WorldWideScience

Sample records for automobile parts industry

  1. "Electronic Procurement networks and Parts Transaction Systems: A Case of the Automobile Industry"(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Je-Wheon Oh; Takahiro Fujimoto

    2001-01-01

    Inter-firm information systems in the automobile industry have evolved from firm-specific networks to industrial standard networks and further to internet. This paper examines how electronic parts procurement systems in the automobile industry affected its patterns of inter-firm transactions through empirical studies on information networks, transaction systems, and architectural characteristics of automobile parts. We argue that choice of a certain parts transaction system tends to affect ch...

  2. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Pop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  3. "The Use of Digital Technology and its Effect The Use of Digital Technology and its Effect on Product Development in the Automobile Parts Industry" (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Seunghwan Ku; Takahiro Fujimoto

    2000-01-01

    The subject of this paper is an empirical study about the impact and introduced period of 3D-CAD(three dimensional computer-aided design) on the product development process in the automobile parts industry in Japan. In particular, this study examines how 3D-CAD impacts product design review and production review, communication between assembler and supplier, and product development lead times. Our data is from 153 companies and was collected through a questionnaire survey of first-tier part s...

  4. Competition in the IndianAutomobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT “Following India's growing openness, the arrival of new and existing models, easy availability of finance at relatively low rate of interest and price discounts offered by the dealers and manufacturers all have stirred the demand for vehicles and a strong growth of the Indian automobile industry”. The main focus of my dissertation will be the Indian automobile industry due to its rich diversity and ever-changing patterns. The Research Question which I would follow would be t...

  5. Research on automobile culture and entertainment industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li Qing-song; Tang Lan; Cai Yun

    2012-01-01

    Rapid development of the automotive Industry and culture Industry is promoted the rapid rise of automobile industry of the culture and entertainment. With the further development of the automobile industry and people's living standards, automobile industry of the culture and entertainment in the proportion of China's economy is more and more important, but theoretical research in this area is nearly blank. With previous researches, automobile industry of the culture and entertainment in China...

  6. Renewing Marketing Strategy in Kenyan Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliokuusi, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies how to renew existing marketing strategies for case company; in so doing, the thesis fulfills its main objective. Company X, a market leader in the Kenyan automobile sector and has various well-known brands under their corporate umbrella. The automobile industry in Kenya has faced some hardship with steady decline in sales in the last couple of years and Mercedes-Benz as a brand suffered under the circumstances. One major cause of the drop in sales is due to the influx of ...

  7. The Strategic Transformation of Automobile Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Som Techakanjanakit; Meifang Huang

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the global automobile industry is developing difficultly because of the influence from the financial crisis. In contrast, China's automobile production and sales are still having a blowout type growth, and jumped into the world's largest automobile production and sales market. At the same time, Chinese automobile companies continue to deepen and join with international brand cooperation; independent research and development of the independent brand production, and their...

  8. Teamwork in the Automobile Industry - an Anglo-German Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Niels-Erik Wergin

    2004-01-01

    Teamwork in the automotive industry varies significantly from plant to plant. This article compares teamwork in four automobile plants in Germany and Britain, and addresses two questions: (1) Do different models of teamwork fit into a bi-polar model of teamwork, being either innovative or structural conservative? (2) Do current models of teamwork signify a development towards post-fordism, or are they merely part of a neo-fordist rationalisation of production? The following answers are sugges...

  9. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvokon, A.; Bondarenko, A.

    2012-01-01

    Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  10. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kryvokon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  11. 77 FR 29922 - Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry, Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Auto Parts Guides seek to prevent unfair or deceptive acts or practices in the advertisement and sale... consumers? How have the Guides affected the flow of deceptive information to consumers? What evidence do you have or know of that shows the effect of the Guides on the flow of either truthful or...

  12. Globalization of the Automobile Industry ; Traditional Locations under Pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Spatz, Julius; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Even though the automobile industry is technologically advanced, the increasing integration of low-income countries into the global division of labor has put competitive pressure on traditional automobile producing countries. New end-producers emerged in Asia, Latin America as well as Southern and Central Europe. In addition, the automobile industries of Germany, Japan and the United States engaged in outsourcing of relatively labor intensive segments of the value chain, especially on a regio...

  13. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  14. Evolution of organizational structure and strategy of the automobile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, S.H.; Wibbelink, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a historically oriented study of the automobile industry. It sets out to understand why have the structure and strategy of the dominant companies in the automobile industry changed in the way they have done. Our findings suggest three factors at work, namely the knowledge of car production and of customers, the capability of the technological system, and the business environment. The knowledge system represents the level of know-how and the availability of information. In a sens...

  15. High energy X-ray CT system using a linear accelerator for automobile parts inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high energy X-ray CT system (maximum photon energy: 0.95 MeV) has been developed for industrial use. This system employs a linear accelerator as an X-ray source. It is able to image the cross section of automobile parts and can be applied to a solidification analysis study of the cylinder head in an automobile. This paper describes the features of the system and application results which can be related to solidification analysis of the cylinder head when fabricated from an aluminum casting. Some cross-sectional images are also presented as evidence for nondestructive inspection of automobile parts. (orig.)

  16. Supply Chain Management Practices of Indian Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    B. S. Sahay; Vikram Sharma; G. D. Sardana

    2011-01-01

    The automobile industry is a major contributor to India’s economy. The Indian automobile manufacturers face stiff international competition in the wake of all major US and European car manufacturers entering the Indian market. In the contemporary scenario, supply chain management practices can be adopted to improve operational efficiency and profits. This paper presents the current status of Indian automotive supply chains. For this, data was collected by conducting a nationwide survey. The...

  17. New Technology and Human Resource Development in the Automobile Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This document contains five case studies of plants within large enterprises in the automobile industry (Ford, Toyota, Volkswagen, Renault, and Volvo), plus reports of each company's views on human resource development, new technology, and changes in work organization and skill formation. The document is composed of five narrative sections,…

  18. STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE IN THE BRAZILIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso Carneiro Lima; Edison Fernandes Polo; Fátima Regina Ney Matos

    2010-01-01

    This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE). The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors...

  19. Prospects of Russian Automobile Industry Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ajupov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article comprises the results of the SWOT analysis of the Russian automotive industry, identified keyopportunities, threats, strengths and weaknesses and set strategic goals for further development. The articlepresents the results of grouping of the world's car manufacturers based on the matrix of the Boston consultinggroup on two criteria - market share and market share growth of the company.

  20. A Flowchart Approach to Malaysia's Automobile Industry Cluster Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchiki, Akifumi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a flowchart approach to investigate Malaysia's automobile cluster policy. We investigate whether the industrial cluster policy has been successful or not, suggest policy prescriptions, and propose a way to prioritize policy measures. Our flowchart approach leads to the following three policy prescriptions: (1) Malaysian firms should establish sites for exporting compact cars with automatic transmissions; (2) actors in the public, semi-public and private sector should w...

  1. "Uniqueness seeking and demand estimation in the German automobile industry"

    OpenAIRE

    Guerzoni, Marco; Soellner, René

    2009-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the determinants of demand in the German automobile industry. Our primary goal is to refine the existing literature on that topic by exploring the impact of uniqueness seeking behaviour of individuals on the demand schedule. Using a dataset on the segment of compact cars in the German market, we show that consumers have an intrinsic need for uniqueness seeking, and the degree a product satisfies this need is to be considered as an additional product characteris...

  2. STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE IN THE BRAZILIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Carneiro Lima

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE. The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors, and the adoption of its strategic positioning in exploring two automobile market niches: in the B2B market, vehicles adapted to specific operational functions; and in the B2C, off-road vehicles with a strong appeal to consumers’ life styles. This case study allowed us to visualize the challenging path of a genuinely Brazilian small company in a sector dominated by large multinational groups, besides demonstrating decision-related dilemmas and aspects related to managerial creativity.Key-words: Automobile industry. Case study. Strategic entrepreneurship. Discovery theory. Strategic positioning.

  3. Evaluating the Economic Impacts of Technological Innovation in the Automobile Industry: The Input-Output Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shibusawa, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Takafumi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the economic impacts of technological innovation, such as electric and hybrid vehicles, in the automobile industry in Japan are examined. The automobile industry has to develop environmentally friendly vehicles in the face of the global warming issue and the exhaustion problem of petroleum. The conventional automobiles with gasoline and diesel oil don’t meet the demands of present age. The new generation automobiles will become popular for coming several decades. The indust...

  4. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  5. Plant Productivity, Keiretsu, and Agglomeration in the Japanese Automobile Industry: An Empirical Analysis Based on Micro-Data of Census of Manufactures 1981-1996

    OpenAIRE

    Keiko Ito

    2004-01-01

    Using plant-level data underlying the Census of Manufactures, total factor productivity (TFP) growth and its determinants are analyzed for the Japanese automobile industry since 1980s. The average annual TFP growth rate from 1981 to 1996 was only about 0.6 percent for the automobile assembly industry and about 1.3 percent for the auto parts manufacturing industry. In the Japanese auto parts manufacturing industry, we found that R&D spillovers from assemblers had a significantly positive effec...

  6. Hopes in the Crisis——Chinese Automobile Market in the World Auto manufacturing Industry Shuffle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shurong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Global automobile markets shuffle against the economic crisis The economic crisis spread rapidly around the world,making automobile industry one of the victims who are shocked hardest,leading to an industrial shuffle in global automobile industry.USA,EU and Japan,the traditional top three leading countries in global automobile industry,could not have their lucks to escape from the crisis.The weak global automobile market forces these transnational auto companies to be more cautious about the future than ever.As reflected in the latest performance reports,though governments took measures to maintain the market,the sharp decline in global automobile sales volume continued in the first quarter.Automobile market bottomed out in the second quarter.US auto industrywas affected the most,with two out of the top three manufacturers getting bankrupt and regrouped.

  7. Relations de travail dans l’industrie automobile colombienne

    OpenAIRE

    Valero, Edgar Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Les secteurs d'assemblages d'automobiles et de fabrication de pièces de rechange en Colombie décrivent les pressions exercées par l'environnement compétitif international sur l'efficience et la qualité. Ces pressions ont entraîné l'adoption de nouvelles formes d'organisation du travail et le changement quasi général des politiques du personnel durant les quinze dernières années. Un ensemble de transformations significatives des relations de travail dans cette branche de l'industrie est...

  8. Critical elements of supplier development in the Malaysian automobile industry : Parts and components procurement and supplier development Practice at Proton【Article】

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Rashid; Maharjan, Keshav Lall

    2003-01-01

    Supplier development is defined as any effort of a buying firm with regard to its supplier to increasethe performance and/or capabilities of the supplier to meet the buying firm's supply needs. The procure-ment practice of the buyer is critical and acts as a window to nurture the supplier development effort, itis also crucial in determining the type of relationship that the company has with its suppliers. This paperexamines the procurement practice at PROTON for parts and component inputs at ...

  9. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs shoul...

  10. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis

  11. The CLMV Automobile and Auto Parts Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Hideo; Yingshan JIN

    2015-01-01

    To begin, consider the general economic characteristics of Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Viet Nam, collectively known as the CLMV countries. These countries joined ASEAN relatively late and are economically less developed than the original members. According to the World Bank (2012), Viet Nam’s GDP stood at US$155.8 billion in 2012, Myanmar’s is estimated to be around US$50 billion, Cambodia at US$ 14.04 billion, and Lao PDR at US$9.41 billion. Therefore, these countries can be labelled as d...

  12. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vicianová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the corporate social responsibility should be seen not only in theory, but mainlyat the level of business practice. Companies that apply the concept of corporate socialresponsibility are aware not only of social and environmental benefits, but also theeconomic benefits that this approach brings. Assumptions of social responsibility are tomaximize the market value of the business provided that companies respect the laws andresponsibilities of owners, managers and employees. Benefits of the corporate socialresponsibility are not only companies and their stakeholders, but also society. This factinspires many large enterprises to start up a socially responsible business. The paper dealswith the corporate social responsibility concept and its implementation in the car industryin Slovak republic. The aim of the article is basically on the theories of corporate socialresponsibility to identify the level of application of this concept in automobile industry inSlovakia.

  13. The Research of Scrapped Automobiles Recycling and Disassembling Industry Development Based on Auto Industry Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    linhua Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of China’s scrapped car is on an explosively growing trend, and the development of scrapped car recycling industry has a golden prospect. The current scrapped car recycling system is not perfect in our country, because related industries driven by market develop slowly, and there are some outstanding problems such as potential safety risks, environmental pollution and resource waste. The paper analyzes and studies the existing problems and countermeasures to investigate the development strategy of scrapped car recycling industry according to the whole automobile industry chain construction, technology and equipment conditions, policy guidance, etc. and at last explore the new industrial development pattern of serving automobile reverse design.

  14. Automobile industry and Japan’s strategy for the global environment

    OpenAIRE

    Şerban Georgescu

    2007-01-01

    Japan’s automobile industry evolution for the last five years was a succes story, based on long-term strategy and strong innovative development. This article makes a review of the automobile industry’s main trends and challenges for the Japanese manufacturers.

  15. Globalization of the automobile industry in China. Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin

    2001-08-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policy making and transport management. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems and stronger emissions control would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. (author)

  16. Market Analysis of RFID Systems in Indian Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mariappan, Ramachandran

    2010-01-01

    RFID is an emerging hot technology in tracking and tracing physical objects. The market for RFID ranges from technological artefacts like tags and reader infrastructure to software solutions and supply chain services. One of the key business sectors that have seen the initial benefits of RFID applications is the Automobile sector through improvements in local processes related to better production control and increased handling efficiency. In recent years, there has been a palpable shift in t...

  17. Robot Vision System for Coordinate Measurement of Feature Points on Large Scale Automobile Part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pongsak Joompolpong; Pradit Mittrapiyanuruk; Pakorn Keawtrakulpong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a robot vision based system for coordinate measurement of feature points on large scale automobile parts. Our system consists of an industrial 6-DOF robot mounted with a CCD camera and a PC. The system controls the robot into the area of feature points. The images of measuring feature points are acquired by the camera mounted on the robot. 3D positions of the feature points are obtained from a model based pose estimation that applies to the images. The measured positions of all feature points are then transformed to the reference coordinate of feature points whose positions are obtained from the coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Finally, the point-to-point distances between the measured feature points and the reference feature points are calculated and reported. The results show that the root mean square error (RMSE) of measure values obtained by our system is less than 0.5mm. Our system is adequate for automobile assembly and can perform faster than conventional methods.

  18. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  19. Supplier Relationship in Product Development: A Survey of the Chinese Automobile Industry during the Growth Period, 2005-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Jooyoung Kwak; Hyunjoo Min; Peishan Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study compares supplier relationship by multinational assemblers in China vis-à-vis the Chinese assemblers in the stage of product development. We surveyed seven automobile firms (four international joint ventures and three Chinese firms) during 2005-2007, when the Chinese automobile industry began to rear up. Based on the survey, we examined the roles of suppliers, which is one of the critical dimensions in product development of the automobile industry. Our findings suggest that, durin...

  20. Chinese automobile industry: opportunities and business; El sector automovilistico Chino: oportunidades y negocios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhang, Y.

    2010-07-01

    The emergence of Chinese economy and its rapid recovery from global crisis have sustained a high rate of growth in Chinese automobile market. The article analyzes the industrial evolution of this particular market from the perspective of automobile manufacturers. Two concrete proposals have been suggested to explore these business opportunities exposed in the analyzed industry: investment in China to take advantage of market growth and hence gaining global competitive advantages, and being strategic partner of Chinese enterprises in European and global market. Strategic alternatives for both proposals have been discussed with suggestions and conclusions followed. (Author) 11 refs.

  1. Plant maintenance management practices in automobile industries: a retrospective and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Pophaley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper endeavors to present a classification, review and analysis of the literature on Plant Maintenance Management Practices (PMMP employed in Automobile Industries. There is a considerable amount of published research available concerning plant maintenance during the last few decades. Similarly many research articles are available which focuses on various aspects of automobile industries. However, very few studies focus on critical examination of maintenance practices in Automobile Industries in particular. Hence considering the slump in automobile industries in the recent times, a wide-ranging and focused review is attempted here and only those researches have been examined which mainly concentrates on this core aspect. Thus one of the objectives of this literature review is to investigate the present state of Plant Maintenance Management Practices, based on studies conducted in different countries and published in a variety of journals over the past two decades. An examination of 55 pertinent research studies have shown that the publications can be grouped in two categories namely Conceptual and Empirical Research. An analysis of these research articles published between 1990 and 2008, revealed that current maintenance practices ranges from conventional to the latest techniques for optimizing maintenance function like TPM, RCM and Proactive Maintenance. These studies focused more on maintenance problem solving and the main difficulties are reported along with probable solutions. Another goal of the paper is to analyze the articles by year and type of journal they were published in, to determine the trends in maintenance management studies and recommend future direction for research.

  2. Stress testing German banks in a downturn in the automobile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Düllmann, Klaus; Erdelmeier, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we stress-test credit portfolios of 28 German banks based on a Mertontype multi-factor credit risk model. The ad-hoc stress scenario is an economic downturn in the automobile industry that constitutes an exceptional but plausible event suggested by historical data. Rather than on a particular stress forecast, the focus of the paper is on the main drivers of the stress impact on banks' credit portfolios. Although the percentage of loans in the automobile sector is relatively low ...

  3. Information Integration of CPFR in Automobile Parts Inbound Logistics Based on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Liu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With the improvement of supply chain management and development of information technology, the nature of business processes has changed from intra-enterprise to cross-enterprise. Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment (CPFR come into being in this case. This research aims to looks at the literature of CPFR and the Internet of Things, and then analyzes the information integration of CPFR in automobile parts inbound logistics. The CPFR reference model is designed to fit many scenarios and the paper focuses on the information integration of CPFR model in the scenario of automobile parts inbound logistics based on the environment of Internet of Things.

  4. Market Structure and Innovation: A Dynamic Analysis of the Global Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Van Biesebroeck; Aamir Hashmi

    2007-01-01

    We study the relationship between market structure and innovation in the global automobile industry from 1982 to 2004 using the dynamic industry framework of Ericson and Pakes (1995). Firms optimally choose a continuous level of innovation in a strategic and forward-looking manner, while anticipating the possibility of future mergers. We show that our estimated model predicts the data well and that changes in the modeling assumptions have a predictable effect on the key dynamic parameter -- t...

  5. The Swiss automobile industry - Situation, structure, trends, challenges and chances; Automobilindustrie Schweiz. Branchenanalyse 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, A.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic takes a look at the situation of the Swiss automobile industry in 2008. The results of the study are presented and include figures on the automobile industry, its history, structure, turn-over, employment and its position from the international point of view. Research and development in the sector, investments and challenges faced are discussed. The products and services offered are looked at and the relevant strategies examined. The sector's competitive environment and possibilities for growth are looked at and the advantages offered by strategic partnerships and geographical location are noted. Finally, interviews with important actors in the business are presented.

  6. Automobile Industry Strategic Alliance Partner Selection: The Application of a Hybrid DEA and Grey Theory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding the right strategic alliance partner is a critical success factor for many enterprises. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose an effective approach based on grey theory and data envelopment analysis (DEA for selecting better partners for alliance. This study used grey forecasting to predict future business performances and used DEA for the partner selection of alliances. This research was implemented with realistic public data in four consecutive financial years (2009–2012 of the world’s 20 biggest automobile enterprises. Nissan Motor Co., Ltd was set to be the target decision making unit (DMU. The empirical results showed that, among 19 candidate DMUs, Renault (DMU10 and Daimler (DMU11 were the two feasible beneficial alliance partners for Nissan. Although this research is specifically applied to the automobile industry, the proposed method could also be applied to other manufacturing industries.

  7. Measuring Environmental Performance for Automobile Industry - Research Work

    OpenAIRE

    Vedak, Amol

    2009-01-01

    At present the companies across the world are pressurised by the Governments to control their environmental impact – Carbon reduction, waste disposal, water utilization, recycling etc. Many governments such as UK, Japan, and Australia have signed Kyoto agreement and have accepted challenging targets. To ensure that the companies follow the targets governments are not only tightening the regulations but also incentivising the industries towards carbon reduction. Also various reports suggest th...

  8. Knowledge based Supplier Quality Management System for Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Teli; Dr. V. S. Majali; Dr. U. M. Bhushi; Dr. A. S. Deshapande

    2012-01-01

    A large industrial products component manufacturer was challenged to reduce supplier quality issues in response to changing market dynamics. The manufacturer faced increased competition in their core product segments and needed to reduce their overall costs and improve product quality to stay ahead. After a detailed analysis, the manufacturer identified supplier quality as one of the three key operational improvement opportunities. Supplier quality management has emerged as one of the leading...

  9. The Automobile Industry in Latin America:Assessment of the conditions for sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    ペレス デブランド, フアン マヌエル; Juan Manuel, Perez Debrand

    2012-01-01

    AbstractThis paper analyzes the current automobile industry environment in Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Colombia, and Venezuela and assesses the conditions required for sustainable development in a long-term scenario. The methodology used is based on Michael Porter’s Diamond model to analyze the countries’ competitive advantages using secondary data. Latin America has the potential to develop its automotiveindustry further in a sustainable manner if key areas reflecting weakness are tackled. Fi...

  10. Competition and Collusion in the American Automobile Industry: The 1955 Price War.

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy F. Bresnahan

    1987-01-01

    Movements in total quantity and in quality-adjusted price suggest a supply-side shock in the American automobile market in 1955. This paper tests the hypothesis that the shock was a transitory change in industry conduct, a price war. The key ingredients of the test are alternative equilibrium models of oligopoly under product differentiation. In nonnested (Cox) tests of hypotheses, a collusive solution is sustained in 1954 and in 1956, while a competitive solution holds in 1955. The result do...

  11. Foreign involvement in the Spanish automobile industry: internalising versus networking

    OpenAIRE

    Lagendijk, A.; Knaap, G.A. van der

    1993-01-01

    The authors focus on the internationalisation of automotive production in Spain. In the first part of the paper they discuss two main approaches of international production:internalisation theory and network theory. It is argued that both approaches may be applied in a staged model of internationalisation. In the second part they highlight patterns of internationalisation in the Spanish automotive sector in the last two decades, based on data gathered in Spain in the first months of 1991. The...

  12. Has Liberalization influenced wages, employment, and productivity and output of firms in India and specifically the automobile industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Arhant

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In the paper, the researcher will talk about the India, both in the pre liberalization and post liberalization era. The researcher will be focusing on the Indian automobile industry which has undergone many changes since its liberalization in 1993. Porter's five force model has been used to show the difference in the automobile industry pre and post reforms. The researcher then defines liberalization, its causes, and provides an analysis of the impact of FDI on the wages, employm...

  13. Knowledge based Supplier Quality Management System for Automobile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Teli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A large industrial products component manufacturer was challenged to reduce supplier quality issues in response to changing market dynamics. The manufacturer faced increased competition in their core product segments and needed to reduce their overall costs and improve product quality to stay ahead. After a detailed analysis, the manufacturer identified supplier quality as one of the three key operational improvement opportunities. Supplier quality management has emerged as one of the leading business practices in the past few years. World-class manufacturers are making significant investments in systems and processes to improve supplier quality. This paper briefly outlines some of the best practices implemented by such manufacturers in supplier quality management.

  14. Value Creation in Collaborative Supply Chain Network in Automobile Industry in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataraj S

    2012-08-01

    enhancement of long term customer relations. Research limitations/implications : The presented research work confirms the positive implications of technology on value creation in the supply chain network of e-commerce based automobile companies. Research in this area highlights only the value addition in the collaborative supply chain network in select automobile co’s (OEMs in Karnataka and their dealership network in India. Broader generalisations could be drawn using this information, by selecting a larger sample size. The future research should be made on the entire industry in the country and by bringing more co’s. and suppliers into the sampling frame. Keywords : Value creation, Collaborative supply chain, Information sharing, Superior collaboration.

  15. An analytic hierarchy process for benchmarking of automobile car service industry in Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupender Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP to help decision maker evaluate different processes to identify the weaknesses of an automobile car service where the best alternatives and critical success factors are identified to improve their performances against the market leader. The proposed benchmarking process may help provide effective systematic decision support tool. Thus the endeavor has been made for car service industry to exhibit proposed framework by applying AHP to enhance its competitiveness. The proposed study provides an opportunity to apply to other industries in addition with a diminutive alteration.

  16. Limits to leapfrogging in energy technologies? Evidence from the Chinese automobile industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limits to leapfrogging in energy technologies? One of the most attractive notions in the field of sustainable energy development is the concept of energy-technology 'leapfrogging'. Leapfrogging through international technology transfer can be especially problematic because often developing countries do not have the technological capabilities to produce or integrate the advanced energy technologies themselves. Until they have acquired the capabilities to produce the advanced technologies themselves, most late-industrializing countries buy their new technologies from industrialized countries, usually through licensing or joint-venture arrangements. Empirical case studies of the three main Sino-US passenger-car joint ventures reveal that until the late 1990s, little energy or environmental leapfrogging occurred in the Chinese automobile industry as the result of the introduction of US automotive technology. An improvement in Chinese capabilities and more stringent Chinese energy and environmental policies are needed to induce energy leapfrogging in the Chinese automobile industry. Foreign firms also have a social responsibility to contribute to China's sustainable industrial development. In order to realize the promise of the leapfrogging, the limits to leapfrogging must be identified and acknowledged so that strategies can be devised to surmount the barriers to the introduction of advanced energy technologies in developing countries

  17. E-Procurement System with Embedded Supplier Selection DSS for an Automobile Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Priya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of Decision Support System (DSS to enable the selection of best suppliers in an e-procurement process. The model base of the DSS incorporates the Online Analytical Processing (OLAP and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP techniques to shortlist and selects the best suppliers in a web environment. The e-DSS process is implemented using ASP and SQL server, for an Indian automobile manufacturing industry. The results obtained for supplier selection is competitive in terms of the quality and lead time of the chosen suppliers

  18. CARWARS: Trying to Make Sense of U.S.-Japan Trade Frictions in the Automobile and Automobile Parts Markets

    OpenAIRE

    James Levinsohn

    1995-01-01

    This paper tries to make sense of the recent trade dispute between the U.S. and Japan in autos and auto parts. The paper argues that there are structural differences between the way that the auto industries are organized in the U.S. and Japan, and that these differences have contributed to the growing bilateral trade deficit in auto parts. The paper also provides econometric estimates of what would have happened had the threatened 100 percent tariff on Japanese luxury cars not been withdrawn ...

  19. Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Weidian

    2013-09-27

    This project, “Building Surface Science Capacity to Serve the Automobile Industry in Southeastern Michigan” was carried out in two phases: (1) the 2009 – 2012 renovation of space in the new EMU Science Complex, which included the Surface Science Laboratory (SSL), a very vigorous research lab at EMU that carries on a variety of research projects to serve the auto and other industries in Michigan; and (2) the 2013 purchase of several pieces of equipment to further enhance the research capability of the SSL. The funding granted by the DoE was proposed to “renovate the space in the Science Complex to include SSL and purchase equipment for tribological and electrochemical impedance measurements in the lab, thus SSL will serve the auto and other industries in Michigan better.” We believe we have fully accomplished the mission.

  20. THE ISSUES OF THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FORMATION OF AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY COMPANIES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Simkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose this study of is to consider the problems to ensure the efficiency of of automobile industry enterprise, to identify measures and areas of improvement and optimization of freight trucking companies and to prove the methods and ways to optimize cargo transportation process, which will give the opportunity to influence the technical level of the new technology and production as a whole. Methods: Monitoring and researching problems ensure, trucking companies, classification and description of components improve the management and optimization of transportation that will enable to transport enterprises to influence the design of the transportation process efficiency, reduce transportation costs and production as a whole. Correlation-regression analysis of the effectiveness determining rational route of vehicles that can improve the technical and operational performance of the rolling stock, increase productivity and reduce the cost of cars of cargo. Results: identified areas to ensure the efficiency of transportation companies automotive industry through the development and adoption of decisions on optimization of freight trucking companies through the development of rational route of vehicle design proposals from warehouse management (number vehicle fleet, improvement of dispatching service and optimization of organizational structure . Discussion: identifying areas of improvement of transport enterprises automotive industry due to the need to increase the volume of freight traffic, increase usage of rolling stock, saving material and energy resources, reduce labor costs. Decision-making to improve the management and optimization of freight is an important topic for future research, which will create an opportunity for the company to influence the technical level of the new technology and production as a whole.

  1. Biogas and biohydrogen production potential of high strength automobile industry wastewater during anaerobic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Mini; Winter, Josef

    2013-10-15

    High strength automobile industry wastewater, collected from decanters (DECA) of the pre-treatment plant after oil, grease and sludge separation, was investigated for production of methane in the absence and presence of glucose or excess aerobic sludge (AS) from a lab scale suspension reactor as co-substrates. The highest methane production from DECA wastewater was 335.4 L CH4/kg CODsoluble removal which decreased in the presence of the co-substrates to 232.5 (with 2 g/L glucose) and to 179 (with 40% AS) L CH4/kg CODsoluble removal, respectively. Around 95% of total methane was produced within 5 days of incubation of DECA at 37 °C when no co-substrate was added. Addition of co-substrates did not improve biodegradation of DECA but overall methane production from DECA + co-substrates was increased due to co-substrate biodegradation. The anaerobic inoculum, capable of producing 2.4 mol of hydrogen/mol of glucose under zinc induced inhibitory conditions, was unable to produce hydrogen from DECA as substrate under the same conditions. PMID:23831674

  2. Considerations regarding tax optimization in implanted multinational enterprises through external growth for the automobile industry in Central Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitu Antonie Renata

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The business strategy of multinational enterprises (MNEs from the automobile industry implanted in Central-Eastern European (CEE countries (Poland, Czech Republic and Romania is an offensive one, global from operational perspective. Mainly it aims the extension of market share through horizontal growth, generally external type single-domain (Mergers and Acquisitions and internal type (Greenfield investments in a lower degree. These enterprises put in practice also a defending strategy for the owned market shares through increasing the efficiency of the production network at global level. This paper aims to present the less evident aspects of tax optimization of the applied business strategy by implemented MNEs in the automobile industry in CEE, and in this context, the necessity to establish transfer prices in accordance with the OECD recommendations, as an obligation assessed by the tax legislations of the considered countries, but also from the necessity of efficient run of these enterprises.

  3. L'industrie automobile à l'épreuve des voitures électriques : entre changement et continuité

    OpenAIRE

    Villareal, Axel

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims to generate knowledge upon change within contemporary industries and apply tools from political science to the analysis of the economy. Through the case study of the electric car market, the focus is on the causes of the transformation of the automobile industry. The central claim made is that the social construction of the electric car market between 2008 and 2013, did not produce the “Revolution” announced by the actors involved in this industry. On the contrary, it has fac...

  4. Making performance plants from branch plants? In situ restructuring in the automobile industry in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, A

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a critical examination is made of the alleged change in the branch-plant economy. It is claimed that a new type of branch plant is emerging, with more progressive implications for local economic development. This argument is reviewed with reference to in situ restructuring in existing brownfield plants in the automobile industry. Empirical evidence is examined from 'Motor Co.' and 'Car Co.' (pseudonyms) in Riverside, across several dimensions of change: role and autonomy; labour...

  5. Considerations regarding tax optimization in implanted multinational enterprises through external growth for the automobile industry in Central Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Nitu Antonie Renata; Feder Emoke Szidonia

    2008-01-01

    The business strategy of multinational enterprises (MNEs) from the automobile industry implanted in Central-Eastern European (CEE) countries (Poland, Czech Republic and Romania) is an offensive one, global from operational perspective. Mainly it aims the extension of market share through horizontal growth, generally external type single-domain (Mergers and Acquisitions) and internal type (Greenfield investments) in a lower degree. These enterprises put in practice also a defending strategy fo...

  6. Simulation of press-forming for automobile part using ultra high tension steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ultra high tension steel has gradually been used in the automobile industry. The development of press-forming technology is now essential by reason of its high productivity and high product quality. In this study, tensile tests were performed with a view to understanding the material properties. Press-forming tests were then carried out with regard to the behaviors of spring back and deep-drawability, and manufacturing a real product. The ultra high tension steel used in the experiments had a thickness of 1 mm and a tensile strength of 1000 MPa. Finally, simulations of spring back, deep-drawability and manufacturing a real product in ultra high tension steel were conducted and evaluated in order to calculate the optimum-press-forming conditions and the optimum shape of the die. FEM with non-linear and dynamic analysis using Euler-Lagrange’s element was used for the simulations. It is concluded from the results that (1 the simulations conformed to the results of the experiments (2 the simulations proved very effective for calculating the optimum press conditions and die shape.

  7. A prospective study of the development of hand eczema in an automobile manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, O

    1992-05-01

    We have not been able to find any prospective study of the risk of developing occupational dermatitis in the car manufacturing industry. To try to define individual predictive risk factors for the development of hand eczema and to determine the prevalence of hand eczema within 1 year in an automobile manufacturing industry, we investigated prospectively 1564 new employees during one year of employment. Only persons with previous atopic dermatitis or hand eczema were restricted to dry and clean workplaces. The employees were personally interviewed and examined before their employment. Written questionnaires were used at 3 and 12 months to obtain information on type of work, exposure, protection and hand dermatitis. All patients developing hand eczema were examined, patch tested and followed to determine the course and consequence of their eczema. The risk turned out to be only 4% on average, but significantly higher in females (6%). Certain sections within the factory such as wet work (canteen/kitchen and cleaning) and work in the paint shop with high exposure to organic solvents carried significantly higher risks. Heavy exposure to mineral oil, a known risk factor, was effectively counteracted by the extensive use of protective gloves to yield a lower than average prevalence in the press and body shop. Individual risk factors for the development of hand eczema were previous hand eczema, atopic dermatitis, but also wool intolerance and hay fever as isolated phenomena. Most cases of hand eczema were mild, of irritant contact type and only 1 employee developed an allergic contact dermatitis due to the working environment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1395598

  8. Development of painting technology using plasma surface technology for automobile parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, C.-K. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: ckjung7818@skku.edu; Bae, I.-S. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.-B. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, J.-H. [Woosin Cryovac Co., Ltd. Uiwang 437-820 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, E.-S. [Woosin Cryovac Co., Ltd. Uiwang 437-820 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.-C. [Plakor Co., Ltd, Seoul 152-050 (Korea, Republic of); Boo, J.-H. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jhboo@chem.skku.ac.kr

    2006-05-26

    One of the major areas in organic coatings for corrosion protection of automobile parts is the surface treatment of polyolefin (Polypropylene (RX-2000)) bumper substrates. In order to develop the painting technology, in this work, we directly tried to paint on the plastic bumper substrates without both wet washing process with VOC solvents and phosphate primer spray process. Microwave (MW) plasma treatment represents an efficient, clean and economic alternative to activate polymeric surfaces. O{sub 2} plasma treatment at room temperature within 300 s in the power range of 300-1000 W were used to elevate hydrophilic property of the polyolefin surfaces, resulting in distinctive change of wettability and adhesion between painting layer and polymeric bumper substrates. The treated surfaces have been analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Wettability and adhesion properties were elevated by the measurement of the contact angle, adhesion test, impact test, cold resistant impact test and water resistant impact test. We confirmed that the O{sub 2} plasma treatment was a very reliable method for the synthesis of polyolefin substrates with high wettability and adhesion performance.

  9. The Role of Technical Innovation and Sustainability on Energy Consumption: A Case Study on the Taiwanese Automobile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wu Chou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global warming and climate change is one of the most critical challenges of the 21st century. The greenhouse effect caused by technological development and industrial pollution has accelerated the speed of global warming. The continuous improvement in automobile energy consumption is one of the most effective ways to reduce global warming. A comparative analysis is proposed to examine the various automobiles that utilize technological innovation to improve their energy consumption. Their contribution to CO2 emissions is then investigated. This study focuses on technical innovation and output power of a conventional engine. The results indicate that innovative engines (such as the Ford turbo petrol/diesel engine, the EcoBoost/TDCi have improved energy consumption and reduce CO2 emissions. In addition, the Toyota hybrid vehicles have also improved energy consumption and reduced greenhouse gases emissions.

  10. Study of the Fatigue Life and Weight Optimization of an Automobile Aluminium Alloy Part under Random Road Excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Saoudi, A.; Bouazara, M.; Marceau, D.

    2010-01-01

    Weight optimization of aluminium alloy automobile parts reduces their weight while maintaining their natural frequency away from the frequency range of the power spectral density (PSD) that describes the roadway profile. We present our algorithm developed to optimize the weight of an aluminium alloy sample relative to its fatigue life. This new method reduces calculation time; It takes into account the multipoint excitation signal shifted in time, giving a tangle of the constraint signals of ...

  11. The 'Overly-Broad' Selden Patent, Henry Ford and Development in the Early US Automobile Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D

    2016-01-01

    A current policy concern is that the alleged uncertainty over the enforceability of “overly-broad” patents of “dubious validity” may retard innovation. We take the Selden patent on the automobile as a classic of this type of patent. We review the evidence of commercial development during its term...... would not support the broad construction of those claims. Ford’s and the Ford Motor Co.’s confidence in their understanding was powerfully illustrated by their Company’s public offer to indemnify purchasers of Ford automobiles against the threatened suits for infringement under the Selden patent. This...

  12. Estimating the Price Overcharge from Cartelisation of the Irish Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mariuzzo, Franco; Walsh, Patrick Paul; van Parys, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Price coordination can be very harmful for consumers. Yet, even if a cartel is proved to exist, and successful in enforcement, how do we estimate damages or price overcharges to consumers? We build a structural model of the Irish automobile market that avails of a crosssection of new cars and jointly estimate demand and cost primitives. We use these estimates to quantify the role that price coordination could play in terms of pricing, profits and burden of taxation in three alternative regime...

  13. How Does Outsourcing Affect Performance Dynamics? Evidence from the Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Novak; Scott Stern

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of vertical integration on the dynamics of performance over the automobile product development lifecycle. Building on recent work in organizational economics and strategy, we evaluate the relationship between vertical integration and different performance margins. Outsourcing facilitates access to cutting-edge technology and the use of high-powered performance contracts. Vertical integration allows firms to adapt to unforeseen contingencies and customer feedback...

  14. Selection and Evaluation on Automobile Components and Parts Vendors%汽车行业零部件供应商的选择与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰

    2012-01-01

    Automobile industry plays a very important role in the economic development of a country. The purchase of auto-mobile components and parts is a core issue in the car manufacturing supply chain. The selection and evaluation suppliers are the foundation of supply chain management. Using AHP and matlab software in data processing, analysis many key factors, and setting up a index system, a program of vendors selection and evaluation is proposed.%汽车制造业对整个经济的发展起着一个至关重要的作用,而零部件采购是汽车制造业供应链管理的重要环节,供应商的选择是供应链管理的基础。通过对诸多影响供应商的关键性因素进行全面分析、并建立指标体系,运用AHP和matlab软件对数据处理,对供应商进行一个选择、评价过程,为整车企业选择供应商提供一个方法、依据。

  15. High temperature ceramics for automobile gas turbines. Part 2: Development of ceramic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, P.; Koehler, M.; Rottenkolber, P.

