WorldWideScience

Sample records for automobiles by motive power

  1. Modular Analysis of Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Power Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y. D.; Zhang, Y.; Su, C. Q.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, an automobile exhaust thermoelectric power generation system is packaged into a model with its own operating principles. The inputs are the engine speed and power, and the output is the power generated by the system. The model is divided into two submodels. One is the inlet temperature submodel, and the other is the power generation submodel. An experimental data modeling method is adopted to construct the inlet temperature submodel, and a theoretical modeling method is adopted to construct the power generation submodel. After modeling, simulation is conducted under various engine operating conditions to determine the variation of the power generated by the system. Finally, the model is embedded into a Honda Insight vehicle model to explore the energy-saving effect of the system on the vehicle under Economic Commission for Europe and cyc-constant_60 driving cycles.

  2. Ignition of an automobile engine by high-peak power Nd:YAG/Cr⁴⁺:YAG laser-spark devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Nicolaie; Dascalu, Traian; Salamu, Gabriela; Dinca, Mihai; Boicea, Niculae; Birtas, Adrian

    2015-12-28

    Laser sparks that were built with high-peak power passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr(4+):YAG lasers have been used to operate a Renault automobile engine. The design of such a laser spark igniter is discussed. The Nd:YAG/Cr(4+):YAG laser delivered pulses with energy of 4 mJ and 0.8-ns duration, corresponding to pulse peak power of 5 MW. The coefficients of variability of maximum pressure (COV(Pmax)) and of indicated mean effective pressure (COV(IMEP)) and specific emissions like hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured at various engine speeds and high loads. Improved engine stability in terms of COV(Pmax) and COV(Pmax) and decreased emissions of CO and HC were obtained for the engine that was run by laser sparks in comparison with classical ignition by electrical spark plugs.

  3. Study of hydrogen-powered versus battery-powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, J.J. Jr.; Greayer, W.C.; Nichols, R.J.; Escher, W.J.D.

    1979-05-01

    A study conducted to compare the technological status and the resultant potential vehicle characteristics for hydrogen- and battery-powered automobiles that could be produced from 1985 to 2000 is documented in 3 volumes. The primary objectives of the study were: the assessments of applicable energy storage and propulsion technology for the two basic vehicle types (applied to four-passenger cars); a rigorous comparison of vehicle weight, size, and usefulness versus design range; and an investigation of the relative efficiencies of expending energy from various primary sources to power the subject vehicle. Another important objective, unique to hydrogen powered vehicles, was the assessment of the technology, logistics, and cost implications of a hydrogen production and delivery capability. This volume, Volume III, contains three major sections: the assessment of battery electric vehicle technology for energy storage and the drivetrain system; the technical and economic comparison of hydrogen- and battery-powered vehicles derived primarily from data in the previous vehicle technology assessments, with consideration of alternative energy sources; and a series of appendices that support the vehicle definitions and comparisons.

  4. Intelligent solar-powered automobile-ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K. David; Tzeng, S.-C.; Ma Weiping; Wu Mingfung

    2005-01-01

    This study adopts airflow management technology to improve the local temperature distributions in an automobile to counteract the greenhouse effect. The automobile's temperature can be reduced to almost the outside temperature before the driver or passenger gets into the vehicle. When the engine is idling, the greenhouse-control system can be activated to remove the hot air from the car. An appropriate negative pressure is maintained to prevent stuffiness and save energy. The greenhouse-control system requires electrical power when the engine is idle, and a battery cannot supply sufficient power. An auxiliary solar-power supply can save energy and reduce the greenhouse effect of sunlight, while creating a comfortable traveling environment. It ensures that the engine is not overburdened and increases its service life, conserving energy, protecting the environment and improving comfort

  5. Nuclear power and carbon dioxide free automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear energy has been developed as a major source of electric power in Canada. Electricity from nuclear energy already avoids the emission of about 100 million tonnes of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in Canada. This is a significant fraction of the 619 million tonnes of Canadian greenhouse gas emissions in 1995. However, the current scope of application of electricity to end use energy needs in Canada limits the contribution nuclear energy can make to carbon dioxide emission reduction. Nuclear energy can also contribute to carbon dioxide emissions reduction through expansion of the use of electricity to less traditional applications. Transportation, in particular contributed 165 million tonnes of carbon dioxide to the Canadian atmosphere in 1995. Canada's fleet of personal vehicles consisted of 16.9 million cars and light trucks. These vehicles were driven on average 21,000 km/year and generated 91 million tonnes of greenhouse gases expressed as a C02 equivalent. Technology to improve the efficiency of cars is under development which is expected to increase the energy efficiency from the 1995 level of about 10 litres/100 km of gasoline to under 3 litres/100km expressed as an equivalent referenced to the energy content of gasoline. The development of this technology, which may ultimately lead to the practical implementation of hydrogen as a portable source of energy for transportation is reviewed. Fuel supply life cycle greenhouse gas releases for several personal vehicle energy supply systems are then estimated. Very substantial reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are possible due to efficiency improvements and changing to less carbon intensive fuels such as natural gas. C02 emissions from on board natural gas fueled versions of hybrid electric cars would be decreased to approximately 25 million t/year from the current 91 million tonnes/year. The ultimate reduction identified is through the use of hydrogen fuel produced via electricity from CANDU power

  6. Solar Powered Automobile Interior Climate Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    There is provided a climate control system for a parked vehicle that includes a solar panel, thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers. The solar panel can serve as the sole source of electricity for the system. The system affords convenient installation and removal by including solar panels that are removably attached to the exterior of a vehicle. A connecting wire electrically connects the solar panels to a housing that is removably mounted to a partially opened window on the vehicle. The thermostatic switch, fans, and thermoelectric coolers are included within the housing. The thermostatic switch alternates the direction of the current flow through the thermoelectric coolers to selectively heat or cool the interior of the vehicle. The interior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with interior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an interior fan. Similarly, the exterior surface of the thermoelectric coolers are in contact with exterior heat sinks that have air circulated across them by an exterior fan.

  7. Trends in chassis and automobile electronics components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackenberg, Ulrich [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The rapidly-growing importance of electronics in automobile construction is in part determined by the debate on sustainability and the clear trend towards electric power trains. Another factor, however, is the decisive impact of electronics on the further development of components, e.g. for chassis. Apart from environmental protection, key motivators for component development include comfort, safety, infotainment and driver assistance. (orig.)

  8. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  9. MOTIVATIONAL LEXICON IN ANTHONY ROBBINS’ UNLIMITED POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Faidatun Naimah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the language learning process, motivation, one of psychological factors, has a great role in endorsing students to be a successful learner. Based on the issues, the choice of words that can influence the students to do the best is practically required by the teachers. So that, teacher as a motivator has a power to influence the students to take action for achieving their excellent learning, using what Anthony Robbins suggest on his book; Unlimited Power. The writer formulated the aims of this study as follow; (1 to identify the motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power from the psychological perspective, and (2 to describe how motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power take apart in the pedagogical field. This research used qualitative research to find out the data. The data analysis technique that researcher used is content analysis since they were texts in Unlimited Power. Researcher found three motivational lexicons used by Anthony Robbins in his book Unlimited Power; think, challenge, and remember. Think used as a tool to lead his readers to come to their memory, re-identify some main points, and consider about the certain thing. Challenge used to pump readers’ emotion, gave a test, and invited them to take action. Remember used as a tool to bring back a piece of information he provided before and try to keep it in readers’ mind. Anthony’s motivational lexicons in Unlimited Power also can use in the pedagogical field. Teacher can use them in the teaching-learning process as it determines the effectiveness of rewards for what students do and apparently influential factor for learning process.

  10. Determination of minimum sample size for fault diagnosis of automobile hydraulic brake system using power analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Indira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic brake in automobile engineering is considered to be one of the important components. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of such a component is very essential for safety of passengers, vehicles and to minimize the unexpected maintenance time. Vibration based machine learning approach for condition monitoring of hydraulic brake system is gaining momentum. Training and testing the classifier are two important activities in the process of feature classification. This study proposes a systematic statistical method called power analysis to find the minimum number of samples required to train the classifier with statistical stability so as to get good classification accuracy. Descriptive statistical features have been used and the more contributing features have been selected by using C4.5 decision tree algorithm. The results of power analysis have also been verified using a decision tree algorithm namely, C4.5.

  11. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals by Moringa Oleifera in Automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. Plants accumulate minerals essential for their growth from the environment alongside with heavy metals from contaminated areas.This study investigated bioaccumulation of heavy metals by Moringa oleifera in automobile workshops in three selected local government areas in Ibadan. This was done with a view to ...

  12. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals by Moringa Oleifera in Automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants accumulate minerals essential for their growth from the environment alongside with heavy metals from contaminated areas.This study investigated bioaccumulation of heavy metals by Moringa oleifera in automobile workshops in three selected local government areas in Ibadan. This was done with a view to ...

  13. Energy Optimization for a Weak Hybrid Power System of an Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Quan, Shuhai; Xie, Changjun; Tang, Xinfeng; Ran, Bin; Jiao, Yatian

    2017-11-01

    An integrated starter generator (ISG)-type hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) scheme is proposed based on the automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG). An eddy current dynamometer is used to simulate the vehicle's dynamic cycle. A weak ISG hybrid bench test system is constructed to test the 48 V output from the power supply system, which is based on engine exhaust-based heat power generation. The thermoelectric power generation-based system must ultimately be tested when integrated into the ISG weak hybrid mixed power system. The test process is divided into two steps: comprehensive simulation and vehicle-based testing. The system's dynamic process is simulated for both conventional and thermoelectric powers, and the dynamic running process comprises four stages: starting, acceleration, cruising and braking. The quantity of fuel available and battery pack energy, which are used as target vehicle energy functions for comparison with conventional systems, are simplified into a single energy target function, and the battery pack's output current is used as the control variable in the thermoelectric hybrid energy optimization model. The system's optimal battery pack output current function is resolved when its dynamic operating process is considered as part of the hybrid thermoelectric power generation system. In the experiments, the system bench is tested using conventional power and hybrid thermoelectric power for the four dynamic operation stages. The optimal battery pack curve is calculated by functional analysis. In the vehicle, a power control unit is used to control the battery pack's output current and minimize energy consumption. Data analysis shows that the fuel economy of the hybrid power system under European Driving Cycle conditions is improved by 14.7% when compared with conventional systems.

  14. Maximum Power Point Tracking with Dichotomy and Gradient Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, W.; Quan, S. H.; Xie, C. J.; Tang, X. F.; Wang, L. L.; Huang, L.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a direct-current/direct-current (DC/DC) converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is developed to down-convert the high voltage DC output from a thermoelectric generator to the lower voltage required to charge batteries. To improve the tracking accuracy and speed of the converter, a novel MPPT control scheme characterized by an aggregated dichotomy and gradient (ADG) method is proposed. In the first stage, the dichotomy algorithm is used as a fast search method to find the approximate region of the maximum power point. The gradient method is then applied for rapid and accurate tracking of the maximum power point. To validate the proposed MPPT method, a test bench composed of an automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator was constructed for harvesting the automotive exhaust heat energy. Steady-state and transient tracking experiments under five different load conditions were carried out using a DC/DC converter with the proposed ADG and with three traditional methods. The experimental results show that the ADG method can track the maximum power within 140 ms with a 1.1% error rate when the engine operates at 3300 rpm@71 NM, which is superior to the performance of the single dichotomy method, the single gradient method and the perturbation and observation method from the viewpoint of improved tracking accuracy and speed.

  15. A Hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking Method for Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Rui; Zhou, Wei; Yang, Guangyou; Quan, Shuhai

    2017-05-01

    To make full use of the maximum output power of automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG) based on Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules (TEMs), taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of existing maximum power point tracking methods, and according to the output characteristics of TEMs, a hybrid maximum power point tracking method combining perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm, quadratic interpolation and constant voltage tracking method was put forward in this paper. Firstly, it searched the maximum power point with P&O algorithms and a quadratic interpolation method, then, it forced the AETEG to work at its maximum power point with constant voltage tracking. A synchronous buck converter and controller were implemented in the electric bus of the AETEG applied in a military sports utility vehicle, and the whole system was modeled and simulated with a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Simulation results demonstrate that the maximum output power of the AETEG based on the proposed hybrid method is increased by about 3.0% and 3.7% compared with that using only the P&O algorithm and the quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The shorter tracking time is only 1.4 s, which is reduced by half compared with that of the P&O algorithm and quadratic interpolation method, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the tracked maximum power is approximately equal to the real value using the proposed hybrid method,and it can preferentially deal with the voltage fluctuation of the AETEG with only P&O algorithm, and resolve the issue that its working point can barely be adjusted only with constant voltage tracking when the operation conditions change.

  16. Solar-Powered Cooler and Heater for an Automobile Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    The apparatus would include a solar photovoltaic panel mounted on the roof and a panellike assembly mounted in a window opening. The window-mounted assembly would include a stack of thermoelectric devices sandwiched between two heat sinks. A fan would circulate interior air over one heat sink. Another fan would circulate exterior air over the other heat sink. The fans and the thermoelectric devices would be powered by the solar photovoltaic panel. By means of a double-pole, double-throw switch, the panel voltage fed to the thermoelectric stack would be set to the desired polarity: For cooling operation, the chosen polarity would be one in which the thermoelectric devices transport heat from the inside heat sink to the outside one; for heating operation, the opposite polarity would be chosen. Because thermoelectric devices are more efficient in heating than in cooling, this apparatus would be more effective as a heater than as a cooler. However, if the apparatus were to include means to circulate air between the outside and the inside without opening the windows, then its effectiveness as a cooler in a hot, sunny location would be increased.

  17. The Spatial Power Motivation Scale: a semi-implicit measure of situational power motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoel, Christiane; Zimmer, Katharina; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new nonverbal and unobtrusive measure to assess power motive activation, the Spatial Power Motivation Scale (SPMS). The unique features of this instrument are that it is (a) very simple and economical, (b) reliable and valid, and (c) sensitive to situational changes. Study 1 demonstrates the instrument's convergent and discriminant validity with explicit measures. Study 2 demonstrates the instrument's responsiveness to situational power motive salience: anticipating and winning competition versus losing competition and watching television. Studies 3 and 4 demonstrate that thoughts of competition result in higher power motivation specifically for individuals with a high dispositional power motive.

  18. Wind power demonstration and siting problems. [for recharging electrically driven automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergey, K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies on a small windmill to provide overnight charging for an electrically driven car are reported. The auxiliary generator provides power for heating and cooling the vehicle which runs for 25 miles on battery power alone, and for 50 miles with the onboard charger operating. The blades for this windmill have a diameter of 12 feet and are coupled through to a conventional automobile alternator so that they are able to completely recharge car batteries in 8 hours. Optimization of a windmill/storage system requires detailed wind velocity information which permits rational sitting of wind power system stations.

  19. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  20. Employee motivation: a powerful new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohria, Nitin; Groysberg, Boris; Lee, Linda-Eling

    2008-01-01

    Motivating employees begins with recognizing that to do their best work, people must be in an environment that meets their basic emotional drives to acquire, bond, comprehend, and defend. So say Nohria and Groysberg, of Harvard Business School, and Lee, of the Center for Research on Corporate Performance. Using the results of surveys they conducted with employees at a wide range of Fortune 500 and other companies, they developed a model for how to increase workplace motivation dramatically. The authors identify the organizational levers that companies and frontline managers have at their disposal as they try to meet workers' deep needs. Reward systems that truly value good performance fulfill the drive to acquire. The drive to bond is best met by a culture that promotes collaboration and openness. Jobs that are designed to be meaningful and challenging meet the need to comprehend. Processes for performance management and resource allocation that are fair, trustworthy, and transparent address the drive to defend. Equipped with real-world company examples, the authors articulate how to apply these levers in productive ways. That application should not be selective, they argue, because a holistic approach gets you more than a piecemeal one. By using all four levers simultaneously, and thereby tackling all four drives, organizations can improve motivation levels by leaps and bounds. For example, a company that falls in the 50th percentile on employee motivation improves only to the 56th by boosting performance on one drive, but way up to the 88th percentile by doing better on all four drives. That's a powerful gain in competitive advantage that any business would relish.

  1. Power Output Stability Research for Harvesting Automobile Exhaust Energy with Heat Capacity Material as Intermediate Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Longjie; He, Tianming; Mei, Binyu; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Zongsong; Tan, Gangfeng

    2018-01-01

    Automobile exhaust energy thermoelectric utilization can promote energy-saving and emission-reduction. Unexpected urban traffic conditions lead to the hot-end temperature instability of the exhaust pipe-mounted thermoelectric generator (TEG), and influence the TEG power generation efficiency. The heat conduction oil circulation located at the hot-end could smooth the temperature fluctuation, at the expense of larger system size and additional energy supply. This research improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability by installing solid heat capacity material (SHCM) to the area between the outer wall of the exhaust pipe and the TEG, which has the merits of simple structure, light weight and no additional energy consumption. The exhaust temperature and flow rate characteristics with various driving conditions are firstly studied for the target engine. Then the convective heat transfer models of SHCM's hot-end and thermoelectric material's cold-end are established. Meanwhile, SHCM thermal properties' effects on the amplitude and response speed of the TEG hot-end temperature are studied. The candidate SHCM with the characteristics of low thermal resistance and high heat capacity is determined. And the heat transfer model going through from TEG's hot-end to the cold-end is established. The results show that the SHCM significantly improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability but slightly reduces the average power output. When the engine working conditions change a lot, the SHCM's improvement on the TEG hot-end temperature stability is more significant, but the reduction of the average power output becomes more remarkable.

  2. 19 CFR 123.51 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States. (a) General... samples by automobile through Canada to another place in the United States without displaying the samples...

  3. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. (a) General... sealed samples in his automobile without further sealing in the United States, upon compliance with this...

  4. Automobile Accidents Attended by Mobile Emergency Care Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Virgínia Gomes Barros

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Automobile accidents are increasing every day and are becoming a serious public health problem due to the high morbidity and mortality rate. The goal of the current study was to characterise the traffic accidents attended by the Mobile Emergency Care Service (MECS in Ibiara, PB. Methods: This exploratory, descriptive, documentary study adopted a quantitative approach and analysis of data. The population consisted of all victims of traffic accidents attended by MECS in the city of Ibiara, PB, from June 2015 to June 2016. The following variables were studied: age, gender, time and day of the week the accident occurred, nature of the incident, substance ingested by the victim, wearing personal protective equipment (PPE or not, the anatomical lesions on the victim and the body regions hit during the accident. Results: The sample consisted of 49 accident victims, and the majority (81.6% were male, predominately 30 to 59 years. Events occurring at night (63.3% and during the week (65.3% predominated. The most frequent type of accident was motorcycle fall (71.4%, with almost half having consumed alcohol (46.9% and most not wearing PPE (77.6%. The regions of the body most affected were the lower limbs (67.3% and upper limbs (53.1%. Conclusion: The main factor/cause of these accidents was due to imprudence and violation of traffic laws, highlighting the need to invest in traffic education policies, to direct campaigns for the prevention of traffic accidents, as well as expand the surveillance of traffic laws by authorities.

  5. Evaluation of malodor for automobile air conditioner evaporator by using laboratory-scale test cooling bench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Sun Hwa; Jung, Young Rim; Kim, Man Goo

    2008-09-12

    As one of the measures to improve the environment in an automobile, malodor caused by the automobile air-conditioning system evaporator was evaluated and analyzed using laboratory-scale test cooling bench. The odor was simulated with an evaporator test cooling bench equipped with an airflow controller, air temperature and relative humidity controller. To simulate the same odor characteristics that occur from automobiles, one previously used automobile air conditioner evaporator associated with unpleasant odors was selected. The odor was evaluated by trained panels and collected with aluminum polyester bags. Collected samples were analyzed by thermal desorption into a cryotrap and subsequent gas chromatographic separation, followed by simultaneous olfactometry, flame ionization detector and identified by atomic emission detection and mass spectrometry. Compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, and organic acids were identified as responsible odor-active compounds. Gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/olfactometry combined sensory method with instrumental analysis was very effective as an odor evaluation method in an automobile air-conditioning system evaporator.

  6. Successful innovation by motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Koudelková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is one of the most important factors for business growth. Human capital plays a significant role in the successful process of innovation. This article deals with employee motivation in the innovation process and the main scientific aim of this study is to present results of research that was undertaken in the Czech Republic at the beginning of 2013. Questionnaires were used for the survey and statistical analyses such as Chi square test or Hierarchical cluster analysis were used for data processing. This study also provides a theoretical and practical overview of business innovation in the Czech Republic.

  7. Regulation on power efficiency in the automobile; Regulacion sobre eficiencia energetica en el automovil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado Susano, Armando; Romero de Vivar Uvaldo, Pascual [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this article it is presented a brief analysis of one of the regulations on the yield of fuel consumption of the light vehicles that promoted substantial changes in the Mexican automotive industry, the decree denominated PREMCE (Average of minimum fuel yield by company), as well as some international experiences relative to the subject. It is also indicated the evolution, in the last years, of the average yields of fuel consumption (Km/L) in Mexico in the new automobiles and the more important technological factors that affect their energy efficiency. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta un breve analisis de una de las regulaciones sobre el rendimiento de consumo de combustible de los vehiculos ligeros que promovio cambios sustanciales en la industria automotriz mexicana, el decreto denominado Premce (Promedio de rendimiento minimo de combustible por empresa), asi como algunas experiencias internacionales relativas al tema. Se senala tambien la evolucion, en los ultimos anos, de los rendimientos promedio de consumo de combustible (Km/L) en Mexico en los automoviles nuevos y los factores tecnologicos mas importantes que influyen en su eficiencia energetica.

  8. Assessment of soil-pollution by slag from an automobile battery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of soil-pollution by slag from an automobile battery manufacturing plant in Nigeria. ... Samples were analyzed for lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel using standard analytical methods. Lead level in soil ranged from 243 to 126000 mg/kg on the premises of the manufacturing plant with about 98% of all soil ...

  9. Assessment of soil-pollution by slag from an automobile battery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    This study assessed heavy metals pollution of soil by slag from an automobile battery manufacturing plant in Nigeria to ascertain the potential danger they pose on the environment. 84 soil samples were randomly collected at 0 - 15 cm and 15 - 30 cm depths from the premises of the plant and an uncontaminated site as ...

  10. Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Ane; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    . An example is to use the BMI-curve as a tool to inform about the overweight, and to use it with the spirit of motivational interviewing for evoking the child’s own concern, as illustrated in the following quote: “I show the BMI-curve and the dot where the child is placed on the curve. The goal is to make......Title: Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses: Spirit, Techniques, and Dilemmas in the Prevention of Child Obesity Introduction : School nurses play a central role in school-based, preventive health services in Denmark (National Board of Health, 2011), and they may play an important role...... a prevention strategy targeting children with a high risk of obesity with an intervention conducted by school nurses using motivational interviewing.Motivational interviewing is a counselling method to bring about behavioural change (Miller and Rollnick 1995). Effect has been documented for a range of problem...

  11. Influence of particulate trap oxidizers on emission of mutagenic compounds by diesel automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, R E; Devillez, G; Smith, L R

    1989-06-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are known to contain mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. The aim of this study was to determine whether, and to what extent, catalytic particulate trap oxidizers on light-duty diesel engines may reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic chemicals into the environment. Exhaust particles were collected from Mercedes Benz and Volkswagen diesel automobiles, equipped with or without the manufacturer's exhaust traps, while running on a chassis dynamometer under specified load conditions. Exhaust particles were collected from a dilution tunnel onto 20" X 20" Teflon-coated fiberglass filters. Mutagenesis tests of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the particles were conducted using the Ames Salmonella bacterial test system. The mutation rate was calculated in terms of histidine revertants per mile of travel during a set of standard test cycles. With both vehicles the traps produced an 87-92% reduction in the total amount of particulate material collected by the filters. There was no significant change in the specific mutagenic activity (revertants per microgram of DCM particle extract) with or without the traps. These studies support the notion that installation of exhaust traps which reduce particulate emission on diesel-powered vehicles will also reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic and carcinogenic materials into the environment.

  12. Caring Cooperators and Powerful Punishers: Differential Effects of Induced Care and Power Motivation on Different Types of Economic Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chierchia, G; Lesemann, F H Parianen; Snower, D; Vogel, M; Singer, T

    2017-09-11

    Standard economic theory postulates that decisions are driven by stable context-insensitive preferences, while motivation psychology suggests they are driven by distinct context-sensitive motives with distinct evolutionary goals and characteristic psycho-physiological and behavioral patterns. To link these fields and test how distinct motives could differentially predict different types of economic decisions, we experimentally induced participants with either a Care or a Power motive, before having them take part in a suite of classic game theoretical paradigms involving monetary exchange. We show that the Care induction alone raised scores on a latent factor of cooperation-related behaviors, relative to a control condition, while, relative to Care, Power raised scores on a punishment-related factor. These findings argue against context-insensitive stable preferences and theories of strong reciprocity and in favor of a motive-based approach to economic decision making: Care and Power motivation have a dissociable fingerprint in shaping either cooperative or punishment behaviors.

  13. Voice control in automobiles; Sprachbedienung im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, D.; Sitter, W. [Siemens VDO Automotive AG (Germany). Div. Infotainment Solutions; Kaemmerer, B. [Siemens Corporate Technology (Germany). Fachzentrum Professional Speech Processing

    2006-06-15

    Voice control simplifies handling the growing number of assistance, communication and convenience systems in automobiles. Siemens VDO Automotive have used the company's comprehensive know-how in the field of voice and communications machines from other sectors - particularly the telecommunications sector - to develop a voice control system for automobiles. It is distinguished by its intelligent architecture with high performance and extremely user-friendly features. (orig.)

  14. Physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from coal-fired power plant, automobile and ship engine and charcoal kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwajin

    2015-04-01

    Similarities and differences in physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plant, charcoal kiln, automobile and ship engine were major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physico-chemical analysis. Light absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure and composition. From coal-fired power plant, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that the complete combustion was occurred releasing carbonaceous species out at high temperature (1200-1300 °C). Both automobile and ship exhausts from diesel combustions show typical features of soot: concentric circles comprised of closely-packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO) combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing different morphology of particles other than soot, e.g., spherical shape of char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Even for the soot aggregates, particles from HFO burning have different chemical compositions; carbon is dominated but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na(1%), and Mg(1%) are contained, respectively which were not found from particles of automobile emission. This indicates that chemical compositions and burning conditions are significant to determine the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass burning, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystallite structure are observed and they are generally formed by the condensation of low volatile species at low

  15. FATIGUE ANALYSIS OF AN AUTOMOBILE REAR AXLE BY USING FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. İhsan KARAMANGİL

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, stress analysis of a native automobile axle exposed to wheel loads is performed and the location of maximum stresses occurring on the axle is determined. Then, it is controlled whether these stresses exceed the limit values or not. In addition, fatigue life of the axle is calculated under selected loads by using finite element method based fatigue analysis. It is shown that the most critical locations on the axle are the regions near to chassis connection points.

  16. Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  17. [Team motivation and motivational strategies adopted by nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Felipa Daiana; Andrade, Marta Francisca da Conceição; Andrade, Joseilze Santos de; Vieira, Maria Jésia; Pimentel, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative study held in an emergency hospital in Aracaju-SE, which aimed to know the perception of nurses about what is a motivated nursing team, to identify possible motivational policies used by them and if they are consistent with the policies proposed by Frederick Herzberg in his theory. Of the 20 nurses participants, the most understood the motivation as a set of techniques possible to shape the behavior of the individual at work, linking it to extrinsic factors and 60% did not consider his team motivated. The types of motivational policies that usually apply realized that these correspond to intrinsic factors aimed at self recovery and self realization of individuals in the tasks running.

  18. Motivation of medical students: selection by motivation or motivation by selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2016-01-29

    Medical schools try to implement selection procedures that will allow them to select the most motivated students for their programs. Though there is a general feeling that selection stimulates student motivation, conclusive evidence for this is lacking. The current study aims to use the perspective of Self-determination Theory (SDT) of motivation as a lens to examine how medical students' motivation differs in relation to different selection procedures. The hypotheses were that 1) selected students report higher strength and autonomous motivation than non-selected students, and 2) recently selected students report higher strength and autonomous motivation than non-selected students and students who were selected longer ago. First- (Y1) and fourth-year (Y4) medical students in the six-year regular programme and first-year students in the four-year graduate entry programme (GE) completed questionnaires measuring motivation strength and type (autonomous-AM, controlled-CM). Scores were compared between students admitted based on selection, lottery or top pre-university GPA (top GPA) using ANCOVAs. Selected students' answers on open-ended questions were analysed using inductive thematic analysis to identify reasons for changes in motivation. The response rate was 61.4 % (n = 357). Selected students (Y1, Y4 and GE) reported a significantly higher strength of motivation than non-selected students (Y1 and Y4 lottery and top GPA) (p students (Y1 and GE) reported significantly higher strength (p students (lottery and top GPA) and Y4 students who were selected three years ago. Students described that being selected enhanced their motivation as they felt autonomous, competent and that they belonged to a special group. These reported reasons are in alignment with the basic psychological needs described by Self-Determination Theory as important in enhancing autonomous motivation. A comprehensive selection procedure, compared to less demanding admission procedures, does

  19. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation of...

  20. Achievement motivation revisited : New longitudinal data to demonstrate its predictive power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hustinx, P.W.J.; Kuyper, H.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2009-01-01

    During recent decades, the classical one-dimensional concept of achievement motivation has become less popular among motivation researchers. This study aims to revive the concept by demonstrating its predictive power using longitudinal data from two cohort samples, each with 20,000 Dutch secondary

  1. ASSESSMENT OF MOTIVATION BY ENTROPY

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeusz G³owacki

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is inseparable from human work. It is also one of the five most important elements of the management process. The ability to determine the level of motivation would therefore be very useful in the work of every manager. This paper is an attempt to quantify motivation and evaluate its size, using the concept of entropy. The main reason to try defining a method of measuring the amount of motivation is to improve the management techniques of companies.

  2. The impact of explicit and implicit power motivation on educational choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliszewski Norbert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of three studies was to examine the differences between business majors and non-business majors, in their level of implicit (measured by an Implicit Association Test [IAT], Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwarz, 1998 and explicit power motivation (measured by Power Motivation and Helping Power Motivation scales, Frieze & Boneva, 2001.It was predicted that there are no differences between these two groups in the general (implicit level of power motivation, but that differences exist in the way it is explicitly expressed: through desire for leadership and prominence vs. desire for helping. Results of Study 1 indicated that business majors (management, N=79 declared a higher leadership motive and a lower helping motive than non-business majors (history, psychology, linguistics, N=62.Study 2 addressed question whether the above differences in power motivation stem from socialization at the university level or from pre-selection. The relationship between high school students’ (N=134 academic major preferences and their power motivation was tested. It was found that the more they were business-oriented, the higher their scores were on leadership, and lower on helping scales. In Study 3, business majors (economics, N=75 and non-business majors (psychology, N=82 completed the same questionnaire as participants in previous studies, as well as performed the IAT. Non-business majors declared stronger explicit helping motive, while business majors expressed stronger prominence and leadership motives. Furthermore, for non-business majors, IAT results could be predicted by their helping score. Implications and possible limitations of the presented results are discussed.

  3. Motivation and the Power of Not Giving Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Motivation and the Power of Not Giving Up KidsHealth / ...

  4. Automobile dependence: The irresistible force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenworthy, J.; Newman, P. [Murdoch Univ., WA (Australia). Inst. for Science and Technology Policy

    1993-08-01

    The proposition by Charles Lave that the automobile is `unstoppable`, an irresistible force` and that transit has `lost the battle` in the US and is losing it in Europe, is examined in this paper. It also examines Lave`s proposition that, despite this power of the automobile, car use in the US will probably plateau because of saturation in car ownership, and therefore it may be possible to expand the US highway network without new roads immediately filling up, as they have done until now. The paper presents 1990/91 data on private and public transport for US, Australian, European and Asian cities and updates previously published data. The update to 1990 is attempting to see the extent to which these patterns are continuing or changing in different cities. Overall the paper finds that although automobile dependence is a powerful force, it is not `irresistible` or `unstoppable` and it is certainly not an inevitable outcome of growing wealth. (author). 7 tabs., 17 figs., refs.

  5. Current status of photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, window films, and sunglasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutawa, Fahad; Vandal, Robert; Wang, Steven Q; Lim, Henry W

    2013-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has known adverse effects on the skin and eyes. Practitioners are becoming more aware of the importance of outdoor photoprotection. However, little attention is directed to the exposure of the skin and eyes to UVR through the window glass or sunglasses. The amount of ultraviolet transmission through glass depends mainly on the type of the glass. All types of commercial and automobile glass block the majority of ultraviolet-B; however, the degree of ultraviolet-A transmission depends on the type of glass. Laminated glass offers better UVA protection than tempered glass; new safety regulations for automobiles may result in increased use of laminated glass for side windows. Window films can be applied to glass to increase UVR protection. Sunglasses need to be compliant with one of the national standards; a wraparound style or side shields offer the best protection. Increased understanding by practitioners on the transmission of UVR through glass, window films, and sunglasses would allow them to better educate the public and to better manage photosensitive patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  7. Democritus and the motive power of fire

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud, Jacques; Chusseau, Laurent; Philippe, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    57 pages; The present work is a translation from french to english of our previous \\g{Démocrite et la puissance motrice du feu}, amended on a number of respects. It is mainly of historical and pedagogical interest. We suggest that the concepts introduced in the ancien Greece by Anaximander (flat earth) and Democritus (corpuscles moving in vacuum) allow us to obtain through qualitative observations and plausible generalizations the maximum efficiency and work of heat engines, results that were...

  8. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozomata David AHMED

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, opening of any door will disengage the device and the engine will stop. To restart the engine, the doors must be closed and the codes rendered sequentially-in this case the codes are 1974.

  9. Okoliš i automobil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Constant increase of the number of automobiles causes demand for individual materials to get on the rise, thus giving an impulse to the development of recycling logistics. Used automobiles get disassembled and individual parts which can be used as raw materials or additives get recycled. Automobile tires can be reclaimed or vulcanized. In July 1978 the environmental-friendly "Blauer Engel" or "Blue Angel" symbol was first introduced for reclaimed tires. Later, emblems were introduced for other recycled automobile pans. The awarding of the emblem is being controlled and approved by authorized institutes, because the emblem rightfully designates traffic safety.

  10. Proactivity despite discouraging supervisors: The powerful role of prosocial motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, R David; Patil, Shefali V

    2018-03-26

    Although considerable research demonstrates that employees are unlikely to be proactive when they view their supervisors as discouraging this type of behavior, we challenge the assumption that this is true for all employees. Drawing on motivated information processing theory, we argue that prosocial motivation can spark employees to be proactive even when supervisors are perceived as discouraging. Specifically, prosocial motivation may weaken the negative relationship between perceived discouraging supervisor behaviors and proactivity by driving employees to bring about change to impact coworkers or the organization. Because they are less focused on self-interest and more focused on benefitting others, prosocially motivated employees are able to maintain their reason-to (felt responsibility for change) and can-do (efficacy to be proactive) motivation even when supervisors do not welcome proactivity. We test our hypotheses across three studies, using multisource data from employees and supervisors in two organizations (Studies 1a and 1b), and lagged data from employees working in a range of industries (Study 2). By identifying the mechanisms driving prosocially motivated employees to be proactive despite having supervisors who are perceived to be discouraging, we offer novel theoretical and practical insights regarding the effects of context on proactivity at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Own power: Motives of having electricity without the energy company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenheer, Jorna; Nooij, Michiel de; Sheikh, Omer

    2011-01-01

    New technologies will enable households to generate an increasing amount of their own electricity. Intentions to generate own power are a preliminary step towards actual behavior. Because own generation is still very limited and the behavior of early adopters may not be representative for the complete population, our study focuses on intentions rather than actual behavior. A consumer survey among 2047 Dutch households reveals that environmental concerns are the most important driver of a household's intention to generate its own power. Affinity with technology and energy and the reputation of electricity companies are also significant drivers, but financial factors and power outages are not. About 40% of Dutch households have an intention to generate their own power, with an overrepresentation of young households. This group falls apart in two sub segments; for the 'generating savers' (21%) a high intention to generate own power coincides with a high intention to save energy, whereas generating users (18%) combine a high intention to generate own power with a low intention to save energy. - Highlights: → A consumer survey studies household intentions to generate own power. → Environmental concerns are the most important motive for generating own power. → Other drivers are affinity with technology and reputation of electricity companies. → About 40% of Dutch households feel a need to generate their own electricity.

  12. The challenges of automobile-dependent urban transport strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental aims of sustainable urban development and the pro-automobile oriented economic development are on a collision course. It is obvious that automobile-dependent urban development is under heavy/powerful influence of the automobile lobby (automobile and oil industries, along with construction. In this domain famous land-use-transportation studies (or ‘grand transportation studies’ are, unfortunately, still prevailing - a vicious circle of self-fulfilling prophecy of congestion, road building, sprawl, congestion and more road building. Until recently, it was commonly thought that investment in public transport was not economically sustainable and that focusing on the development of the automobile industry and financing the construction of roadways stimulated economic growth. In this paper we clearly show that automobile industry is now overcapitalized, less profitable than many other industries (and may become even less profitable in the future, that transport market is characterized with huge distortions (more than a third of motor-vehicle use can be explained by underpriced driving, while new road investment does not have a major impact on economic growth (especially in a region with an already well-developed infrastructure, and that pro-automobile transport strategy inexorably incurs harmful global, regional and local ecological consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  13. Magnified Bacteria Powerful Motivator for Hand Hygiene Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ashley

    2016-08-01

    Infection prevention specialists at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit have found that showing healthcare workers magnified pictures of bacteria found ontheir hands and in their surrounding units can be a powerful motivator for improved hand hygiene compliance. When tested in four units during a one-month period, the intervention boosted hand hygiene compliance by an average of 24%. Investigators note that to be successful, the intervention must be paired with an effective compliance monitoring program. For the study, investigators visited each unit twice per week, during which they would swab various items as well as employees' hands using and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) meter, a hand-held device that measures living organisms. During each unit visit, infection prevention specialists would show unit personnel pictures from a compilation of 12 magnified images of bacteria that had been lifted from the unit. This was to demonstrate what the bacteria would look like under a microscope. The unsavory pictures produced immediate increases in had hygiene compliance, and prompted healthcare workers to see who could produce the best ATP meter readings on subsequent infection prevention specialist visits.

  14. Sexual overperception: power, mating motives, and biases in social judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstman, Jonathan W; Maner, Jon K

    2011-02-01

    Results from 4 experiments suggest that power motivates heightened perceptions and expectations of sexual interest from subordinates. Having power over a member of the opposite sex activated sexual concepts that persisted across a temporal delay, indicating the activation of a mating goal (Study 1). Having power increased participants' expectations of sexual interest from a subordinate (Study 2) but only when a mating goal was attainable (i.e., when the subordinate was romantically available; Study 3). In a face-to-face interaction between 2 participants, power heightened perceptions of sexual interest and sexualized behavior among participants with chronically active mating goals (i.e., sexually unrestricted individuals; Study 4). Tests of mediation demonstrated that sexual overperception mediated power's effect on sexually tinged behavior. Through its capacity to induce goal pursuit, power can activate mating goals that sexualize interactions between men and women. This research demonstrates one route through which power might lead to sexual harassment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The role of the dorsoanterior striatum in implicit motivation: The case of the need for power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver C Schultheiss

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Implicit motives like the need for power (nPower scale affective responses to need-specific rewards or punishments and thereby influence activity in motivational-brain structures. In this paper, we review evidence specifically supporting a role of the striatum in nPower. Individual differences in nPower predict (a enhanced implicit learning accuracy, but not speed, on serial-response tasks that are reinforced by power-related incentives (e.g., winning or losing a contest; dominant or submissive emotional expressions in behavioral studies and (b activation of the anterior caudate in response to dominant emotional expressions in brain imaging research. We interpret these findings on the basis of Hikosaka, Nakamura, Sakai, and Nakahara's (2002; Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 12(2, 217-222 model of central mechanisms of motor skill learning. The model assigns a critical role to the dorsoanterior striatum in dopamine-driven learning of spatial stimulus sequences. Based on this model, we suggest that the dorsoanterior striatum is the locus of nPower-dependent reinforcement. However, given the centrality of this structure in a wide range of motivational pursuits, we also propose that activity in the dorsoanterior striatum may not only reflect individual differences in nPower, but also in other implicit motives, like the need for achievement or the need for affiliation, provided that the proper incentives for these motives are present during reinforcement learning. We discuss evidence in support of such a general role of the dorsoanterior striatum in implicit motivation.

  16. Reflections on the motive power of fire and other papers on the second law of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carnot, Sadi

    2005-01-01

    Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire,"" along with other papers in this volume, laid the foundation of modern thermodynamics. Highly readable, ""Reflections"" contains no arguments that depend on calculus, consisting mostly of statements couched in exact language. It represents a tribute to Carnot's capacity to generalize, and to see fundamental processes at work in complex mechanisms.""Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire"" examines the relation between heat and the work done by heat in high- and low-pressure steam engines, air-engines, and an internal combustion machine. Carnot establi

  17. Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ATMQ, APT and ARS were subjected to face validation by five experts from the University, Technical Colleges and the Automobile Industry. The ATMQ was trial tested on students of Government Technical College Minna and Automobile Supervisors in automobile companies in Minna to establish its reliability. Cronbach ...

  18. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Automobile Exhaust by Means of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    1979-01-01

    A chromatographic method has been developed and applied to the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter in automobile exhaust, in petrols, and in crankcase oils. The PAHs were purified from other organic compounds by thin-layer chromatography, separated by high......-performance liquid chromatography, and measured by means of on-line fluorescence detection. The identities of the PAHs were verified by comparing the emission spectra obtained by a stop-flow technique with those of standard PAHs...

  19. Treatment of an automobile effluent from heavy metals contamination by an eco-friendly montmorillonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovo G. Akpomie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Unmodified montmorillonite clay was utilized as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from a contaminated automobile effluent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the adsorbent. Batch sorption experiments were performed at an optimum effluent pH of 6.5, adsorbent dose of 0.1 g, particle size of 100 μm and equilibrium contact time of 180 min. Thermodynamic analysis was also conducted. Equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich models. A heterogeneous surface of the adsorbent was indicated by the Freundlich model. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity of the montmorillonite for metals was found in the following order: Zn (5.7 mg/g > Cu (1.58 mg/g > Mn (0.59 mg/g > Cd (0.33 mg/g > Pb (0.10 mg/g ≡ Ni (0.10 mg/g. This was directly related to the concentration of the metal ions in solution. The pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intraparticle diffusion and liquid film diffusion models were applied for kinetic analysis. The mechanism of sorption was found to be dominated by the film diffusion mechanism. The results of this study revealed the potential of the montmorillonite for treatment of heavy metal contaminated effluents.

  20. Plant pollution from lead produced by automobile exhaust system near certain highways of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, H.R.; Kalbasi, M.; Hajrasuliha, Sh.

