in pulsars' spin-down. Based on the previous works, the braking index is re-examined, with a conclusion of suggesting a constant gap potential drop for pulsars with magnetospheric activities. New constrains on model parameters from observed braking indices are presented.

  18. Simplified model of eddy current brakes and its use for optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Holtmann, Christoph/C.H.; Rinderknecht, Frank/F.R.; Friedrich, Horst E./H.E.F.

    2015-01-01

    The electrification of vehicles makes it possible to think about new concepts to substitute conventional technologies. For example in an electrical drive train, with a traction motor for each wheel mechanical friction brakes can be replaced by eddy current brakes. In this work a method for optimizing the torque density of eddy current brakes is presented. For a fast optimization process the model of the eddy current brake is split up in two levels of detail. In the first level a global model ...

  19. Investigation of Friction Behaviors of Brake Shoe Materials using Metallic Filler

    OpenAIRE

    E. Surojo; Jamasri; V. Malau; M.N. Ilman

    2015-01-01

    Some vehicles use brake shoe made from semi-metallic materials. Semi-metallic brake shoes are made from a combination of metallic and non-metallic materials. Metallic particles are added in the formulation of brake shoe material to improve composites characteristics. In this paper, friction behaviors of brake shoe material using metallic filler were investigated. Machining chips of cast iron and copper wire of electric motor used were incorporated in composite as metallic fillers with amount ...

  20. Experimental optimization of energy efficient drum dryer with a CO2 heat pump system

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yashuo

    2013-01-01

    SummarySince early twentieth century, drum dryer was used to dry clothes, and soon became a glowing industry. A drum dryer is a household appliance that is used to remove moisture from a load of clothing and other textiles, generally At the beginning a simple electrical drum dryer was used, then different development has been made for meeting different needs and changing industrial environment, such as spin dryer, condenser dryer, heat pump dryer etc.The working mechanism of a drum dryer is t...

  1. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-01-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  2. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-06-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  3. RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF NGS CONCENTRATE DRUM SAMPLES [Next Generation Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Williams, M.

    2013-09-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared two drums (50 gallons each in �Drum#2� and �Drum#4�) of NGS-MCU (Next Generation Solvent-Modular CSSX Unit) concentrate for future use at MCU in downblending the BOBCalixC6 based solvent to produce NGS-MCU solvent. Samples of each drum were sent for analysis. The results of all the analyses indicate that the blend concentrate is of the correct composition and should produce a blended solvent at MCU of the desired formulation.

  4. Measurement and Monte Carlo Calculation of Waste Drum Filled With Radioactive Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Li-jun; ZHANG; Wei-dong; YE; Hong-sheng; LIN; Min; CHEN; Xi-lin; GUO; Xiao-qing

    2012-01-01

    <正>Theoretically the best calibrating source of gamma scan system (SGS) is a waste drum filled with uniform distribution of medium and radioactive nuclides. However, in reality, waste drums usually full of solid substance, which are difficult to be prepared in a completely uniformly distributed state. To reduce measurement uncertainty of the radioactivity of waste drums prepared using the method of shell source, a waste drum filled with radioactive aqueous solution was prepared. Besides, its radioactivity was measured by a SGS device and calculated using Monte Carlo method to verify the exact geometric model, which

  5. Automotive Electrical and Electronic System II; Automotive Mechanics-Intermediate: 9045.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive electrical and electronic system course is an intermediate course designed for the student who has completed automotive Electrical and Electronic System I. The theory and principles of operation of the components of the starting and charging systems and other electrical accessory systems in the automobile will be learned by the…

  6. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ..., South Carolina. The notice was published in the Federal Register April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21356). The... Employment and Training Administration Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Troy, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for...

  7. Automotive-adept: a lightweight assessment method for the automotive Irish software industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Caffery, Fergal; Richardson, Ita; Moller, Peter

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed In this paper we describe how a lightweight assessment method was developed to educate Irish software small-to-medium sized enterprises (SMEs)1 in relation to becoming automotive software suppliers. The main goal of this assessment method is to provide software SMEs with a SPI path to becoming automotive software suppliers.