    1978-01-01

    The development of ceramic components for automobile gas turbine engines is described with attention given to the steady and unsteady thermal conditions the ceramics will experience, and their anti-corrosion and strain-resistant properties. The ceramics considered for use in the automobile turbines include hot-pressed Si3N4, reaction-sintered, isostatically pressed Si3N4, hot-pressed SiC, reaction-bonded SiC, and glass ceramics. Attention is given to the stress analysis of ceramic structures and the state of the art of ceramic structural technology is reviewed, emphasizing the use of ceramics for combustion chambers and ceramic shrouded turbomachinery (a fully ceramic impeller).

  16. The automobile in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Lone, Stewart; Madeley, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Lone: The 1920s saw the emergence in Kansai of modern industrial urban living with the development of the underground, air services; wireless telephones, super express trains etc. Automobiles dominated major streets from the early 1920s in the new Age of Speed. Using Kyoto city as an example, the article covers automobile advertising, procedures for taxis, buses and cars and traffic safety and regulation. Madeley: Nissan Motor Company had a longer connection with the British industry than any...

  17. Aspects économiques de l'industrie automobile dans le monde Economic Aspects of the Auto-Motive Industry in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valais M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude décrit les caractéristiques et les implications économiques les plus importantes de l'industrie automobile dans le monde. Après avoir situé l'importance des grands pays constructeurs mondiaux par leurs productions, leurs parcs et leurs échanges, la situation de la France est étudiée plus particulièrement. Cette analyse plus fine montre la structure et aussi les relations de l'industrie automobile française avec son marché, ses concurrents extérieurs, l'économie nationale tout entière et celle de ses utilisateurs. This survey covers the most important features and economic implications of the automotive industry in the world. After situating the positions of the leading worldwide manufacturers with regard to their output, the number of their vehicles in use and their foreign trade, special attention is paid to the situation of France. This closer analysis shows the structure of the automotive industry as well as its relations with its market, its foreign markets, the national economy as a whole and that of its users.

  18. Role of Multinational Corporations in Automobile Industries: A Comparative Study Between India and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Babu Kumaran

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Role of Multinational Corporations ( MNC’s in developing countries is not new in the arena of International business and global macroeconomics. One of the most significant economic developments of recent decades is the economic LPG process (Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation is reflected in the rapid growth in international trade and the surge in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. This process is to a large extent driven by new investments from multinational corporations. A rapidly growing share of MNC’s in India and Mexico in last decade was evident in various sector and in particular to automobile sector. Multinational Corporations are seeking to exploit the vast but also precarious market potentials in these emerging economies. Simultaneously, India and Mexico are increasingly embarking on economic development strategies aimed at attracting MNC’s Foreign Direct Investment as a means to access technology, capital, organizational and marketing know how, etc. This study does comparative analyses on the performance of automobile sector in India and Mexico, mainly in passenger car and Utility vehicles sector. It examines the impact and the role of MNC’s in these economies since 1990’s, with derived empirical quantitative and qualitative data analysis that would illustrate and reinforce some of the contemporary status.

  19. Gas prices and fuel efficiency in the U.S. automobile industry: Policy implications of endogenous product choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramlich, Jacob Pleune

    I develop, estimate, and utilize an economic model of the U.S. automobile industry. I do so to address policy questions concerning automotive fuel efficiency (the relationship between gasoline used and distance traveled). Fuel efficiency has played a prominent role in our domestic energy policy for over 30 years. Recently it has received even more attention due to rising gas prices and concern over the environment and energy dependence. The model gives quantitative predictions for market fuel efficiency at various gas prices and taxes. The model makes contributions that are both methodological and policy based, and the two chapters of the dissertation focus on each in turn. The first chapter discusses the economic model of the U.S. automobile industry. The model allows firms to choose the fuel efficiency of their new vehicles, which allows me to predict fuel efficiency responses to policy and market conditions. These predictions were not possible with previous economic models which held fuel efficiency fixed. In the model, consumers care more about fuel efficiency when gas prices are high, and firms face a technological tradeoff between providing fuel efficiency and other quality. The level of the gas price, therefore, working through consumer demand, shifts firms' optimal locations along this technology frontier. Demand is nested logit, supply is differentiated products oligopoly, and data are from the U.S. automobile market from 1971-2007. In addition to endogenizing product choice, I also contribute to the modeling literature by relaxing restrictive identifying assumptions and obtaining more realistic estimates of fuel efficiency preference. The model predicts sales declines and compositions from the summer of 2008 with reasonable success. The second chapter discusses two counterfactual policy scenarios: maintained summer 2008 gas prices, and achieving 35 mpg (miles per gallon). At 3.43 per gallon (the summer 2008 price, 23% above 2007), the model predicts

  20. The Linguistic Features of English Automobile Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐

    2014-01-01

    Household cars are largely demanded today, stimulating the economic development throughout the automobile industry. To enlarge market, all automobile producers pay great efforts to advertisements which result in a large quantity of automobile advertisements. Due to the rare analysis on the linguistic features of automobile advertisements, this essay makes a specific study on this. Analysis will be done through the perspectives of the lexical level, the syntactic level and the rhetoric level. Hence, valid references could be offered to future automobile advertisers.

  1. Financial Statement as a Veritable Source of Strategic Information in Automobile and Tyre Industries in Nigeria (R T Briscoe Nigeria Plc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Josiah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is derives from the concern of the users of financial statements in ability to understand, interpret and appreciate the importance of information provided in the statement as a basis for decision making and policy formulation. Due to this reason, they cannot make the best use of the information provided. This is exactly what led to this research study. This study was carried out to provide an insight into accounting information provided in the financial statements which is capable of satisfying the interest of all those who have dealings with R. T. Briscoe Nig. Plc in whatever capacity and it also tries to throw light on how to make use of accounting ratio in the evaluation of the performance automobile and tyre industries. The study also carried out an evaluation of the performance of the Automobile and tyre industries in a more relative term using accounting ratios as indicators. A thorough investigation was conducted into the efficiency performance in key areas such as liquidity, profitability, activity, and leverage ratios. The ratios computed were analyzed. After the analysis was made, the findings showed that the performance of the Automobile and tyre industries in the key areas mentioned above are well above average and that it compared favourably over the years for which the ratios were computed. The researcher however wish to stress the need for the Automobile and tyre industries to sustain, consolidate and improve on some of its profitability ratios and improving its liquidity ratio.

  2. Micro-electronics, employment and labour in the North American automobile industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen BT

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper based on a survey assessing the impact of computerization on employment in the motor vehicle industry in Canada and USA - outlines the positive effect of numerical control, industrial robots and flexible automation on quality standards and labour costs; forecasts increasing application of industrial robots to 1990; stresses role of trade unions in providing retraining and income security programmes for industrial workers hit by redundancy. Bibliography, statisti...

  3. Employment impact of micro-electronic new technologies on the Italian automobile industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva F; Ferri P; Enrietti A

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the impact of microelectronics technological change on employment in the motor vehicle industry of Italy - discusses industrial structure and trends; based on case studies of Fiat and Alfa Romeo, examines effects of industrial robots, numerical control machine tools and changes in work organization on redundancy and unemployment of skilled workers. References, statistical tables.

  4. Automatic guided vehicle contributing to physical distribution of automobile parts; Butsuryu no jidoka ni kokensuru jidosha buhin mujin hanso system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, E. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-30

    This paper presents one example of the unmanned carrying systems using the small automatic guided vehicles (AGV) recently delivered by Meidensha Corp. This system carries hand trucks or buckets loaded with such small parts for automobile engines as sensor and connector by the AGVs. The following abilities were required in adoption of this system: (1) Indication of destinations to several AGVs coming from different lines, and monitoring of traveling conditions of every AGV, (2) The optimum traveling/waiting control between AGVs at crossings, and (3) Hand truck carrying in consideration of an importance of safety. This system allows integrated control of ten and several AGVs using the AGV control board through the stationary radio control station and radio equipment on AGVs. In addition, this system allows indicating communication of destinations to AGVs, and realtime control of AGV traveling conditions. Waiting control of entrance/exit by intercommunication between AGVs is also possible. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. A sustentabilidade na indústria automobilística: vantagem competitiva ou um sonho distante? Sustainability in automotive industry: competitive advantage or a distant dream?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Carvalho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.5902/198346597741A introdução de aspectos relativos à sustentabilidade nos negócios faz parte do cenário empresarial nos mais diversos setores. Para a indústria automobilística, não é diferente; ao contrário, as discussões podem ser ainda mais intensas por se tratar de um setor de grande importância econômica e com impactos sociais e ambientais consideráveis. Este estudo tem por objetivo identificar como as questões relacionadas à sustentabilidade podem influenciar a decisão dos consumidores da indústria automobilística no Brasil, tendo como amostra consumidores residentes na cidade de São Paulo, a maior cidade do país. A pesquisa empírica, do tipo survey, compreendeu uma amostra de 184 consumidores da cidade de São Paulo, que responderam a um questionário enviado eletronicamente. Os resultados apontam para evidências ainda pouco expressivas em termos de influência de aspectos de sustentabilidade na percepção dos consumidores, em detrimento de fatores de ordem econômica, o que pode comprometer possíveis estratégias voltadas à sustentabilidade por parte das empresas do setor. The introduction of sustainability aspects in business has been a part of the current scenario in any industry. For automotive sector this is no different; on the contrary, discussions can be even more intense because it is a sector of great importance, regarding economic, social and environmental impacts. This study aims to identify how sustainability issues can influence Brazilian customers’ decision related to automotive industry, through a sample of consumers located in the city of São Paulo, the largest one in the country. The empirical research is of survey type and gathered a sample of 184 consumers, who answered a questionnaire sent electronically. The outcomes point out to the little significant scores in terms of the influence of sustainability aspects in the perception of consumers – rather than of economic factors

  6. R and D Spillovers Across the Supply Chain: Evidence from the Indian Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Madhuri Saripalle

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to capture the impact of vertical and horizontal R and D spillovers across the supply chain. Empirical studies have captured vertical spillovers while finding the role of horizontal spillovers in R and D to be negligible, as the pool of accessible knowledge is the same for a cross section of firms within an industry. However, from a supply chain perspective, though firms may be suppliers to an industry, they belong to different industries themselves; and different tiers of...

  7. Application of an ion imprinted polymer for development of cadmium biological monitoring in an automobile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Panjali; Ali Akbar Asgharinezhad; Homeira Ebrahimzadeh; Mehdi Rezvani; Rasoul Yarahmadi; Seyed Jamaleddin Shahtaheri

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Exposure to heavy metals always causes serious health problems in people working in the industry. Heavy metals may interfere with enzyme functioning or accumulate in specific body organs, leading to various health problems. Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal widely used in various industries and, therefore, workers in metal industries are at risk of exposure to it.   Materials and Methods: A solid-phase sorbent was synthesized and factors influencing its sorption and elution s...

  8. Northeast:Automobile Feast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet

    2008-01-01

    @@ The northeast has a lot of firsts in the history of China's industrial development,including the first automobile factory-FAW.Due to the system problem and many other complicated factors,quite a number of the northeastern industry enterprises are out of date during the China's economic transition period.

  9. Estimating the changes in the distribution of energy efficiency in the U.S. automobile assembly industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the EPA's voluntary ENERGY STAR program and the results of the automobile manufacturing industry's efforts to advance energy management as measured by the updated ENERGY STAR Energy Performance Indicator (EPI). A stochastic single-factor input frontier estimation using the gamma error distribution is applied to separately estimate the distribution of the electricity and fossil fuel efficiency of assembly plants using data from 2003 to 2005 and then compared to model results from a prior analysis conducted for the 1997–2000 time period. This comparison provides an assessment of how the industry has changed over time. The frontier analysis shows a modest improvement (reduction) in “best practice” for electricity use and a larger one for fossil fuels. This is accompanied by a large reduction in the variance of fossil fuel efficiency distribution. The results provide evidence of a shift in the frontier, in addition to some “catching up” of poor performing plants over time. - Highlights: • A non-public dataset of U.S. auto manufacturing plants is compiled. • A stochastic frontier with a gamma distribution is applied to plant level data. • Electricity and fuel use are modeled separately. • Comparison to prior analysis reveals a shift in the frontier and “catching up”. • Results are used by ENERGY STAR to award energy efficiency plant certifications

  10. MUTATIONS OF AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE WORLD CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Alexandru RĂDUŢEANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global technical harmonization is considered a driver of international competitiveness of the European automotive industry, with improving global competitiveness of European industry and creating automotive jobs in terms of environmental protection and road safety. The global economic crisis, the European Union had to take some measures to protect the automotive sector, using the investment in innovative technologies to facilitate consumer credit, and financial incentives for people who choose to sell old car and buy a new one. Referring to the importance of the issues examined in Europe today, automotive industry become very substantial, competition is fierce and the pace of change is emphasized. Thus, we have presented in this paper the general characteristics of the motor car industry in Europe and how it was influenced by the global crisis, and then to review the evolution of this sector in Romania and how they are feeling the crisis.

  11. Integration with the global economy. The case of Turkish automobile and consumer electronics industries

    OpenAIRE

    Erol TAYMAZ; Yilmaz, Kamil

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the extensive study of the World Bank Commission on Growth and Development by a case study of the Turkish automotive and the consumer electronics industries. Despite a macroeconomic environment that inhibits investment and growth, both industries have achieved remarkable output and productivity growth since the early 1990s and played a critical role in generating employment and fostering growth. Although there are similarities between the performances of autom...

  12. Employment effect of micro-electronic equipment in the Brazilian automobile industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Tauile JR

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the effect of microelectronics technological change on employment and work organization in the Brazilian motor vehicle industry - discusses production, employment and export trends, labour costs, and the extent and pattern of industrial robot and numerical control use; notes that unemployment due to economic recession was much greater than that due to new technology. References and statistical tables.

  13. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  14. Let the World to Share the Development Result of China Automobile Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhen

    2006-01-01

    @@ On the occasion of the departing of "2006 China International (Syria) Auto Exhibition Tour",which is organized by China Machinery Industry Federation and co-organized by the relevant department of CCPIT, on behalf of the organized party, I would like to express my congratulations to this Exhibition Tour.

  15. Analysis of VOCs Emission Reduction Routes in Automobile Painting Industry%汽车涂装行业VOCs减排途径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任勇; 贾黎

    2015-01-01

    China has made clear requirements for volatile organic compounds ( VOCs) emission reduction. Automobile painting industry discharges a large amount of VOCs to the atmosphere every year in China. We could reduce VOCs emission from the automobile painting industry by using environmentally friendly paint, improving production technology, and optimizing exhaust treatment technologies.%目前,我国已经明确了VOCs减排要求。汽车涂装行业每年向大气中排放大量VOCs,需大力削减VOCs排放水平。结合汽车喷涂VOCs产生环节及特征,建议该行业从使用环保涂料、提高工艺水平、优化喷涂废气治理技术等三方面着手,实现VOCs减排。

  16. Supply chain in brazilian automobile industry: production organization, performance and innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Sacomano Neto; Silvio Roberto Ignacio Pires

    2007-01-01

    This Paper presents the main results of a recent research on Supply Chain Management within the Brazilian Automotive Industry. The research aimed to study how the different forms of configuration of the Automaker’s Supply Chain influence the organization forms of production, the performance measures and the innovations in the Supply Chain Management. The research involves an automaker, two first tier suppliers and two second tier suppliers and it has been conducted through interviews with exe...

  17. Development of Hot Dip Galvanized Steel Strip and Its Application in Automobile Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Jun; ZHU Yun; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2006-01-01

    Hot dip galvanized product is widely used in architecture, household electric appliance, ship vehicle, vessel, mechano-electronic device and other fields including clothing, food, housing, and travel. The history, development, market need, and technological advancement of hot dip galvanized strip, production situation, and development tendency in China are briefly introduced. The fact that it is necessary to build new and auto galvanized strip line with the development of the iron and steel industry in China.

  18. Rethinking adoption : Information and communications technology interaction processes within the Swedish automobile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hultman, Jens

    2007-01-01

    On different levels and with different strategic importance, business managers face technology decisions every day. These decisions concern not only which technologies to use, but also which ones not to use. Technology is a strategic issue in business in the sense that decisions to reject or adopt a specific type of technology, at either firm or industry level, can in the long run have an impact on the ability to develop and fulfill market needs. The purpose of this thesis is to empirically e...

  19. Knowledge spillover in Indian automobile industry : the process and the coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Uchikawa, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    In India, as the production of passenger cars increased, many local small and medium enterprises (SMEs) entered the parts and components manufacturing sector. The sources of knowledge for large enterprises and SMEs are different. Naturally, spillover effects among large enterprises and between large enterprises and SMEs are different. This paper focuses on knowledge spillover among large enterprises and from large enterprises to SMEs. Subcontractor can absorb relation-specific skills through ...

  20. Mutagenicity of automobile workshop soil leachate and tobacco industry wastewater using the Ames Salmonella fluctuation and the SOS chromotests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunola, Alabi A; Babatunde, Esan E; Chinwe, Duru; Pelumi, Oyedele; Ramatu, Salihu G

    2016-06-01

    Environmental management of industrial solid wastes and wastewater is an important economic and environmental health problem globally. This study evaluated the mutagenic potential of automobile workshop soil-simulated leachate and tobacco wastewater using the SOS chromotest on Escherichia coli PQ37 and the Ames Salmonella fluctuation test on Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 without metabolic activation. Physicochemical parameters of the samples were also analyzed. The result of the Ames test showed mutagenicity of the test samples. However, the TA100 was the more responsive strain for both the simulated leachate and tobacco wastewater in terms of mutagenic index in the absence of metabolic activation. The SOS chromotest results were in agreement with those of the Ames Salmonella fluctuation test. Nevertheless, the E. coli PQ37 system was slightly more sensitive than the Salmonella assay for detecting genotoxins in the tested samples. Iron, cadmium, manganese, copper, nickel, chromium, arsenic, zinc, and lead contents analyzed in the samples were believed to play significant role in the observed mutagenicity in the microbial assays. The results of this study showed that the simulated leachate and tobacco wastewater showed strong indication of a genotoxic risk. Further studies would be required in the analytical field in order to identify and quantify other compounds not analyzed for in this study, some of which could be responsible for the observed genotoxicity. This will be necessary in order to identify the sources of toxicants and thus to take preventive and/or curative measures to limit the toxicity of these types of wastes. PMID:25187319

  1. On the automobile lightweight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; Yi Hongliang; Lu Hongzhou; Wan Xinming

    2012-01-01

    The significance, description parameters, evaluation method, implement way and design for lightweight of au- tomobile are comprehensively reviewed. The relationship among the performances of auto parts & components, the prop- erties of materials and application of advanced technologies is also elaborated. According to recently related progress of lightweight and authors' research and developing work, lightweight of automobile is comprehensively and systematically overviewed.

  2. Nonpolluting automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoolboom, G.J.; Szabados, B. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-11-01

    The advantages/disadvantages of energy storage devices, which can provide nonpolluting automobile systems are discussed. Four types of storage devices are identified: electrochemical (batteries); hydrogen; electromechanical (flywheels); and molten salt heat storage. A high-speed flywheel with a small permanent magnet motor/generator has more advantages than any of the other systems and might become a real competitor to the internal combustion engine. A flywheel/motor/generator system for automobiles now becomes practical, because of the technological advances in materials, bearings and solid state control circuits. The motor of choice is the squirrel cage induction motor, specially designed for automobile applications. The preferred controller for the induction motor is a forced commutated cycloconverter, which transforms a variable voltage/variable frequency source into a controlled variable-voltage/variable-frequency supply. A modulation strategy of the cycloconverter elements is selected to maintain a unity input displacement factor (power factor) under all conditions of loads voltages and frequencies. The system is similar to that of the existing automobile, if only one motor is used: master controller-controller-motor-gears (fixed)-differential-wheels. In the case of two motors, the mechanical differential is replaced by an electric one: master controller-controller-motor-gears (fixed)-wheel. A four-wheel drive vehicle is obtained when four motors with their own controllers are used. 24 refs.

  3. Estudo de caso de um condomínio industrial na indústria automobilística: caso GM Gravataí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Guarnieri

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O segmento automobilístico é considerado um dos mais representativos no setor industrial, por representar grande fonte de empregos e renda, além de ser o precursor de diversos conceitos/técnicas gerenciais e inovações tecnológicas. No entanto, as indústrias automobilísticas sofrem constantes pressões do mercado, dentre as quais: a redução de custos, a melhoria nos processos de qualidade e de atendimento, a redução dos ciclos de vida dos produtos, o atendimento de novos mercados e mais recentemente a busca incessante pelo sucesso do gerenciamento de sua cadeia de suprimentos. O principal objetivo do presente artigo é apresentar a evolução dos conceitos desenvolvidos na indústria automobilística, até o modelo inovador do condomínio industrial administrado no contexto do GCS. Para isso construiu-se um referencial teórico e apresentaram-se as práticas de uma das maiores montadoras de veículos estabelecida no Brasil, mais especificamente em Gravataí-RS. Trata-se da GMB – General Motors do Brasil, que é considerada modelo mundial na implementação do modelo de condomínio industrial. Através da iniciativa desta empresa, percebe-se que o conceito de GCS é perfeitamente aplicável, pois, no final do processo, todos os componentes da cadeia são beneficiados, o que se reflete na redução de seus custos e no crescimento conjunto da montadora e de seus fornecedores.

  4. 基于C/S模式的汽车(零部件)营销MIS的开发%Development of a Marketing MIS for Automobiles/Automobile Parts Based on Client/Server Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国方; 王宇宁; 张能立

    2001-01-01

    结合现代管理信息系统理论、计算机建模技术、信息管理技术以及我国汽车(零部件)营销的业务管理实务,提出了一种基于C/S模式的汽车(零部件)营销MIS模型,为解决汽车(零部件)企业中存在的信息传递滞后、信息提取方式原始、信息入口重复导致信息不一致以及由此产生的市场预测不准确、市场反应速度慢等问题提供了一种可行的低成本解决方案,并基于此模型成功地为某汽车企业销售公司开发出企业级MIS,使该企业的信息流能实时监控物流、资金流,并促进了企业组织流与商流的再造与重组,节省了企业的非生产性经营成本,提高了对市场把握的准确性,为企业创造了良好的经济效益。%A marketing MIS(Management Information System) based on client/server is developed for automobiles/automobile parts by using the theory of MIS, computer modeling technology, information management technology and marketing practice in China. This system consists of 11 subsystems: plan and order, physical distribution, finance management and risk control, the expenditure squaring of quality warrant and its supervision, the dynamic supervision of product quality, the sales of the parts, market forecasting, market decision-making , the interior management of enterprises.   This marketing MIS is successfully applied in a large automobile company. The material flow and the finance flow are monitored and controlled constantly through the information flow, the marketing business and the commercial flow are improved, and the cost of non-production is reduced.

  5. The the presentation of the model and primary index for identification and measuring the effective factors on customer satisfaction and loyalty in the automobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Dehghani Samani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of the customer satisfaction always been a scientific and practical major issue in the marketing because of it’s the cause of loyalty. This study aimed to identifying factors that influence the customer satisfaction in the automobile industry and eventually provided a model. Therefore, after reading the relevant literature, the variables were determined and 11 hypothesis assigned. For data gathering used a questionnaire which completed by the staff of the Central Bank. Data analyzed with the technique of structural equation modeling and used the LISREL and SPSS software. The results showed that the index and model for measuring customer satisfaction in the automotive industry, is appropriate. Factors affecting customer satisfaction can be expressed this way: quality, expectations, perceived value, image But service had no effect on satisfaction. In addition, satisfaction, was a factor that had the most influence on customer loyalty.

  6. Analysis of application of various materials for manufacturing parts of motor car bodies in automobile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Гаврилова, Вікторія Григорівна; Помазков, Михайло Валерійович; Караваєва, Наталія Євгенівна

    2016-01-01

    The work presents an analysis of applying various steels for manufacturing motor-car bodies. There is a brief description of cold-rolled sheet steels RRST 1405 produced according to the standards DIN 1623 and DIN 1541; UST 1203, UST 1303 according to DIN 1624 and DIN 1606; ST 4, 08MnSiAlTi, 07MnNbAl and also a classification and a brief description of steels made according to USLAB: IF-steel with increased formability, thermo-strengthened BH-steel, dual phase (DP) steels, transformation induc...

  7. Automobile Driving and Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Novaco, Raymond W.

    1991-01-01

    Automobile driving and aggressive behavior have had an extensive association. Themes of dominance and territoriality have long been part of automobile driving, which has also involved flagrant assaultive actions. Recent episodes of roadway violence in metropolitan areas have raised community concern about aggressive behavior in driving, although common beliefs about why such violence occurs can be seen as pseudoexplanations. Various themes in the psychology of aggression are presented as they...

  8. 我国天然气汽车产业发展现状与对策%Current Situation of China's Natural Gas Automobile Industry and its Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剀刈; 李峰

    2011-01-01

    With the policy of Energy saving and emission reduction popularized in the world,the promotion of clean energy automobile has been accelerated in China.Development of natural gas automobile industry is of great importance to our development,the market of natural gas automobile in the future will be very huge both at home and abroad with bright prospects;since China's automobile industry has formed a certain degree of international competitiveness,they would gain more benefits in future's international competition.Although with a late start,the starting point of natural gas automobile industry in China is high and competitive.In order to further promote the development of natural gas automobile industry,targeted,systematic and highly operational policy recommendations have been proposed.%在世界各国采取节能减排行动的形势下,我国加快了清洁能源汽车的推广。发展天然气汽车产业对我国极其重要,未来国内外天然气汽车市场非常庞大,发展前景光明。我国汽车产业已形成了一定的国际竞争力,在未来的国际竞争中将获得更大的利益。虽然我国天然气汽车产业起步晚,但是起点高,有竞争力。为进一步发展天然气汽车产业,探索了发展我国天然气汽车的对策。

  9. SIMULATION AS PART OF INDUSTRIAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Pekarčíková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Article discusses the simulation as an efficient scientific method of problem solving in industrial practice. It creates an overview of the simulation program means used in industrial practice and creates an overview of tools for discrete, continuous, and combined.

  10. Automobile Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2010-01-01

      As the end of 2010 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription for 2011, at a cost of 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site. The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members.    ******   Pour to...

  11. Application of Lean Production System by Chinese Automobile Spare Parts Manufacturers%我国汽车零部件企业的精益生产应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪呈英

    2014-01-01

    简述了精益生产的内涵与我国汽车零部件企业的现状及汽车零部件企业精益生产存在的问题,从精益生产的布局与精益生产的改善两方面构建了汽车零部件企业的精益生产模式。%In this paper, we introduced briefly the connotation of the lean production practice as well as the current status and existing problems of the lean production system of the Chinese automobile spare parts manufacturers, and then established the lean production mode suitable for these enterprises.

  12. Changing Features of the Automobile Industry in Asia:Comparison of Production, Trade and Market Structure in Selected Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Biswajit Nag; Saikat Banerjee; Rittwik Chatterjee

    2007-01-01

    The global automotive industry, increasingly characterized by global mergers and relocation of production centers to emerging developing economies, is in the grips of a global price-war. The industry is subject to imperfect competition which has resulted in too much of everything — too much capacity, too many competitors and too much redundancy and overlap. The industry is concerned with consumer demands for styling, safety, and comfort; and with labor relations and manufacturing efficiency. ...

  13. Making Industry Part of the Climate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL; Cox, Matthew [Georgia Institute of Technology; Cortes, Rodrigo [Georgia Institute of Technology; Deitchman, Benjamin H [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    Improving the energy efficiency of industry is essential for maintaining the viability of domestic manufacturing, especially in a world economy where production is shifting to low-cost, less regulated developing countries. Numerous studies have shown the potential for significant cost-effective energy-savings in U.S. industries, but the realization of this potential is hindered by regulatory, information, workforce, and financial obstacles. This report evaluates seven federal policy options aimed at improving the energy efficiency of industry, grounded in an understanding of industrial decision-making and the barriers to efficiency improvements. Detailed analysis employs the Georgia Institute of Technology's version of the National Energy Modeling System and spreadsheet calculations, generating a series of benefit/cost metrics spanning private and public costs and energy bill savings, as well as air pollution benefits and the social cost of carbon. Two of the policies would address regulatory hurdles (Output-Based Emissions Standards and a federal Energy Portfolio Standard with Combined Heat and Power); three would help to fill information gaps and workforce training needs (the Superior Energy Performance program, Implementation Support Services, and a Small Firm Energy Management program); and two would tackle financial barriers (Tax Lien Financing and Energy-Efficient Industrial Motor Rebates). The social benefit-cost ratios of these policies appear to be highly favorable based on a range of plausible assumptions. Each of the seven policy options has an appropriate federal role, broad applicability across industries, utilizes readily available technologies, and all are administratively feasible.

  14. An Exploratory Study on Implementation of Lean Manufacturing Practices(With Special Reference to Automobile Sector Industry(Yalın İmalat Faaliyetine Yönelik Bir Uygulama (Otomobil Endüstrisi Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Rajesh Kumar MEHTA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At present scenario, Lean Manufacturing has become a world wide phenomenon. It is quite successful in drawing the attention of companies of all sizes. A large number of organizations are following Lean technologies and experiencing vast improvements in quality, production, customer service, and profitability. Lean Manufacturing is a systematic approach to identifying and eliminating waste through continuous improvement. The manufacturing industry in India must also look to leverage its advantages, its large domestic market, good conditions in terms of raw materials and skilled labour, and the quality focus. In India at the state level, there are few companies that are implementing Lean manufacturing techniques. In Dewas city, the industrial town of Madhya Pradesh, some of the automobile companies are vigorously following the Lean manufacturing techniques to eliminate waste and downsize the cost. Hence, all these factors prompted the researchers to analyze and study the implication of Lean Manufacturing Practices in Automobile Industries.

  15. RESEARCH ON PROCESSING OPERATIONS PARTS INDUSTRY LEATHER

    OpenAIRE

    P. Cucu; M. Malcoci

    2012-01-01

    The leather manufacturing a product requires going through several stages in the manufacturing process by which materials are made. Stages of their characteristics involving any number of individual orassociated technological changes and differentiates depending on the particular model used equipment, raw material characteristics. Processing component parts of a leather product, includes any number of different technological transformations. Their purpose is to prepare parts for assembly, fin...

  16. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  17. A Study on Cluster Development of Automobile Industry in Chongqing-Based on Diamond Model%基于钻石模型的重庆市汽车产业集群发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆风

    2011-01-01

    运用波特的"钻石模型",从生产要素.需求条件.相关及支持产业,企业战略、结构和同业竞争,机会,政府等6个方面对重庆市汽车产业集群进行研究;分析重庆市汽车产业现状和存在的问题;最后从政府和企业两个方面提出重庆市汽车产业集群发展的对策,这对我国其它地区汽车产业集群的发展具有一定的指导意义.%Based on Porter' s diamond model, the paper analyzes the automobile industry dusters in Chongqing from six aspects: production factors, demand qualifications, relevant and supporting industries, structure and competition, opportunities and government.The paper studies the current situation and exiting problems of automobile industry in Chongqing,and propeses countermeasures accordingly from government and enterprises' point of view, which might provide reference to the development of automobile industry clusters in other regions,

  18. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  19. INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY AND SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS INNOVATION: A STUDENT DESIGN PROJECT ON MOBILITY IN THE POST-AUTOMOBILE ERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergent field of industrial ecology (IE) has been described as the "science and engineering of sustainability" and the "technological core of sustainability." Some proponents of IE draw on metaphors from systems ecology and suggest that a design revolution is necessary t...

  20. Effect Evaluation of Automobile Manufacturing Industry Lean Logistics in Supply Chain Environment%供应链环境下汽车制造业精益物流效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩澂

    2015-01-01

    从环境、安全、人员、质量、响应和成本六个方面构建了相对完整的供应链环境下汽车制造业精益物流效果评价指标体系,并通过灰色评价与层次分析法相结合对汽车制造业精益物流实施效果进行评价,对促进精益物流的发展具有一定的现实意义。%In this paper, from the aspects of environment, safety, staff, quality, response and cost, we built the automobile manufacturing industry lean logistics effect evaluation index system under the supply chain environment and next, using grey evaluation and AHP, evaluated the effect of the lean logistics of the automobile manufacturing industry.

  1. Wind energy development as a part of Poland's industrial development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoerring, Dagmara; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2003-01-01

    The paper concludes with recommendations on how to make wind energy development a part of the industrial development in Poland by introducing renewable energy support mechanisms to improve the conditions for companies to develop wind technology in Poland....

  2. Automobile Club CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club CERN

    2010-01-01

     L’Assemblée Générale Ordinaire de «L’Automobile Club du CERN» s’est tenue le mercredi 12 janvier 2010. Le Président, J. Pierlot, souhaite la bienvenue aux membres présents, annonce l’agenda et résume les activités et événements du club pour l’année 2009. Le Club compte environ 600 membres, une petite diminution par rapport aux précédentes années dû surtout aux départs anticipés à la retraite. La cotisation reste inchangée : 50 CHF. Notre trésorier, E. Squadrani, présente de façon détaillée la situation du compte d’exploitation pour 2009 ainsi que le bilan de l’Automobile Club. Les comptes sont équilibrés, la situation de la trés...

  3. China's Automobile:Walk into Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The press conference and flag presentation ceremony of the 6th China Auto International fAlgeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour was held on November 3,2008 at China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT),Beijing.An international exhibition automobile team,which is composed of China's independent brands and represents the independent research,development and manufacturing level of Chinese automobile industry,is ready to set out for Africa.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 600 - Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (Applicable to 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. I Appendix I to Part 600—Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (Applicable... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Highway Fuel Economy Driving...

  5. Voice control in automobiles; Sprachbedienung im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, D.; Sitter, W. [Siemens VDO Automotive AG (Germany). Div. Infotainment Solutions; Kaemmerer, B. [Siemens Corporate Technology (Germany). Fachzentrum Professional Speech Processing

    2006-06-15

    Voice control simplifies handling the growing number of assistance, communication and convenience systems in automobiles. Siemens VDO Automotive have used the company's comprehensive know-how in the field of voice and communications machines from other sectors - particularly the telecommunications sector - to develop a voice control system for automobiles. It is distinguished by its intelligent architecture with high performance and extremely user-friendly features. (orig.)

  6. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  7. The automobile share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of a conversion of 120 billions metric tons of fossil carbon per year 1 billion are traffic related. But this amount is growing steadily. The global automobile density is about 10 automobiles per capita. It grows with 1.7% per year, as fast as the population. The number of automobiles doubles in 25 years. In all groups of developed countries the automobile density increased from 5 to 50 automobiles per capita in less than 50 years so far. Where is the fuel for the 1 billion automobiles of the year 2030 or 2050? Can one reduce this number or what chances does one have to reduce the adverse consequences? Whatever the number of motor vehicles will be, man will have the chance to reduce fuel consumption and therefore CO2-emission together with other emissions considerably

  8. Stirling engines for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beremand, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The results of recent and ongoing automobile Stirling engine development efforts are reviewed and technology status and requirements are identified. Key technology needs include those for low cost, high temperature (1300 - 1500 F) metal alloys for heater heads, and reliable long-life, low-leakage shaft seals. Various fuel economy projections for Stirling powered automobiles are reviewed and assessed.

  9. Electric utility strategies and the emerging industry structure - Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric utility industry is our most capital intensive industry by far. Over the past few decades, socioeconomic and technological forces have been quietly revolutionizing the way the industry conducts itself. During the 1980s, these changes have been particularly intense, often catching both regulators and regulated ill-prepared to develop effective and profitable strategies to deal with such change. Much has already been written about these changes: independent power producers, competitive procurement of resources, incentive-based regulation, the benefits of affiliated company structures, mergers and consolidation, customer energy conservation, and marketing strategy development are all currently highly popular article and seminar topics. The author's object in this two-part series is to facilitate development of a decision framework to put these various changes in perspective, to help develop effective strategies through better focused and equipped planning methodologies. Gaining an understanding of the role, strengths and weaknesses of the various players in an industry and the structural constraints in which they operate is a necessary precursor to developing effective operating strategies to deal with change or to manipulate industry forces in your favor. Michael Port's popular five forces model provides a convenient way to develop such an understanding. It provides a way to map the industry forces driving profitability, through a review of the strengths, weaknesses and leverage of: current industry players, suppliers to the industry, customers for the industry's product, new entrants into the market, and substitute products providing equal or better value. Part 1 of this series reviews each of these five forces along some key dimensions to determine their direction of change or influence, and whether this change impacts a utility's competitive position favorably or unfavorably

  10. Electric utility strategies and the emerging industry structure - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motupalli, S.

    1991-11-01

    The electric utility industry is our most capital intensive industry by far. Over the past few decades, socioeconomic and technological forces have been quietly revolutionizing the way the industry conducts itself. During the 1980s, these changes have been particularly intense, often catching both regulators and regulated ill-prepared to develop effective and profitable strategies to deal with such change. Much has already been written about these changes: independent power producers, competitive procurement of resources, incentive-based regulation, the benefits of affiliated company structures, mergers and consolidation, customer energy conservation, and marketing strategy development are all currently highly popular article and seminar topics. The author's object in this two-part series is to facilitate development of a decision framework to put these various changes in perspective, to help develop effective strategies through better focused and equipped planning methodologies. Gaining an understanding of the role, strengths and weaknesses of the various players in an industry and the structural constraints in which they operate is a necessary precursor to developing effective operating strategies to deal with change or to manipulate industry forces in your favor. Michael Port's popular five forces model provides a convenient way to develop such an understanding. It provides a way to map the industry forces driving profitability, through a review of the strengths, weaknesses and leverage of: current industry players, suppliers to the industry, customers for the industry's product, new entrants into the market, and substitute products providing equal or better value. Part 1 of this series reviews each of these five forces along some key dimensions to determine their direction of change or influence, and whether this change impacts a utility's competitive position favorably or unfavorably.

  11. Operation of industrial electrical substations. Part II: practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The practical application of the methodology explained in Part 1 in a Cuban industry is the principal objective of this paper. The calculus of the economical operation of the principal transformers of the industrial plant is shown of the one very easy form, as well as the determination of the equations of the losses when the transformers operate under a given load diagram. It is calculated the state load which will be passed to the operation in parallel. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la aplicacion practica de la metodologia, en una industria cubana, que se explico en la Parte 1. El calculo de la operacion economica de los principales transformadores de la planta industrial se muestra de una forma muy facil, asi como la determinacion de las ecuaciones de las perdidas cuando los transformadores operan bajo un diagrama de carga dado. Se calcula la carga de estado que se pasa a la operacion en paralelo.