    2001-01-01

    Plants polluted with Pb produced by automobiles along the roads and highways have extensively been reported all over the world. It is the most important source of pollution in the environment. This research was carried out to determine the polluting degree of plants along the highways such as: Rasht-Anzaly, Kelachay-Ramsar, Tehran-Karaj, and Isfahan-Tehran. At each arbitrary point, a transect 100 meters long perpendicular to the highway was selected for sampling. Along each transect, plants were sampled at 15 cm above the ground, in different distances from the highway. Samples were transported to the laboratory and analyzed by a standard method. The average concentration of total Pb determined in Anzali, Ramsar, Karaj and Delijan (east and west of the road) areas respectively were 114.5, 58.3, 260.2, 75.1 and microgram per gram dry plant weight. Total Pb content in plants along the roads were high and exponentially decreasing with distance from the roadside. Pb concentration in plants were higher than threshold of Standard, so the risk of entrain g of this poisonous element in nutrition system along the roads is very considerable. The plants were polluted from medium degree up to a very high degree. The rate of pollution in plant samples is very high in Karaj area, high in Anzali area, and medium in Ramsar and Delijan areas. Plant pollution was directly related to the traffic volume in road

  1. Microscopic Model of Automobile Lane-changing Virtual Desire Trajectory by Spline Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Pei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of microscopic traffic simulation models, they have increasingly become an important tool for transport system analysis and management, which assist the traffic engineer to investigate and evaluate the performance of transport network systems. Lane-changing model is a vital component in any traffic simulation model, which could improve road capacity and reduce vehicles delay so as to reduce the likelihood of congestion occurrence. Therefore, this paper addresses the virtual desire trajectory, a vital part to investigate the behaviour divided into four phases. Based on the boundary conditions, β-spline curves and the corresponding reverse algorithm are introduced firstly. Thus, the relation between the velocity and length of lane-changing is constructed, restricted by the curvature, steering velocity and driving behaviour. Then the virtual desire trajectory curves are presented by Matlab and the error analysis results prove that this proposed description model has higher precision in automobile lane-changing process reconstruction, compared with the surveyed result. KEY WORDS: traffic simulation, lane-changing model, virtual desire trajectory, β-spline curves, driving behaviour

  2. Dissolution kinetics of Pd and Pt from automobile catalysts by naturally occurring complexing agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebek, O.; Mihaljevič, M.; Strnad, L.; Ettler, V.; Ježek, J.; Štědrý, R.; Drahota, P.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Adamec, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 198, December (2011), s. 331-339 ISSN 0304-3894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : automobile catalyst * Platinum group elements * mobilisation * leaching * kinetic Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 4.173, year: 2011

  3. Yield of maize ( Manoma spp) affected by automobile oil waste and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... houses, farm lands, and usable water bodies) are important for protecting the soil resources for agricultural purposes, and to ensuring environmental sanity and sustainability. Keywords: Automobile oil wastes, phytotoxicity, soil amendment, poly aromatic carbons. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(11), 1250-1256 ...

  4. Separation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from automobile shredder residue (ASR) by froth flotation with ozonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa; Kurose, Keisuke; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop froth flotation to separate polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from automobile shredder residue (ASR) plastic mixtures of variable composition. Some polymers in ASR polymer mixtures have similar density and hydrophobicity with PVC and thus selective flotation of PVC from ASR polymer mixtures cannot be achieved. The present study focused on the surface modification of PVC with ozonation, and then the modified PVC can be separated from other polymers by the following froth flotation. The results of this study indicate that the selective recovery of PVC from real ASR polyethylene tetra pethelate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polybutyl methacralate (PBMA), ethyl acrylate (EA), polycarbonate (PC) and rubber mixtures can be accomplished in a three-step process involving a gravity separation, ozonation and froth flotation. The rubber was removed from other heavy ASR (PVC, PET, PMMA, PBMA, EA and PC) polymers by froth flotation without mixing. It was found that ozonation process produced the desired difference in contact angle required (from 89.5 to 73.0 o ) for separation of PVC from other heavy ASR polymers, whereas the contact angles of other polymers was slightly decreased. The most of the load ASR, i.e. about 72.4% is floated away and 27.6% was settled down. The highest component 96.7% of PVC was recovered in the settled fraction. As a result of this research effort, the surface modification of PVC with ozonation can be efficiently useful to separate the PVC from other similar density ASR mixed polymers

  5. Recycling of a fine, heavy fluff automobile shredder residue by density and differential fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, M R; Menéndez, M; Muñiz, H; Torno, S

    2015-09-01

    A compilation of the physical properties of materials which might typically occur in automobile shredder residue and an analysis of their suitability for the separation of materials in fine (<15mm) heavy fluff ASR (fhf-ASR) is presented. Differences in density and resistance to crushing of fhf-ASR materials were identified as potentially the most suitable low cost, technologically simple means for the separating this waste into its three principal components - metals, minerals (glass/stones) and organics (plastics). Results presented of laboratory scale tests demonstrate that fhf-ASR can in large part be separated into three principal components. Tests were conducted with 0.63-2.0mm and 2-10mm fractions. Recovery of plastics by density separations were conducted with water only jigs for the 2-10mm fraction and shaker tables for the 0.63-2mm fraction. Comparisons are presented of the separations of glass and stones from metals obtained by linear screening and vibratory screening of roller mill and impact mill crushing products of the high density 2-10mm fraction. Equipment used for these tests are of a laboratory or demonstrative scale. It is reasonable to anticipate that industrial scale processing would produce significantly better results. The 2-15mm fraction was found to constitute 91.6% of the fhf-ASR sampled. The metals content of the 2-10mm portion of this fraction was upgraded from 2.5% to 31% and 76.9% with recoveries varying inversely with grade from 91.9% to 40.1%. From 63.6% to 17.1% with a recovery of 93.5% of the organic materials. A residual product of fine sand of crushed glass/stones of 99.4% purity recovered 71.3% of these. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Power corrupts co-operation: cognitive and motivational effects in a double EEG paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanso, Riam; Hewstone, Miles; Hawkins, Erin; Waszczuk, Monika; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of interpersonal power on co-operative performance. We used a paired electro-encephalogram paradigm: pairs of participants performed an attention task, followed by feedback indicating monetary loss or gain on every trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the power-holder, subordinate or neutral group by creating different levels of control over how a joint monetary reward would be allocated. We found that power was associated with reduced behavioural accuracy. Event-related potential analysis showed that power-holders devoted less motivational resources to their targets than did subordinates or neutrals, but did not differ at the level of early conflict detection. Their feedback potential results showed a greater expectation of rewards but reduced subjective magnitude attributed to losses. Subordinates, on the other hand, were asymmetrically sensitive to power-holders' targets. They expected fewer rewards, but attributed greater significance to losses. Our study shows that power corrupts balanced co-operation with subordinates.

  7. Automobile age and risk : summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The partial relationship between automobile age and risk is studied by means of logistic regression as applied to a large insurance policy data set. Annual mileage and car owner's gender, age and county of residence are controlled for.

  8. Drowsy driving and automobile crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Drowsy driving is a serious problem that leads to : thousands of automobile crashes each year. This : report, sponsored by the National Center on : Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) of the National : Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the : National ...

  9. Energizing porters by proton-motive force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N

    1994-11-01

    It is generally accepted that the chemistry of water was the most crucial determinant in shaping life on earth. Among the more important chemical features of water is its dissociation into protons and hydroxyl ions. The presence of relatively high proton concentrations in the ambient solution resulted in the evolution of proton pumps during the dawn of life on earth. These proton pumps maintained neutral pH inside the cells and generated electrochemical gradients of protons (proton-motive force) across their membranes. The existence of proton-motive force enabled the evolution of porters driven by it that are most probably among the more primitive porters in the world. The directionality of the substrate transport by the porters could be to both sides of the membranes because they can serve as proton symporters or antiporters. One of the most important subjects of this meeting is the mechanism by which proton-motive and other ion-motive forces drive the transport processes through porters. Is there a common mechanism of action for all proton-driven porters? Is there some common partial reaction by which we can identify the way that porters are energized by proton-motive force? Is there a common coupling between proton movement and uptake or secretion of certain molecules? Even a partial answer to one of these questions would advance our knowledge... or confusion. As my mentor Efraim Racker used to say: 'If you are not totally confused you do not understand the issue'.

  10. Do sales tax credits stimulate the automobile market?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiawei; Esteban, Susanna; Shum, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we quantitatively investigate the effectiveness of a sales tax reduction in stimulating sales and profits of durable goods manufacturers. Our question is motivated by policy makers' recent interest in helping ailing automobile manufacturers and in replacing a fleet of highly polluting vehicles. President Obama's economic stimulus plan, for instance, has directly targeted the primary market by including a sales tax credit on purchases of new cars and trucks. In this paper, we sh...

  11. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  12. [Environmental pollution by products of wear and tear automobile-road complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanchuk, A V

    2014-01-01

    North-West State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191015. There is supposed the method for the assessment of amounts of pollutants released into the environment during the operational wear of tyre treads, brake system of cars and the road pavement. There are presented results of chemical analysis of residues of combustion. The necessity of control of products of work wear of automobile-road complex has been substantiated.

  13. The power paradox : Implicit and explicit power motives, and the importance attached to prosocial organizational goals in SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Julie; Slabbinck, Hendrik; Vanderstraeten, Johanna; Brassey, Jacqueline; Dejardin, Marcus; Ramdani, Dendi; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    2017-01-01

    We examine the fundamental tension between explicit and implicit power motives; and their combined impact on the importance attached to prosocial organizational goals in small businesses (SMEs). We show that key decision-makers with a dominant implicit power motive attach more importance to the

  14. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The fuel cell system energy efficiency at present is about 60%, which is much higher than both the Otto (ca. 20%) as well as Diesel (ca. 30%) versions of ICEVs (Jeong and Oh 1999). Although, the 80 kW of the power needed to provide the acceleration to the fuel cell-based automobile could be supplied by an appropri-.

  15. Aspects économiques de l'industrie automobile dans le monde Economic Aspects of the Auto-Motive Industry in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valais M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude décrit les caractéristiques et les implications économiques les plus importantes de l'industrie automobile dans le monde. Après avoir situé l'importance des grands pays constructeurs mondiaux par leurs productions, leurs parcs et leurs échanges, la situation de la France est étudiée plus particulièrement. Cette analyse plus fine montre la structure et aussi les relations de l'industrie automobile française avec son marché, ses concurrents extérieurs, l'économie nationale tout entière et celle de ses utilisateurs. This survey covers the most important features and economic implications of the automotive industry in the world. After situating the positions of the leading worldwide manufacturers with regard to their output, the number of their vehicles in use and their foreign trade, special attention is paid to the situation of France. This closer analysis shows the structure of the automotive industry as well as its relations with its market, its foreign markets, the national economy as a whole and that of its users.

  16. [Influence of embient air pollution by automobile transport on malignancies development in population of Kemerovo city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, S A; Bykov, A A

    2015-01-01

    To reveal relationship between automobile transport emissions and oncologic morbidity among Kemerovo population, the authors selected crossroads and parts of highways with intense traffic. Two groups were observed among the residents of houses near the main crossroads and along highways. As a reference group, residents of houses distant from highways were selected. The study proved that oncologic morbidity is statistically reliably higher among the residents of houses near the crossroads and highways, if compared to that among the residents in houses distant from highways.

  17. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  18. Comparative study of regulated and unregulated air pollutant emissions before and after conversion of automobiles from gasoline power to liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline dual-fuel retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Chien, Shu-Mei; Cheng, Man-Ting; Peng, Chiung-Yu

    2007-12-15

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is increasingly being examined as an alternative to gasoline use in automobiles as interest grows in reducing air pollutant emissions. In this study, emissions of regulated (CO, THC, NO(x)) and unregulated air pollutants, including CO2, particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and BTEX (acronym for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), were measured before and after conversion of nine gasoline-powered automobiles to LPG/ gasoline dual-fuel retrofits. The tests were conducted on a standard chassis dynamometer in accordance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency FTP-75 test procedure, with the exception that all tests were conducted under hot-start driving conditions. The influences of LPG on air pollutant emission levels and carcinogenic potency were investigated and compared with gasoline. The results showed average emission factors of 0.14 g/km, 0.33 mg/km, 0.09 g/km, 0.44 g/km, and 197 g/km for CO, THC, NO(x), PM, and CO2, respectively, for LPG/ gasoline dual-fuel retrofits. Paired-sample t-test results indicated that the emissions of CO (p = 0.03), THC (p = 0.04), and CO2 (p = 4.6 x 10(-8)) were significantly reduced with the retrofit in comparison with gasoline-powered automobiles. The reduction percentages were 71%, 89%, and 14% for CO, THC, and CO2, respectively. The average total PAH emission factor for LPG was 217 microg/km, which is significantly lower than gasoline (863 microg/km; p = 0.05). The PAH corresponding carcinogenicities (BaP(eq)) were calculated via toxic equivalencies based on benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Paired-sample t-test results fortotal BaP(eq) emissions showed no significant difference between gasoline (30.0 microg/km) and LPG (24.8 microg/km) at a confidence level of 95%. The discrepancy between PAH and BaP(eq) emissions resulted from the higher emission percentages of high molecular weight PAHs for LPG, which might be from lubricant oil. The average emission factors of

  19. Increasing Students' Motivation by Using Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Aura Stella

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of motivation in the 9th grade students of Tomás Rueda Vargas School was the objective of this project, so we planned a series of workshops in Microsoft Word to apply in the computer lab. We observed that by working in groups of four in the computer lab, the students did the activities with enthusiasm. It could also be noticed that the workshops were effective in reinforcing English learning.

  20. CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS TO CLEANUP HIGHLY POLLUTED AUTOMOBILE SERVICE STATION WASTEWATER BY BIOADSORPTION-COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Banchon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study addresses an ecofriendly solution to treat automobile service stations effluents with high concentrations of oily substances, surfactants, organic matter and heavy metals. Bioadsorption using sawdust from pine trees, sugar cane bagasse and coconut coir without any chemical modification removed colloidal contamination up to 70%. Polyaluminium chloride, ferric chloride and polyacrylamide were applied to remove dissolved and colloidal pollutants under saline conditions without change of initial pH. Both bioadsorption and coagulation-flocculation removed up to 97.8% of BOD, COD, surfactants and heavy metals at a saline concentration of 1.5% NaCl. The increase of ionic strength promoted a high sludge index and a representative cost saving in chemicals consumption of almost 70%. High levels of pollution removal with the minimal use of chemicals is herein presented.

  1. Nurturing gerontology students' intrinsic motivation to cocreate: The design of a powerful learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukema, Jan S; Veerman, Mieke; Van Alphen, Jacqueline; Visser, Geraldine; Smits, Carolien; Kingma, Tineke

    2017-09-21

    Professionals such as gerontologists play an important role in the design, development and implementation of age-friendly services. and products, by using working methods and principles of co-creation. A Dutch undergraduate applied gerontology programme aims to train students in the why, how and what of co-creation. The degree to which students are intrinsically motivated to develop competencies depends on how their psychological needs are met. These needs are autonomy, an awareness of competence and a sense of relatedness, as described in the self-determination theory. To nurture the intrinsic motivation of the applied gerontology students, a realistic, powerful learning environment called the Living Lab Applied Gerontology was designed and implemented. The aim of this paper is to present the design of this powerful learning environment and to discuss its value for nurturing the students' intrinsic motivation for co-creation. Based on a focus group with eight students, we identify directions for further research and development of living labs.

  2. Political Skill as Moderator of Personality--Job Performance Relationships in Socioanalytic Theory: Test of the Getting Ahead Motive in Automobile Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickle, Gerhard; Wendel, Stephanie; Ferris, Gerald R.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the socioanalytic perspective of performance prediction ([Hogan, 1991] and [Hogan and Shelton, 1998]), this study tests whether the motive to get ahead produces greater performance when interactively combined with social effectiveness. Specifically, we investigated whether interactions of the five-factor model constructs of extraversion…

  3. The effects of competition and implicit power motive on men's testosterone, emotion recognition, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongas, John G; Al Hajj, Raghid

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. We investigated the effects of competition on men's testosterone levels and assessed whether androgen reactivity was associated with subsequent emotion recognition and reactive and proactive aggression. We also explored whether personalized power (p Power) moderated these relationships. In Study 1, 84 males competed on a number tracing task and interpreted emotions from facial expressions. In Study 2, 72 males competed on the same task and were assessed on proactive and reactive aggression. In both studies, contrary to the biosocial model of status (Mazur, 1985), winners' testosterone levels decreased significantly while losers' levels increased, albeit not significantly. Personalized power moderated the effect of competition outcome on testosterone change in both studies. Using the aggregate sample, we found that the effect of decreased testosterone levels among winners (compared to losers) was significant for individuals low in p Power but not for those with medium or high p Power. Testosterone change was positively related to emotion recognition, but unrelated to either aggression subtype. The testosterone-mediated relationship between winning and losing and emotion recognition was moderated by p Power. In addition, p Power moderated the direct (i.e., non-testosterone mediated) path between competition outcome and emotion recognition and both types of aggression: high p-Power winners were more accurate at deciphering others' emotions than high p-Power losers. Finally, among high p-Power men, winners aggressed more proactively than losers, whereas losers aggressed more reactively than winners. Collectively, these studies highlight the importance of implicit power motivation in modulating hormonal, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes arising from human competition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Noise exposure in convertible automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulec, A A; Lukens, S B; Jackson, L E; Deyoung, M N

    2011-02-01

    To quantify the noise exposure received while driving a convertible automobile with the top open, compared with the top closed. Five different convertible automobiles were driven, with the top both closed and open, and noise levels measured. The cars were tested at speeds of 88.5, 104.6 and 120.7 km/h. When driving with the convertible top open, the mean noise exposure ranged from 85.3 dB at 88.5 km/h to 89.9 dB at 120.7 km/h. At the tested speeds, noise exposure increased by an average of 12.4-14.6 dB after opening the convertible top. Driving convertible automobiles at speeds exceeding 88.5 km/h, with the top open, may result in noise exposure levels exceeding recommended limits, especially when driving with the convertible top open for prolonged periods.

  5. Virginia Power's nuclear operations: Leading by example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Success has been a long time coming for Virginia Power's nuclear units, but after a record run and some of the shortest refueling outages ever, the rest of the industry could learn a few things. This article describes the changes made by Virginia Power at its Surry and North Anna plants. Virginia Power's recipe for success called for equal amounts of individual initiative, management savvy, engineering discipline, organization, dedication, perseverance, pride, introspection, motivation, and humility

  6. Motivation Engineering to Employee by Employees Abraham Maslow Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Suyono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among many existing motivational theories, perhaps Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theories are widely known. This theory passes a message to us that once a person passes a certain level of need, he is no longer motivated by the level of motivation below. This provides an understanding that a manager or leader or motivator in the organization should know what is needed by subordinates. The need of a daily production worker with staff of managerial staff is different. To provide motivation that can improve performance to both, a motivator must provide different treatment according to their needs.

  7. The Motivational Power of Game Communities - Engaged through Game Jamming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reng, Lars; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Kofoed, Lise B.

    2013-01-01

    to develop games and to meet new people. We believe that the community building as well as the motivation and engagement due to social aspects and the desire to learn more about game development among participants at such events might have beneficial ripple effects, which are valuable to investigate more......Game jams have become a rapid growing phenomenon. Every year brings new and larger game jams. In this study, we closely followed the world’s largest single location game jam in order to explore the engagement among participants. The authors joined the organizing group of the Nordic Game Jam 2013......, and gained a favorable opportunity to observe the 470 game developers efforts during the 48 hours of non-stop development. The paper presents the results of two surveys conducted just before and after the event as well as observations during the game jam. The main motivational factors among participants were...

  8. Measuring medical students' motivation to learning anatomy by cadaveric dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Meguid, Eiman M; Khalil, Mohammed K

    2017-07-01

    Motivation and learning are inter-related. It is well known that motivating learners is clearly a complex endeavor, which can be influenced by the educational program and the learning environment. Limited research has been conducted to examine students' motivation as a method to assess the effectiveness of dissection in medical education. This study aimed to assess and analyze students' motivation following their dissection experience. A 29-item survey was developed based on the Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction model of motivation. Descriptive statistics were undertaken to describe students' motivation to the dissection experience. T-test and ANOVA were used to compare differences in motivational scores between gender and educational characteristics of students. Dissection activities appear to promote students' motivation. Gender difference was statistically significant as males were more motivated by the dissection experience than females. Comparison between students with different knowledge of anatomy was also significantly different. The study is an important step in the motivational design to improve students' motivation to learn. The outcome of this study provides guidance to the selection of specific strategies to increase motivation by generating motivational strategies/tactics to facilitate learning. Anat Sci Educ 10: 363-371. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Measuring Medical Students' Motivation to Learning Anatomy by Cadaveric Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Meguid, Eiman M.; Khalil, Mohammed K.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation and learning are inter-related. It is well known that motivating learners is clearly a complex endeavor, which can be influenced by the educational program and the learning environment. Limited research has been conducted to examine students' motivation as a method to assess the effectiveness of dissection in medical education. This…

  10. Automobile characteristics historical data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    A collection of data concerning the physical, operating, and performance characteristics of automobiles for the model years 1955, 1960, 1965, 1968, and 1970 to 1974. Data is to be added to the data base already established by DOT/TSC, for the 1975 mo...

  11. Achieving deep cuts in the carbon intensity of U.S. automobile transportation by 2050: complementary roles for electricity and biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, Corinne D; Taptich, Michael; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E; Nazaroff, William W

    2013-08-20

    Passenger cars in the United States (U.S.) rely primarily on petroleum-derived fuels and contribute the majority of U.S. transportation-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Electricity and biofuels are two promising alternatives for reducing both the carbon intensity of automotive transportation and U.S. reliance on imported oil. However, as standalone solutions, the biofuels option is limited by land availability and the electricity option is limited by market adoption rates and technical challenges. This paper explores potential GHG emissions reductions attainable in the United States through 2050 with a county-level scenario analysis that combines ambitious plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) adoption rates with scale-up of cellulosic ethanol production. With PHEVs achieving a 58% share of the passenger car fleet by 2050, phasing out most corn ethanol and limiting cellulosic ethanol feedstocks to sustainably produced crop residues and dedicated crops, we project that the United States could supply the liquid fuels needed for the automobile fleet with an average blend of 80% ethanol (by volume) and 20% gasoline. If electricity for PHEV charging could be supplied by a combination of renewables and natural-gas combined-cycle power plants, the carbon intensity of automotive transport would be 79 g CO2e per vehicle-kilometer traveled, a 71% reduction relative to 2013.

  12. Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)

  13. The motivation for strategic alliance formation: A case study between FAW-Volkswagen and FAW-Toyota

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, L

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the concept of strategic alliance, motivations for strategic alliances formation and criteria for selecting strategic partners. At the same time, it integrates present situations of the international and domestic automobile industries. By analysis and comparison of motives between strategic alliance of FAW-Volkswagen and that of FAW-Toyota, it sums up reasons of China's automobile industry joining strategic alliances and problems that will occur. This paper aims at pro...

  14. Up & comers succeed by motivating others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J

    1990-06-18

    Few clues in the early lives of Modern Healthcare's 1990 Up & Comers indicate that they were destined to become young leaders of the healthcare industry. A diverse group, they started out in strikingly different directions. Gary Shorb trained as an engineer and aspired to be an admiral in the Navy. Deborah Johnson studied law but had dreams of becoming a professional musician. Larry Hough started out as a certified public accountant. Somewhere along the line, they were attracted to the healthcare profession. Despite their differences, they have much in common. A psychological survey conducted for the magazine by Michael Leibman of Caliper Human Strategies indicates they are strong motivators who set the tone for their organizations by soliciting the views of their staffs and structuring the agenda. As a group, they are bright, shrewd and goal-oriented. They also fully understand their role. As David Jimenez, president of Hialeah (Fla.) Hospital, said, "Every day you've got to go out there and demonstrate that you're capable of holding down the job, that you deserve to be the leader." These 12 executives, all 40 or younger, were chosen from more than 50 candidates suggested by Modern Healthcare's editorial staff and readers. They represent many facets of the industry and come from every part of the country. As the healthcare industry continues to evolve, they are well positioned to play a leadership role in meeting the challenges of providing high-quality and cost-efficient patient care.

  15. Activating the working behavior of citizens by motivation potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Nikolayevna Lobanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the possibility to change the working behavior of employees by actualizing their motivational potential. Methods the methods of survey questionnaires focus groups coaching and interview were used in the study. Results the studies have shown that the employeesrsquo motivational potential is revealed through a complex system of labor motivation taking into account the needs and interests of a particular employee and forming the motivational and stimulating environment. Scientific novelty the research includes the development of methods to analyze the employeesrsquo interests and dominant motives and building of the structural system of employeesrsquo motivation to effective action. Practical value developing a method to increase the employeesrsquo motivation for efficient work in the form of a systematic set of actions. The application of this method allows to increase the efficiency and productivity of workers to gain additional profit which is especially important in the context of the economic crisis and the lack of additional investment. nbsp

  16. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Scaffolding for motivation by parents, and child homework motivations and emotions: Effects of a training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moè, Angelica; Katz, Idit; Alesi, Marianna

    2018-03-05

    Based on the principles of scaffolding for motivation and on the assumptions of self-determination theory, two studies aimed to assess the role played by perceived parental autonomy-supportive scaffolding on child homework autonomous motivation, self-efficacy, affect, and engagement. The results of Study 1, which involved 122 parents and their children, showed that the higher the parental autonomous motivation, the more their children perceived them as autonomy-supportive while scaffolding for motivation, and hence developed autonomous motivation, self-efficacy, and engagement in homework. In Study 2, 37 parents were involved in a four-session training programme that focused on sustaining autonomy-supportive scaffolding modalities. The training decreased parental negative affect, prevented child negative affect increase, and maintained child homework motivation. The discussion focuses on the strength that parents have with regard to helping their children develop less negative, and potentially also more positive attitude towards homework, through autonomy support as a scaffold for motivation. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  19. Locomotive to Automobile Baseline Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    Four Locomotive to Automobile Crash tests were performed by the Dynamic Science Division of Ultrasystems at DOT's High Speed Ground Test Center under contract to the Transportation Systems Center, which is conducting the work for the Federal Railroad...

  20. Development of Anticipatory Automobile Crash Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-06-30

    A COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION IS CARRIED OUT TO DETERMINE THE BASIC SYSTEM CONSTRAINTS AND REQUIRED OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR ANTICIPATORY SENSING OF IMPENDING AUTOMOBILE CRASHES. THIS IS FOLLOWED BY CONSIDERATION OF A WIDE VARIETY OF POSSIBLE SE...

  1. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: American Motive Power Incorporated in Dansville, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Motive Power, Inc. is located at 9431 Foster Wheeler Road, Town of North Dansville in Livingston County in New York. The facility was a metal fabrication plant where a variety of industrial processes occurred over the years from 1927 through 2

  2. The implicit power motive in intergroup dialogues about the history of slavery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditlmann, Ruth K; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Dovidio, John F; Naft, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    This research demonstrates that individual differences in the implicit power motive (i.e., the concern with impact, influence, and control) moderate how African Americans communicate with White Americans in challenging intergroup dialogues. In a study with African American participants we find that the higher their implicit power motive, the more they use an affiliation strategy to communicate with a White American partner in a conversation context that evokes the history of slavery (Study 1). In a study with White American participants we find that, in the same conversation context, they are more engaged (i.e., open, attentive, and motivated) if they receive an affiliation message rather than a no-affiliation message from an African American partner (Study 2). In interracial dyads we find that African American participants' implicit power motives moderate how much they intend to signal warmth to a White American discussion partner, how much they display immediacy behaviors and use affiliation imagery in the discussion, and with what level of engagement White American participants respond (Study 3). High but not low implicit power African Americans thus employ a communication strategy-expressing affiliation and warmth-that can be effective for engaging White Americans with uncomfortable, race-identity-relevant topics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Motivated explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Operskalski, Joachim T.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2015-01-01

    Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of “motivated thinking,” its powerful and pervasive influence on specifically explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or “epistemic” criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or following Kunda's usage, “directional” motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. We propose that “real life” explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. We review emerging evidence from psychology and neuroscience to support this framework and to elucidate the central role of motivation in human thought and explanation. PMID:26528166

  4. Prelaunch Forecasting of New Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Glen L. Urban; John R. Hauser; John H. Roberts

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a prelaunch model and measurement system to the marketing planning of a new automobile. The analysis addresses active search by consumers, dealer visits, word-of-mouth communication, magazine reviews, and production constraints---issues that are important in understanding consumer response to durable goods. We address these issues with a detailed consumer flow model which monitors and projects key consumer transitions in response to marketing actions. A test-vs...

  5. The Surprisingly Low Motivational Power of Future Rewards: Comparing Conventional Money-Based Measures of Discounting with Motivation-Based Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Jane E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal discount rates are often poor predictors of behaviors that we expect will be motivated by the future. The current research suggests this may be because conventional discounting measures are poor measures of the motivational value of future rewards. In six studies, I develop motivation-based measures of the present value (PV) of future…

  6. Environmental implications of the automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    There are over 12 million automobiles in Canada, each travelling over 16,000 km annually. The value of motor vehicles and parts produced in Canada accounts for over 6% of the gross domestic product, and vehicle-related sales account for the largest proportion of Canadian retail activity. The environmental issues related to the high impact of the automobile on Canadian life are discussed. In the manufacture of motor vehicles, over 2 billion kg of metal are used a year; although much of this comes from recycled materials, some depletion of nonrenewable resources is required. It is also estimated that 66-105 GJ of energy are needed to produce a motor vehicle, equivalent to as much as 20% of all the energy consumed during the vehicle's lifetime. Environmental impacts result from this use of resources and energy, including land disturbances and air pollution. Land use impacts are also those related to appropriation of urban and rural land for roadway and service uses, plus pollution of adjoining lands by road runoff. In 1990, the transportation sector used 29% of end-use energy, of which retail gasoline sales for motor vehicles accounted for 54%. Environmental impacts from oil refining, fuel combustion, and waste disposal are described, and programs to mitigate these impacts are outlined. Significant reductions in automobile emissions have already occurred from the increased use of emission control devices, improved fuel efficiency, and stricter standards. Further improvements are possible via such means as better manufacturing procedures, increased recycling of automobile components, better inspection and maintenance, and use of alternative fuels and alternate transportation modes. 35 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  7. THE STRATEGY OF INCREASING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF ROMANIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY BY TRANSITION TO ALTERNATIVE ENERGY IN INTERNATIONALIZATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA HAGIU,

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity and the increase of the variability grade of the business environment in general, and of the international business environment especially, represented determinant elements of the awareness of strategic issues of international competitiveness of firms and of the intensifying efforts to resolve the many different aspects of it. This paper is addressed to all those interested in the interesting and important issue of competitiveness in general and of the automotive industry competitiveness in particular. We stopped to the car industry as the automotive industry in Romania is one of the industries that have a high added value and a significant share of GDP. A role no less important had the fact that in the case of the automotive industry there are clear opportunities to improve competitiveness in the international market by focusing not only on low cost segments but also pointing to other market segments. The economic crisis has made Dacia sales to exports increase considerably, but the data show that with alleviate of the economic crisis the success of Dacia will begin to decrease. So it turns out that Dacia is a crisis car, and as the crisis will end, the manufacturer must rethink its strategy if it wants to maintain or increase sales. In the present paper we stoped to the transition to alternative energy sources strategy in the functioning of automobiles as a possible way to increase the competitiveness of Romanian automotive industry because all indicates are that alternative sources are the future and we should adapt trends better sooner rather than later.

  8. THE STRATEGY OF INCREASING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF ROMANIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY BY TRANSITION TO ALTERNATIVE ENERGY IN INTERNATIONALIZATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA HAGIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity and the increase of the variability grade of the business environment in general, and of the international business environment especially, represented determinant elements of the awareness of strategic issues of international competitiveness of firms and of the intensifying efforts to resolve the many different aspects of it. This paper is addressed to all those interested in the interesting and important issue of competitiveness in general and of the automotive industry competitiveness in particular. We stopped to the car industry as the automotive industry in Romania is one of the industries that have a high added value and a significant share of GDP. A role no less important had the fact that in the case of the automotive industry there are clear opportunities to improve competitiveness in the international market by focusing not only on low cost segments but also pointing to other market segments. The economic crisis has made Dacia sales to exports increase considerably, but the data show that with alleviate of the economic crisis the success of Dacia will begin to decrease. So it turns out that Dacia is a crisis car, and as the crisis will end, the manufacturer must rethink its strategy if it wants to maintain or increase sales. In the present paper we stoped to the transition to alternative energy sources strategy in the functioning of automobiles as a possible way to increase the competitiveness of Romanian automotive industry because all indicates are that alternative sources are the future and we should adapt trends better sooner rather than later

  9. The motivational needs of primary health care nurses to acquire power as leaders in a mine clinic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karien Jooste

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is a process that influences and directs behaviour in order to satisfy a need. It links with goal 3 of the sustainable development goals that focus on ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being at all ages. Motivation of nurses is important in the primary health care environment of, for instance, mine settings; since low levels of motivation among Primary Health Care (PHC nurses could have a negative effect on the achievement of high standards in health service delivery. The study was conducted within the theoretical framework of McClelland's Acquired Motivation Theory which consists of three basic needs, – the need for achievement, the need for power, and the need for affiliation. One of the research questions posed was “What are the motivational needs of PHC nurses to acquire power in the workplace at mine clinic settings?” A quantitative, explorative, descriptive design was followed. The accessible population in this study was PHC nurses (N = 30 working at 13 mine clinics, that also served as the total sample. A 7 point Likert scale was used in a self-administered structured questionnaire that was developed from a literature review. Ethical considerations were adhered to and respondents gave written informed consent. Data was analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. TheManne Whitney test compared the mean ranks and a p-value of p < 0.05 was indicative of a significant difference between male and female groups. Validity and reliability principles were applied during the entire research process. The results indicated that PHC nurses needed acknowledgement, organisational responsibility, strategic planning and promotion, as well as support. Significant differences between gender were not found in relation to the need to acquire power.

  10. Analytical description of the modern steam automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity of operating conditions upon performance of the modern steam automobile is discussed. The word modern has been used in the title to indicate that emphasis is upon miles per gallon rather than theoretical thermal efficiency. This has been accomplished by combining classical power analysis with the ideal Pressure-Volume diagram. Several parameters are derived which characterize performance capability of the modern steam car. The report illustrates that performance is dictated by the characteristics of the working medium, and the supply temperature. Performance is nearly independent of pressures above 800 psia. Analysis techniques were developed specifically for reciprocating steam engines suitable for automotive application. Specific performance charts have been constructed on the basis of water as a working medium. The conclusions and data interpretation are therefore limited within this scope.

  11. Bounds and Bunching: Distributions of Air Pollutants Produced by New Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Montag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Euro norms set limits on per-kilometer emissions of air pollutants produced by new cars. Satisfying these limits is always costly, the existing models generally assume that cars are produced as to just satisfy the norms. This theory predicts bunching of measured emissions below the limits. We find this not to be consistent with the data. In fact, medians of measured emissions are often at around one half or less of the respective limit and are supported by wide distributions. Implications for optimum tax policies are briefly discussed.

  12. Characterisation of organic thin film coatings on automobile steel sheets by photothermal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, T. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Fluegge, W. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany); Gibkes, J. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany). AG FestKoerperSpektroskopie

    2006-07-01

    In the nineties, the first generation of organic thin film coatings for corrosion protection of zinc-coated thin sheet steel have been introduced. The coating typically consists of a suspension of small zinc particles, embedded in a polymer matrix. In the scope of quality control, the characterisation of the resulting layer structure is of great interest, comprising not only a constant layer thickness and a local homogeneity of the coating, but also the depth distribution of the particles within the layer. Especially the latter parameter does have a direct influence on the spot weldability of the steel sheets. The present work shows, how photothermal methods like modulated infrared radiometry and photoacoustics can be used for a successful depth profiling of the thin film coatings. The sample surface is periodically heated using an intensitymodulated laser beam, and a thermal wave is induced in the layer system. By variation of the modulation frequency of the laser beam, the thermal diffusion length and, as a consequence, the penetration depth of the thermal wave can be adjusted. By a suitable evaluation of the amplitude and phase lag signals as a function of the modulation frequency, accurate depth profiling has been realized which can be used for a very reliable prediction of the welding properties of the product. In the first investigations, artificial samples with well defined extreme distributions of the particles have been analyzed, and in a second step, an evaluation strategy has been developed for real production samples. (orig.)

  13. Rationalization of motive power use in animal feed industry; Racionalizacao do uso de forca motriz em fabrica de racao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Carlos A.; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Lacerda Filho, Adilio F. de; Martins, Jose H. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola]. E-mails: carlos, delly, alacerda, jmartins@vicosa.ufv.br

    2005-05-15

    The lack of investment in the energy sector, allied to the seasoning of natural resources necessity for the generation of hydroelectric energy, makes the rationalization of the use of electric energy an indispensable tool for country growth in an harmonic manner. The animal feed can represent around 70 to 80% of the total cost for running an animal feed production facility. So, it is important to study the energy management in processes that mainly use motive power, such as the animal feed factories. In the animal feed factory studied, the electric motors are used mainly for milling and mixture granulated and transportation. The objective of this paper is to manage the use of electric energy, by matching motive power at the Pif Paf animal feed industry to the load needs. The average electric motors load index was 48.6%, indicating a likelihood of economy. The potential economy with electric energy using the best options of motive power was about R$ 24,426.50 per year (23.9%). To achieve this goal it is also necessary: to adjust relays and to choose fuses, to schedule operation and to build storage facilities. (author)

  14. Analysis of CO2, CO and HC emission reduction in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, K. N.; Valarmathi, T. N.; Reddy, Mannem Soma Harish; Aravinda Reddy, Gireddy; Sai Srinivas, Jammalamadaka K. M. K.; Vasan

    2017-05-01

    In the present scenario, the emission from automobiles is becoming a serious problem to the environment. Automobiles, thermal power stations and Industries majorly constitute to the emission of CO2, CO and HC. Though the CO2 available in the atmosphere will be captured by oceans, grasslands; they are not enough to control CO2 present in the atmosphere completely. Also advances in engine and vehicle technology continuously to reduce the emission from engine exhaust are not sufficient to reduce the HC and CO emission. This work concentrates on design, fabrication and analysis to reduce CO2, CO and HC emission from exhaust of automobiles by using molecular sieve 5A of 1.5mm. In this paper, the details of the fabrication, results and discussion about the process are discussed.

  15. Modelling the impact of cyber attacks on the traffic control centre of an urban automobile transport system by means of enhanced cybersecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Yoana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show the major role means of protection play for strengthening the cybersecurity of critical transport infrastructure by using the advanced method of simulation modelling. The simulation model of a Traffic Control Centre (TTC of an urban Automobile Transport System (ATS is created by the author in the Riverbed Modeler Academic Edition 17.5 computer networks simulation system and is exposed to the impact of a Denial-of-Service attack. In addition, logical conclusions have been made on the basis of the experimental results obtained and evaluated by comparative analysis with results from analogous previous studies.

  16. Wind Power - A Power Source Enabled by Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2004-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. The production, distribution and the use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should be set up. The deregul......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. The production, distribution and the use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should be set up....... The deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in bigger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be very high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change the electrical power production sources from...... the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...

  17. The implicit Power Motive and Adolescents' Salivary Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress and Exercise in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Scheuermann, Katharina S; Machado, Sergio; Budde, Henning

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we examined the moderating effect of the power motive on salivary cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress and exercise in adolescents. Fifty-seven high school students aged M = 14.8 years participated in the study. The Operant Motive Test was applied to measure the implicit power motive and the Personality Research Form was used to measure the explicit power motive. Salivary cortisol levels were assessed before and after the stress stimuli. Participants were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. An exercise group ran 15 minutes at a defined heart rate of 65-75% HRmax. A psychosocial stress group worked on a standard intelligence test for the same amount of time under the assumption, that their test scores will be made public in class after the test. The control group participated in a regular class session. The implicit power motive was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels in the psychosocial stress group. The explicit power motive was not associated with cortisol responses. Findings suggest that the implicit power motive moderates the cortisol responses to acute stress in an adolescent age group with higher responses to psychosocial stress in comparison to exercise or control conditions.

  18. Motivated Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard ePatterson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of motivated thinking, its powerful and pervasive influence on explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or epistemic criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving of explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or (following Kunda’s usage, directional motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms, combined with an effort to preserve the appearance of accuracy; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. In short, real life explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. Our proposals are largely programmatic, although we do review a good deal of relevant behavioral and neurological evidence. Specifically, we recognize five generative processes, some of which cover further sub-processes, and six evaluative processes. All of these are potential points of entry for the influence of motivation. We then suggest in some detail how specific sorts of explanatory motivation interact with specific explanatory processes.

  19. Market segmentation by motivation: The case of Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Bieger, Thomas; Laesser, Christian

    2002-01-01

    This contribution is about the segmentation of mature travel markets, as exemplified by Switzerland. Based on an extensive and representative travel survey covering 2,000 households and more than 11,000 trips, a situational, motivation-based travel market segmentation is proposed. The clustering of motivations proves to be a valuable means to segment markets. The results reveal a diminishing role of socio-demographic segment descriptors. It is more the (anticipated) travel profile and the att...

  20. The Motivation of Betrayal by Leaking of Classified Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lăzăroiu Laurențiu-Leonard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Trying to forecast the human behavior involves acts and knowledge of motivational theories, applicable to profile of each organization and in particular to each individual’s style. The anticipation of personal attitudes has not the only aim for a passive monitoring of professional activity, but also wants to increase performance of risk avoidance, in acordance with a specific organizational environment. The emergence and development of motivational forms and values, whose projections determine social crimes, are risk factors, affecting the professional activity of the person, but also affecting the performance and stability of the institution. Moreover, if the motivation determines attitudes aimed at compromising classified information, the resulting actions may be considered as threats to national security. The prevention of such threats can only be achieved by understanding motivational mechanisms and external conditions for the perssonel that make it possible to transform some intentions into real actions.

  1. Diesel-powered Passenger Cars and Light Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Diesel-powered automobiles are in the news following emission concerns raised by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This fact sheet contains background information on diesel-powered motor vehicles and diesel fuel.

  2. Réduction de la pollution atmosphérique due à l'automobile et économie d'énergie Reducing Air Pollution Caused by Automobiles and Energy Conservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salé B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'action engagée dans les pays industriels pour réduire la pollution atmosphérique doit maintenant tenir compte, plus encore que par le passé, de la nécessité, imposée par la conjoncture, d'économiser l'énergie. L'article est consacré à l'étude de la compatibilité de ces deux objectifs en ce qui concerne l'automobile. L'ensemble des actions antigaspillage ou antipollution ne portant pas sur le générateur d'énergie constitue un domaine de compatibilité évident. En revanche la réduction des émissions de polluants nécessite des modifications plus ou moins profondes du moteur dont certaines peuvent poser des problèmes du point de vue de l'économie d'énergie. Dans le but de préciser la nature de ces problèmes, les techniques antipollution correspondant à différents niveaux de limitation des émissions sont examinées du point de vue de leur coût, de leur incidence sur la consommation de carburant et de leur interaction avec les procédés visant à l'économie d'énergie. Sont ainsi passés en revue les moyens de réduction des émissions basés sur une amélioration de la combustion, les procédés de post-combustion, le problème de la réduction de la teneur en plomb des essences. Cette analyse montre que dans une large mesure la réduction des émissions de polluants et la diminution de la consommation sont des objectifs compatibles, mais que la difficulté des problèmes à résoudre pour que les mesures antipollution n'aient pas d'effet négatif au plan de l'économie d'énergie croît très rapidement avec la sévérité de ces mesures au-delà d'un certain niveau. L'effort de recherche entrepris dans le monde sur ce thème devrait progressivement permettre à la fois de réduire encore de façon substantielle les émissions de polluants et d'améliorer le rendement des moteurs. Efforts made by industrialized countries ta reduce air pollution must now, more than ever, give consideration to the need for energy

  3. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyse the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in a population of automobile mechanics. The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos-related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers; who in the case of disagreement discussed until they reached agreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Pleural plaques were observed in five cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in one case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers.

  4. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyze the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on HRCT in a population of automobile mechanics. Methods The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos–related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers, with further consensus in the case of disagreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Results Pleural plaques were observed in 5 cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in 1 case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. Conclusions The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers. PMID:21965465

  5. Motivations of Marathoners by socio demographic and training variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zarauz Sancho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available in the growing population of Spanish and Mexican route runners we analyze their main motivations for running and their main bio-socio-demographic characteristics. It also analyzes the influence on the score of these variables in each of the motivational subscales in both Spanish as in Mexican route runners sample. This gives valuable data describing their motivations and socio-demographic characteristics and training, and concludes that in the Mexican sample route runners were obtained significantly higher scores than in the Spanish in each of the motivations for running analyzed . Moreover, the two motivations accounted for both samples are the most self-determined (meaning of life, self-esteem and health orientation and least valued was the least self-determined (recognition. Also that in bio-socio-demographic characteristics of the Mexican sample, there are many significant differences by gender, while the Spanish sample there are only on primary work activity and BMI. Finally, the influence of biological variables sociodemographic scores on each of the motivational subscales analyzed, there are many significant differences, both by gender and between Spanish and Mexican samples.

