WorldWideScience

Sample records for automobile ownership

  1. Gender-specific risk factors for virologic failure in KwaZulu-Natal: automobile ownership and financial insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Anna Q; Ordóñez, Claudia E; Johnson, Brent A; Del Rio, Carlos; Kearns, Rachel A; Wu, Baohua; Hampton, Jane; Wu, Peng; Sunpath, Henry; Marconi, Vincent C

    2014-11-01

    We sought to examine which socioeconomic indicators are risk factors for virologic failure among HIV-1 infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A case-control study of virologic failure was conducted among patients recruited from the outpatient clinic at McCord Hospital in Durban, South Africa between October 1, 2010 and June 30, 2012. Cases were those failing first-line ART, defined as viral load >1,000 copies/mL. Univariate logistic regression was performed on sociodemographic data for the outcome of virologic failure. Variables found significant (p automobile ownership was a risk factor among males, while variables of financial insecurity (unemployment, non-spouse family paying for care, staying with family) were risk factors for women. In this cohort, financial insecurity among women and automobile ownership among men were risk factors for virologic failure. Risk factor differences between genders demonstrate limitations of generalized risk factor analysis.

  2. Employee ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Mygind, Niels

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an overview over some theory and empirical evidence on employee ownership and other forms of employee financial participation and answers the following questions: What is employee ownership and what is the relation to other forms of financial participation? Why is employee ownership widespread in some developed market economies like US and in Italy, France and Spain, while it has a quite rare occurrence in the Scandinavian countries? What are the conditions favouring and what...

  3. Automobile dependence: The irresistible force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenworthy, J.; Newman, P. [Murdoch Univ., WA (Australia). Inst. for Science and Technology Policy

    1993-08-01

    The proposition by Charles Lave that the automobile is `unstoppable`, an irresistible force` and that transit has `lost the battle` in the US and is losing it in Europe, is examined in this paper. It also examines Lave`s proposition that, despite this power of the automobile, car use in the US will probably plateau because of saturation in car ownership, and therefore it may be possible to expand the US highway network without new roads immediately filling up, as they have done until now. The paper presents 1990/91 data on private and public transport for US, Australian, European and Asian cities and updates previously published data. The update to 1990 is attempting to see the extent to which these patterns are continuing or changing in different cities. Overall the paper finds that although automobile dependence is a powerful force, it is not `irresistible` or `unstoppable` and it is certainly not an inevitable outcome of growing wealth. (author). 7 tabs., 17 figs., refs.

  4. Voice control in automobiles; Sprachbedienung im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, D.; Sitter, W. [Siemens VDO Automotive AG (Germany). Div. Infotainment Solutions; Kaemmerer, B. [Siemens Corporate Technology (Germany). Fachzentrum Professional Speech Processing

    2006-06-15

    Voice control simplifies handling the growing number of assistance, communication and convenience systems in automobiles. Siemens VDO Automotive have used the company's comprehensive know-how in the field of voice and communications machines from other sectors - particularly the telecommunications sector - to develop a voice control system for automobiles. It is distinguished by its intelligent architecture with high performance and extremely user-friendly features. (orig.)

  5. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Lin

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis

  6. Establishment of floor ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Robič, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    After the socioeconomic system had been changed in 1991 the right of ownership and land registry seemed to gain a much greater importance. In that time the concept of floor ownership has also started to develop, but after 25 years a significant number of multi-unit buildings without the established floor ownership still exist in Slovenia. In this thesis both theoretical background and practical solutions for establishing a floor ownership are presented, furthermore, possible causes for an ina...

  7. The Ownership Barometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This case describes one of the Ownership Barometer’s (Korsager, 2016) three owner-types, namely the formal owner. The Ownership Barometer is an analytic tool to analyze an owner-manager’s feeling of ownership. The case exemplifies the formal owner-type by describing the character of KALK’s founder...

  8. "Asset Ownership Across Generations"

    OpenAIRE

    Ngina S. Chiteji; Frank P. Stafford

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines cross-generational connections in asset ownership. It begins by presenting a theoretical framework that develops the distinction between the intergenerational transfer of knowledge about financial assets and the direct transfer of dollars from parents to children. Its analysis of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) reveals intergenerational correlations in asset ownership, and we find evidence to suggest that parental asset ownership or family-based exposur...

  9. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation) manufactured...

  10. Okoliš i automobil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Constant increase of the number of automobiles causes demand for individual materials to get on the rise, thus giving an impulse to the development of recycling logistics. Used automobiles get disassembled and individual parts which can be used as raw materials or additives get recycled. Automobile tires can be reclaimed or vulcanized. In July 1978 the environmental-friendly "Blauer Engel" or "Blue Angel" symbol was first introduced for reclaimed tires. Later, emblems were introduced for other recycled automobile pans. The awarding of the emblem is being controlled and approved by authorized institutes, because the emblem rightfully designates traffic safety.

  11. The automobile after tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    This talk discusses the technical options available for automobiles within the next 5 to 10 years. With the objective to reduce consumption and pollution, several alternative approaches are presented and analyzed using simplified but realistic calculations. Main emphasis is laid on CO{sub 2} emission of the complete energy transformation path from the primary energy carrier to the energy dissipated in test cycles. It is shown that no single optimal solution exist but that a trade-off between consumption, pollution and cost must be made for each specific situation. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozomata David AHMED

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, opening of any door will disengage the device and the engine will stop. To restart the engine, the doors must be closed and the codes rendered sequentially-in this case the codes are 1974.

  13. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structur...

  14. Types of Timberland Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Siegel

    1999-01-01

    The form of ownership in which you hold your woodland is important from a tax standpoint. Further, if your forest property is structured as a business, the type of business organization chosen also has significant tax implications. Additionally, non-tax factors bear on choosing an ownership and/or business format. These include forest management goals, size of the...

  15. Automobile Club CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club CERN

    2010-01-01

     L’Assemblée Générale Ordinaire de «L’Automobile Club du CERN» s’est tenue le mercredi 12 janvier 2010. Le Président, J. Pierlot, souhaite la bienvenue aux membres présents, annonce l’agenda et résume les activités et événements du club pour l’année 2009. Le Club compte environ 600 membres, une petite diminution par rapport aux précédentes années dû surtout aux départs anticipés à la retraite. La cotisation reste inchangée : 50 CHF. Notre trésorier, E. Squadrani, présente de façon détaillée la situation du compte d’exploitation pour 2009 ainsi que le bilan de l’Automobile Club. Les comptes sont équilibrés, la situation de la trés...

  16. Globalization of the automobile industry in China. Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin

    2001-08-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policy making and transport management. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems and stronger emissions control would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. (author)

  17. WHO KILLED SAAB AUTOMOBILE?:Obituary of an Automotive Icon

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Nick; Holweg, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Saab Automobile AB was declared bankrupt on December 19, 2011. This marked the end of 62 years of car production for the iconic brand, which during its final years was beset with financial problems and changes of ownership. More than 3,700 workers lost their jobs when the Trollhättan factory finally closed its doors after producing a total of 4.5 million Saab vehicles over the years. But what was the root cause for the company’s demise? Was it preventable? And who was to blame? The failure o...

  18. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  19. Bringing "indigenous" ownership back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    African economies are currently experiencing an upsurge in foreign ownership of key parts of their economies. This, however, is not new, and in the wake of independence several African countries pursued indigenisation policies to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation...... understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related...

  20. Crimes against property & ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Zar Rokh, Ehsan; Radmanesh, Mansour

    2007-01-01

    The most primeval crimes in all countries are crimes against property such as: Burglary, Larceny, Arson, Embezzlement, False pretenses, Extortion, forgery, fraud, robbery, and etc these crimes engender when ownership existed. Lord can do any possession in his/her property .If anyone trespasses to another one ownership prevailing law punishment him/her. Also we define these crimes in Islamic criminal law; because Islamic rules are strange and prober must study very hard to understand ...

  1. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation of...

  2. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1) Vehicles...

  3. Automobile Crash Sensor Signal Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-11-01

    The crash sensor signal processor described interfaces between an automobile-installed doppler radar and an air bag activating solenoid or equivalent electromechanical device. The processor utilizes both digital and analog techniques to produce an ou...

  4. United Kingdom Automobile Insurance Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    The report represents a limited study of the United Kingdom Automobile Insurance Industry: (1) the structure, size, and relationships within the industry; (2) the basis of premium calculation, rate structure, types of policies, and payment of compens...

  5. Automobile age and risk : summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The partial relationship between automobile age and risk is studied by means of logistic regression as applied to a large insurance policy data set. Annual mileage and car owner's gender, age and county of residence are controlled for.

  6. Drowsy driving and automobile crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Drowsy driving is a serious problem that leads to : thousands of automobile crashes each year. This : report, sponsored by the National Center on : Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) of the National : Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the : National ...

  7. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  8. Ownership concentration and bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kitakogelu Ozili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether ownership concentration influences bank profitability in a developing country context. We focus on bank ownership concentration measured as the amount of direct equity held by a majority shareholder categorised into: high ownership concentration, moderate ownership concentration and disperse ownership. We find that banks with high ownership concentration have higher return on assets, higher net interest margin and higher recurring earning power while banks with dispersed ownership have lower return on assets but have higher return on equity. Also, higher cost efficiency improves the return on assets of widely-held banks and the return on equity of banks with moderate ownership. The findings have implications. JEL: Code: G3, G34, G31, Keywords: Corporate governance, Ownership structure, Agency theory, Profitability, Firm performance, Banks, Return on asset, Return on equity

  9. From Social to Private Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Masten, Arjana Brezigar; Zajc, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the ownership structures of unlisted privatized firms in Slovenia. On the basis of official ownership records for all nonfinancial firms over a six-year period (1999-2004), we explore the factors responsible for the concentration of ownership and for the dissolution of the mult......This paper studies the ownership structures of unlisted privatized firms in Slovenia. On the basis of official ownership records for all nonfinancial firms over a six-year period (1999-2004), we explore the factors responsible for the concentration of ownership and for the dissolution...

  10. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  11. Studies on pyrolysis and gasification of automobile shredder residue in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Feijian; Chen, Ming

    2014-10-01

    With increasing automobile ownerships in China, the number of end-of-life vehicles has also rapidly increased. However, the automobile shredder residue generated during the dismantling of end-of-life vehicles in China is not treated properly and has caused great resource waste and environmental problems. In this work, automobile shredder residue from a domestic end-of-life vehicles dismantling company was comprehensively studied through element analysis, combustion heat experiment, proximate analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The feasibility of using pyrolysis combined with gasification to treat and recycle automobile shredder residue was investigated. The produced gas, oil, and residue yield was measured and the correlation between their yield and the experimental temperature and ratio of air to automobile shredder residue feed was studied. It is found that when ratio of air and experimental temperature are 1.5 mol kg(-1) and 900 °C, respectively, the heat energy of the gas produced per kilogram treated automobile shredder residue reaches a maximum value of 11.28 MJ. The characteristics of pyrolysis oil and solid residue were studied. The solid residue takes up 4.65%~5.57% of the original end-of-life vehicles weight. This greatly helps to reach the target of a 95% recycling rate. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Essays on Employee Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faigen, Benjamin

    of this phenomenon. Employee ownership is found to have played a role in Chinese economic transition as a transitory phase before non-state enterprises were afforded official recognition in a context of publicly-owned enterprise privatisation. Senior managers became the key beneficiaries in firm sales and most......, and barriers to, employee ownership in China at three levels of analysis: the societal, organisational and individual. Its intended contribution to the employee ownership literature is to organise the scattered evidence in order to provide a systematic and comprehensive coverage of the development...... ventures that were at one stage employee-owned, dissolved. Outside of a couple of notable examples in the tertiary sector, enterprises featuring some level of employees as owners persist in reduced numbers in rural areas today. In the second thesis paper, the interest is in the role of the individual actor...

  13. Ownership Structure in Agrifood Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); W.J.J. Bijman (Jos)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis article analyses the impact of ownership structure on investments in a three-party supply chain from an incomplete contracting perspective. Circumstances are determined in which a marketing cooperative is the unique first-best ownership structure.

  14. The latrine ownership ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeng, Peter Appiah; Keraita, Bernard; Oduro-Kwarteng, Sampson

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the latrine ownership ladder as a conceptual policy framework to enhance sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws from literature and a case study in a Ghanaian peri-urban community to highlig...

  15. Total Cost of Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), som giver et bud på, hvordan virksomheder kan opnå en bedre indsigt i, hvilke leverandører der forårsager hvilke omkostninger og dermed danne et forbedret beslutningsgrundlag for besparelser i leverandørleddet. I artiklen argumenteres først og fremmest for, hvorfor TCO er...

  16. Ownership structure and earnings management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Jai, Hind

    2012-01-01

    Does poor legal protection of minority shareholders provide enough incentives for majority shareholders to expropriate minority shareholders and hide their unscrupulous behavior through accounting manipulations? This paper attempts to study the effect of ownership structure (ownership of the larg......Does poor legal protection of minority shareholders provide enough incentives for majority shareholders to expropriate minority shareholders and hide their unscrupulous behavior through accounting manipulations? This paper attempts to study the effect of ownership structure (ownership...

  17. Noise exposure in convertible automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulec, A A; Lukens, S B; Jackson, L E; Deyoung, M N

    2011-02-01

    To quantify the noise exposure received while driving a convertible automobile with the top open, compared with the top closed. Five different convertible automobiles were driven, with the top both closed and open, and noise levels measured. The cars were tested at speeds of 88.5, 104.6 and 120.7 km/h. When driving with the convertible top open, the mean noise exposure ranged from 85.3 dB at 88.5 km/h to 89.9 dB at 120.7 km/h. At the tested speeds, noise exposure increased by an average of 12.4-14.6 dB after opening the convertible top. Driving convertible automobiles at speeds exceeding 88.5 km/h, with the top open, may result in noise exposure levels exceeding recommended limits, especially when driving with the convertible top open for prolonged periods.

  18. Historical Financial Data - Domestic Automobile Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A historical financial data base was developed for the four major U.S. automobile manufacturers, focusing on the specific operations associated with production and marketing of automobiles and light trucks. The years subject to analysis were 1967-197...

  19. Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ATMQ, APT and ARS were subjected to face validation by five experts from the University, Technical Colleges and the Automobile Industry. The ATMQ was trial tested on students of Government Technical College Minna and Automobile Supervisors in automobile companies in Minna to establish its reliability. Cronbach ...

  20. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  1. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive) material...

  2. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles. 600... 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.315-82 Classes of comparable automobiles. (a) The Secretary will classify automobiles as passenger automobiles or light trucks (nonpassenger automobiles) in...

  3. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles. 600... 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.315-08 Classes of comparable automobiles. (a) The Secretary will classify automobiles as passenger automobiles or light trucks (nonpassenger automobiles) in...

  4. Automobile characteristics historical data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    A collection of data concerning the physical, operating, and performance characteristics of automobiles for the model years 1955, 1960, 1965, 1968, and 1970 to 1974. Data is to be added to the data base already established by DOT/TSC, for the 1975 mo...

  5. Strategic Audit and Ownership Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Franz Wahl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the new global economy, ownership has become a central issue for organizational performance. Ownership strategy is where corporate governance meets strategic management. Highlighting a knowledge gap in the field of corporate governance, the author is asking the central research question: “how to develop an ownership strategy?” The main purpose of this paper is to answer this original question and develop a better understanding about ownership strategies. Theoretically there is evidence to indicate that there is a link between strategic audit and ownership strategy. Analyzing firm cases from Estonia allows concluding that the strategic audit is useful for developing systemically ownership strategies, which in turn could be a realistic alternative for complete contracts. The use of strategic audits gives the business owner an opportunity to analyze his own actions and behavior, learning, managing knowledge, and finally clearly expressing his will in the form of an ownership strategy.