  8. EFFECT OF GENDER DIFFERENCE ON BRAKE REACTION TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Reaction time is the time taken to respond to a stimulus or change in the environment. It is a method to assess the time taken from the perception of a stimulus followed by mental processing for a motor response. Reaction time in various day to day activities as in driving a car is very important. Brake reaction time (BRT is the time taken for the driver to respond to visualize an object and to press the brake pedal. It is affected by many features like age, gender, neuromuscular disorders. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY Study has been undertaken to compare the BRT in male and female drivers and to analyze the effect of sex difference on Brake reaction time. MATERIALS & METHODS Male and female subjects between the age group of 25 – 35 years with driving license were included. Study is conducted in a stationary car. An in-house built; braking timer is fixed to the electric circuit of the braking system in the car. This device is wirelessly connected to the reaction time software installed in the laptop. The subject is instructed to press the brake pedal when the light changed from red to green in the laptop screen. 5 readings are taken and the mean BRT is recorded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS & RESULTS Statistical analysis done with unpaired student t test indicates that the BRT was more in the females than the males and was statistically significant (p value - 0007. CONCLUSION Gender difference has a significant effect on BRT and reaction time in female is longer than for the males.

  9. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  10. Investigation of Product Performance of Al-Metal Matrix Composites Brake Disc using Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatchurrohman, N.; Marini, C. D.; Suraya, S.; Iqbal, AKM Asif

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand of fuel efficiency and light weight components in automobile sectors have led to the development of advanced material parts with improved performance. A specific class of MMCs which has gained a lot of attention due to its potential is aluminium metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs). Product performance investigation of Al- MMCs is presented in this article, where an Al-MMCs brake disc is analyzed using finite element analysis. The objective is to identify the potentiality of replacing the conventional iron brake disc with Al-MMCs brake disc. The simulation results suggested that the MMCs brake disc provided better thermal and mechanical performance as compared to the conventional cast iron brake disc. Although, the Al-MMCs brake disc dissipated higher maximum temperature compared to cast iron brake disc's maximum temperature. The Al-MMCs brake disc showed a well distributed temperature than the cast iron brake disc. The high temperature developed at the ring of the disc and heat was dissipated in circumferential direction. Moreover, better thermal dissipation and conduction at brake disc rotor surface played a major influence on the stress. As a comparison, the maximum stress and strain of Al-MMCs brake disc was lower than that induced on the cast iron brake disc.

  11. 49 CFR 232.503 - Process to introduce new brake system technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Process to introduce new brake system technology... Technology § 232.503 Process to introduce new brake system technology. (a) Pursuant to the procedures... brake system technology, prior to implementing the plan. (b) Each railroad shall complete a...

  12. METHODOLOGY FOR PARAMETER CALCULATION OF DISK BRAKE MECHANISMS WITH HYDRAULIC CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Rukteshel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new methodology for a parameter calculation of a disk brake mechanism with hydraulic control that allows to determine a value of hysteresis losses in a brake at the design stage with high accuracy. A complex analysis for obtaining qualitative and quantitative evaluation of design brake parameter influence on hysteresis value in it is presented in the paper.

  13. 49 CFR 232.207 - Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection. 232... Class IA brake tests—1,000-mile inspection. (a) Except as provided in § 232.213, each train shall receive a Class IA brake test performed by a qualified person, as defined in § 232.5, at a location...

  14. Correcting Students' Misconceptions about Automobile Braking Distances and Video Analysis Using Interactive Program Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockicko, Peter; Trpišová, Beáta; Ondruš, Ján

    2014-01-01

    The present paper informs about an analysis of students' conceptions about car braking distances and also presents one of the novel methods of learning: an interactive computer program Tracker that we used to analyse the process of braking of a car. The analysis of the students' conceptions about car braking distances consisted in…

  15. Thermal-mechanical coupled analysis of a brake disk rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhocine, Ali; Bouchetara, Mostefa

    2013-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the thermomechanical behavior of the dry contact between the brake disk and pads during the braking phase. The simulation strategy is based on computer code ANSYS11. The modeling of transient temperature in the disk is actually used to identify the factor of geometric design of the disk to install the ventilation system in vehicles The thermal-structural analysis is then used with coupling to determine the deformation and the Von Mises stress established in the disk, the contact pressure distribution in pads. The results are satisfactory when compared to those of the specialized literature.