  6. Public speaking in front of an unreceptive audience increases implicit power motivation and its endocrine arousal signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemers, Uta S; Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-05-01

    The present study explored the motivational characteristics of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993). Seventy-two participants either completed the public-speaking component of the TSST or, as a control condition, the friendly TSST (Wiemers, Schoofs, & Wolf, 2013) and wrote picture stories both before and after treatment. Stories were coded for motivational imagery related to power, achievement, and affiliation as well as for activity inhibition, a marker of functional brain lateralization during stress. The TSST had a specific arousing effect on power motivation, but not on other motivational needs, on activity inhibition, or on story length. TSST-elicited increases in power imagery, but not in achievement or affiliation imagery, were associated with a relatively greater salivary alpha-amylase response and with a relatively lesser salivary cortisol response. These findings suggest that the TSST specifically induces power-related stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Motivations for Botanical Use by Socioeconomically Diverse, Urban Adults: Does Evidence Support Motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Grace F; Shupe, Emily Stave; Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K

    2017-10-01

    The study objectives were to characterize botanical dietary supplement (BDS) use and to compare the motivations for botanical supplement (BS) use to the efficacy of the botanical in a socioeconomically and racially diverse urban adult population. Subjects were from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study, a 20-year prospective health disparities study with African American and white adults from Baltimore, Maryland. All study participants completed two dietary recalls and a dietary supplement (DS) questionnaire in Wave 3 (n = 2140). Diet quality was evaluated by the Healthy Eating Index-2010 and the Mean Adequacy Ratio for 17 micronutrients. A comparison of reported motivations to efficacy reported in the literature of single BS was conducted. Approximately 50% (1062/2140) of participants took DS. Of these, 8% (n = 178) reported taking either BS or BDS. It was found that BDS users had better diet quality than DS users as well as nonusers of DS. The top three motivations for BDS users were to improve overall health, to maintain health, and to supplement the diet. There is limited evidence for the efficacy of most BS. Review of the efficacy of the 15 BS reported by ≥5% of the study population revealed beneficial health roles for only fiber, gingko biloba extract EGb 761, and hawthorn berry. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to report a better quality diet with BDS use for a racially diverse urban population. Yet, improvement in diet is needed because overall quality did not achieve current recommendations. To improve overall health, it may be beneficial for this population to focus on dietary modifications to reduce the risks associated with chronic diseases. In general, the reported motivations for BS use were not supported by clinical evidence.

  8. The comparison of performance by using alternative refrigerant R152a in automobile climate system with different artificial neural network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkisim, A. T.; Hasiloglu, A. S.; Bilen, K.

    2016-04-01

    Due to the refrigerant gas R134a which is used in automobile air conditioning systems and has greater global warming impact will be phased out gradually, an alternative gas is being desired to be used without much change on existing air conditioning systems. It is aimed to obtain the easier solution for intermediate values on the performance by creating a Neural Network Model in case of using a fluid (R152a) in automobile air conditioning systems that has the thermodynamic properties close to each other and near-zero global warming impact. In this instance, a network structure giving the most accurate result has been established by identifying which model provides the best education with which network structure and makes the most accurate predictions in the light of the data obtained after five different ANN models was trained with three different network structures. During training of Artificial Neural Network, Quick Propagation, Quasi-Newton, Levenberg-Marquardt and Conjugate Gradient Descent Batch Back Propagation methodsincluding five inputs and one output were trained with various network structures. Over 1500 iterations have been evaluated and the most appropriate model was identified by determining minimum error rates. The accuracy of the determined ANN model was revealed by comparing with estimates made by the Multi-Regression method.

  9. The automobile of the future: engine technologies and automotive fuels developed by IFP; l'automobile du futur: les technologies moteurs et carburants developpes par l'IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O.; Pinchon, Ph.

    2004-07-01

    In front of the challenges of climate change and depletion of petroleum reserves, in front of the continuous strengthening of pollution regulations applied to automobile (Euro IV and V) and the advances of R and D, several ways of research can be explored to answer the mobility needs of the coming decades. The IFP takes stock of these topics in this press kit which comprises 11 documents: the synthesis of O. Appert and P. Pinchon's talk about 'the cleaner and multi-energies automobile of the future', the slides of this presentation, the future evolutions of automobiles motorizations, the long-term evolutions of engines/fuels (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel fuel in the USA (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), bio-fuels in Europe (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel pollution abatement: efficient results from the IFP's diesel combustion process 'NADI'(TM), the presentation of the IFP scientific meeting of September 22-23, 2004 'which fuels for low CO{sub 2} engines?', the strategic positioning of IFP in the world energy and environmental context, the brochures 'IFP engines and fuels: a competitive advantage' and 'innovating for a sustainable development in the domain of energy'. (J.S.)

  10. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation) manufactured...

  11. Kryptonate-based instrumentation development for automobile exhaust pollutants. Phase III report: design and construction of four (4) experimental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.; Donaghue, T.

    This phase of the program encompasses the design, construction and evaluation of four (4) prototype instruments for the detection of automobile exhaust pollutant. These instruments employ the radio release mechanism utilized by Panametrics in detection of various trace gases. The prototype instruments are of two (2) designs. One design is operable from a power source supplied by an automobile battery. The second design is operable from 110 volts AC power. Successful evaluation in the laboratory as well as with various automobiles were performed with both type instruments. Scale-up of the quantity of sensor material prepared introduced unexpected problems with respect to detection lifetime which were not satisfactorily resolved within the time and funds available to the program. Nevertheless, a Kryptonate-based instrument using a single detection method for the measurement of hydrocarbons, CO and NO/sub x/ as pollutants by automobile exhausts was shown to be operable with actual automobile exhausts, to provide more than adequate sensitivity for inspection purposes, and to provide response and recovery times for full scale reading in the range 10-15 secs. (auth)

  12. Automobile air-conditioning its energy and environmental impact; La climatisation automobile impact energetique et environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.; Gagnepain, L.

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maxi-mum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the inter-national climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-condition ng (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential ed ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. All of these studies and additional data are presented in greater detail in the document,-'Automobile Air-conditioning' (ADEME reference no. 4985). (author)

  13. The Training Needs of Michigan Automobile Suppliers: Initial Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, James

    In June 1985, a survey was sent by the Industrial Technology Institute to 397 Michigan automobile supplier firms concerning their industrial training in modern manufacturing technologies. The purposes of this survey were to investigate the training needs of Michigan automobile suppliers, with particular emphasis on how they met their training…

  14. Perspectives on Early Power Mobility Training, Motivation, and Social Participation in Young Children with Motor Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Han Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of traditional training programs (e.g., neurodevelopmental therapy in promoting independent mobility and early child development across all three International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health levels lacks rigorous research support. Therefore, early power mobility training needs to be considered as a feasible intervention for very young children who are unlikely to achieve independent mobility. This perspective article has three aims: (1 to provide empirical evidence of differences in early independent mobility, motivation, daily life activities, and social participation between young children with typical development and motor disabilities; (2 to discuss the contemporary concepts of and approaches to early power mobility training for young children with motor disabilities and the current need for changes to such training; and (3 to provide recommendations for early power mobility training in pediatric rehabilitation. Independent mobility is critical for social participation; therefore, power mobility can be accessible and implemented as early as possible, specifically for infants who are at risk for mobility or developmental delay. To maximize the positive effects of independent mobility on children’s social participation, early power mobility training must consider their levels of functioning, the amount of exploration and contextual factors, including individual and environmental factors.

  15. Motivational Interviewing Approach Used by a Community Mental Health Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sharon Chay Huang; Lee, Mindy Wen Hui; Lim, Gentatsu Tan Xiong; Leong, Joseph Jern-Yi; Lee, Cheng

    2015-12-01

    The current study aimed to (a) evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing, as applied by a community mental health team (CMHT) based in Singapore; (b) reduce hospital admissions and length of hospital stay; and (c) improve global functioning and satisfaction of individuals with mental illness. The current study used a quasi-experimental method. A convenience sample of 120 participants was selected from the caseload of the CMHT. Participants received motivational interviewing sessions at least once every month for 1 year. Data on the number of hospital admissions, length of hospitalization, Global Assessment of Functioning, and patient satisfaction were collected at baseline and 6 and 12 months. Participants who underwent the CMHT services with motivational interviewing were more compliant to treatment, resulting in significant reduction in hospitalization and improvement in functionality. Motivational interviewing is effective in facilitating better illness management for patients in the community. Adoption of the motivational interviewing approach may potentially provide significant benefits for psychiatric support services in the community. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. The automobile after tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    This talk discusses the technical options available for automobiles within the next 5 to 10 years. With the objective to reduce consumption and pollution, several alternative approaches are presented and analyzed using simplified but realistic calculations. Main emphasis is laid on CO{sub 2} emission of the complete energy transformation path from the primary energy carrier to the energy dissipated in test cycles. It is shown that no single optimal solution exist but that a trade-off between consumption, pollution and cost must be made for each specific situation. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Virginia Power's nuclear operations: Leading by example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, S.E.

    1995-02-01

    Success has been a long time coming for Virginia Power's nuclear units, but after a record run and some of the shortest refueling outages ever, the rest of the industry could learn a few things. This article describes the changes made by Virginia Power at its Surry and North Anna plants. Virginia Power's recipe for success called for equal amounts of individual initiative, management savvy, engineering discipline, organization, dedication, perseverance, pride, introspection, motivation, and humility.

  18. Automobile Club CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club CERN

    2010-01-01

     L’Assemblée Générale Ordinaire de «L’Automobile Club du CERN» s’est tenue le mercredi 12 janvier 2010. Le Président, J. Pierlot, souhaite la bienvenue aux membres présents, annonce l’agenda et résume les activités et événements du club pour l’année 2009. Le Club compte environ 600 membres, une petite diminution par rapport aux précédentes années dû surtout aux départs anticipés à la retraite. La cotisation reste inchangée : 50 CHF. Notre trésorier, E. Squadrani, présente de façon détaillée la situation du compte d’exploitation pour 2009 ainsi que le bilan de l’Automobile Club. Les comptes sont équilibrés, la situation de la trés...

  19. New Car Sales and Used Car Stocks: A Model of the Automobile Market

    OpenAIRE

    James Berkovec

    1985-01-01

    This article develops a short-run general equilibrium model of the automobile market by combining a discrete choice model of consumer automobile demand with simple models of new automobile production and used vehicle scrappage. The theoretical model allows an unlimited degree of heterogeneity of both consumers and automobiles, with equilibrium defined as aggregate demand equal to supply for every vehicle type. Econometric estimates of the scrappage and demand functions are then used to create...

  20. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by the...

  1. Judging Thieves of Attention: Commentary on "Assessing Cognitive Distraction in the Automobile," by Strayer, Turrill, Cooper, Coleman, Medeiros-Ward, and Biondi (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Peter A; Sawyer, Ben D

    2015-12-01

    The laudable effort by Strayer and his colleagues to derive a systematic method to assess forms of cognitive distraction in the automobile is beset by the problem of nonstationary in driver response capacity. At the level of the overall goal of driving, this problem conflates actual on-road behavior; characterized by underspecified task satisficing, with our own understandable, scientifically inspired aspiration for measuring deterministic performance optimization. Measures of response conceived under this latter imperative are, at best, only shadowy reflections of the actual phenomenological experience involved in real-world vehicle control. Whether we, as a research community, can resolve this issue remains uncertain. However, we believe we can mount a positive attack on what is arguably another equally important dimension of the collision problem. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  2. The effect of a motivational intervention on weight loss is moderated by level of baseline controlled motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tate Deborah F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinic-based behavioral weight loss programs are effective in producing significant weight loss. A one-size-fits-all approach is often taken with these programs. It may be beneficial to tailor programs based on participants' baseline characteristics. Type and level of motivation may be an important factor to consider. Previous research has found that, in general, higher levels of controlled motivation are detrimental to behavior change while higher levels of autonomous motivation improve the likelihood of behavior modification. Methods This study assessed the outcomes of two internet behavioral weight loss interventions and assessed the effect of baseline motivation levels on program success. Eighty females (M (SD age 48.7 (10.6 years; BMI 32.0 (3.7 kg/m2; 91% Caucasian were randomized to one of two groups, a standard group or a motivation-enhanced group. Both received a 16-week internet behavioral weight loss program and attended an initial and a four-week group session. Weight and motivation were measured at baseline, four and 16 weeks. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to test for moderation. Results There was significant weight loss at 16-weeks in both groups (p p = 0.57 (standard group 3.4 (3.6 kg; motivation-enhanced group 3.9 (3.4 kg. Further analysis was conducted to examine predictors of weight loss. Baseline controlled motivation level was negatively correlated with weight loss in the entire sample (r = -0.30; p = 0.01. Statistical analysis revealed an interaction between study group assignment and baseline level of controlled motivation. Weight loss was not predicted by baseline level of controlled motivation in the motivation-enhanced group, but was significantly predicted by controlled motivation in the standard group. Baseline autonomous motivation did not predict weight change in either group. Conclusions This research found that, in participants with high levels of baseline controlled motivation

  3. a Study on the Mechanism of OCCUPANT'S Cervical Injury by Low Speed Rear-End Collision of Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Wonhak; Kim, Yongchul; Choi, Hyeonki

    Neck injury in rear-end car collisions is an increasing concern in the field of traffic safety. This injury commonly occurs at rear-end impact, however the injury mechanisms for whiplash remain a mystery. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively analyze the head and neck kinematics during the low-speed rear-end impact of automobiles. It is important to produce data that is related as closely as possible to the in vivo situation. So, we performed a sled test which simulated rear-end impacts with a velocity of 0.6 m/s with five normal healthy male subjects. 3-D motion analysis system was used to document motion data of two situations. When we compare the values of angular velocity and acceleration of head and neck, the peak magnitudes of inclined seated posture were smaller than those of upright seated posture. The result of this study is expected to provide insight that will aid in determining the mechanism of whiplash which is crucial to the identification of possible injury mechanisms.

  4. Distinct Subtypes of Apathy Revealed by the Apathy Motivation Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Yuen-Siang; Lockwood, Patricia; Apps, Matthew A J; Muhammed, Kinan; Husain, Masud

    2017-01-01

    Apathy is a debilitating but poorly understood disorder characterized by a reduction in motivation. As well as being associated with several brain disorders, apathy is also prevalent in varying degrees in healthy people. Whilst many tools have been developed to assess levels of apathy in clinical disorders, surprisingly there are no measures of apathy suitable for healthy people. Moreover, although apathy is commonly comorbid with symptoms of depression, anhedonia and fatigue, how and why these symptoms are associated is unclear. Here we developed the Apathy-Motivation Index (AMI), a brief self-report index of apathy and motivation. Using exploratory factor analysis (in a sample of 505 people), and then confirmatory analysis (in a different set of 479 individuals), we identified subtypes of apathy in behavioural, social and emotional domains. Latent profile analyses showed four different profiles of apathy that were associated with varying levels of depression, anhedonia and fatigue. The AMI is a novel and reliable measure of individual differences in apathy and might provide a useful means of probing different mechanisms underlying sub-clinical lack of motivation in otherwise healthy individuals. Moreover, associations between apathy and comorbid states may be reflective of problems in different emotional, social and behavioural domains.

  5. Distinct Subtypes of Apathy Revealed by the Apathy Motivation Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen-Siang Ang

    Full Text Available Apathy is a debilitating but poorly understood disorder characterized by a reduction in motivation. As well as being associated with several brain disorders, apathy is also prevalent in varying degrees in healthy people. Whilst many tools have been developed to assess levels of apathy in clinical disorders, surprisingly there are no measures of apathy suitable for healthy people. Moreover, although apathy is commonly comorbid with symptoms of depression, anhedonia and fatigue, how and why these symptoms are associated is unclear. Here we developed the Apathy-Motivation Index (AMI, a brief self-report index of apathy and motivation. Using exploratory factor analysis (in a sample of 505 people, and then confirmatory analysis (in a different set of 479 individuals, we identified subtypes of apathy in behavioural, social and emotional domains. Latent profile analyses showed four different profiles of apathy that were associated with varying levels of depression, anhedonia and fatigue. The AMI is a novel and reliable measure of individual differences in apathy and might provide a useful means of probing different mechanisms underlying sub-clinical lack of motivation in otherwise healthy individuals. Moreover, associations between apathy and comorbid states may be reflective of problems in different emotional, social and behavioural domains.

  6. Electric automobile: Commercialization prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasso, L.

    1992-01-01

    Performance results during one-month test driving of a small FIAT car (normally equipped with a 30-45 Hp internal combustion engine), retrofitted to operate with a set of electric batteries delivering 15 Hp, demonstrated that, unless the design of an electric car's transmission and control systems are based completely on electric power operation, the vehicle loses its competitiveness with conventional cars. Making reference to the findings of an ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) electric powered vehicle R ampersand D program, this paper assesses the feasibility of electric powered vehicles and points out their major drawbacks: battery volume, weight, cost and recharging requirements in densely populated urban environments. The paper also notes that mass conversion to these vehicles by itself will not solve the urban traffic congestion problem for which optimum traffic control and parking areas are required

  7. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of c a . 50 kW supplemented with ...

  8. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public con- cern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of ca. 50 kW ...

  9. Evaluation of purchase intention of customers in two wheeler automobile segment: AHP and TOPSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Yogi, Kottala

    2018-03-01

    Winning heart of customers is preeminent main design of any business organization in global business environment. This paper explored customer’s priorities while purchasing a two wheeler automobile segment using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) as a multi criteria decision making tools to accomplish the research objectives. Study has been done to analyze different criteria to be considered during purchasing of two wheeler automobiles among respondents using structured questionnaire based on SAATY scale. Based on our previous work on empirical & fuzzy logic approach to product quality and purchase intention of customers in two wheeler- operational, performance, economic, brand value and maintenance aspects are considered as decision criteria of customers while purchasing a two wheeler. The study suggests high pick up during overtaking, petrol saving, reasonable spare parts price, unique in design and identity and easy to change gear as main criterion in purchasing process. We also found some leading two wheeler automobiles models available in Indian market using some objective function criterion in choosing some important characteristics like price, cylinder capacity, brake horse power and weight during purchasing process of two wheeler automobile in Indian market based on respondents perception.

  10. Detection of mutagenic activity in automobile exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Y; Kachi, K; Sato, K; Tahara, I; Takeyoshi, H; Tokiwa, H

    1980-03-01

    Using the Ames Salmonella-microsome system, we detected mutagenic activity in the exhaust from two kinds of 4-cycle gasoline engines of unregulated and regulated cars, and from diesel engines, as well as in the particulates from air collected in tunnels. The mutagenicity of particulates from a car equipped with a catalyst (regulated car), as compared with that from an unregulated car, was reduced very much (down to 500 from 4500 revertants/plate/m3 in tester strain TA98). However, the mutagenicity of the ether-soluble acid and neutral fractions from the condensed water of emissions from a regulated car was still high (down to 2880 from 10 900 revertants/plate/m3 in tester strain TA100). The mutagenic activity of emission exhaust from old diesel car engines was very high; the particulates showed 9140 and 19 600 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA98 incubated with an activating rat-liver S9 fraction. A small diesel engine of the type used for the generation of electric power or in farm machinery also produced exhaust with highly mutagenic particulates. The mutagenic activity of a methanol extract of particulate air pollutants collected in a highway tunnel showed 39 revertants/plate/m3 toward strain TA98 and 87 toward strain TA100. The ether-soluble neutral fraction yielded 86 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA98 and 100 from strain TA100. This fraction also contained carcinogenic compounds, including benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[ghi]perylene and chrysene. Very high mutagenic activity was detected, especially in the particulate air pollutants collected at night, in another tunnel on a superhighway: 60-88 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA100 for the sample collected by day, but 121-238, by night. Night traffic includes many more diesel-powered vehicles compared with gasoline-powered automobiles.

  11. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1) Vehicles...

  12. Distinct Subtypes of Apathy Revealed by the Apathy Motivation Index

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, Yuen-Siang; Lockwood, Patricia; Apps, Matthew A. J.; Muhammed, Kinan; Husain, Masud

    2017-01-01

    Apathy is a debilitating but poorly understood disorder characterized by a reduction in motivation. As well as being associated with several brain disorders, apathy is also prevalent in varying degrees in healthy people. Whilst many tools have been developed to assess levels of apathy in clinical disorders, surprisingly there are no measures of apathy suitable for healthy people. Moreover, although apathy is commonly comorbid with symptoms of depression, anhedonia and fatigue, how and why the...

  13. Promotion Models and Achievements of New-energy Automobiles in Shenzhen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu; Xiong, Siqin; Bai, Bo; Ma, Xiaoming

    2017-08-01

    As one of the pilot cities in China for demonstration and promotion of new-energy automobiles, Shenzhen, driven by the “two engines” of the government and the market, has made swift progress in promotion of its new-energy automobiles. This paper analyses Shenzhen’s governmental promotion policy concerning new-energy automobiles, summarizes Shenzhen’s commercial models for promoting new-energy automobiles, and is expected to provide reference for other provinces and cities to promote new-energy automobiles.

  14. Automobile Crash Sensor Signal Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    The crash sensor signal processor described interfaces between an automobile-installed doppler radar and an air bag activating solenoid or equivalent electromechanical device. The processor utilizes both digital and analog techniques to produce an ou...

  15. United Kingdom Automobile Insurance Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    The report represents a limited study of the United Kingdom Automobile Insurance Industry: (1) the structure, size, and relationships within the industry; (2) the basis of premium calculation, rate structure, types of policies, and payment of compens...

  16. Consumer preferences for automobile energy-efficiency grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Yoonmo; Kim, Chang Seob; Hong, Junhee; Choi, Ie-Jung; Lee, Jongsu

    2012-01-01

    Recently, increases in energy prices have made energy conservation and efficiency improvements even more essential than in the past. However, consumers experience difficulty in obtaining reliable information regarding energy efficiency, so that many countries have implemented regulations to enforce energy-efficiency grade labeling. In this study, consumer preferences regarding energy efficiency grades are analyzed by the mixed logit and MDCEV model based on the revealed preference data of past automobile purchases. Findings show that consumers rationally apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. This study discusses political implications of energy efficiency policies as they might impact consumer behaviors of automobile purchase and usage. - Highlights: ► We model discrete choice model to evaluate energy-efficiency grade regulation. ► Consumers apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. ► However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. ► The policies for efficient automobile usage are discussed.

  17. A Non-Destructive Distinctive Method for Discrimination of Automobile Lubricant Variety by Visible and Short-Wave Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method which is a combination of wavelet packet transform (WPT, uninformative variable elimination by partial least squares (UVE-PLS and simulated annealing (SA to extract best variance information among different varieties of lubricants is presented. A total of 180 samples (60 for each variety were characterized on the basis of visible and short-wave infrared spectroscopy (VIS-SWNIR, and 90 samples (30 for each variety were randomly selected for the calibration set, whereas, the remaining 90 samples (30 for each variety were used for the validation set. The spectral data was split into different frequency bands by WPT, and different frequency bands were obtained. SA was employed to look for the best variance band (BVB among different varieties of lubricants. In order to improve prediction precision further, BVB was processed by UVE-PLS and the optimal cutoff threshold of UVE was found by SA. Finally, five variables were mined, and were set as inputs for a least square-support vector machine (LS-SVM to build the recognition model. An optimal model with a correlation coefficient (R of 0.9850 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of 0.0827 was obtained. The overall results indicated that the method of combining WPT, UVE-PLS and SA was a powerful way to select diagnostic information for discrimination among different varieties of lubricating oil, furthermore, a more parsimonious and efficient LS-SVM model could be obtained.

  18. Simulation of absorption refrigeration system for automobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Anand

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An automotive air-conditioning system based on absorption refrigeration cycle has been simulated. This waste heat driven vapor absorption refrigeration system is one alternate to the currently used vapour compression refrigeration system for automotive air-conditioning. Performance analysis of vapor absorption refrigeration system has been done by developing a steady-state simulation model to find the limitation of the proposed system. The water-lithium bromide pair is used as a working mixture for its favorable thermodynamic and transport properties compared to the conventional refrigerants utilized in vapor compression refrigeration applications. The pump power required for the proposed vapor absorption refrigeration system was found lesser than the power required to operate the compressor used in the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system. A possible arrangement of the absorption system for automobile application is proposed.

  19. The honeymoon effect in job performance - Temporal increases in the predictive power of achievement motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Sawin, Linda L.; Carsrud, Alan L.

    1986-01-01

    Correlations between a job performance criterion and personality measures reflecting achievement motivation and an interpersonal orientation were examined at three points in time after completion of job training for a sample of airline reservations agents. Although correlations between the personality predictors and performance were small and nonsignificant for the 3-month period after beginning the job, by the end of six and eight months a number of significant relationships had emerged. Implications for the utility of personality measures in selection and performance prediction are discussed.

  20. Differences In Pupils\\' Motivation To Learn Mathematics By Gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study recommends that mathematics teachers should come up with effective motivational techniques, help learners to set up personal standards that enhance intrinsic motivation and explain the importance of mathematics and its application in society. Keywords: Pupils' Motivation, Mathematics, gender. Journal of ...

  1. Wind power - a power source now enabled by power electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin

    2007-01-01

    energy at the end-user should be set up. Deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be increased in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change...

  2. Ready for nuclear energy?: An assessment of capacities and motivations for launching new national nuclear power programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewell, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency reports that as of July 2009 there were 52 countries interested in building their first nuclear power plant. This paper characterizes and evaluates these 'Newcomer Countries' in terms of their capacity and motivations to develop nuclear power. It quantifies factors historically associated with the development of nuclear energy programs and then benchmarks the Newcomers against these data. Countries with established nuclear power programs, particularly where nuclear facilities are privately owned, are typically larger, wealthier and politically stable economies with high government effectiveness. Nuclear power was historically launched during periods of high electricity consumption growth. Other indicators for the potential of nuclear power include: the size of the national grid, the presence of international grid connections and security of fuel supply for electricity production. We identify 10 Newcomers which most closely resemble the Established Nuclear Power Countries and thus are most likely to deploy nuclear energy, 10 countries where the development of nuclear energy is uncertain due to high political instability, 14 countries with lower capacities where pursuing nuclear energy may require especially strong international cooperation and 18 countries where the development of nuclear power is less likely due to their significantly lower capacities and motivations. - Research Highlights: →Historically, nuclear power was used in larger, wealthier, politically stable economies. →Nuclear power was typically launched in periods of high electricity demand growth. →Only 10 out of 52 'Newcomer' countries share similar characteristics. →10 other 'Newcomers' with high motivations and capacities are politically unstable. →Nuclear power would need international help in 14 countries and is unlikely in the rest (18).

  3. Drowsy driving and automobile crashes : report and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Drowsy driving is a serious problem that leads to thousands of automobile crashes each year. This report, sponsored by the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes...

  4. Study of Automobile Market Dynamics : Volume 2. Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    Volume II describes the work in providing statistical inputs to a computer model by examining the effects of various options on the number of automobiles sold; the distribution of sales among small, medium and large cars; the distribution between aut...

  5. The distribution of automobile catalysts-cast platinum, palladium and rhodium in soils adjacent to roads and their uptake by grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooda, P.S.; Miller, A.; Edwards, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of automobile catalysts has raised environmental concern, as this pollution control technology is also an emission source for the platinum group elements (PGE). The main aim of this study was to assess the concentrations of Pt, Pd, Rh and Au in soil and grass herbage collected adjacent to 5 roads. Soil and grass samples were collected from 4 fixed distances (0, 1, 2 and 5 m) from the road edge at each site. PGE and Au were determined by ICP-MS in all samples after acid digestion. The maximum soil Pt, Rh and Pd concentrations were measured at the road perimeters. Averaged across the sites, the Pt and Rh concentrations of 15.9 ± 7.5 μg Pt kg -1 and 22.40 ± 4.73 μg Rh kg -1 at 0-m distance decreased to 2.04 ± 1.7 μg Pt kg -1 and 3.51 ± 1.96 μg Rh kg -1 , respectively at 5-m away from the roads. Pd concentrations were much higher than Pt or Rh, ranging from 120.8 ± 12.0 μg Pd kg -1 (0-m) to 84.2 ± 10.9 μg Pd kg -1 (5-m), possibly due to differences in its use, emission and/or soil chemistry. Au showed little or no change with distance from the roads. However, the average Au concentration of 18.98 ± 0.98 μg Au kg -1 provides clear evidence of some input possibly due to attrition of automobile electronics. No straightforward influence of traffic flow rates on PGE distribution was found. A combination of dispersal impeding local features and slow moving and stop-and-start traffic conditions or fast moving traffic with flat open spaces may have offset the expected impacts. Rh and Pt soil concentration accounted for 66% and 34% (P < 0.01) of the variability observed, respectively in their plant concentrations. Grass Pd and Au concentrations had no relationship with their respective soil concentrations

  6. Does power mobility training impact a child's mastery motivation and spectrum of EEG activity? An exploratory project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Farris, John P; Aldrich, Naomi J; Rhodes, Samhita

    2017-08-30

    The purposes of this exploratory project were: (1) to evaluate the impact of power mobility training with a child who has multiple, severe impairments and (2) to determine if the child's spectrum of electroencephalography (EEG) activity changed during power mobility training. A single-subject A-B-A-B research design was conducted with a four-week duration for each phase. Two target behaviours were explored: (1) mastery motivation assessed via the dimensions of mastery questionnaire (DMQ) and (2) EEG data collected under various conditions. Power mobility skills were also assessed. The participant was a three-year, two-month-old girl with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy, gross motor function classification system level V. Each target behaviour was measured weekly. During intervention phases, power mobility training was provided. Improvements were noted in subscale scores of the DMQ. Short-term and long-term EEG changes were also noted. Improvements were noted in power mobility skills. The participant in this exploratory project demonstrated improvements in power mobility skill and function. EEG data collection procedures and variability in an individual's EEG activity make it difficult to determine if the participant's spectrum of EEG activity actually changed in response to power mobility training. Additional studies are needed to investigate the impact of power mobility training on the spectrum of EEG activity in children who have multiple, severe impairments. Implications for Rehabilitation Power mobility training appeared to be beneficial for a child with multiple, severe impairments though the child may never become an independent, community-based power wheelchair user. Electroencephalography may be a valuable addition to the study of power mobility use in children with multiple, severe impairments. Power mobility training appeared to impact mastery motivation (the internal drive to solve complex problems and master new skills) in a child who has multiple

  7. ESTIMATION OF ECOLOGICAL LOSSES AT ORGANIZATION OF AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. К. Jaroshevich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological safety of automobile transport systems is considered on the basis of the account of transportation process efficiency. It is shown that ecological safety of transportations is estimated to a great extent by the automobile usage level in respect of run and capacity. It is proposed a criterion of a passenger transport system optimality on the basis of carrying capacity proceeding from ecological safety of transportation.

  8. Factors which motivate the use of social networks by students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Sanmamed, Mercedes; Muñoz Carril, Pablo C; Dans Álvarez de Sotomayor, Isabel

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this research was to identify those factors which motivate the use of social networks by 4th year students in Secondary Education between the ages of 15 and 18. 1,144 students from 29 public and private schools took part. The data were analysed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling technique. Versatility was confirmed to be the variable which most influences the motivation of students in their use of social networks. The positive relationship between versatility in the use of social networks and educational uses was also significant. The characteristics of social networks are analysed according to their versatility and how this aspect makes them attractive to students. The positive effects of social networks are discussed in terms of educational uses and their contribution to school learning. There is also a warning about the risks associated with misuse of social networks, and finally, the characteristics and conditions for the development of good educational practice through social networks are identified.

  9. Can urban rail transit curb automobile energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy and the speed of urbanization, China's automobile sector has experienced rapid development. The rapid development of the automobile sector has increased energy consumption. According to the results of this paper, automobile energy consumption accounted for about 10.73% of total energy consumption in China in 2015, about 3.6 times the proportion a decade ago. With the deterioration of urban traffic conditions, relying on expanding the amount of vehicles and city road network cannot solve the problem. Urban rail transit is energy-saving and less-polluting, uses less space, has large capacity, and secure. Urban rail transit, according to the principle of sustainable development, is a green transportation system and should be especially adopted for large and medium-sized cities. The paper uses the binary choice model (Probit and Logit) to analyze the main factors influencing the development of rail transit in Chinese cities, and whether automobile energy consumption is the reason for the construction of urban rail transit. Secondly, we analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption using DID model. The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly, with continuous impact in the second year. - Highlights: • Investigate the main factors influencing the building of rail transit for Chinese cities. • Analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption by DID model. • The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly.

  10. Historical Financial Data - Domestic Automobile Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A historical financial data base was developed for the four major U.S. automobile manufacturers, focusing on the specific operations associated with production and marketing of automobiles and light trucks. The years subject to analysis were 1967-197...

  11. Differences in Study Motivation within and between Genders: An Examination by Gender Typicality among Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantieghem, Wendelien; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2018-01-01

    Despite boys' educational underachievement, gender differences in study motivation have received little research attention. Guided by self-determination theory and the identity-based motivation model, this study investigates differences in study motivation between boys and girls, as well as within each gender. To adequately consider these…

  12. Real division algebras and other algebras motivated by physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkart, G.; Osborn, J.M.

    1981-02-01

    In this survey we discuss several general techniques which have been productive in the study of real division algebras, flexible Lie-admissible algebras, and other nonassociative algebras, and we summarize results obtained using these methods. The principal method involved in this work is to view an algebra A as a module for a semisimple Lie algebra of derivations of A and to use representation theory to study products in A. In the case of real division algebras, we also discuss the use of isotopy and the use of a generalized Peirce decomposition. Most of the work summarized here has appeared in more detail in various other papers. The exceptions are results on a class of algebras of dimension 15, motivated by physics, which admit the Lie algebra sl(3) as an algebra of derivations.

  13. Human punishment is not primarily motivated by inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczyk, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Previous theorizing about punishment has suggested that humans desire to punish inequality per se. However, the research supporting such an interpretation contains important methodological confounds. The main objective of the current experiment was to remove those confounds in order to test whether generating inequality per se is punished. Participants were recruited from an online market to take part in a wealth-alteration game with an ostensible second player. The participants were given an option to deduct from the other player's payment as punishment for their behavior during the game. The results suggest that human punishment does not appear to be motivated by inequality per se, as inequality that was generated without inflicting costs on others was not reliably punished. Instead, punishment seems to respond primarily to the infliction of costs, with inequality only becoming relevant as a secondary input for punishment decisions. The theoretical significance of this finding is discussed in the context of its possible adaptive value.

  14. The Influence of Power and Intimacy Sexual Motives on Sexual Position Preference Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2018-01-01

    We examined the sexual motives underlying sexual self-labels among Chinese men who have sex with men. A total of 60 bottoms, 120 versatiles, and 48 tops participated in a Web-based survey. Our results showed that tops were more likely to desire exerting power over their partners during sex, while bottoms were more likely to desire being overpowered by their partners. There were no significant sexual self-label differences in the sexual motives of wanting intimacy and the desire for pleasure. The intimacy and power ratings differed across sexual activities and sex positions. There was a tendency for sexual positions in which the performer was facing the receiver to be rated as more intimate than those in which the performer was facing away from the receiver, and for individuals who preferred to be insertive to feel more powerful in sexual positions in which their partner was kneeling down or standing than those in which their partner was sitting or lying down. Tops were significantly more likely than bottoms to engage in insertive sexual positions, while bottoms were significantly more likely to engage in receptive sexual positions. Both tops and bottoms were more likely to engage in the corresponding insertive/receptive position when the insertive position was rated as more powerful than the receptive position. Our results suggest that the concordance between sexual self-labels and sexual position preferences may rely on the power difference between the insertive and receptive positions in addition to body characteristics.

  15. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  16. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive) material...

  17. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles. 600... 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.315-82 Classes of comparable automobiles. (a) The Secretary will classify automobiles as passenger automobiles or light trucks (nonpassenger automobiles) in...

  18. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles. 600... 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.315-08 Classes of comparable automobiles. (a) The Secretary will classify automobiles as passenger automobiles or light trucks (nonpassenger automobiles) in...

  19. Corrosion protection and finishing of automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.T.

    2005-01-01

    finishing of automobiles is an important aspect. There have been considerable reductions of weight in automobiles by the use of composites components replacing heavy metallic components. Fenders previously based on metal have been replaced with plastic and painted with the same colour shade as of the metallic body, this has eps for proper adhesion of the paints on the plastic fender to avoid chipping off the paint form it. This paper discusses the necessary processes required for finishing of an automobile along with the corrosion protection measures. Automobiles contains a variety of engineering materials, engine main body fuel tanks connecting rods heat radiators and other mechanical parts are made from different types of engineering alloys having varying chemical compositions. Other parts like dashboard, front panel and other are made from composites. The main body made from cold roll ed steel having various contours 'c' it due to the different designs is the potential site for corrosion attack, The main body is exposed to the hostile environment through out its life period. An automobile is given a particular finish with a view to counter the hostile environments as they are not limited for plying in a limiting conditions and are taken to different weather conditions in one day thus facing severe stresses and strain. Thus it is essential that an automobile before rolling 'out of the assembly line should properly corrosion resistant and aesthetically pleasant also. Finishing for automobiles being very specialized, the main requirement being maximum durability with minimum numbers of coats baked, at the fastest possible schedule. High gloss and range of good eye catching colours being important to increase sales appeal. In the near past the car finishes were based on alkyd-amino resins baking materials and force drying lacquers, which have excellent appearance originally and maintain it on aging. The finishing system for the synthetic baking type may consist of

  20. Selective sequential separation of ABS/HIPS and PVC from automobile and electronic waste shredder residue by hybrid nano-Fe/Ca/CaO assisted ozonisation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Lee, Byoung Ho; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Simion, Cristian

    2017-02-01

    The separation of plastics containing brominated flame retardants (BFR) like (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) from automobile and electronic waste shredder residue (ASR/ESR) are a major concern for thermal recycling. In laboratory scale tests using a hybrid nano-Fe/Ca/CaO assisted ozonation treatment has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics, enhancing ABS wettability and thereby promoting its separation from ASR/ESR by means of froth flotation. The water contact angles, of ABS/HIPS and PVC decreased, about 18.7°, 18.3°, and 17.9° in ASR and about 21.2°, 20.7°, and 20.0° in ESR respectively. SEM-EDS, FT-IR, and XPS analyses demonstrated a marked decrease in [Cl] and a significant increase in the number of hydrophilic groups, such as CO, CO, and (CO)O, on the PVC or ABS surface. Under froth flotation conditions at 50rpm, about 99.1% of combined fraction of ABS/HIPS in ASR samples and 99.6% of ABS/HIPS in ESR samples were separated as settled fraction. After separation, the purity of the recovered combined ABS/HIPS fraction was 96.5% and 97.6% in ASR and ESR samples respectively. Furthermore, at 150rpm a 100% PVC separation in the settled fraction, with 98% and 99% purity in ASR and ESR plastics, respectively. Total recovery of non-ABS/HIPS and PVC plastics reached nearly 100% in the floating fraction. Further, this process improved the quality of recycled ASR/ESR plastics by removing surface contaminants or impurities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrogen: implications for the future automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frise, P. R.; Woodward, W.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The presentation will focus upon the challenges within the automotive manufacturing industry related to the hydrogen fuelled automobile of the future. Challenges and opportunities include issues of power train design and packaging as well as on-road performance capabilities, fuel system packaging and materials for body structures. Due to the size and complexity of the automotive sector, technology changes tend to be evolutionary rather than revolutionary, but changes are being made to today's cars in preparation for the evolution toward the future hydrogen automobile. Real world applications of new technologies will be described that are assisting automakers to prepare for the hydrogen future today. The work will be described in the context of AUTO21, a national Network of Centres of Excellence (NCE), is helping to position Canada as a leader in automotive research and development. More than 250 researchers in 34 Canadian universities and over 110 industry and government partners contribute to AUTO21 through applied research projects in six themes of study ranging from health and societal issues to pure engineering applications. (author)

  2. Substance use by college students: the role of intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation for athletic involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockafellow, Bradley D; Saules, Karen K

    2006-09-01

    Certain types of athletic involvement may confer risk for substance use by college students. This study investigated whether motivational factors play a role in the relationship between athletic involvement and substance use. Intercollegiate athletes (n=98) and exercisers (n=120) were surveyed about substance use and motivation for athletic involvement. Athletes and exercisers who were extrinsically motivated had significantly higher rates of alcohol use than their intrinsically motivated counterparts. Results suggest that college students who are extrinsically motivated for involvement in physical activity/athletics--particularly those involved in team sports--may be in need of targeted prevention efforts. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Evolution of the Automobile Industry in Asian Countries : Principally Focusing on Southeast Asia and India

    OpenAIRE

    Tomozawa, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1990s, new production trends have been evident in the Asian automobile industry. Japan constituted 85.5% of the total amount of the motor vehicles production in Asia in 1990, but that figure fell to 57.6% by 2000. In contrast, China and India have increased their vehicle production thanks to huge foreign direct investment into their automobile sector. Southeast Asian countries, especially Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, have also experienced a rapid growth of the automobile indust...

  4. On-line measurements of nitro organic compounds emitted from automobiles by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry: Laboratory experiments and a field measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, S.; Tanimoto, H.; Fujitani, Y.; Fushimi, A.; Sato, K.; Sekimoto, K.; Yamada, H.; Hori, S.; Shimono, A.; Hikida, T.

    2011-12-01

    On-line measurements of nitro organic compounds in automobile exhaust were carried out by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) with a chassis dynamometer. Diesel vehicles with oxidation catalyst system (diesel vehicle A) and with diesel PM-NOx reduction system ((diesel vehicle B) and a gasoline vehicle were used as a test vehicle. In the case of the diesel vehicle A, the emissions of nitromethane, nitrophenol (NPh), C7-, C8-, C9-, and C10-nitrophenols, and dihydroxynitrobenzenes (DHNB) were observed in the diesel exhaust from the experiment under the constant driving at 60 km hr-1. Temporal variations of mixing ratios for nitromethane, NPh, and DHNB along with related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured during a transient driving cycle. The time-resolved measurement revealed that the nitromethane emission was strongly correlated with the emissions of CO, benzene, and acetone, which are relatively quickly produced in acceleration processes and appeared as sharp peaks. On the other hand, the NPh emission was moderately correlated with the emissions of acetic acid and phenol, which peaks were broad. The emission of nitromethane was observed from the exhaust of the diesel vehicle B but the emission of other nitro organic compounds was not observed. This suggests that the emission of nitro organic compounds besides nitromethane may depend on the diesel exhaust aftertreatment devices. The emission of nitromethane was also observed from the exhaust of the gasoline vehicle with cold start. An in-situ measurement of nitro organic compounds and their related VOCs was carried out at the crossing of an urban city, Kawasaki. Nitromethane was observed at the crossing and we found that the concentration of nitrometane varied rapidly. During the measurement, the maximum of the concentration of nitrometane reached 5 ppbv. Not only nitrophenols but also nitroaromatics were sometimes detected in the field measurement.

  5. Predictive power of task orientation, general self-efficacy and self-determined motivation on fun and boredom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ruiz-González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to test the predictive power of dispositional orientations, general self-efficacy and self-determined motivation on fun and boredom in physical education classes, with a sample of 459 adolescents between 13 and 18 with a mean age of 15 years (SD = 0.88. The adolescents responded to four Likert scales: Perceptions of Success Questionnaire, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Sport Motivation Scale and Intrinsic Satisfaction Questionnaire in Sport. The results showed the structural regression model showed that task orientation and general self-efficacy positively predicted self-determined motivation and this in turn positively predicted more fun and less boredom in physical education classes. Consequently, the promotion of an educational task-oriented environment where learners perceive their progress and make them feel more competent, will allow them to overcome the intrinsically motivated tasks, and therefore they will have more fun. Pedagogical implications for less boredom and more fun in physical education classes are discussed.

  6. Energy autonomous sensors in the automobile; Energieautarke Sensorik im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehne, Ingo [Hochschule Heilbronn (Germany). Studiengang Energieoekologie; Schreiter, Matthias [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Li, Xiaoming [Daimler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany); Hehn, Thorsten [Hahn-Schickard-Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Forschung e.V., Freiburg (Germany). HSG-IMIT, Inst. fuer Mikro- und Informationstechnik; Thewes, Marcell; Scholl, Gerd [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ., Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany); Wagner, Dieter [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); Manoli, Yiannos [Univ. Freiburg (Germany). IMTEK; Frey, Alexander [Hochschule Augsburg (Germany). Fakultaet Elektrotechnik

    2013-04-01

    A brief outline of energy autonomous sensors in the automobile is given. For this purpose the variety of sensors in today's automotive vehicles is reported. The rationale for the deployment of energy autonomous sensors is given. In addition the potential of using environmental energy and the possibilities of their energy conversion are presented. As part of the funded project ASYMOF, two pioneer applications - a tire pressure monitoring and an anti-theft alarm system - are studied and discussed.