  6. Small woodland ownership management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert J. Childs

    1977-01-01

    Small woodlot ownerships are a commodity on the real estate market which have cycled through a supply and demand curve on a somewhat irregular basis. In order to have some understanding of what it is we are talking about, it is necessary to define what a small woodlot is, and where it may be found. In size these parcels can range from ten acres to fifteen acres on up...

  7. Energy autonomous sensors in the automobile; Energieautarke Sensorik im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehne, Ingo [Hochschule Heilbronn (Germany). Studiengang Energieoekologie; Schreiter, Matthias [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Li, Xiaoming [Daimler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany); Hehn, Thorsten [Hahn-Schickard-Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Forschung e.V., Freiburg (Germany). HSG-IMIT, Inst. fuer Mikro- und Informationstechnik; Thewes, Marcell; Scholl, Gerd [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ., Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany); Wagner, Dieter [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); Manoli, Yiannos [Univ. Freiburg (Germany). IMTEK; Frey, Alexander [Hochschule Augsburg (Germany). Fakultaet Elektrotechnik

    2013-04-01

    A brief outline of energy autonomous sensors in the automobile is given. For this purpose the variety of sensors in today's automotive vehicles is reported. The rationale for the deployment of energy autonomous sensors is given. In addition the potential of using environmental energy and the possibilities of their energy conversion are presented. As part of the funded project ASYMOF, two pioneer applications - a tire pressure monitoring and an anti-theft alarm system - are studied and discussed.

  8. CHINESE AUTOMOBILE ENTERPRISE STRATEGY ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Phd. Candidate Mrs. Chai Feng xia

    2015-01-01

    China's auto industry also had a golden decade of explosive growth. In 2009, China's auto market has exceeded the United States, the wo rld's largest car market, and in 2013, China's auto production both breaks t hrough twenty million. However, through the presentation of China's auto m arket booming, we should be acutely aware that the status of China's automobile industry in the global automotive industry value chain is still very low, this paper did analysis regarding the current situation...

  9. Automobile technology of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiffert, U.; Walzer, P.

    1990-01-01

    Looking ahead to the year 2000, this fascinating publication takes an in-depth look at new technology which will impact the passenger car of tomorrow. New developments in the areas of performance, reliability, comfort, fuel economy, safety, and environmental compatibility are examined. In this book the authors offer analysis on subjects such as the impact of legislation, the acceptance of ABS, and features of the future dashboard. Offering insight to readers with both technical and general interest in automobiles

  10. Environmental implications of the automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    There are over 12 million automobiles in Canada, each travelling over 16,000 km annually. The value of motor vehicles and parts produced in Canada accounts for over 6% of the gross domestic product, and vehicle-related sales account for the largest proportion of Canadian retail activity. The environmental issues related to the high impact of the automobile on Canadian life are discussed. In the manufacture of motor vehicles, over 2 billion kg of metal are used a year; although much of this comes from recycled materials, some depletion of nonrenewable resources is required. It is also estimated that 66-105 GJ of energy are needed to produce a motor vehicle, equivalent to as much as 20% of all the energy consumed during the vehicle's lifetime. Environmental impacts result from this use of resources and energy, including land disturbances and air pollution. Land use impacts are also those related to appropriation of urban and rural land for roadway and service uses, plus pollution of adjoining lands by road runoff. In 1990, the transportation sector used 29% of end-use energy, of which retail gasoline sales for motor vehicles accounted for 54%. Environmental impacts from oil refining, fuel combustion, and waste disposal are described, and programs to mitigate these impacts are outlined. Significant reductions in automobile emissions have already occurred from the increased use of emission control devices, improved fuel efficiency, and stricter standards. Further improvements are possible via such means as better manufacturing procedures, increased recycling of automobile components, better inspection and maintenance, and use of alternative fuels and alternate transportation modes. 35 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Prelaunch Forecasting of New Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Glen L. Urban; John R. Hauser; John H. Roberts

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a prelaunch model and measurement system to the marketing planning of a new automobile. The analysis addresses active search by consumers, dealer visits, word-of-mouth communication, magazine reviews, and production constraints---issues that are important in understanding consumer response to durable goods. We address these issues with a detailed consumer flow model which monitors and projects key consumer transitions in response to marketing actions. A test-vs...

  12. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and includes... the automobile's manufacturer or with simple tools, such as screwdrivers and wrenches, so as to create... standard equipment, permit expanded use of the automobile for cargo-carrying purposes or other nonpassenger...

  13. Forest ownership in comparative law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Üstüner Birben

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and sustainable use of forest resources depend on various factors. However, one of the most emphasized and discussed topics among these factors is forest ownership. Comparative law is an important way of analyzing and understanding legal systems of different countries, and identifying different aspects of the current legal systems. This study tries to analyze forest ownership with regard to comparative law. France for the Continental-European legal system, Great Britain for the Anglo-Saxon legal system, and Russia Federation for the Socialist legal system are taken respectively as a base. Thus, how right to ownership is evaluated in different legal systems and what are the main features of that are indicated. As a result, private forest ownership is common in the Continental-European legal system and Anglo-Saxon legal system while state ownership is common in the Socialist legal system. Prevalence of private forest ownership in the Continental-European and the Anglo-Saxon legal systems is also closely related to the previous use rights transferred into right to ownership. In addition, it is concluded regarding the historical process that many changes occurred on forest ownership types without considering differences in legal systems.

  14. Pet Ownership: A Research Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, M. Powell; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Data from a 1968 national sample of older people (N=3,996) indicated that pet ownership was more frequent in owner-occupied residences in smaller communities where other family, including children were present. No association was found between pet ownership and psychological well-being or health. (Author)

  15. Geotechnical Monitoring of the Automobile Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsiy, Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    In the present article, the results of geotechnical monitoring of A-147 automobile road “Dzhubga-Sochi” are given. Some sections of the automobile road suffered from the landslide adjustment movements; it resulted in many deformations of the retaining structures, the damages of the roadbed and ground crawling over the retaining walls. The observation data made it possible to specify the borders of the active landslide and to form a forecast of the landslide activity in the sections of the automobile roads. Due to monitoring being carried out, there was substantiated the necessity to correct the service forms and records connected with the automobile road reconstruction.

  16. The construction of a Danish automobile culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation.......The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation....

  17. Self-Ownership, World-Ownership, and Initial Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Rogers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available G.A. Cohen was perhaps libertarianism’s most formidable critic. In Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality he levels several strong criticisms against Robert Nozick’s theory put forth in Anarchy, State, and Utopia. In this paper, I counter several of Cohen’s criticisms. The debate operates at three stages: (1 self-ownership, (2 world-ownership, and (3 initial acquisition. At the first stage, Cohen does not attempt to refute self-ownership, but weaken its force in providing moral grounds for capitalism. Here I argue that Cohen’s attempt to overturn Nozick’s slavery argument is unsuccessful because partial-slavery, while normatively different from full-slavery, is still normatively wrong. At the second stage, Cohen argues for a joint-ownership view of the world’s resources. In particular, he claims that self-ownership is rendered merely formal in a jointly-owned world and in a capitalist world. To rebut this challenge I show that even if Cohen is right about this, libertarian self-ownership is only formal in Cohen’s peculiar case where only two people exist and one owns everything. In contrast, self-ownership in a jointly-owned world is formal in all cases. Lastly, at the third stage, Cohen argues against Nozick’s interpretation of the Lockean proviso, claiming that it is impossible to satisfy. Granting Cohen’s argument here, I go on to defend Jan Narveson’s no-proviso view of acquisition from Cohen’s thus far unanswered criticism. I show that significantly, in his critique, Cohen equivocates between positive and negative rights. Taken jointly, my responses at these three stages ground the anti-egalitarian conclusion that, in Cohen’s words, ‘[e]xtensive inequality of condition is unavoidable, or avoidable only on pain of violating people’s rights to themselves and to things.’ The sequence, then, is from self-ownership, to world-ownership, via initial acquisition.

  18. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Pop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  19. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars, other...

  1. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount of...

  2. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for incomplete automobile... AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, §§ 529.5 and 529.6, each incomplete automobile manufacturer is considered, with...

  3. A factual survey of automobile usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1941-01-01

    In anticipation of the problems in civilian transportation that the : defense effort would bring to the motor vehicle user, to business and industry, and to Government, the Automobile Manufacturers Association in the fall of 1940 undertook a factual ...

  4. Locomotive to Automobile Baseline Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    Four Locomotive to Automobile Crash tests were performed by the Dynamic Science Division of Ultrasystems at DOT's High Speed Ground Test Center under contract to the Transportation Systems Center, which is conducting the work for the Federal Railroad...

  5. Development of Anticipatory Automobile Crash Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-06-30

    A COMPREHENSIVE EXAMINATION IS CARRIED OUT TO DETERMINE THE BASIC SYSTEM CONSTRAINTS AND REQUIRED OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR ANTICIPATORY SENSING OF IMPENDING AUTOMOBILE CRASHES. THIS IS FOLLOWED BY CONSIDERATION OF A WIDE VARIETY OF POSSIBLE SE...

  6. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  7. Contact Dermatitis In Automobile Repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile repair workers are at risk of developing skin morbidity including occupational dermatoses because of their exposure to mineral oils, petroleum products and its derivatives and lubricating oil. This cross- sectional study was carried out at Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation workshops in Nagpur city to investigate prevalence of skin morbidity including contact dermatitis in automobile repair workers. The study included 288 (49.9% automobile repair workers 180 (31.3% workshop office staff and 109 (18.8% divisional office employees. Dermatitis was the commonest skin morbidity in all the study subjects and it was significantly more prevalent in automobile repair workers. Folliculitis was detected in 13.2% of auto â€" repair workers and was not seen in the other two groups. Increasing trend of skin morbidity was correlated with the length of service of employees. Proper protective measures along with suitable washing facilities should be provided

  8. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of Defense... insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. (a) Active duty members covered. In addition to Uniformed.... 1095 and this part. (c) Exclusion of automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance...

  9. Choice of Ownership Structure and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C; Kalmi, Panu; Mygind, Niels

    2003-01-01

    explains subsequentownership changes, especially away from employee ownership; (iii) allocation of ownershipdepends on the pre-privatisation origin and location of the firm, and these factors also influencesubsequent ownership changes. Finally we compare our findings with those achieved by usingmore...

  10. Ownership of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-02-01

    As teachers of chemistry, we deal with information, knowledge, and, if we are fortunate, even wisdom. An important part of what we do involves giving students access to information and devising better ways to help them assimilate it. Beyond that, we can help them gain knowledge and understanding. Ultimately we hope that the knowledge they gain will help them to make wise choices about their own and society's collective futures. We often view ourselves as altruistic providers of information, but of course our students do pay tuition fees and thereby at least part of our salaries. In that sense we can think of ourselves as involved in an information industry. We provide what has come to be called intellectual property in return for a salary from a school, college, or university that in turn has collected fees from those who value that intellectual property. Those of us who write books or create multimedia materials are even more closely allied with the information industry. Computers and the Internet have produced a quantum jump in the ease of dissemination, reception, and reproduction of large quantities of information. That has stimulated reexamination of conventional thinking about intellectual property, making copyrights, patents, and trademarks a red-hot area for lawyers. Insofar as we teachers are disseminators of intellectual property, we are going to be affected by the changes that will certainly happen in the laws, customs, and ethics that apply to ownership of information and of the means by which it is exchanged among members of our society. In other words, we need to pay attention to the current ferment regarding intellectual property, doing our best to ensure that the decisions made do not prevent us from teaching in the best ways we know. Available options, all of which have vocal proponents, range from complete freedom of copying and disseminating information through a level of control in which essentially every bit or byte delivered carries with it a

  11. The Art of Cloaking Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalders, Gerard; Wiebes, Cees

    1996-01-01

    After years of intensive research in archives throughout Europe and the U.S., the authors of The Art of Cloaking Ownership discovered that firms located in 'neutral' Sweden supported the Nazis' financial and industrial leadership. The case of Enskilda, a bank owned by the still powerful Wallenberg

  12. Gender, Livestock and Asset Ownership

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    improved poultry, without consulting their husbands. Gender, Livestock and Asset Ownership. Jemimah Njuki and Samuel Mburu. Facts. • Livestock are productive assets that women can easily own and are not bound by complex property rights. • Women may own livestock, acquired through the market or inheritance before ...

  13. Pet ownership and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchock, Robert L

    2015-09-01

    Pet ownership and brief human-animal interactions can serve as a form of social support and convey a host of beneficial psychological and physiological health benefits. This article critically examines recent relevant literature on the pet-health connection. Cross-sectional studies indicate correlations between pet ownership and numerous aspects of positive health outcomes, including improvements on cardiovascular measures and decreases in loneliness. Quasi-experimental studies and better controlled experimental studies corroborate these associations and suggest that owning and/or interacting with a pet may be causally related to some positive health outcomes. The value of pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy (AAT), as a nonpharmacological treatment modality, augmentation to traditional treatment, and healthy preventive behavior (in the case of pet ownership), is starting to be realized. However, more investigations that employ randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes and investigations that more closely examine the underlying mechanism of the pet-health effect, such as oxytocin, are needed.

  14. Corporate Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    to be relatively inefficient since they lack monitoring by residual claimants and access to equity finance from the stock market. Nevertheless, empirical research (Thomsen 1996) has found that Danish foundation-owned companies do no worse in terms of profitability and growth than companies with dispersed ownership...

  15. Inclusive Ownership of Participatory Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druin, Allison

    2014-01-01

    This discussion explores the journal's special issue from the construct of ownership and how it relates to participatory design. I examine the articles of researchers from Europe and the United States which offer data-centered perspectives and data-driven suggestions. These works suggest how to best involve different stakeholders and I examine how…

  16. Employee Ownership, Motivation and Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Jonathan; Oughton, Christine; Bennion, Yvonne

    The relationship between employee ownership, motivation, and productivity was explored. The main data collection activities were as follows: (1) a literature review; (2) interviews with management and employees from 10 selected companies across the United Kingdom; (3) surveys of ICOM (the federation of worker cooperatives) member companies and…

  17. State ownership and efficiency characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Abramov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of state participation in the ownership structure of companies on their financial efficiency using a sample of 114 largest companies in Russia. As an indirect indicator of efficiency, we used a variety of financial indicators: revenue per employee (gross margin, return on equity, profit margin and debt burden. The effects of direct and indirect state ownership are considered separately. Using econometric analysis, we conclude that the dominance of the block of shares owned by the state has a negative effect on the performance characteristics, and its increase is associated with an increase in the debt burden of the companies. According to our criteria, state-owned enterprises (SOEs perform worse on average than private companies. The mechanism of how changes in the “real sector” affect profitability is examined particularly closely. The study shows that a change in the profitability of private companies is characterized by a significant dependence on the movement of labor productivity characteristics. At the same time, for SOEs, a similar correlation was not revealed. These companies demonstrated no visible relationship between their profitability and performance characteristics. The study shows that increases in the size of direct government ownership lead to lower labor productivity and profitability; the impact of indirect ownership is, seemingly, more complicated.

  18. Does Foreign Ownership Foster Bank Performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Naaborg, I.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the effect of a rise in foreign ownership on banks' interest revenues and profitability using panel data of banks worldwide. We determine the exact yearly foreign ownership for each bank and construct a continuous foreign ownership variable. Estimating with the system generalized methods

  19. Employee Ownership Plans. Background Paper No. 34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robert N.

    Employee ownership through employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) was first mentioned in federal legislation in the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973. Since then, at least 19 pieces of federal legislation have been enacted that deal with employee ownership in some way, including the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) and tax…

  20. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyse the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in a population of automobile mechanics. The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos-related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers; who in the case of disagreement discussed until they reached agreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Pleural plaques were observed in five cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in one case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers.