  16. Hydraulic braking system for loads subjected to impacts and vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns a hydraulic braking system for loads subjected to impacts and vibrations. These double acting telescopic type hydraulic braking systems possess significant drawbacks linked to possibly important hydraulic leaks due to (a) the use of many dynamic seals in such appliances and (b) the effects of the environment of the system on these seals, particularly when employed in nuclear power stations where the seals reach significant temperatures and are subjected to radiation. Under this invention a remedy is suggested to such drawbacks by integrating means to offset automatically the leaks and the accumulation of hydraulic fluid expansions, as well as facilities to show if such leaks have occurred

  17. Improvements in automotive fuel economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borcherts, R.H.; Stadler, H.L.; Brehob, W.M.; Auiler, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Significant improvements in automotive fuel economy can be obtained by reductions in weight, aerodynamic drag (better streamlining) and rolling resistance (tire improvements) as well as improvements in engine and powertrain efficiency. As applied to a six-passenger 3700 lb present day vehicle powered with a 250 CID six-cylinder engine through an automatic transmission, the improvements in EPA M/H fuel economy for 1% reductions in either weight, aerodynamic drag or rolling resistance are projected to be 0.75%, 0.35% and 0.28% respectively. This is under the constraints of constant performance and equal emissions. The extent to which large changes in these parameters can be obtained resulting in significant improvements in fuel economy depends not only upon solving manufacturing and technical problems related to costs but also upon government regulations and customer acceptance in the marketplace. If large reductions in these parameters could be accomplished along with realistic improvements in engine and powertrain efficiency, significant improvements in fuel economy could be achieved.

  18. User discrimination in automotive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    The recently developed dual-view touch screens, which are announced to be installed in cars in a near future, give rise to completely new challenges in human-machine interaction. The automotive system should be able to identify if the driver or the passenger is currently interacting with the touch screen to provide a correct response to the touch. The optical devices, due to availability, acceptance by the users and multifunctional usage, approved to be the most appropriate sensing technology for driver/passenger discrimination. In this work the prototypic optical user discrimination system is implemented in the car simulator and evaluated in the laboratory environment with entirely controlled illumination. Three tests were done for this research. One of them examined if the near-infrared illumination should be switched on around the clock, the second one if there is a difference in discrimination performance between day, twilight and night conditions, and the third one examined how the intensive directional lighting influences the performance of the implemented user discrimination algorithm. Despite the high error rates, the evaluation results show that very simple computer vision algorithms are able to solve complicated user discrimination task. The average error rate of 10.42% (daytime with near-infrared illumination) is a very promising result for optical systems.

  19. Automotive Stirling Engine Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, William D.; Shaltens, Richard K.

    1997-01-01

    The development and verification of automotive Stirling engine (ASE) component and system technology is described as it evolved through two experimental engine designs: the Mod 1 and the Mod 2. Engine operation and performance and endurance test results for the Mod 1 are summarized. Mod 2 engine and component development progress is traced from the original design through hardware development, laboratory test, and vehicle installation. More than 21,000 hr of testing were accomplished, including 4800 hr with vehicles that were driven more dm 59,000 miles. Mod 2 engine dynamometer tests demonstrated that the engine system configuration had accomplished its performance goals for power (60 kW) and efficiency (38.5%) to within a few percent. Tests with the Mod 2 engine installed in a delivery van demonstrated combined metro-highway fuel economy improvements consistent with engine performance goals and the potential for low emission levels. A modified version of the Mod 2 has been identified as a manufacturable design for an ASE. As part of the ASE project, the Industry Test and Evaluation Program (ITEP), NASA Technology Utilization (TU) project, and the industry-funded Stirling Natural Gas Engine program were undertaken to transfer ASE technology to end users. The results of these technology transfer efforts are also summarized.