  12. Solar Energy Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    HE Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  13. The influence of globalisation on automobile manufacturers in South Africa / Kalanther Ishaq

    OpenAIRE

    Ishaq, Kanther

    2003-01-01

    The South African automobile manufacturing industry has grown since 1920 from an import and assembly industry to an import-substitute industry. From the inception, the automobile manufacturing industry developed under the careful monitoring of the Government to obtain the objectives of the economy of the country. Until 1960, all automobile manufacturers imported completely knocked down sets from abroad to assemble vehicles. These excessive imports drained the South African fore...

  14. Namen in uporaba mednarodne baze podatkov o materialih v avtomobilski industriji: The aim and use of the international material data system in the automobile industry:

    OpenAIRE

    Ačko, Bojan; Sečnjak, Marko

    2005-01-01

    The subject of the presented work is the International Material Data System (IMDS), which is incorporated in automobiles and was developed for the German car manufacturersć associationćs initiative to use it for the management of car manufacture from an environmental viewpoint. The IMDS is based on legislative regulations and the car manufacturers decision to recycle the largest possible number of cars. The database is used for manufacturers of rawmaterials and composites to input information...

  15. Environmental implications of the automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are over 12 million automobiles in Canada, each travelling over 16,000 km annually. The value of motor vehicles and parts produced in Canada accounts for over 6% of the gross domestic product, and vehicle-related sales account for the largest proportion of Canadian retail activity. The environmental issues related to the high impact of the automobile on Canadian life are discussed. In the manufacture of motor vehicles, over 2 billion kg of metal are used a year; although much of this comes from recycled materials, some depletion of nonrenewable resources is required. It is also estimated that 66-105 GJ of energy are needed to produce a motor vehicle, equivalent to as much as 20% of all the energy consumed during the vehicle's lifetime. Environmental impacts result from this use of resources and energy, including land disturbances and air pollution. Land use impacts are also those related to appropriation of urban and rural land for roadway and service uses, plus pollution of adjoining lands by road runoff. In 1990, the transportation sector used 29% of end-use energy, of which retail gasoline sales for motor vehicles accounted for 54%. Environmental impacts from oil refining, fuel combustion, and waste disposal are described, and programs to mitigate these impacts are outlined. Significant reductions in automobile emissions have already occurred from the increased use of emission control devices, improved fuel efficiency, and stricter standards. Further improvements are possible via such means as better manufacturing procedures, increased recycling of automobile components, better inspection and maintenance, and use of alternative fuels and alternate transportation modes. 35 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part II: Economic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; Pascale, A. D.;

    2003-01-01

    existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant which can consist of...... a Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine (Part I). Moreover a Steam Turbine Plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic......The availability of wet biomass as waste from a lot of industrial processes, from agriculture and farms and the need to meet the environmental standards force to investigate all options in order to dispose this waste. The possible treatments usually strongly depend on the biomass characteristics...

  17. The challenges of automobile-dependent urban transport strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental aims of sustainable urban development and the pro-automobile oriented economic development are on a collision course. It is obvious that automobile-dependent urban development is under heavy/powerful influence of the automobile lobby (automobile and oil industries, along with construction. In this domain famous land-use-transportation studies (or ‘grand transportation studies’ are, unfortunately, still prevailing - a vicious circle of self-fulfilling prophecy of congestion, road building, sprawl, congestion and more road building. Until recently, it was commonly thought that investment in public transport was not economically sustainable and that focusing on the development of the automobile industry and financing the construction of roadways stimulated economic growth. In this paper we clearly show that automobile industry is now overcapitalized, less profitable than many other industries (and may become even less profitable in the future, that transport market is characterized with huge distortions (more than a third of motor-vehicle use can be explained by underpriced driving, while new road investment does not have a major impact on economic growth (especially in a region with an already well-developed infrastructure, and that pro-automobile transport strategy inexorably incurs harmful global, regional and local ecological consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  18. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  19. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into..., Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii) Minicompact cars. Interior volume index less than 85... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  20. Study on Green Lean-agile Supply Chain Paradigm of Automobile Industry in Economic Transformation%经济转型背景下汽车产业绿色精敏供应链范式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌义

    2012-01-01

    分析了中国经济第二次转型的特征,揭示了中国汽车产业供应链的发展趋势:供应链向精敏供应链转变,投资驱动供应链模式向价值驱动供应链模式转变,绿色供应链成为发展趋势,指明了中国汽车产业供应链转型的方向,提出了汽车产业供应链转型的范式-绿色精敏供应链范式,以满足消费者的利益和经济可持续发展为目的,以绿色供应链为前提,全方位节能减排;以敏捷供应链为核心,提高市场响应度;集成精益供应链减少消耗、降低成本.%In this paper we analyzed the characteristics of the second transformation of the Chinese economy and revealed the trend of the development of the supply chain of the Chinese automobile industry, which includes turning lean of the industrial supply chain, transformation of the investment-driven supply chain into the value-driven supply chain and the finalization of green supply chain as the direction of future development. Then we pointed out the direction for the transformation of the supply chain of the automobile industry of China, proposed the green lean—agile supply chain paradigm which can realize overall reduction of cost, energy consumption and emissions.

  1. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regarding tort liability. In addition, the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of...

  2. Price Variability in Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph A. Fields; Emilio C. Venezian; David Jou

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the causes of variation in automobile insurance prices are examined within a small and homogenous state. The central hypothesis of interest is the relation between the price of automobile insurance and the quality of the product. The findings here indicate that the market is one which contains substantial frictions, making the search for automobile insurance products a worthwhile activity for consumers.

  3. Study on the Pollution Control of Volatile Organic Waste Gas in Automobile Manufacturing Industry%汽车制造行业挥发性有机废气污染控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华; 田珺; 姚珺; 田涛

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the emission characteristics of volatile organic waste gas, and discusess the treatment measures of volatile organic waste gas, and researches the emission standards of volatile organic waste gas, aiming to provide the reference for volatile organic waste gas pollution control in automobile manufacturing industry.%文章分析了汽车制造行业挥发性有机废气的排放特征,论述了汽车制造行业有机废气治理措施,研究了汽车制造行业有机废气排放标准,为汽车制造行业有机废气污染控制提供一定的借鉴。

  4. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament implementing the Community strategy to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from cars: an environmental agreement with the European automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-29

    The European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) has put forward an agreement with the automotive industry and the Commission to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from passenger cars. This contains a CO{sub 2} emissions objective for the average of new passenger cars sold in the European Union, i.e. 140 g/km, to be achieved by 2008. Not later than 2000, some European manufacturers will begin to sell models emitting 120 g/km CO{sub 2} or less, and an `estimated target range` for the average new car CO{sub 2} emissions is provided for 2003. Recommendations for monitoring, verification of results, and reporting procedures to be incorporated in the legislation. The Commission invites the European Parliament and the Council to submit views on the ACEA commitment and the assessment in this Communication and will defer the adoption of the recommendations until the end of October 1998. 1 app.

  5. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    OpenAIRE

    Ozomata David AHMED

    2011-01-01

    Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, openi...

  6. PROSPECTS OF AUTOMOBILE TIRE RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Gusev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize automobile tires has been indicated. Physical and mechanical indicators have been established and the residual durability of metal cord as a product of tire processing has been evaluated. The comparative analysis with an industrial fiber has been carried out. The most technological and economic directions to be taken in the recycling of rubber scraps in order to do-mestically manufacture tile and of metal cord to manufacture fiber-concrete of various types are suggested for a “floating floor” structure.

  7. Trends in chassis and automobile electronics components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackenberg, Ulrich [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The rapidly-growing importance of electronics in automobile construction is in part determined by the debate on sustainability and the clear trend towards electric power trains. Another factor, however, is the decisive impact of electronics on the further development of components, e.g. for chassis. Apart from environmental protection, key motivators for component development include comfort, safety, infotainment and driver assistance. (orig.)

  8. A Modeling Method of Agent Based on Milk-run in Automobile Parts%基于Agent的汽车零部件循环取货模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈新怀; 盛敏; 丁必荣

    2013-01-01

    Milk-Run,as a new method in supply system management in automobile pasts inbound logistic,can be considered as a kind of complex adaptive system.It is composed of suppliers,3PL,and automobile firm.According to its conceptual model,the agent-based model method has been used.After define the research purpose,the abstract lever of these agents focus on the corporate sector in the milk-run system,such as the product Agent,purchase Agent,schedule Agent etc.First to analysis the internal model of all agents,then to adopt the formalization description method to describe the agent behaviors.At last interactive processing between these agents are been explained in Agent UML.Apparently,the agent-based modeling method has a strong performer on the principle of milk-run system.It will be easy to achieve the simulation about the milk-run based on the agent model.%汽车零部件的循环取货模式作为一种新型物料供应体系,是由供应商、3PL、主机厂多个主体组成,属于复杂适应性系统.根据循环取货的概念模型,采用多Agent建模理论对循环取货进行建模.将目标系统的Agent粒度抽象为企业级以下的职能部门,设计生产Agent、采购Agent、调度Agent等几类主体.分析Agent内部模型,并采用形式化方法对主体行为进行描述,应用Agent UML分析主体之间的动态交互行为.基于Agent的建模描述了循环取货的运行机制,从而为后续的计算机仿真实现提供基础.

  9. 新常态下工业4.0对我国汽车产业转型升级的启示%Revelation of Industrie 4.0 to Transformation and Upgrade of China,s Automobile Industry under New Normal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖俊涛

    2015-01-01

    The connotation and purpose of Industrie 4.0 were expounded, and the major challenge facing the automobile industry development in China was analyzed, and some suggestions on speeding up the transformation and upgrade of the auto industry by referencing Industrie 4.0 were put forward.%阐述了工业4.0的内涵和目的,分析了当前我国汽车产业发展面临的重大挑战,提出了新常态下借鉴工业4.0,加快我国汽车产业转型升级的几点启示。

  10. Measures of Technical Efficiency in Two Sectors: Banks and Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Rapacciuolo Ciro

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate technical efficiency in the automobile and the banking industry, using balance sheet data on businesses in the two sectors: the world leading automobile producers and the top-20 Italian banking groups. The measurement of inefficiency, a strand of literature started by Farrell (1957), is conducted by means of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is one of the existing approaches in this field; Fare, Grosskopf e Lovell (1994) prepared the ground for th...

  11. Statistical machine translation for automobile marketing texts

    OpenAIRE

    Läubli, Samuel; Fishel, Mark; Weibel, Manuela; Volk, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We describe a project on introducing an in-house statistical machine translation system for marketing texts from the automobile industry with the final aim of replacing manual translation with post-editing, based on the translation system. The focus of the paper is the suitability of such texts for SMT; we present experiments in domain adaptation and decompounding that improve the baseline translation systems, the results of which are evaluated using automatic metrics as well as manual evalua...

  12. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59 Protection of Environment... Automobile Refinish Coatings Pt. 59, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59—Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings Coating category Grams VOC per liter...

  13. Analysis of Cost Leading Strategy in the Automobile Industry - From the Perspective of General Motors Overseas Corporation%汽车行业成本领先战略分析--基于通用公司视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜晓燕; 蒋少颜

    2015-01-01

    With the maturity of the automobile market, the decline in the price of the car and the impact of the global economy, the automobile industry has shifted from the era of excessive profit to the era of low profit. En-hancing its competitiveness in the fierce market competition and promoting its development are the concerns of the enterprise. The author analyzes specific financial data about General Motors Overseas Corporation and its industry competitors and points out the need to implement the cost leading strategy. Then, the paper analyzes cost leader-ship strategy from four aspects including the market segmentation and target cost design, the internal cost control, the fixed cost control, and the relatively low cost than that of its competitors. This paper aims to highlight the im-portant role of the cost leadership strategy for the automotive industry, and provides unique insights into the devel-opment of automotive enterprises.%随着汽车市场的成熟、汽车价格的下降、全球经济的影响,汽车行业已从暴利时代转向微利时代。如何在这激烈的市场中提高竞争力、促进企业的发展,是每个企业所关注的问题。本文以整个汽车行业为背景,对美国通用公司、同行业竞争对手具体财务数据进行分析,指出实施成本领先战略的必要性。然后,从市场细分及目标成本设计、内部加强成本控制、注重固定成本控制、确定比竞争对手相对低的成本四个方面具体分析成本领先战略目标。本文旨在突出成本领先战略对汽车行业的重要作用,为汽车企业的发展提供独到的见解。

  14. Gestão de informações de custos para a atividade de importação em uma indústria automobilística Management of cost information for importation in an automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josmária Lima Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os resultados de um estudo de caso desenvolvido em uma indústria automobilística no Brasil. A pesquisa teve como objetivo descrever o sistema de estimação de custos utilizado pela empresa para as atividades de importação de peças, componentes e equipamentos. No setor automobilístico, a atividade de importação é constante e, portanto, requer um processo ágil e preciso, para que as atividades operacionais não sejam comprometidas pela falta de insumos. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de entrevistas não estruturadas, questionários semi-estruturados e análise documental das planilhas utilizadas para a estimação dos custos. Com o estudo foi possível descrever todas as etapas do processo de importação da indústria automobilística e analisar o sistema de estimação de custos utilizado. Este artigo apresenta uma contribuição para a compreensão da atividade de importação e da respectiva estimação de custos em uma empresa de produção automotiva, e revela a complexidade da ação de compra organizacional no mercado internacional. Conclui-se que, apesar da relevância da importação, a empresa não utiliza sistemas formais e depende apenas de planilhas.A case study was made of the cost estimation system used in an automotive company in Brazil for importation of parts, components and equipment for vehicle assembly. Importation is an important and ongoing activity here requiring an agile and effective process to avoid shortages that cripple activity. A description of the importation sequence and an analysis of the system for cost estimation were carried out. Data were obtained by non-structured interviews and questionnaires as well as an analysis of cost estimation spreadsheets. Despite the complexity of organizational purchasing in the international market and the relevance of this activity, the company has no formal systems and depends only on spreadsheets to estimate and control all the costs

  15. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  16. Performance Investigation of Automobile Radiator Operated with ZnFe2O4 Nano Fluid based Coolant

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi Ajay; Chandra H

    2015-01-01

    The cooling system of an Automobile plays an important role in its performance, consists of two main parts, known as radiator and fan. Improving thermal efficiency of engine leads to increase the engine's performance, decline the fuel consumption and decrease the pollution emissions. Water and ethylene glycol as conventional coolants have been widely used in radiators of an automotive industry for many years. These heat transfer fluids offer low thermal conductivity. With the advancement of n...

  17. Mineral Industry in Egypt-Part I: Metallic Mineral Commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Zaher M. Abouzeid; Abdel-Aziz M. Khalid

    2011-01-01

    This The mineral potential in Egypt is quite high. Almost all sorts of industrial minerals such as metallic and non-metallic commodities exist in commercial amounts. However, Egypt imports many of the mineral commodities needed for the local mineral industries. The main reason for this is that the investors, either the governmental or the private sectors, refrain from investing into the mineral industry for prospecting, evaluation, and developing the mining and mineral processing technologies...

  18. The Evolution of University and Industry Research Relationships. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Martha L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a review of the literature on the development of university and industry research cooperation and conflict up to the early 1980's. The founding of both research universities and industrial America, two world wars, the space race, and protest movements provide points of reference for this period. (MVL)

  19. The automobile after tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    This talk discusses the technical options available for automobiles within the next 5 to 10 years. With the objective to reduce consumption and pollution, several alternative approaches are presented and analyzed using simplified but realistic calculations. Main emphasis is laid on CO{sub 2} emission of the complete energy transformation path from the primary energy carrier to the energy dissipated in test cycles. It is shown that no single optimal solution exist but that a trade-off between consumption, pollution and cost must be made for each specific situation. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozomata David AHMED

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, opening of any door will disengage the device and the engine will stop. To restart the engine, the doors must be closed and the codes rendered sequentially-in this case the codes are 1974.

  1. The Relationship Between Cash Flow And Capital Expenditure: Evidence From German Automobile Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Saffarizadeh, Navid

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study investigates the long run equilibrium relationship between cash flow and capital expenditure in German automobile sector as one of the leaders of the automobile industry in the world. Johansen co-integration test confirmed the relationship between cash flow and capital expenditure in the long run. Cash flow has significant and inelastic impact on capital expenditure (-0.963). Error correction model reveals that capital expenditure in German automobile sector conver...

  2. “Separation -A Better Tomorrow-Economy” A Study of Marketing Strategies On Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Ekta Chakravarty

    2013-01-01

    Automobile is one of the largest industries in global market. Being the leader in product and process technologies in the manufacturing sector, it has been recognized as one of the drivers of economic growth. During the last decade, well directed efforts have been made to provide a new look to the automobile policy for realizing the sector's full potential for the economy. Aggressive marketing by the auto finance companies have also played a significant role in boosting automobile demand, esp...

  3. The effects of automobile production and local government expenditure on poverty in alabama

    OpenAIRE

    Sooriyakumar Krishnapillai; Henry Kinnucan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of automobile production on the poverty rate of Alabama's counties. The findings suggest that automobile production in Alabama significantly reduces the poverty rate in all counties. The impact of automobile production on poverty reduction in distressed black belt counties is greater than in other counties. The local government expenditure is not very effective in reducing the poverty. This implies that industrial development may be more effective in reducing pov...

  4. The Research on Integrated Strategy of Supply Chain Information Systems in the Automobile Industry Based on Order-To-Delivery Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Gan, Lianzhen; He, Xuefeng

    The automotive industry there are different degrees of impairment of many companies supply chain IT strategy. In this paper, in which the automotive industry supply chain management business cooperation between enterprises loose, poor exchange of information leading to the presence or delays in product customization, supply of raw materials, material control, production planning and control, sales and service and a fast response propose a series of typical problems of scientific and rational supply chain information integration strategy. The strategy through the development system integration platform, improve internal ERP system, implementation of supply chain management and other methods. Put some protection principles in the information process, to ensure the correct implementation of supply chain IT strategy, and ultimately achieve collaborative business development concept and enhance the automotive industry as a whole level of information.

  5. 产业生态位与种群规模的趋同效应研究*--以中国汽车产业为例%Research on convergence effect of industrial niche and population scale:a case of automobile industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭燕青; 徐菁鸿

    2014-01-01

    采用合项思维理论创新方法,将生态位理论中的资源竞争与种群规模演化理论中的资源丰富程度进行理论衔接,并通过建立生态位宽度模型与种群演化Logistic时滞模型对上述理论衔接从定量的角度进行描述。以中国汽车产业为例,采用中国汽车工业年鉴中的部分数据对上述过程进行验证,探究中国汽车产业生态位的逐年变化与整车产业种群规模的逐年演进之间的关联,发现环境资源稀缺会影响产业种群规模的变化,而且局域种群之间存在着生态位竞争。如果存在生态位竞争的局域种群同属于一个异质种群,那么生态位竞争将对异质种群的规模变化产生影响,两者具有趋同效应。%Innovative method of combined thinking theory is applied to connect the resource competition in niche theory and the resource abundance degree in population scale evolution theory theoretically, which is described from quantitative perspective through establishing niche breadth model and delayed Logistic model of population evolution. Taking automobile industry in China as an example, some data in China Automotive Industry Yearbook are applied to validate the process above; the connection between year-by-year changes of niche and year-by-year evolutions of population scale of whole automobile industry is explored of automobile industry in China. the results show that the scarcity of environmental resource will influence the change of industrial population scale, and niche competition exsits among regional populations. If the regional populations existing niche competition belong to one heterogeneous population, then the niche competition will influence the scale change of heterogeneous population, between which convergence effect exsits.

  6. Analysis of the Industry Spatial Evolution Mechanism and its Determinants from the Perspective of Evolutionary Economic Geography- A Case Study of China's Automobile Industry%演化经济地理学视角下的产业空间演化及其影响因素分析要以中国汽车工业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永凯; 徐伟

    2014-01-01

    本文以演化经济地理学理论作为分析框架,从演化视角探讨产业空间的演化机制及其影响因素,并以中国汽车工业为例进行实证分析。研究结果发现,改革开放前,政府的汽车产业政策对中国汽车工业空间布局具有决定性的影响;改革开放后,虽然中国汽车工业空间布局在不同阶段的影响因素有所差别,但总体上讲,制度因素、外商投资对中国汽车工业空间布局和演化产生显著性影响。未来,随着市场经济完善和汽车工业技术创新能力提升,市场需求和技术创新影响因素将进一步凸显。%Based on the theoretical framework of evolutionary economic geography, this paper investigates the evolving patterns of China’s manufacturing sectors and their underlying mechanism and determinants from an evolutionary perspective, while taking automobile industry as an empirical case. The results show that government policies had determining effects on the spatial distribution of China's automobile industry before the reforms and opening up. However, the determinants such as institutional factors and foreign investment have significant impacts on the evolution of the spatial configuration of China's automobile industry although the determinants vary from time to time. In the future, with the improvement of market economy and innovation capability of automotive industry, market demand and technological innovation will play an increasingly significant role in reshaping the geography of auto industry in China.

  7. Industry Wage Surveys: Banking and Life Insurance, December 1976. Part I--Banking. Part II--Life Insurance. Bulletin 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Carl

    This report presents the results of a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine wages and related benefits in (1) the banking industry and (2) for employees in home offices and regional head offices of life insurance carriers. Part 1 discusses banking industry characteristics and presents data for tellers and selected…

  8. The 26th China Autumn Motorcycle and Parts Fair,the 3rd China [Guangzhou] International Motorcycle Parts Exhibition Opened

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jinzhu; Xu Jianmei

    2006-01-01

    @@ The 26th China Autumn Motorcycle and Parts Fair,the 3rd China (Guangzhou) International Motorcycle Parts Exhibition (CAMPF),organized by China National Automobile Industry Sales Corp.,Guangzhou Baiyun District Government,China Federation of Industry and Commerce Auto & Motorbike Parts Articles for Use Chamber of Commerce,undertook by Guangzhou Baiyun Motorbike Parts Wholesales Market,opened on November 12 in Guangzhou.

  9. Nouveau modèle de planification industrielle et commerciale avec approvisionnement long dans l'industrie automobile : approche par simulation-optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Lâm Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Face to uncertain environment and growing globalization of the supply chains, the salesand operations planning (S&OP) aims to adapt efficiently the industrial capacities to themarket demand. In this research, we present an original S&OP model that uses flexibilityconstraints to improve the coordination between sales and logistics functions. A first simulationmodel is developed to study the system dynamics and the impact of different parameters onsystem’s performance in terms of costs and cust...

  10. Seleção de projetos Seis Sigma: aplicação em uma indústria do setor automobilístico Six Sigma project selection: an application in an automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Machado Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O Seis Sigma vem ganhando, cada vez mais, espaço nas empresas como uma metodologia bastante eficaz à solução de problemas estruturais através da diminuição da variação de processos e fornecimento de produtos e serviços dentro das necessidades dos clientes. A principal forma com que se busca atingir tal objetivo é através do desenvolvimento de projetos de melhorias. Sendo assim, um tema bastante importante a ser discutido é o processo de seleção de tais projetos, que serão gerenciados através desta metodologia. Neste artigo é apresentada uma análise em uma indústria do setor automobilístico, quanto ao seu processo de seleção de projetos Seis Sigma. Deste trabalho foi possível constatar influência positiva do referido processo no desenvolvimento dos projetos, por exemplo, quanto ao tempo médio de desenvolvimento e ganhos financeiros obtidos, o que vem de encontro ao que a literatura tem sinalizado.Six Sigma Methodology has been growing, each day, in the industrial environment as a very efficient tool to solve structural problems through the reduction of process variation and through the supply of service and product in compliance with customer requirements. The main way to achieve this goal is through improvement projects. This way, a very important topic to be discussed is the selection of those projects that will be managed by this methodology. This article presents an application in an automotive industry, regarding its process of Six Sigma project selection. From this study it was possible to prove the existence of a positive influence in the referred process, in project development, for example, regarding the average development time and financial improvements, as the literature reviewed here has shown.

  11. Process Integration Design Methods for Water Conservation and Wastewater Reduction in Industry. Part 3: Experience of Industrial Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Dunn, Russell; Gottrup, Lene;

    2002-01-01

    This paper is Part 3 in a three part series of papers addressing operational techniques for applying mass integration principles to design in industry with special focus on water conservation and wastewater reduction. The presented techniques derive from merging US and Danish experience with...... industrial applications of process integration, as a result of a recently established co-operation between the US companies Solutia Inc., Cleaner Process Technologies Inc., and McSwain Engineering Inc. and the Technical University of Denmark. Parts 1 and 2 covered design techniques for any number of...... experience comprises application in small-scale batch productions in textile dyeing and laundering as well as large scale continuous productions in chemical industry, and it is documented that the methods are robust and independent of the volume and continuity/discontinuity of the production. Industry...

  12. Licenses for industrial radiography and radiation safety requirements for radiographic operation: CPR part 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This part describes the requirements for issuing of licenses for the use of sealed sources containing radioactive material in industrial radiography and radiation safety requirements for persons using such sealed sources in industrial radiography. The provisions and requirements of this part are in addition to, and not in substitution, for other applicable requirements of CPR (Code of PNRI Regulations) Part 2 and other parts of the code. (Author)

  13. Lean and Virginia's wood industry - Part I: Awareness and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Christian F. Fricke; Urs Buehlmann

    2012-01-01

    During the most recent decades the U.S. wood products and furniture manufacturing industries have been greatly affected by economic cycles, rising production and transportation costs, changing buyer habits, and, arguably most powerfully, increasing global competition. However, theories exist stating that the use of management systems, such as Lean, allows companies to be more successful despite operating in a more challenging environment. To assess Virginia’s wood products and furniture manuf...

  14. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  15. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  16. Difference of Euro-American and Japanese Enterprise Cultures and Its Impact on the Development of Regional Enterprise Networks: A Case Study of Automobile Industry%欧美日企业文化差异及其对地方企业网络发展的影响——以汽车产业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜海宁; 谷人旭; 马远军; 朱华友

    2013-01-01

    首先对比分析欧美与日本的企业文化差异,然后以汽车产业为例,探讨其企业文化差异对上海、广东汽车企业网络的影响,结果表明:欧美企业文化强调个人主义、理性主义和平等观念,而日本则强调集体主义、感性主义和等级观念;因企业文化差异,欧美跨国汽车企业与日本跨国汽车企业相比,中国本土企业进入前者组建的企业网络难度与稳定性要弱于后者,而竞争激烈程度要大于后者,且后者在海外组建地方企业网络相对前者更为迅速;尽管后者比前者对地方企业网络的创新作用要强,技术扩散更为频繁,但这仅限其“封闭的供应商网络”范围内,对中国本土企业的技术封锁更加极端.最后提出其存在的问题及相应对策.%With the strategy of exchanging market for technology being put forward,more and more multinational enterprises and enterprise cultures from western developed countries such as America,Europe and Japan were pouring into China.Firstly,this paper made a comparative analysis about the difference of Euro-American and Japanese enterprise cultures.And then taking automobile industry as an example,the impact of the difference of Euro-American and Japanese enterprise cultures on Shanghai automobile enterprise network and Guangdong automobile enterprise network was further analyzed.The results showed that Euro-American enterprise culture stressed the concept of individualism,rationalism and equality,while Japanese enterprise cultures emphasized the concept of collectivism,emotionalism and hierarchy.Because of difference of Euro-American and Japanese enterprise cultures,it was easier for local enterprises to enter the network under the effect of Euro-American automobile multinational corporations than that of Japanese automobile multinational corporations,while the latter faced more intense competition than the former.Besides compared with the Euro-American automobile

  17. Chery Automobile: Chinese Firms catching up

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Yang, Sheng Yun

    2015-01-01

    textabstractChery Automobile Co., Ltd. is one of the few private automobile companies in China. Compared to state automobile companies, it lacks adequate resources and state support; compared to joint-venture brands, it cannot leverage popular and profitable international models. Despite these obstacles, Chery has developed dramatically over the last decade, becoming the top automobile exporter among all automobile companies in China. Strategic alliances served as the foundation of its amazin...

  18. Ambiente informacional e desempenho competitivo na indústria de autopeças para veículos Informational environment and competitive performance in the automobile supply industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Popadiuk

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O atual ambiente competitivo exige que as empresas tomem posturas diferentes em relação ao seu poder de obtenção de vantagem competitiva. A informação é o fator fundamental nesse cenário e, entre o seu input e o seu output, deveria ocorrer uma agregação de valor e ela, decorrente de um conjunto de processos relativos às tomadas de decisões. Neste contexto, com o presente trabalho, objetiva-se estudar o ambiente informacional de 50 empresas da indústria de autopeças para veículos e relacioná-lo com o desempenho competitivo, segundo a abordagem do balanced scorecard. Para tanto, foi aplicado um questionário estruturado fechado em empresas localizadas no Estado de São Paulo. Os resultados revelaram evidências de que as empresas classificadas como tendo um desempenho competitivo mais favorável tenderam a avaliar mais favoravelmente os atributos relativos ao ambiente informacional.The current competitive environment demands different postures from companies aiming at obtaining competitive advantage. In this scenery the information is the fundamental factor and, between its input and its output, should have an aggregation of value to it based on a set of processes related to decision making. From this point, this paper has been developed with the objective to study the informational environment and to verify connections with its competitive performance, according to Balanced Scorecard model. 50 automobile supply industries settled in São Paulo has been sampled and a structured questionnaire has been applied to them. The results has allowed to identify that, for companies where competitive performance were more favorable, the evaluation of the informational environment were quite different from the ones were competitive performance were considered less favorable.

  19. The Essential Foundation for the "Detroit of Asia" and the Approach of the Auto Parts Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchatachat, Tanutporn

    2009-01-01

    The Thai auto parts industry is considered to be, along with the automotive industry, the driving force of the nation’s economy. Dating back to the 1960s, the government has started an initiative to establish Thailand as the “Detroit of Asia”. Foreseeing that the auto parts and automotive industries are two interrelated segments with high value added, various measures and policies are planned by the government to nurture and support the two industries so that they can be internationally compe...

  20. Características estruturais, relacionais e gerenciais na cadeia de suprimentos de um condomínio industrial na indústria automobilística Structural, relational and managerial characteristics in supply chain of a condominium in the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Roberto Ignácio Pires

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, a contribuição da indústria automobilística tem sido muito representativa em termos de inovações na gestão da cadeia de suprimentos, tais como aquelas contempladas nos modelos de consórcio modular e de condomínio industrial. Este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa envolvendo diferentes configurações na estrutura de relacionamento entre uma montadora de automóveis e alguns de seus fornecedores, em uma cadeia de suprimentos da indústria automobilística que utiliza o modelo de condomínio industrial. O propósito principal foi verificar, empiricamente, algumas das implicações que a configuração da cadeia de suprimentos exerce sobre elementos importantes na sua gestão, tais como: tipos de relacionamentos, processos logísticos, planejamento de produtos, gestão da produção e medição de desempenho. Os resultados corroboram que a configuração da cadeia é fator determinante na forma como se conduz o relacionamento da montadora com seus fornecedores, influenciando, significativamente, os elementos considerados na análise.In the last decades the contribution of the automotive industry has been very representative in terms of innovations in supply chain management, such as those of the modular consortium and industrial condominium models. In this context, this article presents the findings of a research involving distinct configurations in the relationship structure of an automaker and some of its suppliers in an automotive industry supply chain which uses the industrial condominium model. The main objective was to empirically ascertain some of the implications of the supply chain configuration in important elements of its management, such as the types of relationships, logistic processes, product planning, production management, and performance assessment. The findings confirm that the supply chain configuration is a determining factor in how the automaker's relationship with its suppliers is

  1. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created

  2. The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

    A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

  3. Technology Demonstration of General Black box Standard for Automobiles (GBSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available GBSA is an upcoming proposal towards Automobile industry and to the federal governing bodies around the world. Here we are intent to create a disciplinary system to save city sons from accident death and to abolish insurance piracy. The proposal is actually developed from the loss of mankind in society but pulled by technology and humanity facts..

  4. Marketing Strategies in the Luxury Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lee-Palis, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to determine the marketing strategies used in the luxury industry differentiate luxury from premium and research the motivations values and beliefs of luxury consumers. Research was done on five main luxury activities: fashion and leather goods jewelry and watches and perfumes and cosmetics spirits and automobiles. The literature part has been structured in a way to present the evolution of the luxury industry and its development over the course of years. The section...

  5. 汽车及零部件轻量化技术现状及研究方向%Automobile industry of hubei province college institute of automotive engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂采顺

    2015-01-01

    文章简要介绍了目前汽车轻量化技术的发展状况,包括轻量化设计内容、各种轻量化材料的性能及运用,从而阐述了汽车轻量化的实施途径及方法。%This article introduced development of automobile lightweight technique, include lightweight design overview, material performance and application, elucidated implement ways and methods of automobile lightweight.

  6. Tube and sheet hydro-formed steel components for auto-body application; Composants hydroformes a partir de tubes et de toles pour applications en carrosserie automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drewes, E.J.; Blumel, K.; Lenze, F.J. [Thyssen Krupp Stahl AG (Germany)

    2001-10-01

    In view of the weight reduction strategies required and increasingly implemented by the automobile industry, growing importance is being attached not only to the materials but also the forming methods used. Forming processes using hydraulic media in particular offer the potential to produce more complex parts economically while optimizing component properties. The tube hydroforming (IHU) and hydro-mechanical sheet forming (AHU) processes are ideally suited for the production of automotive components in line with these requirements. (authors)

  7. Medição de desempenho em cadeias de suprimentos: um estudo na indústria automobilística Performance measurement in supply chains: a study in the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sacomano Neto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Muito da base conceitual sobre medição de desempenho nas empresas industriais foi construído sob a perspectiva interna, ou seja, empresas tratadas individualmente. Com o advento e expansão do conceito de gestão da cadeia de suprimentos, cresceu a demanda por uma revisão do conhecimento e dos sistemas de medição à luz da cadeia como um todo. Por sua vez, a introdução dos novos arranjos produtivos na indústria automobilística, como os condomínios industriais, estimulou o desenvolvimento de novos padrões de relacionamento nas cadeias de suprimentos, trazendo consigo novas formas de se conduzir a gestão de desempenho entre empresas. Nesse contexto, a pesquisa realizada teve como propósito principal identificar a ocorrência e analisar as principais características da medição de desempenho em uma representativa cadeia de suprimentos da indústria automobilística brasileira, a qual utiliza um sistema de montagem do tipo condomínio industrial. A pesquisa teve um caráter exploratório, descritivo, e a coleta de dados foi realizada principalmente por meio de entrevistas (seguindo um questionário semiestruturado com executivos envolvidos com o tema de estudo nas referidas empresas. Como principal resultado, a pesquisa não identificou a ocorrência de um sistema único de medição de desempenho da cadeia de suprimentos estudada. O constatado é que o sistema de medição de desempenho interno da montadora desdobra-se a montante e a jusante, com claras implicações nos sistemas de medição de desempenho dos quatro fornecedores e da concessionária estudados. A partir dos indicadores de desempenho das empresas, pode-se constatar que as medidas a montante são fortemente direcionadas para os aspectos operacionais relacionados à qualidade, produção e desempenho das entregas e as medidas a jusante apresentam um caráter mais estratégico e mercadológico. Também, tem-se que a medição de desempenho na cadeia tende a ser mais

  8. Corrosion protection and finishing of automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    finishing of automobiles is an important aspect. There have been considerable reductions of weight in automobiles by the use of composites components replacing heavy metallic components. Fenders previously based on metal have been replaced with plastic and painted with the same colour shade as of the metallic body, this has eps for proper adhesion of the paints on the plastic fender to avoid chipping off the paint form it. This paper discusses the necessary processes required for finishing of an automobile along with the corrosion protection measures. Automobiles contains a variety of engineering materials, engine main body fuel tanks connecting rods heat radiators and other mechanical parts are made from different types of engineering alloys having varying chemical compositions. Other parts like dashboard, front panel and other are made from composites. The main body made from cold roll ed steel having various contours 'c' it due to the different designs is the potential site for corrosion attack, The main body is exposed to the hostile environment through out its life period. An automobile is given a particular finish with a view to counter the hostile environments as they are not limited for plying in a limiting conditions and are taken to different weather conditions in one day thus facing severe stresses and strain. Thus it is essential that an automobile before rolling 'out of the assembly line should properly corrosion resistant and aesthetically pleasant also. Finishing for automobiles being very specialized, the main requirement being maximum durability with minimum numbers of coats baked, at the fastest possible schedule. High gloss and range of good eye catching colours being important to increase sales appeal. In the near past the car finishes were based on alkyd-amino resins baking materials and force drying lacquers, which have excellent appearance originally and maintain it on aging. The finishing system for the synthetic baking type may consist of

  9. An Innovative Approach to Enhancing the Sustainable Development of Japanese Automobile Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese automobile industry has been hit sharply by the economic downturn of recent decades. The rise in costs and decline in sales have led to serious problems in the auto industry. In order to address these issues, most companies engage in downsizing and redesigning production operations. It is crucial to investigate the time wasted by replacing assembly boards occurring in manufacturing lines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide an integrated approach, Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskih Zadatch (TRIZ, to providing efficient solutions for the automobile industry. The first step of this methodology is to detail the technical problems using the Function and Attribute Analysis (FAA model. Secondly, a contradiction matrix and the inventive principle were applied to find the solutions. In this study, an auto part supplier named Sumi-Hanel located in Hanoi, Vietnam, was taken as a case study; the empirical results showed that waste time had been reduced to 67%, nearly 8400 square meters was saved, and a 20% cost reduction was achieved by reusing old frames. The research proves that the combination of TRIZ and lean manufacturing successfully increases production performance and reduces waste due to technological advancements.

  10. Knowledge Creation Within the Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Anoop C.; Ramalingam, S.; Ashvini Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Research has identified the enabling factors and inhibitors for successfully implementing knowledge creation and accomplishing its strategic objectives. It is important to understand how these factors interact with each other to improve or inhibit performance. This empirical research presents a framework for finding the fundamental relations between these factors. It proposes strategies for implementing knowledge creation initiatives. The framework mainly focuses on the "what factor" with res...

  11. Knowledge Creation Within the Automobile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop C. Nair

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has identified the enabling factors and inhibitors for successfully implementing knowledge creation and accomplishing its strategic objectives. It is important to understand how these factors interact with each other to improve or inhibit performance. This empirical research presents a framework for finding the fundamental relations between these factors. It proposes strategies for implementing knowledge creation initiatives. The framework mainly focuses on the "what factor" with respect to people and identifies the vital characteristics for the knowledge creation process. It mainly illustrates the parameters of knowledge transfer, which supports knowledge creation, thereby improving organizational performance.