  1. Asbestos-related diseases in automobile mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameille, Jacques; Rosenberg, Nicole; Matrat, Mireille; Descatha, Alexis; Mompoint, Dominique; Hamzi, Lounis; Atassi, Catherine; Vasile, Manuela; Garnier, Robert; Pairon, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Automobile mechanics have been exposed to asbestos in the past, mainly due to the presence of chrysotile asbestos in brakes and clutches. Despite the large number of automobile mechanics, little is known about the non-malignant respiratory diseases observed in this population. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyze the frequency of pleural and parenchymal abnormalities on HRCT in a population of automobile mechanics. Methods The study population consisted of 103 automobile mechanics with no other source of occupational exposure to asbestos, referred to three occupational health departments in the Paris area for systematic screening of asbestos–related diseases. All subjects were examined by HRCT and all images were reviewed separately by two independent readers, with further consensus in the case of disagreement. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to investigate factors associated with pleural plaques. Results Pleural plaques were observed in 5 cases (4.9%) and interstitial abnormalities consistent with asbestosis were observed in 1 case. After adjustment for age, smoking status, and a history of non-asbestos-related respiratory diseases, multiple logistic regression models showed a significant association between the duration of exposure to asbestos and pleural plaques. Conclusions The asbestos exposure experienced by automobile mechanics may lead to pleural plaques. The low prevalence of non-malignant asbestos-related diseases, using a very sensitive diagnostic tool, is in favor of a low cumulative exposure to asbestos in this population of workers. PMID:21965465

  2. Nuclear energy center finance and ownership considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.A.; Wilder, R.P.

    1980-09-01

    Finance and ownership alternatives for a nuclear energy center (NEC) in South Carolina are analyzed in the context of the capital market and tax differences among alternatives. The ownership alternatives considered are (1) the private or private/public joint venture, (2) full public ownership and (3) a hybrid ownership form featuring federal involvement in the initial site development and permit phase, followed by a transition to private ownership. Public ownership is associated with considerably lower out-of-pocket costs than private ownership; the difference between the two, however, is related to subsidies from other parts of society to electricity customers of a publicly owned NEC. The attitudes of participating utilities on ownership forms are examined, with the finding of general strong opposition to increased federal involvement in the electric utility industry through NEC ownership. The conclusion is that the private-private/public joint venture is the preferable ownership form and that public ownership should be employed only if the private sector fails to respond to future energy demand

  3. Automobile Collisions, Kinematics and Related Injury Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    It has been determined clinically that fatalities and injury severity resulting from automobile collisions have decreased during the last five years for low impact speeds. This reduction is a direct result of the application of biomechanics and occupant kinematics, as well as changes in automobile design. The paper defines terminology used in the field of mechanics and develops examples and illustrations of the physical concepts of acceleration, force strength, magnitude duration, rate of onset and others, as they apply to collision phenomena and injury. The mechanism of injury pattern reduction through the use of restraint systems is illustrated. PMID:5059661

  4. Technological Improvements to Automobile Fuel Consumption : Volume 1. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    This report is a priliminary survey of the technological feasibility of reducing the fuel consumption of automobiles. The study uses as a reference information derived from literature, automobile industry contacts, and testing conducted as part of th...

  5. Debt Shifting and Ownership Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Schindler; Guttorm Schjelderup

    2011-01-01

    Previous theoretical studies on the debt shifting behavior of multinationals have assumed affiliates of multinationals to be wholly owned. We develop a model that allows a multinational firm to determine both the leverage and ownership structure in affiliates endogenously. A main finding is that affiliates with minority owners have less debt than wholly owned affiliates and therefore a less tax efficient financing structure. This is due to an externality that arises endogenously in our model,...

  6. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  7. The Strategic Transformation of Automobile Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Som Techakanjanakit; Meifang Huang

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the global automobile industry is developing difficultly because of the influence from the financial crisis. In contrast, China's automobile production and sales are still having a blowout type growth, and jumped into the world's largest automobile production and sales market. At the same time, Chinese automobile companies continue to deepen and join with international brand cooperation; independent research and development of the independent brand production, and their...

  8. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding the...

  9. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health or...

  10. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  11. Past and Future Trends in Automobile Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    The report uses the Wharton EFA Motor Vehicle Demand Model (Mark I) and its associates data bases to discuss and analyze past and future trends in the automobile market. Part A analyzes the historical trends, generally covering the 1958-1976 period, ...

  12. Trends in chassis and automobile electronics components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackenberg, Ulrich [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The rapidly-growing importance of electronics in automobile construction is in part determined by the debate on sustainability and the clear trend towards electric power trains. Another factor, however, is the decisive impact of electronics on the further development of components, e.g. for chassis. Apart from environmental protection, key motivators for component development include comfort, safety, infotainment and driver assistance. (orig.)

  13. Chery Automobile: Chinese Firms catching up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhang (Ying); S.Y. Yang (Sheng Yun)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractChery Automobile is a top Chinese car exporter. Due to the global financial crisis, intense competition, and fast technological change, Chery has seen decreasing sales domestically and diminishing opportunities abroad. The carmaker needs to figure out the next stage of strategic

  14. Trends in Employee Ownership in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2012-01-01

    -owned firms, but in most countries the institutions, the level of income and the goals of the workers were not conducive to this type of ownership. Earlier experience with workers' self-management is probably a main reason why employee ownership is more stable in Croatia and Slovenia and such experience may......Employee-owned companies are those where the broad group of employees owns the majority of shares. They have been widespread in the early transition process in Eastern Europe. This raises the question of why this type of ownership was so frequently used in some of the countries involved, and why...... there was a subsequent rapid transfer to manager ownership or outside ownership. This article gives a theoretical overview of the factors driving and hampering employee ownership, and develops hypotheses about how the transition process provided specific conditions for the development of these firms. The predictions...

  15. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobilityboth in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labourmarket. In addition, there is a clear negative...... effect of home ownership on the unemployment risk and a positive impact on wages. These results are robust to differentstrategies for correcting for the possible endogeneity of the home owner variable....

  16. Commentary: Ownership Neutrality and Practical Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Shay, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    In "Reconsidering the Taxation of Foreign Income," Jim Hines analyzes the consequences of taxing, as opposed to exempting, active foreign business income by comparing the expected effects on capital ownership of a "pure" worldwide income taxation system with the effects on capital ownership of a "pure" territorial taxation regime. Consistent with his earlier work, Hines asserts that a capital ownership neutrality analysis supports exempting foreign active business income from home country res...

  17. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  18. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  19. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  20. Learner Ownership of Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommett, Eleanor J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the different ways in which learners may have ownership over technology-enhanced learning by reflecting on technical, legal and psychological ownership. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses a variety of examples of technology-enhanced learning ranging from open-source software to cloud storage to discuss…

  1. Pet Ownership and Health Status during Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroko; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated impact of pet ownership on the health status of recently widowed urban middle-class women. Findings suggest pet ownership may have a salutary effect on the adjustment of recently widowed women in terms of symptom experiences and proneness to utilization of medication. (Author/KS)

  2. Ownership and Control in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Abe; Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Marra, Teye; Röell, Ailsa

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses ownership and control structures of Dutch listed companies. Legislation effective since 1992 mandates all shareholders with holdings of 5 percent or more in Dutch companies to disclose their holdings. Our analysis shows that the average ownership stakes of the largest and the

  3. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labour market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  4. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  5. The Development of Employee Ownership in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels; Faigen, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Little systematic work has been completed on the incidence of employee ownership in a Chinese context. Similar to the situation in Eastern Europe, this type of ownership was quite widespread in China, particularly during the 1990s. Based on the existing literature and available statistical...... data, the purpose of this paper is to identify drivers of, and barriers to, the development of employee ownership in China. Design/methodology/approach: The scattered evidence from the literature and official statistical sources are collected and structured in a systematic analysis where the drivers....../implications: The paper shows how policies and institutional settings at the society level are determining for the development of employee ownership. Originality/value: The contribution of the paper is to give a general and systematic analysis of the development of employee ownership in China both based...

  6. Environmental Effects of Driving Automobiles in the University of Malaya Campus: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Y. Kong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of human population there has been an evident increase in per capita automobile use and ownership, significantly to a point that almost every urban university campus faces serious challenges from the heavy traffic movement as well as the associated parking shortages. Multiple factors, including lack of land for new parking lots, high cost of building parking structures and the desire to preserve the air quality and campus green spaces are leading many educational institutions towards a new vision based upon expanded transit access, better bicycle and pedestrian facilities and financial incentives for students and staff to drive less. (Toor and Havlick, 2004 This is in stark contrast to the traditional approach to campus transportation planning of the University of Malaya (UM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia that allows students, staff and visitors to drive in the campus. The objective of this study is to investigate the related issues and environmental impact of allowing automobile driving in the campus. Studies will also be done to analyse the relationship between university campus planning and traffic condition. Air quality and noise pollution data of 3 selected sites in the campus will be recorded. Subsequently, the air pollutant index and noise pollution level will be identified and data analyses will be done on the data samples. Simultaneously, a survey questionnaire will be conducted to gauge the student’s attitude and degree of awareness with air and noise pollution in the campus. This pilot study reveals that the increasing use of automobiles within the campus has a negative impact on local environment and the quality of life in campus

  7. Asset ownership and Asset Values Over Project Lifecycles

    OpenAIRE

    Professor Yong Kim; Univ. Southern California

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a theory of outside ownership where such an ownership arrangement mitigates an external finance problem. Part of the gains from outside ownership accrue to asset owners which determines the asset value. The theory provides a context to analyze asset ownership and asset values over project lifecycles. When there are adjustment costs in realizing the full gains from outside ownership, (i) assets take time to peak in value, and (ii) the outsiders's share of asset ownership in...

  8. Corrosion protection and finishing of automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.T.

    2005-01-01

    finishing of automobiles is an important aspect. There have been considerable reductions of weight in automobiles by the use of composites components replacing heavy metallic components. Fenders previously based on metal have been replaced with plastic and painted with the same colour shade as of the metallic body, this has eps for proper adhesion of the paints on the plastic fender to avoid chipping off the paint form it. This paper discusses the necessary processes required for finishing of an automobile along with the corrosion protection measures. Automobiles contains a variety of engineering materials, engine main body fuel tanks connecting rods heat radiators and other mechanical parts are made from different types of engineering alloys having varying chemical compositions. Other parts like dashboard, front panel and other are made from composites. The main body made from cold roll ed steel having various contours 'c' it due to the different designs is the potential site for corrosion attack, The main body is exposed to the hostile environment through out its life period. An automobile is given a particular finish with a view to counter the hostile environments as they are not limited for plying in a limiting conditions and are taken to different weather conditions in one day thus facing severe stresses and strain. Thus it is essential that an automobile before rolling 'out of the assembly line should properly corrosion resistant and aesthetically pleasant also. Finishing for automobiles being very specialized, the main requirement being maximum durability with minimum numbers of coats baked, at the fastest possible schedule. High gloss and range of good eye catching colours being important to increase sales appeal. In the near past the car finishes were based on alkyd-amino resins baking materials and force drying lacquers, which have excellent appearance originally and maintain it on aging. The finishing system for the synthetic baking type may consist of

  9. Managerial Distance and Virtual Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansmann, Henry; Thomsen, Steen

    Industrial foundations are autonomous nonprofit entities that own and control one or more conventional business firms. These foundations are common in Northern Europe, where they own a number of internationally prominent companies. Previous studies have indicated, surprisingly, that companies...... controlled by industrial foundations are, on average, as profitable as companies with conventional patterns of investor ownership. In this article, we explore the reasons for this performance, not by comparing foundation-owned firms with conventional investor-owned firms, but rather by focusing...... on differences among the industrial foundations themselves. We work with a rich data set comprising 113 foundation-owned Danish companies over the period 2003-2008. We focus in particular on a composite structural factor that we term “managerial distance.” We propose this as a measure of the extent to which...

  10. Employee share ownership in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortlieb, Renate; Matiaske, Wenzel; Fietze, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Politicians and scholars alike praise the significant benefits associated with employee share ownership (ESO). However, little is known about the concrete motives of firms to provide ESO to their employees. In particular, it is unknown how these motives correlate with firms’ contexts. Drawing...... on an institutional theoretical framework, this article examines what aims firms pursue through the provision of ESO. The data originate from a survey of firms in Germany. The cluster analytic findings indicate distinctive patterns of relationships between aims and firm characteristics. Aims related to employee...... performance are most important to foreign-owned firms, financial aims are most important to non-public small and medium-sized firms and aims related to corporate image are most important to big firms and to firms that do not provide profit sharing. Aims related to employee attraction and retention are almost...

  11. Does Employee Stock Ownership Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Takao; Miyajima, Hideaki; Owan, Hideo

    This paper provides novel evidence on the effects of employee stock ownership (ESO), using new panel data on Japanese ESO plans for a highly representative sample of publicly-traded firms in Japan (covering more than 75% of all firms listed on Tokyo Stock Exchange) over 1989-2013. Unlike most prior...... studies, we focus on the effects of changes in varying attributes of existing ESO—the effects on the intensive margin. Our fixed effect estimates show that an increase in the strength of the existing ESO plans measured by stake per employee results in statistically significant productivity gains...... of the existing core participants is more effective in boosting gains from ESO plans than bringing in more employees into the trust. Reassuringly, our key results are found to be robust to the use of instrumental variables to account for possible endogeneity of ESO plans. Finally, we explore possible interplays...

  12. Globalization of the automobile industry: traditional locations under pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Spatz, Julius; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Even though the automobile industry is technologically advanced, the increasing integration of low-income countries into the global division of labor has put competitive pressure on traditional automobile producing countries. New end-producers emerged in Asia, Latin America as well as Southern and Central Europe. In addition, the automobile industries of Germany, Japan and the United States engaged in outsourcing of relatively labor intensive segments of the value chain, especially on a regio...

  13. Automobile technology in a CO{sub 2}-constrained world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S.; Barreto Gomez, L.; Dietrich, Ph. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schafer, A.; Jacoby, H.D. [MIT, Cambridge (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This study identifies the environmental conditions under which less CO{sub 2}-emitting and more expensive automobile technology might enter the North American transportation sector. For that purpose, different exogenous CO{sub 2}-reduction targets are imposed and the resulting market shares of hypothetical future automobile technologies calculated. The criteria for the selection of different types of automobiles/fuels is the minimisation of discounted, cumulative transport sector costs over the scenario time horizon. (author) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  14. Credit constraints, consumer leasing and the automobile replacement decision

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen W. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a model of consumer automobile replacement in the presence of leasing. The model incorporates credit constraints to distinguish between the leasing and purchasing options. It demonstrates how leasing increases the probability that a household replaces its automobile and how households that lease choose higher quality automobiles. The qualitative choice model of the household's decision to lease provides support for the observation that households that lease face credit con...

  15. Social network predictors of latrine ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Holly B; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2015-01-01

    Poor sanitation, including the lack of clean functioning toilets, is a major factor contributing to morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases in the developing world. We examine correlates of latrine ownership in rural India with a focus on social network predictors. Participants from 75 villages provided the names of their social contacts as well as their own relevant demographic and household characteristics. Using these measures, we test whether the latrine ownership of an individual's social contacts is a significant predictor of individual latrine ownership. We also investigate whether network centrality significantly predicts latrine ownership, and if so, whether it moderates the relationship between the latrine ownership of the individual and that of her social contacts. Our results show that, controlling for the standard predictors of latrine ownership such as caste, education, and income, individuals are more likely to own latrines if their social contacts own latrines. Interaction models suggest that this relationship is stronger among those of the same caste, the same education, and those with stronger social ties. We also find that more central individuals are more likely to own latrines, but the correlation in latrine ownership between social contacts is strongest among individuals on the periphery of the network. Although more data is needed to determine how much the clustering of latrine ownership may be caused by social influence, the results here suggest that interventions designed to promote latrine ownership should consider focusing on those at the periphery of the network. The reason is that they are 1) less likely to own latrines and 2) more likely to exhibit the same behavior as their social contacts, possibly as a result of the spread of latrine adoption from one person to another. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Home ownership, job duration, and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labor market. In addition, there is a clear negative...... effect of home ownership on the unemployment risk and a positive impact on wages. These results are robust to different strategies for correcting for the possible endogeneity of the home owner variable...