  7. Selected environmental impacts of energy use by the automobile sector: Findings from a project focussed on Johannesburg and Cape Town

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mapako, M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available change and air pollution with the attendant negative impacts on the climate and human health. In view of this, the South African National Energy Research Institute (SANERI) supported a project, executed by the CSIR, to look at the impact of energy use...

  8. Anticipating the friction coefficient of friction materials used in automobiles by means of machine learning without using a test instrument

    OpenAIRE

    TİMUR, Mustafa; AYDIN, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    The most important factor for designs in which friction materials are used is the coefficient of friction. The coefficient of friction has been determined taking such variants as velocity, temperature, and pressure into account, which arise from various factors in friction materials, and by analyzing the effects of these variants on friction materials. Many test instruments have been produced in order to determine the coefficient of friction. In this article, a study about the use ...

  9. Inequality, discrimination, and the power of the status quo: Direct evidence for a motivation to see the way things are as the way they should be.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Aaron C; Gaucher, Danielle; Peach, Jennifer M; Laurin, Kristin; Friesen, Justin; Zanna, Mark P; Spencer, Steven J

    2009-09-01

    How powerful is the status quo in determining people's social ideals? The authors propose (a) that people engage in injunctification, that is, a motivated tendency to construe the current status quo as the most desirable and reasonable state of affairs (i.e., as the most representative of how things should be); (b) that this tendency is driven, at least in part, by people's desire to justify their sociopolitical systems; and (c) that injunctification has profound implications for the maintenance of inequality and societal change. Four studies, across a variety of domains, provided supportive evidence. When the motivation to justify the sociopolitical system was experimentally heightened, participants injunctified extant (a) political power (Study 1), (b) public funding policies (Study 2), and (c) unequal gender demographics in the political and business spheres (Studies 3 and 4, respectively). It was also demonstrated that this motivated phenomenon increased derogation of those who act counter to the status quo (Study 4). Theoretical implications for system justification theory, stereotype formation, affirmative action, and the maintenance of inequality are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Performance investigation and design optimization of a thermoelectric generator applied in automobile exhaust waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jing-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Wei-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model for automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator system is proposed. • Based on the system reliability, the counter flow cooling pattern is recommended. • There exists an optimal thermoelectric unit number to maximize system output power. • Better performance is predicted with less thermoelectric materials consumption. - Abstract: This work develops a multiphysics thermoelectric generator model for automobile exhaust waste heat recovery, in which the exhaust heat source and water-cooling heat sink are actually modeled. Special emphasis is put on the non-uniformity of temperature difference across thermoelectric units along the streamwise direction, which may affect the performance of exhaust thermoelectric generator systems significantly. The main findings are: (1) The counter flow cooling pattern is recommended, although it cannot elevate the overall output power as compared with the parallel flow counterpart, it reduces the temperature non-uniformity effectively, and hence ensures the system reliability. (2) The temperature non-uniformity strikingly deteriorates the output power of thermoelectric unit along the streamwise direction; meanwhile, an additional lateral heat conduction effect exists within the exhaust channel wall, the both mechanisms leads to that the maximum output power of the system is not enhanced but is actually reduced when too many thermoelectric units are adopted. (3) When the exhaust channel length is fixed, the maximum output power of the system can be elevated by increasing the thermoelectric unit number but keeping thermoelectric unit spacing unchanged. This means that the system performance can be improved under the condition of less thermoelectric materials consumption.

  11. The power of competence support: The impact of coaches and athlete leaders on intrinsic motivation and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, K; Boen, F; Vansteenkiste, M; Mertens, N; Vande Broek, G

    2018-02-01

    Grounded in the Cognitive Evaluation Theory, a mini-theory of Self-Determination Theory, this experimental field study sought to examine the impact of competence support of both coaches and athlete leaders on athletes' competence satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, and subjective as well as objective performance. Male basketball players (N = 120) were allocated to groups of 5 players. These groups were then randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 experimental conditions. In these experimental conditions, either the coach, the athlete leader, or both provided motivational feedback to their team. The provision of motivational feedback by either the coach or the athlete leader was sufficient to increase athletes' competence satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, and objective performance (i.e., enhanced execution time without a decrease in scoring percentage) relative to the control group. Interestingly, when both the coach and the athlete leader provided competence support, a surplus effect was observed on objective performance compared with when only the coach provided competence support. Furthermore, structural equation modeling revealed that players' competence satisfaction mediated the relationship between the provided competence support and players' intrinsic motivation, while a direct effect was observed on objective performance. In conclusion, the study findings indicate that also athlete leaders can adopt a motivating role, and that by doing so, their impact is as strong as the impact of the coach. Both coaches and athlete leaders can thus boost athletes' objective performance and foster competence satisfaction, with the latter resulting in increased intrinsic motivation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Science motivation by discussion and controversy (SMDC) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Dina; Mora Ley, César Eduardo; Ramírez Díaz, Mario Humberto

    2017-05-01

    Succeeding theories and empirical investigations have often been built over conceptual understanding to develop talent education. Opportunities provided by society are crucial at every point in the talent-development process. Abilities differ and can vary among boys and girls. Although they have some responsibility for their own growth and development, the educational system and psychosocial variables influence on the successful development of high levels of education. This research explores students’ attitudes to science education to establish why many disengage with the subject in class and what can be done to reverse this trend to produce unimaginable scientific and practical benefits to society. The control group is students from several schools with traditional education in Iran and the experimental group is teams who have taken part in several activities such as national and international tournaments (2005-2013). This research has two parts: 1—how innovation in teaching and 2—discussion and controversy in class can improve science education and cause motivation. The average scores are divided into 5 ranges in both experimental and traditional groups. As shown by Spearman’s correlation rank (ρ) the difference between boys’ and girls’ average scores is about (2.71) in the control group but it has decreased to (0.29) in the experimental group. The main point of discussion is on problems in class which advance a set of interrelated scientific arguments for outstanding achievement.

  13. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    development for the combinations. Overall, none of the alternatives emerges as a clear winner, lowering the externalities and improving sustainability, while considering technology issues and vehicle attributes. The majority of the alternatives are not likely to displace the baseline automobile. However, the attractiveness of the alternatives depends on the focus of future regulations, government priorities, and technology development. If long-term global sustainability is the principal concern, then improvements in fuel economy alone will not provide the level of reduction in impact required. A switch to renewable fuels (e.g., alcohols or diesel produced from biomass) to power the vehicles will likely be necessary. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  14. Modernization of the Russian Automobile Road Network on the Base of Innovative Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Zhukov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main goal of the article is to build a conceptual model for the organization of effective functioning of the points of economic and innovative growth of the region in modern conditions, taking into account regional and municipal limitations of internal and external nature, with the aim of ensuring economic security, effective interaction of subjects of the "business-power" system Taking into account the influence of institutional factors. Methods: in the present study the following methods were used: systemic approach, methods of social diagnosis, comparative analysis, method of expert evaluations, and method of statistical processing of information. Results: the short characteristic of modern development and technical level of the Russian automobile roads network as the important part of the automobile roads material-technical base is presented. Realization process of the actual task putted by Russian President V.V. Putin to transport builders: two times increasing construction of automobile roads is analyzed. The reality of decision this task due to modernization roads economy material-technical base on the base of innovative technologies and progressive world experience in the field of roads construction is scientifically proved. Conclusions and Relevance: in spite of losing now in decision of the actual task putted by Russian President V.V. Putin to transport builders: two times increasing construction of automobile roads, nevertheless the real possibilities to reach the important aim still remain. It may be done only due to scientifically grounded modernization of the roads economy material-technical base on the base of innovative technologies and progressive world experience in the field of roads construction 

  15. Optimizing the Power of Choice: Supporting Student Autonomy to Foster Motivation and Engagement in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Miriam; Boucher, Alyssa R.

    2015-01-01

    Choice plays a critical role in promoting students' intrinsic motivation and deep engagement in learning. Across a range of academic outcomes and student populations, positive impacts have been seen when student autonomy is promoted through meaningful and personally relevant choice. This article presents a theoretical perspective on the…

  16. The Power of Social and Motivational Relationships for Test-Anxious Adolescents' Academic Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufelder, Diana; Hoferichter, Frances; Schneeweiss, David; Wood, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    Based on cognitive evaluation theory (CET) and organismic integration theory (OIT)--both sub-theories of self-determination theory (SDT)--the present study examined whether the academic self-regulation of youth with test anxiety can be strengthened through social and motivational relationships with peers and teachers. This study employed a large…

  17. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-10-01

    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  18. Motivating medical students by utilizing dermatology-oriented online quizzes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzler, Elaine; Graham, Jacqueline; Mostow, Eliot

    2016-06-15

    Online quiz competitions can facilitate extra-classroom interactions between faculty and medical students. Owing to decreased class attendance nationwide, teaching faculty might revamp their approach to medical education by providing online resources and methods for communication. To explore if the use of online quizzes and social media can result in improved interactions between faculty and students. A pilot study conducted from April 7th, 2015 to June 11th, 2015 at Northeast Ohio Medical University (NEOMED) among participants from the second year medical school class. Ten one-question quizzes created using Google Forms were announced over Twitter and email at the rate of one quiz per week. The first correct responder of each quiz chose a five-dollar coffee shop gift card, movie ticket, or a meeting with a NEOMED faculty person as their prize. An average of 23.8% of the second year medical student class at NEOMED participated per quiz. A total of 80 individuals (55.9%) submitted 340 responses during the competition. This is a single-center study with a limited sample size. This study presents a process evaluation for the use of online quiz competitions amongst medical students. Optional online quizzes with small incentives may foster motivational competition among medical students, increase online interactions with faculty, and serve as study material for exams.

  19. CHINESE AUTOMOBILE ENTERPRISE STRATEGY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Phd. Candidate Mrs. Chai Feng xia

    2015-01-01

    China's auto industry also had a golden decade of explosive growth. In 2009, China's auto market has exceeded the United States, the wo rld's largest car market, and in 2013, China's auto production both breaks t hrough twenty million. However, through the presentation of China's auto m arket booming, we should be acutely aware that the status of China's automobile industry in the global automotive industry value chain is still very low, this paper did analysis regarding the current situation...

  20. Automobile technology of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiffert, U.; Walzer, P.

    1990-01-01

    Looking ahead to the year 2000, this fascinating publication takes an in-depth look at new technology which will impact the passenger car of tomorrow. New developments in the areas of performance, reliability, comfort, fuel economy, safety, and environmental compatibility are examined. In this book the authors offer analysis on subjects such as the impact of legislation, the acceptance of ABS, and features of the future dashboard. Offering insight to readers with both technical and general interest in automobiles

  1. Motivation for social contact in horses measured by operant conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva; Jensen, Margit Bak; Nicol, Christine J.

    2011-01-01

    Although horses are social animals they are often housed individually with limited social contact to other horses and this may compromise their welfare. The present study included eight young female horses and investigated the strength of motivation for access to full social contact, head contact...... test session was recorded. All horses could access all three types of social contact in a cross-over design, and an empty arena was used as control. Motivational strength was assessed using elasticity of demand functions, which were estimated based on the number of rewards earned and FR. Elasticities...... the restriction on social contact (full > head > muzzle). However, the finding that horses showed a similar and high motivation for all three types of social contact suggests that they are valued equally highly in a situation where the alternative is no social contact....

  2. Mathematical formalization of theories of motivation proposed by Maslow and Herzberg

    OpenAIRE

    Kotliarov,Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Maslow's theory is by far the most known theory of motivation, and the most common in the business and management practice. Herzberg's theory fits the observations and explains some aspects of human motivation left unexplained by Maslow. However, these theories have never been formalized on a strictly mathematical basis. The present article gives an outline of a mathematical model of theories of motivation proposed by Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. This model is built on a basis of sp...

  3. Mitigation of Power System Oscillation Caused by Wind Power Fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    Wind power is increasingly integrated in modern power grids, which brings new challenges to the power system operation. Wind power is fluctuating because of the uncertain nature of wind, whereas wind shear and tower shadow effects also cause periodic fluctuations. These may lead to serious forced...... oscillation when the frequencies of the periodic fluctuations are close to the natural oscillation frequencies of the connected power system. By using modal analysis and time-domain simulations, this study studies the forced oscillation caused by the wind shear and tower shadow effects. Three forced...... oscillation mitigation controllers are proposed and compared. A model of direct-drive-full-convertor-based wind farm connected to the IEEE 10-machine 39-bus system is adopted as the test system. The calculations and simulations are conducted in DIgSILENT PowerFactory 14.0. Results are presented to show...

  4. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; LaBar, Kevin S; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-10-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Distinct medial temporal networks encode surprise during motivation by reward versus punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive motivated behavior requires predictive internal representations of the environment, and surprising events are indications for encoding new representations of the environment. The medial temporal lobe memory system, including the hippocampus and surrounding cortex, encodes surprising events and is influenced by motivational state. Because behavior reflects the goals of an individual, we investigated whether motivational valence (i.e., pursuing rewards versus avoiding punishments) also impacts neural and mnemonic encoding of surprising events. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants encountered perceptually unexpected events either during the pursuit of rewards or avoidance of punishments. Despite similar levels of motivation across groups, reward and punishment facilitated the processing of surprising events in different medial temporal lobe regions. Whereas during reward motivation, perceptual surprises enhanced activation in the hippocampus, during punishment motivation surprises instead enhanced activation in parahippocampal cortex. Further, we found that reward motivation facilitated hippocampal coupling with ventromedial PFC, whereas punishment motivation facilitated parahippocampal cortical coupling with orbitofrontal cortex. Behaviorally, post-scan testing revealed that reward, but not punishment, motivation resulted in greater memory selectivity for surprising events encountered during goal pursuit. Together these findings demonstrate that neuromodulatory systems engaged by anticipation of reward and punishment target separate components of the medial temporal lobe, modulating medial temporal lobe sensitivity and connectivity. Thus, reward and punishment motivation yield distinct neural contexts for learning, with distinct consequences for how surprises are incorporated into predictive mnemonic models of the environment. PMID:26854903

  6. Modeling motive activation in the Operant Motives Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, J. Malte; Lang, Jonas W. B.; Engeser, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The Operant Motive Test (OMT) is a picture-based procedure that asks respondents to generate imaginative verbal behavior that is later coded for the presence of affiliation, power, and achievement-related motive content by trained coders. The OMT uses a larger number of pictures and asks...

  7. Development of automobile tyre lateral runout measurement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xie; Ye, Lingjian; Yao, Guanghui; Wang, Di; Zhi, Xiongfei

    2013-10-01

    Automobile tyre lateral runout is one of the important indexes to measure the quality of the tyre, it will affect the safety of the automobile in moving. This paper introduces a sensor for automobile tyre lateral runout measurement. The variation of the automobile tyre lateral runout causes the change of guide rod probe displacement and deforms of the cantilever beam which connects with the guide bar. The deformation of the cantilever beam leads to the change of the resistance value of strain gauge which is pasted on the cantilever beam. Through measuring circuit, the resistance value of the strain gauge is converted into output voltage that has a certain relationship with automobile tyre lateral runout. Then, the voltage signal is transformed by A/D convertor and send to SCM to process and display the value of runout. Meanwhile, SCM output control signal to control the actuator and adjust the equipment running status in real time so as to ensure the tyre lateral runout is within the allowed range.

  8. Moral motivation in defending classmates victimized by bullying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kollerová, Lenka; Janošová, Pavlína; Říčan, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2015), s. 297-309 ISSN 1740-5629 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2325 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Adolescence * Defending * Moral motivation * Peer relations * Prosocial behaviour Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2015

  9. Value-Expressive Volunteer Motivation and Volunteering by Older Adults: Relationships With Religiosity and Spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A; O'Rourke, Holly P; Keller, Brian; Johnson, Kathryn A; Enders, Craig

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the interplay among religiosity, spirituality, value-expressive volunteer motivation, and volunteering. We examined religiosity and spirituality as predictors of value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering and whether religiosity moderated the relations between (a) spirituality and value-expressive volunteer motivation and (b) value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering. After applying multiple imputation procedures to data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study among participants 64-67 years old who survived beyond 2004 (N = 8,148), we carried out regression analyses to predict value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering from religiosity and spirituality controlling for demographic variables, physical, emotional, and cognitive health, health risk behaviors, and personality traits. Both religiosity and spirituality were significant (p volunteer motivation. Value-expressive volunteer motivation and religiosity were significant (p volunteering. Religiosity amplified the relation between value-expressive volunteer motivation and volunteering (p volunteer motivation (p > .45). Religiosity may provide the way, and value-expressive volunteer motivation the will, to volunteer. The implications of our findings for the forecasted shortage of older volunteers are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) automotive auxiliary power unit (APU) fueled by gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMinco, C.; Mukerjee, S.; Grieve, J.; Faville, M.; Noetzel, J.; Perry, M.; Horvath, A.; Prediger, D.; Pastula, M.; Boersma, R.; Ghosh, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the development progress of a 3 to 5 auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a gasoline fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This fuel cell was supplied reformate gas (reactant) by a partial oxidation (POx) catalytic reformer utilizing liquid gasoline and designed by Delphi Automotive Systems. This reformate gas consists mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen and was fed directly in to the SOFC stack without any additional fuel reformer processing. The SOFC stack was developed by Global Thermoelectric and operates around 700 o C. This automotive APU produces power to support future 42 volt vehicle electrical architectures and loads. The balance of the APU, designed by Delphi Automotive Systems, employs a packaging and insulation design to facilitate installation and operation on-board automobiles. (author)

  11. Effect of Topology Structure on the Output Performance of an Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, W.; Quan, S. H.; Xie, C. J.; Ran, B.; Li, X. L.; Wang, L.; Jiao, Y. T.; Xu, T. W.

    2017-05-01

    The majority of the thermal energy released in an automotive internal combustion cycle is exhausted as waste heat through the tail pipe. This paper describes an automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG), designed to recycle automobile waste heat. A model of the output characteristics of each thermoelectric device was established by testing their open circuit voltage and internal resistance, and combining the output characteristics. To better describe the relationship, the physical model was transformed into a topological model. The connection matrix was used to describe the relationship between any two thermoelectric devices in the topological structure. Different topological structures produced different power outputs; their output power was maximised by using an iterative algorithm to optimize the series-parallel electrical topology structure. The experimental results have shown that the output power of the optimal topology structure increases by 18.18% and 29.35% versus that of a pure in-series or parallel topology, respectively, and by 10.08% versus a manually defined structure (based on user experience). The thermoelectric conversion device increased energy efficiency by 40% when compared with a traditional car.

  12. Thoughts about automotive industry in 2050 with respect to the objective of division by 4 of CO{sub 2} emissions; Reflexions sur l'automobile de 2050 face a l'objectif de division du CO{sub 2} par le facteur 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douaud, A.

    2005-07-01

    The long-term strategy of the automotive industry is to minimize its CO{sub 2} emissions and to progressively abandon petroleum. Today, the diesel technology is the most efficient in terms of CO{sub 2} emissions and the hybrid technology will be the medium-term challenge with the development of biofuels and synthetic fuels from biomass. According to the author, there is no certitude that the hydrogen fuel cell will be tomorrows' automobile engine and the nuclear option would be necessary to produce huge quantities of hydrogen without CO{sub 2} emissions. The alternate strategies with interesting potentialities remain the electric-powered vehicle supplied with batteries or supplied with methanol fuel cells, methanol being obtained by biomass transformation. (J.S.)

  13. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and includes... the automobile's manufacturer or with simple tools, such as screwdrivers and wrenches, so as to create... standard equipment, permit expanded use of the automobile for cargo-carrying purposes or other nonpassenger...

  14. Impact of air conditioning system operation on increasing gases emissions from automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, S. M.; Coman, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the influence of air conditioning system operation on the increase of gases emissions from cars. The study focuses on urban operating regimes of the automobile, regimes when the engines have low loads or are operating at idling. Are presented graphically the variations of pollution emissions (CO, CO2, HC) depending of engine speed and the load on air conditioning system. Additionally are presented, injection duration, throttle position, the mechanical power required by the compressor of air conditioning system and the refrigerant pressure variation on the discharge path, according to the stage of charging of the air conditioning system.

  15. Geotechnical Monitoring of the Automobile Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsiy, Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    In the present article, the results of geotechnical monitoring of A-147 automobile road “Dzhubga-Sochi” are given. Some sections of the automobile road suffered from the landslide adjustment movements; it resulted in many deformations of the retaining structures, the damages of the roadbed and ground crawling over the retaining walls. The observation data made it possible to specify the borders of the active landslide and to form a forecast of the landslide activity in the sections of the automobile roads. Due to monitoring being carried out, there was substantiated the necessity to correct the service forms and records connected with the automobile road reconstruction.

  16. The construction of a Danish automobile culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation.......The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation....

  17. Endocrine and aggressive responses to competition are moderated by contest outcome, gender, individual versus team competition, and implicit motives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon K Oxford

    . They also suggest that while aggression is strongly affected by situational factors in the context of a competition, it has no direct association with motivational and hormonal correlates of dominance (nPower, T, E and instead is associated with (mostly low levels of C.

  18. Exploring the motivation jungle: Predicting performance on a novel task by investigating constructs from different motivation perspectives in tandem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuland, H.J.C. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Martens, R.L.; Boekaerts, M.

    2010-01-01

    Different theoretical viewpoints on motivation make it hard to decide which model has the best potential to provide valid predictions on classroom performance. This study was designed to explore motivation constructs derived from different motivation perspectives that predict performance on a novel

  19. Microwave power transmission by satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keydel, W.

    The MPTS (microwave power transmission system) is examined with regard to the problems involved, the proposed solutions, the future outlook, and the necessity for further work. The MPTS is analyzed with regard to system considerations, design considerations (power transmission, frequency selection, power generation, the spacetenna, microwave propagation problems, the rectenna, and efficiency), environmental impacts (electromagnetic compatibility and RF interference, and health and ecological effects). It is concluded that the MPTS is feasible, but that further studies are needed to optimize the system with respect to such factors as efficiency and environmental impact.

  20. Automobile wheel clearance estimation using magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, A.; Lacoume, J.-L.; Blanpain, R.; Dauvé, S.; Serviere, C.

    2012-01-01

    With development and miniaturization of magnetic sensors for several years, it is now possible to imagine new applications using magnetic measures for monitoring and diagnostics. In this article this new way of research and development is presented with a concrete example concerning monitoring of wheels in an automobile. Our approach consists in using the low magnetic field created by the metallic elements of the wheel in order to localize them with low-cost high-sensitivity miniature magnetic sensors. The measures are made via a sensor network set up on a vehicle around the wheel. Then we use a physical model of the wheel in order to interpret the signals we get from the sensors. This method shows the interest of the magnetic measurement for monitoring in automobile. In this paper we present the magnetic signal created by a wheel, the mechanical model of the wheel and we present how we use them for an application: the real-time estimation of the distance between wheels and chassis (wheel clearance).

  1. OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Jha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine.

  2. OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Jha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine. muffler, noise, vibration,modal analysis,

  3. The Automobiles as Indoors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul Acar Vaizoglu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review we aimed to attract attention to toxic chemicals in cars and their effect on health. People spend most of their times in indoors such as houses, workplaces, malls, sport centers, train, transportation vehicles (train, plane, cars. In US, citizens spend nearly 100 minutes in cars per day. There are safety problems in cars except than seatbelt and airbag. Some of these are seats, furnishing, cushions for arm and head, floor covering, accessories and plastic parts. In a study conducted in Japan, more than 160 volatile organic compounds (VOC had been determined in new cars and a three years old car. Some of the pollutants are formaldehyde, toluen, xylene, ethylbenzene and styrene. Also Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, which may be degradated by sunshine in hot seasons are measured within the outomobiles. There is a big gap of studies about the pollutants in cars and researches have to be conducted. Manufacturers should use nonhazardous material or less toxic chemicals to reduce exposure of VOCs, PBDEs and phthalates. Drivers can reduce the these chemicals by using solar reflectors and avoiding to park under sunlight. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 665-672

  4. Differences by Gender in Predictors of Motivation Among Substance Abuse Treatment Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Liana R; Caudy, Michael; Blasko, Brandy L; Taxman, Faye S

    2017-03-21

    Substance-involved females tend to have different clinical profiles than men (Adams, Leukefeld, & Peden, 2008 ); yet they do not appear to have worse treatment outcomes (Green, 2006 ; Hser, Huang, Teruya, & Anglin, 2003 ). As motivation for treatment is considered essential in the substance abuse treatment context (Cahill, Adinoff, Hosig, Muller, & Pulliam, 2003 ; Longshore & Teruya, 2006 ), it is possible that higher motivation among females could potentially counteract the negative effect of more risk factors. The purpose of the current study was to examine if females differ from males in their motivation for treatment using the Texas Christian University Motivation Form scales: desire for help, problem recognition, treatment readiness, pressure for treatment, and treatment needs; and whether factors predicting motivation for treatment differed between male and female participants of substance abuse treatment. The sample included 2,989 substance-involved males and 982 substance-involved females who were referred to substance abuse treatment through a case management program. Linear regression models predicting each motivation scale were analyzed, followed by gender-specific models. Overall, the results did not demonstrate a significant gender difference in the motivation scales. However, among male participants, the findings did show that Hispanic significantly predicted desire for help and alcohol as a primary drug of choice predicted treatment readiness. Findings suggest that motivation for treatment may be a gender-neutral construct, and that there is a need to better understand sociodemographic predictors of motivation.

  5. Assessing Cognitive Distraction in the Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Turrill, Jonna; Cooper, Joel M; Coleman, James R; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Biondi, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to establish a systematic framework for measuring and understanding cognitive distraction in the automobile. Driver distraction from secondary in-vehicle activities is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Across three studies, participants completed eight in-vehicle tasks commonly performed by the driver of an automobile. Primary, secondary, subjective, and physiological measures were collected and integrated into a cognitive distraction scale. In-vehicle activities, such as listening to the radio or an audio book, were associated with a low level of cognitive workload; the conversation activities of talking to a passenger in the vehicle or conversing with a friend on a handheld or hands-free cell phone were associated with a moderate level of cognitive workload; and using a speech-to-text interfaced e-mail system involved a high level of cognitive workload. The research established that there are significant impairments to driving that stem from the diversion of attention from the task of operating a motor vehicle and that the impairments to driving are directly related to the cognitive workload of these in-vehicle activities. Moreover, the adoption of voice-based systems in the vehicle may have unintended consequences that adversely affect traffic safety. These findings can be used to help inform scientifically based policies on driver distraction, particularly as they relate to cognitive distraction stemming from the diversion of attention to other concurrent activities in the vehicle. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  6. Visual perception affected by motivation and alertness controlled by a noninvasive brain-computer interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A Maksimenko

    Full Text Available The influence of motivation and alertness on brain activity associated with visual perception was studied experimentally using the Necker cube, which ambiguity was controlled by the contrast of its ribs. The wavelet analysis of recorded multichannel electroencephalograms (EEG allowed us to distinguish two different scenarios while the brain processed the ambiguous stimulus. The first scenario is characterized by a particular destruction of alpha rhythm (8-12 Hz with a simultaneous increase in beta-wave activity (20-30 Hz, whereas in the second scenario, the beta rhythm is not well pronounced while the alpha-wave energy remains unchanged. The experiments were carried out with a group of financially motivated subjects and another group of unpaid volunteers. It was found that the first scenario occurred mainly in the motivated group. This can be explained by the increased alertness of the motivated subjects. The prevalence of the first scenario was also observed in a group of subjects to whom images with higher ambiguity were presented. We believe that the revealed scenarios can occur not only during the perception of bistable images, but also in other perceptual tasks requiring decision making. The obtained results may have important applications for monitoring and controlling human alertness in situations which need substantial attention. On the base of the obtained results we built a brain-computer interface to estimate and control the degree of alertness in real time.

  7. Motivational Factors in Career Decisions Made by Chinese Science Museum Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jiao; Anderson, David; Wu, Xinchun

    2016-01-01

    Conceptualized by the self-determination theory, this interpretive study examined 23 museum educators' perspectives from five Chinese science museums to understand their work motivation in relation to their professional practice of working in museums. Research outcomes showed that, Chinese science museum educators' work motivation followed a…

  8. Motivating programming students by Problem Based Learning and LEGO robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Coto Chotto, Mayela; Mora, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Retention of first year students in Computer Science is a concern for universities internationally. Especially programming courses are regarded as difficult, and often have the highest failure and dropout rates. The Informatics School at Universidad Nacional in Costa Rica is not an exception...... students programming skills and motivation for learning in an introductory programming course. The paper reports the results related with one of the components of the study - the experiential qualities of the three learning designs. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey with 229 students...

  9. The Role of Technical Innovation and Sustainability on Energy Consumption: A Case Study on the Taiwanese Automobile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wu Chou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global warming and climate change is one of the most critical challenges of the 21st century. The greenhouse effect caused by technological development and industrial pollution has accelerated the speed of global warming. The continuous improvement in automobile energy consumption is one of the most effective ways to reduce global warming. A comparative analysis is proposed to examine the various automobiles that utilize technological innovation to improve their energy consumption. Their contribution to CO2 emissions is then investigated. This study focuses on technical innovation and output power of a conventional engine. The results indicate that innovative engines (such as the Ford turbo petrol/diesel engine, the EcoBoost/TDCi have improved energy consumption and reduce CO2 emissions. In addition, the Toyota hybrid vehicles have also improved energy consumption and reduced greenhouse gases emissions.

  10. Optimal Power Flow Control by Rotary Power Flow Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAZEMI, A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new power flow model for rotary power flow controller (RPFC. RPFC injects a series voltage into the transmission line and provides series compensation and phase shifting simultaneously. Therefore, it is able to control the transmission line impedance and the active power flow through it. An RPFC is composed mainly of two rotary phase shifting transformers (RPST and two conventional (series and shunt transformers. Structurally, an RPST consists of two windings (stator and rotor windings. The rotor windings of the two RPSTs are connected in parallel and their stator windings are in series. The injected voltage is proportional to the vector sum of the stator voltages and so its amplitude and angle are affected by the rotor position of the two RPSTs. This paper, describes the steady state operation and single-phase equivalent circuit of the RPFC. Also in this paper, a new power flow model, based on power injection model of flexible ac transmission system (FACTS controllers, suitable for the power flow analysis is introduced. Proposed model is used to solve optimal power flow (OPF problem in IEEE standard test systems incorporating RPFC and the optimal settings and location of the RPFC is determined.

  11. Assessment of the Problems of Manual Automobile Tyre Bead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tyre-rim bead bond must be broken to carry out repairs on a failed automobile tyre. The use of the locally fabricated manual bead breaking equipment as it is being practiced today by commercial tyre repair artisans in Nigeria is characterized by drudgery. This article reports a study of the local manual bead breaking ...

  12. Import of electric power increased by 19 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The import of electric power increased by 19% in 1999. Due to the decrease in the electric power export the net import of electric power increased even more. Electric power import from Sweden was 6000 GWh, import from Russia 5200 GWh and import from Norway 100 GWh. The electric power export in 1999 was only 200 GWh. The generation of nuclear power increased 5% and the consumption of wood-based fuels by 3%. The increase in nuclear power generation is based on increment of the power output capacities of the power plants. The consumption of peat decreased by 12% and the production of hydroelectric power by 15%. The decrement of the peat consumption is based on the changes in energy taxation. The production of hydroelectric power decreased to the normal level after the rainy year 1998. Oil consumption remained nearly the same as in 1998 even though the national product increased in 1999 by 3.5%. The wind power generation was doubled in 1999. The share of it is still only about 0.01% of the total energy consumption. Carbon dioxide emissions from coal and peat, decreased by 1.0 million tons, down to 56 million tons. The present emissions are now only about 2 million tons higher than during the reference year 1990. The emissions have decreased by 5 million tons since 1996 when they were at their highest

  13. Wind driven mobile charging of automobile battery- A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V) automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of ...

  14. Motivational power of future time perspective: Meta-analyses in education, work, and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) may predict individual attitudes and behaviors. However, FTP research includes different FTP conceptualizations and outcomes which hinder generalizing its findings. To solve the inconsistencies in FTP research and generalize the magnitude of FTP as a driver of motivation and behavior, we conducted the first systematical synthesis of FTP relationships in three crucial life domains. Our meta-analyses of FTP studies in education (k = 28), work (k = 17), and health (k = 32) involved N = 31,558 participants, and used a conceptual model for grouping FTP constructs. To address different outcome types, we applied the Theory of Planned Behavior when coding the studies. FTP relationships with outcomes were small-to-medium, were generalizable across domains, and were strongest when the FTP construct included a mixture of cognition, behavioral intention, and affect and, in education, when the FTP measure was domain specific rather than general. There were cross-cultural differences in FTP-outcome relationships. The strength of the FTP-outcome types relationship varied for attitudes, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention, and behaviors. The lowest effect sizes were found for FTP predicting actual behaviors in education, work, and health and between FTP and health attitudes. Theoretical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed. PMID:29364917

  15. Mathematical formalization of theories of motivation proposed by Maslow and Herzberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kotliarov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Maslow's theory is by far the most known theory of motivation, and the most common in the business and management practice. Herzberg's theory fits the observations and explains some aspects of human motivation left unexplained by Maslow. However, these theories have never been formalized on a strictly mathematical basis. The present article gives an outline of a mathematical model of theories of motivation proposed by Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. This model is built on a basis of special non-continuous functions. This description may be a good basis for HR software and may be useful for business and management.

  16. Are health workers motivated by income? Job motivation of Cambodian primary health workers implementing performance-based financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keovathanak Khim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Financial incentives are widely used in performance-based financing (PBF schemes, but their contribution to health workers’ incomes and job motivation is poorly understood. Cambodia undertook health sector reform from the middle of 2009 and PBF was employed as a part of the reform process. Objective: This study examines job motivation for primary health workers (PHWs under PBF reform in Cambodia and assesses the relationship between job motivation and income. Design: A cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted on 266 PHWs, from 54 health centers in the 15 districts involved in the reform. The health workers were asked to report all sources of income from public sector jobs and provide answers to 20 items related to job motivation. Factor analysis was conducted to identify the latent variables of job motivation. Factors associated with motivation were identified through multivariable regression. Results: PHWs reported multiple sources of income and an average total income of US$190 per month. Financial incentives under the PBF scheme account for 42% of the average total income. PHWs had an index motivation score of 4.9 (on a scale from one to six, suggesting they had generally high job motivation that was related to a sense of community service, respect, and job benefits. Regression analysis indicated that income and the perception of a fair distribution of incentives were both statistically significant in association with higher job motivation scores. Conclusions: Financial incentives used in the reform formed a significant part of health workers’ income and influenced their job motivation. Improving job motivation requires fixing payment mechanisms and increasing the size of incentives. PBF is more likely to succeed when income, training needs, and the desire for a sense of community service are addressed and institutionalized within the health system.

  17. Diffusion of lead in automobile exhaust gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaga, S.; Ohmori, K.; Saito, H.; Tanizaki, A.

    1970-01-01

    The pattern of diffusion of lead from automobile exhaust gas was investigated by studying the amount of lead adhering to or contained in leaves of ginkgo trees growing along less-travelled roads that cross a busy highway. Samples were dried at 100 C, then pulverized, and a definite portion wet-digested. After extraction by dithizone, lead was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The same routine was followed for surface soil at the root of the trees. Leaves at heights of 3 and 6 m were examined. At one of the two sampling sites, the lead content in surface soil tended to decrease with distance from the trunk highway. At both sites, the amount of lead in leaves was found in larger amounts in the leaves at the lower level. Also, those leaves collected in October contained more lead than those assembled earlier in the year.

  18. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Pop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  19. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Jackson, CL; Scott, K

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of ca. 50 kW supplemented with short bursts up to 80 kW will suffice in most driving requirements. The energy demand depends greatly on driving characteristics but under normal usage is expected to be 200 Wh/km. T...

  20. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N

    1987-10-01

    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates.

  1. Study of the damage processes induced by thermal fatigue in stainless steels F17TNb and R20-12 for automobile application; Etude de l'endommagement en fatigue thermique des aciers inoxydables F17TNb et R20-12 pour application automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, L.

    2004-12-15

    Thermal cycling is the main cause of fatigue failure in automobile exhaust manifolds for which the use of stainless steel now rivals that of cast iron which has been traditionally used. An original fatigue test has been developed by Ugine and ALZ, a stainless steel producer, so as to be able to compare different grades of stainless steel alloys. This test is representative of the thermal conditions encountered in the critical zones of exhaust manifolds. However, it has revealed significant differences in damage processes in the ferritic and austenitic grades tested. The subject of this thesis is the damage processes induced by thermal fatigue in stainless steels used for automotive exhaust manifolds. Two stainless steels were studied: a ferritic grade, F17TNb (17%Cr and stabilized with Ti and Nb), and an austenitic grade, R20-12, containing 20% Cr and 12% Ni. The first objective was to understand the different damage processes induced by thermal fatigue in the ferritic and austenitic grades. The second was to develop a numerical design tool of the thermally tested structures. (author)

  2. Cost of nuclear power generation judged by power rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Takaharu

    1981-01-01

    According to estimation guidance, power rates in general are the proper cost plus the specific compensation and adjustment addition. However, the current system of power rates is of power-source development promotion type involving its tax. The structure of power rate determination must be restudied now especially in connection of nuclear power generation. The cost of nuclear power generation as viewed from power rate is discussed as follows: the fear of military application of power plants, rising plant construction costs, the loophole in fuel cost calculation, unreasonable unit power cost, depreciation and repair cost, business compensation, undue business compensation in nuclear power, the costs of nuclear waste management, doubt concerning nuclear power cost, personnel, pumping-up and power transmission costs in nuclear power, energy balance analysis, nuclear power viewed in entropy, the suppression of power consumption. (J.P.N.)

  3. Mathematical Formalization Of Theories Of Motivation Proposed By Abraham Maslow And Frederick Herzberg

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kotliarov

    2008-01-01

    the present article gives an outline of a mathematical model of theories of motivation proposed by Abraham Maslow and Frederick Herzberg. This model is built on a basis of special non-continuous functions.

  4. Substituting oil by electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, H.

    1981-01-01

    Parting from the development of primary energy use the author refers to the latest investigations and results presented on the 1980 World Energy Conference and with special regard to oil points out the threatening exhaustion of fossil energy resources. Maintaining the economic structure of the Federal Republic of Germany implies an orientation away from oil. Due to its flexible application technology and quasi-inexhaustible energy resources electric power may substantially contribute to oil substitution which as a matter of fact is of particular interest in connection with the heat market. Coal alone cannot substitute both oil and nuclear energy. Thus, the above postulates the use of the latter. Leaving nuclear energy inactive today will effect an increase in the demand for oil the negative consequences of which would weight heavily upon the anyhow unbalanced import/export ratio of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  5. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  6. Female identity discourse in automobile advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat López Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the way in which the modern car-advertisement defines the identity of women as potential purchasers – to whom it is designed to get through. The research includes language and iconic instruments by which this type of advertisement aims to create a feminized market of products formerly recognized as traditionally masculine. The identification of the addressee of each publicity material might be subsumed under a set of stereotypes, thus enabling advertisers to get across their message using the code of addressee’s own values. The present paper concentrates on the linguistic specifity of the ads for high-tech goods (automobiles targeting the feminine public and eventually points out their high degree of markedness according to the sex of addressees. Discourse analysis and a closer look at linguistic means appearing in French, Spanish and Polish automotive commercials both reveals a stereotyped woman’s image and shows how they happen to perpetutate it.

  7. Preliminary Physics Motivation and Engineering Design Assessment of the National High Power Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Woolley

    2009-06-11

    In April 2006, Dr. Ray Orbach, Director of the DOE Office of Science, challenged the fusion community to "propose a new facility... which will put the U.S. at the lead in world fusion science." Analysis of the gaps between expected ITER performance and the requirements of a demonstration power plant (Demo) pointed to the critical and urgent need to develop fusion-relvant plasma-material interface (PMI) solutions consistent with sustained high plasma performance. A survey of world fusion program indicated that present and planned experimental devices do not advance the PMI issue beyond ITER, and a major dedicated experimental facility is warranted. Such a facility should provide the flexibility and access needed to solve plasma boundary challenges related to divertor heat flux and particle exhaust while also developing methods to minimize hydrogenic isotope retention and remaining compatible with high plasma performance.

  8. Preliminary Physics Motivation and Engineering Design Assessment of the National High Power Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolley, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    In April 2006, Dr. Ray Orbach, Director of the DOE Office of Science, challenged the fusion community to 'propose a new facility... which will put the U.S. at the lead in world fusion science'. Analysis of the gaps between expected ITER performance and the requirements of a demonstration power plant (Demo) pointed to the critical and urgent need to develop fusion-relevant plasma-material interface (PMI) solutions consistent with sustained high plasma performance. A survey of world fusion program indicated that present and planned experimental devices do not advance the PMI issue beyond ITER, and a major dedicated experimental facility is warranted. Such a facility should provide the flexibility and access needed to solve plasma boundary challenges related to divertor heat flux and particle exhaust while also developing methods to minimize hydrogenic isotope retention and remaining compatible with high plasma performance.

  9. Change of lifestyle habits - Motivation and ability reported by pregnant women in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Maria; Lindkvist, Marie; Eurenius, Eva; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Pregnant women are generally more motivated to change their lifestyle habits compared with non-pregnant women. However, the ability to change these habits depends on the motivation to change. This study describes pregnant women's self-reported motivation and ability to change lifestyle habits and their relation to body mass index (BMI), self-rated health, educational level and country of origin. This cross-sectional study combined data from the Maternal Health Care Register in Västerbotten (MHCR-VB) and the Salut Programme Register (Salut-R). Data were collected from 3,868 pregnant residents in Västerbotten County (northern Sweden) between 2011 and 2012. Chi-square test, two independent samples t-test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed. Most of the pregnant women (61.3%) were satisfied with their self-reported lifestyle habits irrespective of BMI, self-rated health, educational level, and country of origin. Many reported that they wanted to increase their physical activity, improve their dietary habits, and reduce their weight. In general, they estimated their ability to change their lifestyle habits as equal to their motivation of change. Women who reported a large or very large motivation to change their lifestyle habits were characterized by higher BMI and higher educational level. Most of the participating pregnant women were satisfied with their lifestyle habits, although they reported being further motivated to change some of them. Health care professionals encountering fertile and pregnant women may have a unique opportunity to support and promote lifestyle changes, taking into account women's motivation for change. Future research should focus on factors that motivate pregnant women to change their lifestyle, explore barriers for change of lifestyle and how support best may be provided to pregnant women. In addition, studies on lifestyle and motivation for lifestyle change from non-Nordic countries are called for. Copyright

  10. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars, other...

  11. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount of...

  12. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for incomplete automobile... AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, §§ 529.5 and 529.6, each incomplete automobile manufacturer is considered, with...

  13. Divorce your car: ending the love affair with the automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvord, K.

    2000-07-01

    This book is a guide for people wishing to liberate themselves from their addiction to cars and the automobile culture. It is a repository of examples and actions that individuals and communities can take to reduce dependence on the automobile. The range of possibilities run from using cars less to not owning one at all. The book provides a humorous yet clear-headed approach to a greener world and maps out the road to how people can live happily ever after by breaking free of 'auto-cracy', without insisting on people in car-dependent countries quit their automotive addiction instantly. Nevertheless, it clearly articulates the connection between automobiles, their arteries (i.e. highways) and effluents (i.e. greenhouse gases and particulate emissions), and the increasing number and severity of natural disasters between the urban renewal and freeway construction that, in the author's view, helped ignite the riots in Watts, Newark and Detroit. The disastrous societal and geophysical effects of the automobile are demonstrated in great abundance, and the mountain of evidence of the systematic abuse of the planet that the book provides is a stunning refutation of the notion that technology is neutral. The automobile is accused of being not only the linchpin of Western and primarily American industrialism and resource extraction, it is also accused of being the chief suspect in a century-long theft of time, conviviality and beauty. How to bring about a change in people's love affair with their cars is difficult to comprehend but this author has a multitude of useful suggestions which seem to suggest that it is possible. There is a list of 104 'selected references' and an extensive list of 'other resources'.