  12. Digital Laser Welding System for Automobile Side Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hong-Seok; Choi, Hung-Won

    2010-01-01

    The laser as economical and flexible tool has established a solid ground in industrial manufacturing area. Specially at welding BIW (Body In White) in automobile industry, the importance of it has been increased due to the technological characteristics such as high process speed, slim seam and good capability of automation and so on. For application of laser welding technique, welding principle and influential factors were investigated based on the analysis of laser welding processes. With th...

  13. Life Cycle Assessment Practices: Benchmarking Selected European Automobile Manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Chanaron, Jean-Jacques

    2007-01-01

    With the rise of environmental concerns in the general public, re-appropriated by influential politicians, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has become a widely used set of tools for the management of all impacts on environment by industrial products. LCA is carried out at the very early stages of product research, development and design. This is particularly true in the automobile industry where vehicle manufacturers Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are launching several new or re-vamped mo...

  14. A study on morbidity among automobile service and repair workers in an urban area of South India

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew Philip; Alex, Reginald G.; Sunny, Soumya S.; Anand Alwan; Deepak Guzzula; Rajan Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Service sector in Indian industrial growth has obtained significant numbers. Automobile service industry is one of the largest in the world with a majority of the workers in unorganized sector of the industry. This study was carried out among auto service industry workers in Vellore urban area to assess possible occupation related morbidity. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observation study was carried out among 106 automobile repair shop workers. Results: Half (47%) su...

  15. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  16. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  17. Determinants of automobile loan default and prepayment

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Agarwal; Ambrose, Brent W.; Souphala Chomsisengphet

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine whether a borrower’s choice of automobile reveals information about future loan performance. They find that loans on most luxury automobiles have a higher probability of prepayment, while loans on most economy automobiles have a lower probability of default, even when holding traditional risk factors, such as income and credit score, constant.

  18. Making cars smarter: The growing role of electronics in automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas H. Klier; James M. Rubenstein

    2011-01-01

    Electronics make up nearly 40% of the content of today’s average new automobile, and their share will continue to grow. On June 2, 2011, as part of the eighteenth annual Automotive Outlook Symposium (AOS), the Chicago Fed hosted a panel of experts at its Detroit Branch to examine the current and future roles of electronics in motor vehicles.

  19. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM AUTOMOBILE INTERIORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of six subcompact automobiles for the emission of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and other organics into the passenger compartment. Evaluated were a Ford Pinto, AMC Gremlin, GMC Vega, GMC Chevette, NMC Datsun 710, and VW Rabbit. VCM was qua...

  20. The organization of the automotive industry in an international context: a cost functions frontiers approach; L'organisation de la production automobile dans un contexte international: une approche par les fonctions frontieres de cout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompeigne, J

    2003-07-15

    The international automotive industry is under pinned by a dual recurrent movement of concentration and internationalization of the production. Its recent scale was the consequence of a set of strategies developed by the major auto-makers to cope with two exogenous phenomenon affecting the automotive industry. On one hand, we are talking about the saturation of the traditional automotive markets (North America, Western Europe and Japan). On the other hand, the increasing severity of the major regulations concerning the industry, notably the ones about environmental protection, is involved. The first part of the dissertation is first devoted to underline these two exogenous phenomenon, then the major strategies adopted by the auto-makers to face them are defined. Finally, the analysis turns on the resulting increase of the concentration and of the internationalization of the production. We focus on this last point and on the problem of international location of industrial activities faced by the auto-makers because of it. The second part is about providing an empirical framework to help solving these problems through parametric stochastic cost production frontiers and cost-efficiency levels. For this purpose, the analytical foundations of both of these notions are introduced, then several empirical estimation methods of a cost frontier are exposed. Finally, these methods are used to treat two real examples illustrating some of the problems about the international location of the productive activities of a major auto-maker. The point for him is to choose the most favorable configuration of its industrial system, by comparing the competing solutions through their respective cost-efficiency levels. The benefit of using additional data analysis methods to draw these comparisons is shown. (author)

  1. Globalização e estratégias competitivas na indústria automobilística: uma abordagem a partir das principais montadoras instaladas no Brasil Globalization and competitive strategies in the automotive industry: an approach from the pespective of the main assemblers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enéas Gonçalves de Carvalho

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo primeiramente trata do processo de globalização da indústria automobilística internacional. Da mesma forma, o importante papel desempenhado pela introdução de novas tecnologias nessa indústria é também considerado. As mudanças recentes e principais tendências das estratégias competitivas - em particular no tocante à globalização e aos produtos - implementadas por algumas das principais montadoras da indústria automobilística mundial (GM, Ford, Toyota, VW, Fiat são também examinadas. Por fim, são considerados os planos internacionais e o mercado interno brasileiro.This paper discusses several aspects of the international automotive industry, to wit, the process of globalization, the important role of new technologies in this industry, recent changes and main trends in competitive strategies, particularly those involving globalization and products, implemented by some of the main automakers around the world (GM, Ford, Toyota, VW, Fiat, and last but not least, international plans and Brazil's domestic market.

  2. Application of Project Management on the Automobile Parts Industry%项目管理及其在汽车零部件企业中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓飞

    2008-01-01

    项目是一种一次性的工作,它应当在规定的时间内,在明确的目标和可利用资源的约束下,由专门组织起来的人员运用多种学科知识来完成。美国项目管理学会PMI(Project Management Institute)对项目的定义是:将人力资源和非人力资源结合成一个短期组织以达到一个特殊目的。

  3. Cultural distance and entry mode choices of german companies from the automotive industry in Brazil Distância cultural e escolha do modo de entrada de empresas alemãs do setor automobilístico no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sarfati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study has as objective to analyze the relation between the national culture distance between Brazil and Germany and the market entry mode chosen by this companies when penetrating the Brazilian automotive market. In order to develop the study, literature and academic articles have been consulted as a way to understand the multinationals and internationalization process, but mainly the relation between national culture distance and the choice of the market entry mode of companies willing to penetrate foreign markets, based on the research of Kogut and Singh (1988 and Brouthers and Brouthers (2001. The field study was developed in two main steps: the first one was an online survey designated to the 30 companies of the analyzed universe and two semi-structured interviews administrated to one German automaker and one auto parts company, aiming to go deeper into the information extracted from the questionnaire sent. The obtained results enabled the acknowledgment of a fundamental relation between the automakers presence in Brazil and the attraction of the auto parts companies to the Brazilian market, as well as the relation between the entrance of these companies and the economic cycle, in which Brazil was inserted at that moment. And finally confirm the relation between national culture distance, investment risk perception, and wholly-owned market entry mode choices.  Esta pesquisa tem o objetivo de analisar a relação estabelecida pela distância da cultura nacional entre Brasil e Alemanha e o modo de entrada escolhido por empresas alemãs ao penetrarem o mercado brasileiro, tendo como objeto de análise as empresas pertencentes ao setor automobilístico. Para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho, foram utilizadas pesquisas bibliográficas visando a entender as multinacionais e o processo de internacionalização, e, principalmente, a relação entre cultura nacional e a escolha do modo de entrada de empresas em mercados externos a partir de

  4. Kitting versus line stocking in the automotive assembly industry: the influence of part characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Limère, Veronique; Van Landeghem, Hendrik; Aghezzaf, El-Houssaine

    2011-01-01

    Kitting and line stocking are two part feeding methods that are common in industry. Each system has particular operational benefits and disadvantages but there is a lack of research investigating the trade-offs between both systems. A mathematical cost model is presented for the assignment of individual parts to the materials supply method which is most cost effective for the overall materials delivery system (kitting or line stocking). The model is tested on realistic datasets. Results are p...

  5. The Automobiles as Indoors.

    OpenAIRE

    Songul Acar Vaizoglu; Bekir Kaplan; Cagatay Guler

    2010-01-01

    In this review we aimed to attract attention to toxic chemicals in cars and their effect on health. People spend most of their times in indoors such as houses, workplaces, malls, sport centers, train, transportation vehicles (train, plane, cars). In US, citizens spend nearly 100 minutes in cars per day. There are safety problems in cars except than seatbelt and airbag. Some of these are seats, furnishing, cushions for arm and head, floor covering, accessories and plastic parts. In a study con...

  6. The impacts of air-pollution motivated automobile consumption tax adjustments of China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Junji; Ju, Heng

    2011-01-01

    A concomitant of the rapid development of the automobile industry in China is the serious air pollution and carbon dioxide emission. There are various regulation instruments to reduce the air pollution from automobile sources. China government chooses a small-displacement oriented consumption tax as well as fuel tax to alleviate the worse air pollution. This paper evaluates the effects of both policy instruments on fuel consumption and social welfare. Our empirical results show that fuel tax ...

  7. Noise Reduction of Rectangular Cavity with Sandwich Polycarbonate Window Pane for Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Min Shen; Kazuteru Nagamura

    2013-01-01

    In the automobile industry, the use of Polycarbonate (PC) window pane is well developed. However, the sound insulation performance of automobile’s Polycarbonate composite pane is poor than traditional glass pane because of its high rate of stiffness to low weight. There is need to design polycarbonate window pane with superior acoustical insulating property for automobile consumer comfort. In this study, the innovative super thin sandwich structure (less th...

  8. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  9. The automobile and environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocci, G.

    1979-10-01

    Actions taken by Expert's Group WP 29 of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe concerning the protection of the environment from automobile pollution are reported. Regulation 15, adopted by the group, establishes tests and sets limits for the amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides emitted from internal combustion engine automobile exhaust and crankcases under urban and idling conditions. Regulation 29 specifies limits to the same pollutants emitted from diesel engines, to be determined by measurements of the opacity of exhaust fumes during constant engine operation and acceleration. Regulations limiting pollutant emissions from motorcycles and mopeds have also been established, and, while adherence to these regulations has already reduced vehicle emissions, research is continuing on stricter controls, fuel conservation, test standardization for the United States and Japan, and analysis sampling methods.

  10. HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS WITH COVARIATES FOR ANALYSIS OF DEFECTIVE INDUSTRIAL MACHINE PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpit Sirima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monthly counts of industrial machine part errors are modeled using a two-state Hidden Markov Model (HMM in order to describe the effect of machine part error correction and the amount of time spent on the error correction on the likelihood of the machine part to be in a “defective” or “non-defective” state. The number of machine parts errors were collected from a thermo plastic injection molding machine in a car bumper auto parts manufacturer in Liberec city, Czech Republic from January 2012 to November 2012. A Bayesian method is used for parameter estimation. The results of this study indicate that the machine part error correction and the amount of time spent on the error correction do not improve the machine part status of the individual part, but there is a very strong month-to-month dependence of the machine part states. Using the Mean Absolute Error (MAE criterion, the performance of the proposed model (MAE = 1.62 and the HMM including machine part error correction only (MAE = 1.68, from our previous study, is not significantly different. However, the proposed model has more advantage in the fact that the machine part state can be explained by both the machine part error correction and the amount of time spent on the error correction.

  11. PROSPECTS OF AUTOMOBILE TIRE RECYCLING

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Gusev; V. S. Demyanova

    2012-01-01

    Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize aut...

  12. Prelaunch Forecasting of New Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Glen L.; John R. Hauser; John H. Roberts

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a prelaunch model and measurement system to the marketing planning of a new automobile. The analysis addresses active search by consumers, dealer visits, word-of-mouth communication, magazine reviews, and production constraints---issues that are important in understanding consumer response to durable goods. We address these issues with a detailed consumer flow model which monitors and projects key consumer transitions in response to marketing actions. A test-vs...

  13. Automobile technology of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking ahead to the year 2000, this fascinating publication takes an in-depth look at new technology which will impact the passenger car of tomorrow. New developments in the areas of performance, reliability, comfort, fuel economy, safety, and environmental compatibility are examined. In this book the authors offer analysis on subjects such as the impact of legislation, the acceptance of ABS, and features of the future dashboard. Offering insight to readers with both technical and general interest in automobiles

  14. The dynamics of automobile expenditures

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, Adam

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for light motor vehicles. Consumers solve an optimal stopping problem in deciding if they want a new automobile and when in the model year to purchase it. This dynamic approach allows for determining how the mix of consumers evolves over the model year and for measuring consumers' substitution patterns across products and time. I find that temporal substitution is significant, driving consumers' entry into and exit from the market. Through counterfactuals, ...

  15. Electric automobil - wishes and reality

    OpenAIRE

    Duchoň, Bedřich; Opava, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    The demands on cars energy resources are given by the following items: power, speed, acceleration, operation range. All these factors are under balance: future wishes and contemporary reality. The proposal is dedicated to the analysis of demands related to the electric automobiles. As a hopefulness solution of these transport means can be seen for city transport (forwarding, shopping, postal services etc). The technical and economic approaches are discussed, too.

  16. Hybrid Voltage Regulator for Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sei-Ichi Denda; Tadashi Takahashi; Akihiro Sawamura

    1981-01-01

    In the course of the development of hybrid voltage regulators for automobile use, increasing the reverse blocking voltage with decreasing of saturation voltage for output power darlington transistors, the capability of monolithic IC chip against surge pulses generated in cars, and an improvement of the pattern design of thick film in order to withstand temperature cycling, have been important subjects. Power darlingtons have more than 150 V of reverse voltage as well as large secondary breakd...

  17. Aplicação da modularidade na indústria automobilística: análise a partir de um levantamento tipo survey Survey research on the application of modularity in the automotive industry in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Carnevalli; Paulo Augusto Cauchick Miguel; Mario Sergio Salerno

    2012-01-01

    Esta investigação tem como objetivo identificar empresas do setor automobilístico que utilizam a estratégia modular e analisar aspectos do seu uso. Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento tipo survey com o envio de um questionário para cerca de 350 empresas deste segmento, com aproximadamente 14% de taxa de retorno. Verificou-se que a maioria das empresas tem certa experiência com a modularidade. As dificuldades para as montadoras estão principalmente na capacitação dos fornecedores. Já os ...

  18. 车主需求的部分增值服务分析%Analysis of Part of Value-added Services Based on the needs of Automobile Owners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞

    2016-01-01

    The needs of automobile owners for after-sales service differ in different social classes. Based on Maslow’s Hierarchical Theory of Needs(from basic needs to high level needs in specific), this paper analyzes several kinds of familiar and popular services according to the mode and current developing situation of automobile after-sales service. At first, the author analyzes main service items of the current automobile after-sales services and in which the proportion value-added services count for; then it comes to the overview of the general present situation of value-added services; in the next place the author summarizes the items of several kinds of value-added services and the relevant group of people; In the end this paper presents some recommendations for value-added services based on the needs of automobile owners.%车主人群来自社会各个阶层,其对汽车售后服务的需求呈现多样化。文章以汽车售后服务模式及现状为背景,从车主需求出发,结合马斯洛的需要层次理论,从车主的基本需求逐渐到高级需求,分析几种常见的、最受关注的汽车增值服务。笔者首先分析了目前的汽车主要服务模式的服务内容,以及各种模式中增值服所占的比重;其次对增值服务的总体现状进行概述;再详细分析总结了几种增值服务的内容及适合的车主群;最后,提出了基于车主需求的增值服务实现建议。

  19. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  20. The Automobiles as Indoors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul Acar Vaizoglu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review we aimed to attract attention to toxic chemicals in cars and their effect on health. People spend most of their times in indoors such as houses, workplaces, malls, sport centers, train, transportation vehicles (train, plane, cars. In US, citizens spend nearly 100 minutes in cars per day. There are safety problems in cars except than seatbelt and airbag. Some of these are seats, furnishing, cushions for arm and head, floor covering, accessories and plastic parts. In a study conducted in Japan, more than 160 volatile organic compounds (VOC had been determined in new cars and a three years old car. Some of the pollutants are formaldehyde, toluen, xylene, ethylbenzene and styrene. Also Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, which may be degradated by sunshine in hot seasons are measured within the outomobiles. There is a big gap of studies about the pollutants in cars and researches have to be conducted. Manufacturers should use nonhazardous material or less toxic chemicals to reduce exposure of VOCs, PBDEs and phthalates. Drivers can reduce the these chemicals by using solar reflectors and avoiding to park under sunlight. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 665-672

  1. The Automobile Buyer Behaviour: Emotional or Rational?

    OpenAIRE

    Economist Phd. Candidate CRUCERU Gheorghe; Assistant Professor Phd. Candidate MICUDA Dan

    2010-01-01

    The automobile buyer’s behaviour is a specific one and the knowledge and understanding of the motivations is important for the automobile manufacturers and distributors. Automobile buyers are the beneficiaries of complex high technology products, which have a long-term use. The paper is focused on understanding the mechanisms that underlie the buying process, the buyers’ expectations and needs, as essential elements for producers and distributors. When these mechanisms are controlled, the com...

  2. Automobile Fuel Economy: What is it Worth?

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Santosh; Espey, Molly

    2004-01-01

    The marginal value of increased automobile fuel economy is estimated using a hedonic model of 2001 model year automobiles sold in the United States. This value is then compared to the average expected lifetime fuel savings attributable to increased fuel economy. Results indicate that automobile buyers fully internalize fuel cost savings attributable to improved fuel economy at low discount rates, and may partially internalize other perceived benefits of improved fuel economy such as reduction...

  3. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (...

  4. Relação entre montadoras e fornecedores: modelos teóricos e estudos de caso na indústria automobilística Brasileira Relationship between assemblers and suppliers: theoretical models and case studies in the Brazilian auto industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Maria Vanalle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas formas de relacionamento e de operação entre empresas participantes de uma mesma cadeia de suprimentos vêm sendo praticadas com o intuito de melhorar as condições competitivas da cadeia. A indústria automobilística é um exemplo marcante de uma indústria na qual as relações entre as empresas têm se renovado profundamente, motivadas principalmente pela influência das montadoras nos fornecedores primários, que por sua vez atuam junto a seus próprios fornecedores, formando uma aliança competitiva a partir das visões de negócio das montadoras. Este artigo tem como objetivo estudar as relações entre montadoras e fornecedores do parque industrial automobilístico brasileiro, por meio de estudos de caso, com a finalidade de se constatar a possibilidade de haver uma tendência à formação de uma nova tipologia relacional entre esses atores. Foram realizadas visitas técnicas em 14 empresas fornecedoras de montadoras, para levantamento de informações acerca das principais características estruturais e da relação entre montadora e fornecedor na indústria automobilística brasileira. As entrevistas foram realizadas com profissionais em nível gerencial ou de diretoria das áreas de produção, logística e suprimentos, desenvolvimento de produto e processo, compras e recursos humanos. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que as relações dependem de características institucionais do fornecedor, da complexidade da tecnologia dos componentes, da capacidade produtiva e da história das relações entre cliente e fornecedor. Foi possível concluir também que as relações entre cliente e fornecedor nas empresas pesquisadas estão mais próximas das características de um modelo associativo, com relações contratuais de longo prazo e grande interdependência, mas o preço ainda é utilizado como o principal critério ganhador de pedido na seleção de fornecedores pelas montadoras.New forms of relationship and transaction between

  5. Development of amorphous wire type MI sensors for automobile use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkura, Yoshinobu

    2002-08-01

    Amorphous wire type MI sensors have a high sensitivity compared to thin film MI sensors, but there have been reliability problems in developing an amorphous wire type MI sensor for automobile application because of the wide range of operating temperatures. It was difficult to achieve sufficient soldering strength between the amorphous wire and the electrode of the MI chip. In addition, stress is induced in the amorphous wire during soldering thus lowering the temperature stability characteristics. Therefore, we developed a new method for soldering the amorphous wire and a new method for assembly of the MI chip. Together with the redesign of the electronic circuit, these developments have yielded an MI sensor suitable for automobile application. This MI sensor has a sensitivity of 250 mV/Oe, has stable temperature characteristics between -40°C and 85°C and easily passed the thermal shock test, the most stringent durability test for automobile electronic parts. Two different types of products are under development; one is a standard type whose output is linear to the external magnetic field, and the other is a switch type whose output is ON or OFF relative to a threshold magnetic field. Future applications include an ABS sensor, an electronic compass, an automatic tracking system for automobiles and so on.

  6. Development of amorphous wire type MI sensors for automobile use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous wire type MI sensors have a high sensitivity compared to thin film MI sensors, but there have been reliability problems in developing an amorphous wire type MI sensor for automobile application because of the wide range of operating temperatures. It was difficult to achieve sufficient soldering strength between the amorphous wire and the electrode of the MI chip. In addition, stress is induced in the amorphous wire during soldering thus lowering the temperature stability characteristics. Therefore, we developed a new method for soldering the amorphous wire and a new method for assembly of the MI chip. Together with the redesign of the electronic circuit, these developments have yielded an MI sensor suitable for automobile application. This MI sensor has a sensitivity of 250 mV/Oe, has stable temperature characteristics between -40 deg. C and 85 deg. C and easily passed the thermal shock test, the most stringent durability test for automobile electronic parts. Two different types of products are under development; one is a standard type whose output is linear to the external magnetic field, and the other is a switch type whose output is ON or OFF relative to a threshold magnetic field. Future applications include an ABS sensor, an electronic compass, an automatic tracking system for automobiles and so on

  7. The construction of a Danish automobile culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation.......The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation....

  8. The Emergence of the Chinese Automobile Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Baker; Markus Hyvonen

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese automobile sector has experienced rapid growth over the past decade, with China recently becoming the world’s largest producer of automobiles. Given the steel-intensive nature of automobile production, the expansion of China’s automobile sector has seen it become an important end-user of steel. With the number of cars in China still very low relative to its large population, car sales are likely to remain at a high level for the foreseeable future; accordingly, Chinese car mak...

  9. Hierarchical functional model for automobile development; Jidosha kaihatsu no tame no kaisogata kino model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, S. [U-shin Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nagamatsu, M.; Maruyama, K. [Hokkaido Institute of Technology, Sapporo (Japan); Hiramatsu, S. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A new approach on modeling is put forward in order to compose the virtual prototype which is indispensable for fully computer integrated concurrent development of automobile product. A basic concept of the hierarchical functional model is proposed as the concrete form of this new modeling technology. This model is used mainly for explaining and simulating functions and efficiencies of both the parts and the total product of automobile. All engineers who engage themselves in design and development of automobile can collaborate with one another using this model. Some application examples are shown, and usefulness of this model is demonstrated. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Computed tomography as a tool for tolerance verification of industrial parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel; Cantatore, Angela; Andreasen, J.L.;

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is becoming an important technology for industrial applications, enabling fast and accurate control of manufactured parts. In only a few minutes, a complete 3D model of a part may be obtained, allowing measurements of external and internal features. This paper presents...... results of tolerance verification of a plastic housing for an insulin pen manufactured by Novo Nordisk A/S. Calculation of measuring uncertainties was taken into account in decision making regarding the specified tolerance limits. Variables in terms of CT systems, data sets, and evaluation software are...

  11. Automatic 3-D Optical Detection on Orientation of Randomly Oriented Industrial Parts for Rapid Robotic Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Liang-Chia Chen; Manh-Trung Le; Xuan-Loc Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method employing a developed 3-D optical imaging and processing algorithm for accurate classification of an object’s surface characteristics in robot pick and place manipulation. In the method, 3-D geometry of industrial parts can be rapidly acquired by the developed one-shot imaging optical probe based on Fourier Transform Profilometry (FTP) by using digital-fringe projection at a camera’s maximum sensing speed. Following this, the acquired range image can be effe...

  12. Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Le groupe Volkswagen, 1er constructeur européen, a récemment annoncé vouloir défier le leader mondial Toyota. Dans ce contexte, les conclusions du suivi scientifique des profondes réformes de l’organisation du travail chez VW tombent à point nommé. Le programme Auto 5000 adopté par les partenaires sociaux en juin 2006 pourrait être la réplique allemande à ce « toyotisme » sur lequel Toyota a construit sa nouvelle compétitivité. (ib)

  13. Your Automobile Dollar, [Revised.] Money Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Law, Jean L., Ed.

    This booklet on automobile purchasing and maintenance, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook discusses buying, maintaining, and operating cars. Section 1 discusses managing automobile dollars. Topics include…

  14. Loyalty marketing in automobile dealerships : case: car dealer X

    OpenAIRE

    Hyyryläinen, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study how customer loyalty is taken into account in automobile dealerships, what loyalty marketing means are used to improve customer loyalty, and what potential new loyalty marketing means can be implemented. The thesis is commissioned by Car dealer X. In the theoretical part, areas covered are customership and loyalty marketing. Customership includes customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, customer value and customer retention. Loyalty marketing contain...

  15. Study of automobile exhaust particles by spectromicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper,automobile exhaust particles of Gol and Santana 3000 were studied by spectro microscopy. The STXM results show that the single particulate is sized at 500 nm, with the mass distribution reducing towards the center. The N 1s NEXAFS spectra of automobile exhaust particles have similar structure with those of nitrates, which can be deduced as the main chemical species of nitrogen in automobile exhaust particles. There are minor amounts of ammonium and organic nitrogen compounds in automobile exhaust particles. A single Gol automobile exhaust particle was stack scanned in the energy range of 396-416 eV. By principal component analysis and cluster analysis, it can be deduced that there are main three chemical species of nitrogen. The particle surface consists of mainly nitrates, the inside consists of mainly ammonium and organic nitrogen compounds, and the middle layer is an inter gradation consisting of mainly nitrates and organic nitrogen compounds. (authors)

  16. 数控机床产业强势增长%Robust growth of NC machine tool industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The machine tool industry is an industry which provides production equipment for the equipment manufacturing industry, and the machine tool is the parent machine for equipment manufacturing, playing a key part in the industry.The equipment manufacturing industry, for example, the automobile industry, uses more than 60% of its fixed asset investment in the purchase of machine tools.The numerical control (NC)machine tool, as a mainstream product of the machine tool sector, has become a key piece of equipment for achieving modernisation of equipment manufacturing.It is the realistic requirement to speed up development of NC machine production for the development of China's equipment manufacturing industry.

  17. MERCURY IN ATMOSPHERE OVER RURAL, URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL PARTS OF ZAGREB CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav A. Palinkaš

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Zagreb city encounters severe pollution problems in aquatic, terrrestrial and atmospheric environment. A random or permanent monitoring of some inorganic gaseous pollutants in atmosphere has already been organized and published alsewhere. By means of a sophisticated mercury vapor analyser with a Zeeman effect background corrector, however, continuous registration along two traverses (monitoring routes over rural, urban and industrial parts of Zagreb has been elaborated for the first lime. Data show strong anthropogenic influence in the Žitnjak industrial area. The anomaly high 105 ngm Hg, on the 22 October moved slightly to downtown by change of wind direction on the 31 October. Intensity raised as much as 155 ngm Hg, 13 times augmented in comparison to a background value on the Medvednica mountain. Explanation should be sought in denser public traffic, change of wind direction and lowering of atmospheric pressure.

  18. Effect of Solvents on Microalbuminuria Among Automobile Painters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Shushtarizadeh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The health risk associated with chronic exposure to organic solvents investigated in several epidemiologic studies indicates a significant relationship between solvent exposure and glomerulonephritis. Solvents are the most commonly used chemicals in industry. According to European statistics 43% of all solvent consumption takes place in the painting industry, 10% in metal cleansing, 6.7% in adhesives and 3.9 percent in the laundry (dry cleaning industries. Although BUN and creatinine indicate massive loss of glomerular function, microalbumin is a sensitive urinary marker for nephrotoxins in the early detection of solvent-induced effects on the glomerulus. The purpose of our study was to use microalbumin, serum BUN and serum creatinine levels to identify occupational solvent-induced effects on the glomerulus.Methods: Renal dysfunction was monitored by microalbumin, BUN and creatinine serum levels in a cohort study of 92 workers currently exposed to solvents (solvent group. A control group of 92 individuals were selected from parts of the same factory not exposed to solvents. All individuals in the study were men, without diabetes or hypertension. The percentage of smokers was equal between the two groups. The solvent group was selected using environmental monitoring of organic solvents in different parts of the painting room. The individuals were chosen by simple random selection. Exclusion factors included less than one year of work in the painting room, use analgesic or aminoglycoside one month before the study and medically diagnosed renal disease, such as glomerulonephritis or renal failure. Data was gathered using a questionnaire requesting demographic information, history of present and past diseases, present and past occupational history, drug history, history of illness in their colleagues and safety conditions at work (use of safety gloves, masks, clothing, goggles and general and local ventilation. The results analyzed with

  19. Thermo-mechanical process modelling of industrially pultruded parts having UD and CFM layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Akkerman, Remko

    2014-01-01

    Numerical process simulation of an industrially pultruded rectangular hollow profile is presented. The product contains the continuous filament mat (CFM) and the uni-directional (UD) roving layers made of glass/polyester. The distortion and stress evolutions together with the temperature and degree...... of fields are predicted by the simulation tool developed by the authors. The predicted deformation pattern at the end of the process is found to agree quite well with the one for the real pultruded part in a commercial pultrusion company. A parametric study is also performed based on the total...

  20. Automobile ride quality experiments correlated to iso-weighted criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, A. J.; Young, R. K.; Smith, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    As part of an overall study to evaluate the usefulness of ride quality criteria for the design of improved ground transportation systems an experiment was conducted involving subjective and objective measurement of ride vibrations found in an automobile riding over roadways of various roughness. Correlation of the results led to some very significant relationships between passenger rating and ride accelerations. The latter were collapsed using a frequency-weighted root mean square measure of the random vibration. The results suggest the form of a design criterion giving the relationship between ride vibration and acceptable automobile ride quality. Further the ride criterion is expressed in terms that relate to rides with which most people are familiar. The design of the experiment, the ride vibration data acquisition, the concept of frequency weighting and the correlations found between subjective and objective measurements are presented.

  1. TOYOTA PRODUCTION SYSTEM: LEAN MANUFACTURING IMPLEMENTATION AND APPLICATION TO AN AUTOMOTIVE PARTS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRE RENATO BARRETTO

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With the market increasingly competitive, one has to always seek process improvement tools, that can then take right decisions at the right time. As always grounded in solid information. This article deals with theories that govern the Lean Manufacturing (Lean Manufacturing. The adoption of this tool as a system of production management in order to look like cost reduction and competitive advantage. This study aimed to analyze the first stages of implementation tools Toyota production system and its process improvements. This study was based on data collected in an industry spare parts for cars, in the city of Botucatu, São Paulo. We proposed a new system of production management. The implementation of this model may be an important tool in order to gain competitive advantage in the field of auto spare parts and then to supply automakers.

  2. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  3. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  4. Modelling of an industrial environment, part 2.: External dose calculation with relevant countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation of the collective dose and averted collective dose after applying countermeasures in an industrial environment has been divided in two parts. In the first part (Kis et al. 2002) separate Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport resulted in the air kermas per photon per unit area due to the industrial surfaces contaminated by 137Cs at specific points using the so-called local approach. In the local approach the air kerma rates due to specific intervention elements at the evaluation locations in the whole environment are determined (Gutierrez et al. 2000). In this way the collective and averted collective dose due to the radiation from a particular intervention element (e.g. the roof of a building) can be obtained. It can, therefore, provide a ranking of the specific intervention elements based on their contribution to collective dose as well. The deposition pattern and the long-term behaviour of deposited radionuclides vary widely in natural circumstances; therefore the number of the photons emitted from the various surfaces per unit area and time can differ significantly. This means the results of the Monte Carlo simulations have to be weighted according to the number of emitted photons so that the actual radiation field can be set up. For this purpose, a dose calculation code has been developed in the framework of the TEMAS project (Gutierrez et al. 2000) which allows to calculate collective doses for different environments. This code has been applied in the present work

  5. La dépendance automobile pour l'accès des ménages aux services : Le cas de la grande couronne francilienne

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Motte-Baumvol

    2007-01-01

    The automobile dependence raises the question of social economic standard in mobility. In the outer suburbs of Paris, the automobile is the key element that determines the location of general services and the access of households to those services. Yet, this appreciation must be moderated according to territories and populations. Some territories depend less on the automobile, and part of households have developed an alternative system of mobility that partially compensates the absence or the...

  6. Assessment of the occupational exposure at a fertiliser industry in the northern part of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the northern part of Greece, close to the city of Kavala, a phosphoric acid production industry has operated since 1965. The raw material used is the phosphate rock imported from the foreign countries. During industrial processes, naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) deposits exist in many facilities in the industry, causing increased levels of radiation exposure. Additionally, increased levels of NORM concentrations are also detected in the waste material of the production process, the phosphogypsum. According to the Greek Regulations for Radiation Protection (no. 216B, 5/3/2001), which is in accordance with the 96/29/EURATOM 31/5/1996, the action levels concerning the effective dose to workers at workplaces due to natural radiation sources are 1 mSv y-1. Work activities where the corresponding doses exceed 6 mSv y-1 are under the control of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). The mean yearly radon concentration action level at workplaces is 400 Bq m-3, while the corresponding concentration limit is 3000 Bq m-3, respectively. GAEC, according to its constitutional law, is the responsible organisation to enforce and to implement the law by means of in situ surveys and laboratory measurements. The first inspection of the area was performed in 2002 and the first measures were proposed. Periodic inspections were performed every 2 y in order to extend the operation licensing of the industry. In this work a dose assessment of the workers based on in situ and laboratory measurements is presented. In order to assess the doses to the workers the external and the internal doses are estimated. (authors)

  7. Assessment of the occupational exposure at a fertiliser industry in the northern part of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiriadis, C; Koukouliou, V; Seferlis, S; Kehagia, K

    2011-03-01

    In the northern part of Greece, close to the city of Kavala, a phosphoric acid production industry has operated since 1965. The raw material used is the phosphate rock imported from the foreign countries. During industrial processes, naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) deposits exist in many facilities in the industry, causing increased levels of radiation exposure. Additionally, increased levels of NORM concentrations are also detected in the waste material of the production process, the phosphogypsum. According to the Greek Regulations for Radiation Protection (no. 216B, 5/3/2001), which is in accordance with the 96/29/EURATOM 31/5/1996, the action levels concerning the effective dose to workers at workplaces due to natural radiation sources are 1 mSv y(-1). Work activities where the corresponding doses exceed 6 mSv y(-1) are under the control of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). The mean yearly radon concentration action level at workplaces is 400 Bq m(-3), while the corresponding concentration limit is 3000 Bq m(-3), respectively. GAEC, according to its constitutional law, is the responsible organisation to enforce and to implement the law by means of in situ surveys and laboratory measurements. The first inspection of the area was performed in 2002 and the first measures were proposed. Periodic inspections were performed every 2 y in order to extend the operation licensing of the industry. In this work a dose assessment of the workers based on in situ and laboratory measurements is presented. In order to assess the doses to the workers the external and the internal doses are estimated. PMID:21051434

  8. The rolling and skidding of automobile tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, D.

    1994-09-01

    This article deals in simple terms with the rolling and skidding of automobile tyres. It shows that skid resistance on slippery road surfaces may be significantly increased by using tyre treads of high hysteresis loss.

  9. Information searches by consumers of miniature automobiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dao-ping; LIU Wei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the information search behaviors of Chinese consumers of miniature automobiles. First, we identified the main sources where consumers acquire or seek information about miniature automobiles and discussed their extent of information search. Then, based on logistic regression and optimal scaling regression of statistics, we studied the influences of characteristics of consumers of miniature automobiles on the extent of information search and on Internet usage. The results indicate that consumers often utilize four sources to obtain information about miniature automobiles. The dominant information source for consumers is their friends/family, followed by dealers, newspapers, and TV. Age, occupation, education and income significantly affect the extent of information search, but gender and city of residence do not have significant impacts. Age, city of residence, occupation, education and income produce significant influences on Internet usage. Gender has an insignificant influence on whether a consumer uses the Internet to search for information.

  10. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  11. CHOICE OF STRATEGY DIVERSIFICATION ON AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Bilichenko, V.; Tsymbal, S.

    2005-01-01

    The block diagram which with use of imitating modelling will allow to choose optimum strategy diversification the enterprises of automobile transport is developed, having received the maximal profit at the minimal expenses.

  12. The Honey Trap:The democratization of leisure through automobilism

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Michael F. Wagner: The Honey Trap –The democratization of leisure through automobilismThe automobile has achieved a central position in modern everyday life as an essential artefact to mobility. This raises the question how automobiles have been mediated for mass consumption? The central thesis in the article is that the culture of Danish automobilism was constructed around and appropriated through leisure activities conducted primarily by the automobile consumer’s organisation Touring Club d...

  13. Melhoria contínua e aprendizagem organizacional: múltiplos casos em empresas do setor automobilístico Continuous improvement and organizational learning: multiple cases in automotive industry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Valio Dominguez Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A acirrada competição, ressaltada pela disputa globalizada, exige que as organizações estabeleçam inovações cada vez mais frequentes e rápidas a fim de atender às mudanças tecnológicas, econômicas e políticas que a sociedade atravessa. Neste contexto, a melhoria contínua dos produtos e processos produtivos é necessária para manter a empresa competitiva, entretanto, muitas destas iniciativas fracassam dentro das organizações. Com o objetivo de analisar como os mecanismos de aprendizagem sustentam as atividades de melhoria, é realizada uma pesquisa de campo, baseada no estudo de caso em três empresas do setor automobilístico. O artigo conclui que, além de implantar programas e ferramentas para resolução de problemas, as organizações precisam desenvolver ambientes que estimulem a aprendizagem e a cooperação entre seus indivíduos, trabalhando no desenvolvimento dos recursos humanos para que as iniciativas de melhoria sejam, de fato, contínuas.Fierce competition, highlighted by global competition has increasingly required organizations to adopt frequent and quick innovations to meet the current technological, economic, and political changes in society. Accordingly , the continuous improvement of products and production processes is necessary to keep the company competitive. However, many of these initiatives fail in organizations. In order to analyze how the mechanisms of learning support improvement activities, a field research based on case study of three companies in the automotive sector was carried out. The article concludes that in addition to programs and tools for solving problems, organizations need to develop environments that encourage learning and cooperation among its individuals working in human resources development to achieve continuous improvement.

  14. 77 FR 63917 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Certain Measures Affecting the Automobile and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ..., replacement, or implementing measures: Policy on Development of Automotive Industry; Policies for Automobile... Base Enterprises; Interim Measures on the Management of Fund for Optimizing Import and Export Structure... Applications for Electro-mechanical Product Imports and Exports Structure Fund Program; Anhui Province...

  15. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part I: Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peretto, A.; Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.;

    2003-01-01

    . Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant which can consist of a Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine......, organic content, heating value, etc. In particular some of these wastes can be burnt in special plants, using them as energy supply for different processes. The study carried out with this paper is concerned with the promising utilization of the organic wastes from an existing poultry industry as fuel...... (Part I). Moreover a Steam Turbine Plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic differences in terms of energy savings...