  17. Gun ownership and social gun culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kalesan, Bindu; Villarreal, Marcos D; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    We assessed gun ownership rates in 2013 across the USA and the association between exposure to a social gun culture and gun ownership. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 4000 US adults, from 50 states and District of Columbia, aged >18 years to assess gun ownership and social gun culture performed in October 2013. State-level firearm policy information was obtained from the Brady Law Center and Injury Prevention and Control Center. One-third of Americans reported owning a...

  18. Recycling scheme for scrapped automobiles in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masao [AI Tech Associates, Tokyo (Japan); Nakajima, Akira [Car Steel Co., Ltd., Gunnma (Japan); Taya, Sadao [Shinsei Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Over 5 million cars are scrapped yearly in Japan. After dismantling scrapped automobiles, they are put into a shredder for differential recovery of ferrous and nonferrous metals. The residue, which is called shredder dust, runs over 1.2 million tons per year. This paper reports a entire sequence of scrapping cars in Japan with the following sections: (1) production and scrapped car management, (2) material composition, (3) dismantling, (4) shredder plant, (5) differential recovery of metals including specific gravity and newly developed color separation.

  19. Information, complexity and efficiency: The automobile model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenby, B. [Lucent Technologies (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-08

    The new, rapidly evolving field of industrial ecology - the objective, multidisciplinary study of industrial and economic systems and their linkages with fundamental natural systems - provides strong ground for believing that a more environmentally and economically efficient economy will be more information intensive and complex. Information and intellectual capital will be substituted for the more traditional inputs of materials and energy in producing a desirable, yet sustainable, quality of life. While at this point this remains a strong hypothesis, the evolution of the automobile industry can be used to illustrate how such substitution may, in fact, already be occurring in an environmentally and economically critical sector.

  20. Physician ownership of medical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschovsky, James; Cassil, Alwyn; Pham, Hoangmai H

    2010-12-01

    This Data Bulletin presents findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) 2008 Health Tracking Physician Survey, a nationally rep­resentative mail survey of U.S. physicians providing at least 20 hours per week of direct patient care. The sample of physicians was drawn from the American Medical Association master file and included active, nonfederal, office- and hospital-based physicians. Residents and fellows were excluded, as well as radiologists, anesthesiologists and pathologists. The survey includes responses from more than 4,700 phy­sicians, and the response rate was 62 percent. Since this Data Bulletin examines the extent of physician practice ownership or leasing of medical equipment, the sample was limited to 2,750 physicians practic­ing in community-based, physician-owned practices, who represent 58 percent of all physicians surveyed. Physicians employed by hospitals, who practiced in hospital-based settings or who worked in hospital-owned practices were excluded.

  1. Ownership Concentration, Top Management and Board Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Barbosa Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The degree of ownership concentration may influence executive and board compensation (Bebchuk & Fried, 2003. This article analyzes this relationship. Detailed information about top management and board compensation became available starting in 2010 through new Securities Commission filings. Linear regression models applied to a sample of 315 Brazilian companies traded on the national exchange indicate a negative and statistically significant economic correlation between executive compensation and the degree of ownership concentration. Ceteris paribus, companies with a lower degree of ownership concentration pay higher compensation to top executives. Family controlled companies pay more to their chief executive, but not to the managerial team as a whole, and the compensation of directors increases with a greater proportion of control group members or their relatives on the board. There was support for the Managerial Power Hypothesis in companies with a lower degree of ownership concentration and for the extraction of private benefits in companies where it is greater.

  2. Schedule of average annual equipment ownership expense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-06

    The "Schedule of Average Annual Equipment Ownership Expense" is designed for use on Force Account bills of Contractors performing work for the Illinois Department of Transportation and local government agencies who choose to adopt these rates. This s...

  3. Collective Psychological Ownership and Intergroup Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2017-11-01

    Whereas much social psychological research has studied the in-group and out-group implications of social categorization and collective identity ("we"), little research has examined the nature and relevance of collective psychological ownership ("ours") for intergroup relations. We make a case for considering collective psychological ownership as an important source of intergroup tensions. We do so by integrating theory and research from various social sciences, and we draw out implications for future social psychological research on intergroup relations. We discuss collective psychological ownership in relation to the psychology of possessions, marking behavior, intergroup threats, outgroup exclusion, and in-group responsibility. We suggest that the social psychological processes discussed apply to a range of ownership objects (territory, buildings, cultural artifacts) and various intergroup settings, including international, national, and local contexts, and in organizations and communities. We conclude by providing directions for future research in different intergroup contexts.

  4. Assessing Cognitive Distraction in the Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Turrill, Jonna; Cooper, Joel M; Coleman, James R; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Biondi, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to establish a systematic framework for measuring and understanding cognitive distraction in the automobile. Driver distraction from secondary in-vehicle activities is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. Across three studies, participants completed eight in-vehicle tasks commonly performed by the driver of an automobile. Primary, secondary, subjective, and physiological measures were collected and integrated into a cognitive distraction scale. In-vehicle activities, such as listening to the radio or an audio book, were associated with a low level of cognitive workload; the conversation activities of talking to a passenger in the vehicle or conversing with a friend on a handheld or hands-free cell phone were associated with a moderate level of cognitive workload; and using a speech-to-text interfaced e-mail system involved a high level of cognitive workload. The research established that there are significant impairments to driving that stem from the diversion of attention from the task of operating a motor vehicle and that the impairments to driving are directly related to the cognitive workload of these in-vehicle activities. Moreover, the adoption of voice-based systems in the vehicle may have unintended consequences that adversely affect traffic safety. These findings can be used to help inform scientifically based policies on driver distraction, particularly as they relate to cognitive distraction stemming from the diversion of attention to other concurrent activities in the vehicle. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  5. Hydrogen: implications for the future automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frise, P. R.; Woodward, W.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The presentation will focus upon the challenges within the automotive manufacturing industry related to the hydrogen fuelled automobile of the future. Challenges and opportunities include issues of power train design and packaging as well as on-road performance capabilities, fuel system packaging and materials for body structures. Due to the size and complexity of the automotive sector, technology changes tend to be evolutionary rather than revolutionary, but changes are being made to today's cars in preparation for the evolution toward the future hydrogen automobile. Real world applications of new technologies will be described that are assisting automakers to prepare for the hydrogen future today. The work will be described in the context of AUTO21, a national Network of Centres of Excellence (NCE), is helping to position Canada as a leader in automotive research and development. More than 250 researchers in 34 Canadian universities and over 110 industry and government partners contribute to AUTO21 through applied research projects in six themes of study ranging from health and societal issues to pure engineering applications. (author)

  6. Automobile wheel clearance estimation using magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, A.; Lacoume, J.-L.; Blanpain, R.; Dauvé, S.; Serviere, C.

    2012-01-01

    With development and miniaturization of magnetic sensors for several years, it is now possible to imagine new applications using magnetic measures for monitoring and diagnostics. In this article this new way of research and development is presented with a concrete example concerning monitoring of wheels in an automobile. Our approach consists in using the low magnetic field created by the metallic elements of the wheel in order to localize them with low-cost high-sensitivity miniature magnetic sensors. The measures are made via a sensor network set up on a vehicle around the wheel. Then we use a physical model of the wheel in order to interpret the signals we get from the sensors. This method shows the interest of the magnetic measurement for monitoring in automobile. In this paper we present the magnetic signal created by a wheel, the mechanical model of the wheel and we present how we use them for an application: the real-time estimation of the distance between wheels and chassis (wheel clearance).

  7. Odhad rychlosti automobilů ve videu

    OpenAIRE

    Hájek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá návrhem a tvorbou aplikace pro odhadování rychlosti automobilů jak ze záznamu kamery, tak realtime ze streamu. Práce popisuje kalibraci kamery, detekci a trackování automobilů a odhad jejich rychlosti a věnuje se robotickému operačnímu systému pro nějž je určená. Vytvořená aplikace používá knihovnu OpenCV k většině úkonů, pro přístup k videu používá knihovnu FFmpeg. Výsledky může vypsat na terminál, do souboru nebo je například dále publikovat v rámci ROSu. Apli...

  8. OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Jha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine.

  9. OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Jha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine. muffler, noise, vibration,modal analysis,

  10. AN INTEGRATED MODELING FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY EFFICIENT CAR OWNERSHIP AND TRIP BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao FENG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban transport emissions generated by automobile trips are greatly responsible for atmospheric pollution in both developed and developing countries. To match the long-term target of sustainable development, it seems to be important to specify the feasible level of car ownership and travel demand from environmental considerations. This research intends to propose an integrated modeling framework for optimal construction of a comprehensive transportation system by taking into consideration environmental constraints. The modeling system is actually a combination of multiple essential models and illustrated by using a bi-level programming approach. In the upper level, the maximization of both total car ownership and total number of trips by private and public travel modes is set as the objective function and as the constraints, the total emission levels at all the zones are set to not exceed the relating environmental capacities. Maximizing the total trips by private and public travel modes allows policy makers to take into account trip balance to meet both the mobility levels required by travelers and the environmentally friendly transportation system goals. The lower level problem is a combined trip distribution and assignment model incorporating traveler's route choice behavior. A logit-type aggregate modal split model is established to connect the two level problems. In terms of the solution method for the integrated model, a genetic algorithm is applied. A case study is conducted using road network data and person-trip (PT data collected in Dalian city, China. The analysis results showed that the amount of environmentally efficient car ownership and number of trips by different travel modes could be obtained simultaneously when considering the zonal control of environmental capacity within the framework of the proposed integrated model. The observed car ownership in zones could be increased or decreased towards the macroscopic optimization

  11. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences. The ...... capital, the difference in productivity is about twice as large as the wage differential. The results indicate that the international firms share their rents with their employees....

  12. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pytlikova, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences. The ...... capital, the difference in productivity is about twice as large as the wage differential. Overall, results indicate that the international firms share their rents with their employees....

  13. Automobile fuel economy standards : Impacts, efficiency, and alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, Soren T.; Parry, Ian W H; Sallee, James M.; Fischer, Carolyn

    This article discusses automobile fuel economy standards in the United States and other countries. We first describe how these programs affect the automobile market, including impacts on fuel consumption and other dimensions of the vehicle fleet. We then review two different methodologies for

  14. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kryvokon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  15. The Training Needs of Michigan Automobile Suppliers: Initial Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, James

    In June 1985, a survey was sent by the Industrial Technology Institute to 397 Michigan automobile supplier firms concerning their industrial training in modern manufacturing technologies. The purposes of this survey were to investigate the training needs of Michigan automobile suppliers, with particular emphasis on how they met their training…

  16. Effects of automobile battery wastes on physicochemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Difference in soil qualities has been noticeable in many soils due to anthropogenic sources, especially of automobile battery wastes. This study examines the effects of automobile battery wastes on the physicochemical properties of the soil. Soil samples for this study were collected in triplicates from three battery chargers' ...

  17. Gun ownership and social gun culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Villarreal, Marcos D; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2016-06-01

    We assessed gun ownership rates in 2013 across the USA and the association between exposure to a social gun culture and gun ownership. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 4000 US adults, from 50 states and District of Columbia, aged >18 years to assess gun ownership and social gun culture performed in October 2013. State-level firearm policy information was obtained from the Brady Law Center and Injury Prevention and Control Center. One-third of Americans reported owning a gun, ranging from 5.2% in Delaware to 61.7% in Alaska. Gun ownership was 2.25-times greater among those reporting social gun culture (PR=2.25, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.52) than those who did not. In conclusion, we found strong association between social gun culture and gun ownership. Gun cultures may need to be considered for public health strategies that aim to change gun ownership in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Employee Ownership and Perceptions of Work: The Effect of an Employee Stock Ownership Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, James; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A small company was studied before and after introduction of an employee stock ownership plan. Employees' commitment to the organization and job satisfaction were higher after plan implementation, while perceived worker influence levels did not change. Findings suggest that ownership changes employees' attitudes without changing employees'…

  19. Diffusion of lead in automobile exhaust gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaga, S.; Ohmori, K.; Saito, H.; Tanizaki, A.

    1970-01-01

    The pattern of diffusion of lead from automobile exhaust gas was investigated by studying the amount of lead adhering to or contained in leaves of ginkgo trees growing along less-travelled roads that cross a busy highway. Samples were dried at 100 C, then pulverized, and a definite portion wet-digested. After extraction by dithizone, lead was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The same routine was followed for surface soil at the root of the trees. Leaves at heights of 3 and 6 m were examined. At one of the two sampling sites, the lead content in surface soil tended to decrease with distance from the trunk highway. At both sites, the amount of lead in leaves was found in larger amounts in the leaves at the lower level. Also, those leaves collected in October contained more lead than those assembled earlier in the year.

  20. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N

    1987-10-01

    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates.

  1. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  2. Analytical description of the modern steam automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity of operating conditions upon performance of the modern steam automobile is discussed. The word modern has been used in the title to indicate that emphasis is upon miles per gallon rather than theoretical thermal efficiency. This has been accomplished by combining classical power analysis with the ideal Pressure-Volume diagram. Several parameters are derived which characterize performance capability of the modern steam car. The report illustrates that performance is dictated by the characteristics of the working medium, and the supply temperature. Performance is nearly independent of pressures above 800 psia. Analysis techniques were developed specifically for reciprocating steam engines suitable for automotive application. Specific performance charts have been constructed on the basis of water as a working medium. The conclusions and data interpretation are therefore limited within this scope.

  3. Stability analysis of automobile driver steering control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    In steering an automobile, the driver must basically control the direction of the car's trajectory (heading angle) and the lateral deviation of the car relative to a delineated pathway. A previously published linear control model of driver steering behavior which is analyzed from a stability point of view is considered. A simple approximate expression for a stability parameter, phase margin, is derived in terms of various driver and vehicle control parameters, and boundaries for stability are discussed. A field test study is reviewed that includes the measurement of driver steering control parameters. Phase margins derived for a range of vehicle characteristics are found to be generally consistent with known adaptive properties of the human operator. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of driver adaptive behavior.

  4. Research on embedded automobile collision avoidance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAO Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking ARM embedded Linux operating system as the development platform,combined with AVR microcontroller,while optimizing the ranging algorithm and using air ultrasonic transducer,the measurement range of which can be up to 50 meter,this paper designs a high-precision,range far,low price,various models suitable automobile collision avoidance warning system.The system adopts Forlinx OK6410 development board for the master.AVR microcontroller is responsible for taking the data of traveling distance between vehicles,and with the ARM development board via RS232 communication transfers vehicle′s distance and speed information to the ARM development boards.The system uses the established collision avoidance model to get alarm information.Experiments show that the system can accurately send out alarm information within a certain range.It is innovative and practical.

  5. Talking about the Automobile Braking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiqiang

    2017-12-01

    With the continuous progress of society, the continuous development of the times, people’s living standards continue to improve, people continue to improve the pursuit. With the rapid development of automobile manufacturing, the car will be all over the tens of thousands of households, the increase in car traffic, a direct result of the incidence of traffic accidents. Brake system is the guarantee of the safety of the car, its technical condition is good or bad, directly affect the operational safety and transportation efficiency, so the brake system is absolutely reliable. The requirements of the car on the braking system is to have a certain braking force to ensure reliable work in all cases, light and flexible operation. Normal braking should be good performance, in addition to a foot sensitive, the emergency brake four rounds can not be too long, not partial, not ring.