  20. Advanced automotive diesel assessment program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, R.; Tozzi, L.

    1983-01-01

    Cummins Engine Company completed an analytical study to identify an advanced automotive (light duty) diesel (AAD) power plant for a 3,000-pound passenger car. The study resulted in the definition of a revolutionary diesel engine with several novel features. A 3,000-pound car with this engine is predicted to give 96.3, 72.2, and 78.8 MPG in highway, city, and combined highway-city driving, respectively. This compares with current diesel powered cars yielding 41.7, 35.0, and 37.7 MPG. The time for 0-60 MPH acceleration is 13.9 sec. compared to the baseline of 15.2 sec. Four technology areas were identified as crucial in bringing this concept to fruition. They are: (1) part-load preheating, (2) positive displacement compounding, (3) spark assisted diesel combustion system, and (4) piston development for adiabatic, oilless diesel engine. Marketing and planning studies indicate that an aggressive program with significant commitment could result in a production car in 10 years from the date of commencement.

  1. Research of vehicle steering and braking system based on fuzzy decoupling control%基于模糊解耦控制的车辆转向制动系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕芹; 李晓旭; 段婷婷

    2014-01-01

    车辆转向系统和制动系统之间存在着很强的速度耦合关系,造成两个系统之间的性能相互影响,使得车辆在转向制动这一工况成了汽车最危险的工况之一。本文结合实际车辆参数建立转向系统的二自由度模型和制动系统的单车轮模型,针对车辆转向制动工况设计了模糊解耦控制器,实现了车辆的转向与制动同时控制。经验证含有模糊解耦控制的车辆转向制动系统具有很好的动态控制效果,并且有很强的鲁棒性和自适应性。%The strong velocity coupling relationships between the automotive steering and braking systems and the systems' performance of mutual influence make the vehicle steering and braking working condition become one of the most dangerous conditions. This paper established a two degree of freedom model of automobile steering systems and a single wheel braking system model based on the actual parameters of vehicle, and designed the fuzzy decoupling controller for controlling simultaneously vehicle steering and braking systems. As a result, the fuzzy decoupling controller of vehicle steering and braking systems has good dynamic control effect, and has strong robustness and adaptability.

  2. Color image digitization and analysis for drum inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rust inspection system that uses color analysis to find rust spots on drums has been developed. The system is composed of high-resolution color video equipment that permits the inspection of rust spots on the order of 0.25 cm (0.1-in.) in diameter. Because of the modular nature of the system design, the use of open systems software (X11, etc.), the inspection system can be easily integrated into other environmental restoration and waste management programs. The inspection system represents an excellent platform for the integration of other color inspection and color image processing algorithms

  3. An autonomous mobil robot to perform waste drum inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mobile robot is being developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure and create accurate, high quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance. Development work is being coordinated among several DOE, academic and commercial entities in accordance with DOE's technology transfer initiative. The prototype system was demonstrated in November of 1993. A system is now being developed for field trails at the Fernald site

  4. Effects of Community African Drumming on Generalised Anxiety in Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    David Akombo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of community music projects (CMPs), such as after-school African drumming circles, on academic performance and generalised anxiety in adolescents. Adolescents from a Junior High (7th, 8th, and 9th graders, age range from 12-14) in the State of Utah (USA) participated in the study. A one-sample t-test found a significant difference in reading scores (df(4) p=.004). A paired samples t-test found a significant relationship between the maths trait...

  5. Computational design of an automotive twist beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benki Aalae

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the automotive industry has known a remarkable development in order to satisfy the customer requirements. In this paper, we will study one of the components of the automotive which is the twist beam. The study is focused on the multicriteria design of the automotive twist beam undergoing linear elastic deformation (Hooke׳s law. Indeed, for the design of this automotive part, there are some criteria to be considered as the rigidity (stiffness and the resistance to fatigue. Those two criteria are known to be conflicting, therefore, our aim is to identify the Pareto front of this problem. To do this, we used a Normal Boundary Intersection (NBI algorithm coupling with a radial basis function (RBF metamodel in order to reduce the high calculation time needed for solving the multicriteria design problem. Otherwise, we used the free form deformation (FFD technique for the generation of the 3D shapes of the automotive part studied during the optimization process.