  16. Lean and Virginia's wood industry - Part II: Results and need for support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F. Fricke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This two-part publication about Lean practices by Viriginia’s wood products and furniture manufacturing industries reports results from researching the awareness, the implementation status, the business results, and the need for external implementation support of Virginian companies. This second manuscript focuses on business results and the need for external implementation support. Except for “sales per employee,” where less than half of respondents reported an improvement due to the implementation of Lean in their operation, a majority of respondents indicated improved business results for “lead time,” “on-time delivery,” “inventory turnover,” and “cost per unit.” With respect to the need for external Lean implementation support, only 23 percent of respondents answered in the affirmative. “Training management,” “training shop floor employees,” and “implementing [Lean] with extensive employee involvement” were, with 67, 58, and 48 percent frequencies, the most often named forms of Lean implementation support requested. Results from this study seem to indicate an opportunity to support the well-being of Virginia’s wood products and furniture manufacturing industries through improved communication of the benefits of Lean and offering specific types of training to companies.

  17. OFF-ROAD CAPABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF MAZ-AUTOMOBILE HAVING AGRICULTURAL MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Bobrovnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains requirements to parameters of an automobile being designed with axle arrangement 6x4 and technically permissible mass of 25 tons with its all year round operation in agricultural industry with the purpose to ensure in-time load transportation and technological cycle in crop production of the agricultural complex in accordance with time schedule of the executed mechanized works. The future automobile should also have a power takeoff device.The paper presents operation chart flowsheets for cultivation of main crops on mineral and peat soils with indication of automobile motion modes and type of transported loads. Specific properties of peat-bog soils are given in the paper. The paper considers off-road capability of mobile machines when they are moving on soils with low bearing capacity. The paper indicates field applications of automobiles with limited and high off-road capability. Description of wheel interaction with bearing surface area, values of soil resistivity after multiple automobile passages have been given in the paper.The paper specifies values of rolling resistance coefficient and adhesion coefficient of the automobile undercarriage systems in spring and autumn for wheeled and crawler units. Schemes of the automobile front axle drives (electric, hydraulic, mechanical and their characteristics have been analyzed in the paper. An elastic flexible drive with separation of flow power has been proposed for reduction of dynamic loads in a power transmission drive. The paper describes a drive system of auto-analogue steering wheels with hydraulic hydrostatic drive which is located within a front wheel hub that ensure additional thrust. Recommendations for MAZ-automobile modernization with axle arrangement 6x4 have been given with the purpose to improve its off- road capability.Metallic anti-skid chain, segment and small link, track and crawler chains, wideners have obtained a wide application for improvement of automobile

  18. Aplicação da modularidade na indústria automobilística: análise a partir de um levantamento tipo survey Survey research on the application of modularity in the automotive industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Carnevalli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigação tem como objetivo identificar empresas do setor automobilístico que utilizam a estratégia modular e analisar aspectos do seu uso. Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento tipo survey com o envio de um questionário para cerca de 350 empresas deste segmento, com aproximadamente 14% de taxa de retorno. Verificou-se que a maioria das empresas tem certa experiência com a modularidade. As dificuldades para as montadoras estão principalmente na capacitação dos fornecedores. Já os fornecedores apresentam dificuldades para atender às exigências das montadoras de projetar e fabricar os módulos. Em relação aos benefícios do uso da modularidade para as montadoras, a maioria está relacionada com a terceirização de atividades para o fornecedor, tal como a transferência de custos fixos para os fornecedores. Para os fornecedores, os principais benefícios envolvem o aumento da parceria com o cliente, como ter exclusividade de fornecimento e desenvolver novas competências organizacionais.The purpose of this research is to identify automotive sector companies that use modular strategies and analyze aspects of its use. To this end, a survey research was carried out though a questionnaire sent to about 350 companies in the sector, with a response rate of nearly 14%. Results showed that most companies adopt the modularity strategy and have some experience in its use. Concerning the difficulties experienced, the major problems faced by assemblers are related to finding capable suppliers in order to use the strategy. With regard to suppliers, the difficulties are related to fulfilling automotive assemblers' new demands to modular design and manufacturing. Regarding automotive assemblers, the main benefit of adopting modularity is linked to the outsourcing of some activities to suppliers, transferring fixed costs to them. Concerning suppliers, the main benefit is the partnership increase with customers, such as exclusive supply

  19. Aplicação da modularidade na indústria automobilística: análise a partir de um levantamento tipo survey Survey research on the application of modularity in the automotive industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Carnevalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigação tem como objetivo identificar empresas do setor automobilístico que utilizam a estratégia modular e analisar aspectos do seu uso. Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento tipo survey com o envio de um questionário para cerca de 350 empresas deste segmento, com aproximadamente 14% de taxa de retorno. Verificou-se que a maioria das empresas tem certa experiência com a modularidade. As dificuldades para as montadoras estão principalmente na capacitação dos fornecedores. Já os fornecedores apresentam dificuldades para atender às exigências das montadoras de projetar e fabricar os módulos. Em relação aos benefícios do uso da modularidade para as montadoras, a maioria está relacionada com a terceirização de atividades para o fornecedor, tal como a transferência de custos fixos para os fornecedores. Para os fornecedores, os principais benefícios envolvem o aumento da parceria com o cliente, como ter exclusividade de fornecimento e desenvolver novas competências organizacionais.The purpose of this research is to identify automotive sector companies that use modular strategies and analyze aspects of its use. To this end, a survey research was carried out though a questionnaire sent to about 350 companies in the sector, with a response rate of nearly 14%. Results showed that most companies adopt the modularity strategy and have some experience in its use. Concerning the difficulties experienced, the major problems faced by assemblers are related to finding capable suppliers in order to use the strategy. With regard to suppliers, the difficulties are related to fulfilling automotive assemblers' new demands to modular design and manufacturing. Regarding automotive assemblers, the main benefit of adopting modularity is linked to the outsourcing of some activities to suppliers, transferring fixed costs to them. Concerning suppliers, the main benefit is the partnership increase with customers, such as exclusive supply

  20. 2012 in review - part II: overcoming the obstacles in the pharma/biotech industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabasseda, X; Dulsat, C; Navarro, D; Cruces, E; Graul, A I; Jago, C; Tracy, M

    2013-02-01

    As highlighted in the first part of this review published last month, the year 2012 saw the approval of a remarkable number of new drugs, and among the new drugs reaching the market, a significant proportion were orphan drugs developed for treating less prevalent diseases. These drugs are certainly not expected to become blockbusters, but are of high interest because of their efficacy in a narrow spectrum of patients. This trend aligns with the general tendency of staying away from fit-for-all blockbusters into personalized medicine as one of the strategies for overcoming the patent cliff that resulted in a long list of drugs going off patent and being approved as generics also during last year. The emerging scenario resulting from new developments in the form of new drugs and biosimilars and newly available generic medications paralleled by strategic movements within the pharmaceutical industry to reinforce their position in the market, as reflected by merger and acquisition deals accompanied by significant efforts into prioritization resulting in spin-off and split transactions, is reviewed in this second part. This paper includes a significant amount of data in tables for quick review and to profile the new strategic movements in drug pipelines. Further information, including details on mechanisms of action, current status, itemized pharmacology, pharmacokinetic and clinical trial research findings and updated information can be found in the proprietary databases Thomson Reuters Integrity(SM) and Thomson Reuters Cortellis™. PMID:23462626

  1. Automatic 3-D Optical Detection on Orientation of Randomly Oriented Industrial Parts for Rapid Robotic Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Chia Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method employing a developed 3-D optical imaging and processing algorithm for accurate classification of an object’s surface characteristics in robot pick and place manipulation. In the method, 3-D geometry of industrial parts can be rapidly acquired by the developed one-shot imaging optical probe based on Fourier Transform Profilometry (FTP by using digital-fringe projection at a camera’s maximum sensing speed. Following this, the acquired range image can be effectively segmented into three surface types by classifying point clouds based on the statistical distribution of the normal surface vector of each detected 3-D point, and then the scene ground is reconstructed by applying least squares fitting and classification algorithms. Also, a recursive search process incorporating the region-growing algorithm for registering homogeneous surface regions has been developed. When the detected parts are randomly overlapped on a workbench, a group of defined 3-D surface features, such as surface areas, statistical values of the surface normal distribution and geometric distances of defined features, can be uniquely recognized for detection of the part’s orientation. Experimental testing was performed to validate the feasibility of the developed method for real robotic manipulation.

  2. The Study on the Impact of Bibcock Enterprise Business Model to Technology Innovation Case of the Jmei' s Bibcock Enterprises of Automobile-engineering Machinery Industry%龙头企业商业模式对技术创新的影响研究——以厦门汽车—工程机械产业龙头企业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉慧; 郑孟玲; 汪欣彤

    2012-01-01

    龙头企业商业模式对技术创新具有重要影响,但既往文献中甚少提及,且未深入研究。以厦门汽车—工程机械产业龙头企业为例,从商业模式的构成要素与技术创新的影响因素间的交叉部分入手,分析龙头企业商业模式对于技术创新的影响。研究发现:在龙头企业商业模式中,价值定位决定技术创新起点,价值实现影响技术创新成果,价值保持促进技术创新实现。因此,从企业发展的全局出发,突破现有商业模式,重视企业技术创新,确定龙头企业创新主体地位,营造良好集群创新氛围,应成为产业集群乃至区域经济发展的重要战略选择。%Bibcock enterprise business model has an important impact on the technological innovation, but it was seldom mentioned and not in-depth researched, this study comprehensively analyzes the influence of bibcock enterprise business model on technological innovation, according to the overlapping parts between business model elements and the influence factors of technology innovation, by choosing the Xiamen' s bibcock enterprises of automobile-engineering machinery industry as cases, According to the research ,the author find that in the business model of bibcock enterprise, value position decides the starting point of technological innovation and value realization affects technology innovation achievement and value keeping is available for technological innovation realization. Therefore,from the overall developmental situation of the enterprise, breaking the existing business model, attaching importance to technology innovation, determining the subject position of bibcock enterprise innovation and creating a good atmosphere of clusters innovation should be treated as the important strategic choices for industrial cluster and regional economic development.

  3. O controle dos processos logísticos, uma condição prévia para uma política do global sourcing: o caso da indústria automobilística e do varejista mundial Control of logistic processes as prerequisite to a policy of global sourcing: the cases of the automotive industry and the worldwide retailer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Colin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As empresas estão, atualmente, expostas a uma competição mundial que se intensifica pelos gigantescos movimentos de concentração realizados nos últimos quinze anos em todos os setores de atividade e pelo aparecimento de concorrentes oriundos dos novos países industrializados (China, Índia, Brasil, Europa Oriental, etc.. Grandes empresas ocidentais têm identificado rapidamente a oportunidade que representa o recurso a fornecedores oriundos destes novos países (o global sourcing. Nesta comunicação, analisamos as exigências e os desempenhos em termos de custo, de qualidade, de estabilidade, de reatividade e de flexibilidade dos processos logísticos ligados às compras mundiais em setores particularmente engajados na globalização: a indústria automobilística e o varejista mundial. Em seguida, nós proporemos uma generalização.Enterprises are nowadays exposed to a worldwide competition intensified by huge concentration movements ocurred in the last fifteen years in all economic sectors, as well by the appearance of competitors from new industrialized countries (China, India, Brazil, Eastern Europe, etc.. Large western companies have fastly identified opportunities that arise from suppliers installed in these new countries (global sourcing. In this paper we analyse requirements and performance regarding cost, quality, stability, responsiveness and flexibility of logistic processes associated to international procurement in industries specially engaged in globalization : the automotive industry and the global retailer. After that, we propose a generalization.

  4. Automobile Industry Listing Corporation Governance Structure and Company Performance Relation Study%汽车行业上市公司治理结构与公司绩效关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩道琴; 王储

    2012-01-01

    公司治理结构是现代企业制度的核心,是企业经营管理的关键因素,有效的公司治理结构已经成为提高公司绩效的必要条件。汽车行业作为我国工业的重要组成部门,通过研究我国汽车行业30余家上市公司治理结构与公司绩效之间的关系,采用描述性统计的方法,在公司治理理论的基础上,以股权结构、高管激励方式、董事会结构三个层面为基础来研究汽车行业上市公司治理结构与公司绩效之间的关系,最后得出结论,并以此作为依据,给汽车行业公司治理结构提出建议,以促进汽车行业公司绩效的提高。%Corporate governance structure is the core of modern corporate institution,and it is the key factor of corporate operating management.Recently,the corporate governance of China listed company need to be improved urgently.This problem has been paid great attention by the researchers.Effective corporate governance structure is the requirement of improving corporate performance.The automotive industry is an important component of China's industrial sector,and it is making great contribution to developing the economy.Doing research on the corporate governance structure of automotive industry will help perfecting the performance of Chinese automotive industry,and will help improving the corporate governance structure of other industrial sectors. By using descriptive statistics method to research the relationship between corporate governance structure and corporate performance of more than 30 listed companies in automotive industry from ownership structure,CEO compensation and board committee structure three aspects will draw a conclusion,which will be the foundation of suggesting automotive industry corporate governance structure and even other sectors of industry.

  5. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE COMPARISON BASED ON THE TYPES OF INDUSTRY. CASE STUDY: LISTED COMPANIES IN TEHRAN STOCK EXCHANGE (TSE)

    OpenAIRE

    Mortazavi Mahdy; Javadi Pour Far Mahnoosh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare competitive intelligence based on the types of industry. In order to do this, the listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) during a five year period (2004-2008) have been selected. These companies’ products are grouped into five industrial categories; that are, food & drink, tile & ceramic, petrochemical, automobile & parts manufacturing, and cement. In this study, we compare the level of competitive intelligence and its four dimensions among dif...

  6. Summary of semi-initiative and initiative control automobile engine vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Qu, Zhou

    2009-07-01

    Engine vibration accounts for around 55% of automobile vibration, separating the engine vibration from transmitting to automobile to the utmost extent is significant for improving NVH performance. Semi-initiative and initiative control of engine vibration is one of the hot spots of technical research in domestic and foreign automobile industry, especially luxury automobiles which adopt this technology to improve amenity and competitiveness. This article refers to a large amount of domestic and foreign related materials, fully introduces the research status of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension of engine vibration suspension and many kinds of structural style, and provides control policy and method of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension system. Compare and analyze the structural style of semi-initiative and initiative control and merits and demerits of current structures of semi-initiative and initiative control of mechanic electrorheological, magnetorheological, electromagnetic actuator, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostriction material, pneumatic actuator etc. Models of power assembly mounting system was classified.Calculation example indicated that reasonable selection of engine mounting system parameters is useful to reduce engine vibration transmission and to increase ride comfort. Finally we brought forward semi-initiative and initiative suspension which might be applied for automobiles, and which has a promising future.

  7. Automated Sequencing and Subassembly Detection in Automobile Body Assembly Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The choice of the sequence in which parts or subass em blies are put together in the mechanical assembly of a product can drastical ly affect the efficiency of the assembly process. Unlike metal cutting operation s where computer aided system have been available for some 15 to 25 years to hel p manufacturing engineers in generating cutting sequences and NC programs, the m ajority of assembly planning tasks in automobile body design is still manually p erformed by assembly designers according to their pa...

  8. An Innovative Approach to Enhancing the Sustainable Development of Japanese Automobile Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Nan Wang; Ying-Fang Huang; Thi-Nham Le; Thanh-Tuan Ta

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese automobile industry has been hit sharply by the economic downturn of recent decades. The rise in costs and decline in sales have led to serious problems in the auto industry. In order to address these issues, most companies engage in downsizing and redesigning production operations. It is crucial to investigate the time wasted by replacing assembly boards occurring in manufacturing lines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide an integrated approach, Teoriya Resheniya Iz...

  9. Industry safety and policy proposal on China’s vehicle and parts sectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CATARC

    2008-01-01

    <正>I. Importance of the vehicle industry safety China has become a big vehicle production country, but not yet a strong one. Therefore people of the industry need to strengthen their awareness on the situation.

  10. Post internship student-industry collaborative projects - as vehicle for the realization of challenging parts of the CDIO syllabus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard

    2014-01-01

    A large part of the CDIO syllabus concerns skills that are difficult to address in a solely academic environment. Collaboration with industry is in reality a must in order to perform the CDIO based education. Student internships in the industry, hence is the core of the DTU B. Eng. program. At DTU...... Architectural engineering the 5 month internship period is placed early in the curriculum, after 4 semesters of study. It is obviously more challenging to find industry internships for students that are at an early stage in their studies because they need more supervision. However the investment is worth the...... trouble because the post internship curriculum is provided with pedagogical means to address parts of the syllabus that are on an advanced level in the learning taxonomy. The interface between the internship period and post internship student-industry collaborative projects is an important point of focus...

  11. 29 CFR Non - Mandatory Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1904-Partially Exempt Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BLS. All employers, including those partially exempted by reason of company size or industry... three or more employees (see § 1904.39). SIC code Industry description SIC code Industry description 525.... 56 Apparel and Accessory Stores 791 Dance Studios, Schools, and Halls. 573 Radio,...

  12. An Exploratory Study on Implementation of Lean Manufacturing Practices(With Special Reference to Automobile Sector Industry)(Yalın İmalat Faaliyetine Yönelik Bir Uygulama (Otomobil Endüstrisi Örneği)

    OpenAIRE

    Er Rajesh Kumar MEHTA; Mehta, Dhermendra; Naveen K. MEHTA

    2012-01-01

    At present scenario, Lean Manufacturing has become a world wide phenomenon. It is quite successful in drawing the attention of companies of all sizes. A large number of organizations are following Lean technologies and experiencing vast improvements in quality, production, customer service, and profitability. Lean Manufacturing is a systematic approach to identifying and eliminating waste through continuous improvement. The manufacturing industry in India must also look to leverage its advant...

  13. "Dissolve the Keiretsu , or Die": A longitudinal study of disintermediation in the Japanese automobile manufacturing supply networks

    OpenAIRE

    Petr MATOUS; Todo, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Under unstable global economic conditions and an increasing competition for customers in the emerging markets of lower income countries, Japanese automotive parts manufacturers and assemblers are striving to minimize their procurement costs to remain competitive. Applying stochastic actor-oriented network models to the procurement data of the 100 largest Japanese automobile firms in 2006 and 2011, this study explores (1) the predominant supply chain management strategies in the automobile ind...

  14. Integrated product and process system with continuous improvement in the auto parts industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Quality systems (QS update must be based on the enterprise organization to assure customer satisfaction, as Deming, Juran and Feigenbaum did in their time, to seek improvement processes to reach high quality performance. This way, the proposal of this paper is the development of quality system integration model of product and process with continuous improvement.Design/methodology/approach: To reach this goal, a Brazilian automotive parts quality system was improved through the Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM, Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA and Lean Six Sigma (LSS methodologies.Findings: The paper shows what the problems are during the factory quality system management. The results achieved in the studied company show the performance quality evolution through their indicators.Research limitations/implications: The article presents quality system problems of only one Brazilian plant of an automotive industry.Practical implications: Presented in this article should be a way to look for continuous improvement methods.Originality/value: The paper is supported on the authors’ practical experiences to improve the quality system at a Brazilian plant.

  15. Post internship student-industry collaborative projects - as vehicle for the realization of challenging parts of the CDIO syllabus

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard

    2014-01-01

    A large part of the CDIO syllabus concerns skills that are difficult to address in a solely academic environment. Collaboration with industry is in reality a must in order to perform the CDIO based education.Student internships in the industry, hence is the core of the DTU B. Eng. program. At DTU Architectural engineering the 5 month internship period is placed early in the curriculum, after 4 semesters of study.It is obviously more challenging to find industry internships for students that a...

  16. Modeling of Electromagnetic Damper for Automobile Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Suda, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Hirofumi; Kondo, Takuhiro

    In this paper, the modeling of the electromagnetic damper (EMD) for automobile suspension is presented and the validation of the model is demonstrated by comparing the numerical results with the experimental results obtained using shaker tests. EMD is used as an active suspension and controlled to have output force calculated from velocities of sprung and unsprung masses. The formulation of EMD system for active suspensions is first developed, and the validation of the EMD model is demonstrated by experiments of the EMD for automobile suspensions. The validity of the formulation of the EMD developed in this investigation is shown for the frequency responses as well as energy balance for its active use.

  17. Mechanisms of injury in automobile crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelke, D F

    1972-02-01

    The only way to determine the causes of injury in automobile collisions is through examination of data collected in detailed investigation of crashes. Such data were gathered from a ten-year study of collisions that caused injury to the occupants of the cars. In a comparison of injuries in the newer model automobiles-vehicles equipped with the safety features-with those in older model cars not equipped with the present-day occupant protection devices, significant reduction in injury severity was noted. PMID:5059662

  18. Automobile Exhaust Pollution and Purification Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    As we all know, the automobile gas exhaust pollution has become more and more severe at recent years. It influences both to the human beings health and to quality of environment. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what are the main components of the exhaust gases, and give a basic and effective way to solve the problem. In this thesis, first the danger of exhaust pollution and its components will be presented. Then the writer will give the general mechanism of automobile exhaust ...

  19. WAYS AND PERSPECTIVES OF TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT ON AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Bilichenko, V.; Smyrnov, E.

    2005-01-01

    Modern conditions of enterprise on automobile transport are analyzed. Technical development of enterprise on automobile transport as one of the ways of increasing competitive abilities and there profits is considered.

  20. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO2, NOx, CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, NH3, Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  1. A STUDY ON ASYNCHRONOUS SERIAL COMMUNICATON BETWEEN COMPONENTS IN AUTOMOBILES

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, Yaşar Güneri

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTIn connection with the developments in the automobile sector, the number of in-automobile components, the amount of cable used for providing in-automobile communication between these components and costs are increased gradually. In this study, a method is presented in which asynchronous serial connection is used for decreasing the initial and maintenance costs by means of decreasing the amount of cables used in middle and lower class automobiles. The electronic circuits required to es...

  2. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health...

  3. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding...

  4. Erosive Wear Assessment of Sandstorm on the Strength Properties of Automobile Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Seun Samuel OWOEYE; Lamidi, Yinusa Daniel; Ajayi, Olusola Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the extent of sandstorms effect on automobile glass in the area mostly prone to sandstorms phenomena typical of the Northern part of Nigeria, sandblasting tests were conducted in laboratory on a laminated soda lime glass of 300mm x 300mm with standard automobile glass thickness of 4mm each and PVB film of 1mm. The sand particles were projected by sandblasting machine with an air flow speed of 54km/hr (15m/s) and the impact angle was fixed at 900 while the blasting duration ...

  5. The competitive strategies of the automobile construction enterprises: european experience and ukrainian realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhrimenko Oksana Onufriivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a comparative evaluation of the strategic doctrines of Ukraine and the EU. On the basis of the development of the automotive industry trends tracked achievement and identifies problem areas. Factors that have a positive and a negative impact on the performance of automobile construction companies have disclosed. Components of success automobile construction industry of the EU countries analyzed. The role of national regulators in the protection and development of car manufacturers is considered. The attention focuses on the imperfect strategic goals of the domestic automotive industry. Suggestions on current strategies of Ukrainian enterprises are provided. The expediency of creation strategic alliances between Ukrainian and European automotive companies in order to attract innovative technology and promotion of products on the international markets has substantiated.

  6. Technology Development Road for Chemical Fiber Industry in Ghina [Part Two

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ⅲ.Technology development direction for China's chemical fiber industry in the"11th Five-year Plan" period and the longer run Presently,China's chemical fiber industry is in a critical period for development,or important transition period.Fully implement and fulfill the "'scientific development concept"put forward by the nation,and take a sustainable development road.The growth model of chemical fiber industry must undergo fundamental transformation from "quantitative"development into "qualitative" development.

  7. Investigation of the Process Chain Bending-Electromagnetic compression-Hydroforming on the Basis of an Industrial Demonstrator Part

    OpenAIRE

    Beerwald, C.; Beerwald, M.; Henselek, A.; Homberg, W.; Kleiner, M.; Psyk, V.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing significance of lightweight construction concepts requires innovative and adapted production technologies and process chains for the manufacturing of complex parts made of typical lightweight materials. The feasibility and potential of such a process chain consisting of the steps Bending - Electromagnetic compression (EMC) Hydroforming is shown in the present paper on the basis of a demonstrator part similar to a structural component from the automotive industry. Here, specia...

  8. Outlet of Local Brand on the Context of the Introducing Foreign Investment Strategy:Analysis on the Automobile Manufacturing and Pharmaceutical Industry%“进口替代型”引资战略背景的本土品牌出路:剖析汽车制造业与制药业

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹昭晞

    2012-01-01

    东道国的引资战略可分为"出口导向型"和"进口替代型"。对我国两个"进口替代型"引资战略代表产业汽车制造与制药产业的研究发现,"进口替代型"引资战略促进了本土品牌的崛起。进一步运用迈克尔.波特的钻石模型分析我国"进口替代型"引资战略中本土品牌得以生存发展的基础条件后认为,我国本土品牌的发展应从提高安全高效地利用两个市场、两种资源的能力;整合"大产业链",构筑新的竞争优势;增强企业与外资品牌进行竞争的能力等方面着手。%The introducing foreign investment strategy of the developing in Host countries can be divided into Export-oriented and Import-substitution.After analyzing on the automobile manufacturing and pharmaceutical industry,which represents industries of China's Import-substitution introducing foreign investment strategy,the introducing foreign investment strategy has promote the rising of national brand.Using the Porter Diamond Model framework,this paper analyzes the basic conditions for survival and development of China's local brands in the Import-substitution introducing foreign investment strategy.After the analysis of the changes of the above basic conditions in recent years,this paper further proposes some recommendations on the direction of development of China's local brands,for example,enhancing their ability to using the global and national market,and global and national resources;integrating industrial chain and establishing new competition advantages;strengthen their industrial competition to foreign brands.

  9. Information competence formation characteristics while preparation of specialists of the automobile profile

    OpenAIRE

    Makarova, Irina; Rifat KHABIBULLIN; Gennady MAVRIN; Guliya AKHMETZYANOVA; Almaz AKHMETSHIN

    2009-01-01

    Innovative approaches to formation of information competence while preparation of specialists of the automobile section are considered in this article: the content of information competence both basic and component part of professional competence, and also its value for the decision of professional problems on life cycle maintenance of automotive engineering is defined.

  10. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  11. Corrosion and anticorrosion. Industrial practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book comprises 14 chapters written with the collaboration of about 50 French experts of corrosion. It is complementary to another volume entitled 'corrosion of metals and alloys' and published by the same editor. This volume comprises two parts: part 1 presents the basic notions of corrosion phenomena, the properties of surfaces, the electrochemical properties of corrosion etc.. Part 2 describes the most frequent forms of corrosion encountered in industrial environments and corresponding to specific problems of protection: marine environment, atmospheric corrosion, galvanic corrosion, tribo-corrosion, stress corrosion etc.. The first 8 chapters (part 1) treat of the corrosion problems encountered in different industries and processes: oil and gas production, chemical industry, phosphoric acid industry, PWR-type power plants, corrosion of automobile vehicles, civil engineering and buildings, corrosion of biomaterials, non-destructive testing for the monitoring of corrosion. The other chapters (part 2) deal with anticorrosion and protective coatings and means: choice of materials, coatings and surface treatments, thick organic coatings and enamels, paints, corrosion inhibitors and cathodic protection. (J.S.)

  12. 13 CFR 127.500 - In what industries is a contracting officer authorized to restrict competition under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false In what industries is a contracting officer authorized to restrict competition under this part? 127.500 Section 127.500 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION WOMEN-OWNED SMALL BUSINESS FEDERAL...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 136 - Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods for Organic Chemical Analysis of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater A Appendix A to Part 136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) GUIDELINES ESTABLISHING TEST PROCEDURES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLLUTANTS Pt. 136, App....

  14. STATE AND PROSPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RAPID PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGIES IN INDUSTRY (Part Оne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kolesnikov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth dynamics pertaining to country- and industry branch-wise application of additive technologies is presented in the paper. The paper contains application examples of these technologies with a view of rapid manufacturing. Specific concrete recommendations are proposed for quicker introduction of additive manufacturing technologies in domestic industry.

  15. STATE AND PROSPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RAPID PROTOTYPING TECHNOLOGIES IN INDUSTRY (Part Оne)

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnikov, L.; G. Mangula; V. Sheleh; A. Iakimovich

    2014-01-01

    Growth dynamics pertaining to country- and industry branch-wise application of additive technologies is presented in the paper. The paper contains application examples of these technologies with a view of rapid manufacturing. Specific concrete recommendations are proposed for quicker introduction of additive manufacturing technologies in domestic industry.

  16. Improved automobile gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Katsanis, T.; Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Wong, R. Y.; Schumann, L. F.; Galvas, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Upgraded engine delivers 100 hp in 3500 lb vehicle. Improved fuel economy is due to combined effects of reduced weight, reduced power-to-weight ratio, increased turbine inlet pressure, and improved component efficiencies at part power.

  17. Industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discusses the role-plays by nuclear technology to enhance productivity in industry. Some of the techniques, Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) - x, gamma, electron and neutron radiography, nuclear gauges, materials characterization are discussed thoroughly

  18. Projections of automobile ownership and use based on household lifestyle factors. [To year 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, D.P.

    1979-03-01

    This report projects to the year 2025 the total number of automobiles that would be owned by American households, (total ownership) and the total number of miles that these vehicles would be driven per day (total use) given certain assumptions about the future of U.S. society. These assumptions relate to demographic, economic, and geographical attrributes of U.S. society that are relevant to the automobile. The impacts of these assumptions were analyzed via a set of projection models which explicitly recognize the relationship between these particular attributes of society and the automobile. Part I presents an overivew of the research and Part II the results. The methodology used to generate the projections is discussed in some detail in Part III. In a base case projection the number of automobiles and average daily travel of Americans double by 2025 due to increases in populaion, headship rates (households per population), and incomes. economic variables account for about half of this increase as indicated by a no economic growth projection in which ownership and daily travel increase just over 40% and 50%, respectively. Other projections explore the effects of differing assumptions regarding rates of household formations, population growth, and income growth. Model projections suggest that changed work schedules and the re-emergence of cities as growth areas will have only slight impacts on future travel and vehicle ownership.

  19. Tough & Long "Going-Out" Road——Review on the Internationalization of China's Auto Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Mi

    2009-01-01

    @@ In 2008,the momentum of the outward investment of Chinese enterprises was strong.The amount of outward investment continued to grow rapidly,and has for the first time exceeded US$50 billion,reaching US$55.91 billion.China's automobile industry has undergone decades of development and has formed a huge production capacity,with part of its pioneering enterprises having conducted a number of useful attempts in internationalization.

  20. Rules of origin and development of regional production network in Asia: case studies of selected industries

    OpenAIRE

    Nag, Biswajit; De, Debdeep

    2011-01-01

    Rules of Origin (RoO) are essential part of trade rules that become very important in the context of increasing globalisation of production process. Most industrial goods today incorporate inputs from a wide variety of countries (e.g. automobiles, electronic goods etc) and when traded it becomes important to determine their country of origin as tariffs depend on country of origin. International production networks (IPN) promote this new pattern of trade, such that goods travel across several ...

  1. 买方势力、资产专用性与技术创新——基于中国汽车工业的实证检验%Buyer Power,Asset Specificity and Technological Innovation——An Empirical Research on Chinese Automobile Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓华; 郑辉

    2011-01-01

    Buyer power and asset specificity are important factors of affecting technological innovation in vertical market.Taking Chinese automobile industry statistics from 2000 to 2008 as samples,this paper empirically tests the relationship between buyer power,asset specificity and technological innovation through the panel data model.The results show that technological innovation depends not only on supplier market conditions,but also on the competitive conditions of downstream industry.Buyer market power helps promote upstream technological innovation activities;buyer asset specificity has a significant negative effect on their own technological innovation,the higher the proportion of fixed assets is,the less RD inputs will be.In addition,buyer technological capabilities and the rapid growth of market demand have a positive impact on technological innovation,while equal market power between upstream and downstream industries is an obstacle to technological innovation.%在纵向关联市场中,买方势力和资产专用性是影响企业技术创新的重要因素。本文以我国汽车工业2000-2008年统计数据为样本,利用面板数据模型对买方市场势力、资产专用性与技术创新的关系进行了实证检验,研究结果表明:技术创新行为不仅取决于企业自身所处的市场条件,还与作为买方的下游行业市场竞争状况有关,买方市场势力的增强有利于上游企业技术创新活动的开展;下游企业的资产专用性对上游企业技术创新具有显著的负效应,固定资产比例越高,研发投入越少。此外,较快的市场需求增长率和买方技术能力对技术创新具有积极影响,上下游行业之间较为对等的市场势力会阻碍技术创新。

  2. Practice and Exploration of Regional Industrial Vocational Education Alliance:A Case Study of Automobile Vocational Education Alliance in Suizhou City,Hubei Province%区域行业性职业教育联盟的实践和探索--以湖北随州市汽车职业教育联盟为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄荷斌

    2015-01-01

    Vocational education and regional economy is a benefit community with mutual promotion and development .The innovation of running model of higher vocational colleges should take the devel‐opment of regional economy as the foundation and focus on the training of high‐quality talents with advanced technical skills and sustainable development capability .In view of the advantages of automo‐bile industry in Suizhou City and the situation of local vocational education ,this paper elaborates the philosophy ,practical process and effect of Suizhou Automobile Vocational Education Alliance organ‐ized by Suizhou Vocational and Technical College .It provides a reference for the reform of talent training model of vocational education .%职业教育与区域经济是在一个大环境下互相促进、共同发展的利益共同体。高职院校办学模式创新应立足于发展区域经济,着重于培养具备可持续发展能力的高素质、高技能型人才。文章结合随州地区汽车行业优势和本地区职业教育情况,阐述了随州职业技术学院组建“随州汽车职教联盟”的理念、实践过程以及取得的初步成效,为职业教育人才培养模式改革提供现实案例。

  3. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  4. Assessment of heavy metals contents in soil from an industrial plant of southern part of Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Florescu; Andreea Iordache; Iuliana Piciorea; Ionete, Roxana E.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of soils is performed in order to establish the impact of heavy metal pollutionnear an industrial power plant. The use of synthetic products (e.g. pesticides, paints, batteries, industrialwaste and land application of industrial or domestic sludge) can result in heavy metal contamination ofsoils. Heavy metals also occur naturally, but rarely at toxic levels. Soil samples from different depth weredrawn. Heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Cu and Mn were analysed to establish the leve...

  5. Efficient controller area network data compression for automobile applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-jing WU; Jin-Gyun CHUNG

    2015-01-01

    Controller area networks (CANs) have been designed for multiplexing communication between electronic control units (ECUs) in vehicles and many high-level industrial control applications. When a CAN bus is overloaded by a large number of ECUs connected to it, both the waiting time and the error probability of the data transmission are increased. Thus, it is desirable to reduce the CAN frame length, since the duration of data transmission is proportional to the frame length. In this paper, we present a CAN message compression method to reduce the CAN frame length. Experimental results indicate that CAN transmission data can be compressed by up to 81.06%with the proposed method. By using an embedded test board, we show that 64-bit engine management system (EMS) CAN data compression can be performed within 0.16 ms;consequently, the proposed algorithm can be successfully used in automobile applications.

  6. SUPPLIER EVALUATION SYSTEM GENERATION: A CASE OF AN AUTOMOTIVE SPARE-PARTS SUPPLIER

    OpenAIRE

    Oflac, Bengu Sevil

    2015-01-01

     The main aim of this study is to conduct a current state analysis for a leading original and spare parts producer operating in automobile industry. In the focused company, due to having some problems about purchasing process, there was a need for reviewing and restructuring supplier evaluation mechanism. In this perspective, based on the results of qualitative techniques conducted, reasons for poor evaluation systems were found. As a contribution to practice, in line with the needs of compan...

  7. RESEARCH ON MODEL AND METHOD OF NETWORK-BASED COOPERATIVE COMMERCE CHAIN IN AUTOMOBOLE INDUSTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Li; Chen Zichen; Zhang Fei; Gu Xinjian

    2003-01-01

    Based on the analysis on the development of the cooperative commerce in automobile industry, the systematic model of the cooperative commerce chain in automobile industry is illustrated,the flow of agent-based NCCC (network-based cooperative commerce chain) system is described, and the method and NCCC system in automobile industry are developed, and so the correctness and the feasibility of the theory and the method are confirmed.

  8. “Separation -A Better Tomorrow-Economy” A Study of Marketing Strategies On Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Chakravarty

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Automobile is one of the largest industries in global market. Being the leader in product and process technologies in the manufacturing sector, it has been recognized as one of the drivers of economic growth. During the last decade, well directed efforts have been made to provide a new look to the automobile policy for realizing the sector's full potential for the economy. Aggressive marketing by the auto finance companies have also played a significant role in boosting automobile demand, especially from the population in the middle income group. This study is been conducted to know the different strategic implementation done for the sale increase in automobile company. The study is been scoped to north eastern region comprising of Jorhat, Sibsagar, Kolkata, Dharmanagar, Agartala, Silchar, Shillong, Umsnai and Guwahati City for Hero Moto Corp and Bajaj. The data followed with primary as well as secondary means. The researcher seeks for the betterment of sales of these bikes and also initiates recommendation related to marketing strategies to help increase their sales.

  9. Hybridní pohon automobilů

    OpenAIRE

    Tvrdý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Obsahem této bakalářské práce je přehled možných hybridních pohonů automobilů a jejich praktické využití. Je zaměřena na hlavní výhody a nevýhody hybridního pohonu a zabývá se dopadem takto vybavených automobilů na životní prostředí, především na produkci skleníkových plynů. Také uvádí pohled na hybridy z finančního hlediska. This bachelor thesis deals with an overview of all possible hybrid vehicle propulsion systems and their practical usage. It is focused on the main advantages and disa...

  10. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) part 6-2 : generic standards : immunity for industrial environments

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Applies to electrical and electronic apparatus intended for use in industrial environments, for which no designed product or product-family immunity standard exists. Immunity requirements in the frequency range 0 Hz to 400 GHz are covered, in relation to continuous and transient, conducted and radiated disturbances, including electrostatic discharges. Test requirements are specified for each port considered. Apparatus intended to be used in industrial locations are characterized by the existence of one or more of the following: - a power network exists powered by a high or medium voltage power transformer for the supply of an installation feeding manufacturing or similar plant; - industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) apparatus; - heavy inductive or capacitive loads are frequently switched; - currents and associated magnetic fields are high.

  11. Invited Review Article: Review of post-process optical form metrology for industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavroulakis, P. I.; Leach, R. K.

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this review is to investigate the main post-process optical form measurement technologies available in industry today and to determine whether they are applicable to industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts. An in-depth review of the operation of optical three-dimensional form measurement technologies applicable to metal additive manufacturing is presented, with a focus on their fundamental limitations. Looking into the future, some alternative candidate measurement technologies potentially applicable to metal additive manufacturing will be discussed, which either provide higher accuracy than currently available techniques but lack measurement volume, or inversely, which operate in the appropriate measurement volume but are not currently accurate enough to be used for industrial measurement.