  6. Female identity discourse in automobile advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat López Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the way in which the modern car-advertisement defines the identity of women as potential purchasers – to whom it is designed to get through. The research includes language and iconic instruments by which this type of advertisement aims to create a feminized market of products formerly recognized as traditionally masculine. The identification of the addressee of each publicity material might be subsumed under a set of stereotypes, thus enabling advertisers to get across their message using the code of addressee’s own values. The present paper concentrates on the linguistic specifity of the ads for high-tech goods (automobiles targeting the feminine public and eventually points out their high degree of markedness according to the sex of addressees. Discourse analysis and a closer look at linguistic means appearing in French, Spanish and Polish automotive commercials both reveals a stereotyped woman’s image and shows how they happen to perpetutate it.

  7. The challenges of automobile-dependent urban transport strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental aims of sustainable urban development and the pro-automobile oriented economic development are on a collision course. It is obvious that automobile-dependent urban development is under heavy/powerful influence of the automobile lobby (automobile and oil industries, along with construction. In this domain famous land-use-transportation studies (or ‘grand transportation studies’ are, unfortunately, still prevailing - a vicious circle of self-fulfilling prophecy of congestion, road building, sprawl, congestion and more road building. Until recently, it was commonly thought that investment in public transport was not economically sustainable and that focusing on the development of the automobile industry and financing the construction of roadways stimulated economic growth. In this paper we clearly show that automobile industry is now overcapitalized, less profitable than many other industries (and may become even less profitable in the future, that transport market is characterized with huge distortions (more than a third of motor-vehicle use can be explained by underpriced driving, while new road investment does not have a major impact on economic growth (especially in a region with an already well-developed infrastructure, and that pro-automobile transport strategy inexorably incurs harmful global, regional and local ecological consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  8. Consumer preferences for automobile energy-efficiency grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Yoonmo; Kim, Chang Seob; Hong, Junhee; Choi, Ie-Jung; Lee, Jongsu

    2012-01-01

    Recently, increases in energy prices have made energy conservation and efficiency improvements even more essential than in the past. However, consumers experience difficulty in obtaining reliable information regarding energy efficiency, so that many countries have implemented regulations to enforce energy-efficiency grade labeling. In this study, consumer preferences regarding energy efficiency grades are analyzed by the mixed logit and MDCEV model based on the revealed preference data of past automobile purchases. Findings show that consumers rationally apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. This study discusses political implications of energy efficiency policies as they might impact consumer behaviors of automobile purchase and usage. - Highlights: ► We model discrete choice model to evaluate energy-efficiency grade regulation. ► Consumers apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. ► However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. ► The policies for efficient automobile usage are discussed.

  9. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eHara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI, in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and indicate an important role of active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.

  10. 75 FR 72965 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Rates; Privately Owned Automobile Mileage Reimbursement When Government Owned Automobiles Are Authorized... reimbursement amount for travelers who are authorized to use a Government Owned Automobile (GOA) for temporary duty travel (TDY) and choose to use their privately owned automobile (POA) instead; updates the...

  11. The Political Economy of the Automobile Industry in ASEAN: a Cross-Country Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Tai, Wan-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The automobile industry plays a leading role in a country's industrialization. Various countries have used different methods to identify a model of industrial development. For developing countries, establishing the automobile industry is crucial for promoting industrialization. After Southeast Asian countries achieved independent, their automobile industries underwent establishment and development stages. The domestic and overseas competiveness of the automobile industries in ASEAN have recei...

  12. Establishing Tenant Ownership on the Basis of Proportional Co-ownership Share of the Real Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Pichler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The survey of the Osijek District and County Courts procedures related to the motion to determine the usable values of flats and into procedures of establishing separate parts of real property by the means of apportioning plans as well as the tenant ownership study procedures resulted in different and inconsistent approaches in the process of creation of the study and establishing the usable surface area. The paper deals with the analysis of judicial decisions on determining usable surface and indicates the problems emerging in practice while establishing the tenant ownership based on proportional co-ownership share of the real property. It also gives suggestions to passing a by-law on the procedure of tenant ownership study creation i.e. calculation of usable values of particular real property shares and usable values of all flats and other independent premises of the entire real property. Its goals are equal interpretation and application of tenant ownership by all parties to the procedure as well as legal security, uniform application of law and harmonisation of judicial practice. As a possible approach to the solutions in Croatian legal system the paper also analyses the regulation of tenant ownership in the Republic of Slovenia. In conclusion, it establishes the need for professional training of judges, court counsellors, court appointed expert witnesses, civil servants through application of a multidisciplinary approach to the issue of tenant ownership procedure based on other scientific disciplines e.g. civil engineering and economics.

  13. Handing over ownership of schools to learners

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available grounds, etc. They report on these management issues to a central database which can be accessed by school inspectors in the Department of Basic Education (DBE) for decision- making. This gives them a sense of ownership, grooms responsible citizens... of ownership. Schools management is normally left in the hands of those that are appointed to those positions. Rarely do we think of giving opportunities to our future leaders; to groom them into the field. This system gleans into the issue of schools...

  14. Drowsy driving and automobile crashes : report and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Drowsy driving is a serious problem that leads to thousands of automobile crashes each year. This report, sponsored by the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes...

  15. Restraint of the Automobile in American Residential Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    Two techniques for restraining the use of the automobile have recently become popular in the United States: residential parking permit programs and traffic restraint devices. While both the these approaches are aimed at restraining the use of the aut...

  16. Study of Automobile Market Dynamics : Volume 2. Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    Volume II describes the work in providing statistical inputs to a computer model by examining the effects of various options on the number of automobiles sold; the distribution of sales among small, medium and large cars; the distribution between aut...

  17. Scenes of fathering: The automobile as a place of occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    While occupations are increasingly analyzed within contexts, other than the home, the ordinary places that facilitate occupations have been overlooked. The aim of this article is to explore the automobile as a place of occupation using data from an ethnographic study of fathers of children with disabilities. Qualitative data obtained through observations and interviews with the fathers and their families were analyzed using a narrative approach. Properties that influence interactions include opportunities to communicate, the vehicle itself, and electronics. Driving children in the automobile fulfills fathering responsibilities and is a time for connecting. For the fathers in this study, the automobile represents a place for negotiating complex demands of fathering. This study demonstrates not only the importance of the automobile, but also the influence of the immediate space on the construction of occupations.

  18. Legislative Committee Simulation: Regulation in the Automobile Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Alan J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined are ways to overcome obstacles which often prevent creative teaching of legislative decision-making processes to high school students. A simulation dealing with regulation in the automobile industry is used for illustrative purposes. (RM)

  19. Learning Activities: Students and Recycling. [and] Automobile Aerodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Charles H., Jr.; Schieber, Rich

    1994-01-01

    The first learning activity is intended to heighten students' awareness of the need for recycling, reuse, and reduction of materials; the second explores the aerodynamics of automobiles. Both include context, concept, objectives, procedure, and materials needed. (SK)

  20. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Amanda Lima de; Petroianu,Andy; Gonçalves,Dafne Maria Villar; Pereira,Gisele Araújo; Alberti,Luiz Ronaldo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the regio...

  1. ESTIMATION OF ECOLOGICAL LOSSES AT ORGANIZATION OF AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. К. Jaroshevich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological safety of automobile transport systems is considered on the basis of the account of transportation process efficiency. It is shown that ecological safety of transportations is estimated to a great extent by the automobile usage level in respect of run and capacity. It is proposed a criterion of a passenger transport system optimality on the basis of carrying capacity proceeding from ecological safety of transportation.

  2. Can urban rail transit curb automobile energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy and the speed of urbanization, China's automobile sector has experienced rapid development. The rapid development of the automobile sector has increased energy consumption. According to the results of this paper, automobile energy consumption accounted for about 10.73% of total energy consumption in China in 2015, about 3.6 times the proportion a decade ago. With the deterioration of urban traffic conditions, relying on expanding the amount of vehicles and city road network cannot solve the problem. Urban rail transit is energy-saving and less-polluting, uses less space, has large capacity, and secure. Urban rail transit, according to the principle of sustainable development, is a green transportation system and should be especially adopted for large and medium-sized cities. The paper uses the binary choice model (Probit and Logit) to analyze the main factors influencing the development of rail transit in Chinese cities, and whether automobile energy consumption is the reason for the construction of urban rail transit. Secondly, we analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption using DID model. The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly, with continuous impact in the second year. - Highlights: • Investigate the main factors influencing the building of rail transit for Chinese cities. • Analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption by DID model. • The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly.

  3. Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.

  4. Assessing location attractiveness for manufacturing automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanawalt, Edward; Rouse, William

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating country manufacturing location attractiveness on various performance measures deepens the analysis and provides a more informed basis for manufacturing site selection versus reliance on labor rates alone. A short list of countries can be used to drive regional considerations for site-specific selection within a country. Design/methodology/approach: The two-step multi attribute decision model contains an initial filter layer to require minimum values for low weighted attributes and provides a rank order utility score for twenty three countries studied. The model contains 11 key explanatory variables with Labor Rate, Material Cost, and Logistics making up the top 3 attributes and representing 54% percent of the model weights. Findings: We propose a multi attribute decision framework for strategically assessing the attractiveness of a country as a location for manufacturing automobiles. Research limitations/implications: Consideration of country level wage variation, specific tariffs, and other economic incentives provides a secondary analysis after the initial list of candidate countries is defined. Practical implications: The results of our modeling shows China, India, and Mexico are currently the top ranked countries for manufacturing attractiveness. These three markets hold the highest utility scores throughout sensitivity analysis on the labor rate attribute weight rating, highlighting the strength and potential of manufacturing in China, India, and Mexico. Originality/value: Combining MAUT with regression analysis to simplify model to core factors then using a “must have” layer to handle extreme impacts of low weight factors and allowing for ease of repeatability.

  5. Assessing location attractiveness for manufacturing automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanawalt, Edward; Rouse, William

    2017-07-01

    Evaluating country manufacturing location attractiveness on various performance measures deepens the analysis and provides a more informed basis for manufacturing site selection versus reliance on labor rates alone. A short list of countries can be used to drive regional considerations for site-specific selection within a country. Design/methodology/approach: The two-step multi attribute decision model contains an initial filter layer to require minimum values for low weighted attributes and provides a rank order utility score for twenty three countries studied. The model contains 11 key explanatory variables with Labor Rate, Material Cost, and Logistics making up the top 3 attributes and representing 54% percent of the model weights. Findings: We propose a multi attribute decision framework for strategically assessing the attractiveness of a country as a location for manufacturing automobiles. Research limitations/implications: Consideration of country level wage variation, specific tariffs, and other economic incentives provides a secondary analysis after the initial list of candidate countries is defined. Practical implications: The results of our modeling shows China, India, and Mexico are currently the top ranked countries for manufacturing attractiveness. These three markets hold the highest utility scores throughout sensitivity analysis on the labor rate attribute weight rating, highlighting the strength and potential of manufacturing in China, India, and Mexico. Originality/value: Combining MAUT with regression analysis to simplify model to core factors then using a “must have” layer to handle extreme impacts of low weight factors and allowing for ease of repeatability.

  6. 47 CFR 1.919 - Ownership information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Wireless Radio Services...) Applicants or licensees in Wireless Radio Services that are subject to the ownership reporting requirements...) The prices charged for such services. (I) Any licensee, or its affiliate, who enters into a joint...

  7. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  8. 47 CFR 73.3555 - Multiple ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exceed the 39 percent national audience reach limitation through population growth. (f) The ownership... rule. A person or single entity (or entities under common control) may have a cognizable interest in..., however, that no person or single entity (or entities under common control) may have a cognizable interest...

  9. The Ownership of Aboriginal English in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    A widely-observed postcolonial phenomenon is the indigenization of English by communities into which it was formerly involuntarily introduced. When this takes place, the community which has appropriated English to serve its own purposes regards the language as their own. The question of the ownership of English has been extensively discussed by…

  10. Foreign bank ownership and household credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Brown, M.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical work on banking emphasizes the role of banks in overcoming information asymmetries and agency problems between borrowers and lenders. This paper investigates the importance of bank ownership in determining the sorts of customers that a bank serves, and consequently, the

  11. Exploring Ownership in a Developmental Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noles, Nicholaus S.; Keil, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Ownership and economic behaviors are highly salient elements of the human social landscape. Indeed, the human world is literally constructed of property. Individuals perceive and manipulate a complex web of people and property that is largely invisible and abstract. In this chapter, the authors focus on drawing together information from a variety…

  12. Changing Law and Ownership Patterns in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    German corporate governance and corporate law are currently undergoing a major change. The old “Deutschland AG”, a nationwide network of firms, banks, and directors, is eroding, ownership is diffusing and the shareholder body is becoming more international than ever. This paper presents new data ...

  13. Relationship between bank ownership concentration on capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study we explore the effects of ownership concentration on the risk-taking behavior of banks. Our analysis focuses on East Asian countries because these nations have successfully implemented the Basel standards and have demonstrated a high degree of regulatory convergence. For the period from 2005 to 2009, ...

  14. Ownership reasoning in children across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Philippe; Robbins, Erin; Passos-Ferreira, Claudia; Donato Oliva, Angela; Dias, Maria D G; Guo, Liping

    2014-09-01

    To what extent do early intuitions about ownership depend on cultural and socio-economic circumstances? We investigated the question by testing reasoning about third party ownership conflicts in various groups of three- and five-year-old children (N=176), growing up in seven highly contrasted social, economic, and cultural circumstances (urban rich, poor, very poor, rural poor, and traditional) spanning three continents. Each child was presented with a series of scripts involving two identical dolls fighting over an object of possession. The child had to decide who of the two dolls should own the object. Each script enacted various potential reasons for attributing ownership: creation, familiarity, first contact, equity, plus a control/neutral condition with no suggested reasons. Results show that across cultures, children are significantly more consistent and decisive in attributing ownership when one of the protagonists created the object. Development between three and five years is more or less pronounced depending on culture. The propensity to split the object in equal halves whenever possible was generally higher at certain locations (i.e., China) and quasi-inexistent in others (i.e., Vanuatu and street children of Recife). Overall, creation reasons appear to be more primordial and stable across cultures than familiarity, relative wealth or first contact. This trend does not correlate with the passing of false belief theory of mind. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Beyond home ownership: housing, welfare and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Elsinga, M.

    2012-01-01

    In context of ongoing transformations in housing markets and socioeconomic conditions, this book focuses on past, current and future roles of home ownership in social policies and welfare practices. It considers owner-occupied housing in terms of diverse meanings and manifestations, but in

  16. Employee Ownership and Democracy in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, David J.

    1981-01-01

    Explains three American forms of employee-owned companies. The Mock Conventional firm models its legal structure after conventional enterprises, with shares held primarily by employees. The Employee Stock Ownership Plan regulates the shareholding patterns of ESOP firms. The Producer Cooperative guarantees each member an equal voice in corporate…

  17. Correlates of credit card ownership in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

    2005-06-01

    In a sample of 352 students, correlates of credit card ownership differed by sex. For both men and women, credit card ownership was predicted by their affective attitude toward credit cards. However, whereas for men concern with money as a tactic for gaining power predicted credit card ownership, for women feelings of insecurity about having sufficient money and having a conservative approach to money predicted credit card ownership.

  18. 77 FR 73461 - Commission Seeks Comment on Broadcast Ownership Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... COMMISSION Commission Seeks Comment on Broadcast Ownership Report AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... the Media Bureau's recently released report on the ownership of commercial broadcast stations, which... contained in the Media Bureau's recently released report on the ownership of commercial broadcast stations...

  19. 77 FR 43967 - Account Ownership and Control Report; Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... 15, 16, 17, et al. Account Ownership and Control Report; Withdrawal; Ownership and Control Reports... RIN 3038-AC63 Account Ownership and Control Report; Withdrawal AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading... published for public comment a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that proposed to collect certain account...

  20. 45 CFR 95.617 - Software and ownership rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Software and ownership rights. 95.617 Section 95... (FFP) Specific Conditions for Ffp § 95.617 Software and ownership rights. (a) General. The State or... local government will have all ownership rights in software or modifications thereof and associated...