  6. Green competitiveness research on Chinese automotive enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhui Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: More and more executives of automobileindustry in China start to recognize the concept of green competitiveness recently. However, relatively less research attention has been devoted to the consideration of measurement. This paper aims to find empirical approach to quantify green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The connotation of green competitiveness is explored and one suite of evaluation index system has been proposed with four dimensions including environmental, resource, capability and knowledge.Design/methodology/approach: By introducing the factor analysis method, green competitiveness has been measured through an empirical analysis of 24 automotive enterprises within China.Findings: The results indicate that those elements, such as enterprise resource possession and utilization; environment, responsibility and knowledge; profitability; management efficiency, have significant effect on the green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The further analysis also unveils the advantages and disadvantages of green competitiveness for each company and the direction for improvement.Research limitations/implications: Guide regulators and managers of automobile industry to take some measures to enhance their green competitive advantage.Practical implications: Provide practical methods to measure green competitiveness for automotive enterprises.Originality/value: This paper proposes an evaluation index system of green competitiveness for automotive enterprises. The suggestions of our research will be beneficial to enterprise executives and industry regulators.

  7. T-type channels: release a brake, engage a gear

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weiss, Norbert; Laconova, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2016), s. 78-80. ISSN 1933-6950 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : gating brake * pore opening * Ca(V)3.3 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.410, year: 2014 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/19336950.2015.1106655

  8. Computational thermo-fluid analysis of a disk brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.; Kuraishi, Takashi; Tabata, Shinichiro; Takagi, Hirokazu

    2016-06-01

    We present computational thermo-fluid analysis of a disk brake, including thermo-fluid analysis of the flow around the brake and heat conduction analysis of the disk. The computational challenges include proper representation of the small-scale thermo-fluid behavior, high-resolution representation of the thermo-fluid boundary layers near the spinning solid surfaces, and bringing the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) calculated in the thermo-fluid analysis of the flow to the heat conduction analysis of the spinning disk. The disk brake model used in the analysis closely represents the actual configuration, and this adds to the computational challenges. The components of the method we have developed for computational analysis of the class of problems with these types of challenges include the Space-Time Variational Multiscale method for coupled incompressible flow and thermal transport, ST Slip Interface method for high-resolution representation of the thermo-fluid boundary layers near spinning solid surfaces, and a set of projection methods for different parts of the disk to bring the HTC calculated in the thermo-fluid analysis. With the HTC coming from the thermo-fluid analysis of the flow around the brake, we do the heat conduction analysis of the disk, from the start of the breaking until the disk spinning stops, demonstrating how the method developed works in computational analysis of this complex and challenging problem.

  9. Oxygen-Diffused Titanium as a Candidate Brake Rotor Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Titanium alloys are one of several candidate materials for the next generation of truck disk brake rotors. Despite their advantages of lightweight relative to cast iron and good strength and corrosion resistance, titanium alloys are unlikely to be satisfactory brake rotor materials unless their friction and wear behavior can be significantly improved. In this study, a surface engineering process oxygen diffusion was applied to titanium rotors and has shown very encouraging results. The oxygen diffused Ti-6Al-4V (OD-Ti) was tested on a sub-scale brake tester against a flat block of commercial brake lining material and benchmarked against several other Ti-based materials, including untreated Ti-6Al-4V, ceramic particle-reinforced Ti composites (MMCs), and a thermal-spray-coated Ti alloy. With respect to friction, the OD-Ti outperformed all other candidate materials under the imposed test conditions with the friction coefficient remaining within a desirable range of 0.35-0.50, even under the harshest conditions when the disk surface temperature reached nearly 600 C. In addition, the OD-Ti showed significantly improved wear-resistance over the non-treated one and was even better than the Ti-based composite materials.

  10. Electromechanical design and optimization of electromagnetic brake for rail vehicles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Ivo; Moravec, J.; Sedláček, J.; Ulrych, B.

    Lausanne: House EPFL Lausanne, 2005, s. 1-5. [Symposium on Advanced Electromechanical Motion Systems /6/ [0204121]. Lausanne (CH), 27.09.2005-29.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : optimization electromagnetic brake Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  11. A Laboratory Activity on the Eddy Current Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Bolivar, J. A.; Abella-Palacios, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a simple and low-cost experimental setup that can be used to study the eddy current brake, which considers the motion of a sliding magnet on an inclined conducting plane in terms of basic physical principles. We present a set of quantitative experiments performed to study the influence of the geometrical and…

  12. Non-resonant magnetic braking on JET and TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Y.; Liang, Y.; Shaing, K.C.;

    2012-01-01

    The non-resonant magnetic braking effect induced by a non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbation is investigated on JET and TEXTOR. The collisionality dependence of the torque induced by the n = 1, where n is the toroidal mode number, magnetic perturbation generated by the error field correction coil...