  12. Amarok Pikap: interactive percussion playing automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Artut, Selçuk Hüseyin; Artut, Selcuk Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Alternative interfaces that imitate the audio-structure of authentic musical instruments are often equipped with sound generation techniques that feature physical attributes similar to those of the instruments they imitate. Amarok Pikap project utilizes an interactive system on the surface of an automobile that is specially modified with the implementation of various electronic sensors attached to its bodywork. Sur-faces that will be struck to produce sounds in percussive instrument modeling ...

  13. Estimation of Claim Numbers in Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Arató, Miklós; Martinek, László

    2012-01-01

    The use of bonus-malus systems in compulsory liability automobile insurance is a worldwide applied method for premium pricing. If certain assumptions hold, like the conditional Poisson distribution of the policyholders claim number, then an interesting task is to evaluate the so called claims frequency of the individuals. Here we introduce 3 techniques, two is based on the bonus-malus class, and the third based on claims history. The article is devoted to choose the method, which fits to the ...

  14. Telematics Strategy for Automobile Insurers : Whitepaper

    OpenAIRE

    Paefgen, Johannes; Fleisch, Elgar; Staake, Thorsten; Ackermann, Lukas; Best, Jonas; Egli, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    This whitepaper investigates the business implications telematics services and Pay-as-you-drive (PAYD) insurance in particular, from the perspective of automobile insurance providers. Specifically, it discusses - the PROFITABILITY and competitive dynamics of PAYD insurance, - a simplified BUSINESS CASE for a new market entrant with a PAYD product, - the present STRUCTURE OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETS for insurance telematics services, - DRIVERS AND BARRIERS for the focus markets Swit...

  15. THE COST OF INACCURATE AUTOMOBILE MILEAGE INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sexauer, Benjamin; Roe, Terry L.; Kinsey, Jean D.

    1981-01-01

    The model in this paper integrates the possibility of misinformation into consumer utility theory. If the utility realized from a good differs from the utility anticipated at time of purchase, shifts in demand would occur, and thus changes in consumer surplus. These changes provide a measure of the cost of misinformation or value of improved information. The empirical analysis yields estimates of the private and social cost of inaccuracies in automobile buyers; pre-purchase mileage estimates....

  16. New type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system for identification and measuring of contamination with natural and artificial gamma isotopes is described. developed. Its main principle is a maximal use of the energy resolution of NaJ(Tl) detectors. The system consists of a spectrometer working simultaneously with a set of 1-16 scintillator blocks and a registration/ data processing unit. The operational mode, optimal performance and control subsystem are described

  17. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  18. Assessment of heavy metals contents in soil from an industrial plant of southern part of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Florescu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of soils is performed in order to establish the impact of heavy metal pollutionnear an industrial power plant. The use of synthetic products (e.g. pesticides, paints, batteries, industrialwaste and land application of industrial or domestic sludge can result in heavy metal contamination ofsoils. Heavy metals also occur naturally, but rarely at toxic levels. Soil samples from different depth weredrawn. Heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Cu and Mn were analysed to establish the level of contaminationrelative to maximum limits enforced by environmental protection agencies. In addition, a measurementfor the total organic carbon (TOC concentration is accomplished.

  19. Mudanças de forecast na indústria automobilística: iniciativas para a estruturação dos processos de tomada de decisão e processamento da informação Changes in automotive industry forecasting: initiatives for structuring the processes of decision-making and information processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Roldan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo visa identificar que aspectos da literatura corrente sobre o processo de tomada de decisões, aliados à ferramenta de Mapeamento do Fluxo de Valor (MFV - derivada da abordagem de manufatura enxuta -, podem ser aplicados ao processo de mudanças de forecast de produção na indústria automobilística. Proposições teóricas e suas implicações metodológicas são discutidas do ponto de vista prático, em um caso real no mercado brasileiro. São feitas recomendações visando melhorar este processo, trazendo maior clareza, objetividade e racionalidade, além de promover o fortalecimento da competitividade desta indústria e de sua cadeia de suprimentos. Desta forma, a idéia de combinar a aplicação da ferramenta de MFV, adaptada para processos administrativos, com sugestões baseadas em teorias descritivas e normativas da engenharia de tomada de decisão, se mostra promissora, podendo contribuir para melhorar a qualidade e eficiência no processo estudado.This paper identifies the aspects of the current literature on the decision-making process and Value Stream Mapping (VSM - a tool derived from the lean thinking approach - that can be applied to improve the process of production forecast changes in the automotive industry. The theoretical propositions and their methodological implications are discussed from the practical viewpoint, focusing on the real case of an auto manufacturer in the Brazilian market. Recommendations are made to improve this process and make it clear, objective and rational, as well as to strengthen the competitiveness of this industry and its supply chain. The idea of combining the application of VSM adapted to administrative environments and processes with suggestions based on normative and descriptive theories about decision-making engineering seems promising and may contribute to improve the quality and efficiency of this process.

  20. Contribution of heat transfer to turbine blades and vanes for high temperature industrial gas turbines. Part 1: Film cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, K; Aoki, S

    2001-05-01

    This paper deals with the contribution of heat transfer to increase the turbine inlet temperature of industrial gas turbines in order to attain efficient and environmentally benign engines. High efficiency film cooling, in the form of shaped film cooling and full coverage film cooling, is one of the most important cooling technologies. Corresponding heat transfer tests to optimize the film cooling effectiveness are shown and discussed in this first part of the contribution. PMID:11460641

  1. Comparative analysis of energy impacts of traditional and partly electronic environmental auditing: Learning from the Japanese automotive industry case

    OpenAIRE

    C. Mbohwa

    2008-01-01

    This paper does a comparative analysis and assessment of energy impacts of traditional and partly electronic ISO 14001 environmental management system auditing that using videoconferencing systems. The focus is on the Japanese automotive industry. The idea is to quantify the environmental impacts of auditing and resolve the important question on whether or not the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in environmental auditing reduces environmental impacts in IS...

  2. Current Situation and Development Tendency of China’s Electronic Copper Foil Industry-Part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>In 2011, in despite of production expansion slowdown of China’s electronic copper foil industry due to global economic downturn, European debt crisis and global inflation, China’s production capacity of copper foil rose through extensive construction of new and extension projects.

  3. Industrial Zones in Hubei Province Welcome Investments Mechanical and Auto Parts Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Shiyan Dongfeng Innovation,Brooder, Industrial Zone Ⅰ. The Background of The Project and the Enterprise The project is located at Xiejia Val-lage, Checheng Sub-district, Kaixuan Avenue, invested by Xianglong Real Estate Co., Ltd. It covers an area of 82.3 acres.

  4. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin F.; Madsen, Claus; Olsen, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    The Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) concept allows for a high efficiency of a heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept consists of two water storage tanks, one charged and one discharged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process, while the discharged tank is...

  5. The Domestic Telecommunications Carrier Industry. Part I. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    A staff paper submitted to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy recommends that public policy ensure an integrated structure in the telecommunications industry, while fostering limited competition to keep the system responsive to new technology and to consumer demands. The present system of regulated monopoly for companies supplying…

  6. A Model for Promoting Poultry Industry Development in Togo: Part 1. Management Practices and Incubation Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tona, K.; Agbonon, A.; Eklu-Gadegbeku, K.; Teteh, A.; Simons, P.; Buyse, J.; Everaert, N.; Kemp, B.; Decuypere, E.; Gbeassor, M.

    2014-01-01

    In commercial poultry husbandry practice, the hatchery takes over the incubation of bird eggs in order to provide as many day-old chicks as needed at any time to farmers. The main bottleneck for poultry industry development in Togo is the lack of day-old chick supply. Indeed, there is no proficient

  7. Les populations périurbaines face à l'automobile en grande couronne francilienne

    OpenAIRE

    Motte-Baumvol, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    ACL International audience The present article is attempting to identify if the automobile, which took part in development of periurban spaces but which causes strong disparities of mobility between households, according to their incomes and of their age, leads to exclude an increasing part of the population in this spaces. We looked more closely into not-motorized population but also motorized households, of modest income or older age, for which cost or physical requirements of automob...

  8. The technical ceramics (second part)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with ceramics used in the nuclear and the automotive industries. Concerning the nuclear sector, ceramics are particularly used in reactors, in the treatment of radioactive wastes and for the storage of the ultimate wastes. Details are given about the different ceramics used. In the automobile sector, aluminium is principally used for its lightness and cordierite, basic material of catalyst supports is especially used in the automobile devices of cleansing. (O.M.)

  9. Newly added joint ventures in China’s auto parts industry in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>A total of 17 joint ventures on auto parts production were added in 2007, a slight increase year on year. The Chinese side partners were from FAW, SAIC, Beiqi and Sinotruk and foreigner partners were from Lear, Johnson Controls, ArvinMeritor, DEUTZ, FAURECIA and RICARDO. The planed products include car seat, interior, diesel engine, body electronics parts, transmission and bumper.

  10. Available forest biomass for new energetic and industrial prospects. Part 1: analysis and synthesis of existing studies compiled at the international level. Part 2: volume calculations. Part 3: economic part. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by new energetic constraints and the interest of biomass, the authors report a bibliographical survey of studies concerning the evaluation of the available forest biomass. They comment the geographical and time distribution of the identified and compiled studies. They analyse their different topics. Then, they discuss the various field hypotheses, discuss and comments various resource assessment methodologies. They comment the resource the French forest can be, present a synthesis of the available resource at the regional level according to the different studies. They propose a review of some technical-economical aspects (costs, energy cost, price evolutions, improvement of the wood-energy mobilization). The second part proposes a whole set of volume calculations for different forest types (clusters or plantations of trees, copses, sawmills products), for industry and household consumption. It discusses the available volumes with respect to accessibility, additional available volumes, and possible improvements. The third part analyses, comments and discusses the wood market and wood energetic uses, and the possible supply curves for wood energetic uses by 2016

  11. Technological competence and competitiveness of Korea industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces technology and competitiveness and industrial policy of economics, technological competence and technological innovation system of Korea, a newly industrialized country, development of technological innovation and competence of semiconductor industry, development of technological innovation and competence of synthetic fiber industry, development of technological innovation and competence of machine tool industry, development of technological competence of automobile industry, improvement and delay of technological competence of computer industry, and development of technological innovation and competitiveness of appliance industry.

  12. Bitter Operation in Global Steel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Sujuan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Shrinking international demand Global economy started to decline from the second half of 2008. Along with weak real estate market and dull automobile sales, steel industry fell into stagnant operation after six-year-straight rapid development.

  13. Technology assessment. HTR Part 2. Application of High temperature Reactor in industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a study on the use of a high temperature reactor as a process heat reactor in high temperature (industrial) processes are presented.The study of the different temperature levels of industrial processes showed that using the heat for steam reforming of natural gas for the production of methanol and ammonia and for the use in a naphtha cracker seem to be to most promising options for the HTR. A description is given of each process and the use of the HTR heat is outlined. The consequences for process operation and operating costs using the HTR heat are discussed as well. In the case study of steam reforming energy conservation potentials in the production of methanol and ammonia are described. 20 figs., 11 tabs, 57 refs

  14. Internal and external sources of capacity building in the Mexican auto-parts industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Garcia, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the study of technology upgrading in late industrialising countries. This research aims to understand the process of technology upgrading of SMEs in the automotive industry by looking at the internal and external sources of technology for these firms. To do so, the main bodies of literature of this research are i) technological capabilities and absorptive capacity, ii) global value chains, and iii) NLSs. Technology upgrading has not been a well-developed noti...

  15. Modelling of an industrial environment, part 1.: Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a nuclear accident releasing radioactive material into the environment the external exposures may contribute significantly to the radiation exposure of the population (UNSCEAR 1988, 2000). For urban populations the external gamma exposure from radionuclides deposited on the surfaces of the urban-industrial environments yields the dominant contributions to the total dose to the public (Kelly 1987; Jacob and Meckbach 1990). The radiation field is naturally influenced by the environment around the sources. For calculations of the shielding effect of the structures in complex and realistic urban environments Monte Carlo methods turned out to be useful tools (Jacob and Meckbach 1987; Meckbach et al. 1988). Using these methods a complex environment can be set up in which the photon transport can be solved on a reliable way. The accuracy of the methods is in principle limited only by the knowledge of the atomic cross sections and the computational time. Several papers using Monte Carlo results for calculating doses from the external gamma exposures were published (Jacob and Meckbach 1987, 1990; Meckbach et al. 1988; Rochedo et al. 1996). In these papers the Monte Carlo simulations were run in urban environments and for different photon energies. The industrial environment can be defined as such an area where productive and/or commercial activity is carried out. A good example can be a factory or a supermarket. An industrial environment can rather be different from the urban ones as for the types and structures of the buildings and their dimensions. These variations will affect the radiation field of this environment. Hence there is a need to run new Monte Carlo simulations designed specially for the industrial environments

  16. The part of the international investments in the Russian petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''russian risk'' is important for the international petroleum companies, in spite of the creation of the TNK-BP joint venture. The investment in the petroleum domain face different and contradictory interests in function of the economic implied actors. To analyze the situation the author discussed the russian petroleum industry as an ''unfinished model'', and how the place for the international investments is limited. (A.L.B.)

  17. Competitiveness and profitability - New challenges in the ceramic frit, glaze and colour industry, part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Tortajada Esparza, Enrique; Fernández de Lucio, Ignacio; Gabaldón Estevan, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Spanish ceramic frit, glaze and colour industry encompasses 27 companies employing early 4000 staff with a total annual turnover of approximately one billion euros. These firms have based their growth since the 1990s on two strategies, the first of which is horizontal and vertical growth with an emphasis on overseas expansion and building foreign subsidiaries - any of which also manufacture and offer technical consultancy. The second strategy has been innovation. The result of these strat...

  18. Engineering Predictions in Industrial and Power Flows Using the Retrograde Condensation Curve. Part I-Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Labinov, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Industrial and power systems rely on engineering predictions of the flow properties of working fluids. The paper proposes a way of the utilization of the vapor quality values along the new retrograde condensation curve in the generation of the void fraction design guidelines and reliable prediction of the saturated liquid specific volumes/densities. The new procedure eliminates the involvement of semi-empirical relationships like rectilinear diameter and other similar models.

  19. Automobile technology in a CO{sub 2}-constrained world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S.; Barreto Gomez, L.; Dietrich, Ph. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schafer, A.; Jacoby, H.D. [MIT, Cambridge (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This study identifies the environmental conditions under which less CO{sub 2}-emitting and more expensive automobile technology might enter the North American transportation sector. For that purpose, different exogenous CO{sub 2}-reduction targets are imposed and the resulting market shares of hypothetical future automobile technologies calculated. The criteria for the selection of different types of automobiles/fuels is the minimisation of discounted, cumulative transport sector costs over the scenario time horizon. (author) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  20. Brand Equity-Consequence Relationship: Evidence from Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Mahfooz

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the perception towards antecedents of brand equity and also its consequence for passenger cars. Convenience sampling technique was use to collect data in the cities of Riyadh and Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Self-administered online questionnaires were used to collect total 310 responses, and 216 were found valid (70 percent response rate) and used for the study. The responses were analyzed for descriptive statistics as well as significant relat...

  1. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Vicianová

    2011-01-01

    At present, the corporate social responsibility should be seen not only in theory, but mainlyat the level of business practice. Companies that apply the concept of corporate socialresponsibility are aware not only of social and environmental benefits, but also theeconomic benefits that this approach brings. Assumptions of social responsibility are tomaximize the market value of the business provided that companies respect the laws andresponsibilities of owners, managers and employees. Benefit...

  2. Automobile Industry Retail Price Equivalent and Indirect Cost Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report develops a modified multiplier, referred to as an indirect cost (IC) multiplier, which specifically evaluates the components of indirect costs that are likely to be affected by vehicle modifications associated with environmental regulation. A range of IC multipliers a...

  3. The Study of Automobile Electron Cloud Manufacturing Architecture based on Automobile Open System Architecture%基于汽车开放系统架构的汽车电子云制造架构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钺

    2015-01-01

    In order to further satisfy the real-time and reliability requirement of automobile electronic manufacturing industry, this paper based on the automobile electron cloud manufacturing architecture as the main research content, through analyzing automobile electronic standard(AUTOSAR) and the Service oriented architecture(SOA) component model, to designing and illustrating the automobile electron cloud manufacturing architecture which was based on automobile open system architecture.%为进一步满足汽车电子制造业的实时性与可靠性要求,本文以汽车电子云制造架构作为主要研究内容,通过对汽车电子标准AUTOSAR与面向服务体系结构的组件模型SOA进行分析,进而对以汽车开放系统架构为基础的汽车电子云制造架构进行了设计和说明.

  4. "Green" Sunrise or "Brown" Sunset Industry Response?

    OpenAIRE

    Wad, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In the Global South automobile production evolved behind protectionist walls and was promoted by infant industry policies and outright national automotive projects from the 1950s. In recent decades, many developing countries have liberalized their automotive markets and allowed automobile TNCs to take majority control over joint ventures, transforming domestic automotive industries into foreign controlled sectors while leaving a few national automakers in India, Malaysia and China. Decomposin...

  5. The Mechanism of State Support for Automobile Industry in Ukraine Механизм государственной поддержки автомобилестроения в Украине

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolbasin Yevgeniy S.,

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The current legislation of Ukraine concerning the support of automobile production has been analyzed. The instruments of influence within the scope of methods of direct and indirect regulation of the automobile industry and the mechanism of its state support in conditions of crisis have been suggested.Проанализировано действующее законодательство Украины относительно поддержки автомобилестроения. Предложены инструменты влияния в рамках методов прямого и косвенного регулирования отрасли автомобилестроения и механизм ее государственной поддержки в условиях кризиса.

  6. The impact of ISO/TS 16949 on automotive industries and created organizational capabilities from its implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhtiar Ostadi; Mohammad Aghdasi; Reza Baradaran Kazemzadeh

    2010-01-01

    ISO/TS 16949 is an ISO Technical Specification. ISO/TS 16949 achieves the objectives which are continually to improve the production of automobile parts and related services, and to strengthen the international competition for the automotive industry and its suppliers. By applying this quality system standard, automotive manufacturers could offer superior products and good services to customers. The more the companies know about the benefits if quality management systems such as ISO/TS 16949,...

  7. An Account for Implementing Just-in-time: A Case Study of the Automotive Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Hou; Hing Kai Chan; Xiaojun Wang

    2013-01-01

    Just-in-time (JIT) has been a popular operation strategy partly because of its success in the japanese automobile industry. Various benefits such as inventory reduction, improved operations efficiency, and faster response, have been studied widely in previous studies. Therefore, successful implementation of JIT is vital to many companies. This research makes use of a case study to explore five key research themes, which are information system, production planning, inventory manage...

  8. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  9. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  10. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  11. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In

  12. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  13. Automobile sheet metal part production with incremental sheet forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DURGUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, effect of global warming is increasing drastically so it leads to increased interest on energy efficiency and sustainable production methods. As a result of adverse conditions, national and international project platforms, OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers, SMEs (Small and Mid-size Manufacturers perform many studies or improve existing methodologies in scope of advanced manufacturing techniques. In this study, advanced manufacturing and sustainable production method "Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISF" was used for sheet metal forming process. A vehicle fender was manufactured with or without die by using different toolpath strategies and die sets. At the end of the study, Results have been investigated under the influence of method and parameters used.Keywords: Template incremental sheet metal, Metal forming

  14. Removal of Vanadium from Molten Aluminum—Part III. Analysis of Industrial Boron Treatment Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Abdul; Akbar Rhamdhani, Muhammad; Brooks, Geoffrey A.; Grandfield, John

    2014-04-01

    Transition metal impurities (V, Ti, Zr, and Cr) reduce the electrical conductivity of smelter grade aluminum. These impurities are removed in the form of their borides by reacting with added Al-B master alloys i.e., boron treatment. Although, boron treatment is widely used for the production of high purity aluminum alloys in casthouse the fundamental understanding is lacking and published industrial data are limited. In the current study, industrial trials on the removal of impurities were conducted at one of the high purity aluminum alloys producers in Australasia. Kinetics analysis revealed that the rate of reaction is controlled by the mass transfer of impurities in the bulk melt. The measured mass transfer coefficient ( k m) of V and Ti were 1.1 × 10-4 and 2.6 × 10-4 m/s respectively, in the naturally stirred molten aluminum. The rate of V and Ti removal was faster compared to Zr and Cr during the boron treatment of smelter grade aluminum. Mass balance analysis revealed that 70 wt pct of V and Ti combined as borides in the first hour of the total 12 hours of boron treatment process. The calculated amount of un-reacted B was approximately 25.5 wt pct of initial amount added that remained in the final alloy. There was no evidence of boride rings formation, although partially dissolved AlB12 particles were observed under scanning electron microscope. Finally, implications for industrial practice are discussed for the improvement of current boron treatment process that include changing the source of boron, multiple stage addition of boron and better stirring of the molten aluminum.

  15. Determination of Industrial Enterprise Contract Demand Being Part of Maximum Power System Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Radkevich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a regime and economic essence of the problem pertaining to determination of the customer contract demand for industrial consumers of electric power with connected load of Sпp > 250 kV×A. A method for determination of the electric power customer half-hour maximum demand is proposed in the paper. The method is based on the calculation of daily average active load and utilization factor with due account of the occurrence probability of a calculated maximum load value.

  16. Determination of Industrial Enterprise Contract Demand Being Part of Maximum Power System Load

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Radkevich; О. А. Trifonova

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers a regime and economic essence of the problem pertaining to determination of the customer contract demand for industrial consumers of electric power with connected load of Sпp > 250 kV×A. A method for determination of the electric power customer half-hour maximum demand is proposed in the paper. The method is based on the calculation of daily average active load and utilization factor with due account of the occurrence probability of a calculated maximum load value.

  17. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Madsen, C.; Elmegaard, Brian;

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) is to provide a high-efficient ammonia heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process while the discharged...... investigate the performance of the ISEC system. The ISEC concept approaches the efficiency of a number of heat pumps in series and the COP of the system may reach 6.8, which is up to 25 % higher than a conventional heat pump heating water in one step....

  18. 高强度钢板在汽车车身上的应用%The Application of High Strength Steel in Automobile Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周岱云

    2012-01-01

    In today's auto industry, one of the core competitions is the development and its application of automotive materials. Steel charaeteristies in different part of automobile body are deseribed, and three kinds of high strength steel are summarized and introduced. Get a deeper understanding of steel using in automobile body. Improving the level of material utilization in auto industry' is the important measure and method by improving low consumption, low emission, low noise, lightweight and safety.%汽车工业发展到今天,其核心竞争力之一就是汽车材料的研发和使用性能的应用研究水平。文章列举了汽车车身不同部位使用的钢板特点,对3类高强度钢板进行了归纳和介绍,加深了对汽车车身用钢板的了解。提高汽车工业的用材水平,是使汽车工业同时满足低油耗、低排放、低噪声、轻量化及安全性的重要手段和方法。

  19. SLIDING MODE CONTROL FOR ACTIVE AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear control methods are presented based on theory of sliding mode control (SMC) or variable structure control (VSC) for application to active automobile suspensions. Requirements of reducing manufacturing cost and energy consumption of the active suspension system may be satisfiedby reasonable design of the sliding surface and hydraulic servo system. Emphasis is placed on the study of the discrete sliding mode control method (DSMC) applicable for a new sort of speed on-off solenoid valves of anti-dust capability and low price. Robustness and effectiveness of the feedback linearized controller in typical road conditions are demonstrated by numerical results fora quarter-car suspension model.

  20. WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY

    OpenAIRE

    SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA; SUMIT KUMAR JHA,; DR S.N. SINGH,

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V) automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant curren...

  1. WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant current to the battery.

  2. 76 FR 44402 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...' eligibility for automobile adaptation equipment or other conveyance allowance. DATES: Written comments and... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Automobile or...

  3. Purification of industrial phosphoric acid using silica produced from rice husk(part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, silica was extracted from rice husk (RH) by different techniques and used for removal of some heavy metals from industrial phosphoric acid. The data obtained, showed that removal of Cu(II),Cd(II) and Pb(II) is efficient when the silica used is obtained by acidic treatment, while the removal of Fe (III) and Zn(II) is efficient when the silica used was obtained by alkaline treatment of RH. On the other hand, if silica used is obtained from rice husk ash (RHA) it was found more efficient for the removal of Mn. In all cases, silica has been characterized by UV-spectrophotometry. FTIR, SEM and EDX were used for prediction of sorption mechanism.

  4. Integrated product and process system with continuous improvement in the auto parts industry

    OpenAIRE

    I.B. Silva; G.F. Batalha; M. Stipkovik Filho; F.Z. Ceccarelli; J.B. Anjos; M. Fesz

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Quality systems (QS) update must be based on the enterprise organization to assure customer satisfaction, as Deming, Juran and Feigenbaum did in their time, to seek improvement processes to reach high quality performance. This way, the proposal of this paper is the development of quality system integration model of product and process with continuous improvement.Design/methodology/approach: To reach this goal, a Brazilian automotive parts quality system was improved through the Compu...

  5. 现代汽车电子技术特点及发展趋势%Modern Automobile Electronic Technology Feature and Development Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彤宇

    2011-01-01

    With the continuous development of information technology, the automobile electronic technology level is an important factor to measure a nation's automobile industry development. In automobile field, modern electronic technology and computer technology are widely used. The development trend of modern automobile development is also the modem automobile's application of electronic technology. The paper analyzed the concept of modern automobile electronic technology and explored its development trend according to its feature in the hope to clarify China's automobile electronic products'feature and makes the brief description on the development trend of automobile electronic industry.%随着信息技术的不断发展,衡量一个国家汽车工业发展的重要标志是汽车电子化技术水平的高低,在汽车工业里现代电子技术与计算机技术得到了广泛应用,现代汽车工业的发展趋势也是现代汽车应用先进的电子技术.本文分析了现代汽车电子技术的概念,并针对其特点应用及发展趋势进行探讨,希望通过本文的阐述使我国的汽车电子产品的特点得以明晰,并对汽车电子产业未来发展趋势进行简单描述.

  6. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study will be useful to both managers in the auto industry as well as policy makers. It will help managers in the auto industry to gain a better understanding of consumer intentions and identify the factors which influence them. Policy makers in Pakistan’s auto sector would benefit from the insights of this study when developing the long overdue Auto Policy. Analysis of the data collected has revealed that the three key factors identified from studies in other Asian countries are also relevant for Pakistani auto consumers.

  7. The Tacit Knowledge Diffusion Model in the Cluster Innovation Environment-Automobile Industry Cluster in Anhui Province%集群创新环境下组织隐性知识扩散模型研究——以安徽省汽车产业集群为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢荣见; 孙剑平; 周小虎

    2012-01-01

    of information exchanged between the experience and skills within the industry cluster organizations. From an organizational perspective, tacit knowledge diffusion depends on the spatial distance proximity and face-to-face contact;from the individual point of view, it is often associated with specific knowledge of the owner (staffs). So, we need to do research from both perspectives of organization and individual to promote the tacit knowledge diffusion. It is very important to analyze the influence factors of tacit knowledge diffusion and these fac- tors come from organization and individual in cluster innovation environment. Based on the influence factors, the models are needed to be constructed, so that it can analyze the key influence factors which can increase the degree of tacit knowledge diffusion. In this paper, we do research on the influence factors from organization and individualperspectives which include cluster tacit knowledge diffusion influence factors and cluster innovation institutional fac- tors and cluster innovation staff factors. We establish the tacit knowledge diffusion framework diagram based on the three kinds of influence factors. Taking the automobile industry cluster in Anhui province for example, we build the structural equation model of tacit knowledge diffusion based on above three kinds of influence factors, and then veri- fy the model. The structural equation model is analyzed and we achieve the analytical data. Base on the analytical data,we obtain the influencing relationship of various influence factors on tacit knowledge diffusion. The path coeffi-cient of the cluster innovation staff factors is maximum,it shows that knowledge staffs are the main body of knowl- edge diffusion;knowledge staffs play a very important role in the process of tacit knowledge diffusion process. We al- so find that cluster innovation institutional factors affect more on the knowledge staffs. So, knowledge staffs and insti- tutional mechanism are two key

  8. The Tacit Knowledge Diffusion Model in the Cluster Innovation Environment-Automobile Industry Cluster in Anhui Province%集群创新环境下组织隐性知识扩散模型研究——以安徽省汽车产业集群为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢荣见; 孙剑平; 周小虎

    2012-01-01

    of information exchanged between the experience and skills within the industry cluster organizations. From an organizational perspective, tacit knowledge diffusion depends on the spatial distance proximity and face-to-face contact;from the individual point of view, it is often associated with specific knowledge of the owner (staffs). So, we need to do research from both perspectives of organization and individual to promote the tacit knowledge diffusion. It is very important to analyze the influence factors of tacit knowledge diffusion and these fac- tors come from organization and individual in cluster innovation environment. Based on the influence factors, the models are needed to be constructed, so that it can analyze the key influence factors which can increase the degree of tacit knowledge diffusion. In this paper, we do research on the influence factors from organization and individualperspectives which include cluster tacit knowledge diffusion influence factors and cluster innovation institutional fac- tors and cluster innovation staff factors. We establish the tacit knowledge diffusion framework diagram based on the three kinds of influence factors. Taking the automobile industry cluster in Anhui province for example, we build the structural equation model of tacit knowledge diffusion based on above three kinds of influence factors, and then veri- fy the model. The structural equation model is analyzed and we achieve the analytical data. Base on the analytical data,we obtain the influencing relationship of various influence factors on tacit knowledge diffusion. The path coeffi-cient of the cluster innovation staff factors is maximum,it shows that knowledge staffs are the main body of knowl- edge diffusion;knowledge staffs play a very important role in the process of tacit knowledge diffusion process. We al- so find that cluster innovation institutional factors affect more on the knowledge staffs. So, knowledge staffs and insti- tutional mechanism are two key

  9. Experimental study on the effect of ambient temperature on ready-mix concrete strength. Part 2: Industrial implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig Montraveta, J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the second part of an experimental study about the effect of environmental temperature on the concrete performance, from an industrial perspective. An earlier article on its effect on aggregate, paste, mortar and concrete workability and mechanical properties reported that high temperature had a clearly adverse impact on strength, which can generally be offset with overdoses of both cement and water to maintain the original water/cement ratio. In this second part of the paper the basis of a methodological formulation is presented, with the purpose of carry out the optimization of the overdosage of cement in concrete in hot climates, in order to be industrially implemented in ready mix concrete plants. This proposal has been successfully applied in some ready mix concrete plants of the company Promotora Mediterránea 2, S.A. (PROMSA, considering that the cement content (overdosage in concrete can be optimized without any adverse effect in its performance, reason why it is possible to reduce the production costs of concrete without reducing its quality.

    El presente artículo constituye la segunda parte de un estudio experimental sobre la influencia de la temperatura ambiental sobre las prestaciones del hormigón, desde una perspectiva industrial. En la primera, se estudió el efecto sobre las propiedades de trabajabilidad y mecánicas, en áridos, pasta, mortero y hormigones, detectando un claro efecto negativo de la temperatura elevada sobre la resistencia, que se suele solucionarcon una sobredosificación en cemento y agua, para mantenerla relación agua/cemento original.En esta segunda parte del artículo, se presentan las bases de una formulación metodológica para llevar a cabo la optimización de la sobredosificación de cemento en el hormigón en climas cálidos, para ser implementada industrialmente en plantas de hormigón preparado. Dicha propuesta se ha aplicado con éxito a escala industrial en plantas de producci

  10. Alternativní pohony automobilů

    OpenAIRE

    Filip, Vojtěch

    2016-01-01

    Náplní této bakalářské práce je analýza aktuálně používaných alternativních pohonů automobilů, jejich srovnání se současnými zážehovými a vznětovými spalovacími motory. Seznámení s technickým řešením jednotlivých pohonů a jejich kategorizace do několika základních skupin, podle charakteristických klíčových rysů. Dále obsahuje bližší seznámení s nejdůležitějšími komponenty automobilů, vyžívajících tyto alternativní pohony a současně jejich přednostmi ale také nedostatky, které nyní brzdí rozší...

  11. The Impact of Price Controls on Mandatory Automobile Insurance Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Jason

    2006-01-01

    This is a theoretical paper that models a mandatory automobile insurance market using a partial equilibrium concept where automobile insurance is one good and a composite good represents all others. Price controls, heterogeneous service, administrative, and adjusting costs, as well as capital reserves and capital costs are all included in this simple model.

  12. Alcohol Use in Turkish University Students and Relationship of Automobile Races

    OpenAIRE

    Mete, Emin; ERKMEN, Mehtap; KARADA?, Ahmet; BAVBEK, Nükhet; ÇATAL, Ferhat; TAYMAN, Cüneyt; URA?, Nurdan; D?LMEN, U?ur

    2008-01-01

    As a part of automobile races organized in Turkey, we investigated the drinking rate in Turkish University students and whether there is evidence that motor racing is associated with increased risk of drinking in young people. A cohort study funded by the Chest Diseases and Asthma Foundation was conducted in four universities in Ankara, Turkey. Self-completed questionnaires were administered to 1,000 young people that included information on demographics, drinking history, drinking-relat...

  13. Lecture notes on the safety aspects in the industrial applications of radiation sources - Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report comprises the notes of the lectures delivered on the safety aspects in industrial applications of radiation sources. The notes are presented in 9 chapters. Basic mathematics relevant to the topic and basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced in chapters I and II respectively. Various aspects of interaction of radiation with matter and living cells are discussed in chapters III and IV respectively. The biological effects of ionizing radiations are described in chapter V. Various commonly used units of measurement of radiation and radioactivity are defined and explained and measuring methods of radiation exposure are described in chapter VI. Chapter VII deals with the maximum permissible levels of radiation, both internal and external, for occupational workers as well as population. The same chapter also deals with ICRP recommendations in this connection. Commonly used radiation detectors and instruments with associated electronics are described in chapter VIII. Production of radioisotopes, radiation sources and labelled compounds is described in chapter IX. A table of useful radioisotopes is appended to this chapter. A bibliography in which references are arranged chapterwise is also given at the end. (M.G.B.)

  14. Analysis of precious metals at parts-per-billion levels in industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickner, James; O'Dwyer, Joel; Roach, Greg; Smith, Michael; Van Haarlem, Yves

    2015-11-01

    Precious metals, including gold and the platinum group metals (notable Pt, Pd and Rh), are mined commercially at concentrations of a few parts-per-million and below. Mining and processing operations demand sensitive and rapid analysis at concentrations down to about 100 parts-per-billion (ppb). In this paper, we discuss two technologies being developed to meet this challenge: X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and gamma-activation analysis (GAA). We have designed on-stream XRF analysers capable of measuring targeted elements in slurries with precisions in the 35-70 ppb range. For the past two years, two on-stream analysers have been in continuous operation at a precious metals concentrator plant. The simultaneous measurement of feed and waste stream grades provides real-time information on metal recovery, allowing changes in operating conditions and plant upsets to be detected and corrected more rapidly. Separately, we have been developing GAA for the measurement of gold as a replacement for the traditional laboratory fire-assay process. High-energy Bremsstrahlung X-rays are used to excite gold via the 197Au(γ,γ‧)197Au-M reaction, and the gamma-rays released in the decay of the meta-state are then counted. We report on work to significantly improve accuracy and detection limits.

  15. Application of fuzzy analytic network process for barrier evaluation in automotive parts remanufacturing towards cleaner production - a study in an Indian scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Shankar, Madan; Kannan, Devika

    2016-01-01

    to hidden facts. Many researchers have explored such hidden facts in auto parts remanufacturing in developing nations and their emerging economies. However, there is a huge gap in the state-of-the-art remanufacturing practices in India, despite India's strong advancements in the automobile industry....... In fact, India's automobile industry is rapidly approaching that of China's in recent years. Although some studies are available regarding remanufacturing implementation, current research has generally failed to offer a deep analysis of the factors and barriers that exist as hurdles to such....... The data obtained from the case industry is processed with two solution methodologies: namely, interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and analytic network process (ANP). To avoid inaccuracies and vagueness in results, the data are manipulated under a fuzzy environment. This study reveals results which...

  16. VMI模式下供应链物流成本核算及利益分配模型-面向汽车零部件市场%Logistics Cost Accounting and Benefit Allocation Model of Automobile Spare Parts Supply Chain under VMI Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琨; 刘金虎

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, in view of the spare parts logistics process of the Beijing HYUNDAI Automobile Manufacture Co., Ltd., we proposed to use the integrated VMI-TPL mode to reduce the overall logistics cost of the supply chain, then built the logistics cost model of the supply chain participants both before and after the implementation of the integrated VMI-TPL mode to derive the total logistics cost change model of the supply chain. Next through screening the actual influence factors and defining the key parameters, we built the corresponding model to verify the conclusion that the implementation of the integrated VMI-TPL mode could reduce the overall logistics cost of the supply chain. At the end, we used the Shapley value method to build the benefit allocation model of the supply chain participants.%针对北京现代汽车制造有限公司零部件物流,提出应用VMI-TPL集成模式降低供应链整体物流成本的方案。结合定性分析和定量分析,构建实施VMI-TPL集成模式前后,参与供应链各方的物流成本模型,进而得出供应链物流总成本变化模型。通过对实际影响因素的筛选,设定关键参数构建模型,通过定量计算验证了实施VMI-TPL集成模式可使供应链整体物流成本降低的结论。利用Shapley值法建立了参与供应链各方的利益分配模型,得出各方都相对满意的分配方案,为VMI-TPL集成模式的实行奠定理论基础。

  17. Evaluation of the UK fusion programme Part A. Final report to the Department of Trade and Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK takes part in thermonuclear fusion R and D through its participation in Euratom, and thereby in the EU's Framework Programme of research and technological development. The UK's work is managed by UKAEA, and is the responsibility of the Nuclear Industries Directorate of the Department of Trade and Industry. The UK's financial support to fusion R and D comprises a portion (ca. 23.5m pounds) of its national contribution to the Framework Programme, a contribution (ca. 6.8m pounds) to the Joint European Torus (JET), and a domestic programme of R and D. The domestic fusion programme receives partial funding from Euratom under the UKAEA/Euratom Contract of Association, and its net cost to the UK is of order 8m pounds. JET is located at the UKAEA site at Culham, Oxfordshire, where the domestic programme is conducted. On 1 January 2000 JET will revert to the ownership of UKAEA, who will operate it under contract while a continuing European JET programme takes place. This report describes the results of an evaluation of the rationale, objectives, organisation and management of the UK Fusion Programme, and the performance achieved by UKAEA. Our evaluation concentrated primarily on the domestic programme, since it is the part of the UK's fusion work over which UKAEA and DTI have most direct control. An expert panel examined the quality of the science within the programme, and has reported separately

  18. Organoclay nanocomposites of post-industrial waste poly(butylene terephthalate) from automotive parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Noe B; Fernandes, Elizabeth G; Zanata, Fernanda; Bartoli, Julio R; Souza, Diego H S; Ito, Edson N

    2015-10-01

    Polymeric nanocomposites are novel materials of huge interest owing to their favourable cost/performance ratio with low amount of nanofillers, improved thermal resistance, flame retardancy and mechanical properties in relation to their matrices. In this work, composites based on post-industrial waste or primary recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) and 5 wt.% of organic modified montmorillonite clays were melt compounded using a twin-screw extruder. A 2(2) factorial experimental design was used to study the compounding and processing variables: Organic modified montmorillonite with one or two hydrogenated tallow (initial basal spacing) and screw speed of the extruder. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy suggest that a partial exfoliation of the organoclay in the recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) matrix was achieved for organic modified montmorillonite with lower initial basal spacing. On the other hand, formulations containing organic modified montmorillonite with higher initial basal spacing showed only intercalated structure. The recycled poly(butylene terephthalate)-organic modified montmorillonite nanocomposites did not drip flaming material during burning tests. Storage of dynamic-mechanical, tensile and flexural moduli of the recycled poly(butylene terephthalate)-organic modified montmorillonite were improved when compared with both virgin and recycled poly(butylene terephthalate)s, mainly for nanocomposites formulated at a lower initial basal spacing organoclay. This could be related to a better diffusion of polymer into organic modified montmorillonite layers compared with the higher initial basal spacing organoclay. The improvements on the physical properties of recycled poly(butylene terephthalate) showed the feasibility to add value to primary recycled engineering thermoplastics with a very small amount of organic modified montmorillonite. PMID:26341637

  19. Transcontinental methane measurements: Part 2. Mobile surface investigation of fossil fuel industrial fugitive emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Culling, Daniel; Schneising, Oliver; Farrell, Paige; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.