  1. 26 CFR 1.382-4 - Constructive ownership of stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constructive ownership of stock. 1.382-4 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.382-4 Constructive ownership of stock. (a) In general... exercise or transfer, with a substantial portion of the attributes of ownership of the underlying stock. (4...

  2. 26 CFR 1.468B-9 - Disputed ownership funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transferor using an accrual method of accounting issues to a disputed ownership fund its debt (or provides... payments are made to the disputed ownership fund or a claimant. With regard to interest on a debt issued or... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disputed ownership funds. 1.468B-9 Section 1...

  3. 7 CFR 3560.406 - MFH ownership transfers or sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... borrower's control. (2) Ownership transfers or sales with an assumption of debt at an amount less than the... an ownership transfer or sale to reduce the amount of debt being assumed by the transferee or buyer... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false MFH ownership transfers or sales. 3560.406 Section...

  4. Social Validation Influences Individuals’ Judgments about Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiraghi, Leandro; Faigenbaum, Gustavo; Chehtman, Alejandro; Sigman, Mariano

    2018-01-01

    In all domains, from informal to formal, there are conflicts about property and ownership which resolution demands consideration of alleged claims from more than one party. In this work we asked adults (N = 359) to judge cases in which a character held a property claim over an item, but is challenged by a second character who holds a different, subsequent claim over it. The specific goal of this work is to investigate how the resolution of such conflicts depends on the social endorsement of ownership claims. To achieve this aim, we designed variations of conflictive situations over property in which we manipulated details regarding the knowledge of the second agent of other third-parties about the first agent’s actions. In essence, our questions were: if an agent claims ownership of something which has a previous property claim on (1) does it matter whether said agent knew of the first’s agent actions or not? And (2) does it matter whether third parties were aware or notified of the first one’s claim? The results confirm that adults resolve the settling of property rights based not only on the nature of ownership claims but also on the social acknowledgment of such claims, in accordance with what is stipulated in legal systems worldwide. Participants considered the second character in the stories to hold a lesser right over the object under dispute when she knew of the first character’s claim. Participants also considered that the first character’s claim was reinforced when there were witnesses for her actions, but not when third parties were merely communicated of such actions. This is the first study to our knowledge that studies how social validation of ownership claims drives adults’ judgments on property claims. PMID:29440998

  5. Corporate ownership structure and risk-taking: evidence from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SunEae Chun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationship between ownership structure and corporate risk-taking in Japan over the sample periods of 2000 2010. Reflecting the ongoing changes in the ownership structure in Japan, we incorporate the various kinds of insider and outsider ownership in the analysis. Ownership such as concentrated ownership, ownership by closely related parties, financial institutions comprising banks and insurance companies and managers are categorized into inside ownership, while ownership by foreigners or financial institution such as investment trusts or pension funds are categorized into outside ownership. The ownership structure is found to have a different impact on the firm’s risk-taking behavior. The study shows that concentrated ownership or ownership by closely related parties affect the firm risks in a convex manner and encourages the firm management to take more risk when the firms have growth opportunities. On the other hand, ownership by financial institutions such as bank and insurance companies, does not seem to affect the firm risk level. This implies that the financial institutions fail to play their role of a shareholder monitor. When managerial ownership is allowed, it is found that Japanese managers’ incentives are aligned with those of shareholders. Contrary to the conventional entrenchment hypothesis, however, managers seem to take more risk as the share of managerial ownership increases. Foreign investors are found to enhance corporate risk-taking in a monotonic manner and do not bias corporate investment in a conservative direction in pursuit of their short-term gains. Domestic institutions such as investment trusts or pension funds are found to neither affect the firm risk level nor enhance the firm value.

  6. Detection of mutagenic activity in automobile exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Y; Kachi, K; Sato, K; Tahara, I; Takeyoshi, H; Tokiwa, H

    1980-03-01

    Using the Ames Salmonella-microsome system, we detected mutagenic activity in the exhaust from two kinds of 4-cycle gasoline engines of unregulated and regulated cars, and from diesel engines, as well as in the particulates from air collected in tunnels. The mutagenicity of particulates from a car equipped with a catalyst (regulated car), as compared with that from an unregulated car, was reduced very much (down to 500 from 4500 revertants/plate/m3 in tester strain TA98). However, the mutagenicity of the ether-soluble acid and neutral fractions from the condensed water of emissions from a regulated car was still high (down to 2880 from 10 900 revertants/plate/m3 in tester strain TA100). The mutagenic activity of emission exhaust from old diesel car engines was very high; the particulates showed 9140 and 19 600 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA98 incubated with an activating rat-liver S9 fraction. A small diesel engine of the type used for the generation of electric power or in farm machinery also produced exhaust with highly mutagenic particulates. The mutagenic activity of a methanol extract of particulate air pollutants collected in a highway tunnel showed 39 revertants/plate/m3 toward strain TA98 and 87 toward strain TA100. The ether-soluble neutral fraction yielded 86 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA98 and 100 from strain TA100. This fraction also contained carcinogenic compounds, including benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[ghi]perylene and chrysene. Very high mutagenic activity was detected, especially in the particulate air pollutants collected at night, in another tunnel on a superhighway: 60-88 revertants/plate/m3 from strain TA100 for the sample collected by day, but 121-238, by night. Night traffic includes many more diesel-powered vehicles compared with gasoline-powered automobiles.

  7. Identity and psychological ownership in chronic illness and disease state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnilowicz, W

    2011-03-01

    Psychological ownership is rarely considered in health discourse related to chronic illness or disease state. Construction of identity is an important consideration within this framework. This autoethnographic study explores psychological ownership and identity related to prostate cancer and chronic illness. Conclusions about the nature of psychological ownership and identity were gathered from the relevant literature and personal experience. Themes include the patient-healthcare professional relationship and that psychological ownership is personal and grounded in an individual's sense of identity, control and perceived capacity to control illness or disease. Personal reflection through autoethnography guides discussion of psychological ownership and identity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Antecedents of hospital ownership conversions, mergers, and closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Frank A; Ostermann, Jan; Conover, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    This study assesses the determinants of conversions in hospital ownership from 1986 through 1996. To place such changes in context, we also analyze causes of hospital mergers and closures, which are often alternatives to hospital ownership conversion. A consistent result from our analysis is that an important antecedent of ownership conversions is a low profit margin. Conversions from private nonprofit or government ownership to for-profit status are preceded by chronically low margins and high debt-to-asset ratios. By contrast, conversions from for-profit ownership occur quickly following declines in margins. Many mergers seem motivated by a desire to increase market power--a consideration not evident for conversions.

  9. Development of automobile tyre lateral runout measurement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xie; Ye, Lingjian; Yao, Guanghui; Wang, Di; Zhi, Xiongfei

    2013-10-01

    Automobile tyre lateral runout is one of the important indexes to measure the quality of the tyre, it will affect the safety of the automobile in moving. This paper introduces a sensor for automobile tyre lateral runout measurement. The variation of the automobile tyre lateral runout causes the change of guide rod probe displacement and deforms of the cantilever beam which connects with the guide bar. The deformation of the cantilever beam leads to the change of the resistance value of strain gauge which is pasted on the cantilever beam. Through measuring circuit, the resistance value of the strain gauge is converted into output voltage that has a certain relationship with automobile tyre lateral runout. Then, the voltage signal is transformed by A/D convertor and send to SCM to process and display the value of runout. Meanwhile, SCM output control signal to control the actuator and adjust the equipment running status in real time so as to ensure the tyre lateral runout is within the allowed range.

  10. Mind the Gap: The Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; author), L. Schipper (main; Price, L.

    1993-01-01

    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data...... of gasoline, diesel and other fuels used for automobiles. We note that significant uncertainties exist in values of both the number of automobiles in use and the distance each is driven, which together yield total automobile use. We present our own calculations for total automobile fuel use for a variety...

  11. Ownership and efficiency in nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollitt, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the relatively small amount of academic literature on the efficiency of nuclear power production. The author draws on world-wide comparisons to illustrate the situation in the United Kingdom, where the nuclear generating capacity, conceived of and constructed as a public concern, has recently been privatised. The theory and evidence for links between ownership and productive efficiency is received. Efficiency measures used are explained as are the linear programs required to generate them. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to analyse productive efficiency of nuclear power plants before and after privatisation. Results of the DEA are used to test the hypothesis that ownership has no effect on productive efficiency. (UK)

  12. Bodily ownership and self-location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serino, Andrea; Alsmith, Adrian John Tetteh; Costantini, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on bodily self-consciousness has assumed that it consists of three distinct components: the experience of owning a body (body ownership); the experience of being a body with a given location within the environment (self-location); and the experience of taking a first-person, body......-centered, perspective on that environment (perspective). Here we review recent neuroimaging studies suggesting that at least two of these components—body ownership and self-location—are implemented in rather distinct neural substrates, located, respectively, in the premotor cortex and in the temporo-parietal junction....... We examine these results and consider them in relation to clinical evidence from patients with altered body perception and work on a variety of multisensory, body-related illusions, such as the rubber hand illusion, the full body illusion, the body swap illusion and the enfacement illusion. We...

  13. Franchise ownership redirection: real options perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Lukito Adi

    2016-01-01

    Background: For over 40 years, the franchise ownership redirection hypothesis has attracted the attention of many scholars. This study, differing from previous ones, proposes an alternative approach for this hypothesis using a real options framework with the extension of agency theory. Method: The real options model is built using the least square Monte Carlo method, where the franchisor's decision to franchise is perceived as a deferred investment while maintaining the right of future acquis...

  14. Gun ownership and firearm-related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangalore, Sripal; Messerli, Franz H

    2013-10-01

    A variety of claims about possible associations between gun ownership rates, mental illness burden, and the risk of firearm-related deaths have been put forward. However, systematic data on this issue among various countries remain scant. Our objective was to assess whether the popular notion "guns make a nation safer" has any merits. Data on gun ownership were obtained from the Small Arms Survey, and for firearm-related deaths from a European detailed mortality database (World Health Organization), the National Center for Health Statistics, and others. Crime rate was used as an indicator of safety of the nation and was obtained from the United Nations Surveys of Crime Trends. Age-standardized disability-adjusted life-year rates due to major depressive disorder per 100,000 inhabitants with data obtained from the World Health Organization database were used as a putative indicator for mental illness burden in a given country. Among the 27 developed countries, there was a significant positive correlation between guns per capita per country and the rate of firearm-related deaths (r = 0.80; P guns per capita per country and crime rate (r = .33), or between mental illness and crime rate (r = 0.32; P = .11). In a linear regression model with firearm-related deaths as the dependent variable with gun ownership and mental illness as independent covariates, gun ownership was a significant predictor (P guns per capita per country was a strong and independent predictor of firearm-related death in a given country, whereas the predictive power of the mental illness burden was of borderline significance in a multivariable model. Regardless of exact cause and effect, however, the current study debunks the widely quoted hypothesis that guns make a nation safer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ownership Structure, Board Composition and Investment Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Johan; Palmberg, Johanna; Wiberg, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the relation between ownership structure, board composition and firm performance is explored. A panel of Swedish listed firms is used to investigate how board composition affects firm performance. Board heterogeneity is measured as board size, age and gender diversity. The results show that Swedish board of directors have become more diversified in terms of gender. Also, fewer firms have the CEO on the board which can be interpreted as a sign of increased independency. The regre...

  16. Study on the ownership balance and the efficiency of mixed ownership enterprises from the perspective of heterogeneous shareholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhujia; Liu, Lijuan; Wang, Haidong; Wen, Fengming

    2018-01-01

    Based on the database data of Chinese industrial enterprises from 2000 to 2007 and the LP method, this paper measures the total factor productivity of enterprises and investigates the effect of different mixed ownership forms on enterprises' efficiency and the effect of heterogeneous ownership balance on the mixed ownership enterprises' efficiency. The state-owned enterprise and mixed ownership enterprise are identified by the enterprise's paid-up capital. The results show that, on the whole, for the mixed ownership enterprise, the higher the diversification degree of the shareholders is, the higher the efficiency becomes, and in different types of industries, the mixed forms of shareholders have different effects on the efficiency of enterprises. The heterogeneous ownership balance and the enterprise efficiency show nonlinear U-type relationships. Both the higher and lower heterogeneous ownership balance degrees will promote the enterprise's efficiency. However, when the ownership balance degree is in the range of [0.2 0.5], the increase in ownership balance will lead to the decline of enterprise efficiency. Therefore, when introducing non-state-owned capital, state-owned enterprises should take full account of their own characteristics by rationally controlling the shareholding ratio of non-state-owned capital and play the positive role of a mixed ownership structure in corporate governance with appropriate ownership balances.

  17. Privatisation, State Ownership and Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Crnković

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The standpoints on state ownership on the one hand and private ownership on the other changed frequently in the past. Nevertheless, the strengthening of the role of a state in economy – brought about by the big economic crisis in the late 1920s and 1930s and continuing after the Second World War – has caused a significantly more active role of state ownership in many economies. In the late 1970s, state companies began to lose their importance, mainly due to their inefficiency. This perception of inefficiency was actually the cause of privatisation processes, which reached their peak with the beginning of transition. On the other hand, the discussion on the relative efficiency of state-owned, private and privatised companies is still a current topic. This paper gives an overview of the key empirical studies that examine the relative efficiency of state-owned, private and privatised companies. Furthermore, it provides an overview of theoretical findings that give reasons for the existence of state companies, their lesser efficiency and the reasons for privatisation. The paper analyses the business results of sixty-nine Croatian companies in 2009, which are of special state interest (majority holding by the state in most of them, thus providing an empirical contribution to the current academic debate on the relative efficiency of state-owned and private companies.

  18. Altitude, gun ownership, rural areas, and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namkug; Mickelson, Jennie B; Brenner, Barry E; Haws, Charlotte A; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A; Renshaw, Perry F

    2011-01-01

    The authors recently observed a correlation between state altitude and suicide rate in the United States, which could be explained by higher rates of gun ownership and lower population density in the intermountain West. The present study evaluated the relationship between mean county and state altitude in the United States and total age-adjusted suicide rates, firearm-related suicide rates, and non-firearm-related suicide rates. The authors hypothesized that altitude would be significantly associated with suicide rate. Elevation data were calculated with an approximate spatial resolution of 0.5 km, using zonal statistics on data sets compiled from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Suicide and population density data were obtained through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WONDER database. Gun ownership data were obtained through the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. A significant positive correlation was observed between age-adjusted suicide rate and county elevation (r=0.51). Firearm (r=0.41) and non-firearm suicide rates (r=0.32) were also positively correlated with mean county elevation. When altitude, gun ownership, and population density are considered as predictor variables for suicide rates on a state basis, altitude appears to be a significant independent risk factor. This association may be related to the effects of metabolic stress associated with mild hypoxia in individuals with mood disorders.

  19. Automobile air-conditioning its energy and environmental impact; La climatisation automobile impact energetique et environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.; Gagnepain, L.

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maxi-mum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the inter-national climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-condition ng (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential ed ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. All of these studies and additional data are presented in greater detail in the document,-'Automobile Air-conditioning' (ADEME reference no. 4985). (author)

  20. Family-Concentrated Ownership in Chinese PLCs: Does Ownership Concentration Always Enhance Corporate Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hui Luo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the relationship between family ownership structure and corporate value across a sample of 1314 firm-year observations of China’s family publicly listed companies (PLCs, from 2004 to 2008. We find a significant inverse-U-shaped relationship between the controlling family’s ultimate cash-flow rights and corporate value; as measured by Tobin’s Q. That is, as family-ownership concentration increases, corporate value first increases and then decreases. This finding refreshes our understanding of the relationship between family-ownership concentration and corporate value in emerging economies such as found in China. We corroborate prior findings that when controlling families hold excess control over cash-flow rights, corporate value is significantly lowered, while multiple large shareholders structure is significantly associated with higher corporate value. In addition; board independence is found to significantly improve corporate value in the context of family-concentrated ownership. We also test for potential endogeneity between family ownership and corporate value and find our results to be robust.