  14. OFF-ROAD CAPABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF MAZ-AUTOMOBILE HAVING AGRICULTURAL MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Bobrovnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains requirements to parameters of an automobile being designed with axle arrangement 6x4 and technically permissible mass of 25 tons with its all year round operation in agricultural industry with the purpose to ensure in-time load transportation and technological cycle in crop production of the agricultural complex in accordance with time schedule of the executed mechanized works. The future automobile should also have a power takeoff device.The paper presents operation chart flowsheets for cultivation of main crops on mineral and peat soils with indication of automobile motion modes and type of transported loads. Specific properties of peat-bog soils are given in the paper. The paper considers off-road capability of mobile machines when they are moving on soils with low bearing capacity. The paper indicates field applications of automobiles with limited and high off-road capability. Description of wheel interaction with bearing surface area, values of soil resistivity after multiple automobile passages have been given in the paper.The paper specifies values of rolling resistance coefficient and adhesion coefficient of the automobile undercarriage systems in spring and autumn for wheeled and crawler units. Schemes of the automobile front axle drives (electric, hydraulic, mechanical and their characteristics have been analyzed in the paper. An elastic flexible drive with separation of flow power has been proposed for reduction of dynamic loads in a power transmission drive. The paper describes a drive system of auto-analogue steering wheels with hydraulic hydrostatic drive which is located within a front wheel hub that ensure additional thrust. Recommendations for MAZ-automobile modernization with axle arrangement 6x4 have been given with the purpose to improve its off- road capability.Metallic anti-skid chain, segment and small link, track and crawler chains, wideners have obtained a wide application for improvement of automobile

  15. Comparing the objective motivational climate created by grassroots soccer coaches in England, Greece and France

    OpenAIRE

    Tessier, Damien; Smith, Nathan; Tzioumakis, Yannis; Quested, Eleanor; Sarrazin, Philippe; Papaioannou, Athanasios; Digelidis, Nikolaos; Duda, Joan,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The coach-created motivational climate is a key determinant of athletes' welfare and degree of optimal functioning when taking part in sport. The purpose of this study, grounded in a selfdetermination theory and achievement goal theory-integrated framework, was to investigate to what extent the differences in the objective motivational climate created by the coaches involved in the European-wide "Promoting Adolescent Physical Activity" project were a function of their ...

  16. Motivational interviewing interactions and the primary health care challenges presented by smokers with low motivation to stop smoking: a conversation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codern-Bové, Núria; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Pla, Margarida; González-Bonilla, Javier; Granollers, Silvia; Ballvé, José L; Fanlo, Gemma; Cabezas, Carmen

    2014-11-26

    Research indicates that one third of smokers have low motivation to stop smoking. The purpose of the study was to use Conversational Analysis to enhance understanding of the process in Motivational Interviewing sessions carried out by primary care doctors and nurses to motivate their patients to quit smoking. The present study is a substudy of the Systematic Intervention on Smoking Habits in Primary Health Care Project (Spanish acronym: ISTAPS). Motivational interviewing sessions with a subset of nine participants (two interview sessions were conducted with two of the nine) in the ISTAPS study who were current smokers and scored fewer than 5 points on the Richmond test that measures motivation to quit smoking were videotaped and transcribed. A total of 11 interviews conducted by five primary health care professionals in Barcelona, Spain, were analysed. Qualitative Content Analysis was used to develop an analytical guide for coding transcriptions. Conversation Analysis allowed detailed study of the exchange of words during the interaction. Motivational Interviewing sessions had three phases: assessment, reflection on readiness to change, and summary. The interaction was constructed during an office visit, where interactional dilemmas arise and can be resolved in various ways. Some actions by professionals (use of reiterations, declarations, open-ended questions) helped to construct a framework of shared relationship; others inhibited this relationship (focusing on risks of smoking, clinging to the protocol, and prematurely emphasizing change). Some professionals tended to resolve interactional dilemmas (e.g., resistance) through a confrontational or directive style. Interactions that did not follow Motivational Interviewing principles predominated in seven of the interviews analysed. Conversational analysis showed that the complexity of the intervention increases when a health professional encounters individuals with low motivation for change, and interactional

  17. Sexual motivation is reflected by stimulus-dependent motor cortex excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecklmann, Martin; Engelhardt, Kristina; Konzok, Julian; Rupprecht, Rainer; Greenlee, Mark W; Mokros, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Poeppl, Timm B

    2015-08-01

    Sexual behavior involves motivational processes. Findings from both animal models and neuroimaging in humans suggest that the recruitment of neural motor networks is an integral part of the sexual response. However, no study so far has directly linked sexual motivation to physiologically measurable changes in cerebral motor systems in humans. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation in hetero- and homosexual men, we here show that sexual motivation modulates cortical excitability. More specifically, our results demonstrate that visual sexual stimuli corresponding with one's sexual orientation, compared with non-corresponding visual sexual stimuli, increase the excitability of the motor cortex. The reflection of sexual motivation in motor cortex excitability provides evidence for motor preparation processes in sexual behavior in humans. Moreover, such interrelationship links theoretical models and previous neuroimaging findings of sexual behavior. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A factual survey of automobile usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1941-01-01

    In anticipation of the problems in civilian transportation that the : defense effort would bring to the motor vehicle user, to business and industry, and to Government, the Automobile Manufacturers Association in the fall of 1940 undertook a factual ...

  19. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  20. Contact Dermatitis In Automobile Repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile repair workers are at risk of developing skin morbidity including occupational dermatoses because of their exposure to mineral oils, petroleum products and its derivatives and lubricating oil. This cross- sectional study was carried out at Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation workshops in Nagpur city to investigate prevalence of skin morbidity including contact dermatitis in automobile repair workers. The study included 288 (49.9% automobile repair workers 180 (31.3% workshop office staff and 109 (18.8% divisional office employees. Dermatitis was the commonest skin morbidity in all the study subjects and it was significantly more prevalent in automobile repair workers. Folliculitis was detected in 13.2% of auto â€" repair workers and was not seen in the other two groups. Increasing trend of skin morbidity was correlated with the length of service of employees. Proper protective measures along with suitable washing facilities should be provided

  1. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  2. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of Defense... insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. (a) Active duty members covered. In addition to Uniformed.... 1095 and this part. (c) Exclusion of automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance...

  3. Effect of Motivation by “Instagram” on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Al-Rushud, Asma; Alghadir, Ahmad; Al-Harbi, Bashayer; Al-Sughaier, Noha; Al-Yoseef, Noha; Al-Otaibi, Reem; Al-Muhaysin, Hanadi Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using “Instagram application” with a “home-exercise program” as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA) adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3 ± 0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by “Instagram.” Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2) was used to assess the motivational factors. Results. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. “Positive health” was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%). Conclusions. The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level. PMID:27034927

  4. Effect of Motivation by "Instagram" on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Al-Rushud, Asma; Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Al-Harbi, Bashayer; Al-Sughaier, Noha; Al-Yoseef, Noha; Al-Otaibi, Reem; Al-Muhaysin, Hanadi Ali

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of using "Instagram application" with a "home-exercise program" as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA) adherence levels among female college students. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3 ± 0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by "Instagram." Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2) was used to assess the motivational factors. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. "Positive health" was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%). The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level.

  5. Effect of Motivation by “Instagram” on Adherence to Physical Activity among Female College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einas Al-Eisa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the efficacy of using “Instagram application” with a “home-exercise program” as a motivational stimulus in improving physical activity (PA adherence levels among female college students. Methods. Fifty-eight female undergraduate students with the mean age 20.3±0.96 years participated. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention and the control group; both the groups received an exercise program and the intervention group was additionally motivated by “Instagram.” Adherence to PA was measured by using an adherence sheet. The Exercise Motivation Inventory (EMI-2 was used to assess the motivational factors. Results. The most frequent motivational factors were extrinsic as assessed using the EMI-2. “Positive health” was the most frequent factor mentioned of the two types with 47% of the sample. The intervention group adhered with 17% more to the activity program compared to the control group. Moreover, 72% of the participants in the intervention and control groups found the activity program flexible enough to be performed at home; they agreed about its effectiveness on adherence (53%. Conclusions. The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain an appropriate PA level.

  6. Management by regulatory inspection authorities of experience gained from safety related occurrences in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tore, E.; Nilsson, R.

    1977-01-01

    A short description is given of the system used by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate to collect information of events occurring in nuclear power plants. The standard forms used by the utilities when reporting the events are described and a motivation given to their lay-out. The evaluation routine is defined and statistics given of events which occurred during the period July 1 1974 to December 31 1976. (author)

  7. Improved automobile gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Katsanis, T.; Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Wong, R. Y.; Schumann, L. F.; Galvas, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Upgraded engine delivers 100 hp in 3500 lb vehicle. Improved fuel economy is due to combined effects of reduced weight, reduced power-to-weight ratio, increased turbine inlet pressure, and improved component efficiencies at part power.

  8. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and occupational risk factors in Kashan SAIPA automobile industry workers by key indicator method (KIM, 1390

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: work related musculoskeletal disorders are the most wide spread type of occupational diseases among workers. Awkward body postures during work and manual material handling are among the most important risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders in different jobs. Due to importance of recognizing these factors prevalence and risk factor of work related musculoskeletal disorders, this research was aimed to study the among employees of Kashan City’s Saipa automobile industry in 2011. .Material and Method: This study is a descriptive-cross sectional study conducted among workers with manual material handling 37 activities and 84 work duties. To recognize musculoskeletal disorders, body map questionnaire was applied and occupational risk factors were evaluated using Key Index Method (KIM. Data was analyzed using SPSS and Excel software. .Result: Highest prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was in low and upper back region (%92. Based on the results from KIM, workers in the installing the tire, shuttle-aided fitting of seat, and engine work station had higher risk level with the scores of 66, 52 and 52, respectively. Risk level among three individuals (%3.6 was at 1, 40 (%47.6 at 2, 38 (%45.2 risk level 3, and 3 (%3.6 at 4. .Conclusion: Awkward body posture, improper twisting and flexion of low back were major risk factor among worker doing manual material handling tasks. Regarding the high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, appropriate ergonomic interventions such as engineering and organization interactions can reduce this risk factors (posture, heavy load, duration, workplace conditions as much as the risk level reach to an acceptable level.

  9. Thermal pollution by power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    An important by-product of most chemical technologies, in the broad sense, is heat. Few industrial processes are carried out without heat being rejected at some point in the process stream, even if the net energy balance is endothermic. Historically, it was more convenient and less costly to reject such waste heat to the environment than to attempt significant recovery. Although energy scarcities and high costs and stimulating innovative heat-recovery schemes, the low temperatures of waste heat in relation to process requirements often make reuse impractical and disposal the only attractive alternative. Concern over heat rejection arose when the quantities at localized sites rose dramatically as the electric utility industry shifted to water-cooled, thermal-electric generating stations of high unit capacity in the 1950s, particularly in the UK and the US. Concern was further heightened by a planned shift to nuclear fission reactors as the energy source, which entailed both a further increase in localized generating capacity because of economics of scale and a higher percentage of rejected heat compared to useable electrical energy. It was estimated that perhaps 25% of the total available freshwater runoff in the entire nation would be needed for cooling purposes by 1980. The term thermal pollution took on fearsome portents among aquatic scientists, fishery managers, and eventually water-pollution control agencies. Topics discussed include environmental risks, minimizing the risks, thermal effects, preventing mortality, preventing stressful high temperatures over long periods, maintaining ecosystem structure, biocides, entrainment, gas balance, and aquaculture. 35 references, 8 figures, 1 table

  10. Microscopic Engine Powered by Critical Demixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Falko; Magazzù, Alessandro; Callegari, Agnese; Biancofiore, Luca; Cichos, Frank; Volpe, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a microscopic engine powered by the local reversible demixing of a critical mixture. We show that, when an absorbing microsphere is optically trapped by a focused laser beam in a subcritical mixture, it is set into rotation around the optical axis of the beam because of the emergence of diffusiophoretic propulsion. This behavior can be controlled by adjusting the optical power, the temperature, and the criticality of the mixture.

  11. Helping students mathematical construction on square and rectangle’s area by using Sarong motive chess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliana, Eka; Setyawan, Fariz; Veloo, Arsaythamby

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is developing the learning trajectory to construct students’ understanding of the concept of the area of square and rectangle by using Sarong Motive Chess. This research is a design research which is consists of three stages. The stages are preparing for the experiment, designing experiment, and making a retrospective analysis. The activities started by the activity of using sarong motive chess as the manipulative measurement unit. The Sarong motive chess helps students to understand the concept of area of square and rectangle. In the formal stage of cognitive level, students estimate the area of square and rectangle by determining the square unit at the surface area of sarong through many ways. The result of this study concludes that Sarong motive chess can be used for mathematics learning process. It helps the students to construct the concept of a square and rectangle’s area. This study produces learning trajectory to construct the concept of a square and rectangle’s area by using Sarong motive chess, especially for elementary school students.

  12. The power of competition: Effects of social motivation on attention, sustained physical effort, and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brynne Catherine DiMenichi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Competition has often been implicated as a means to improve effort-based learning and attention. Two experiments examined the effects of competition on effort and memory. In Experiment 1, participants completed a physical effort task in which they were rewarded for winning an overall percentage, or for winning a competition they believed was against another player. In Experiment 2, participants completed a memory task in which they were rewarded for remembering an overall percentage of shapes, or more shapes than a competitor. We found that, in the physical effort task, participants demonstrated faster reaction times—a previous indicator of increased attention— in the competitive environment. Moreover, individual differences predicted the salience of competition’s effect. Furthermore, male participants showed faster reaction times and greater sustained effort as a result of a competitive environment, suggesting that males may be more affected by competition in physical effort tasks. However, in Experiment 2, participants remembered fewer shapes when competing, and later recalled less of these shapes during a post-test, suggesting that competition was harmful in our memory task. The different results from these two experiments suggest that competition can improve attention in a physical effort task, yet caution the use of competition in memory tasks.

  13. When does risk perception predict protection motivation for health threats? A person-by-situation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M. P.; Avishai, Aya; Jones, Katelyn; Villegas, Megan; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-01-01

    Although risk perception is a key concept in many health behavior theories, little research has explicitly tested when risk perception predicts motivation to take protective action against a health threat (protection motivation). The present study tackled this question by (a) adopting a multidimensional model of risk perception that comprises deliberative, affective, and experiential components (the TRIRISK model), and (b) taking a person-by-situation approach. We leveraged a highly intensive within-subjects paradigm to test features of the health threat (i.e., perceived severity) and individual differences (e.g., emotion reappraisal) as moderators of the relationship between the three types of risk perception and protection motivation in a within-subjects design. Multi-level modeling of 2968 observations (32 health threats across 94 participants) showed interactions among the TRIRISK components and moderation both by person-level and situational factors. For instance, affective risk perception better predicted protection motivation when deliberative risk perception was high, when the threat was less severe, and among participants who engage less in emotional reappraisal. These findings support the TRIRISK model and offer new insights into when risk perceptions predict protection motivation. PMID:29494705

  14. When does risk perception predict protection motivation for health threats? A person-by-situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Klein, William M P; Avishai, Aya; Jones, Katelyn; Villegas, Megan; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-01-01

    Although risk perception is a key concept in many health behavior theories, little research has explicitly tested when risk perception predicts motivation to take protective action against a health threat (protection motivation). The present study tackled this question by (a) adopting a multidimensional model of risk perception that comprises deliberative, affective, and experiential components (the TRIRISK model), and (b) taking a person-by-situation approach. We leveraged a highly intensive within-subjects paradigm to test features of the health threat (i.e., perceived severity) and individual differences (e.g., emotion reappraisal) as moderators of the relationship between the three types of risk perception and protection motivation in a within-subjects design. Multi-level modeling of 2968 observations (32 health threats across 94 participants) showed interactions among the TRIRISK components and moderation both by person-level and situational factors. For instance, affective risk perception better predicted protection motivation when deliberative risk perception was high, when the threat was less severe, and among participants who engage less in emotional reappraisal. These findings support the TRIRISK model and offer new insights into when risk perceptions predict protection motivation.

  15. Motivating pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  16. What Kinds of Volunteers become more motivated by Community Currency? : Influence of Perceptions of Reward on Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kurita (Ken-ichi); M. Yoshida (Masayuki); Y. Miyazaki (Yoshihisa)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractLocal communities in Japan are struggling to increase the number of participants in volunteer activities in order to revitalize local life. To maintain the enthusiasm of active volunteers and entice new volunteers, a new type of reward to increase motivation is needed. Accordingly,

  17. Bidirectional Power Stroke by Ncd Kinesin

    OpenAIRE

    Butterfield, Anthony E.; Stewart, Russell J.; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Skliar, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    Optical trapping experiments reveal details of molecular motor dynamics. In noisy data, temporal structure within the power stroke of motors can be analyzed by ensemble averaging, but this obscures infrequent subcategories of events. We have here developed an analysis method that uses Kalman filtering of measurements, model-based estimation of the power strokes produced by the motor head, and automatic event classification to discriminate between different types of motor events. This method w...

  18. Deforestation motivators by small farmers in common and protected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study explores through a multivariate analysis the human ecological variables driving deforestation by small farmers in South-eastern Nigeria. Applying frequency scores and factor analytic techniques to data generated from twelve sampled communities in the rainforest of South-eastern Nigeria, through questionnaire and ...

  19. Experimental considerations motivated by the diphoton excess at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Fan, JiJi; Heidenreich, Ben; Reece, Matthew; Strassler, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    We consider the immediate or near-term experimental opportunities offered by some scenarios that could explain the new diphoton excess at the LHC. If the excess is due to a new particle X s at 750 GeV, additional new particles are required, providing further signals. If connected with naturalness, the X s may be produced in top partner decays. Then a t^'overline{t}^' } signal, with t ' → tX s and X s → gg dominantly, might be discovered by reinterpreting 13 TeV SUSY searches in multijet events with low MET and/or a lepton. If X s is a bound state of quirks, the signal events may be accompanied by an unusual number of soft tracks or soft jets. Other resonances including dilepton and photon+jet as well as dijet may lie at or above this mass, and signatures of hidden glueballs might also be observable. If the "photons" in the excess are actually long-lived particles decaying to photon pairs or to electron pairs, there are opportunities for detecting overlapping photons and/or unusual patterns of apparent photon-conversions in either X s or 125 GeV Higgs decays. There is also the possibility of events with a hard "photon" recoiling against a narrow isolated HCAL-only "jet", which, after the jet's energy is corrected for its electromagnetic origin, would show a peak at 750 GeV.

  20. Regulation of dextransucrase secretion by proton motive force in Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otts, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between proton motive force and the secretion of the enzyme dextransucrase in Leuconostoc mesenteroides was investigated. The transmembrane pH gradient was determined by measurement of the uptake of radiolabeled benzoate or methylamine while the membrane potential was determined by measurement of the uptake of radiolabeled tetraphenylphosphonium bromide. Leuconostoc mesenteroides was able to maintain a constant proton motive force of -130 mV when grown in fermenters at constant pH while a value of -140 mV was determined from concentrated cell suspensions. The contribution of the membrane potential and transmembrane pH gradient to the proton motive force varied depending on the cation concentration and pH of the medium. The results of this study strongly indicate that dextransucrase secretion Leuconostoc mesenteroides is dependent on the presence of a proton gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane. The results further suggest that dextransucrase secretion is coupled to proton influx into the cell

  1. Treatment Fidelity of Motivational Interviewing Delivered by a School Nurse to Increase Girls’ Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lorraine B.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Maier, Kimberly S.; LaDrig, Stacey M.; Berg-Smith, Steven Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    Motivational interviewing, which involves the use of person-centered, directive counseling techniques, shows promise for changing adolescent behaviors. The purpose of this paper was to describe the methodology and findings related to the treatment fidelity of three face-to-face motivational interviewing sessions involving middle school girls and a school nurse to help the girls increase their moderate to vigorous physical activity. The following four areas related to treatment fidelity were addressed: (a) study design, (b) training of interventionists, (c) intervention delivery, and (d) intervention receipt. Findings showed that 34 of 37 (91.9%) girls completed all three sessions. An initial motivational interviewing training workshop followed by evaluation of audio-taped sessions with constructive feedback can result in successful and consistent delivery by a school nurse. PMID:21970862

  2. Experimental considerations motivated by the diphoton excess at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Fan, JiJi; Heidenreich, Ben; Reece, Matthew; Strassler, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We consider the immediate or near-term experimental opportunities offered by some scenarios that could explain the new diphoton excess at the LHC. If the excess is due to a new particle X s at 750 GeV, additional new particles are required, providing further signals. If connected with naturalness, the X s may be produced in top partner decays. Then a t ′ t̄ ′ signal, with t ′ →tX s and X s →gg dominantly, might be discovered by reinterpreting 13 TeV SUSY searches in multijet events with low MET and/or a lepton. If X s is a bound state of quirks, the signal events may be accompanied by an unusual number of soft tracks or soft jets. Other resonances including dilepton and photon+jet as well as dijet may lie at or above this mass, and signatures of hidden glueballs might also be observable. If the “photons" in the excess are actually long-lived particles decaying to photon pairs or to electron pairs, there are opportunities for detecting overlapping photons and/or unusual patterns of apparent photon-conversions in either X s or 125 GeV Higgs decays. There is also the possibility of events with a hard “photon” recoiling against a narrow isolated HCAL-only “jet”, which, after the jet’s energy is corrected for its electromagnetic origin, would show a peak at 750 GeV.

  3. Product Quality Selection and Firm Survival. Evidence from the British Automobile Industry, 1895-1970.

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanyuan Peng

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an additional determininant of firm survival. Based on a detailed examination of firm survival in the British automobile industry between 1895 and 1970, we conclude that firm’s selection of submarket-defined by quality level-influenced survival. In contrast to findings for the US automobile industry, there is no evidence of first-mover advantage in the market as a whole. However, we do find evidence of first-mover advantage after conditioning on submarket choice.

  4. Optimizing Diamond Structured Automobile Supply Chain Network Towards a Robust Business Continuity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Abednico Montshiwa

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an optimized diamond structured automobile supply chain network towards a robust Business Continuity Management model. The model is necessitated by the nature of the automobile supply chain. Companies in tier two are centralized and numerically limited and have to supply multiple tier one companies with goods and services. The challenge with this supply chain structure is the inherent risks in the supply chain. Once supply chain disruption takes place at tier 2 level, the ...

  5. THE MOTIVATIONAL MODEL OF YOUNG JAPANESE EFL LEARNERS: AFTER GETTING LESSONS BY HOMEROOM TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Adachi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study focuses on Japanese pupils’ motivation with other attitudinal attitudes about learning English. The writer surveyed the 5th and 6th grade pupils’ motivation and its effect factors at an elementary school in Japan at the end of the school year 2007 and 2008. The main focus of this study is to find the relationship between motivation and effect factors using both the 2007 and 2008 data and to examine differences of the pupils’ attitudes between 2007 and 2008. Since the 2008 school year, pupils have received lessons by not only an assistant language teacher (ALT but also their home room teachers (HRTs. The finding showed that the 2008 and 2007 results were similar in most valuables, but the value of “Motivation” increased in 2008 compared to the previous year. Furthermore, “people around the learner” influenced on motivation more positively. Finally, this study presented a model which could be suggested as one of the motivational models of Japanese pupils for English activities. The writer concluded that the involvement of HRTs brought about generally good effects on pupils’ attitudes in this elementary school at this point.

  6. Adolescents' physical activity in physical education, school recess, and extra-curricular sport by motivational profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Viciana, Jesús

    2014-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in adolescents´ objective physical activity levels and perceived effort in physical education, school recess, and extra-curricular organized sport by motivational profiles in physical education. A sample of 102 students 11-16 yr. old completed a self-report questionnaire assessing self-determined motivation toward physical education. Subsequently, students' objective physical activity levels (steps/min., METs, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) and perceived effort were evaluated for each situation. Cluster analysis identified a two-cluster structure: "Moderate motivation toward physical education profile" and "High motivation toward physical education profile." Adolescents in the second cluster had higher physical activity and perceived effort values than adolescents in the first cluster, except for METs and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in extra-curricular sport. These results support the importance of physical education teachers who should promote self-determined motivation toward physical education so that students can reach the recommended physical activity levels.

  7. VISUALIZATION OF MEMS STRUCTURES FOR EDUCATION OF AUTOMOBILE MICROSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomír KARDOŠ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The work is aimed at visualization of working principles of microelectromechanical sensors which are used in automobile electronic systems. Attention is paid to accelerometric, inclinometric, pressure and MAF devices. These are used in systems for stability control, passive and active safety as well as comfort management. The visualizations were realized using modern animation techniques initiated by the creation of virtual materials, 2D and 3D objects, through scene exposure, pending their animation and final cutting.

  8. Loyalty marketing in automobile dealerships : case: car dealer X

    OpenAIRE

    Hyyryläinen, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study how customer loyalty is taken into account in automobile dealerships, what loyalty marketing means are used to improve customer loyalty, and what potential new loyalty marketing means can be implemented. The thesis is commissioned by Car dealer X. In the theoretical part, areas covered are customership and loyalty marketing. Customership includes customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, customer value and customer retention. Loyalty marketing contain...

  9. The Production and Inventory Behavior of the American Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier J. Blanchard

    1982-01-01

    Understanding inventory movements is central to an understanding of business cycles. This paper presents an empirical study of the behavior of inventories in the automobile industry. It finds that inventory behavior is well explained by the assumption of intertemporal optimization with rational expectations. The underlying cost structure appears to have substantial costs of changing production as well as substantial costs of being away from target inventory, the latter being a function of cur...

  10. Hybrid modeling and empirical analysis of automobile supply chain network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-yan; Tang, Jian-ming; Fu, Wei-ping; Wu, Bing-ying

    2017-05-01

    Based on the connection mechanism of nodes which automatically select upstream and downstream agents, a simulation model for dynamic evolutionary process of consumer-driven automobile supply chain is established by integrating ABM and discrete modeling in the GIS-based map. Firstly, the rationality is proved by analyzing the consistency of sales and changes in various agent parameters between the simulation model and a real automobile supply chain. Second, through complex network theory, hierarchical structures of the model and relationships of networks at different levels are analyzed to calculate various characteristic parameters such as mean distance, mean clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. By doing so, it verifies that the model is a typical scale-free network and small-world network. Finally, the motion law of this model is analyzed from the perspective of complex self-adaptive systems. The chaotic state of the simulation system is verified, which suggests that this system has typical nonlinear characteristics. This model not only macroscopically illustrates the dynamic evolution of complex networks of automobile supply chain but also microcosmically reflects the business process of each agent. Moreover, the model construction and simulation of the system by means of combining CAS theory and complex networks supplies a novel method for supply chain analysis, as well as theory bases and experience for supply chain analysis of auto companies.

  11. Recent progress of optical thin films in the automobile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Y

    1993-10-01

    There are increasing demands for the application of optical thin films to transparent substrates such as glass and plastics for windows in automobiles with the view of adding fascinating optical properties to them. These properties include surface hardening of plastics, infrared reflection, ultraviolet absorption, polarization and birefringence, and hydrophobicity. Recent examples of applications of sophisticated thin-film processes of plasma treatment and physical vapor deposition are reviewed. The novelty of the functions provided by physical vapor deposition films together with their durability for practical usage are emphasized as areas in which the thin-film process has a significant impact. Characterization of the modified surface and interface is also included to demonstrate recent advances in surface chemistry. Finally, future challenges for optical modification of transparent substrates in the automobile industry are also discussed.

  12. Design of MEMS accelerometer based acceleration measurement system for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K. Arun; Mathivanan, N.

    2012-10-01

    Design of an acceleration measurement system using a MEMS accelerometer to measure acceleration of automobiles in all the three axes is presented. Electronic stability control and anti-lock breaking systems in automobiles use the acceleration measurements to offer safety in driving. The system uses an ARM microcontroller to quantize the outputs of accelerometer and save the measurement data on a microSD card. A LabVIEW program has been developed to analyze the longitudinal acceleration measurement data and test the measurement system. Random noises generated and added with measurement data during measurement are filtered by a Kalman filter implemented in LabVIEW. Longitudinal velocity of the vehicle is computed from the measurement data and displayed on a graphical chart. Typical measurement of velocity of a vehicle at different accelerations and decelerations is presented.

  13. Goal hierarchy: Improving asset data quality by improving motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, Kerrie; Adriasola, Elisa; Johnston-Billings, Amber; Dmitrieva, Alina; Hodkiewicz, Melinda

    2011-01-01

    Many have recognized the need for high quality data on assets and the problems in obtaining them, particularly when there is a need for human observation and manual recording. Yet very few have looked at the role of the data collectors themselves in the data quality process. This paper argues that there are benefits to more fully understanding the psychological factors that lay behind data collection and we use goal hierarchy theory to understand these factors. Given the myriad of potential reasons for poor-quality data it has previously proven difficult to identify and successfully deploy employee-driven interventions; however, the goal hierarchy approach looks at all of the goals that an individual has in their life and the connections between them. For instance, does collecting data relate to whether or not they get a promotion? Stay safe? Get a new job? and so on. By eliciting these goals and their connections we can identify commonalities across different groups, sites or organizations that can influence the quality of data collection. Thus, rather than assuming what the data collectors want, a goal hierarchy approach determines that empirically. Practically, this supports the development of customized interventions that will be much more effective and sustainable than previous efforts. - Highlights: → We need to consider psychological aspects of data collectors to improve data quality. → We show how goal hierarchy theory furthers understanding. → Looks at the multiple goals of each individual to determine their behavior.

  14. IMPROVEMENT OF ORAL HYGIENE STATUS IN CHILDREN INFLUENCED BY MOTIVATION PROGRAMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrinka M. Damyanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing and maintaining proper oral hygiene is related with the control of initiation and progression of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Objective: To accentuate on the application and effectiveness of standardized motivational program for oral hygiene in children with assessment of OHI-S Green-Vermillion. Methods: The study includes 200 children from 3 to 6 years of age. Comparison and evaluation of effectiveness of toothpastes with different fluoride concentrations regarding proper hygiene status in children. Application of OHI-S by Green-Vermillion. Examined children are divided into two groups. The first group consists of 100 children divided into two subgroups. The subgroup of children aged from 3 to 5 years washed their teeth with toothpaste containing 500 ppm F. The subgroup of children at the age of 6 used toothpaste containing 1000 ppm F. Concerning the second, control group of 100 children no specific motivation activities were provided. Results: Among children being influenced by standardized motivation program combined with application of toothpaste with 500 ppm F, 45% show better oral hygiene level. Among children influenced by standardized motivation program and toothpaste of 1000 ppm F, 20% of them are with improved oral hygiene status. Reduction of the OHI-S values in children from 3 to 5 years is established from 1.92 to 1.16. In children at the age of 6 OHI-S is reduced from 1.67 to 1.14. Conclusion: 1. All children improve their oral hygiene status after a period of training and motivation. 2. In children at high decay risk standardized motivation program should be combined with additional prophylactic approaches.

  15. Bifurcation analysis of an automobile model negotiating a curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rossa, Fabio; Mastinu, Giampiero; Piccardi, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    The paper deals with the bifurcation analysis of a rather simple model describing an automobile negotiating a curve. The mechanical model has two degrees of freedom and the related equations of motion contain the nonlinear tyre characteristics. Bifurcation analysis is adopted as the proper procedure for analysing steady-state cornering. Two independent parameters referring to running conditions, namely steering angle and speed, are varied. Ten different combinations of front and rear tyre characteristics (featuring understeer or oversteer automobiles) are considered for the bifurcation analysis. Many different dynamical behaviours of the model are obtained by slightly varying the parameters describing the tyre characteristics. Both simple and extremely complex bifurcations may occur. Homoclinic bifurcations, stable and unstable limit cycles (of considerable amplitude) are found, giving a sound and ultimate interpretation to some actual (rare but very dangerous) dynamic behaviours of automobiles, as reported by professional drivers. The presented results are cross-validated by exploiting handling diagram theory. The knowledge of the derived set of bifurcations is dramatically important to fully understand the actual vehicle yaw motions occurring while running on an even surface. Such a knowledge is a pre-requisite for robustly designing the chassis and for enhancing the active safety of vehicles.

  16. Restrictive loads powered by separate or by common electrical sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, J.

    1989-01-01

    In designing a multiple load electrical system, the designer may wish to compare the performance of two setups: a common electrical source powering all loads, or separate electrical sources powering individual loads. Three types of electrical sources: an ideal voltage source, an ideal current source, and solar cell source powering resistive loads were analyzed for their performances in separate and common source systems. A mathematical proof is given, for each case, indicating the merit of the separate or common source system. The main conclusions are: (1) identical resistive loads powered by ideal voltage sources perform the same in both system setups, (2) nonidentical resistive loads powered by ideal voltage sources perform the same in both system setups, (3) nonidentical resistive loads powered by ideal current sources have higher performance in separate source systems, and (4) nonidentical resistive loads powered by solar cells have higher performance in a common source system for a wide range of load resistances.

  17. A bivariate model for analyzing recurrent multi-type automobile failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunethra, A. A.; Sooriyarachchi, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    The failure mechanism in an automobile can be defined as a system of multi-type recurrent failures where failures can occur due to various multi-type failure modes and these failures are repetitive such that more than one failure can occur from each failure mode. In analysing such automobile failures, both the time and type of the failure serve as response variables. However, these two response variables are highly correlated with each other since the timing of failures has an association with the mode of the failure. When there are more than one correlated response variables, the fitting of a multivariate model is more preferable than separate univariate models. Therefore, a bivariate model of time and type of failure becomes appealing for such automobile failure data. When there are multiple failure observations pertaining to a single automobile, such data cannot be treated as independent data because failure instances of a single automobile are correlated with each other while failures among different automobiles can be treated as independent. Therefore, this study proposes a bivariate model consisting time and type of failure as responses adjusted for correlated data. The proposed model was formulated following the approaches of shared parameter models and random effects models for joining the responses and for representing the correlated data respectively. The proposed model is applied to a sample of automobile failures with three types of failure modes and up to five failure recurrences. The parametric distributions that were suitable for the two responses of time to failure and type of failure were Weibull distribution and multinomial distribution respectively. The proposed bivariate model was programmed in SAS Procedure Proc NLMIXED by user programming appropriate likelihood functions. The performance of the bivariate model was compared with separate univariate models fitted for the two responses and it was identified that better performance is secured by

  18. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT-polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Wiel, H.J. van de; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2012-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  19. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT–polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.A.; Van de Wiel, H.J.; Groen, W.A.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2011-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  20. Thermoelectrical generator powered by human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasyova, Zuzana; Vala, David; Slanina, Zdenek; Idzkowski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    This article deals with the possibility of using alternative energy sources for power of biomedical sensors with low power consumption, especially using the Peltier effect sources. Energy for powering of the target device has been used from the available renewable photovoltaic effect. The work is using of "energy harvesting" or "harvest energy" produced by autonomous generator harvesting accumulate energy. It allows to start working from 0.25 V. Measuring chain consists of further circuit which is a digital monitoring device for monitoring a voltage, current and power with I2C bus interface. Using the Peltier effect was first tested in a thermocontainer with water when the water heating occurred on the basis of different temperature differential between the cold and hot side of the Peltier element result in the production of energy. Realized prototype was also experimentally tested on human skin, specifically on the back, both in idle mode and under load.

  1. Measuring Quality in Automobile Aftersales: AutoSERVQUAL Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Galip Gencer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming more important to accurately measure the level of quality in services and especially automobile related services such as after sales service. This study aims to generate a survey to measure the service quality in automobile aftersales services, eventually to be called AutoSERVQUAL. The roadmap for this survey generation process starts by examining the service quality measurement scales in literature first and then continues by the adaptation process of SERVQUAL over automobile aftersales customers. Each and every step in survey generation processes is explained starting from expert interviews and finally statistical analyses. Starting with 45 candidate questions, the study offers a 28 item scale that can measure service quality in after sales car services with high reliability. The scale can be extended to cover aftersales services in general for any type of product and also could be used as input to other models such as QFD and MADM. The scale should also be empirically tested in other countries with specific requirements for after sales services.

  2. Music and Combat Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    1   AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY MUSIC AND COMBAT MOTIVATION by Sally C. Maddocks, Major, USAF Master of...Today, each soldier can carry their own preferred library of music including thousands of songs in their pocket. Are broadcasts still relevant...accordance with Air Force Instruction 51-303, it is not copyrighted, but is the property of the United States government.  3   Music has the power

  3. Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.

  4. Automobile Collisions, Kinematics and Related Injury Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    It has been determined clinically that fatalities and injury severity resulting from automobile collisions have decreased during the last five years for low impact speeds. This reduction is a direct result of the application of biomechanics and occupant kinematics, as well as changes in automobile design. The paper defines terminology used in the field of mechanics and develops examples and illustrations of the physical concepts of acceleration, force strength, magnitude duration, rate of onset and others, as they apply to collision phenomena and injury. The mechanism of injury pattern reduction through the use of restraint systems is illustrated. PMID:5059661

  5. Summary of semi-initiative and initiative control automobile engine vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Qu, Zhou

    2009-07-01

    Engine vibration accounts for around 55% of automobile vibration, separating the engine vibration from transmitting to automobile to the utmost extent is significant for improving NVH performance. Semi-initiative and initiative control of engine vibration is one of the hot spots of technical research in domestic and foreign automobile industry, especially luxury automobiles which adopt this technology to improve amenity and competitiveness. This article refers to a large amount of domestic and foreign related materials, fully introduces the research status of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension of engine vibration suspension and many kinds of structural style, and provides control policy and method of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension system. Compare and analyze the structural style of semi-initiative and initiative control and merits and demerits of current structures of semi-initiative and initiative control of mechanic electrorheological, magnetorheological, electromagnetic actuator, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostriction material, pneumatic actuator etc. Models of power assembly mounting system was classified.Calculation example indicated that reasonable selection of engine mounting system parameters is useful to reduce engine vibration transmission and to increase ride comfort. Finally we brought forward semi-initiative and initiative suspension which might be applied for automobiles, and which has a promising future.

  6. Simulation of compression engine powered by Biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, M.A.; Khalil, Runa Haj

    2010-01-01

    The present work describes a theoretical investigation concerning the performance of a four strokes compression engine, which is powered by alternative fuels in the form of diesel-ethanol and diesel-ether mixtures, the properties of which were sited from literature. The amount of each alcohol added was 5%, 10% and 15% by volume. The engine speed during the experimental work was within the range from 1000 to 4000 rpm, with engine was set at full throttle opening and hence the engine was operating under full load conditions. Several parameters were calculated namely: engine torque, brake mean effective pressure, brake power, specific fuel consumption and the thermal efficiency, this was carried out using DIESEL-RK software. It was found that the engine is of highest thermal efficiency when it is powered by a 15% ethanol-diesel blend, wile it is of minimum thermal efficiency when it is powered by pure diesel fuel. Further, it was found that both the thermal efficiency of the engine and the specific fuel consumption increases with the percentage of either ethanol or ether in the fuel blend. However, the power was found to decrease with the amount of either ethanol or ether in the fuel blends.

  7. Raising the motivation and self-esteem of all learners by creating a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raising the motivation and self-esteem of all learners by creating a climate for all talents to flourish: Developing empowerment for life. ... This article also considers the essential qualities of leadership and democratic participation that are vital in developing all 'living' learning; in making decisions; in ensuring flexibility of ...

  8. Some nonlinear and nonlocal Sturm-Liouville problems motivated by the problem of flutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Belinskiy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We study three internally connected Sturm-Liouville problems for nonlinear ordinary differential equations that are motivated by the problem of aeroelastic instability. Solutions are analyzed and asymptotic results are presented. A numerical study using a development of simple shooting reveals the spectrum and corresponding eigenfunctions.

  9. Motivating Students to Learn English by Combining Slide Presentations with Reading and Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, S. Kathleen; Kitao, Kenji

    It is sometimes difficult to motivate Japanese students to learn English because it is not connected with their everyday life or interests. One method found to be effective at the college level in Japan is to teach students about other cultures in English by preparing slide programs with narration, vocabulary lists, and exercises, supported by…

  10. Management-by-Results and Performance Measurement in Universities--Implications for Work Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Kirsi-Mari; Kallio, Tomi J.

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on the effects of management-by-results from the perspective of the work motivation of university employees. The study is based on extensive survey data among employees at Finnish universities. According to the results, performance measurement is based on quantitative rather than qualitative measures, and the current…

  11. A Study on the Prediction of the Teaching Profession Attitudes by Communication Skills and Professional Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Latife Kabakli

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prediction of the attitudes regarding teaching profession by the communication skills and professional motivation of pedagogical formation students. 261 pre-service teachers receiving pedagogical formation training Istanbul at a private university in the 2014-2015 academic year were included in the research as…

  12. Microwave power transmission system wherein level of transmitted power is controlled by reflections from receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A microwave, wireless, power transmission system is described in which the transmitted power level is adjusted to correspond with power required at a remote receiving station. Deviations in power load produce an antenna impedance mismatch causing variations in energy reflected by the power receiving antenna employed by the receiving station. The variations in reflected energy are sensed by a receiving antenna at the transmitting station and used to control the output power of a power transmitter.

  13. Technological Improvements to Automobile Fuel Consumption : Volume 1. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    This report is a priliminary survey of the technological feasibility of reducing the fuel consumption of automobiles. The study uses as a reference information derived from literature, automobile industry contacts, and testing conducted as part of th...

  14. Tourist market segmentation by motivation to shop: A case study of Istanbul, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egresi István

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has indicated that shopping could make up for a significant part of the tourist experience and could provide significant benefits to destinations by contributing to local retail revenue and by generating many jobs. In order to design better marketing strategies, destination managers must understand what attracts tourists to a destination and makes them shop while there. However, tourists represent a heterogeneous group and subgroups of individuals are motivated to visit a destination for a variety of reasons. The primary purpose of this study is to segment tourist shoppers visiting Istanbul according to their motivation to shop. Five distinctive groups of 'product-focused shoppers', 'shoppers for cultural experience', 'reluctant shoppers', 'difference seekers' and 'total shoppers' were found and compared by the geographical origin of the tourists, their socio-demographic characteristics, travel characteristics and behaviour, primary motivation for the trip, activity participation and shopping preferences and attitudes. The findings indicate that destination marketers must develop their strategies and marketing products to address the heterogeneity of motivations underlying tourist shopping.

  15. The Strategic Transformation of Automobile Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Som Techakanjanakit; Meifang Huang

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the global automobile industry is developing difficultly because of the influence from the financial crisis. In contrast, China's automobile production and sales are still having a blowout type growth, and jumped into the world's largest automobile production and sales market. At the same time, Chinese automobile companies continue to deepen and join with international brand cooperation; independent research and development of the independent brand production, and their...

  16. Tourism and Motivation in Cultural Destinations: towards those Visitors Attracted by Intangible Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Prada-Trigo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The intangible heritage increasingly associated with tourism in a territory is today, an element that is attracting more and more visitors. However, there are still few studies that address issues such as the motivation of these tourists, especially in contexts like those of Latin America. The aim of this research is to analyze the relationship between the motivation and satisfaction obtained by tourists who have visited the places associated with the Panama hat (recognized as an Intangible Heritage by UNESCO in 2012 in the city of Cuenca (Ecuador. The work creates a segmentation of tourists based on three dimensions: the cultural, another related to leisure and the last in reference to social and labor issues. For this, it applies a factorial analysis, cluster analysis and an analysis of variance (ANOVA with post-hoc multiple comparisons. The results show that the cultural aspect of motivation is the most important, being, however, the motivation for leisure issues which gives one a better assessment of their knowledge of the Panama hat, Cuenca's heritage or satisfaction with the trip.