    2013-08-01

    The potent greenhouse gas, methane, CH4, has a wide variety of anthropogenic and natural sources. Fall, continental-scale (Florida to California) surface CH4 data were collected to investigate the importance of fossil fuel industrial (FFI) emissions in the South US. A total of 6600 measurements along 7020-km of roadways were made by flame ion detection gas chromatography onboard a nearly continuously moving recreational vehicle in 2010. A second, winter survey in Southern California measured CH4 at 2 Hz with a cavity ring-down spectrometer in 2012. Data revealed strong and persistent FFI CH4 sources associated with refining, oil/gas production, a presumed major pipeline leak, and a coal loading plant. Nocturnal CH4 mixing ratios tended to be higher than daytime values for similar sources, sometimes significantly, which was attributed to day/night meteorological differences, primarily changes in the boundary layer height. The highest CH4 mixing ratio (39 ppm) was observed near the Kern River Oil Field, California, which uses steam reinjection. FFI CH4 plume signatures were distinguished as stronger than other sources on local scales. On large (4°) scales, the CH4 trend was better matched spatially with FFI activity than wetland spatial patterns. Qualitative comparison of surface data with SCIAMACHY and GOSAT satellite retrievals showed agreement of the large-scale CH4 spatial patterns. Comparison with inventory models and seasonal winds suggests for some seasons and some portions of the Gulf of Mexico a non-negligible underestimation of FFI emissions. For other seasons and locations, qualitative interpretation is not feasible. Unambiguous quantitative source attribution is more complex, requiring transport modeling.

  20. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 4: anaerobic digestion for biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  1. Do consumers understand TCO? : an empirical study of consumer decision making in the U.S. automobile market

    OpenAIRE

    Myojo, Satoshi; KANAZAWA, Yuichiro

    2002-01-01

    At the beginnig of the 1980's,there was a gap in quality between cars made by the U.S."Big Three" and those made by the Japanese.Since then,the Big Three have adopted Japanese production techiniques,parts prucurement practices,and lavor relations,dramatically improving the quality of their automobiles.During the period,the Japanses manufactures kept their automobiles more expensive than the comparable models made by the Big Three to slow their sales,thereby blunting trade frictions,and preven...

  2. Local Design & Global Dreams - Emerging Business Models creating the Emergent Electric Vehicle Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Andersen, Poul Houman; Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt;

    Electric cars hold the potential to completely alter the interrelationship among actors in the automobile industry architecture. As such they may not only be able to alleviate environmental externalities but also revolutionise the automobile industry as such. This paper is concerned with the...

  3. China publishes auto industry rejuvenation plan%中国出台汽车产业振兴规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China's State Council recently passed in principle the auto industry rejuvenation plan. Major contents of the plan are:to foster auto consum ption market, including a 50 percent cut in the vehicle purchase tax on passenger vehicles with a displacement of 1.6 liters and below; to promote reorganization of the auto industry and support large auto enterprise groups to carry out mergers and acquisitions, and key auto spare enterprises to expand production; to support independent innovation and technical upgrading by enterprises: the central government wiU appropriate RMB 10 billion in a special fund to support technical innovation and renovation and development of new energy automobiles and spare parts by enterprises in the next three years;to implement a new energy auto strategy :subsidy from the central budget will be appropriated to support the spread of energy saving and new energy automobiles in large-and medium-sized cities; and to promote development of independent brands of automobiles, speed up construction of auto and spare parts exportbases, develop a modern auto service industry and improve auto credit.

  4. INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH «DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN MARKET OF NANOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN CONSTRUCTION UNTIL 2020». PART 2. ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    GUSEV Boris Vladimirovich; FALIKMAN Vyacheslav Ruvimovich; Steffen LEISTNER; Benny YOSHPA; PETUSHKOV Alexander Vladimirovich

    2013-01-01

    Some results of the industrial research «Development of Russian market of nanotechnological products in construction until 2020» have been published. Authors invite all interested specialists and specialized organization to take part in the broad public discussion.

  5. Physician Payments from Industry Are Associated with Greater Medicare Part D Prescribing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlis, Roy H.; Perlis, Clifford S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The U.S. Physician Payments Sunshine Act mandates the reporting of payments or items of value received by physicians from drug, medical device, and biological agent manufacturers. The impact of these payments on physician prescribing has not been examined at large scale. Methods We linked public Medicare Part D prescribing data and Sunshine Act data for 2013. Physician payments were examined descriptively within specialties, and then for association with prescribing costs and patterns using regression models. Models were adjusted for potential physician-level confounding features, including sex, geographic region, and practice size. Results Among 725,169 individuals with Medicare prescribing data, 341,644 had documented payments in the OPP data (47.1%). Among all physicians receiving funds, mean payment was $1750 (SD $28336); median was $138 (IQR $48-$394). Across the 12 specialties examined, a dose-response relationship was observed in which greater payments were associated with greater prescribing costs per patient. In adjusted regression models, being in the top quintile of payment receipt was associated with incremental prescribing cost per patient ranging from $27 (general surgery) to $2931 (neurology). Similar associations were observed with proportion of branded prescriptions written. Conclusions While distribution and amount of payments differed widely across medical specialties, for each of the 12 specialties examined the receipt of payments was associated with greater prescribing costs per patient, and greater proportion of branded medication prescribing. We cannot infer a causal relationship, but interventions aimed at those physicians receiving the most payments may present an opportunity to address prescribing costs in the US. PMID:27183221

  6. "We're Part of the Solution": Evolution of the Food and Beverage Industry's Framing of Obesity Concerns Between 2000 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Laura; Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Wilking, Cara; Dorfman, Lori; Daynard, Richard

    2015-11-01

    We investigated how industry claim-makers countered concerns about obesity and other nutrition-related diseases in newspaper coverage from 2000, the year before the US Surgeon General's Call to Action on obesity, through 2012. We found that the food and beverage industry evolved in its response. The defense arguments were made by trade associations, industry-funded nonprofit groups, and individual companies representing the packaged food industry, restaurants, and the nonalcoholic beverage industry. Individual companies used the news primarily to promote voluntary self-regulation, whereas trade associations and industry-supported nonprofit groups directly attacked potential government regulations. There was, however, a shift away from framing obesity as a personal issue toward an overall message that the food and beverage industry wants to be "part of the solution" to the public health crisis. PMID:26378841

  7. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N

    1987-10-01

    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates. PMID:3675807

  8. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  9. Analytical description of the modern steam automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity of operating conditions upon performance of the modern steam automobile is discussed. The word modern has been used in the title to indicate that emphasis is upon miles per gallon rather than theoretical thermal efficiency. This has been accomplished by combining classical power analysis with the ideal Pressure-Volume diagram. Several parameters are derived which characterize performance capability of the modern steam car. The report illustrates that performance is dictated by the characteristics of the working medium, and the supply temperature. Performance is nearly independent of pressures above 800 psia. Analysis techniques were developed specifically for reciprocating steam engines suitable for automotive application. Specific performance charts have been constructed on the basis of water as a working medium. The conclusions and data interpretation are therefore limited within this scope.

  10. An expert system for process planning of sheet metal parts produced on compound die for use in stamping industries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SACHIN SALUNKHE; DEEPAK PANGHAL; SHAILENDRA KUMAR; H M A HUSSEIN

    2016-08-01

    Process planning of sheet metal part is an important activity in the design of compound die. Traditional methods of carrying out this task are manual, tedious, time-consuming, error-prone and experiencebased. This paper describes the research work involved in the development of an expert system for process planning of sheet metal parts produced on compound die. The proposed system is organized in six modules. For development of system modules, domain knowledge acquired from various sources of knowledge acquisition is refined and then framed in form of ‘IF-Then’ variety of production rules. System modules are coded in AutoLISP language and user interface is created using visual basic (VB). The system is capable to automate various activities of process planning including blank modeling, blank nesting, determining punch force required, election of clearance between punch and die, identifying sheet metal operations, and determining proper sequence of operations for manufacturing the part. The proposed system can be implemented on a PC having VB and AutoCAD software, therefore its low cost of implementation makes it affordable even for small scale sheet metal industries.

  11. Consumer preferences for automobile energy-efficiency grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, increases in energy prices have made energy conservation and efficiency improvements even more essential than in the past. However, consumers experience difficulty in obtaining reliable information regarding energy efficiency, so that many countries have implemented regulations to enforce energy-efficiency grade labeling. In this study, consumer preferences regarding energy efficiency grades are analyzed by the mixed logit and MDCEV model based on the revealed preference data of past automobile purchases. Findings show that consumers rationally apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. This study discusses political implications of energy efficiency policies as they might impact consumer behaviors of automobile purchase and usage. - Highlights: ► We model discrete choice model to evaluate energy-efficiency grade regulation. ► Consumers apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. ► However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. ► The policies for efficient automobile usage are discussed.

  12. Dynamic CCT Diagram of Automobile Beam Steel With High Strength Produced by FTSR Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; KANG Yong-lin; YU Hao; CHEN Li-bin; KONG Qing-fu

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram and phase transformation rules of 510 MPa automobile beam steel, which is produced by a continuous casting of thin slab of FTSR technology in Tangshan Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. , are researched by thermal simulation experiment. The mierostructure characteristics of the beam steel under different test conditions are studied by means of optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The test results show that the critical temperatures of phase transformation Ar3 and Ar1 will all decrease with the increase of the cooling rate. When the cooling rate is lower than 20℃·s-1, the ferrite and pearlite phase transformations are the main parts; when the cooling rate is higher than 20℃· s-1, the bainite phase appears. Moreover, the microstructurea of 510 MPa automobile beam steel produced by FTSR technology are also studied, and the results are basically in accordance with the CCT diagram gained from the test.

  13. On the baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Business as usual' scenarios in long-term energy forecasts are crucial for scenario-based policy analyses. This article focuses on fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks, a long-disputed issue with serious implications for worldwide energy use and CO2 emissions. The current status in Europe is explained and future developments are analysed with the aid of historical data of the last three decades from the United States and Europe. As a result of this analysis, fuel economy values are proposed for use as assumptions in baseline energy/transport scenarios in the 15 'old' European Union Member States. Proposed values are given for new gasoline and diesel cars and for the years 2010, 2020 and 2030. The increasing discrepancy between vehicle fuel consumption measured under test conditions and that in the real world is also considered. One main conclusion is that the European Commission's voluntary agreement with the automobile industry should not be assumed to fully achieve its target under baseline conditions, nor should it be regarded as a major stimulus for autonomous vehicle efficiency improvements after 2010. A second conclusion is that three very recent studies enjoying authority across the EU tend to be overly optimistic as regards the technical progress for conventional and alternative vehicle propulsion technologies under 'business as usual' conditions

  14. On the baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachariadis, Theodoros [Economics Research Centre, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)]. E-mail: zach@hol.gr

    2006-09-15

    'Business as usual' scenarios in long-term energy forecasts are crucial for scenario-based policy analyses. This article focuses on fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks, a long-disputed issue with serious implications for worldwide energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current status in Europe is explained and future developments are analysed with the aid of historical data of the last three decades from the United States and Europe. As a result of this analysis, fuel economy values are proposed for use as assumptions in baseline energy/transport scenarios in the 15 'old' European Union Member States. Proposed values are given for new gasoline and diesel cars and for the years 2010, 2020 and 2030. The increasing discrepancy between vehicle fuel consumption measured under test conditions and that in the real world is also considered. One main conclusion is that the European Commission's voluntary agreement with the automobile industry should not be assumed to fully achieve its target under baseline conditions, nor should it be regarded as a major stimulus for autonomous vehicle efficiency improvements after 2010. A second conclusion is that three very recent studies enjoying authority across the EU tend to be overly optimistic as regards the technical progress for conventional and alternative vehicle propulsion technologies under 'business as usual' conditions.

  15. (Auto-)mobile data acquisition and measurement data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneuer, E.; Schwartze, S. [Werum Datenverarbeitungssysteme GmbH, Lueneburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This lecture introduces a concept of measurement technology with video integration for commercial vehicles. We would like to present DAVIS-CAR, a system for mobile data acquisition. It enables the simultaneous evaluation of video data and test data and consists of mobile as well as of stationary components in a client/server architecture. The product DAVIS-CAR is suitable not only for testing entire vehicles but for external suppliers developing vehicle components or for analysing a person's driving performance. Even for completely stationary systems DAVIS-CAR provides advantages in situations when video data are recorded to get additional information on tests. The mobile server collects the data of the driving car. The storage of these data can be triggered either manually or by events derived from signal states. The stationary system is capable of administering the measurement data and the associated Meta information from several mobile systems at the same time and of providing this information to the connected clients. The ASAM-ODS interface facilitates the integration of DAVIS-CAR in environments typically found in the automobile industry. The overall architecture also enables the integration of data provided by other measurement systems. (orig.)

  16. A Study of the Translation of Automobile Trademark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘硕

    2014-01-01

    Name is an interesting thing, almost everything has its name. Nowadays along with the rising of consumption levels in China, the brand name of the car becomes an important topic. And the translation of the name of the automobile is the primary task for establishing the global image of the brand. In this paper, I summarize the translation methods for automobile trademarks and point out the importance of the translation of automobile’s trademarks. In addition, this paper explores the trend in the trans-lation of automobile names in China.

  17. Standardization Boosts the Development ofCHANGAN AUTOMOBILE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades,CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE has been sticking to its core value of "technology innovation and consistent care" and dedicating to lead the automobile culture by technology innovation.Till now,it has a complete product range of micro vehicles,passenger cars,buses,trucks,SUV,MPV,etc.,and engineplatforms ranging from 0.8L to 2.5L.CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE brand output ranked 13th in the world and first in China in 2009.Its brand value reached 30.515 billion RMB in 2011,among most valuable brands in China.

  18. Recycling of a fine, heavy fluff automobile shredder residue by density and differential fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, M R; Menéndez, M; Muñiz, H; Torno, S

    2015-09-01

    A compilation of the physical properties of materials which might typically occur in automobile shredder residue and an analysis of their suitability for the separation of materials in fine (glass/stones) and organics (plastics). Results presented of laboratory scale tests demonstrate that fhf-ASR can in large part be separated into three principal components. Tests were conducted with 0.63-2.0mm and 2-10mm fractions. Recovery of plastics by density separations were conducted with water only jigs for the 2-10mm fraction and shaker tables for the 0.63-2mm fraction. Comparisons are presented of the separations of glass and stones from metals obtained by linear screening and vibratory screening of roller mill and impact mill crushing products of the high density 2-10mm fraction. Equipment used for these tests are of a laboratory or demonstrative scale. It is reasonable to anticipate that industrial scale processing would produce significantly better results. The 2-15mm fraction was found to constitute 91.6% of the fhf-ASR sampled. The metals content of the 2-10mm portion of this fraction was upgraded from 2.5% to 31% and 76.9% with recoveries varying inversely with grade from 91.9% to 40.1%. From 63.6% to 17.1% with a recovery of 93.5% of the organic materials. A residual product of fine sand of crushed glass/stones of 99.4% purity recovered 71.3% of these. PMID:26119010

  19. Head-up and head-down displays integration in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Agudelo, J. David

    2014-06-01

    In automotive industry, the dashboard has been ergonomically developed in order to keep the driver focused on the horizon while driving, but the possibility to access external electronic devices constraints the driver to turn away his face, generating dangerous situations in spite of the short periods of time. Therefore, this work explores the integration of Head-Up Displays and Head-Down Displays in automobiles, proposing configurations that give to drivers the facility to driving focused. In this way, some of the main ergonomic comments about those configurations are proposed; and also, some technical comments regarding the implemented arrangements are given.

  20. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF A COMPOSITE BEVEL GEAR IN AN AUTOMOBILE DIFFERENTIAL GEAR BOX

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Rohit Sreekumar *, Prof. T. Jeyapoovan

    2016-01-01

    In automotive Industry,the differential gear plays an important role in power transmission as well as in the handling of the automobile.It transmits torque through three different shafts. This project deals with the design and optimization of the differential gear box through use of composite material. The solid modelling is done by using SOLIDWORKS. Static analysis is performed on the gear using Ni-CR steel, malleable cast iron, aluminium alloy and glass filled polyamide using ANSYS 14.5 The...

  1. Relacionamento cliente-fornecedor: evidências de estudos sobre a indústria automobilística

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Maria Vanalle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Companies have used new practices of relationship between customers and suppliers in order to improve their supply chains, mainly due to the changes in the global competitive market. The automobile industry, in especial, has suffered important transformations in the relationship among the companies that operate in the supply chain obtaining inputs, components, groups, modules and necessary systems to manufacture a vehicle. This paper is a theoretical research, based on a review of the literature and its objective is to study the models of relationships between customer & supplier and to present case study of these relationships in the Japanese, European, American and Brazilian automobile industries. The aim of this paper is to contribute for the theoretical development on the characterization of models of relationship between assemblers and suppliers.

  2. GREEN MANUFACTURING IN AUTOMOBILE INDUST RY TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY AS WELL A S ENVIRNOMENTAL COND ITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Sayeed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the green manufacturing is implemented in the automobile industry. The green manufacturing in very effective in the automobile industry. In this paper the green manufacturing is used by the sustainable design to improve the efficiency as well as environmental condition. With regard to the environment, the major environmental concerns in the 21st century are: atmospheric pollution (and its consequences for hu man health, global warming and ozone layer depletion, scarcity of freshwater, raw material and land availability. All these environmental impacts have a great impact on how companies manage their business, and therefore, they are also a driver to innovati on. For instance, the availability of land can create a pressure on the prices for land disposal, which “forces” organizations to innovate in order to reduce the waste from their production sites.

  3. Fuzzy analytic network process based multi criteria decision making methodology for a family automobile purchasing decision

    OpenAIRE

    Yesim Yayla, A.; Yildiz, A

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in parallel with the advancing technology, automobiles that have substantially advanced technological properties are being manufactured. Intended uses of the automobiles have been changing in our days in contrast to 1960s when automobiles were only used for transportation. Consumers, in our day and age, expect profoundly different properties from an automobile. In this context, more than one criterion become effective on making decision on purchasing an automobile that has the requi...

  4. 时间竞争策略对时间和成本的影响——基于中西部地区汽车产业的实证研究%The Influence of Time-based Competition Strategy on Time and Cost: Evidence from Mid-west Aarea Automobile Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔松

    2012-01-01

    With time being the most important competition resources following price, variety and quality, the expenses that enterprises invest on time compression are increasing. Generally, time's reducing can cause cost's in- creasing. But the facts that came from time-based competition (TBC) all over world show that the quick new prod- uct development speed and delivery speed can be contribute to the reduce of cost and the increase in profit. Time- based competition company which can respond rapidly to customer demand has obtained greater profits and market share than its competitors as a result of time-based strategy (TBS). But different TBS influence the time and the cost differently. This paper takes 124 mid-west automotive companies in China as a sample, analyzes the relation- ship between 18 kinds of TBS and time and cost. The following are the main creative points. Firstly, this paper proves the theoretical discussion that at the enterprise level, time is the main factor that af- fecting cost. In China's automotive industry, time has become the main means to improve internal operational effi- ciency, reduce costs and improve financial performance with shorter time to achieve the reduction of business costs. From a theoretical point of view, this finding proves that the influence on the time to the overall financial perform- ance can be achieved by cost reduction. It also proves the theoretical discourse that time is not only the intermedi- ate variable for the TBS influence on performance, but quality and costs may also be the intermediate variables (Drog et al, 2004). The research suggests that in China's automobile industry, time has become the principal means of improving internal operational efficiency and reducing cost. Secondly, the implementation of TBC can reduce both time and cost. The research suggests that R & D con- current operations, selecting a small number of suppliers to develop long-term strategic relationship, and so five kinds

  5. Computer Model for Automobile Climate Control System Simulation and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Oker

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A software to simulate the dynamic operation of climate control system for a generic automobile has been developed. The transient nature of passenger cabin temperature and relative humidity are predicted using the principles of thermodynamics. Analysis include detailed simulations of every component of the automobile air conditioning network. The methodology is validated by comparing the simulation results with the experimental results.

  6. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira; Andy Petroianu; Dafne Maria Villar Gonçalves; Gisele Araújo Pereira; Luiz Ronaldo Alberti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the regio...

  7. China's Auto Industry,Survive and Thrive in the Storm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The increasingly grave financial crisis has had an effect on all sectors of the economy both big and small,as such.the world's automobile industry could not have saved itself from this financial storm.

  8. An Inquiry into the Role of Interfirm Relationships in Recent Organizational Change Initiatives in Japanese Automobile Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, Daniel Arturo

    2003-01-01

    Faced with the difficult challenge of large-scale organizational change, many firms in Japan are struggling. To better understand the change process, this paper examines the long history in the automobile industry of interfirm relationships facilitating (i.e., assisting the occurrence of) organizational change. Two case studies undertaken in this paper suggest that some recent interfirm relationships have gone beyond facilitating to catalyzing (i.e., speeding the occurrence of) organizational...

  9. Local Environmental States as Drivers of Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility: An Inter-Province Comparison of Automobile Manufacturers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Grey, Andrew / AC

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores the possibility of a relationship between the environmental states of two provinces in China and the levels of environmental corporate social responsibility (CSR) within the local automobile manufactures. The paper postulates several hypotheses in order to explore the relationship between the state of the local environment and apparent local environmental CSR while simultaneously examining industrial pollution abatement trends in both provinces. The investigation fi...

  10. Estimation of torsional strength for spring steel 60SiCrV7 designed on spring suspension in automobile vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work was determining the Kirchoff's modulus G for 11.7 [mm] rods made of industrial spring steel grade 60SiCrV7. These rods are designed on spring suspension in automobile vehicles. Additionally the material studies were performed in order to determining of hardness and metallographic structure of examined steel. The obtained result of G value enables to increase the accuracy of numerical strength calculations for constructed spring. (author)

  11. Automobile exhausts as a source for the environmental pollution by polychloro-dibenzodioxins and -dibenzofurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research project was focussed on the analysis of polyhalogenated dibenzodioxins (''dioxins'') and dibenzofurans (''furans'') emitted through automobile exhausts (halogen = chlorine or bromine). High-resolution selective capillary gas chromatography coupled with mass-selective detection was used. The two compound groups show basic differences in pattern and concentrations for traffic-related samples. In the ''dioxin''-series the higher-chlorinated dibenzodioxins (increasing from Cl4 to Cl8) are preferentially found, in contrast to the ''furane'', present in higher amounts, for which the lower-halogenated dibenzofurans are more important (decreasing from Cl1 to Cl6 and from Br1 to Br4). The distribution of the dioxin- and furan isomers produced corresponds closely to the so-called ''2,6-type'' pattern which is due to a retarded oxidation and/or a stabilization of phenoxy-intermediates containing the 2,6- or 2,4,6-substitution pattern. To what extent a particular dioxin/furan immission is due to automobile-related emissions can, in the light of the present results, be estimated only by taking several factors into account; source remoteness, the predominance of brominated or partly brominated dibenzofurans over the chlorinated congeners, the presence of other, also halogenated, polycyclic aromatics related to the automobile combustion engine. Areas close to traffic are primarily or completely influenced by the ''dioxin''-emissions of automobiles. For the calculation of the toxic equivalents (TE) for traffic-related emissions, the most important of the ''2,3,7,8''-substituted congeners are the furans 2,3,7,8-Cl4DF (F 83) and 2,3,4,7,8-Cl5DF (F 114) as well as the dioxins 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-Cl7DD (D 73) and octachlorodibenzodioxin (D-75). (orig.)

  12. Industrial applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis has been widely used in the industry and over the years played a key role in the development of manufacturing process as well as monitoring of the process flow. In this context NAA has been utilized both in R and D, and in the factory as a flexible analytical tool. It has been used successfully in numerous industries including broad categories such as Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Mining, Photographic, Oil and Gas, Automobile, Defense, Semiconductor and Electronic industries. Dow Chemical owns and operates a research reactor for analytical measurements of samples generated in both R and D, and manufacturing area in its plant in Midland, Michigan. Although most industries do not have reactors on their campus but use an off site reactor regularly, and often have in-house neutron sources such as a 252Cf used primarily for NAA. In most industrial materials analysis laboratory NAA is part of a number of analytical techniques such as ICP-MS, AA, SIMS, FTIR, XRF, TXRF etc. Analysis of complex industrial samples may require data from each of these methods to provide a clear picture of the materials issues involved. With the improvement of classical analytical techniques, and the introduction of new techniques, e.g. TXRF, the role of NAA continues to be a key bench mark technique that provides accurate and reliable data. The strength of the NAA in bulk analysis is balanced by its weakness in providing surface sensitive or spatially resolved analysis as is required by many applications. (author)

  13. Vibro-acoustics of automobile engines; Vibro-acoustique des moteurs d'automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclere, Q.; Laulagnet, B.; Guyader, J.L. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Polac, L. [Renault DM, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France)

    2006-04-15

    This article treats of the vibro-acoustics of automobile engines. A presentation of the phenomena leading to noise emission is performed: internal sources, dynamical behaviour of the structure, acoustic radiation of the external engine envelope. The complexness of engines leads to multiple noise sources which are described, analyzed and quantified. The technical solutions for their abatement are presented. The following points are successively described: dynamical behaviour of the engine-propulsion system, acoustic radiation, inertia stresses, combustion noise, common rail diesel injection system noise, piston slap, distribution drive noise, turbo-charger whistle, gearbox noise. (J.S.)

  14. Death and injury from automobile collisions: an overlooked epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jason L; Watchko, Aileen Y; Segui-Gomez, Maria

    2011-05-01

    Automobile collisions are a major source of injury, death, and disability worldwide. Roadway injuries are affected by societal and cultural influences as much as any other health-related event, but have historically received relatively little attention from the medical anthropology community. The development of safety intervention strategies is affected by notions of responsibility for preventive care, including a balance between regulation, technology, and personal choice. This balance may be affected by perceptions of the risks associated with roadway use, potentially related to notions of individual control and the portrayal of collisions in the popular media and lexicon. Prevention efforts are also affected by the definition of injury as a disease-a biological phenomenon requiring research and intervention efforts from the medical and public health communities. Injury prevention priorities and strategies also differ across cultures and locales, dependent in part on economic constraints, native mobility practices, and the quality and expediency of post-trauma care. Progressing injury prevention worldwide requires multidisciplinary action, including an examination of these various cultural and societal influences. We believe that future efforts will benefit from the expertise and analysis of the medical anthropology community. PMID:21590580

  15. Automobile air pollution: control equipment. Volume 1. 1964-1978 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-02-01

    Research reports on air pollution control equipment used in automobiles are cited. Topics include the design and performance of catalytic and thermal reactors, retrofit devices, carburetors, and ignition timing systems. Also covered are studies of the catalysts as well as the equipment regulations that the industry must follow. (This updated bibliography contains 259 abstracts, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  16. Trends in the location of the European car industry from an analysis of trade in parts and components; Tendencias en la localizacion de la industria Europea de automocion. Un analisis a partir del comercio de partes y componentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez Gomez, L.; Diaz Mora, C.; Gandoy Juste, R.

    2010-07-01

    The object of this paper is to study the changes in location and specialization in the European automotive industry since the mid-nineties. The analysis is based on the examination of trade flows, distinguishing between final goods and parts and components, and on the delimitation of revealed comparative advantages for those countries leading the European industry. The results show the significance of the European production networks and the increasing new Eastern member countries role in them. Besides, they allow us to establish the main participant countries competitive position in those networks. As far as the Spanish industry is concerned, two aspects must be pointed out. On the one hand, the decrease in the advantages in cars assembly although the specialization in industrial motor vehicles maintains. And on the other hand, the competitive capacity showed by some auxiliary car industries. (Author) 22 refs.

  17. FORECASTING OF PRODUCTION OUTPUT FOR LIGHT INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES WITH PURPOSE TO DETERMINE THEIR POWER RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposed paper is a continuation of the work, published in the previous issue. It is destined for specialists who are engaged in solution of problems pertaining to efficiency of light industry in Belarus which is considered as one of the branches being significantly involved in formation of national economy, its export potential and social climate. It is extremely relevant to reduce production costs in order to preserve and add strength to the branch positions in the markets. Production of natural, synthetic and knitted materials and their subsequent treatment are unreasonably power-consuming processes. Fundamental solution of the problem for reduction of production costs is to decrease its energy component and this can be achieved due to transition to modern heat and power systems in technological complexes of enterprises.The first part of the paper has considered a range of issues that served as a basis for obtaining statistical models in order to forecast the required production volume of main knitted and textile materials.  Forecasting has been prepared   for a period of more than 20 years because it has been predetermined by development horizon of comprehensive modernization of energy supply systems at enterprises of light industry. The production volumes essentially differ from those that have been stipulated in the programs of light industry.The present paper shows selection of statistical game-type for determination of  build-up rate of the production volume for every textile enterprise. The so-called “Game with Nature” has been selected as a game which is widely used for solution of analogous demand problems. The statistical forecasting models of production obtained in the first part are applied in the second part of the paper which considers strategies for development of individual enterprises. JSC :Baranovichi Industrial Cotton Association” has been taken an example in the paper. Production volumes of any enterprise are

  18. NATURAL FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES FOR AUTOMOBILE ACCESSORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chandramohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The invention is an effort to utilize the advantages offered by renewable resources for the development of composite materials based on polymer and particles of natural fibers for Conservation of natural resources. In this research, natural fibers like Sisal (Agave sisalana, Banana (Musa sepientum and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa, Sisal and banana (hybrid, Roselle and banana (hybrid and Roselle and sisal (hybrid are fabricated with bio epoxy resin using molding method. The applications of these materials require a sustainable approach to creating green products. Green materials are very important to form environment friendly from renewable resources and decrease the use of petroleum based chemicals. Nowadays natural fibers form an interesting alternative for the most widely applied fibre in the composite technology, glass. The use of fibers like sisal, Roselle and banana in this industry so far is small since availability of a durable semi-finished product with constant quality is often a problem. Recent research and development have shown that these aspects can be improved considerably. Knowing that natural fibers are cheap and have a better stiffness per weight than glass, which results in lighter components, the grown interest in natural fibers is clear. Secondly, the environmental impact is smaller since the natural fibre can be thermally recycled and fibers come from a renewable resource. Their moderate mechanical properties restrain the fibers from using them in high-tech applications, but for many reasons they can compete with glass fibers. In this paper the optimum mixing of fiber and resin is achieved by using Taguchi method. In this work, tensile and hardness of Sisal and banana (hybrid, Roselle and banana (hybrid and Roselle and sisal (hybrid composite at dry and wet conditions were studied. Hardness test were conducted using Brinell hardness testing machine. In this work micro structure of the specimens are scanned by the Scanning

  19. Mind the Gap: The Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; author), L. Schipper (main; Price, L.;

    1993-01-01

    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data of...... gasoline, diesel and other fuels used for automobiles. We note that significant uncertainties exist in values of both the number of automobiles in use and the distance each is driven, which together yield total automobile use. We present our own calculations for total automobile fuel use for a variety of...

  20. On the Innovation of Human Resource Management Model in Automobile Manufacturing Enterprises:A Case Study of Liuzhou WL Automotive Industry Corporation%浅谈汽车制造企业人力资源管理模式创新--以柳州WL汽车工业公司为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何卓勋

    2014-01-01

    文章分析了汽车制造企业人力资源管理创新的必要性,以及常见的人力资源管理模式及其优缺点,并详细阐述了近年国内外汽车企业悄然兴起的人力资源合作伙伴模式(Human Resources Business Partner),为本次变革提供了有力的依据。%This paper analyzes the necessity of the innovation of human resource management in automobile manufacturing enterprise, as well as the common human resource management models and their advantages and disadvantages, and elaborates the Human Resources Business Partner of domestic and foreign auto enterprises in recent years, which provides a strong basis for this change.

  1. FORECASTING OF PRODUCTION OUTPUT FOR LIGHT INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES WITH PURPOSE TO DETERMINE THEIR POWER RESOURCES REQUIREMENTS. Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Romaniuk; D. B. Muslina

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an interest for those specialists who are involved in solution of efficiency problems in light industry of Belarus as one of the significant industries that forms an economic situation in the Republic, its export potential and social climate. It is extremely relevant for the Belarusian enterprises to reduce production costs in order to preserve and strengthen positions in the light industry market. Operating capacities for production of natural, synthetic textile and knit-w...

  2. Exposure to emissions from gasoline within automobile cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasoline is emitted from automobiles as uncombusted fuel and via evaporation. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) from gasoline are at higher levels in roadway air than in the surrounding ambient atmosphere and penetrate into automobile cabins, thereby exposing commuters to higher levels than they would experience in other microenvironments. Measurements of VOC concentrations and carbon monoxide were made within automobiles during idling, while driving on a suburban route in New Jersey, and on a commute to New York City. Concentrations of VOC from gasoline were determined to be elevated above the ambient background levels in all microenvironments while VOC without a gasoline source were not. The variability of VOC concentrations with location within the automobile was determined to be smaller than inter-day variability during idling studies. VOC and carbon monoxide levels within the automobile cabin differed among the different routes examined. The levels were related to traffic density and were inversely related to driving speed and wind speed. Overall, daily VOC exposure for gasoline-derived compounds during winter commuting in New Jersey was estimated to range between 5 and 20% and constituted between 15 and 40% of an individual's daily exposure based on comparison to urban and suburban settings, respectively. VOC exposure during commuting in Southern California was estimated to range between 15 and 60%

  3. Development of automobile tyre lateral runout measurement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xie; Ye, Lingjian; Yao, Guanghui; Wang, Di; Zhi, Xiongfei

    2013-10-01

    Automobile tyre lateral runout is one of the important indexes to measure the quality of the tyre, it will affect the safety of the automobile in moving. This paper introduces a sensor for automobile tyre lateral runout measurement. The variation of the automobile tyre lateral runout causes the change of guide rod probe displacement and deforms of the cantilever beam which connects with the guide bar. The deformation of the cantilever beam leads to the change of the resistance value of strain gauge which is pasted on the cantilever beam. Through measuring circuit, the resistance value of the strain gauge is converted into output voltage that has a certain relationship with automobile tyre lateral runout. Then, the voltage signal is transformed by A/D convertor and send to SCM to process and display the value of runout. Meanwhile, SCM output control signal to control the actuator and adjust the equipment running status in real time so as to ensure the tyre lateral runout is within the allowed range.

  4. The beam business: Accelerators in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most physicists know that particle accelerators are widely used for treating cancer. But few are acquainted with the depth and breadth of their use in a myriad of applications outside of pure science and medicine. Society benefits from the use of particle beams in the areas of communications, transportation, the environment, security, health, and safety - in terms both of the global economy and quality of life. On the manufacturing level, the use of industrial accelerators has resulted in the faster and cheaper production of better parts for medical devices, automobiles, aircraft, and virtually all modern electronics. Consumers also benefit from the use of accelerators to explore for oil, gas, and minerals; sterilize food, wastewater, and medical supplies; and aid in the development of drugs and biomaterials.

  5. Technical change in US industry: A cross-industry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. R. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The nature of the public policies which have influenced the pace and pattern of technical progress in a number of American industries is studied with the view of assessing the broad effects of these policies. The industries studied are agriculture, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, computers, civil aircraft, automobiles and residential construction. The policies considered include research and development funding as well as government procurement, education, information dissemination, patent protection, licensing, regulations, and anti-trust policies.

  6. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  7. Anyuan Automobile:Moving Steadily Towards the Global Market An Interview with Su Liqian, General Manager of Wuxi Anyuan Automobile Co., Ltd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Wuxi Anyuan Automobile Co., Ltd, located in Wuxi,China's Jiangsu Province,receives investment from Wuxi Anyuan Industry Joint Stock Co., Ltd as an R&D (research and development)center and as a production base for the export of luxurious passenger buses.The company's facilities cover a large area of 90,000 square meters. During the first phase of construction, factory buildings with a floor area of 15,000 square meters were erected, enabling an annual production capacity of 1,500 buses, worth of RMB 0.5 billion. During the second phase, another 20,000 square meters were allocated for use as factory buildings, which brought the company's annual production capacity to 5,000 buses, worth of RMB 1.5 billion. Among the company's 1,200 employees, 196 are working as technical or managerial personnel.

  8. INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH «DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN MARKET OF NANOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN CONSTRUCTION UNTIL 2020». PART 2. ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSEV Boris Vladimirovich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some results of the industrial research «Development of Russian market of nanotechnological products in construction until 2020» have been published. Authors invite all interested specialists and specialized organization to take part in the broad public discussion.

  9. Physicochemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part II Microstructure, polymorphic behavior and crystallization characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.; Corrêa Basso, R.; Gonçalves, L. A.G.; Gioielli, L. A.; Oliveira dos Santos, A.; Pavie Cardoso, L.; Guenter Kieckbusch, T.