  13. 16 CFR 1512.5 - Requirements for braking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as determined by the equivalent ground speed specified in § 1512.18(d)(2)(vi). (2) Hand lever access. Hand lever mechanisms shall be located on the handlebars in a position that is readily accessible to... dimension between the brake hand lever and the handlebars in the plane containing the centerlines of...

  14. Analysis of the surface layer of the brake disk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švábenská, Eva; Roupcová, Pavla; Podstranská, Ivana; Petr, M.; Filip, J.; Schneeweiss, Oldřich

    Ostrava : TANGER Ltd, 2015. ISBN 978-80-87294-58-1. [METAL 2015. International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials /24./. Brno (CZ), 03.06.2015-05.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : grey cast iron * brake disk * microstructure analysis * surface layer Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  15. Braking index of isolated pulsars: open questions and ways forward

    CERN Document Server

    Hamil, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities $\\Omega$, and their time derivatives which show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. Although the exact mechanism of the spin-down is a question of debate, the commonly accepted view is that it arises either through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) from a rotating magnetized body, through emission of a relativistic particle wind, or via higher order magnetic multipole or gravitational quadrupole radiation. The calculated energy loss by a rotating pulsar is model dependent and leads to the power law $\\dot{\\Omega}$ = -K $\\Omega^{\\rm n}$ where $n$ is called the braking index. The theoretical value for braking index is $n = 1, 3, 5$ for wind, MDR, quadrupole radiation respectively. The accepted view is that pulsar braking is strongly dominated by MDR. Highly precise observations of isolated pulsars yield braking index values in the range $1 < n < 2.8$ which are consistently less than the value pred...

  16. Can Dark Matter explain the Braking Index of Neutron Stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Kouvaris, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We explore a new mechanism of slowing down the rotation of neutron stars via accretion of millicharged dark matter. We find that this mechanism yields pulsar braking indices that can be substantially smaller than the standard $n\\sim 3$ of the magnetic dipole radiation model for millicharged dark matter particles that are not excluded by existing experimental constraints thus accommodating existing observations.

  17. Wear and related characteristics of an aircraft tire during braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Wear and related characteristics of friction and temperature developed during braking of size 22 x 5.5, type aircraft tires are studied. The testing technique involved gearing the tire to a driving wheel of a ground vehicle to provide operations at constant slip ratios on asphalt, concrete, and slurry-seal surfaces. Data were obtained over the range of slip ratios generally attributed to an aircraft braking system during dry runway operations. The results show that the cumulative tire wear varies linearly with distance traveled and the wear rate increases with increasing slip ratio and is influenced by the runway-surface character. Differences in the wear rates associated with the various surfaces suggest that runways can be rated on the basis of tire wear. The results also show that the friction coefficients developed during fixed-slip-ratio operations are in good agreement with those obtained by other investigators during cyclic braking, in that the dry friction is insensitive to the tire tread temperature is shown to increase with increasing slip ratio and, at the higher ratios, to be greater during braking on asphalt and slurry seal than on concrete.

  18. Can dark matter explain the braking index of neutron stars?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, C.; Perez-Garcia, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a new mechanism of slowing down the rotation of neutron stars via accretion of millicharged dark matter. We find that this mechanism yields pulsar braking indices that can be substantially smaller than the standard n similar to 3 of the magnetic dipole radiation model for millicharged...... dark matter particles that are not excluded by existing experimental constraints thus accommodating existing observations....

  19. Chinese Enterprises Slams the Brakes on Acquisition of Overseas Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>On June 25,China Mining Association revealed that,as of the middle of June,Chinese enterprises slammed the brakes on acquisition of overseas mines.There are only 53 overseas mine acquisition cases so far this year,

  20. CSER 00-006 Storage of Plutonium Residue Containers in 55 Gallon Drums at the PFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOBBIN, K.D.

    2000-05-24

    This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) provides the required limit set and controls for safe transit and storage of these drums in the 234-5Z Building at the PFP. A mass limit of 200 g of plutonium or fissile equivalent per drum is acceptable