  17. Medical students' situational motivation to participate in simulation based team training is predicted by attitudes to patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Cecilia; Creutzfeldt, Johan; Meurling, Lisbet; Hedman, Leif; Kjellin, Ann; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2017-02-10

    Patient safety education, as well as the safety climate at clinical rotations, has an impact on students' attitudes. We explored medical students' self-reported motivation to participate in simulation-based teamwork training (SBTT), with the hypothesis that high scores in patient safety attitudes would promote motivation to SBTT and that intrinsic motivation would increase after training. In a prospective cohort study we explored Swedish medical students' attitudes to patient safety, their motivation to participate in SBTT and how motivation was affected by the training. The setting was an integrated SBTT course during the surgical semester that focused on non-technical skills and safe treatment of surgical emergencies. Data was collected using the Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS) and the Attitudes to Patient Safety Questionnaire (APSQ). We found a positive correlation between students' individual patient safety attitudes and self-reported motivation (identified regulation) to participate in SBTT. We also found that intrinsic motivation increased after training. Female students in our study scored higher than males regarding some of the APSQ sub-scores and the entire group scored higher or on par with comparable international samples. In order to enable safe practice and professionalism in healthcare, students' engagement in patient safety education is important. Our finding that students' patient safety attitudes show a positive correlation to motivation and that intrinsic motivation increases after training underpins patient safety climate and integrated teaching of patient safety issues at medical schools in order to help students develop the knowledge, skills and attitudes required for safe practice.

  18. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding the...

  19. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health or...

  20. Motivation by potential gains and losses affects control processes via different mechanisms in the attentional network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Lena M; Walter, Henrik; Steimke, Rosa; Ludwig, Vera U; Gaschler, Robert; Schubert, Torsten; Stelzel, Christine

    2015-05-01

    Attentional control in demanding cognitive tasks can be improved by manipulating the motivational state. Motivation to obtain gains and motivation to avoid losses both usually result in faster reaction times and stronger activation in relevant brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex, but little is known about differences in the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms of these types of motivation in an attentional control context. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we tested whether potential gain and loss as motivating incentives lead to overlapping or distinct neural effects in the attentional network, and whether one of these conditions is more effective than the other. A Flanker task with word stimuli as targets and distracters was performed by 115 healthy participants. Using a mixed blocked and event-related design allowed us to investigate transient and sustained motivation-related effects. Participants could either gain money (potential gain) or avoid losing money (potential loss) in different task blocks. Participants showed a congruency effect with increased reaction times for incongruent compared to congruent trials. Potential gain led to generally faster responses compared to the neutral condition and to stronger improvements than potential loss. Potential loss also led to shorter response times compared to the neutral condition, but participants improved mainly during incongruent and not during congruent trials. The event-related fMRI data revealed a main effect of congruency with increased activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and inferior frontal junction area (IFJ), the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), bilateral insula, intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and visual word form area (VWFA). While potential gain led to increased activity in a cluster of the IFJ and the VWFA only during incongruent trials, potential loss was linked to activity increases in these regions during incongruent and congruent trials. The

  1. Motives and activities for continuing professional development: An exploration of their relationships by integrating literature and interview data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Inge A; Poell, Rob F; Berings, Marjolein G M C; Ten Cate, Olle

    2016-03-01

    To effectively enhance professional development, it is important to understand the motivational factors behind nurses' engagement in particular types of learning activities. Nurses have various motives for professional development and utilise different learning activities. Not much is known about how these relate. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between nurses' motives and activities for continuing professional development, by examining in which types of learning activities nurses engage, with which motives, and whether certain motives are associated with certain learning activities. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Twenty-one nurses in academic and general Dutch hospitals participated. Interview data on nurses' learning biographies were analysed using a literature-based framework on motives and learning activities for continuing professional development. As recent classifications of nurses' motives for professional development were absent, the literature was reviewed for motives, using three databases. The interview transcripts were analysed for motives, learning activities and their relationships. Nine motives and four categories of learning activities for continuing professional development were delineated. Increasing competence was the primary motive that stimulated nurses to engage in self-directed learning during work, and in formal learning activities. To comply with requirements, they engaged in mandatory courses. To deepen knowledge, they registered for conferences. To develop their careers, they enrolled in postgraduate education. Five other motives were not mentioned as frequently. Specific motives were found to be related to engagement in particular learning activities. Nurses could use these findings to increase their awareness of why and how they develop professionally, and managers and human resource development professionals could develop approaches that would better suit nurses' needs. Copyright © 2016

  2. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  3. Past and Future Trends in Automobile Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    The report uses the Wharton EFA Motor Vehicle Demand Model (Mark I) and its associates data bases to discuss and analyze past and future trends in the automobile market. Part A analyzes the historical trends, generally covering the 1958-1976 period, ...

  4. Chery Automobile: Chinese Firms catching up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhang (Ying); S.Y. Yang (Sheng Yun)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractChery Automobile is a top Chinese car exporter. Due to the global financial crisis, intense competition, and fast technological change, Chery has seen decreasing sales domestically and diminishing opportunities abroad. The carmaker needs to figure out the next stage of strategic

  5. Optimization of shell-and-tube heat exchangers conforming to TEMA standards with designs motivated by constructal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Fan, Aiwu; Liu, Wei; Jacobi, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A design method of heat exchangers motivated by constructal theory is proposed. • A genetic algorithm is applied and the TEMA standards are rigorously followed. • Three cases are studied to illustrate the advantage of the proposed design method. • The design method will reduce the total cost compared to two other methods. - Abstract: A modified optimization design approach motivated by constructal theory is proposed for shell-and-tube heat exchangers in the present paper. In this method, a shell-and-tube heat exchanger is divided into several in-series heat exchangers. The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA) standards are rigorously followed for all design parameters. The total cost of the whole shell-and-tube heat exchanger is set as the objective function, including the investment cost for initial manufacture and the operational cost involving the power consumption to overcome the frictional pressure loss. A genetic algorithm is applied to minimize the cost function by adjusting parameters such as the tube and shell diameters, tube length and tube arrangement. Three cases are studied which indicate that the modified design approach can significantly reduce the total cost compared to the original design method and traditional genetic algorithm design method

  6. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  7. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Sheng Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  8. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-11-22

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  9. Expanding Science Knowledge: Enabled by Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Karla B.

    2011-01-01

    The availability of Radioisotope Power Sources (RPSs) power opens up new and exciting mission concepts (1) New trajectories available (2) Power for long term science and operations Astonishing science value associated with these previously non-viable missions

  10. Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Babies Are Determined by Their Facial Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Rinah; Ariely, Dan; Chi, Won; Langleben, Daniel D.; Elman, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Background This study sought to determine how esthetic appearance of babies may affect their motivational processing by the adults. Methodology and Principal Findings Healthy men and women were administered two laboratory-based tasks: a) key pressing to change the viewing time of normal-looking babies and of those with abnormal facial features (e.g., cleft palate, strabismus, skin disorders, Down's syndrome and fetal alcohol syndrome) and b) attractiveness ratings of these images. Exposure to the babies' images produced two different response patterns: for normal babies, there was a similar effort by the two groups to extend the visual processing with lower attractiveness ratings by men; for abnormal babies, women exerted greater effort to shorten the viewing time despite attractiveness ratings comparable to the men. Conclusions These results indicate that gender differences in the motivational processing of babies include excessive (relative to the esthetic valuation) motivation to extend the viewing time of normal babies by men vs. shortening the exposure to the abnormal babies by women. Such gender-specific incentive sensitization phenomenon may reflect an evolutionary-derived need for diversion of limited resources to the nurturance of healthy offspring. PMID:19554100

  11. Gender differences in the motivational processing of babies are determined by their facial attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinah Yamamoto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine how esthetic appearance of babies may affect their motivational processing by the adults.Healthy men and women were administered two laboratory-based tasks: a key pressing to change the viewing time of normal-looking babies and of those with abnormal facial features (e.g., cleft palate, strabismus, skin disorders, Down's syndrome and fetal alcohol syndrome and b attractiveness ratings of these images. Exposure to the babies' images produced two different response patterns: for normal babies, there was a similar effort by the two groups to extend the visual processing with lower attractiveness ratings by men; for abnormal babies, women exerted greater effort to shorten the viewing time despite attractiveness ratings comparable to the men.These results indicate that gender differences in the motivational processing of babies include excessive (relative to the esthetic valuation motivation to extend the viewing time of normal babies by men vs. shortening the exposure to the abnormal babies by women. Such gender-specific incentive sensitization phenomenon may reflect an evolutionary-derived need for diversion of limited resources to the nurturance of healthy offspring.

  12. MOTIVATIONAL PRACTICES USED BY EMPLOYERS FROM THE COUNTIES OF SATU MARE AND BIHOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the motivation of human resources in the companies from counties of Satu Mare and Bihor. Data were collected by applying a questionnaire to 114 companies located in the counties of Satu Mare and Bihor, within the project HURO/0901/264/2.2.2 implemented in partnership by "Vasile Goldis" Western University and University of Debrecen and financed by European Union through ERDF under Hungary-Romania 2007- 2013 Programme. Data were processed and analyzed by using the SPSS soft. We found that employers perceived as most efficient the following motivation instruments: a good communication between employees, basic wage, partial delegation of managerial tasks and optimal working conditions. The efficiency of the motivation instruments in the view of employers differs significantly across activity sectors. Thus, using the ANOVA test, we found that the variation of variables related to basic wage, performance rewarding, bonuses, partial delegation of managerial tasks, work competencies, fear of job loss, need for affiliation to a workgroup, the prestige outside the organisation, working a good reputation organisation, social benefits, home distance can be explained in a proportion ranged from 23,5% to 42,9% by the variation of variable associated to the activity sector.

  13. Aniracetam restores motivation reduced by satiation in a choice reaction task in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Kurasawa, M

    2001-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of aniracetam on satiation-induced poor performance in a choice reaction task. Aged rats that mastered the task under food restriction stably maintained the task performance for a long period. Satiation by successive free feeding greatly diminished the performance. Satiation resulted in a decreased % correct, increased % omission and prolonged choice reaction time, indicating a reduction in lever response with low choice accuracy and slow responding speed. Repeated administration of aniracetam (30 mg/kg, po, for 14 days) partially recovered the choice accuracy and lever response, but not the responding speed, task-associated motor activity or impulsivity. In addition, aniracetam did not affect the animals' weights. These results indicate that satiation reduces motivation to perform and attain the task. Aniracetam may restore motivation, probably by improving poor behavioral states (daily attentional and vigilance failures), thereby creating the driving force.

  14. Reduction of risk factors for nuclear power plants due to personnel psychological data, including attitude, morale and motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The possibilities of reduction of risk factors for personnel activity and performance due to attitudes, motivation and moral are presented. Methodology and experience in psychology, sociopsychology, psychophisiology and sociology mistake sources are discussed. Authorization to job, stages of estimating occupational fitness and modules system of personnel psychological and sociopsychological training probabilistic are explained. (author). 3 figs, 1 tab

  15. Medical care utilization during 1 year prior to death in suicides motivated by physical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaelim; Lee, Won Joon; Moon, Ki Tae; Suh, Mina; Sohn, Jungwoo; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Changsoo; Shin, Dong Chun; Jung, Sang Hyuk

    2013-05-01

    Many epidemiological studies have suggested that a variety of medical illnesses are associated with suicide. Investigating the time-varying pattern of medical care utilization prior to death in suicides motivated by physical illnesses would be helpful for developing suicide prevention programs for patients with physical illnesses. Suicides motivated by physical illnesses were identified by the investigator's note from the National Police Agency, which was linked to the data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment. We investigated the time-varying patterns of medical care utilization during 1 year prior to suicide using repeated-measures data analysis after adjustment for age, gender, area of residence, and socioeconomic status. Among 1994 suicides for physical illness, 1893 (94.9%) suicides contacted any medical care services and 445 (22.3%) suicides contacted mental health care during 1 year prior to suicide. The number of medical care visits and individual medical expenditures increased as the date of suicide approached (psuicide significantly increased only in 40- to 64-year-old men (p=0.002), women suicides motivated by physical illnesses contacted medical care during 1 year prior to suicide, but many of them did not undergo psychiatric evaluation. This underscores the need for programs to provide psychosocial support to patients with physical illnesses.

  16. On a directed tree problem motivated by a newly introduced graph product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoon H. Boode

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce and study a directed tree problem motivated by a new graph product that we have recently introduced and analysed in two conference contributions in the context of periodic real-time processes. While the two conference papers were focussing more on the applications, here we mainly deal with the graph theoretical and computational complexity issues. We show that the directed tree problem is NP-complete and present and compare several heuristics for this problem.

  17. Phasic Mesolimbic Dopamine Signaling Encodes the Facilitation of Incentive Motivation Produced by Repeated Cocaine Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Ostlund, SB; LeBlanc, KH; Kosheleff, AR; Wassum, KM; Maidment, NT

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction is marked by pathological drug seeking and intense drug craving, particularly in response to drug-related stimuli. Repeated psychostimulant administration is known to induce long-term alterations in mesolimbic dopamine (DA) signaling that are hypothesized to mediate this heightened sensitivity to environmental stimuli. However, there is little direct evidence that drug-induced alteration in mesolimbic DA function underlies this hypersensitivity to motivational cues. In the curr...

  18. Investigating a New Model of Time-Related Academic Behavior: Procrastination and Timely Engagement by Motivational Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Kamden K.

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of time-related academic behavior (i.e., procrastination and timely engagement) in the academic context. Specifically, this study aimed to build a new model for understanding these behaviors in a motivational framework by using motivational orientation to frame these…

  19. Romance, risk, and replication: Can consumer choices and risk-taking be primed by mating motives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, David R; Vadillo, Miguel A; Riedel, Benjamin; Clymo, Ashley; Govind, Sinita; Hickin, Nisha; Tamman, Amanda J F; Puhlmann, Lara M C

    2015-12-01

    Interventions aimed at influencing spending behavior and risk-taking have considerable practical importance. A number of studies motivated by the costly signaling theory within evolutionary psychology have reported that priming inductions (such as looking at pictures of attractive opposite sex members) designed to trigger mating motives increase males' stated willingness to purchase conspicuous consumption items and to engage in risk-taking behaviors, and reduce loss aversion. However, a meta-analysis of this literature reveals strong evidence of either publication bias or p-hacking (or both). We then report 8 studies with a total sample of over 1,600 participants which sought to reproduce these effects. None of the studies, including one that was fully preregistered, was successful. The results question the claim that romantic primes can influence risk-taking and other potentially harmful behaviors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Relationships Between Craving Beliefs and Abstinence Self-Efficacy are Mediated by Smoking Motives and Moderated by Nicotine Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Elizabeth D; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2016-01-01

    Decreased abstinence self-efficacy is linked to increased craving and negative affect, as well as poorer smoking outcomes, such as lapse, relapse, and withdrawal symptom severity. Research suggests that beliefs and cognitions concerning ourselves and the world orient us toward specific goals and thus impact our judgments and behavior. This study serves to investigate whether motives for smoking mediate the relationship between beliefs about craving and abstinence self-efficacy judgments and whether this may differ by nicotine dependence. In a sample of 198 smokers (M age = 34.96, 51.8% female, 81.8% Caucasian), self-report measures of craving beliefs, situational abstinence self-efficacy, and smoking motives were measured. We examined the effect of beliefs on abstinence self-efficacy in both craving and negative affect situations, with craving and negative reinforcement smoking motives as mediators, and nicotine dependence as a moderator. Results indicate that craving beliefs predict lower abstinence self-efficacy judgments in craving situations indirectly through increased craving motives. However, this relationship was only significant for less dependent smokers. Additionally, regardless of nicotine dependence, craving beliefs predicted lower abstinence self-efficacy in negative affect situations via increased negative reinforcement smoking motives. These findings suggest that beliefs concerning the specific nature of craving correlate with smoking motives (ie, smoking goals) and thus abstinence self-efficacy judgments. Furthermore, these associations are stronger for less dependent smokers. Such findings suggest the importance of addressing craving beliefs during smoking cessation treatment, especially for less dependent smokers whose craving beliefs are associated with abstinence self-efficacy across multiple situations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved

  1. Territoriality evidenced by asymmetric intruder-holder motivation in an amblypygid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Kenneth James; Hill-Lindsay, Sloan

    2016-01-01

    Territoriality has an extensive and thorough history of research, but has been difficult to impossible to test empirically in most species. We offer a method for testing for territoriality by measuring the motivation of territory intruders to win contests in controlled trials. We demonstrated this approach by staging paired trials of the Amblypygi Phrynus longipes (Chelicerata: Arachnida). Amblypygids engaged in agonistic interactions after the opportunity to establish a putative territory on one side of an arena. We found that intruders of putative territories had lower motivation to win contests, thus evidencing territoriality. Physical components of individuals (i.e. energy stores) increased the probability of winning the contest for holders but not intruders, thereby providing insight into the differing decision rules opponents use in territory contests. We discuss why alternative hypotheses, including loser-initiator covariation and home field bourgeois advantage, fail empirical tests. We demonstrated that analyzing animal motivation in territorial contests is tractable even for animals where territories are inconspicuous and cues are outside the normal perceptions of researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Modulation of working memory function by motivation through loss-aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Daniel C; D'Esposito, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Cognitive performance is affected by motivation. Few studies, however, have investigated the neural mechanisms of the influence of motivation through potential monetary punishment on working memory. We employed functional MRI during a delayed recognition task that manipulated top-down control demands with added monetary incentives to some trials in the form of potential losses of bonus money. Behavioral performance on the task was influenced by loss-threatening incentives in the form of faster and more accurate performance. As shown previously, we found enhancement of activity for relevant stimuli occurs throughout all task periods (e.g., stimulus encoding, maintenance, and response) in both prefrontal and visual association cortex. Further, these activation patterns were enhanced for trials with possible monetary loss relative to nonincentive trials. During the incentive cue, the amygdala and striatum showed significantly greater activation when money was at a possible loss on the trial. We also evaluated patterns of functional connectivity between regions responsive to monetary consequences and prefrontal areas responsive to the task. This analysis revealed greater delay period connectivity between and the left insula and prefrontal cortex with possible monetary loss relative to nonincentive trials. Overall, these results reveal that incentive motivation can modulate performance on working memory tasks through top-down signals via amplification of activity within prefrontal and visual association regions selective to processing the perceptual inputs of the stimuli to be remembered. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Focusing of cosmic radiation by power lines?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vistnes, A.I.; Strand, T.

    1996-12-01

    In 1992 Anthony Hopwood introduced a hypothesis that electric and magnetic fields close to power lines might focus electrically charged particles in cosmic radiation so that people living close by would be exposed to higher doses of ionizing radiation than if the power line was not present. This hypothesis has been tested using thermoluminescent dosemeter as detectors, which are free from electric noise artifacts that might influence Geiger-Mueller detectors. Detectors were placed on snow covered cultivated land at low altitudes as well as on an ice covered lake in a mountain area to reduce background radiation from the ground. In neither case could a focusing effect be demonstrated. 10 refs., 3 figs

  4. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  5. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  6. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  7. Factors that motivate and influence excellence in human performance: A case study of inspection personnel in the complex context of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, S.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigates the problem of poor performance among nuclear power plant inspection personnel both in training and in the field. First, a systems perspective is employed to explore the psychological processes and relevant human factors that may be associated with workers' inadequate performance. Second, two separate yet related approaches are used to clarify the definition of competence: (a) a theory-based (or top-down) approach, in which effective performance is construed as a product of a skillful, motivated person interacting with a responsive environment; and (b) an empirical (or bottom-up) approach, in which key person and context characteristics are generated based on the opinions of experts in the industry. Using a series of semistructured interviews, two empirical studies were conducted in the latter approach. Workers motivational characteristics appeared to be largely a function of their current working conditions. Overall, the results of both studies converged with the theoretical analysis emphasizing (a) the reciprocal and dynamic interplay of contextual and motivational factors influencing performance, and (b) the salient role of supervisory practices in terms of support, cooperation, and efficiency in contributing to the outcome of performance

  8. High-temperature ceramics for automobile gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, P.

    1978-01-01

    The employment of the high operational temperatures makes it necessary to use, for the construction of the turbines, ceramic materials such as silicon nitride or silicon carbide. Investigations concerning the development of turbine components made of such materials are conducted by a German automobile manufacturer and the ceramics industry. The current status of these investigations is reviewed. Flame tubes and guide-vane rings have successfully passed tests lasting 20 hours. Prototype turbine wheels have withstood the effects of peripheral speeds of 450 m/s. They also showed resistance to thermal shocks which were as high as 6-0 K/s.

  9. A Review of Voiture Minimum. Le Corbusier and the Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schnoor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Here is a full-on celebration of cars and someone’s addiction to cars. In its midst drives Le Corbusier. The book, Voiture Minimum. Le Corbusier and the Automobile (Cambridge, Mass. and London: MIT Press, 2011, has recently been published by Spanish architect and academic Antonio Amado. What a curious book. It is something between a detective story circling around determining the date of a single drawing (1928 or 1936 and, simultaneously, it is “Everything you always wanted to know about Le Corbusier and cars but were afraid to ask”.

  10. [Epidemiological features of automobile traumatism in Russia and abroad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakunin, S A

    2007-01-01

    The article presents updated epidemiological information on specific features and causes of high automobile traumatism in Russia and abroad for the last 5 years. The number of road accidents and road accident fatalities now not only present a great social-medical problem in Russia but also a problem of national security as road accident mortality is far ahead of the developed countries and showed no trend to lowering. This threatening situation is caused by out-of-date transport infrastructure, social factors, old cars without modern safety systems, absence of special emergency medical care for road accident victims. The experience of foreign countries on reducing road traumatism is analysed.

  11. Contribution of Road Grade to the Energy Use of Modern Automobiles Across Large Datasets of Real-World Drive Cycles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the real-world power demand of modern automobiles is of critical importance to engineers using modeling and simulation to inform the intelligent design of increasingly efficient powertrains. Increased use of global positioning system (GPS) devices has made large scale data collection of vehicle speed (and associated power demand) a reality. While the availability of real-world GPS data has improved the industry's understanding of in-use vehicle power demand, relatively little attention has been paid to the incremental power requirements imposed by road grade. This analysis quantifies the incremental efficiency impacts of real-world road grade by appending high fidelity elevation profiles to GPS speed traces and performing a large simulation study. Employing a large real-world dataset from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Transportation Secure Data Center, vehicle powertrain simulations are performed with and without road grade under five vehicle models. Aggregate results of this study suggest that road grade could be responsible for 1% to 3% of fuel use in light-duty automobiles.

  12. Motives to quit smoking and reasons to relapse differ by socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Aadahl, Mette; Toft, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status.......To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status....

  13. Ensuring the quality of logistic service of automobile dealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Salimova

    2017-03-01

    high quality customer service of automobile dealers by increasing the customer satisfaction by increasing the comprehensiveness of services at all stages of the life cycle of the vehicle. Practical significance the research findings and the developed functional model of a car service system can be used to improve the logistics service quality of an automotive company which is implemented by the enterprises of brand servicesales chain. The article can be used in research activities covering the issues of logistics services and quality management in the dealer chain of an automotive company.

  14. Individualized solutions to environmental problems: a case of automobile pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urmetzer, P.; Blake, D. E.; Guppy, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Air pollution associated with motor vehicle use is one of the prime indicators of the tension between consumerism and the environment. The use of private automobiles seems so convenient, whereas the alternatives are off-putting enough to make significant changes in personal transportation behaviour well-nigh impossible. At the same time, combating the air pollution associated with extensive use of cars has become one of the major policy objectives for cities around the world. Available policy alternatives can be divided into two categories: (1) incentives, such as improved public transportation, and (2) disincentives, such as environmental tax on gasoline. This paper attempt to directly assess links between these two alternatives, associated attitudes towards them, the level of public support for command and control (i.e. regulatory) policy approaches as well as for economic incentive/disincentive policies. Answers are sought and findings discussed relative to the link between opinions about the environment and support for different types of environmental policies, the usefulness of a rational choice perspective in explaining support for environmental policy alternatives, the role that partisan political attachments play in support of environmental policy approaches, and the roles played by environmental activism, knowledge, and action in shaping support for environmental policy alternatives. Overall results indicate that while most people living in urban environments support the ideas of environmental protection and would be willing to incur costs to confront the problem, exposure to air pollution plays an inconsequential (actually nearly non-existent) role in support of automobile-related environmental problems. Automobile users act like 'free-riders' i.e. they tend to support policies that socialize the cost of solutions rather than policies that attempt to pass the cost of pollution directly on to individual car owners. A sample of the responses to

  15. Studying Motivational Strategies Used by Two Teachers in Differently Tracked Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Melanie; Eick, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated teacher and student perspectives on the motivation of high school students in differently tracked science courses. Participants were 2 highly motivational teachers who took part in interviews and classroom observations focusing on motivational strategies in their science classes. Student participants from each teacher's…

  16. College Students' Academic Motivation: Differences by Gender, Class, and Source of Payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouse, Corey H.; Basch, Charles E.; LeBlanc, Michael; McKnight, Kelly R.; Lei, Ting

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe college students' (n = 856) gender, year in school and source of tuition funding in relation to their academic motivation. The design was cross-sectional and used cluster sampling. The Academic Motivation Scale was used to measure students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations as well as amotivation. Three…

  17. An Exploration of Students' Motivation to Lead: An Analysis by Race, Gender, and Student Leadership Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, David M.; Collier, Daniel; Thompson, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the motivation to lead of a random sample of 1,338 undergraduate students to determine the degree to which motivation to lead can predict leadership behaviors. Results suggested that students' internal self-identity as a leader positively predicted behavior, while their "social normative" motivation to…

  18. Heterogeneous nano-Fe/Ca/CaO catalytic ozonation for selective surface hydrophilization of plastics containing brominated and chlorinated flame retardants (B/CFRs): separation from automobile shredder residue by froth flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Lee, Byoung Ho; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Simion, Cristian

    2017-02-01

    One method of weakening the inherently hydrophobic surface of plastics relevant to flotation separation is heterogeneous nano-Fe/Ca/CaO catalytic ozonation. Nano-Fe/Ca/CaO-catalyzed ozonation for 15 min efficiently decreases the surface hydrophobicity of brominated and chlorinated flame retardant (B/CFR)-containing plastics (such as acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene (ABS), high-impact polystyrene (HIPS), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) in automobile shredder residue (ASR) to such an extent that their flotation ability is entirely depressed. Such a hydrophilization treatment also stimulates the ABS, HIPS, and PVC surface roughness, wetting of the surface, and the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions at the surface and ultimately changes surface polarity. SEM-EDS, AFM, and XPS analyses of the PVC and ABS surfaces demonstrated a marked decrease in [Cl/Br] and a significant increase in the number of hydrophilic groups, such as C-O, C=O, and (C=O)-O. Under froth flotation conditions at 50 rpm, about 99.5 % of ABS and 99.5 % of HIPS in ASR samples settled out, resulting in a purity of 98 and 98.5 % for ABS and HIPS in ASR samples, respectively. Furthermore, at 150 rpm, we also obtained 100 % PVC separation in the settled fraction, with 98 % purity in ASR. Total recovery of non-B/CFR-containing plastics reached nearly 100 % in the floating fraction. The amount of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO reagent employed during ozonation is very small, and additional removal of surface contaminants from the recycled ASR plastic surfaces by ozonation makes the developed process simpler, greener, and more effective.

  19. Understanding Employee Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)

  20. Effects of automobile steering characteristics on driver vehicle system dynamics in regulation tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Klein, R.

    1975-01-01

    A regulation task which subjected the automobile to a random gust disturbance which is countered by driver control action is used to study the effects of various automobile steering characteristics on the driver/vehicle system. The experiments used a variable stability automobile specially configured to permit insertion of the simulated gust disturbance and the measurement of the driver/vehicle system characteristics. Driver/vehicle system dynamics were measured and interpreted as an effective open loop system describing function. Objective measures of system bandwidth, stability, and time delays were deduced and compared. These objective measures were supplemented by driver ratings. A tentative optimum range of vehicle dynamics for the directional regulation task was established.

  1. [Automobile Traffic Accident Death Case Analysis of Characteristics of Driver Injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Y L; Zhang, W L

    2017-02-01

    To distinguish the injury characteristic changes on the drivers between the injuries of drivers and passengers in traffic accidents, and to provide scientific evidence for confirming the identity of driver in traffic accidents. Data of 126 automobile traffic accident death cases in the reclamation areas of Heilongjiang province from 2006-2014 were retrospectively studied. The injury characteristics on the drivers of automobile traffic accident death cases were analyzed and the forensic identification problem in the injuries of drivers and passengers were discussed. Injuries were frequently observed on driver's neck, chest and abdomen. The characteristic injuries caused by auto parts were also found, which appeared at the places of passenger's head, face and limbs contacted with automobile. Such characteristic injuries were not found at other places. The location and type of injury are associated with the identity of the deceased. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  2. Fitting of power generated by nuclear power plants into the Hungarian electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, Gyula; Potecz, Bela

    1984-01-01

    The moderate increase of electrical energy demands (3% at present) can only be met by the parallel application of fossil and nuclear power plants and by electric power import via the transmission lines of the CMEA countries. The changes in the electrical energy and fuel demands and the development of the available capacities during the last 35 years are reviewed. The major purpose of Hungarian power economy is to save hydrocarbon fuels by taking advantages of power import opportunities by operating nuclear power plants at maximum capacity and the coal fired power stations at high capacity. The basic principles, the algorithm applied to optimize the load distribution of the electrical power system are discussed in detail with special attention to the role of nuclear power. The planned availability of nuclear power plants and the amount of electricity generated by nuclear plants should also be optimized. (V.N.)

  3. Globalization of the automobile industry: traditional locations under pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Spatz, Julius; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Even though the automobile industry is technologically advanced, the increasing integration of low-income countries into the global division of labor has put competitive pressure on traditional automobile producing countries. New end-producers emerged in Asia, Latin America as well as Southern and Central Europe. In addition, the automobile industries of Germany, Japan and the United States engaged in outsourcing of relatively labor intensive segments of the value chain, especially on a regio...

  4. Automobile technology in a CO{sub 2}-constrained world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S.; Barreto Gomez, L.; Dietrich, Ph. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schafer, A.; Jacoby, H.D. [MIT, Cambridge (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This study identifies the environmental conditions under which less CO{sub 2}-emitting and more expensive automobile technology might enter the North American transportation sector. For that purpose, different exogenous CO{sub 2}-reduction targets are imposed and the resulting market shares of hypothetical future automobile technologies calculated. The criteria for the selection of different types of automobiles/fuels is the minimisation of discounted, cumulative transport sector costs over the scenario time horizon. (author) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  5. Credit constraints, consumer leasing and the automobile replacement decision

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen W. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a model of consumer automobile replacement in the presence of leasing. The model incorporates credit constraints to distinguish between the leasing and purchasing options. It demonstrates how leasing increases the probability that a household replaces its automobile and how households that lease choose higher quality automobiles. The qualitative choice model of the household's decision to lease provides support for the observation that households that lease face credit con...

  6. Violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Sofia; García-Moreno, Claudia; Stephenson, Rob; Temmerman, Marleen; Toskin, Igor

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. Methods We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. Findings We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). Conclusion More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities. PMID:29403098

  7. Modification of Male Courtship Motivation by Olfactory Habituation via the GABAA Receptor in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ichiro Tachibana

    Full Text Available A male-specific component, 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA works as an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone in Drosophila melanogaster. The presence of cVA on a male suppresses the courtship motivation of other males and contributes to suppression of male-male homosexual courtship, while the absence of cVA on a female stimulates the sexual motivation of nearby males and enhances the male-female interaction. However, little is known how a male distinguishes the presence or absence of cVA on a target fly from either self-produced cVA or secondhand cVA from other males in the vicinity. In this study, we demonstrate that male flies have keen sensitivity to cVA; therefore, the presence of another male in the area reduces courtship toward a female. This reduced level of sexual motivation, however, could be overcome by pretest odor exposure via olfactory habituation to cVA. Real-time imaging of cVA-responsive sensory neurons using the neural activity sensor revealed that prolonged exposure to cVA decreased the levels of cVA responses in the primary olfactory center. Pharmacological and genetic screening revealed that signal transduction via GABAA receptors contributed to this olfactory habituation. We also found that the habituation experience increased the copulation success of wild-type males in a group. In contrast, transgenic males, in which GABA input in a small subset of local neurons was blocked by RNAi, failed to acquire the sexual advantage conferred by habituation. Thus, we illustrate a novel phenomenon in which olfactory habituation positively affects sexual capability in a competitive environment.

  8. Violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel, Karel; de Vasconcelos, Sofia; García-Moreno, Claudia; Stephenson, Rob; Temmerman, Marleen; Toskin, Igor

    2018-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities.

  9. [Motivational interview: supporting change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, Guillaume; Ducasse, Déborah

    2015-01-01

    The motivational interview aims to help patients to resolve their ambivalence regarding problematic behaviors and to guide them into change. It differs from other therapeutic approaches mainly through the attitude of the therapist. In motivational interviewing, the therapist defends the statu quo. By reactance, the patient defends the change and enhance her/his motivation. This article provides a summary of the other concepts of motivational interviewing and its applications in the psychiatric daily practice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Airport electric vehicle powered by fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontela, Pablo; Soria, Antonio; Mielgo, Javier; Sierra, José Francisco; de Blas, Juan; Gauchia, Lucia; Martínez, Juan M.

    Nowadays, new technologies and breakthroughs in the field of energy efficiency, alternative fuels and added-value electronics are leading to bigger, more sustainable and green thinking applications. Within the Automotive Industry, there is a clear declaration of commitment with the environment and natural resources. The presence of passenger vehicles of hybrid architecture, public transport powered by cleaner fuels, non-aggressive utility vehicles and an encouraging social awareness, are bringing to light a new scenario where conventional and advanced solutions will be in force. This paper presents the evolution of an airport cargo vehicle from battery-based propulsion to a hybrid power unit based on fuel cell, cutting edge batteries and hydrogen as a fuel. Some years back, IBERIA (Major Airline operating in Spain) decided to initiate the replacement of its diesel fleet for battery ones, aiming at a reduction in terms of contamination and noise in the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, due to extreme operating conditions in airports (ambient temperature, intensive use, dirtiness, …), batteries suffered a very severe degradation, which took its toll in terms of autonomy. This reduction in terms of autonomy together with the long battery recharge time made the intensive use of this fleet impractical in everyday demanding conditions.

  11. A basic study on universal design of auditory signals in automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Katsuya; Choi, Jong-dae; Maiguma, Ryo; Takada, Masayuki; Iwamiya, Shin-ichiro

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, the impression of various kinds of auditory signals currently used in automobiles and a comprehensive evaluation were measured by a semantic differential method. The desirable acoustic characteristic was examined for each type of auditory signal. Sharp sounds with dominant high-frequency components were not suitable for auditory signals in automobiles. This trend is expedient for the aged whose auditory sensitivity in the high frequency region is lower. When intermittent sounds were used, a longer OFF time was suitable. Generally, "dull (not sharp)" and "calm" sounds were appropriate for auditory signals. Furthermore, the comparison between the frequency spectrum of interior noise in automobiles and that of suitable sounds for various auditory signals indicates that the suitable sounds are not easily masked. The suitable auditory signals for various purposes is a good solution from the viewpoint of universal design.

  12. Theoretic Analysis and Study on Automobile EMC Based on the Synergetics Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y H; Chang, X; He, L Q; Tian, X L

    2006-01-01

    Considering the microelectronic application in the automobile of equipment increases, and the electromagnetic environment of external world worsens day by day, it is important to study the problems of the auto EMC. The traditional researching approaches of EMC have already become riper, but because of the complicated characteristics of the automobile's complex electronic system, there is no simple mathematical model to describe and analyze the auto EMC. The traditional methods mostly proceed with parameters of the circuits, and they have not risen to the system grade. They are based on the thought of reduction. As a kind of brand-new theory, synergetics pay more attention to the cooperation and competition between subsystems, and then it can reach harmonious stability from the whole. This paper investigates a new thought about applying the synergetics theory to the EMC' s analysis of the complex system like the Automobile's, thus received corresponding theory support

  13. Optimal Dispatch of Competitive Power Markets by Using PowerWorld Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Shuhui

    2013-10-01

    The transition to competitive and retail markets for electric utilities around the world has been a difficult and controversial process. One of the difficulties that hindered the development and growth of competitive power markets is the absence of efficient computational tools to assist the design, analysis, and operation of competitive power markets. PowerWorld simulator is a software package that has strong analytical and visualization functions suitable for extensive power flow study of an electric power system. However, like many other power flow simulators, PowerWorld cannot be used directly for analysis and evaluation of a competitive power market. This article investigates mathematical models associated with a competitive power market and how these models can be converted and transformed in such a way that makes it possible to use PowerWorld for the competitive power market study. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, models of several small-scale competitive power markets are built in MatLab by using conventional approaches. Results generated by both PowerWorld and MatLab are compared. Finally, the article demonstrates how the PowerWorld simulator is used to investigate a larger and practical competitive power system.

  14. Formaldehyde monitor for automobile exhausts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    Device makes use of microwave spectral absorption in low-Q resonant Stark cell, and indications are that ultimate sensitivity of instrument is within 100 parts per billion of formaldehyde. Microwave source is very small and requires only six-volt dc bias for operation. Coarse tuning is accomplished mechanically and fine tuning by adjusting dc-bias voltage.

  15. Improvements by employee motivation in the manufacture of nuclear fuel assemblies for LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osseforth, E.; Engel, H.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear fuel assemblies are manufactured on a very high technical level and automation. However there is still a need for more improvement. One of the most important ways is employees motivation, because improvements lives of the ideas, impulses, initiatives and commitments of its employees. It can be realized by the employee himself or a group. Three ways of improvement by employees are mainly implemented at ANF: (i) ANF's 3i - program, based on the standard implementation within Siemens, is the first and an important strategy to improve processes, products and costs. It is to involve all employees and make use of the full potential for improvement The individual employee or a group make a suggestion and receive a commendation depending on the benefits. (ii) Work groups with a high level of responsibility are the second part. The groups mainly organize their work, working time and improvements by themselves. They help each other in job training, are very flexible and able to do also most of the maintenance work. (iii) CIP - groups (Continuous Improvement Process), based on the philosophy of KAMEN is the third strategy. These groups come together to improve all processes in the manufacturing area, also the administration or logistical processes at ANF. CIP - groups are implemented as so called long-term groups, the members are from different levels and departments. By comparing the different ways in order to achieve manufacturing improvements, employees motivation is one of the most important and cheapest part and will increase in significance in future. (author)

  16. Motives to adopt renewable electricity technologies: Evidence from Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergek, Anna; Mignon, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    The diffusion of renewable electricity technologies (RETs) has to speed up for countries to reach their, often ambitious, targets for renewable energy generation. This requires a large number of actors – including individuals, companies and other organizations – to adopt RETs. Policies will most likely be needed to induce adoption, but there is limited knowledge about what motivates RET adoption. The purpose of this paper is to complement and expand the available empirical evidence regarding motives to adopt RETs through a survey to over 600 RET adopters in Sweden. The main finding of the study is that there are many different motives to adopt RETs and that RET adopters are a heterogeneous group with regard to motives. Although environmental concerns, interest in the technology, access to an RE resource and prospects to generate economic revenues are important motives in general, adopters differ with regard to how large importance they attach to the same motive and each adopter can also have several different motives to adopt. There are also differences in motives between adopter categories (especially independent power producers vs. individuals and diversified companies) and between RETs (especially wind power vs. solar power). This implies that a variety of policy instruments might be needed to induce further adoption of a variety of RETs by a variety of adopter categories. - Highlights: • There are many different motives to adopt renewable electricity technologies (RETs). • Adopters attach different levels of importance to the same motive. • Adopters can have several different motives to adopt a particular RET. • Motives to adopt RETs differ between wind power, solar PV and small-scale hydro. • Motives to adopt RETs differ between IPPs, individuals and diversified companies.

  17. Your Automobile Dollar. Money Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

    This booklet is designed to help first-time car buyers determine if they can or should buy a car and how to get the most from their car-buying dollar. Leasing and renting options also are discussed. The booklet outlines the process of buying a new car, starting with a review of sizes, types, and features. This is followed by a rundown on showroom…

  18. AUTOMOBILE AND SELFHOOD: CAR NARRATIVES IN TURKISH LITERATURE / OTOMOBİL VE BENLİK: TÜRK EDEBİYATINDA ARABA OLGUSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Seyit Battal UĞURLU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The automobile that entered into the Turkish novelwith Recaizâde Mahmut Ekrem's Car Affairs, in onerespect, is one of the status determinant in traditionalTurkish culture that has taken part instead of horse. Theautomobiles power is still measured as horse powerwhich has close psycho-cultural ties with the discourse of'horse, woman and the gun', that is considerable code oftraditional Turkish culture. Thinking its accreditation ofcapacity of speed performance it can be stressed thatautomobiles have changeable genders depending on menand women. When producing new models, cardesignator’s inspiration is greatly feminity and body ofwomen. Becoming one of the attractive ways of selfrealization of individuals, the automobile, protects usagainst lack of confidence of the external, presentsindividuals a lot of opportunities. Automobile’sattractiveness comes from its power to provide manypossibilities of supremacy over pedestrian way of life aswell as gigantic prosperous life style. The reflections ofthis important device of modern world seems in theTurkish literature parallel with social life. In YellowTractor by Talip Apaydın, Slender Rose of my Thought byAdalet Ağaoğlu, “The Clown Rusen” by Sevim Burak andIcy Swords by Latife Tekin narration can be mentioned afocus on human technology relation as a social fact. “TheCold” by Ömer Seyfettin, “The Spare Part of Civilization”by Aziz Nesin, and “Jaguar” by Peride Celâl focuses on automobile and its social reflections. A close scrutinyhas been conducted into cars as an important mediumof self identification within the context of modern man,its reflections in Turkish literature with provocativepsycho-social factors though a critical and analyticalpoint of view.

  19. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  20. Ergonomic and usability analysis on a sample of automobile dashboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Raíssa; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This is a research study based on an analysis which sets out to identify and pinpoint ergonomic and usability problems found in a sample of automobile dashboards. The sample consisted of three dashboards, of three different makes and characterized as being a popular model, an average model and a luxury model. The examination was conducted by observation, with the aid of photography, notes and open interview, questionnaires and performing tasks with users, the bases of which are on the principles laid down by methodologies. From this it was possible to point to the existence of problems such as: complaints about the layout, lighting, colors, available area, difficult access to points of interaction, such as buttons, and the difficult nomenclature of dials. Later, the findings and recommendations presented show the need for a further, deeper study, using more accurate tools, a larger sample of users, and an anthropometric study focused on the dashboard, since reading and understanding it have to be done quickly and accurately, and that more attention be given to the study of automobile dashboards, particularly in the most popular vehicles in order to maintain the standards of usability, and drivers' comfort and safety.

  1. HEAT RECOVERY FROM A NATURAL GAS POWERED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE BY CO2 TRANSCRITICAL POWER CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Farzaneh-Gord

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides details of energy accounting of a natural gas powered internal combustion engine and achievable work of a utilized CO2 power cycle. Based on experimental performance analysis of a new designed IKCO (Iran Khodro Company 1.7 litre natural gas powered engine, full energy accounting of the engine were carried out on various engine speeds and loads. Further, various CO2 transcritical power cycle configurations have been appointed to take advantages of exhaust and coolant water heat lost. Based on thermodynamic analysis, the amount of recoverable work obtainable by CO2 transcritical power cycles have been calculated on various engine conditions. The results show that as much as 18 kW power could be generated by the power cycle. This would be considerable amount of power especially if compared with the engine brake power.

  2. Recycling scheme for scrapped automobiles in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masao [AI Tech Associates, Tokyo (Japan); Nakajima, Akira [Car Steel Co., Ltd., Gunnma (Japan); Taya, Sadao [Shinsei Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Over 5 million cars are scrapped yearly in Japan. After dismantling scrapped automobiles, they are put into a shredder for differential recovery of ferrous and nonferrous metals. The residue, which is called shredder dust, runs over 1.2 million tons per year. This paper reports a entire sequence of scrapping cars in Japan with the following sections: (1) production and scrapped car management, (2) material composition, (3) dismantling, (4) shredder plant, (5) differential recovery of metals including specific gravity and newly developed color separation.

  3. Information, complexity and efficiency: The automobile model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenby, B. [Lucent Technologies (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-08

    The new, rapidly evolving field of industrial ecology - the objective, multidisciplinary study of industrial and economic systems and their linkages with fundamental natural systems - provides strong ground for believing that a more environmentally and economically efficient economy will be more information intensive and complex. Information and intellectual capital will be substituted for the more traditional inputs of materials and energy in producing a desirable, yet sustainable, quality of life. While at this point this remains a strong hypothesis, the evolution of the automobile industry can be used to illustrate how such substitution may, in fact, already be occurring in an environmentally and economically critical sector.