    2012-01-01

    The microstructural behavior of industrial standardized cocoa butter samples and cocoa butter samples from three different Brazilian states is compared. The cocoa butters were characterized by their microstructural patterns, crystallization kinetics and polymorphic habits. The evaluation of these parameters aided in establishing relationships between the chemical compositions and crystallization behavior of the samples, as well as differentiating them in terms of technological and industrial ...

  10. Automobile air-conditioning its energy and environmental impact; La climatisation automobile impact energetique et environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.; Gagnepain, L.

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maxi-mum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the inter-national climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-condition ng (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential ed ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. All of these studies and additional data are presented in greater detail in the document,-'Automobile Air-conditioning' (ADEME reference no. 4985). (author)

  11. Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.

  12. Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dianliang; Zhu, Hongmin

    2010-05-01

    Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.

  13. The part of the international investments in the Russian petroleum industry; La place des investissements internationaux dans l'industrie petroliere russe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C

    2004-03-01

    The ''russian risk'' is important for the international petroleum companies, in spite of the creation of the TNK-BP joint venture. The investment in the petroleum domain face different and contradictory interests in function of the economic implied actors. To analyze the situation the author discussed the russian petroleum industry as an ''unfinished model'', and how the place for the international investments is limited. (A.L.B.)

  14. Adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长生

    2008-01-01

    The adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface was analyzed and the formula about it was derived.Some suggestions about highway construction,driving safety of the drivers and the judgment of the traffic accidents were presented.The results show that the adhesion coefficient is a function with the extreme value.If there is atmospheric pressure in the tire,the load of the vehicle and the degree of the coarse on the road surface is not selected properly,it will reach the least and affect the safety of the running automobile.

  15. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  16. Atmospheric pollution coming from automobiles and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air pollution coming from automobile is responsible of different diseases in respiratory or cardiovascular system. epidemiological studies in professional or general media give information in term of public health. If the role of air pollution from automobile at short terms is well established, for effects at long term (such cancers or chronic diseases of respiratory system) the measurement or estimation of the exposure is not sufficient for the moment and makes the epidemiology unable to quantify effects. In spite of these lacks, it is important to reduce the risk for the most fragile people. (N.C.)

  17. Sludge in the pulp and paper industry in Sweden, part II[Combustion of]; Slam fraan skogsindustrin, fas II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Kjoerk, Anders; Larsson, Sara; Wennberg, Olle [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Aamand, Lars-Erik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Eskilsson, David [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    During part II of this research program combustible sludge from the pulp and paper industry has been studied in detail. 560,000 tonnes of sludge per year (calculated as dry sludge) are produced in Sweden. The energy potential in the produced sludge is about 2 TWh/year. Today 1 TWh/year is produced in the pulp and paper mill's own boilers. This means that additional energy can be utilized from this material. An objective of this program has been to decide whether or not there are sludge types which are favourable respectively difficult to combust. By mixing different sludge types, or other waste products, emissions and/or problems during combustion can be minimized. These possibilities have been studied thoroughly in this program. A lot of sludge samples have been studied in laboratory scale at SP and in full-scale at Chalmers 12 MW CFB boiler. As a complement to the practical tests S.E.P. has done research regarding different aspects of sludge as a fuel; for example handling of sludge and regional drying. The results of 40 sintering tests at SP showed that the sintering temperature during combustion of sludge in a fluidised bed, with silica sand as bed material, varied between <850 deg C and >1100 deg C. The evaluation showed that the alkali content in the ash had the largest influence on the sintering temperature. Other factors were less important. During the tests at Chalmers eleven different sludge samples have been combusted together with wood pellets. Initially there were problems with the feeding to the boiler for some of the sludge samples. When the fuel feeding problems were solved the combustion took place without any problems. When sludge is co-combusted together with a 'clean' base fuel such as wood pellets the sulphur-, nitrogen- and chloride contents in the sludge have a large impact on the emissions. The normal way to reduce sulphur dioxide but also hydrogen chloride is to add lime in different positions into and after the boiler. In

  18. Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)

  19. Between Agnelli and Mussolini: Ford's unsuccessful attempt to penetrate the Italian automobile market in the interwar period

    OpenAIRE

    Toninelli, P

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses one chapter of the interwar history of the Ford Motor Company in Europe rather neglected by historiography, namely its unsuccessful attempt to erect a solid base of operations in Italy. After WW1 the breaking into the Italian automobile market had been part of the Ford Motor Company’s strategy of internationalization. It seemed to go well beyond the exploitation of an additional European market: possibly, its most interesting and promising aspect was the utilization of ...

  20. ANALYSIS OF VIBRATION ON MULTI-LEAF SPRING IN AN AUTOMOBILE UNDER LOADING USING FEM TOOL ANSYS

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran Jadhav*, Rahul Joshi, Dr Pradip Kumar Patil

    2016-01-01

    The leaf springs are widely used in suspension system of railway carriages and automobiles. But the form in which it is normally seen is laminated leaf spring.To assure proper spring life, the maintenance and inspection process must include the entire suspension system of springs and chassis parts. The motoring public has learned that proper maintenance on their vehicles is essential to obtain longer life and economical service in this age of rising equipment and fuel costs. In most norma...

  1. Respiratory morbidity due to ammonia exposure among the employees of a urea manufacturing industry located in western part of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naman Zala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is produced in the fertilizer industry. The amount of ammonia inhaled by employees of a urea manufacturing industry is very high. It would be interesting to study whether such an amount has any impact on the employees working there for many years. This study explores the magnitude of respiratory morbidity among employees of a urea manufacturing industry and to establish its association with exposure to ammonia. Data was collected related to significant respiratory illnesses of all the employees over a period of 10 years using computer-based medical record system of the industry′s hospital. The results obtained from the data analysis showed that there is no cause and effect relationship between exposure to ammonia and respiratory morbidity. Thus it was advised to the medical authority at industry to go for mass treatment with anthelmintics and that all the employees should be screened for specific allergens and this information should be used while managing respiratory morbidity.

  2. Radiological impact on the UK population of industries which use or produce materials containing enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. Part II: the steel production industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains an assessment of the radiological impact on the UK population of the steel production industry within the UK. The radiological impact of the primary industry, the waste streams produced and the use of by-product slag have been considered. Individual doses from atmospheric releases from ail currently operating integrated steel plants in the UK are less than 10 μSv y-1 for all age groups. The per caput dose rate in the UK population from 500 years of continuous steel production at the current levels is estimated to be 0.1 μSv y-1. Estimated maximum doses to workers at the steel production plant, landfill workers, and workers manufacturing and using building materials containing slag were generally less than 20 μSv y-1. The estimated radon concentrations in buildings constructed from concrete containing slag depend upon the radon emanation fraction assumed for the material. Experimental data in this area is sparse, and thus a range was considered. The estimated radon concentrations in buildings constructed from concrete containing slag ranged between 7.0 and 10.8 Bq m-3, compared with 9.9 Bq m-3 when slag-free concrete is assumed. The estimated dose from radon exposure ranges between 363 μSv y-1 and 559 μSv y-1, compared with 510 μSv y-1 when slag-free concrete is used. The estimated external dose to an individual in a house constructed using concrete containing slag is 790 μSv y-1 compared with 758 μSv y-1 for slag-free concrete. The overall effect of the use of the slag in building materials therefore ranges between a reduction in dose of 115 μSv y-1 and an increase of 81 μSv y-1. Other scenarios involving exposure of members of the public to slag resulted in doses of less than 5 μSv y-1. The estimated peak individual risk from landfill disposal of steel industry waste is less than approximately 1 10-8 y-1. Currently, radiological controls on the operation of steel production sites are confined to the authorisation by the Environment

  3. As vantagens logísticas e tributárias obtidas com a implantação do RECOF na indústria automobilística The logistics and tributaries advantages obtained with the implementation of the RECOF in the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Guarnieri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A quebra de barreiras alfandegárias, que conduz as empresas à intensificação do comércio exterior exige maior desburocratização dos processos aduaneiros, visando a redução de custos logísticos e tributários. O Brasil abriga, atualmente, os principais grupos mundiais do segmento automobilístico, o que incrementa as exportações no setor. Recente estudo do Banco Mundial demonstra que enquanto os produtos brasileiros levam em média 39 dias para serem liberados, no restante do mundo, este trâmite é de apenas 27 dias. Para solucionar este problema, surgiu em 1997 o regime aduaneiro RECOF. O objetivo do presente artigo é analisar as vantagens logísticas e tributárias obtidas com a implantação deste regime no setor automobilístico. Trata-se de uma pesquisa aplicada e exploratória, cujo procedimento metodológico foi o estudo de caso. As principais vantagens proporcionadas por este regime são representadas pela redução dos custos logísticos e do capital de giro empregado no pagamento de impostos incidentes na compra de matérias-primas e insumos.With the fall of customs barriers, that leads to the intensification of foreign commerce that demands greater reduction of bureaucracy in the customs processes, aiming at the reduction of logistics costs and tributes. Currently, Brazil shelters the main world-wide groups of automotive segment which develops the export business in this sector. A recent study of the World Bank demonstrates that, while the Brazilain products take in an average 39 days to gain permits, in the remaining of the world, this process takes only 27 days. To solve this problem, customs regimen RECOF appeared in 1997. The objective of the present article is to analyze the logistics advantages and taxes revenues with the implantation of this regimen in the automotive sector. This research is regarded as an applied and exploratory research, whereby the methodological procedure was a case study. The main advantages

  4. Para-petroleum industry: international context. Results of the 2002 inquiry carried out by GEP, CEP and M and IFP (part. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is the 2. part of the presentation of the inquiry about the 2002 economic results of the world para-petroleum industry: 1 - exploration-production: investments, geophysical activity (number of seismic survey teams, geophysical services market), drilling activity, construction of offshore production facilities (platforms construction, production equipments engineering), regional analysis (North America, North Sea, Latin America, Africa, Commonwealth of Independent States, Middle-East, Asia-Pacific). 2 - Refining and petrochemistry: economic context, refining industry expenses, fusions and results of refining companies, world petrochemical expenses, fusion and results of petrochemical companies. (J.S.)

  5. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-86 Section 600.311-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of city and the range of highway...

  6. 76 FR 61779 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive... refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0067.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Automobile or..., servicepersons and their survivors complete VA Form 21-4502 to apply for automobile or other conveyance...

  7. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  8. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by...

  9. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  10. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles and light trucks. 109-38.104 Section 109-38.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Vehicles § 109-38.104 Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks. (a) (b) All requests to purchase passenger automobiles larger than class IA, IB, or II (small, subcompact, or compact) shall...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 403 - Selected Industrial Subcategories Considered Dilute for Purposes of the Combined Wastestream Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be updated periodically for the convenience of the reader. Auto and Other Laundries (40 CFR part 444... Linen Supply Power Laundries, Family and Commercial Electrical and Electronic Components 1 (40 CFR part... (40 CFR parts 413/433). Capacitors (Fluid Fill) Carbon and Graphite Products Dry Transformers...

  12. A Review of the Fatigue Analysis of an Automobile Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadav Chetan S., Panchal Khushbu C., Patel Fajalhusen*

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an effort is made to review theinvestigations that have been made on the differentfatigue analysis techniques of automobile frames. Anumber of analytical and experimental techniquesare available for the fatigue analysis of theautomobile frames. Determination of the differentanalysis around different condition in anautomobile frames has been reported in literature.

  13. ASE Program Certification Standards for Automobile Technician Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA.

    This document presents and explains the development and application of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) program certification standards that were developed to improve the quality of secondary- and postsecondary-level automobile technician training by implementing a certification program that certifies programs in…

  14. Hysteretic Current Controlled Zvs Dc/Dc Converter For Automobile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cernat, M.; Scortarul, P.; Tanase, A.;

    2007-01-01

    A novel bi-directional dc-dc converter with ZVS and interleaving for dual voltage systems in automobiles is presented. A variable frequency extended band hysteretic current control method is proposed. In comparison with classical fixed frequency current control PWM, the reverse polarity peak...

  15. BEGA-a biaxial excitation Generator for automobiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scridon, S.; Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, L.;

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results for a biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA), which has a three-phase stator and a salient-pole excited heteropolar rotor with multiple flux barriers filled with low-cost permanent magnets (PMs). For this new generator, the low-vo...

  16. Classification of Surface Quality of Automobile Lamp—Reflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁旭军; 贺莉清; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces an installation for quickly classifying automobile's metal reflectors based on their roughness.The measuring principle and the mechanical structure are presented.Schematics of circuits and experimental results are given.Elimination and reduction of the effect of background lights or different bulbs on the measuring results are also described in detail.

  17. Future Industrialization of the World and the Necessity of Nuclear Power, Part II: How Limited are Resources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will the future world be forever divided into an industrial, developed and 'rich' on one side, and the primitive, undeveloped, and poor on the other? Is an industrial, affluent and sustainable world of 10-15 billion people owning 5-10 billion cars physically possible to exist? Can the world have enough food, minerals and energy to support such a widespread affluence in a sustainable manner? In previous papers I have argued that even without any major breakthroughs in science and technology, an industrialized, sustainable and affluent world can be created within the next half a century to a century, but only if breeder nuclear power is widely used throughout the world. In this paper I elaborate on the question of future availability of some basic natural resources. (author)

  18. A conceptual framework to explore the roles and contributions of industrial psychologists in South Africa (part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Barnard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing a conceptual framework against which the roles and contributions of industrial psychologists in South Africa could be explored. Three widely-used business frameworks – Balanced Score Card, South African Excellence Model and King II Report on Corporate Governance for South Africa – were theoretically integrated to produce a multi-dimensional framework to clarify roles and contributions in a discourse familiar to the business community. The framework was subsequently utilised in a follow-up study involving 23 registered industrial psychologists who were asked to clarify specific roles and contributions within each of the dimensions of the framework.

  19. Casting Defect Detection and Quality Improvement by Industrial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3D-CT system provides complete volume information on the testing objects and gives us many possibilities in the nondestructive testing area. As the development in automobile and aircraft industry, needs for casting parts with high quality and reliability become more and more important. The 3D-CT system can be applied not only to the sample testing in order to find and avoid casting defects by mass production but also to the development of a prototype. In this work porosities and shrinkages in die-casting parts were analyzed with the CT system to make improvement in the quality of castings. The CT scan system combined with simulation technology in the field of mold filling and solidification is expected to be the most effective tool for improving productivity in the die-casting production.

  20. Improving robotic welding in the shipbuilding industry through the recognition of shipbuilding parts by pre-locating corners in images

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, David; Lambert, Gareth; Pevy, Lynn; Tewkesbury, Giles

    2009-01-01

    A system is proposed that uses a combination of techniques to suggest weld requirements for ships parts. These suggestions are evaluated, decisions are made and then weld parameters are sent to a program generator. A pattern recognition system recognizes shipbuilding parts using shape contour information. Fourier-descriptors provide information and neural networks make decisions about shapes. The system has distinguished between various parts and programs have been generated so that the metho...

  1. Competence: sciences, clean engines: the automobile safety; Competences: sciences, moteurs propres: le salut de l'automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiret, M.

    2004-05-01

    In the framework of the greenhouse gases emission reduction in the automobile sector, this paper presents the possible technological innovations for the engines: an optimization prior to the combustion hopeful the electronic of the injections, the consumption decrease and the electromagnetic valves. (A.L.B.)

  2. Analysis of China’s Aluminum Usage in the Transport Industry in 2009—Part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Ⅱ. Aluminum Use in Railway Transport Railway transport vehicles include railway rolling stock and urban light rail transport vehicles. In recent years, with the rapid development of domestic transport industry, aluminum usage in railway transport vehicles has made significant breakthrough.

  3. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement... operator of an existing cement kiln, lightweight aggregate kiln, solid fuel boiler, liquid fuel boiler, or..., hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas, and non-mercury metals; or the Director determines certain...

  4. Technical and Economic Working Domains of Industrial Heat Pumps: Part 2 - Ammonia-Water Hybrid Absorption-Compression Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix;

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) is a relevant technology for industrial heat supply, especially for high sink temperatures and high temperature glides in the sink and source. This is due to the reduced vapour pressure and the non-isothermal phase change of the ze......, all with economical benefits for the investor....

  5. Technical and economic working domains of industrial heat pumps: Part 2 - ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix;

    2015-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) has been proposed as a relevant technology for industrial heat supply, especially for high sink temperatures and high temperature glides in the sink and source. This is due to the reduced vapour pressure and the non-isothermal phas...... up to 60 K, all with economical benefits for the investor....

  6. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part of the...... industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part of...

  7. 现代汽车电子技术的应用分析%Analysis of the application of modern automobile electronic technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉莉

    2013-01-01

      近些年,随着人们生活水平的提高以及生产技术的不断成熟,在一定程度上极大的推动了汽车行业的发展。与此同时,电子技术也越来越多的应用到汽车产业中。本文主要通过结合汽车产业与电子技术的特点和发展趋势,对电子技术在现阶段汽车产业中的有效应用进行详细的探究与讨论。%In recent years, with the improvement of people's living and production technology continues to mature, to a certain extent, has promoted the development of the automotive industry. At the same time, the electronic technology has been increasingly applied to automobile industry.This paper mainly through a combination of features and development trend of the automobile industry and electronic technology, explored and discussed in detail the effective application of electronic technology in the present stage in the automobile industry.

  8. Performance Investigation of Automobile Radiator Operated with ZnFe2O4 Nano Fluid based Coolant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cooling system of an Automobile plays an important role in its performance, consists of two main parts, known as radiator and fan. Improving thermal efficiency of engine leads to increase the engine's performance, decline the fuel consumption and decrease the pollution emissions. Water and ethylene glycol as conventional coolants have been widely used in radiators of an automotive industry for many years. These heat transfer fluids offer low thermal conductivity. With the advancement of nanotechnology, the new generation of heat transfer fluids called, “nanofluids” have been developed and researchers found that these fluids offer higher thermal conductivity compared to that of conventional coolants. This study focused on the preparation of Zinc based nanofluids (ZnFe2O4 using chemical co-precipitation method and its application in an automotive cooling system along with mixture of ethylene glycol and water (50:50. Relevant input data, nanofluids properties and empirical correlations were obtained from literatures to investigate the heat transfer enhancement of an automotive car radiator operated with nano fluid-based coolants. It was observed that, overall heat transfer coefficient and heat transfer rate in engine cooling system increased with the usage of nanofluids (with ethylene glycol the base-fluid compared to ethylene glycol (i.e. base-fluid alone. It is observed that, about 78% of heat transfer enhancement could be achieved with the addition of 1% ZnFe2O4 particles in a base fluid at the Reynolds number of 84.4x103 and 39.5x103 for air and coolant respectively

  9. Langages de description des architectures embarquées dans l'automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Simonot-Lion, Françoise

    2005-01-01

    Ce papier présente les besoins des acteurs de l'industrie automobile pour maîtriser le développement sûr des systèmes embarqués dans un contexte multi-partenaires. Un besoin premier est celui de la description des systèmes à toute étape de leur développement depuis l'établissement d'un cahier des charges jusqu'à le modélisation de composants et d'architectures opérationnelles. Dans ce contexte, le langage AIL_Transport défini dans le projet français Architecture Electronique Embarqué (AEE) es...

  10. The growing interest of automobile manufacturers for natural gas as an automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects for natural gas vehicles (NGV) are good. The number of trucks, busses and passenger cars that run on natural gas has considerably increased over the last few years. Natural gas is applauded from various sides as the most important alternative engine fuel. Some prestigious automobile manufacturers have meanwhile included NGV in their price list. However, it's up to the authorities and the gas industry itself in particular to make or break the success of NGV. The maximum range of 300 km is still too limited as is the number of natural gas filling stations in most countries. And without financial impetus NGV will not be able to compete with petrol- and diesel-fueled cars. Yet, clean natural gas vehicles appear to realize a market share of 1% soon

  11. Technical and economic working domains of industrial heat pumps: Part 2 - ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Reinholdt, L.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump (HACHP) has been proposed as a relevant technology for industrial heat supply, especially for high sink temperatures and high temperature glides in the sink and source. This is due to the reduced vapour pressure and the non-isothermal phase change of the zeotropic mixture, ammonia-water. To evaluate to which extent these advantages can be translated into feasible heat pump solutions, the working domain of the HACHP is investigated base...

  12. Physico-chemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part I Chemical composition, solid fat content and consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.; Claro da Silva, R.; Gioielli, L. A.; de Almeida Gonçalves, M. I.; Grimaldi, R.; Gonçalves, L. A.G.; Guenter Kieckbusch, T.

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study of the primary properties of six cocoa butter samples, representative of industrial blends and cocoa butter extracted from fruits cultivated in different geographical areas in Brazil is presented. The samples were evaluated according to fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol composition, regiospecific distribution, melting point, solid fat content and consistency. The results allowed for differentiating the samples according to their chemical compositions, thermal resista...

  13. Impact of industries in the accumulation of radionuclides in the lower part of Ebro river (Catalonia, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebro River extends over almost 930 km and is the main Spanish river entering the Mediterranean Sea. There are several industries located along this river course including a di-calcium phosphate factory (DCP) and two nuclear power reactors. These installations, together with other factors such as the geology, can contribute to the radiological content of the river. Therefore, this study was performed to determine some natural and also some anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in the Ebro River ecosystem. We analysed water samples, solid samples (rice field sludge and surface marine sediment samples), and also biota samples (Cladophora glomerata and Cynodon dactylon). For water samples, gross alpha, gross beta, tritium, uranium, thorium and also a group of gamma-emitting isotopes' activities were determined. The main contribution to radioactivity for these samples was due to some isotopes from the uranium and thorium chain. For the solid samples, we quantified some natural and artificial gamma radioisotopes, which may be related to the geological and/or industrial activities located in this zone. In the case of biota, the results indicate that the presence of the DCP has a significant influence, since the highest activity was observed in the surroundings of this industry (Flix), where isotopes such as 214Bi and 214Pb presented activity values of 105 ± 43 Bq/kg and 100 ± 58 Bq/kg, respectively. (authors)

  14. A study on PCB, PCDD/PCDF industrial contamination in an urban/agricultural area. Part I - Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turrio-Baldassarri, L.; Alivernini, S.; Battistelli, C.L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (IT)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanita is involved in a study on the impact of existing and past industrial activities as possible sources of contamination on the surrounding environment. The study will focus on an industrial plant inside Brescia, a city in the north-west of Italy, where, from 1938 to 1984, 150 tons of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were produced. In 1994, 1996 and 1998 three monitoring programs, preliminary to the construction of a municipal waste incinerator near the industrial plant, were carried out. High PCBs levels in soils were observed, namely 3000-6000 fold higher than the limits (0,001mg/Kg) allowed by the 1999 Italian law, in an agricultural area where several small farms are located; the farmers have been consuming for a long time food, such as milk and meat, produced in their own farms. This study has different aims: confirming and enriching previous data; helping determining the contamination source; measuring the contamination of the animals living in the area or fed with contaminated forage; evaluate the exposure of the farmers as compared to general population. Moreover, this study is interested in studying the PCB and PCDD/PCDF transfer from soils to humans across the food chain.

  15. Social assessment of wind power. Part 4: International position and development conditions of the Danish wind turbine industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, the Danish wind turbine industry is positioned as a global market leader on a fast growing international market. The conclusion and observation of this report are: 1. The international market for wind power is likely to grow fast over the next 5 years (a self-reinforcing development) and the Danish wind turbine industry has the potential to increase export from the present DKK 2 billion per year to DKK 4 billion per year. 2. The leading market position is achieved after the collapse of the California market in 1987. The last four years have been export-driven growth together with the development of complementary assets to support a strong product technology. 3. The Danish position might be threatened by the new competitors, but it is our view that it takes 2-3 years before they have equivalent competences, and since the Danish companies are presently also mobilizing resources and competences it is not likely that they are easily outperformed. 4. A continued installation of wind power in Denmark is important to support the sustaining of the international position in the coming years. Through, it is not the volume size of the domestic market, but rather a stable market which serves as a home base for the industry. Not only for the reference and testing of new wind turbines, but also the knowledge networks between manufacturers and suppliers and between manufacturers and the Test Station for Windmills at Risoe. (EG) 51 refs

  16. Physicochemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part II Microstructure, polymorphic behavior and crystallization characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural behavior of industrial standardized cocoa butter samples and cocoa butter samples from three different Brazilian states is compared. The cocoa butters were characterized by their microstructural patterns, crystallization kinetics and polymorphic habits. The evaluation of these parameters aided in establishing relationships between the chemical compositions and crystallization behavior of the samples, as well as differentiating them in terms of technological and industrial potential for use in tropical regions.

    En este trabajo se presenta el comportamiento de la microestructura y la cristalización de mantecas de cacao representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de tres regiones geográficas diferentes de Brasil. Las muestras se evaluaron de acuerdo a la microestructura, la cinética de cristalización y el comportamiento polimórfico. La evaluación de estos parámetros nos permite establecer relaciones entre la composición química y el comportamiento de la cristalización de las muestras, así como las diferencias sobre la adecuación del potencial tecnológico e industrial para su aplicación en las regiones tropicales.

  17. A COMPARISON OF GREEN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AMONG INDUSTRIES SECTORS IN CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    This paper aims to examine the differences of Green supply chain management (GSCM) implementation among chemical, automobile and machinery industries in China based on a questionnaire survey designed by Industrial Ecology at two industrial parks in Shenyang city. Exploratory factor analysis and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. The main result was that the GSCM practices of the three industries are still at a beginning stage. The level of GSCM practices of automobile industry (promoted by international market competition) was higher than those of chemical and machinery industry (promoted by domestic laws and policies).

  18. Analyse des tendances et des ruptures sur le marché automobile français

    OpenAIRE

    Sentenac-Chemin, Elodie; LANTZ Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    International audience Le marché automobile français est caractérisé par une forte croissance des ventes de voitures depuis les années 1970, une stagnation de ces ventes courant des années 2000, et enfin une diminution de ces dernières, fin 2008. De plus, les ventes de voitures sont caractérisées par l'augmentation de la part des véhicules diesel depuis les années 1990. Ainsi, en France cette part est passée de 33% en 1990 à 74% des ventes aujourd'hui. Dans ce contexte, notre travail consi...

  19. Mathematical Modeling of an Automobile Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Kate, T. A. Jadhav

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available - In an automotive industry, to reduce product development time and increase quality of product, it is essential to reduce the number of physical prototypes and rely more on precise & reliable design for the final design of vehicles. This paper presents a mathematical model for the damping force of the hydraulic shock absorber which is implemented to analyse the shock absorbers mounting brackets attached to the vehicle structure. Physical testing results indicate that the considered shock absorber’s mathematical model is reliable and can be used to calculate the durability target life of mounting brackets. Thus this presented methodology can be utilized as an effective way to reduce time and cost in design and development of automotive components.

  20. Diverging business strategies towards climate change : a USA-Europe comparison for four sectors of industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerd, van der K.F.; Wit, de C.M.; Kolk, A.; Levy, D.L.; Vellinga, P.; Behlyarova, E.

    2004-01-01

    The research project has investigated what strategies specific sectors of industry develop to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In an USA-Europe co-operation, researchers have analysed emerging climate strategies in the oil industry, the automobile industry, the chemical industry and the bank and insu

  1. Endommagement des aciers TWIP pour application automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Lorthios, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Co-encadrement de la thèse : Matthieu Mazière Ultra high strength Fe-Mn-C Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) austenitic steels exhibit excellent formability for automotive safety parts. By refining the microstructure during straining, deformation twinning induces a high hardening rate and provides high ultimate tensile strength (>1000MPa) combined with excellent ductility (>50%). However, plastic instabilities and TWIP effect lead to atypical failures modes and standard forming limit curve...

  2. Applying Natural Sciences to Studying History: Regarding the Example of England and the Industrial Revolution Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Badalian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the previous article of this series we presented a bio-ecological approach to studying history. It was shown that societies from the first civilizations to our days are techno-ecosystems (coenoses and do not differ much from the natural ecosystems of a lake or a forest, which are also restricted by their supplies of food. Historically, a succession of distinctive nestled geo-climatic zones was domesticated as the older ones were exhausted due to growing demographic pressure. In this context, evolution is not synonymous with competition. Cooperation of mutually dependent species is crucial for domesticating a new ecosystem, while at specific moments in its lifecycle, competition intensifies leading to speciation. In this article, we use this concept for analyzing a specific society. We show that the Industrial Revolution was England’s specific adaptation to the limitations of its geo-climatic zone. Timber, the main resource of the pre-industrial age, was essential for ship building and metal smelting. It was abundant in its main rival’s, France’s, geo-climatic habitat, but scarce in deforested England. Using its abundant local resource, coal, in an innovative way, this particular society, just like an emergent biological species, gained an evolutionary edge over its neighbors by opening access to new sources of food. The “workshop of the world” started with export-oriented textile production and ended as the major colonial power of its time. At the start of its rise to supremacy, during the 1805 battle at Trafalgar, Lord Nelson smashed the combined French-Spanish navies using short and light cast-iron cannons. They were much less precise than the long bronze ones favored by Napoleon, but, in the right hands, gave the first taste of industrial might to the England’s foes. Under Britain’s dominance, the 19th century’s Oikumene was completely remade and covered with smokestacks. We show subsequent stages of England

  3. Design of MEMS accelerometer based acceleration measurement system for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K. Arun; Mathivanan, N.

    2012-10-01

    Design of an acceleration measurement system using a MEMS accelerometer to measure acceleration of automobiles in all the three axes is presented. Electronic stability control and anti-lock breaking systems in automobiles use the acceleration measurements to offer safety in driving. The system uses an ARM microcontroller to quantize the outputs of accelerometer and save the measurement data on a microSD card. A LabVIEW program has been developed to analyze the longitudinal acceleration measurement data and test the measurement system. Random noises generated and added with measurement data during measurement are filtered by a Kalman filter implemented in LabVIEW. Longitudinal velocity of the vehicle is computed from the measurement data and displayed on a graphical chart. Typical measurement of velocity of a vehicle at different accelerations and decelerations is presented.

  4. The Inherited Traditional Culture of Automobile Molding DNA Design Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of automobile modeling DNA is the core that makes enterprises establish a good and unique brand image to win on market. This paper described the definition and meaning of production DNA, also discussed the composition of production DNA and researched the design ideas of production DNA from both macro and micro aspects. Finally, it recommended would research the traditional culture into the past, present and future of three periods, explored the idea of traditional culture that the automobile modeling DNA inherited under these three periods and analyzed with the red flag car as an example. This research provided a guideline to help automotive corporations to implement brand strategies, and helped to design autos with Chinese elements, sense of the times and fashion trends and can perform the modern mental outlook of Chinese people.

  5. AN FE ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED SUBGRADE UNDER AUTOMOBILE LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shuwang; ZHANG Xinqiang; LIU Run

    2004-01-01

    An FE analysis procedure was presented to predict the behavior of soil-geogrid interaction under automobile loading. The dynamic interactions between the transverse bars, the longitudinal ribs and the soil were simulated by a system consisting of nonlinear springs, dashpots and masses, to study the deformation properties of the reinforced soil. The equivalent stiffness and damping ratios could be determined with the shaking table. The dynamic responses of a reinforced subgrade were analyzed with the 3D finite element approach. This approach is programmed and applied to analyze the soil-geogrid interaction under dynamic loading. The comparative analysis of the response of the reinforced subgrade and that of the subgrade without reinforcement shows that the geogrid placed at the bottom of the base layer may effectively reduce the accumulative plastic deformation due to the cyclic automobile loading.

  6. Study on the Fuzzy COntrol Strategy of Automobile with CVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuJianjun; QINDatong; 等

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the dynamic characteristics of automobile with a CVT system, a bond graph analysis model of continuously variable transmission is established.On the base of the simulation state space equations that are established with bond graph theory,a fuzzy control strategy with an expert system of starting process has been introduced.Considering uncertain system parameters and exterior resistance disturbing,the effect of the profile of membership function and the defuzzification algorthm on the capacity of the fuzzy controller has been studied.The result of simulation proves that the proposed fuzzy controller is effective and feasible,Such controller has been employed in the actual control and has proved practicable.The study lays a foundation for design of the fuzzy controller for automobile with a CVT system.

  7. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Yunsong Xu; Shen Yin; Jinyong Yu; Hamid Reza Karimi

    2014-01-01

    The traditional mechanical instrument lacks the ability to satisfy the market with characters of favorable compatibility, easy upgrading, and fashion. Thus the design of a TFT-LCD (thin film transistor-liquid crystal display) based automobile instrument is carried out. With a 7-inch TFT-LCD and the 32-bit microcontroller MB91F599, the instrument could process various information generated by other electronic control units (ECUs) of a vehicle and display valuable driving parameters on the 7-in...

  8. A New Method for Estimation of Automobile Fuel Adulteration

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Anil; Sharma, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of increasing urban air pollution due to fast increasing number of auto mobiles and adulteration of automobile fuel has been pointed out in the context of developing countries. For prevention of the adulteration, the monitoring of fuel quality at the distribution point is essential. For the detection/estimation of the commonly used adulterants (i.e. diesel in petrol and kerosene in diesel), a number of possible methods have been reviewed. As such there is no standard method/equipm...

  9. Automobile Fuel Economy Standards: Impacts, Efficiency, and Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Soren; Parry, Ian; James M. Sallee; FISCHER, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses fuel economy regulations in the United States and other countries. We first describe how these programs affect the automobile market, including their impacts on fuel use and other dimensions of the vehicle fleet. We then review different methodologies for assessing the costs of fuel economy regulations and discuss what the results of these methodologies imply for policy. Following that, we compare the welfare effects of fuel economy regulations to those of fuel taxes and ...

  10. Translation of Automobile Brands from the Perspective of Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘竹林; 王俊

    2013-01-01

    With the steady growth of the Chinese economy, more and more countries are focusing on China. A great number of brands are entering the Chinese market and auto brand is one of them. Brand translation plays an important role for success of opening international market. This paper applies the Skopos theory to automobile brand translation, so as to provide a new angle to translation practice.

  11. Promoting automobile safety belt use by young children.

    OpenAIRE

    Sowers-Hoag, K M; Thyer, B A; Bailey, J S

    1987-01-01

    A program using behavioral practice, assertiveness training, and social and contrived reinforcers was developed to establish and maintain automobile safety belt use by young children. Sixteen children (ages 4.8 to 7 years) who never used their safety belts during a 5-day preexperimental observation period were randomly assigned to two groups of eight each. A multiple baseline design across groups was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the training program. During the 8-day baseline period ...

  12. DAARIA: Driver Assistance by Augmented Reality for Intelligent Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    George, Paul; Thouvenin, Indira; Fremont, Vincent; Cherfaoui, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    International audience Taking into account the drivers' state is a major challenge for designing new advanced driver assistance systems. In this paper we present a driver assistance system strongly coupled to the user. DAARIA 1 stands for Driver Assistance by Augmented Reality for Intelligent Automobile. It is an augmented reality interface powered by several sensors. The detection has two goals: one is the position of obstacles and the quantification of the danger represented by them. The...

  13. Hybrid GPS-GSM Localization of Automobile Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad A. Al-Khedher

    2012-01-01

    An integrated GPS-GSM system is proposed to track vehicles using Google Earth application. The remote module has a GPS mounted on the moving vehicle to identify its current position, and to be transferred by GSM with other parameters acquired by the automobile's data port as an SMS to a recipient station. The received GPS coordinates are filtered using a Kalman filter to enhance the accuracy of measured position. After data processing, Google Earth application is used to view the current loca...

  14. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    OpenAIRE

    H.P. Khairnar; V.M. Phalle; S. S. Mantha

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained hav...

  15. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF; NOOR AZMI HASHIM

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study ...

  16. Determinants of Expenditure in Automobile Maintenance: Some Evidence from Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Bitros, George C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper derives a model of maintenance expenditures from an analytical framework in which maintenance, utilization and service life are appropriately integrated and estimates it with the help of automobile data from Greece. On the theoretical plain it is shown that the model allows endogenously for most of the variables that have been identified in the relevant literature as important determinants of maintenance expenditures. Also the model yields sharp sign predictions for the included va...

  17. Profit and Concentration in Commercial Automobile Insurance Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Vickie L. Bajtelsmit; Raja Bouzouita

    1998-01-01

    Pricing of commercial insurance has generally been thought to be more competitive than that of personal insurance. For this reason, there has been little academic interest in the impact of market structure on insurer profitability for these lines, despite findings of such a relationship in other lines. This study examines whether such a relationship exists for commercial automobile insurance and finds that states with higher levels of concentration have higher average profit margins. This is ...

  18. A study on PCB, PCDD/PCDF industrial contamination in an urban/agricultural area. Part II. Animal matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Rocca, C.; Alivernini, S.; Battistelli, C. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Roma (IT)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The Istituto Superiore di Sanita is involved in a project investigating the contamination of an area in the northern Italy (near Brescia). In this area an industrial plant produced PCBs for about 50 year. In its vicinity, during monitoring campaigns, high levels of PCBs were measured in soils. In the contaminated area there are several small farms, most of which constitute a sort of self contained food chain: animals feed on contaminated forage, farmers consume meat and milk from these animals. The transfer from soil through animals to humans across the food chain will be evaluated. PCDD/PCDF and PCB levels in different matrices will be analyzed: soil, forage, food of animal origin, human blood and breast milk1. In this paper we report the results obtained on samples of bovine perirenal fat, liver and milk from cattle grazing in the contaminated area and belonging to four small farms located near the industrial area. The concentration of 17 dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), of the four non-ortho-substituted polichlorinated biphenyls (PCB77, PCB126, PCB 169 and PCB 81), of other 60 PCB congeners (including 8 mono-ortho congeners) were determined. Levels, profiles and contribution to toxic equivalent concentration (TEQ) of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB (non-ortho and mono-ortho-substituted) are discussed.

  19. Automobile air pollution: control equipment. Volume 2. 1979-January, 1980 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1979-jan 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-02-01

    This bibliography of Federally-sponsored research cites control equipment and retrofit techniques to control automobile exhaust emissions. The topics include the design and performance of catalytic and thermal reactors, retrofit devices, carburetors, and ignition timing systems. Also covered are studies of the catalysts as well as the equipment regulations that the industry must follow. (This updated bibliography contains 59 abstracts, all of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. Solar powered automobile automation for heatstroke prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navtej Swaroop; Sharma, Ishan; Jangid, Santosh

    2016-03-01

    Heatstroke inside a car has been critical problem in every part of the world. Non-exertional heat stroke results from exposure to a high environmental temperature. Exertional heat stroke happens from strenuous exercise. This paper presents a solution for this fatal problem and proposes an embedded solution, which is cost effective and shows the feasibility in implementation. The proposed system consists of information sharing platform, interfacing of sensors, Global System Mobile (GSM), real time monitoring system and the system is powered by the solar panel. The system has been simulated and tested with experimental setup.