  1. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall is...

  2. Environmental change and hedonic cost functions for automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, S; Kortum, S; Pakes, A

    1996-11-12

    This paper focuses on how changes in the economic and regulatory environment have affected production costs and product characteristics in the automobile industry. We estimate "hedonic cost functions" that relate product-level costs to their characteristics. Then we examine how this cost surface has changed over time and how these changes relate to changes in gas prices and in emission standard regulations. We also briefly consider the related questions of how changes in automobile characteristics, and in the rate of patenting, are related to regulations and gas prices.

  3. Environmental change and hedonic cost functions for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Steven; Kortum, Samuel; Pakes, Ariel

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on how changes in the economic and regulatory environment have affected production costs and product characteristics in the automobile industry. We estimate “hedonic cost functions” that relate product-level costs to their characteristics. Then we examine how this cost surface has changed over time and how these changes relate to changes in gas prices and in emission standard regulations. We also briefly consider the related questions of how changes in automobile characteristics, and in the rate of patenting, are related to regulations and gas prices. PMID:8917486

  4. Hinderniserkennung und -verfolgung mit einer PMD-kamera im automobil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamm, Thomas; Vacek, Stefan; Natroshvilli, Koba; Marius Zöllner, J.; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    Die Detektion von Hindernissen vor dem Automobil ist eine Hauptanforderung an moderne Fahrerassistenzsysteme (FAS). In dieser Arbeit wird ein System vorgestellt, das mit Hilfe einer PMDKamera (Photomischdetektor) Hindernisse auf der Fahrspur erkennt und deren relevante Parameter bestimmt. Durch die PMD-Kamera werden zunächst 3D-Tiefenbilder der Fahrzeugumwelt generiert. Nach einem initialen Filterprozess werden im Tiefenbild mit Hilfe eines Bereichswachstumsverfahrens Hindernisse gesucht. Zur Stabilisierung des Verfahrens und zur Parameterberechnung wird ein Kaiman Filter eingesetzt. Das Ergebnis ist eine Liste aller Hindernisse im Fahrbereich des Automobils.

  5. Improved fault tolerance for air bag release in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshwanth Kumar, C. H.; Prudhvi Prasad, P.; Uday Shankar, M.; Shanmugasundaram, M.

    2017-11-01

    In order to increase the reliability of the airbag system in automobiles which in turn increase the safety of the automobile we require improved airbag release system, our project deals with Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) Technique where we use either three Sensors interfaced with three Microcontrollers which given as input to the software voter which produces majority output which is feed to the air compressor for releasing airbag. This concept was being used, in this project we are increasing reliability and safety of the entire system.

  6. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  7. Technological Improvements to Automobile Fuel Consumption : Volume 2A. Sections 1 through 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-12-01

    This report is a preliminary survey of the technological feasibility of reducing the fuel consumption of automobiles. The study uses as a reference information derived from literature, automobile industry contacts, and testing conducted as part of th...

  8. Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)

  9. Evaluating the Economic Impacts of Technological Innovation in the Automobile Industry: The Input-Output Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Shibusawa; Takafumi Sugawara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the economic impacts of technological innovation, such as electric and hybrid vehicles, in the automobile industry in Japan are examined. The automobile industry has to develop environmentally friendly vehicles in the face of the global warming issue and the exhaustion problem of petroleum. The conventional automobiles with gasoline and diesel oil don't meet the demands of present age. The new generation automobiles will become popular for coming several decades. The industrial...

  10. New Car Sales and Used Car Stocks: A Model of the Automobile Market

    OpenAIRE

    James Berkovec

    1985-01-01

    This article develops a short-run general equilibrium model of the automobile market by combining a discrete choice model of consumer automobile demand with simple models of new automobile production and used vehicle scrappage. The theoretical model allows an unlimited degree of heterogeneity of both consumers and automobiles, with equilibrium defined as aggregate demand equal to supply for every vehicle type. Econometric estimates of the scrappage and demand functions are then used to create...

  11. Linguistic analysis of project ownership for undergraduate research experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, D I; Frederick, J; Fotinakes, B; Strobel, S A

    2012-01-01

    We used computational linguistic and content analyses to explore the concept of project ownership for undergraduate research. We used linguistic analysis of student interview data to develop a quantitative methodology for assessing project ownership and applied this method to measure degrees of project ownership expressed by students in relation to different types of educational research experiences. The results of the study suggest that the design of a research experience significantly influences the degree of project ownership expressed by students when they describe those experiences. The analysis identified both positive and negative aspects of project ownership and provided a working definition for how a student experiences his or her research opportunity. These elements suggest several features that could be incorporated into an undergraduate research experience to foster a student's sense of project ownership.

  12. 77 FR 63917 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Certain Measures Affecting the Automobile and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Regarding Expediting Equipment Manufacturing; Xiamen Municipal Notice on Automobile Industry Development... Proceeding Regarding China--Certain Measures Affecting the Automobile and Automobile-Parts Industries AGENCY... panel, which would hold its meetings in Geneva, Switzerland, would be expected to issue a report on its...

  13. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by the...

  14. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class Descriptive...

  15. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-86 Section 600.311-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of city and the range of highway fuel...

  16. 76 FR 61779 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive Equipment): Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: Application for Automobile or other Conveyance and Adaptive Equipment (under 38 U.S.C... apply for automobile or other conveyance allowance, and reimbursement for the cost and installation of...

  17. 76 FR 44402 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive Equipment) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY... information needed to determine claimants' eligibility for automobile adaptation equipment or other conveyance...: Application for Automobile or other Conveyance and Adaptive Equipment (under 38 U.S.C. 3901-3904), VA Form 21...

  18. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-08 Section 600.311-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of combined fuel economy values for...

  19. Creation and cessation of the land ownership right - legal forms

    OpenAIRE

    Celerýn, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    I chose for my diploma thesis the theme which is called "Creation and cessation of the land ownership right - legal forms". The aim of the work is to give complex and complete description of basic legal forms of acquiring ownership right to land. The presented work is divided into ten chapters. The first part (second chapter) of the diploma thesis determines the concepts of "ownership", "real estate", "land", "plot" etc. According to Czech law concept of "real estate" means mainly under groun...

  20. The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

    A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

  1. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of c a . 50 kW supplemented with ...

  2. Dynamic Models of the U.S. Automobile Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    The report examines some of the dynamic properties of the automobile fleet. The focus is not on new-car demand, but rather on the overall behavior of the system. Relationships derived from previous studies have been incorporated and integrated in a s...

  3. Monitoring Report - Automobile Voluntary Fuel Economy Improvement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    On October 8, 1974, President Ford announced the goal of a 40% improvement in fuel economy of automobiles to be achieved in the 1980 new car fleet compared to 14.0 MPH for 1974. The Secretary of Transportation was given the lead in developing the pro...

  4. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public con- cern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of ca. 50 kW ...

  5. Measurement of Gamma Radiation in an Automobile Mechanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental radiation measurement was carried out in an automobile mechanic village, Apo, Abuja, Nigeria. An in-situ measurement approach was adopted using RDS-200 Universal Survey Meter and a handheld Global Positioning System (Garmin GPS 76S) equipment. It was observed that the dose equivalent varied ...

  6. Spatial distribution and landuse planning of informal automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, informal automobile workshops can spring up beside, behind or within any form or type of land use along major road to distort the existing land use plan (if any). This is observed to be a great challenge for maintaining order in the city. The study therefore, recommends the establishment of mechanic complex, ...

  7. New Technology and Human Resource Development in the Automobile Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This document contains five case studies of plants within large enterprises in the automobile industry (Ford, Toyota, Volkswagen, Renault, and Volvo), plus reports of each company's views on human resource development, new technology, and changes in work organization and skill formation. The document is composed of five narrative sections,…

  8. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals by Moringa Oleifera in Automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. Plants accumulate minerals essential for their growth from the environment alongside with heavy metals from contaminated areas.This study investigated bioaccumulation of heavy metals by Moringa oleifera in automobile workshops in three selected local government areas in Ibadan. This was done with a view to ...

  9. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals by Moringa Oleifera in Automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants accumulate minerals essential for their growth from the environment alongside with heavy metals from contaminated areas.This study investigated bioaccumulation of heavy metals by Moringa oleifera in automobile workshops in three selected local government areas in Ibadan. This was done with a view to ...

  10. Measurement of Gamma Radiation in an Automobile Mechanic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imeh james

    ABSTRACT: Environmental radiation measurement was carried out in an automobile mechanic village, Apo,. Abuja, Nigeria. An in-situ measurement approach was adopted using RDS-200 Universal Survey Meter and a handheld Global Positioning System (Garmin GPS 76S) equipment. It was observed that the dose ...

  11. Assessment of the Problems of Manual Automobile Tyre Bead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tyre-rim bead bond must be broken to carry out repairs on a failed automobile tyre. The use of the locally fabricated manual bead breaking equipment as it is being practiced today by commercial tyre repair artisans in Nigeria is characterized by drudgery. This article reports a study of the local manual bead breaking ...

  12. Automobile Engine: Basic Ignition Timing. Fordson Bilingual Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, James E.

    These two vocational instructional modules on basic automobile ignition timing and on engine operation, four-stroke cycle, are two of eight such modules designed to assist recently arrived Arab students, limited in English proficiency (LEP), in critical instructional areas in a comprehensive high school. Goal stated for this module is for the…

  13. Reducing automobile traffic: an urgent policy for health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapia Granados José A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades traffic injuries have become a leading cause of death and disability the world over. In congested urban areas, the noise and emissions from vehicle engines cause discomfort and disease. More than one billion people are exposed daily to harmful levels of atmospheric contamination. Because internal combustion generates carbon dioxide (CO2 , the automobile is a principal contributor to the greenhouse effect, which has significantly raised the temperature of the atmosphere. Scientists anticipate that in coming decades the greenhouse effect will produce alterations in climate that are very likely to be harmful and possibly catastrophic. Meanwhile, burgeoning traffic and rural and urban highway infrastructures are already among the principal causes of environmental degradation. Urban development, because it is nearly always "planned" to accommodate automobiles rather than people, reduces the quality of life and tears the social fabric. In contrast to private automobiles, public transportation, bicycles, and walking produce little environmental contamination or injury-related morbidity and mortality. These modes of transport involve more physical activity, with its positive health effects, and avoid contributing to the greenhouse effect. The reduction of automobile traffic and substitution of alternative modes of transport are essential policies for health promotion. They should be incorporated in "healthy cities" programs and general economic policies.

  14. BEGA-a biaxial excitation Generator for automobiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scridon, S.; Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results for a biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA), which has a three-phase stator and a salient-pole excited heteropolar rotor with multiple flux barriers filled with low-cost permanent magnets (PMs). For this new generator, the low-vo...

  15. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The fuel cell system energy efficiency at present is about 60%, which is much higher than both the Otto (ca. 20%) as well as Diesel (ca. 30%) versions of ICEVs (Jeong and Oh 1999). Although, the 80 kW of the power needed to provide the acceleration to the fuel cell-based automobile could be supplied by an appropri-.

  16. Micro-electronics and employment in the Japanese automobile industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, S

    1984-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the employment effects of microelectronics technological change and industrial robots in the motor vehicle industry in Japan - examines industrial processes, labour productivity, job requirements of automobile workers, effects on the subcontracting system and small scale industry, diffusion patterns and prospects, etc. Bibliography, references and statistical tables.

  17. Smog and Your Automobile. [Teacher's Manual, Filmstrip, Record].

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Public Health, Berkeley.

    A filmstrip, 33 1/3 RPM record, and teacher's manual are combined in this set to be used in driver education classes at the senior high school level. Their main purpose is to inform future drivers how they can minimize pollution from their automobiles through proper car maintenance and good driving habits. Content of the manual is divided into…

  18. Development of psychological test for the selection of automobile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to develop a psychological test that will be incorporated into the selection process of automobile drivers in commercial banks in Nigeria. As is the rule in the content-oriented approach to test development, 50 incumbent drivers and 18 fleet managers and supervisors took part in a job analysis ...

  19. Wind driven mobile charging of automobile battery- A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V) automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of ...

  20. Reconsidering Esport: Economics and Executive Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karhulahti Veli-Matti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article starts with a literary review of the conceptual frames through which esport has been labeled academically. It shows how the concept of “electronic” has been taken as the core term for labelingesport, often accompanied by a strong emphasis on “professionalism.” The literary review is followed by the submission of an alternative conceptual frame based on the economic notion of executive ownership, which provides a theoretical grounding for esport as a cultural phenomenon. In accordance with the above, the article concludes with a reframed look at the history of esport and suggests commercial analog gaming (especially Magic: The Gathering as its point of origin.

  1. The Identity of Ownership on Firm Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper; Madsen, Tage Koed; Pedersen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    The paper develops an integrative ownership-internationalization model that explores the influences of various owner types (i.e. investor-owned firms, family-owned firms, employee-owned firms, cooperative–owned firms, and state-owned firms) on firm internationalization. Based on a comparative...... analysis of the various owner types, we discuss how each owner group’s main objectives, risk behavior and provision of resources influence their internationalization strategies and decisions (i.e. scale, scope and speed decisions)....

  2. Divorce your car: ending the love affair with the automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvord, K.

    2000-07-01

    This book is a guide for people wishing to liberate themselves from their addiction to cars and the automobile culture. It is a repository of examples and actions that individuals and communities can take to reduce dependence on the automobile. The range of possibilities run from using cars less to not owning one at all. The book provides a humorous yet clear-headed approach to a greener world and maps out the road to how people can live happily ever after by breaking free of 'auto-cracy', without insisting on people in car-dependent countries quit their automotive addiction instantly. Nevertheless, it clearly articulates the connection between automobiles, their arteries (i.e. highways) and effluents (i.e. greenhouse gases and particulate emissions), and the increasing number and severity of natural disasters between the urban renewal and freeway construction that, in the author's view, helped ignite the riots in Watts, Newark and Detroit. The disastrous societal and geophysical effects of the automobile are demonstrated in great abundance, and the mountain of evidence of the systematic abuse of the planet that the book provides is a stunning refutation of the notion that technology is neutral. The automobile is accused of being not only the linchpin of Western and primarily American industrialism and resource extraction, it is also accused of being the chief suspect in a century-long theft of time, conviviality and beauty. How to bring about a change in people's love affair with their cars is difficult to comprehend but this author has a multitude of useful suggestions which seem to suggest that it is possible. There is a list of 104 'selected references' and an extensive list of 'other resources'.

  3. Body ownership and experiential ownership in the self-touching illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Caleb; Chang, Si-Yan; Chen, Wen-Yeo; Huang, Hsu-Chia; Lee, Yen-Tung

    2014-01-01

    We investigate two issues about the subjective experience of one's body: first, is the experience of owning a full-body fundamentally different from the experience of owning a body-part?Second, when I experience a bodily sensation, does it guarantee that I cannot be wrong about whether it is me who feels it? To address these issues, we conducted a series of experiments that combined the rubber hand illusion (RHI) and the "body swap illusion." The subject wore a head mounted display (HMD) connected with a stereo camera set on the experimenter's head. Sitting face to face, they used their right hand holding a paintbrush to brush each other's left hand. Through the HMD, the subject adopted the experimenter's first-person perspective (1PP) as if it was his/her own 1PP: the subject watched either the experimenter's hand from the adopted 1PP, and/or the subject's own hand from the adopted third-person perspective (3PP) in the opposite direction (180°), or the subject's full body from the adopted 3PP (180°, with or without face). The synchronous full-body conditions generate a "self-touching illusion": many participants felt that "I was brushing my own hand!" We found that (1) the sense of body-part ownership and the sense of full-body ownership are not fundamentally different from each other; and (2) our data present a strong case against the mainstream philosophical view called the immunity principle (IEM). We argue that it is possible for misrepresentation to occur in the subject's sense of "experiential ownership" (the sense that I am the one who is having this bodily experience). We discuss these findings and conclude that not only the sense of body ownership but also the sense of experiential ownership call for further interdisciplinary studies.