  4. Study on the visibility of an electroluminescent display for automobiles; Jidoshayo EL display no shininsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, N.; Harada, M.; Idogaki, T. [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This report explores the visibility of an Electroluminescent (EL) display for automotive use. Displays for automobiles are exposed to the direct rays of the sun and forced to operate in wide temperature range. Therefore, luminous flux density by the lighting on EL display panel and operating environment temperature must be considered for the visibility evaluation. Sensory evaluation on the visibility and physical measurements such as contrast, chromaticity difference in accordance with the viewing angle change indicate that the visibility of the EL display for automobiles is advantageous over other displays. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Researching Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaabi, Sultan Ali R.; Alkaabi, Warda; Vyver, Glen

    2017-01-01

    Motivation has been studied by different scientists in different fields of knowledge such as biology, psychology, and education for a long period, which has cultivated a wealth of knowledge in these disciplines. The richness in motivation theories poses complexity in motivation research. Due to these complexities, many researchers focus on using a…

  6. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  7. Motivational profile of astronauts at the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that the motive triad of needs for achievement, power, and affiliation can predict variables such as occupational success and satisfaction, innovation, aggressiveness, susceptibility to illness, cooperation, conformity, and many others. The present study documents the motivational profiles of astronauts at three stages of their expedition. Thematic content analysis was employed for references to Winter's well-established motive markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and oral histories) of 46 astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) expeditions. Significant pre-flight differences were found in relation to home agency and job status. NASA astronauts, compared with those from the Russian Space Agency, are motivated by higher need for power, as are commanders in comparison to flight engineers. The need for affiliation motive showed a significant change from pre-flight to in-flight stages. The implications of the relationship between the motivational profile of astronauts and the established behavioural correlates of such profiles are discussed.

  8. Extracurricular participation in research and audit by medical students: opportunities, obstacles, motivation and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkar-Esfahani, Ali; Jamjoom, Aimun A B; Fitzgerald, J Edward F

    2012-01-01

    Medical students should learn to critically evaluate research to inform future evidence-based practice. Participation in research and audit at medical school can help develop these skills whilst prompting interest in academic pursuits. We investigate medical student attitudes and participation in extracurricular research and audit focusing on their opportunities, obstacles, motivation and outcomes. A 60-item questionnaire was distributed to final-year medical students graduating from the University of Nottingham Medical School in the United Kingdom. A total of 238 questionnaires were returned (response rate 75%). Of these, 86% felt research or audit experience was useful for medical students. The main driver for involvement was curriculum vitae (CV) improvement (51%). Male students and those involved in extracurricular research were more likely to agree that this experience should influence selection into training programmes (p = 0.017, p = 0.0036). Overall, 91 respondents (38%) had been involved in such activity with a mean number of projects undertaken of two (range one to four). Those interested in a surgical career were most likely to have undertaken projects (58%). Frequently cited obstacles to involvement were time constraints (74%) and a perceived lack of interest from potential supervisors (63%). Despite significant CV motivation, many are enthusiastic regarding extracurricular research opportunities but frustrated by obstacles faced. Our study suggests there is scope for providing further opportunities to participate in such activities at medical school.

  9. RECOGNIZING MOTIVES: THE DISSENSUAL SELF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten; Christensen, Tine Friis

    2017-01-01

    it as discursive and dialogical, as a historically evolved governmentality, and as constituted in relations of power and recognition. This stream leads back to the river of philosophical discussions around subjectivity, will, freedom and identity that has flowed at least since the 17th century. Yet, current (and...... that reconfigures sense and meaning, can play a part. This chapter aims at suggesting these potentials by rearticulating activities in which people display (represent, avow, reflect, expose, externalize, etc.) their motives. Most contemporary ‘motivational technologies’ stage a pragmatic self-calculation. For some......, these technologies confirm a common-sense, managerial self; others read them as a ‘poetics of practice’ that performs and produces new motives and selves in a liminal space of discursive creativity. These two readings are superseded as we – with art theory from Vygotsky through Brecht to Groys, Bourriaud...

  10. Motivation and motor control: hemispheric specialization for approach motivation reverses with handedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Brookshire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to decades of research on affective motivation in the human brain, approach motivational states are supported primarily by the left hemisphere and avoidance states by the right hemisphere. The underlying cause of this specialization, however, has remained unknown. Here we conducted a first test of the Sword and Shield Hypothesis (SSH, according to which the hemispheric laterality of affective motivation depends on the laterality of motor control for the dominant hand (i.e., the "sword hand," used preferentially to perform approach actions and the nondominant hand (i.e., the "shield hand," used preferentially to perform avoidance actions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine whether the laterality of approach motivation varies with handedness, we measured alpha-band power (an inverse index of neural activity in right- and left-handers during resting-state electroencephalography and analyzed hemispheric alpha-power asymmetries as a function of the participants' trait approach motivational tendencies. Stronger approach motivation was associated with more left-hemisphere activity in right-handers, but with more right-hemisphere activity in left-handers. CONCLUSIONS: The hemispheric correlates of approach motivation reversed between right- and left-handers, consistent with the way they typically use their dominant and nondominant hands to perform approach and avoidance actions. In both right- and left-handers, approach motivation was lateralized to the same hemisphere that controls the dominant hand. This covariation between neural systems for action and emotion provides initial support for the SSH.

  11. Improvement of self-organization, relations and learning motivation of different age students by integrative teaching methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voita D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrative teaching methodology was developed by qualified specialists and implemented in 17 Latvian schools during one study year. Students who participated in the learning of integrative teaching methodology were divided into 3 age groups: 3–4; 5–7 and 8–12 grade students. Students and teachers who participated in the teaching of integrative teaching methodology were questionnaire before and after using of this methodology. The questionnaires about self-organization problems, relations between students and behaviour of students were filled by teachers but the questionnaire about the learning motivation of students was filled by students themselves. The results of questionnaire showed that problems of self-organization, motivation, hyperactivity, attention deficiency, social anxiety, communication and depressive symptomatic of students who were taught according to the integrative teaching methodology of general schools have reduced in all age groups but in 5–7 and 8–12 grade groups of student's aggressive behaviour reduced as well. Self-organization and behaviour problems of students from special schools after realizing integrative teaching methodology have less reduced in comparison with students of general education schools. In general education schools as well as in special schools external learning motivation and internal learning motivation of all age students increased but am motivation or lack of motivation to learn decreased.

  12. Odhad rychlosti automobilů ve videu

    OpenAIRE

    Hájek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá návrhem a tvorbou aplikace pro odhadování rychlosti automobilů jak ze záznamu kamery, tak realtime ze streamu. Práce popisuje kalibraci kamery, detekci a trackování automobilů a odhad jejich rychlosti a věnuje se robotickému operačnímu systému pro nějž je určená. Vytvořená aplikace používá knihovnu OpenCV k většině úkonů, pro přístup k videu používá knihovnu FFmpeg. Výsledky může vypsat na terminál, do souboru nebo je například dále publikovat v rámci ROSu. Apli...

  13. Aluminium and the automobile. Aluminium und Automobil. Vortraege eines internationalen Symposiums der Aluminium-Zentrale, Duesseldorf, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The first symposium on 'Aluminium and the Automobile' took place in March 1976. The lectures of the latest symposium report on the time in between; with special regard to the extent and intensity with wich aluminium - whose advantages and desadvantages are known - was a subject of research and development work done by car producers and parts- and accessory producing industry. Producers of engine blocks, wheels brakes, sunroofs, window-glass mechanisms, heat exchangers, air-filters, drive shafts - just to mention a few described their success but also gave and account of so far unsolved problems. Aluminum and car producers from abroad gave valuable contributions as well. Good news is the technical progress which was clearly reflected in all the lectures. The automobile of the future needs to be further developed in order te fulfill the requirements of lower weight and energy saving cost reduction is equally important for the German and European car industry due to the increasingly hard competitive struggle. Contrary to previous predictions a sufficient supply of alluminium with be available in the years to come.

  14. A Motivational Interviewing Intervention by Pharmacy Students to Improve Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abughosh, Susan; Wang, Xin; Serna, Omar; Esse, Tara; Mann, Amanda; Masilamani, Santhi; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Essien, Ekere James; Fleming, Marc

    2017-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with comorbid hypertension (HTN) are at a higher risk of developing microvascular and macrovascular DM complications. Through guideline-driven recommendations, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are highly recommended for these patients. Unfortunately, medication adherence to these products, though crucial to achieving therapeutic benefit, is frequently suboptimal. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centered collaborative communication style that is used to strengthen internal motivation for change that may prove effective in enhancing adherence. To examine the effect of an MI telephone intervention conducted by pharmacy students in improving adherence to ACEIs/ARBs among Medicare Advantage Plan (MAP) patients with both DM and HTN. A prospective study was conducted among patients enrolled in a Texas MAP. Medical claims data were used to identify patients with DM and HTN, and pharmacy claims were observed to recognize those who filled either an ACEI or an ARB during June 2014. Patients with a 6-month proportion of days covered (PDC) sustainability of the intervention effect for longer time periods and its influence on associated clinical outcomes. This project was supported by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America Foundation (PhRMA). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of PhRMA. The funding agency was not involved in research design, analysis, or reporting results. Funding was obtained by Abughosh. Holstad provided a consultation regarding the MI guide and provided the MI training. Study concept and design were contributed by Abughosh and Fleming, along with Serna, Esse, and Holstad. Serna, Esse, Mann, Holstad, and Masilamani collected the data, and data interpretation was performed by Abughosh, Wong, and Esse. The manuscript was written by Abughosh, Wong, and Esse and revised

  15. Automobile fuel economy standards : Impacts, efficiency, and alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Soren T.; Parry, Ian W H; Sallee, James M.; Fischer, Carolyn

    This article discusses automobile fuel economy standards in the United States and other countries. We first describe how these programs affect the automobile market, including impacts on fuel consumption and other dimensions of the vehicle fleet. We then review two different methodologies for

  16. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kryvokon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  17. Effects of automobile battery wastes on physicochemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Difference in soil qualities has been noticeable in many soils due to anthropogenic sources, especially of automobile battery wastes. This study examines the effects of automobile battery wastes on the physicochemical properties of the soil. Soil samples for this study were collected in triplicates from three battery chargers' ...

  18. Power and reactive power simultaneous control by 0.5 MJ superconducting magnet energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ise, Toshifumi; Tsuji, Kiichiro; Murakami, Yoshishige

    1984-01-01

    Superconducting magnet energy storage (SMES) is expected to be widely applied to the pulsed sources for fusion reactor research and to the energy storage substituting for pumping-up power stations, because of its fast energy storing and discharging and very high efficiency. Some results have been obtained so far. In this paper, however, the simultaneous control of power and reactive power is considered for an energy storage composed of two sets of thyristorized power conversion system and superconducting magnets in series connection, and a direct digital control system is described on the principle, design and configuration including the compensator, and on the experiment using the 0.5 MJ superconducting magnet energy storage installed in the Superconduction Engineering Experiment Center, Osaka University. The results obtained are as follows: (1) P control priority mode and Q control priority mode (in which power and reactive power control has priority, respectively) were proposed as the countermeasures when the simultaneous control of power and reactive power became impossible; (2) the design method was established, by which power and reactive power control loops can independently be designed as a result of simulation; (3) the achievement of the simultaneous control of power and reactive power was confirmed by using P-control priority mode and Q-control priority mode, in the experiment using the control system designed by simulation. The validity of simulation model was also confirmed by actual response waveforms. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Estimating the power efficiency of the thermal power plant modernization by using combined-cycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovhannisyan, L.S.; Harutyunyan, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    The power efficiency of the thermal power plant (TPP) modernization by using combined-cycle technologies is introduced. It is shown that it is possible to achieve the greatest decrease in the specific fuel consumption at modernizing the TPP at the expense of introducing progressive 'know-how' of the electric power generation: for TPP on gas, it is combined-cycle, gas-turbine superstructures of steam-power plants and gas-turbines with heat utilization

  20. Technical Feasibility Evaluation on The Use of A Peltier Thermoelectric Module to Recover Automobile Exhaust Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiartha, N.; Sastra Negara, P.

    2018-01-01

    A thermoelectric module composes of integrated p-n semiconductors as hot and cold side junctions and uses Seebeck effect between them to function as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to directly convert heat into electrical power. Exhaust heat from engines as otherwise wasted to the atmosphere is one of the heat sources freely available to drive the TEG. This paper evaluates technical feasibility on the use of a Peltier thermoelectric module for energy recovery application of such kind of waste heat. An experimental apparatus has been setup to simulate real conditions of automobile engine exhaust piping system. It includes a square section aluminium ducting, an aluminium fin heat sink and a TEC1 12706 thermoelectric module. A heater and a cooling fan are employed to simulate hot exhaust gas and ambient air flows, respectively. Electrical loading is controlled by resistors. Dependent variables measured during the test are cold and hot side temperatures, open and loaded circuit output voltages and electrical current. The test results revealed a promising application of the Peltier thermoelectric module for the engine exhaust heat recovery, though the loaded output power produced and loaded output voltage are still far lower than the commercially thermoelectric module originally purposed for the TEG application.

  1. Physics Learning using Inquiry-Student Team Achievement Division (ISTAD and Guided Inquiry Models Viewed by Students Achievement Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Sulistijo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the differences in learning outcomes of between students that are given the Physics learning models of Inquiry-Student Team Achievement Division (ISTAD and guided inquiry, between students who have high achievement motivation and low achievement motivation. This study was an experimental study with a 2x2x2 factorial design. The study population was the students of class X of SMAN 1 Toroh Grobogan of academic year 2016/2017. Samples were obtained by cluster random sampling technique consists of two classes, class X IPA 3 is used as an experimental class using ISTAD model and class X IPA 4 as the control class using guided inquiry model. Data collection techniques using test techniques for learning outcomes, and technical questionnaire to obtain the data of students' achievement motivation. Analysis of data using two-way ANOVA. The results showed that: (1 there is a difference between the learning outcomes of students with the ISTAD Physics models and with the physics model of guided inquiry. (2 There are differences in learning outcomes between students who have high achievement motivation and low achievement motivation. (3 There is no interaction between ISTAD and guided inquiry Physics models learning and achievement motivation of students.

  2. A Study of Changes in German Learning Motivation by Chinese University Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meihua; Li, Mingming

    2018-01-01

    The present research examined the changes in Chinese university students' motivation to learn German during a 16-week semester. Analyses of the data showed that both at the beginning and toward the end of the semester, the participants held (fairly) positive attitudes towards German, were motivated to learn the language mainly for integrative and…

  3. Treatment Fidelity of Motivational Interviewing Delivered by a School Nurse to Increase Girls' Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lorraine B.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Maier, Kimberly S.; LaDrig, Stacey M.; Berg-Smith, Steven Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Motivational interviewing, which involves the use of person-centered, directive counseling techniques, shows promise for changing adolescent behaviors. The purpose of this article was to describe the methodology and findings related to the treatment fidelity of three face-to-face motivational interviewing sessions involving middle school girls and…

  4. Summary evaluation e-NV200 'Power to Amsterdam' project : February - June 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balm, Susanne; Spoelstra, Jop; van Holstein, Leigh; Moser, Thijs; van Kollem, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the automobile manufacturer Nissan has initiated a unique project to stimulate the uptake of electric vehicles (EV) for commercial usage. This project is called “Power to Amsterdam” and started by the end of 2014. In the project, Nissan has enabled entrepreneurs in the region of

  5. Feasibility of motivational interviewing delivered by a glaucoma educator to improve medication adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F Cook

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul F Cook1, Robert W Bremer2, AJ Ayala4, Malik Y Kahook31College of Nursing, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA; 4Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, University of Colorado Hospital, Aurora, CO, USAIntroduction: Adherence to glaucoma treatment is poor, potentially reducing therapeutic effects. A glaucoma educator was trained to use motivational interviewing (MI, a patient-centered counseling style, to improve adherence. This study was designed to evaluate whether MI was feasible in a busy ophthalmology practice.Methods: Feasibility was assessed using five criteria from the National Institutes of Health Behavior Change consortium: fidelity of intervention components to MI theory; success of the training process; delivery of MI-consistent interventions by the glaucoma educator; patient receipt of the intervention based on enrollment, attrition, and satisfaction; and patient enactment of changes in motivation and adherence over the course of the intervention.Results: A treatment manual was designed by a multidisciplinary team with expertise in health psychology, public health, and ophthalmology. The glaucoma educator received 6 hours of training including role-play exercises, self-study, and individual supervision. His MI-related knowledge and skills increased following training, and he delivered exclusively MI-consistent interventions in 66% of patient encounters. 86% (12/14 of eligible patients agreed to be randomized into glaucoma educator support or a control condition. All 8 patients assigned to the glaucoma educator completed at least 2 of 6 planned contacts, and 50% (4/8 completed all 6 contacts. Patients assigned to the glaucoma educator improved over time in both motivation and adherence.Conclusion: The introduction of a glaucoma educator was feasible in a busy ophthalmology practice. Patients improved their adherence while participating in the

  6. Intensifying the intrinsic motivation by differentiating the teaching strategies in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulbure, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning motivation represents one of the most importantpredictors of academic achievement in higher education. In this empirical study, we have implemented a formative program to improve the university students’ academic achievement and their intrinsic learning motivation. To fully use their intellectual potential, students were treated according to their learning style, throughout one academic year. When we considered the within subject design, both intrinsic motivation and academic achievement significantly increased at the end of the study. Only intrinsic motivation proved to be significantly higher for the between subject comparison. Because our formative program proved to have a significant impact on students’ learning motivation, we recommend the differentiated teaching strategies to improve the academic achievement in higher education.

  7. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MaClean, H.L.; Lave, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency

  8. Distributed Power System Virtual Inertia Implemented by Grid-Connected Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Jingyang; Li, Hongchang; Tang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    to decreased power system inertia. As a result, the grid frequency may easily go beyond the acceptable range under severe frequency events, resulting in undesirable load-shedding, cascading failures, or even large-scale blackouts. To address the ever-decreasing inertia issue, this paper proposes the concept...... of distributed power system virtual inertia, which can be implemented by grid-connected power converters. Without modifications of system hardware, power system inertia can be emulated by the energy stored in the dc-link capacitors of grid-connected power converters. By regulating the dc-link voltages......Renewable energy sources (RESs), e.g. wind and solar photovoltaics, have been increasingly used to meet worldwide growing energy demands and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, RESs are normally coupled to the power grid through fast-response power converters without any inertia, leading...

  9. Heat-flow equation motivated by the ideal-gas shock wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holian, Brad Lee; Mareschal, Michel

    2010-08-01

    We present an equation for the heat-flux vector that goes beyond Fourier's Law of heat conduction, in order to model shockwave propagation in gases. Our approach is motivated by the observation of a disequilibrium among the three components of temperature, namely, the difference between the temperature component in the direction of a planar shock wave, versus those in the transverse directions. This difference is most prominent near the shock front. We test our heat-flow equation for the case of strong shock waves in the ideal gas, which has been studied in the past and compared to Navier-Stokes solutions. The new heat-flow treatment improves the agreement with nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of hard spheres under strong shockwave conditions.

  10. Heat-flow equation motivated by the ideal-gas shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holian, Brad Lee; Mareschal, Michel

    2010-08-01

    We present an equation for the heat-flux vector that goes beyond Fourier’s Law of heat conduction, in order to model shockwave propagation in gases. Our approach is motivated by the observation of a disequilibrium among the three components of temperature, namely, the difference between the temperature component in the direction of a planar shock wave, versus those in the transverse directions. This difference is most prominent near the shock front. We test our heat-flow equation for the case of strong shock waves in the ideal gas, which has been studied in the past and compared to Navier-Stokes solutions. The new heat-flow treatment improves the agreement with nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of hard spheres under strong shockwave conditions.

  11. Use of Motivational Interviewing by Nurse Leaders: Coaching for Performance, Professional Development, and Career Goal Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesen, Cynthia R; Kraft, Sarah J; Meiers, Sonja J

    2018-03-12

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a mentoring style used in various health care settings to guide patients toward health promotion and disease management. The aims of this project were (1) to identify evidence supporting the application of MI strategies and principles by nurse leaders to promote healthful leadership development among direct-report staff and (2) to report outcomes of an educational pilot project regarding MI use for new nurse leaders. Correlations between MI and the American Organization of Nurse Executives nurse executive competencies are reviewed and summarized. These competencies shape the roles, responsibilities, and skills required for nurse executives to function proficiently and successfully within health care organizations. Survey responses were gathered from new nurse supervisors and nurse managers following the MI educational session for nurse leaders. The results show acceptability for MI use in professional development of direct-report staff and in other aspects of nursing leadership roles.

  12. Motivating students' participation in a computer networks course by means of magic, drama and games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilas, Constantinos S; Politis, Anastasios

    2014-01-01

    The recent economic crisis has forced many universities to cut down expenses by packing students into large lecture groups. The problem with large auditoria is that they discourage dialogue between students and faculty and they burden participation. Adding to this, students in computer science courses usually find the field to be full of theoretical and technical concepts. Lack of understanding leads them to lose interest and / or motivation. Classroom experience shows that the lecturer could employ alternative teaching methods, especially for early-year undergraduate students, in order to grasp their interest and introduce basic concepts. This paper describes some of the approaches that may be used to keep students interested and make them feel comfortable as they comprehend basic concepts in computer networks. The lecturing procedure was enriched with games, magic tricks and dramatic representations. This approach was used experimentally for two semesters and the results were more than encouraging.

  13. Development of Proportional Pressure Control Valve for Hydraulic Braking Actuator of Automobile ABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Pin Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research developed a novel proportional pressure control valve for an automobile hydraulic braking actuator. It also analyzed and simulated solenoid force of the control valves, and the pressure relief capability test of electromagnetic thrust with the proportional valve body. Considering the high controllability and ease of production, the driver of this proportional valve was designed with a small volume and powerful solenoid force to control braking pressure and flow. Since the proportional valve can have closed-loop control, the proportional valve can replace a conventional solenoid valve in current brake actuators. With the proportional valve controlling braking and pressure relief mode, it can narrow the space of hydraulic braking actuator, and precisely control braking force to achieve safety objectives. Finally, the proposed novel proportional pressure control valve of an automobile hydraulic braking actuator was implemented and verified experimentally.

  14. Method of the balanced development of automobile service network on the basis of complex indicators system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina MAKAROVA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In article one of ways of improvement of automobile service quality by balanced development of firm service network is described. The analysis algorithm of network subjects work is done. As criterion of an estimation of network activity performance the estimation integrated indicator of all network and estimation complex indicators of its subjects are offered.

  15. The choice of leasing companies for automobile fleet updating on the basis of hierarchies analysis method

    OpenAIRE

    Dorohov, А.

    2007-01-01

    The basic criteria of leasing companies choice by the transport enterprises for automobile fleet updating such as terms of financing, size of advance, assortment time of existence at the market, have been determined. The determination of the best leasing company according to these parameters on the basis of hierarchies analysis method has been offered.

  16. Contribution to the conception, the modelling and the control of automotive power train and of electric converters; Contribution a la conception, la modelisation et la commande du groupe motopropulseur automobile et de convertisseurs d`energie electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidan, P.

    1998-12-14

    The overall work presented in this thesis globally deals with the conception, the modelling and the control of some applied systems. The first part is devoted to the automotive domain. It concerns the still actualized context of energy savings and reduction of atmospheric pollution, by the improvement of the engine/drive-train control and more particularly of the spark-ignition engine control. In this aim, a first investigation deals with the fuel/air ratio control during the transient phases and suggests the use of an intake manifold pressure control by means of an electric throttle actuator, in order to control the air filling. An original strategy of simultaneous control of fuel and air fillings is then proposed. Another improvement method by an electrical assistance of the engine using a self-controlled synchronous machine drive, is also developed. In the frame of idle-speed control, a prototype allows to show the contribution of this assistance in term of stability and consumption reduction. The second part of the report principally deals with the modelling and the control of electric converters. After a first section describing a methodology of a control-oriented modelling for some classes of static converters, an example of a design of the whole converter-controller is suggested. On the basis of a fourth order voltage switched-mode inverter which should operate as a function generator, the close interaction between filtering quality, structure design and control performances is analyzed and a solution is proposed. For every subject taken up, some prospective features are suggested as well. (author) 37 refs.

  17. [The Significance of Work Motivation for Rehabilitation Success].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessemeier, Franziska; Stöckler, Christiane; Petermann, Franz; Bassler, Markus; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang; Kobelt, Axel

    2017-11-28

    Aim of this study Apart from the reduction of symptoms and the restoration of working ability, return to work is a long-term goal of medical rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of work motivation on the outcome of rehabilitation. Methods The data basis consists of N=998 patients at the psychosomatic department of the Oberharz Rehabilitation Center as well as data from insurance accounts. Using multiple linear regression analysis the predictive power of work motivation on rehabilitation outcome as well as different facets of work motivation in their function as predictors are analyzed. Results Only minor statistical relations could be found between work motivation and rehabilitation success when also taking employment status of the previous year and subjective vocational disability into account. A small predictive power can be attributed to work motivation as a factor in rehabilitation success in the sense of a reduction of symptoms. Particular facets of work motivation are suitable to predict rehabilitation success. Patients with a work motivation risk profile differ from patients with a normal work motivation profile as regards their capacity to work in the year following rehabilitation treatment. Conclusion Work motivation represents a relevant construct in rehabilitation success but is strongly influenced by individual factors. During rehabilitation, individual problems which influence work motivation should be taken into account more strongly. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Rocha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the electrical architectures adopted in wind turbines and its impact on the harmonic flux at the connected electric network. The integration of wind electric generators with the power grid needs energy processing by power electronics. It shows that different types of wind turbine generator systems use different types of electronic converters. This work provides a discussion on harmonic distortion taking place on the generator side, as well as in the power grid side. Keywords: grid connection, harmonic distortion, power electronics and converters, wind energy conversion systems, wind power, wind technology, wind turbines

  19. Surface processing by high power excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehle, M.

    1995-01-01

    Surface processing with lasers is a promising field of research and applications because lasers bring substantial advantages : laser beams work at distance, laser treatments are clean in respect of environment consideration and they offer innovative capabilities for surface treatment which cannot be reached by other way. Excimer lasers are pulsed, gaseous lasers which emit in UV spectral range - the most common are XeCl (308 nm), KrF (248 nm), ArF (193 nm). From 1980 up to 1994, many of them have been used for research, medical and industrial applications such as spectroscopy, PRK (photo-refractive keratotomy) and micro-machining. In the last six years, from 1987 up to 1993, efforts have been done in order to jump from 100 W average power up to 1 kW for XeCl laser at λ = 308 nm. It was the aim of AMMTRA project in Japan as EU205 and EU213 Eureka projects in Europe. In this framework, SOPRA developed VEL (Very large Excimer Laser). In 1992, 1 kW (10 J x 100 Hz) millstone has been reached for the first time, this technology is based on X-Ray preionization and large laser medium (5 liters). Surface treatments based on this laser source are the main purpose of VEL Lasers. Some of them are given for instance : a) Turbine blades made with metallic substrate and ceramic coatings on the top, are glazed in order to increase corrosion resistance of ceramic and metal sandwich. b) Selective ablation of organic coatings deposited on fragile composite material is investigated in Aerospace industry. c) Chock hardening of bulk metallic materials or alloys are investigated for automotive industry in order to increase wear resistance. d) Ablation of thin surface oxides of polluted steels are under investigation in nuclear industry for decontamination. (J.P.N.)

  20. Suitability Analyses of Wind Power Generation Complex in South Korea by Using Environmental & Social Criterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y.; Jeon, S. W.; Seong, M.

    2017-12-01

    In case of wind-power, one of the most economical renewable energy resources, it is highly emerged owing to the strategic aspect of the response of environmental restriction and strong energy security as well as the upcoming motivation for huge industrial growth in the future. According to the fourth Fundamental Renewable Energy Plan, declared in Sep. 2014, the government instituted the scheme to minimize the proportion of previous RDF(Refused Derived Fuel) till 2035, promoting the solar power and wind power as the core energy for the next generation. Especially in South Korea, it is somewhat desperate to suggest the standard for environmentally optimal locations of wind power setup accompanied with the prevention of disasters from the climate changes. This is because that in case of South Korea, most of suitable places for Wind power complex are in the ridge of the mountains, where is highly invaluable sites as the pool of bio-resources and ecosystem conservations. In this research, we are to focus on the analysis of suitable locations for wind farm site which is relevant to the meteorological and geological factors, by utilizing GIS techniques through the whole South Korea. Ultimately, this analyses are to minimize the adverse effect derived from the current development of wind power in mountain ridges and the time for negotiation for wind power advance.

  1. Characterizations of the power distribution by record values

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 2. Characterizations of the power distribution by record values. Min-Young Lee. Research ... Keywords. Characterizations; power distribution; independent and identically distributed; hazard rate; lower record values; theory of functional equations.

  2. Investigation of Probable Pollution from Automobile Exhaust Gases in Kampala City, Uganda : To Assess the current automobile exhaust gas emission levels and characterize the emissions from different automobile types

    OpenAIRE

    Bateebe, Irene

    2011-01-01

    It is estimated that transport sources in developing countries contribute about 4% of the global fossil carbon dioxide versus 18% by industrialized countries. The cost of urban air pollution is estimated to be 2% of GDP in developed countries and more than 5% in developing countries. With an annual vehicle registration growth of over 30% in 2008 and a population growth rate of 6%, the number of automobiles in Kampala city of Uganda is expected to continue growing exponentially. Most of the ve...

  3. Stability analysis of automobile driver steering control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    In steering an automobile, the driver must basically control the direction of the car's trajectory (heading angle) and the lateral deviation of the car relative to a delineated pathway. A previously published linear control model of driver steering behavior which is analyzed from a stability point of view is considered. A simple approximate expression for a stability parameter, phase margin, is derived in terms of various driver and vehicle control parameters, and boundaries for stability are discussed. A field test study is reviewed that includes the measurement of driver steering control parameters. Phase margins derived for a range of vehicle characteristics are found to be generally consistent with known adaptive properties of the human operator. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of driver adaptive behavior.

  4. Research on embedded automobile collision avoidance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAO Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking ARM embedded Linux operating system as the development platform,combined with AVR microcontroller,while optimizing the ranging algorithm and using air ultrasonic transducer,the measurement range of which can be up to 50 meter,this paper designs a high-precision,range far,low price,various models suitable automobile collision avoidance warning system.The system adopts Forlinx OK6410 development board for the master.AVR microcontroller is responsible for taking the data of traveling distance between vehicles,and with the ARM development board via RS232 communication transfers vehicle′s distance and speed information to the ARM development boards.The system uses the established collision avoidance model to get alarm information.Experiments show that the system can accurately send out alarm information within a certain range.It is innovative and practical.

  5. Talking about the Automobile Braking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang

    2017-12-01

    With the continuous progress of society, the continuous development of the times, people’s living standards continue to improve, people continue to improve the pursuit. With the rapid development of automobile manufacturing, the car will be all over the tens of thousands of households, the increase in car traffic, a direct result of the incidence of traffic accidents. Brake system is the guarantee of the safety of the car, its technical condition is good or bad, directly affect the operational safety and transportation efficiency, so the brake system is absolutely reliable. The requirements of the car on the braking system is to have a certain braking force to ensure reliable work in all cases, light and flexible operation. Normal braking should be good performance, in addition to a foot sensitive, the emergency brake four rounds can not be too long, not partial, not ring.

  6. The Effect of Motivational Practices on Volunteer Motivation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assesses whether organizations' motivational practices affect volunteer motivation and levels of performance. This study was guided by the following two research questions: first, what motivation practices exist in Volunteer Involving Organizations and whether such affect volunteers' motivation to volunteer again?

  7. The Role of Motivation in Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Anwar

    2011-01-01

    The mastery of English learning is influenced by some variables, one of them is motivation. Motivation in learning second language is classified as integrative motivation and instrumental motivation. Some experts of language teaching also categorized motivation into two types namely intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. This paper discusses about kinds of motivation and how it takes a role in influencing students mastery in learning language. It was literature study that focused to f...

  8. Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results.

  9. Pulmonary Adverse Effects of Welding Fume in Automobile Assembly Welders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Akbar Sharifian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Welding is one of the key components of numerous manufacturing industries, which has potential physical and chemical health hazards. Many components of welding fumes can potentially affect the lung function. This study investigates the effects of welding fumes on lung function and respiratory symptoms among welders of an automobile manufacturing plant in Iran. This historical cohort study assesses 43 male welders and 129 office workers by a questionnaire to record demographic data, smoking habits, work history and respiratory symptoms as well as lung function status by spirometry. The average pulmonary function values of welders were lower relative to controls with dose-effect relationship between work duration and pulmonary function impairment. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was higher in welders than controls. Our findings suggest that welders are at risk for pulmonary disease.

  10. Competitive and cooperative arm rehabilitation games played by a patient and unimpaired person: effects on motivation and exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goršič, Maja; Cikajlo, Imre; Novak, Domen

    2017-03-23

    People with chronic arm impairment should exercise intensely to regain their abilities, but frequently lack motivation, leading to poor rehabilitation outcome. One promising way to increase motivation is through interpersonal rehabilitation games, which allow patients to compete or cooperate together with other people. However, such games have mainly been evaluated with unimpaired subjects, and little is known about how they affect motivation and exercise intensity in people with chronic arm impairment. We designed four different arm rehabilitation games that are played by a person with arm impairment and their unimpaired friend, relative or occupational therapist. One is a competitive game (both people compete against each other), two are cooperative games (both people work together against the computer) and one is a single-player game (played only by the impaired person against the computer). The games were played by 29 participants with chronic arm impairment, of which 19 were accompanied by their friend or relative and 10 were accompanied by their occupational therapist. Each participant played all four games within a single session. Participants' subjective experience was quantified using the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory questionnaire after each game, as well as a final questionnaire about game preferences. Their exercise intensity was quantified using wearable inertial sensors that measured hand velocity in each game. Of the 29 impaired participants, 12 chose the competitive game as their favorite, 12 chose a cooperative game, and 5 preferred to exercise alone. Participants who chose the competitive game as their favorite showed increased motivation and exercise intensity in that game compared to other games. Participants who chose a cooperative game as their favorite also showed increased motivation in cooperative games, but not increased exercise intensity. Since both motivation and intensity are positively correlated with rehabilitation outcome

  11. Measuring motivation in schizophrenia: Is a general state of motivation necessary for task-specific motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Choi, Kee-Hong; Reddy, Felice; Fiszdon, Joanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important role of motivation in rehabilitation and functional outcomes in schizophrenia, to date, there has been little emphasis on how motivation is assessed. This is important, since different measures may tap potentially discrete motivational constructs, which in turn may have very different associations to important outcomes. In the current study, we used baseline data from 71 schizophrenia spectrum outpatients enrolled in a rehabilitation program to examine the relationship between task-specific motivation, as measured by the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), and a more general state of volition/initiation, as measured by the three item Quality of Life (QLS) motivation index. We also examined the relationship of these motivation measures to demographic, clinical and functional variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The two motivation measures were not correlated, and participants with low general state motivation exhibited a full range of task-specific motivation. Only the QLS motivation index correlated with variables relevant to rehabilitation outcomes. The lack of associations between QLS motivation index and IMI subscales suggests that constructs tapped by these measures may be divergent in schizophrenia, and specifically that task-specific intrinsic motivation is not contingent on a general state of motivation. That is, even in individuals with a general low motivational state (i.e. amotivation), interventions aimed at increasing task-specific motivation may still be effective. Moreover, the pattern of interrelationships between the QLS motivation index and variables relevant to psychosocial rehabilitation supports its use in treatment outcome studies. PMID:24529609

  12. Plant maintenance management practices in automobile industries: a retrospective and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Pophaley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper endeavors to present a classification, review and analysis of the literature on Plant Maintenance Management Practices (PMMP employed in Automobile Industries. There is a considerable amount of published research available concerning plant maintenance during the last few decades. Similarly many research articles are available which focuses on various aspects of automobile industries. However, very few studies focus on critical examination of maintenance practices in Automobile Industries in particular. Hence considering the slump in automobile industries in the recent times, a wide-ranging and focused review is attempted here and only those researches have been examined which mainly concentrates on this core aspect. Thus one of the objectives of this literature review is to investigate the present state of Plant Maintenance Management Practices, based on studies conducted in different countries and published in a variety of journals over the past two decades. An examination of 55 pertinent research studies have shown that the publications can be grouped in two categories namely Conceptual and Empirical Research. An analysis of these research articles published between 1990 and 2008, revealed that current maintenance practices ranges from conventional to the latest techniques for optimizing maintenance function like TPM, RCM and Proactive Maintenance. These studies focused more on maintenance problem solving and the main difficulties are reported along with probable solutions. Another goal of the paper is to analyze the articles by year and type of journal they were published in, to determine the trends in maintenance management studies and recommend future direction for research.

  13. Hydroelectric power in Switzerland: large growth potential by increasing the installed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleiss, A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to its important hydroelectric power generation facilities (about 525 plants with a total power of 13,314 MW producing about 35.3 TWh annually) Switzerland plays an important role in the interconnected European power system. Large artificial storage lakes in the Swiss Alps can generate peak power during hours of highest demand: 9700 MW are available from accumulated energy and the total power of pumped-storage facilities amounts to 1700 MW. The latter allow refilling the reservoirs at periods of low power demand and generating power at periods of peak demand. In the case of favorable conditions, the yearly average power production could be increased by 6% and the production during the winter period (October to March) by 20% by the year 2020. However, looking forward to the year 2050, the annual production is expected to decrease by 3% despite a possible extension of hydropower. This decrease is due to the enforcement of the minimum residual water flow rates required by a new legislation to protect the rivers. The enforcement is due at latest when the present licenses for water utilization expire. On the other hand, the installed (peak) power might be further increased by 50% by retrofitting the existing installations and constructing the pumped-storage plants currently at the planning stage

  14. Understanding gendered aspects of migration aspiration and motives of university students by multivariate statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đula Borozan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the application of multivariate analysis of variance and logistic regression in measuring, explaining and evaluating (i gender differences in expressing migration aspirations, and (ii a gender effect on migration motivation of university students in Croatia. The results supported the thesis that migration is a complex gendering process that assumes subjective assessment of the whole set of interrelated motives. According to logistic regression, gender is a significant predictor of migration aspirations among the selected demographic and socio-economic variables. A multivariate analysis of variance showed that gender and migration aspirations in interaction matter when it comes to migration motives, particularly related to the perceived importance of social networks. Females, and especially those who aspire to migrate, assessed these motives as more important than males.

  15. Fusion power by magnetic confinement - program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.O.

    1978-01-01

    This Fusion Power Program Plan treats the technical, schedular and budgetary projections for the development of fusion power using magnetic confinement. It was prepared on the basis of current technical status and program perspective. A broad overview of the probable facilities requirements and optional possible technical paths to a demonstration reactor is presented, as well as a more detailed plan for the R and D program for the next five years. The 'plan' is not a roadmap to be followed blindly to the end goal. Rather it is a tool of management, a dynamic and living document which will change and evolve as scientific, engineering/technology and commercial/economic/environmental analyses and progress proceeds. The use of plans such as this one in technically complex development programs requires judgment and flexibility as new insights into the nature of the task evolve. The presently-established program goal of the fusion program is to develop and demonstrate pure fusion central electric power stations for commercial applications

  16. Experimentation and cycle performance prediction of hybrid A/C system using automobile exhaust waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Cai, Wenjian; Zhao, Hongxia; Lin, Chen; Yan, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid A/C system is proposed with an ejector cycle and a compressor cycle. • The ejector cycle was driven by automobile's exhausted waste heat. • The system can operate under three modes: compressor, hybrid and ejector. • System modeling and experimental study were performed. • The experimental results show that the COP improvement over 30% can be achieved. - Abstract: A hybrid air-conditioning (A/C) system is proposed which consists of two cycles: (1) an ejector cycle driven by exhausted waste heat; and (2) a compressor A/C cycle. The system can operate under three modes: compressor, hybrid and ejector. Under the hybrid mode, the ejector driven by waste heat reduces the compression ratio (CR) of the compressor and boosts the compressor discharge pressure to the condenser pressure. The governing equations are derived based on energy and mass balances for each component of the system. The performance of the hybrid A/C system under compressor mode and hybrid mode is first analyzed theoretically at design conditions. Then it was tested experimentally through variations of (1) primary pressure from 11 to 23 bar; (2) evaporation pressure from 2.5 to 4.5 bar; and (3) condensation pressure from 9 to 12.5 bar, respectively. The experimental results show that the hybrid system is feasible, and can significantly enhance the performance of the automobile A/C systems, 35.2% COP improvement at the automobile idle conditions and more than 40% COP improvement when the automobile speeds over 80 km/h conditions. The increase of primary pressure and evaporation pressure has a positive effect on system performance while the increase of condensation pressure has a negative effect. The hybrid A/C system has the potential to be adopted in automobiles for the advantages of low cost, durable operation and better energy efficiency.

  17. Experiences in simulating and testing coordinated voltage control provided by multiple wind power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlaban, T.; Alonso, O.; Ortiz, D. [Acciona Windpower S.A. (Spain); Peiro, J.; Rivas, R. [Red Electrica de Espana SAU (Spain); Quinonez-Varela, G.; Lorenzo, P. [Acciona Energia S.A. (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    This document presents some field tests performed in a transmission system node in order to check the adequacy of voltage control performance by multiple wind power plants, with an overall capacity of 395 MW. It briefly explains the Spanish TSO motivation towards new voltage control requirements and the necessity of performing such tests in order to set the most convenient voltage control parameters and to verify the stable operation. It presents how different the voltage control capability between modern wind turbines (DFIG) and older ones (SCIG) specifically retrofitted for voltage control is. (orig.)

  18. Power Delivered to Mechanical Systems by Random Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S. Edwards

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops deformational response power descriptions of multiple degree-of-freedom systems due to stationary random vibration excitation. Two new concepts are developed. The deformational response power density (DRPD can be computed when a structure's natural frequencies and modal masses are available. The DRPD shows the spectral content of the deformational power delivered to a specific structure by the stationary, random excitation. This function can be found through a weighted windowing of the power spectrum of the input acceleration excitation. Deformational response input power spectra (DRIPS, similar to the input energy spectrum and shock response spectrum, give the power delivered to single-degree-of-freedom systems as a function of natural frequency. It is shown that the DRIPS is simply a smoothed version of the power spectrum of the input acceleration excitation. The DRIPS gives rise to a useful power-based data smoothing operation.

  19. Data-Driven Neural Network Model for Robust Reconstruction of Automobile Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinhua; Wang, Yanjie; Li, Xin; Wang, Lu

    2017-09-01

    In computer vision system, it is a challenging task to robustly reconstruct complex 3D geometries of automobile castings. However, 3D scanning data is usually interfered by noises, the scanning resolution is low, these effects normally lead to incomplete matching and drift phenomenon. In order to solve these problems, a data-driven local geometric learning model is proposed to achieve robust reconstruction of automobile casting. In order to relieve the interference of sensor noise and to be compatible with incomplete scanning data, a 3D convolution neural network is established to match the local geometric features of automobile casting. The proposed neural network combines the geometric feature representation with the correlation metric function to robustly match the local correspondence. We use the truncated distance field(TDF) around the key point to represent the 3D surface of casting geometry, so that the model can be directly embedded into the 3D space to learn the geometric feature representation; Finally, the training labels is automatically generated for depth learning based on the existing RGB-D reconstruction algorithm, which accesses to the same global key matching descriptor. The experimental results show that the matching accuracy of our network is 92.2% for automobile castings, the closed loop rate is about 74.0% when the matching tolerance threshold τ is 0.2. The matching descriptors performed well and retained 81.6% matching accuracy at 95% closed loop. For the sparse geometric castings with initial matching failure, the 3D matching object can be reconstructed robustly by training the key descriptors. Our method performs 3D reconstruction robustly for complex automobile castings.

  20. The development of character education by improving student motivation in science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baykent, D.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study is, first to provide students with better comprehension skills in Science field by encouraging them to raise an interest in Science by applying convenient teaching methods, systems, and tools. Therefore, to use the positive environment developed through motivation consciously and build desired and expected behaviours in the society by means of character education. Appropriate character education is to be carried out by relating Science topics to the current daily life.The field of this study was V.K.V. Koc School. Applications were occurred with 666 students from K1 to K5 levels. Measurements and evaluation field was limited with K4 and K5 levels, who joined the Science Laboratory Activities periodically. The study has been applied between 2000 autumn term and 2002 spring term. Additionally, there is a comparative adaptation on the study of 2002-2003 education year, which was adapted to the American K8 level students at Lake Stevens Middle School, Seattle, Washington, USA

  1. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The committee concludes that the nature of the proliferation problem is such that even stopping nuclear power completely could not stop proliferation completely. Countries can acquire nuclear weapons by means independent of commercial nuclear power. It is reasonable to suppose if a country is strongly motivated to acquire nuclear weapons, it will have them by 2010, or soon thereafter, no matter how nuclear power is managed in the meantime. Unilateral and international diplomatic measures to reduce the motivations that lead to proliferation should be high on the foreign policy agenda of the United States. A mimimum antiproliferation prescription for the management of nuclear power is to try to raise the political barriers against proliferation through misuse of nuclear power by strengthening the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and to seek to raise the technological barriers by placing fuel-cycle operations involving weapons-usable material under international control. Any such measures should be considered tactics to slow the spread of nuclear weapons and thus earn time for the exercise of statesmanship. The committee concludes the following about technical factors that should be considered in formulating nuclear policy: (1) rate of growth of electricity use is a primary factor; (2) growth of conventional nuclear power will be limited by producibility of domestic uranium sources; (3) greater contribution of nuclear power beyond 400 GWe past the year 2000 can only be supported by advanced reactor systems; and (4) several different breeder reactors could serve in principle as candidates for an indefinitely sustainable source of energy

  2. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....

  3. Employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Březíková, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...

  4. 75 FR 72965 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Rates; Privately Owned Automobile Mileage Reimbursement When Government Owned Automobiles Are Authorized... reimbursement amount for travelers who are authorized to use a Government Owned Automobile (GOA) for temporary duty travel (TDY) and choose to use their privately owned automobile (POA) instead; updates the...

  5. The Political Economy of the Automobile Industry in ASEAN: a Cross-Country Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Wan-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The automobile industry plays a leading role in a country's industrialization. Various countries have used different methods to identify a model of industrial development. For developing countries, establishing the automobile industry is crucial for promoting industrialization. After Southeast Asian countries achieved independent, their automobile industries underwent establishment and development stages. The domestic and overseas competiveness of the automobile industries in ASEAN have recei...

  6. Employee motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Kolářová, Jana

    2010-01-01

    The Bachelor thesis disserts upon employee motivation, namely the intluence upon their working effort with the goal to increase their performance and loyalty, and operates with the fact that people, with their knowledge, abilities, skills and certain brainware, are the key factor for successful performance of each organization if they are optimally motivated. The thesis emphasizes the fact that the employee motivation cannot lie only in stimulation with material instruments because the labour...

  7. Evaluation of Ash Toxicity Generated From the Thermal Plasma Pyrolysis of Used Automobile Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. S.; Novog, D. R.; Jamal, S.

    1996-10-01

    The disposal of used tires represents a severe environmental problem. As the heat content of the rubber tires is even higher than that of coal it should be considered as a future source of alternate fuel for power generation. There have been attempts to burn old tires directly in cofired boilers for production of electricity. However, there are several environmental concerns since the combustion flue gas may contain a significant concentration heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cd, As, etc.). One technique currently being developed is the pyrolyzation of rubber tires by a thermal plasma to produce combustible gases. In this work, ashes generated during the plasma pyrolysis of used automobile tires using a DC Argon thermal plasma were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and produced syngas composition was analyzed by FT-IR.. The gas analysis indicates a significant quantity of combustible gases (CH4, C2H2, C2H4, CO, H2 etc..) was produced from the thermal plasma pyrolysis of used tires. The results also indicate that a majority of the heavy metals present in used tires were concentrated in the ashes deposited in reaction chamber wall and in the two-stage filtering system. Furthermore the heavy metal concentration decreases significantly with increasing distance from the plasma torch. Toxic components such as Zn, As and Cl were also collected in the filtering process.

  8. Characteristics of forearm-hand exposure in relation to symptoms among automobile assembly line workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson-Hall, C; Byström, S; Kilbom, A

    1996-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to present a new computerized observation method, HandPEO (portable ergonomic observation), which quantifies duration, frequency, and holding time of work operations and hand grips, and to measure the physical exposure of the forearm-hand among automobile assembly line workers by using HandPEO registrations of video recordings in simulated real-time. Agreement between two recordings was tested for five subjects by calculating the proportion of specific intrarater agreement; it was approximately 70% for hand grips and 60-80% for work operations. Registrations were made on work stations with high (HS) and low (LS) prevalence of symptoms. The major differences were longer holding times per operation and a larger proportion of power tool usage for HS. The HandPEO method may be used to describe the characteristics of the work studied and may serve as basis for job redesign. The results suggest an association between holding time, certain work operations, and prevalence of symptoms.

  9. Evaluation of genotoxicity in automobile mechanics occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammed Rafiq; Sudha, Sellappa

    2012-01-01

    Occupational and environmental exposures mostly represent mixtures of genotoxic agents, whereas the specificity of biomarker measurements varies widely. Exploration of correlations among biomarkers contributes to the further progress of molecular cancer epidemiology and to the selection of the optimal biomarkers for the investigation of human exposure to carcinogens. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) among automobile mechanics by using Micronuclei (MN) and other Nuclear Abnormalities (NA) as a biomarker. The study population composed of 110 occupationally exposed automobile mechanics and 100 unexposed controls. All the study participants were males. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from automobile garages located in the urban area of Coimbatore City, South India. Exfoliated buccal cells were collected from 110 automobile mechanics and 100 age and sex matched controls. Further, cells were examined for MN frequency and Nuclear Abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, broken eggs and karyolysis. Results showed a statistically significant difference between occupationally exposed automobile mechanics and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in automobile mechanics were significantly higher than those in control groups (p < 0.05) and also significantly related to smoking habit (p < 0.05). In addition, a higher degree of NA was observed among the exposed subjects with smoking, drinking, tobacco chewing, which is an indicative of cytogenetic damage in these individuals. MN and other NA reflect genetic changes, events associated with carcinogenesis. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that automobile mechanics exposed to PAHs are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. Therefore, it is important to provide and offer better awareness of occupational hazards among these workers to promote

  10. Measurement and analysis to DIW of chassis dynamometers for automobile emissions testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weimin; Wang, Dayong; Qi, Fang; Yang, Dengcai

    2010-12-01

    DIW (Dynamometer Inertia Weight) of 'chassis dynamometers for automobile emissions testing' is a total inertia weight of all rotating components in the chassis dynamometer. Total Inertia weight is a inertia device simulates translational and rotational kinetic energy of a traveling vehicle which is equivalent to the mass of the car. DIW is an important technical indicator, whether it is accurate or not will affect the calibration of all technical characteristics of 'chassis dynamometers for automobile emissions testing'. In this paper,first of all, we introduce a new method to measure the Dynamometer Inertia Weight, that is, coast-down testing with twice constant-force loading method, and we derivate a formula to calculate the Dynamometer Inertia Weight from kinetic energy conservation law. Secondly, we have done a lot of coast-down testings with twice constant-force load method. After analyzing the data, we found out the factors that affect the testing processes and the accuracy of testing results. Finally, after comparing twice constant-force loading method with the take-down flywheel method and twice constant-power loading method, we know that this coast-down testing with twice constant-force loading method is better than other methods in stability and repeatability and testing data will be more accurate. It's a accurate and convenient way to measure the DIW of 'chassis dynamometers for automobile emissions testing'.

  11. Atmospheric freeze drying assisted by power ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santacatalina, J V; Cárcel, J A; Garcia-Perez, J V; Mulet, A; Simal, S

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric freeze drying (AFD) is considered an alternative to vacuum freeze drying to keep the quality of fresh product. AFD allows continuous drying reducing fix and operating costs, but presents, as main disadvantage, a long drying time required. The application of power ultrasound (US) can accelerate AFD process. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of power ultrasound to improve atmospheric freeze drying of carrot. For that purpose, AFD experiments were carried out with carrot cubes (10 mm side) at constant air velocity (2 ms −1 ), temperature (−10°C) and relative humidity (10%) with (20.5 kWm −3 ,USAFD) and without (AFD) ultrasonic application. A diffusion model was used in order to quantify the influence of US in drying kinetics. To evaluate the quality of dry products, rehydration capacity and textural properties were determined. The US application during AFD of carrot involved the increase of drying rate. The effective moisture diffusivity identified in USAFD was 73% higher than in AFD experiments. On the other hand, the rehydration capacity was higher in USAFD than in AFD and the hardness of dried samples did not show significant (p<0.05) differences. Therefore, US application during AFD significantly (p<0.05) sped-up the drying process preserving the quality properties of the dry product.

  12. Hospital nurses' work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge surrounding nurses' work motivation is currently insufficient, and previous studies have rarely taken into account the role of many influential background factors. This study investigates the motivation of Estonian nurses in hospitals, and how individual and organisational background factors influence their motivation to work. The study is quantitative and cross-sectional. An electronically self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample comprised of 201 Registered Nurses working in various hospital settings in Estonia. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test, Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test and Spearman's correlation. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations were noted among hospital nurses. Nurses were moderately externally motivated (M = 3.63, SD = 0.89) and intrinsically strongly motivated (M = 4.98, SD = 1.03). A nurses' age and the duration of service were positively correlated with one particular area of extrinsic work motivation, namely introjected regulation (p motivation (p = 0.016) and intrinsic work motivation (p = 0.004). The findings expand current knowledge of nurses' work motivation by describing the amount and orientation of work motivation among hospital nurses and highlighting background factors which should be taken into account in order to sustain and increase their intrinsic work motivation. The instrument used in the study can be an effective tool for nurse managers to determine a nurse's reasons to work and to choose a proper motivational strategy. Further research and testing of the instrument in different countries and in different contexts of nursing is however required. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Nutrition and Other Protective Behaviors Motivated by Environmental Health Risk Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth W; Feng, Limin; Dixon, Jane K; Dixon, John P; Hofe, Carolyn R; Gaetke, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Research findings have suggested that exposure to environmental pollutants contributes to increased health risks, which may be modulated by certain nutrition and other protective health behaviors. Nutrition professionals play an important role in effectively disseminating this information and in devising specific community-based nutrition education programs for audiences located in areas with environmental health issues. To assess awareness of environmental health problems and motivation to adopt protective health behaviors for use in planning nutrition education programs for communities exposed to environmental pollutants. Data were collected from a modified, validated Environmental Health Engagement Profile (EHEP) survey instrument administered to adults (n=774) participating in community events in Kentucky based on location relative to hazardous waste sites. The modified EHEP survey instrument showed good internal consistency reliability, and demographic characteristics were evaluated. Correlation analyses revealed significant positive correlations in all groups, separately and combined, between awareness of environmental pollution in an individual's surroundings and the extent of concern that pollutants cause adverse health effects (P environmental insults (P awareness posed by pollution are those residing near federally designated hazardous waste sites. These results suggest that determining and expanding an audience's knowledge and perceptions of environmental health risks will enhance effective nutrition education program planning.

  14. Teachers practices for fostering motivation and interest in high school methematics : A study of teaching techniques used by teachers to inspire internal motivation to learn

    OpenAIRE

    Krusell, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This master thesis explores the teacher’s pedagogical work for motivating high school students’ interest in math. Recently the media has been reporting on how Swedish pupils loose motivation and interest for school. More and more students drop out of high school because they find school meaningless. Moreover, many studies, such as PISA, show that students’ educational level in subjects such as mathematics is decreasing. In the National Curriculum for 2011 (Lgr 11) the Swedish National Agency ...

  15. Performance Prediction of Wind Power Turbine by CAD Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongho; Kim, Jongbong; Oh, Younglok

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a vertical-type wind power generator system was predicted by CAD analysis. In the analysis, the reaction torque was calculated for a given rotational speed of the blades. The blade torque of a wind power system was obtained for various rotational speeds, and the generation power was calculated using the obtained torque and the rotational speed. The optimum generator specification, therefore, could be decided using the relationship between the generated power and the rotational speeds. The effects of the number of blades and blade shapes on the generation power were also investigated. Finally, the analysis results were compared with the experimental results

  16. Restraint of the Automobile in American Residential Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    Two techniques for restraining the use of the automobile have recently become popular in the United States: residential parking permit programs and traffic restraint devices. While both the these approaches are aimed at restraining the use of the aut...

  17. Scenes of fathering: The automobile as a place of occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    While occupations are increasingly analyzed within contexts, other than the home, the ordinary places that facilitate occupations have been overlooked. The aim of this article is to explore the automobile as a place of occupation using data from an ethnographic study of fathers of children with disabilities. Qualitative data obtained through observations and interviews with the fathers and their families were analyzed using a narrative approach. Properties that influence interactions include opportunities to communicate, the vehicle itself, and electronics. Driving children in the automobile fulfills fathering responsibilities and is a time for connecting. For the fathers in this study, the automobile represents a place for negotiating complex demands of fathering. This study demonstrates not only the importance of the automobile, but also the influence of the immediate space on the construction of occupations.

  18. Legislative Committee Simulation: Regulation in the Automobile Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Alan J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined are ways to overcome obstacles which often prevent creative teaching of legislative decision-making processes to high school students. A simulation dealing with regulation in the automobile industry is used for illustrative purposes. (RM)

  19. Learning Activities: Students and Recycling. [and] Automobile Aerodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Charles H., Jr.; Schieber, Rich

    1994-01-01

    The first learning activity is intended to heighten students' awareness of the need for recycling, reuse, and reduction of materials; the second explores the aerodynamics of automobiles. Both include context, concept, objectives, procedure, and materials needed. (SK)

  20. Tax authorities' interaction with taxpayers: A conception of compliance in social dilemmas by power and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Katharina; Hofmann, Eva; Kirchler, Erich

    2015-02-01

    Tax compliance represents a social dilemma in which the short-term self-interest to minimize tax payments is at odds with the collective long-term interest to provide sufficient tax funds for public goods. According to the Slippery Slope Framework, the social dilemma can be solved and tax compliance can be guaranteed by power of tax authorities and trust in tax authorities. The framework, however, remains silent on the dynamics between power and trust. The aim of the present theoretical paper is to conceptualize the dynamics between power and trust by differentiating coercive and legitimate power and reason-based and implicit trust. Insights into this dynamic are derived from an integration of a wide range of literature such as on organizational behavior and social influence. Conclusions on the effect of the dynamics between power and trust on the interaction climate between authorities and individuals and subsequent individual motivation of cooperation in social dilemmas such as tax contributions are drawn. Practically, the assumptions on the dynamics can be utilized by authorities to increase cooperation and to change the interaction climate from an antagonistic climate to a service and confidence climate.

  1. Estimation of automobile-driver describing function from highway tests using the double steering wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, P.; Crossman, E. R. F. W.; Szostak, H.

    1972-01-01

    The automobile-driver describing function for lateral position control was estimated for three subjects from frequency response analysis of straight road test results. The measurement procedure employed an instrumented full size sedan with known steering response characteristics, and equipped with a lateral lane position measuring device based on video detection of white stripe lane markings. Forcing functions were inserted through a servo driven double steering wheel coupling the driver to the steering system proper. Random appearing, Gaussian, and transient time functions were used. The quasi-linear models fitted to the random appearing input frequency response characterized the driver as compensating for lateral position error in a proportional, derivative, and integral manner. Similar parameters were fitted to the Gabor transformed frequency response of the driver to transient functions. A fourth term corresponding to response to lateral acceleration was determined by matching the time response histories of the model to the experimental results. The time histories show evidence of pulse-like nonlinear behavior during extended response to step transients which appear as high frequency remnant power.

  2. Automobiles: Possible sources of metals other than lead in the urban atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xudong Huang; Keskin, S.S.; Olmez, I.; Gordon, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    At present, due to the lack of specific marker species and reliable source composition libraries for motor vehicle emissions, it is almost impossible to predict their impact on the urban atmosphere. During the last 2 yr, the authors have been performing an extensive program to identify specific inorganic tracers for recently manufactured automobiles to create a new source composition library. Initially, they speculated on the possibility of using rare earth element (REE) emissions from the modern catalytic converters. Their preliminary studies and Japanese studies indicated a substantial release of light REE from the exhausts of unleaded gasoline-powered autos. The present study, however, has shown that although REEs are emitted, their importance as a marker is minimal. Although they have analyzed numerous samples collected from test facilities, tunnels, and ambient aerosols, they present only the results of individual motor vehicle studies. Samples were collected from the exhaust of 52 passenger cars and minivans of domestic and foreign origin. All samples collected were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The INAA results have shown that in addition to REEs, substantial amounts of other elements (sodium, magnesium, aluminum, potassium, manganese, iron, zinc, arsenic, bromine, antimony, etc.) were also emitted

  3. Modeling and Analysing of Air Filter in Air Intake System in Automobile Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Manikantan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As the legislations on the emission and performance of automobiles are being made more stringent, the expected performance of all the subsystems of an internal combustion engine is also becoming crucial. Nowadays the engines are downsized, and their power increased the demand on the air intake system that has increased phenomenally. Hence, an analysis was carried on a typical air filter fitted into the intake system to determine its flow characteristics. In the present investigation, a CAD model of an existing air filter was designed, and CFD analysis was done pertaining to various operating regimes of an internal combustion engine. The numerical results were validated with the experimental data. From the postprocessed result, we can see that there is a deficit in the design of the present filter, as the bottom portion of the filter is preventing the upward movement of air. Hence, the intake passage can be rearranged to provide an upward tangential motion, which can enhance the removal of larger dust and soot particles effectively by the inertial action of air alone.

  4. The effect of body image threat on smoking motivation among college women: mediation by negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Khoury, Elena N; Litvin, Erika B; Brandon, Thomas H

    2009-06-01

    A recent experimental study found that activation of negative body image cognitions produced urges to smoke in young women (E. N. Lopez, D. J. Drobes, J. K. Thompson, & T. H. Brandon, 2008). This study intended to replicate and extend these experimental findings by examining the role of negative affect as a mediator of the relationship between body dissatisfaction and smoking urges. Female college smokers (N=133) were randomly assigned to a body image challenge (trying on a bathing suit) or a control condition (evaluating a purse). State levels of urge to smoke, mood, and body dissatisfaction were assessed both pre- and postmanipulation. Trying on a bathing suit increased body dissatisfaction and reported urges to smoke, particularly those urges related to reducing negative affect. Additionally, state negative affect mediated the relationship between the body image manipulation and smoking urge. This study provides additional support, through an experimental design, that situational challenges to body image influence smoking motivation and that this effect occurs, at least in part, through increases in negative affect. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Amanda Lima de; Petroianu,Andy; Gonçalves,Dafne Maria Villar; Pereira,Gisele Araújo; Alberti,Luiz Ronaldo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the regio...

  6. AC electrokinetic drug delivery in dentistry using an interdigitated electrode assembly powered by inductive coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Wu, Jie Jayne; Mirzajani, Hadi; Cheng, Cheng; Yuan, Quan; Kevorkyan, Stepan; Gaydarova, Radostina; Tomlekova, Desislava

    2016-10-01

    AC electrokinetics (ACEK) has been shown to deliver certain drugs into human teeth more effectively than diffusion. However, using electrical wires to power intraoral ACEK devices poses risks to patients. The study demonstrates a novel interdigitated electrode arrays (IDE) assembly powered by inductive coupling to induce ACEK effects at appropriate frequencies to motivate drugs wirelessly. A signal generator produces the modulating signal, which multiplies with the carrier signal to produce the amplitude modulated (AM) signal. The AM signal goes through the inductive link to appear on the secondary coil, then rectified and filtered to dispose of its carrier signal, and the positive half of the modulating signal appears on the load. After characterizing the device, the device is validated under light microscopy by motivating carboxylate-modified microspheres, tetracycline, acetaminophen, benzocaine, lidocaine and carbamide peroxide particles with induced ACEK effects. The assembly is finally tested in a common dental bleaching application. After applying 35 % carbamide peroxide to human teeth topically or with the IDE at 1200 Hz, 5 Vpp for 20 min, spectrophotometric analysis showed that compared to diffusion, the IDE enhanced whitening in specular optic and specular optic excluded modes by 215 % and 194 % respectively. Carbamide peroxide absorbance by the ACEK group was two times greater than diffusion as measured by colorimetric oxidation-reduction and UV-Vis spectroscopy at 550 nm. The device motivates drugs of variable molecular weight and structure wirelessly. Wireless transport of drugs to intraoral targets under ACEK effects may potentially improve the efficacy and safety of drug delivery in dentistry.

  7. Reviving Vibration Energy Harvesting and Self-Powered Sensing by a Triboelectric Nanogenerator

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jun

    2017-10-10

    Vibration energy harvesting and sensing is a traditional and growing research field in which various working mechanisms and designs have been developed for an improved performance. Relying on a coupling effect of contact electrification and electrostatic induction, in the past 5 years, triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has been applied as a fundamentally new technology to revive the field of vibration energy harvesting and self-powered sensing, especially for low-frequency vibrations such as human motion, automobile, machine, and bridge vibrations. The demonstrated instantaneous energy conversion efficiency of ∼70% and a total efficiency up to 85% distinguished TENG from traditional techniques. In this article, both TENG-enabled vibration energy harvesting and self-powered active sensing are comprehensively reviewed. Moving toward future development, problems pressing for solutions and onward research directions are also posed to deliver a coherent picture.

  8. Playful Mobility Choices: Motivating informed mobility decision making by applying game mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Millonig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivating people to change their mobility behaviour patterns towards more sustainable forms of mobility is one of the major challenges regarding climate change and quality of life. Recently, an increasing amount of attempts to use gamification for triggering such behavioural changes can be observed. However, little is known about the actual impact of using game elements. This contribution describes a concept for systematically analysing the group-specific effects of different game mechanics on mobility decision processes (e.g. mode and route choice. Based on theoretical findings concerning player types and mobility styles we developed a framework for identifying effective game mechanics motivating users to explore mobility alternatives and take more informed and more sustainable mode or route choice decisions. The results will form the basis for implementing game mechanics in mobility information services motivating users to explore unfamiliar but more sustainable mobility options.

  9. Modeling of Potential Lahars Motivated by Landslides in Crater Lake of Baitoushan Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Hong, H.; Wei, H.; Zheng, X.; Liu, P.; Tao, W.

    2004-12-01

    Collapse and landslides, occurred in many volcanic craters, could result in more dangerous disasters if they encounter with lake water. Baitoushan volcano, an intraplate stratovolcano in the Changbaishan volcanic field on the border between China and North Korea, contains a crater lake approximately 4.45km in length along its long axis, about 200m in average depth. The lake is surrounded by steep rock walls that rise up to 300 ˜400m above its surface. Several horseshoe-shaped scars in the walls indicate that some large-scale landslides had happened since the last enormous explosive eruption one thousand years ago. At present the walls still have the possibilities of rockfalls and landslides. If they entered the lake with high speed, could produce life-threatening waves. The waves would transmit through the lake surface and release flood instantly to the downstream from the outlet in the north of the crater, which transform into lahars mixing with the loose pyroclastic deposits along the hillslope, and destroy almost everything where they passed by. Our work aims to model the potential lahars motivated by the landslides of Baitoushan volcano and to predict inundation areas and travel time of flows. For this purpose the heights of waves triggered by those historic landslides have been estimated based on declivities¡_ volumes and landslide speeds. HEC-RAS, a program of surface water model developed by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, is utilized to simulate the potential lahars using the range of wave height as the boundary condition. The research results indicate that the lahars, on the one hand, might spend about eighty minutes reaching the nearest town at the foot of the volcano along Erdaobaihe River valley, and on the other hand possibly flood into the nearby rivers if the flux is remarkably large.

  10. Motivational Factors and Worldview Dimensions Associated with Perceptions of Global Education Initiatives by U.S. College Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean Francois, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate motivational factors and worldview dimensions associated with perceptions of global education initiatives by college professors in the United States. The concept of "perceptions of global education initiatives" is used in this study to refer to attitudes toward institutional support for global…

  11. Why Start a Higher Degree by Research? An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Motivations to Undertake Doctoral Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Cally; Jayatilaka, Asangi; Ranasinghe, Damith

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing numbers of candidates embarking on higher degrees by research (HDRs, e.g., PhD, professional doctorate, practice-based doctorate), we still have limited knowledge about why they are choosing this path. What are the factors that motivate students to embark on research degrees? Given that many of those who succeed in…

  12. Are Pediatricians "Game"? Reducing Childhood Obesity by Training Clinicians to Use Motivational Interviewing Through Role-Play Simulations with Avatars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecki, Linda; Goldman, Ron; Baker, Alison; Lindros, Jeanne; Boucher, Jenelle

    2013-06-01

    The results of a feasibility study funded by a National Institutes of Health Small Business Innovation Research Phase 1 grant to assess the potential of using online, avatar-based simulation technology to increase pediatricians' use of motivational interviewing techniques to reduce childhood obesity are promising, with potentially positive implications for individual and public health outcomes.

  13. Affordances, Barriers, and Motivations: Engagement in Research Activity by Academics at the Research-Oriented University in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quy; Klopper, Christopher; Smith, Calvin

    2016-01-01

    The importance of academics undertaking research and publishing their research results is emphasised by universities. Engagement in research is recognised as an effective means to increase a university's profile. This study applied a qualitative approach to explore affordances, barriers, and motivations towards the engagement in research…

  14. Drinking motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major

  15. Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    the activity. There has been very little research and theorizing which considers the topic of intrinsic motivation , yet there is a substantial amount...reported within the framework of intrinsic motivation , yet the paper reinterprets the work within that framework. It considers several approaches of

  16. Drinking Motives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major classes: self-expressive and functional. This di...

  17. Nostalgia motivates pursuit of important goals by increasing meaning in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedikides, Constantine; Cheung, Wing-Yee; Wildschut, Tim

    2018-01-01

    This research focused on existential and motivational implications of the emotion of nostalgia. Nostalgia (relative to control) increased meaning in life, which, in turn, galvanised intentions to pursue one's most important goal (Experiment 1) and to pursue one's most important, but not least...... important, goal (Experiment 2). The basic pattern held in two cultures (British and Danish) independently of positive affect. This is the first evidence that nostalgia has specific motivational consequences (i.e., pursuit of more, but not less, important goals) and transmits these consequences via meaning...

  18. Influence of SDBD plasma aerodynamic actuation on flow control by AC power supply and AC-DC power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xu; Gao, Chao; Hao, Jiangnan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the excitation effect of single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator (SDBD) is compared by using AC power supply and AC-DC power supply. AC-DC power supply is based on the AC power supply, just adding DC component. The flow measurement is carried out by PIV technique. Results show that the excitation effect of AC power supply and AC-DC power supply increases by the increase of voltage, the range of speed field excited by AC power is greater than that of AC-DC power supply. For x direction maximum speed, excited by AC power supply is close to AC-DC, and for y direction maximum speed, AC power supply is greater than AC-DC power supply. So the excitation effect of AC power supply is better than that of AC-DC power supply for SDBD.

  19. Assessing location attractiveness for manufacturing automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawalt, Edward; Rouse, William

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating country manufacturing location attractiveness on various performance measures deepens the analysis and provides a more informed basis for manufacturing site selection versus reliance on labor rates alone. A short list of countries can be used to drive regional considerations for site-specific selection within a country. Design/methodology/approach: The two-step multi attribute decision model contains an initial filter layer to require minimum values for low weighted attributes and provides a rank order utility score for twenty three countries studied. The model contains 11 key explanatory variables with Labor Rate, Material Cost, and Logistics making up the top 3 attributes and representing 54% percent of the model weights. Findings: We propose a multi attribute decision framework for strategically assessing the attractiveness of a country as a location for manufacturing automobiles. Research limitations/implications: Consideration of country level wage variation, specific tariffs, and other economic incentives provides a secondary analysis after the initial list of candidate countries is defined. Practical implications: The results of our modeling shows China, India, and Mexico are currently the top ranked countries for manufacturing attractiveness. These three markets hold the highest utility scores throughout sensitivity analysis on the labor rate attribute weight rating, highlighting the strength and potential of manufacturing in China, India, and Mexico. Originality/value: Combining MAUT with regression analysis to simplify model to core factors then using a “must have” layer to handle extreme impacts of low weight factors and allowing for ease of repeatability.

  20. Assessing location attractiveness for manufacturing automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanawalt, Edward; Rouse, William

    2017-07-01

    Evaluating country manufacturing location attractiveness on various performance measures deepens the analysis and provides a more informed basis for manufacturing site selection versus reliance on labor rates alone. A short list of countries can be used to drive regional considerations for site-specific selection within a country. Design/methodology/approach: The two-step multi attribute decision model contains an initial filter layer to require minimum values for low weighted attributes and provides a rank order utility score for twenty three countries studied. The model contains 11 key explanatory variables with Labor Rate, Material Cost, and Logistics making up the top 3 attributes and representing 54% percent of the model weights. Findings: We propose a multi attribute decision framework for strategically assessing the attractiveness of a country as a location for manufacturing automobiles. Research limitations/implications: Consideration of country level wage variation, specific tariffs, and other economic incentives provides a secondary analysis after the initial list of candidate countries is defined. Practical implications: The results of our modeling shows China, India, and Mexico are currently the top ranked countries for manufacturing attractiveness. These three markets hold the highest utility scores throughout sensitivity analysis on the labor rate attribute weight rating, highlighting the strength and potential of manufacturing in China, India, and Mexico. Originality/value: Combining MAUT with regression analysis to simplify model to core factors then using a “must have” layer to handle extreme impacts of low weight factors and allowing for ease of repeatability.

  1. Power law creep of polycarbonate by Berkovich nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chenghui; Liu, Ming

    2017-10-01

    Power-law creep of polycarbonate was investigated by Berkovich indentation under three different conditions at room temperature, namely: constant displacement rate condition, constant displacement loading condition, and constant ratio of loading rate over load condition. Only the data during the loading process were analysed, and the experiments under different loading conditions gave consistent results that accorded well with theoretical prediction by dimensional analysis of indentation of power-law creep material. Material constants were characterized by curve fitting of the experimental results with theoretical equations, and the power law exponent for the power-law creep relation was found to be about 0.138 for the notably soft polycarbonate.

  2. Improvement in the Physical and Psychological Well-Being of Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries by Means of Powered Wheelchairs Driven by Dual Power Wheels and Mobile Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Pien Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study unites researchers from the fields of psychology, occupational therapy, and engineering to improve the holistic physical and psychological well-being of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI by using assistive devices (i.e., wheelchairs and mobile technology (i.e., cell phone and network. These technologies are used to bring persons with SCI through the difficult period of rehabilitation and to return them to their daily life in school or the working environment. First, a SpinoAid Application (APP is developed to motivate persons with SCI to participate in the community after their injury. Second, we integrate mobile technology with a mobility assistive device to design a smart wheelchair, which is innovated by transforming the pushrim of a manually driven wheelchair into a rim motor. After the rim motor is combined with a battery, a brake, and a controller to become a power wheel, two power wheels are installed on both sides of the wheelchair to become a powered wheelchair. Third, a SmartChair APP is developed with the main functions of reminding persons with SCI to perform exercises, recording the physical condition and the wheelchair using status, and building up a social network for information sharing to increase their exercise habit, prevent cumulative injuries or discomfort of the upper extremities, and enhance their health and quality of life.

  3. Simulation of Reactive Power Imbalances in the Transmission Power Grid Threatened by the Problem of Voltage Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactive power balance in the transmission power grid depends on the reactive power produced by the power stations and the value generated by the capacitive power lines and static compensators. Reactive transmission losses become greater than shunt capacitive generation at the turning-point of voltage stability. Then lowering bus voltages drive EPS into voltage collapse point. The paper presents the balance of reactive power depending on the power demand growth, which is then used to estimate the operating point of the transmission network, in which the reactive power transmission losses are greater than the total reactive power generated by the shunt capacity.

  4. The Role of Implicit Motives in Strategic Decision-Making: Computational Models of Motivated Learning and the Evolution of Motivated Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Merrick

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Individual behavioral differences in humans have been linked to measurable differences in their mental activities, including differences in their implicit motives. In humans, individual differences in the strength of motives such as power, achievement and affiliation have been shown to have a significant impact on behavior in social dilemma games and during other kinds of strategic interactions. This paper presents agent-based computational models of power-, achievement- and affiliation-motivated individuals engaged in game-play. The first model captures learning by motivated agents during strategic interactions. The second model captures the evolution of a society of motivated agents. It is demonstrated that misperception, when it is a result of motivation, causes agents with different motives to play a given game differently. When motivated agents who misperceive a game are present in a population, higher explicit payoff can result for the population as a whole. The implications of these results are discussed, both for modeling human behavior and for designing artificial agents with certain salient behavioral characteristics.

  5. Performance and Analysis of Reactive Power Compensation by Unified Power Flow Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Kumari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC is the most versatile of the FACTS controllers envisaged so far. The main function of the UPFC is to control the flow of real and reactive power by injection of a voltage in series with the transmission line. Both the magnitude and the phase angle of the voltage can be varied independently. Real and Reactive power flow control can allow for power flow in prescribed routes, loading of transmission lines close to their thermal limits and can be utilized for improving transient and small signal stability of the power system. In this paper UPFC is incorporated in a SMIB (Single Machine Infinite Bus system and the response of SMIB system has been recorded with and without UPFC, thereafter the comparison of both the output has been done. When no UPFC is installed, real and reactive power through the transmission line cannot be controlled. This paper presents control and performance of UPFC intended for installation on that transmission line to control power flow. Installing the UPFC makes it possible to control amount of active power flowing through the line. Simulations are carried out using MATLAB software to validate the performance of the UPFC.

  6. Assessing Learner Satisfaction by Simultaneously Measuring Learner Attitude, Motivation, Loyalty and Service Quality in English Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Vu Thi; Casadesus, Marti; Marimon, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study are threefold in their approach to English academy teaching: (i) to assess learner satisfaction, (ii) to assess the impact of satisfaction on loyalty and (iii) to assess the three constructs that we considered to be the antecedents of learner satisfaction: learner motivation, learner attitude and service quality. To collect…

  7. Enhance students’ motivation to learn programming by using direct visual feed-back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Lise B.; Reng, Lars

    2011-01-01

    was to establish a community of practice among the students and the teachers. A direct visual feedback and a higher level of merging between the artistic, creative, and technical lectures have been the focus of motivation as well as a complete restructuring of the elements of the technical lectures. The paper...

  8. Improving flood risk communication by focusing on prevention-focused motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Terpstra, T.

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes an approach to flood risk communication that gives particular emphasis to the distinction between prevention and promotion motivation. According to E. Tory Higgins, the promotion system and the prevention system are assumed to coexist in every person, but one or the other may

  9. Are training and transfer effects of working memory updating training modulated by achievement motivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Xu, Yiwenjie; Fu, Junjun; Maes, Joseph H R

    2017-11-28

    Previous studies examining effects of working memory (WM) updating training revealed mixed results. One factor that might modulate training gains, and possibly also transfer of those gains to non-trained cognitive tasks, is achievement motivation. In the present Studies 1 and 2, students with either a high (HAM) or low (LAM) achievement motivation completed a 14-day visuospatial WM updating training program. In Study 2, the students also performed a set of tasks measuring other executive functions and fluid intelligence prior to and after training. In both studies, the HAM students displayed a larger training gain than the LAM students. Study 2 revealed that after training, both groups showed better performance on the near-transfer but not far-transfer tasks. Importantly, the differential training gain was not associated with better post-training performance for the HAM compared to the LAM students on any of the transfer tasks. These results are taken to support a modulatory role of achievement motivation on WM training benefits, but not on transfer of those benefits to other tasks. Possible reasons for the general improvement on the near-transfer tasks and the absence of a modulatory role of achievement motivation on transfer-task performance are discussed.

  10. Are consumers guided by selfish or unselfish motives when they buy organic food?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    post-rationalizations and self-presentation biases on behalf of respondents. I further argue that due to the many and varied ways people defend their self-concept, unobtrusive and indirect methods are the best way to uncover the goals and motives truly guiding this type of behavior. One such method...

  11. The proton motive force generated in Leuconostoc oenos by L-malate fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salema, Madalena; Lolkema, Juke S.; San Romão, M.V.; Loureiro Dias, Maria C.

    In cells of Leuconostoc oenos, the fermentation of L-malic acid generates both a transmembrane pH gradient, inside alkaline, and an electrical potential gradient, inside negative. In resting cells, the proton motive force ranged from -170 mV to -88 mV between pH 3.1 and 5.6 in the presence of

  12. Lifestyle use of drugs by healthy people for enhancing cognition, creativity, motivation and pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Angelo, L-S Camilla; Savulich, George; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2017-10-01

    Today, there is continued, and in some cases growing, availability of not only psychoactive substances, including treatments for mental health disorders such as cognitive enhancers, which can enhance or restore brain function, but also 'recreational' drugs such as novel psychoactive substances (NPS). The use of psychoactive drugs has both benefits and risks: whilst new drugs to treat cognitive symptoms in neuropsychiatric or neurodegenerative disorders could have great benefits for many patient groups, the increasing ease of accessibility to recreational NPS and the increasing lifestyle use of cognitive enhancers by healthy people means that the effective management of psychoactive substances will be an issue of increasing importance. Clearly, the potential benefits of cognitive enhancers are large and increasingly relevant, particularly as the population ages, and for this reason, we should continue to devote resources to the development of cognitive enhancers as treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. However, the increasing use of cognitive enhancers by healthy individuals raises safety, ethical and regulatory concerns, which should not be ignored. Similarly, understanding the short- and long-term consequences of the use of NPS, as well as better understanding the motivations and profiles of users could promote more effective prevention and harm reduction measures. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of Cognition: a Panacea for Neuropsychiatric Disease? To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.19/issuetoc. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. The losses at power grid caused by small nonlinear loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between registered active power and spent unregistered power represents the losses at power grid. This paper treats problems related to losses caused by nonlinear loads connected to the power grid. In recent years the load profile of power consumers turned from energy-waster linear to energysaver but non-linear loads. The main cause of the losses appears due to the lack of adequate measurement equipment. Namely, common household power meters register only active energy, while power meters for industrial application register reactive energy as well. This approach does not follow the change of the enduser profile. Tendency of improving energy efficiency brought wide use of switching mode regulators and replace old incandescent light bulb with new energy saving lamps (CFL - compact fluorescent lamp, LED bulb. Therefore, the number of non-linear load drastically increased. Registering only active component of power at consumer’s side does not depict the real profile of the consumption. Therefore, in this paper we analyse and quantify the effects of nonlinear loads at power losses. As a result we suggest an efficient method for measuring the distortion component of power. The method relays on low-cost upgrade of commercial electronic power meters. The presented results of measurements on small non-linear loads confirm the proposed technique. Besides, they prove the importance of measuring all components of apparent power and justified their use in billing policy. The implemented set-up is based on power meter manufactured by EWG of Niš. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32004

  14. Motivating smokers in the hospital pulmonary function laboratory to quit smoking by use of the lung age concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, David A; Marcy, Theodore; Dorwaldt, Anne; Pinckney, Richard; DeSarno, Michael; Solomon, Laura; Hughes, John R

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of lung age to motivate a quit attempt among smokers presenting to a hospital pulmonary function testing (PFT) laboratory. Participants were randomized to receive a lung age-based motivational strategy (intervention group) versus standard care (control group). At 1 month, all participants were interviewed by telephone to determine whether they made a quit attempt. A total of 67 participants were enrolled, and 51 completed the study. Baseline mean data included age = 52 years, 70% women, 40 pack-years of smoking, FEV(1) = 69% predicted, and lung age = 83 years. The quit attempt rates were not different between the intervention and control groups (32% vs. 24%, respectively, p = .59). There was a near significant interaction between lung age and intervention strategy (p = .089), with quit attempt rates among those with normal lung age of 18% in the intervention group versus 33% in the control group and among those with high (worse) lung age of 39% in the intervention group versus 17% in the control group; p = .38. Using lung age to motivate smokers presenting to the PFT laboratory to quit may succeed in patients with high lung age but may undermine motivation in smokers with normal lung age. Further work is needed to refine the approach to smokers with normal lung age.

  15. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sulc, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  16. DC/AC Power Converter for Home Scale Electricity Systems Powered by Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Samman, Faizal Arya; Azhari, Arie

    2017-01-01

    in Proc. of the International Conference on Smart Green Technology in Electrical and Information Systems (ICSGTEIS), 2016, publised in IEEE Explorer (indexed by SCOPUS) This paper presents the design of a single phase DC/AC Converter or Inverter for home scale electricity systems powered by renewable energy such as photovoltaic system. The power converter is controlled using a microcontroller. The inverter system is firstly modeled and simulated using SPICE, before we design it. A control ...

  17. An impending platinum crisis and its implications for the future of the automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-J.

    2009-01-01

    The global demand for platinum has consistently outgrown supply in the past decade. This trend likely will continue and the imbalance may possibly escalate into a crisis. Platinum plays pivotal roles in both conventional automobile emissions control and the envisioned hydrogen economy. A platinum crisis would have profound implications on energy and environment. On the one hand, inadequate platinum supply will prevent widespread commercialization of hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. On the other hand, expensive platinum may enhance the competitiveness of hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and battery-powered electric cars. Policymakers should weigh the potential impacts of a platinum crisis in energy policy.

  18. Replacement of steel parts with extruded aluminum alloys in an automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggula, Manikantha Reddy

    Over the past years, vehicle emissions have shown a negative impact on environment and human health. A new strategy has been used by automakers to reduce a vehicle's weight which significantly reduce fuel consumption and C02 emissions. A very light car consumes very less fuel as it needs to overcome less inertia, decreasing the required power to movie the vehicle. Reducing weight is the easiest way to increase fuel economy and making it by just 10% can increase its efficiency 6 to 8 percent. For a normal scale 80% of vehicles weight is shared among chassis, power train and other exterior components. Almost 60% of the vehicles weight is comprised of steel and the remaining is with cast and extruded aluminum and magnesium alloys. Our main aim is to look for the parts like Fuel tank holder, Fuel filler neck, Turbo inlet assembly, and Brake lines, Dash board frame which are made from steel and replace them with extruded aluminum alloys, to analyze a conventional rear wheel aluminum drive shaft and replace it with a new design and with a new aluminum alloy. The current project involves dismantling an automobile and looking for feasible steel parts and making samples, analyzing the hardness of the samples. These parts are optimally analyzed using Ansys Finite element analysis tool, these parts are subjected to the constraints such as three-point bending, tensile testing, hydrostatic pressure and also torsional stress action on the drive shaft, the deformation and stress are observed in these parts. The results show the current steel parts can be replaced with 3000 series aluminum alloy and the drive shaft can be replaced with new design with 6061-T6 Al-alloy which decreases 25% of the shaft weight.

  19. Method for Improving Power Quality in Distribution System by Static Capacitors based on Power Line Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uejima, Hiroaki; Naruse, Taichi; Aoki, Mutsumi; Ukai, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    Recent rapid introduction of photovoltaic power generations (PVs) causes several issues of power quality. First, reverse flow causes voltage rise of distribution lines. Second, since almost of residential PVs are connected to the distribution lines by single-phase, voltage imbalance is occurred by imbalance current of PVs. On the other hand, in Japan, almost high voltage consumers set up Static capacitors (SCs) to improve the power factor at their receiving points. However, the capacity of SC becomes excessive than required amount of capacity. Hence, the excessive amount of SCs may also cause voltage rise and harmonic voltage problems that is Ferranti Effect and harmonic resonance between SCs and inductance of lines. Under these backgrounds, the purpose of this study is to propose the new control method of SCs not only improving power factor but also solving power quality problems. The major point of the proposed method is to determine the capacity of three-phase type SCs and single-phase type SCs so as to minimize power loss of distribution line in a limitation condition of each power quality.

  20. Self-Monitoring of On-Task Behaviors Using the MotivAider® by a Middle School Student with a Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, M. Alison; Knight, Victoria; Spriggs, Amy D.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation used an ABAB withdrawal design to determine the effect of self-monitoring using the MotivAider® (MotivAider, 2000) on percentage of intervals of on-task behavior by an 11-year old male with a moderate intellectual disability who attended a rural middle school. The MotivAider® is a small device, the size of a pager, which can be…