  4. Body ownership and experiential ownership in the self-touching illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb eLiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate two issues about the subjective experience of one’s body: first, is the experience of owning a full-body fundamentally different from the experience of owning a body-part? Second, when I experience a bodily sensation, does it guarantee that I cannot be wrong about whether it is me who feels it? To address these issues, we conducted a series of experiments that combined the rubber hand illusion (RHI and the body swap illusion. The subject wore a head mounted display (HMD connected with a stereo camera set on the experimenter’s head. Sitting face to face, they used their right hand holding a paintbrush to brush each other’s left hand. Through the HMD, the subject adopted the experimenter’s first-person perspective (1PP as if it was his/her own 1PP: the subject watched either the experimenter’s hand from the adopted 1PP, and/or the subject’s own hand from the adopted third-person perspective (3PP in the opposite direction (180°, or the subject’s full body from the adopted 3PP (180°, with or without face. The synchronous full-body conditions generate a self-touching illusion: many participants felt that I was brushing my own hand! We found that (1 the sense of body-part ownership and the sense of full-body ownership are not fundamentally different from each other; and (2 our data present a strong case against the mainstream philosophical view called the immunity principle (IEM. We argue that it is possible for misrepresentation to occur in the subject’s sense of experiential ownership (the sense that I am the one who is having this bodily experience. We discuss these findings and conclude that not only the sense of body ownership but also the sense of experiential ownership call for further interdisciplinary studies.

  5. The role of cross-listing, foreign ownership and state ownership in dividend policy in an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C.K. Lam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate if dividend policy is influenced by ownership type. Within the dividend literature, dividends have a signaling role regarding agency costs, such that dividends may diminish insider conflicts (reduce free cash flow or may be used to extract cash from firms (tunneling effect – which could be predominant in emerging markets. We expect firms with foreign ownership and those that are listed in overseas markets to have different dividend policies and practices than those that are not, and firms with more state ownership and less individual ownership to be more likely to pay cash dividends and less likely to pay stock dividends. Using firms from an emerging economy (China, we examine whether these effects exist in corporate dividend policy and practice. We find that both foreign ownership and cross-listing have significant negative effects on cash dividends, consistent with the signaling effect and the notion of reduced tunneling activities for firms with the ability to raise capital from outside of China. Consistent with the tunneling effect, we find that firms with higher state ownership tend to pay higher cash dividends and lower stock dividends, while the opposite is true for public (individual ownership. Further analysis shows that foreign ownership mediates the effect of state ownership on dividend policy. Our results have significant implications for researchers, investors, policy makers and regulators in emerging markets.

  6. Foreign Ownership and Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Dorte; Thomsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival probabil......Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival...... probability. On average exit risk for domestic companies is 2.3 times higher than for foreign companies. First movers like Siemens, Philips, Kodak, Ford, GM or Goodyear have been active in the country for almost a century. Relative foreign survival increases with company age. However, the foreign survival...... advantage appears to be eroded by globalization, it decreases over time and disappears at the end of the century....

  7. Promotion Models and Achievements of New-energy Automobiles in Shenzhen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu; Xiong, Siqin; Bai, Bo; Ma, Xiaoming

    2017-08-01

    As one of the pilot cities in China for demonstration and promotion of new-energy automobiles, Shenzhen, driven by the “two engines” of the government and the market, has made swift progress in promotion of its new-energy automobiles. This paper analyses Shenzhen’s governmental promotion policy concerning new-energy automobiles, summarizes Shenzhen’s commercial models for promoting new-energy automobiles, and is expected to provide reference for other provinces and cities to promote new-energy automobiles.

  8. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  9. Banking in transition economies : does foreign ownership enhance profitability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Naaborg, I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between foreign ownership and bank performance. A cross-section of 216 banks in transition economies in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia is used. In the analyses a continuous foreign ownership variable is applied. The results are checked by using a

  10. Banking in Transition Economies: Does Foreign Ownership Enhance Profitability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Naaborg, I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between foreign ownership and bank performance. A cross-section of 216 banks in transition economies in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia is used. In the analyses a continuous foreign ownership variable is applied. The results are checked by using a

  11. On the Sense of Ownership of a Community Integration Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the Sense of Ownership of a Community Integration Project: Phenomenology as Praxis in the Transfer of Project Ownership from Third-Party Facilitators to a Community after Conflict Resolution. ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader.

  12. 75 FR 54801 - Account Ownership and Control Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Report AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Extension of comment period... Report'' must be in the subject field of responses submitted via e-mail, and clearly indicated on written... certain ownership and control information via an account ``Ownership and Control Report'' submitted weekly...

  13. Business Ownership and Economic Growth in 23 OECD Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Carree (Martin); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn the present paper we address the relationship between the extent of business ownership (self-employment) and economic development. We will focus upon three issues. First, how is the equilibrium rate of business ownership related to the stage of economic development? Second, what is

  14. Ownership of heritage resources in South Africa: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndukuyakhe Ndlovu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ownership is highly political. Ownership provides power to the one legally seen as an owner or those tasked with the responsibility to protect and preserve heritage resources. This is no different when it comes to heritage resources, whose ownership is always contentious. The main reason for such contention is because ownership impacts on those who value objects in different ways. For example, the nature of access to heritage resources approved for people who may still attach spiritual values. As a direct result, the relevance of such heritage resources to such people may be brought into question, as the need to have them available to all citizens gain momentum. Heritage resources in South Africa have been subject to legislation since 1911, when the Bushmen Relics Act was passed. Since then, much other legislation and amendments have been passed over the years. They all aim to protect different kinds of heritage resources. Central to protection efforts is a decision to have the ownership of heritage resources put under the national estate. Ownership of heritage under South African heritage legislation will be discussed in this article. Drawing on case studies from southern Africa, the main aim of the article is to identify the challenges and opportunities attached to such a form of ownership. Opinions relating to the best approach to ownership of heritage resources are offered.

  15. Social capital and pet ownership - A tale of four cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa; Martin, Karen; Christian, Hayley; Houghton, Steve; Kawachi, Ichiro; Vallesi, Shannen; McCune, Sandra

    2017-12-01

    •Pet ownership is significantly associated with higher levels of social capital.•Social capital was associated with pet ownership in the U.S. and Australia.•Results are not confined to dog owners nor dog walkers.•Pets are an under-recognized conduit for building social capital.

  16. Practical Interventions to Enhance Resident Ownership of Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeprono, Thomas; Markman, Jesse; Grodesky, Michael; Cowley, Deborah

    2017-06-19

    In the modern training environment, some question whether trainees have the opportunity to develop ownership of patient care, which includes concepts such as advocacy, autonomy, commitment, communication, follow-through, knowledge about the patient, responsibility, and teamwork. Despite descriptions of what ownership is, there is little discussion of how to foster ownership during residency. The objective of this study was to solicit psychiatry resident and faculty perspectives on ways to enhance resident ownership in training. Twenty-nine of 74 (39.2%) residents and 31 of 68 (45.6%) faculty members surveyed provided narrative responses to a voluntary, anonymous, electronic survey asking two structured, open-ended questions about what factors make it more or less likely that a resident will take "ownership" of patient care. The coding process produced four overarching categories of themes (attending, resident, educational program, and environment) that reflect domains for possible interventions to increase ownership, with conceptual guidance from the Theory of Planned Behavior. From these factors, the authors propose a number of practical yet theory-based interventions which include setting expectations, modeling, promoting autonomy, countertransference supervision, changing residency culture, and longer rotations. These interventions address subjective norms, attitudes, perceived ability and control, environment, and actual resident abilities, all of which, according to the Theory of Planned Behavior, would be likely to influence patient care ownership. Future studies could develop curricula and examine the effectiveness of the interventions proposed here in reinforcing or developing ownership in physicians.

  17. Dynamics in car ownership: the role of entry into parenthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oakil, A.T.M.; Manting, D.; Nijland, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of entry into parenthood on changes in car ownership. If entry into parenthood affects changes in car ownership, then delay or offset of entry into parenthood might also be an important explanation of recent car travel trends of young adults. This study analysed

  18. 26 CFR 1.552-3 - Stock ownership requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.552-3 Stock ownership requirement... more than 50 percent in value of the outstanding stock of the foreign corporation be owned, directly or... section 544 (relating to rules for determining stock ownership in the case of personal holding companies...

  19. On the Sense of Ownership of a Community Integration Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-02

    Aug 2, 2006 ... On the Sense of Ownership of a Community Integration Project: Phenomenology as Praxis in the Transfer of Project ... grassroots integration projects at three sites to foster the transfer of ownership of the project to ..... continuous coordination and collaboration between. NGOs and local institutions so that ...

  20. Analysis of ownership structure in Nigeria quoted companies and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... investors are small shareholders and few are in the list of the ten top largest shareholders. Second on the average, ownership structure is highly concentrated in Nigeria. Third, there is mixed and weak correlation between ownership structure and corporate performance in Nigeria. African Journal of Economic Policy Vol.

  1. 26 CFR 1.958-2 - Constructive ownership of stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constructive ownership of stock. 1.958-2... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.958-2 Constructive ownership of stock...), to treat the stock of a domestic corporation as owned by a United States shareholder of a controlled...

  2. 26 CFR 1.554-1 - Stock ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Stock ownership. 1.554-1 Section 1.554-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.554-1 Stock ownership. For regulations under...

  3. Ownership concentration, choice of auditors, and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Kacemi, Youssef

    2011-01-01

    of the agency problems embedded in their ownership structure, appoint one of big-four auditors as their external auditor to signal the market that they are disclosing reliable information. Our results also show a significantly positive relationship between ownership concentration and the choice of auditor. We...

  4. Joint ownership of family land in Uganda: Examining the responses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of respondents, especially women, agreed that joint ownership of family land is useful, arguing that it provides family security and enhances marital stability. Those who opposed joint ownership argued that marriage itself is unstable, and there is no trust between the spouses. In practice however, the family land ...

  5. Physical Assets Ownership of Fisherfolk in Fishing Communities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical Assets Ownership of Fisherfolk in Fishing Communities of Kainji Lake Nigeria: Implications for Climate Change. ... It implies that marital family's ownership of fish smoking processing assets contributed to climate change problems through deforestation thereby causing desertification, soil erosion, destruction of ...

  6. The Causal Pattern of Mobile Phone Ownership and Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined a number of predictors of mobile phone ownership amongst fish and vegetable sellers in Yola Metropolis, Nigeria. Using regression path analysis, it identified the causal pattern of mobile phone ownership for Male and Female in the study area. Although there were few significant differences between ...

  7. Ownership dynamics with large shareholders : An empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donelli, M.; Urzua Infante, F.; Larrain, B.

    2013-01-01

    We study the empirical determinants of corporate ownership dynamics in a market where large shareholders are prevalent. We use a unique, hand-collected 20-year dataset on the ownership structure of Chilean companies. Controllers’ blockholdings are on average high -as in continental Europe, for

  8. Does local ownership bring about effectiveness? The case of a transnational advocacy network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arensman, B.; Wessel, van M.G.J.; Hilhorst, D.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In international development, shared ownership is assumed to be a condition for effectiveness. Academic studies question this relation, claiming shared ownership can instead lead to ineffectiveness. This study analysed the interplay between ownership and effectiveness in a transnational advocacy

  9. Ownership Concentration and Market Value of European Banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busta, Ildura; Sinani, Evis; Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between ownership concentration and market value of European banks, and the role of the institutional environment in shaping this relationship. Using GMM dynamic estimator on a sample of European banks over a 13-year period (1993–2005) we find on average...... concentration is positive in Scandinavia. We propose that, besides the legal protection of small investors, the differences in the impact of ownership concentration across the countries could be due to the identity of the predominant owners, i.e. financial institutions in Germany and trusts and foundations...... a negative effect of ownership concentration on bank value, measured by Tobin's Q. However, this effect varies across different institutional settings; while higher ownership concentration results in a lower bank value particularly in the countries belonging to German legal family, the impact of ownership...

  10. A Privacy Model for RFID Tag Ownership Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchun Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ownership of RFID tag is often transferred from one owner to another in its life cycle. To address the privacy problem caused by tag ownership transfer, we propose a tag privacy model which captures the adversary’s abilities to get secret information inside readers, to corrupt tags, to authenticate tags, and to observe tag ownership transfer processes. This model gives formal definitions for tag forward privacy and backward privacy and can be used to measure the privacy property of tag ownership transfer scheme. We also present a tag ownership transfer scheme, which is privacy-preserving under the proposed model and satisfies the other common security requirements, in addition to achieving better performance.

  11. The consumption values' influence on smartphone's ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovcikova, Katarina; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to analyze impact of factors on adoption of smartphones using the Theory of Consumption Values framework. The Theory of Consumption Values provides a framework to categorize customer's motives for buying; it divides them into five groups: functional values, social values......, epistemic values, hedonic values and conditional values. This theory was used to investigate the adoption of smartphones among target groups of consumers. Factor analysis was used to generate one factor for each value. The factors were used as independent variables in binary logistic regression, alongside...... age and gender to predict dependent variable The results showed that functional and social values significantly influenced ownership of smartphones. Although in many technology studies, men are found to be higher adopters, impact of gender was not significant in the presented research....

  12. Body ownership: When feeling and knowing diverge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Daniele; Sedda, Anna; Brugger, Peter; Bottini, Gabriella

    2015-07-01

    Individuals with the peculiar disturbance of 'overcompleteness' experience an intense desire to amputate one of their healthy limbs, describing a sense of disownership for it (Body Integrity Identity Disorder - BIID). This condition is similar to somatoparaphrenia, the acquired delusion that one's own limb belongs to someone else. In ten individuals with BIID, we measured skin conductance response to noxious stimuli, delivered to the accepted and non-accepted limb, touching the body part or simulating the contact (stimuli approach the body without contacting it), hypothesizing that these individuals have responses like somatoparaphrenic patients, who previously showed reduced pain anticipation, when the threat was directed to the disowned limb. We found reduced anticipatory response to stimuli approaching, but not contacting, the unwanted limb. Conversely, stimuli contacting the non-accepted body-part, induced stronger SCR than those contacting the healthy parts, suggesting that feeling of ownership is critically related to a proper processing of incoming threats. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long......-term in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...... the hypothesis that time horizons are influenced by ownership structures and particularly that industrial foundations promote longtermism. Policymakers which are interested in promoting longtermism should allow and perhaps even encourage the creation of industrial foundations. More generally they should consider...

  14. Cask ownership: Options and strategic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the potential number of casks available through utility modular storage programs, it is imperative that the planning for the provision and operation of casks under the NWPA program include consideration of the utility owned casks. As to the remainder of the cask requirements for implementation of the NWPA, the author believes that the cost factor is an artificial one for determining the benefits to the taxpayers and ratepayers for cask ownership and that the decision should be made on the basis of capability of the industry to perform on a competitive bid basis and assurance that the shipments will be made on a timely, safe and cost effective basis. If the procurement process is structured to rally permit competitive bidding on spent fuel shipping services, the competition in the market place will assure that DOE and the ratepayers, receive safe, high quality, and cost effective transportation proposals from very capable companies

  15. Automobile ride quality experiments correlated to iso-weighted criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, A. J.; Young, R. K.; Smith, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    As part of an overall study to evaluate the usefulness of ride quality criteria for the design of improved ground transportation systems an experiment was conducted involving subjective and objective measurement of ride vibrations found in an automobile riding over roadways of various roughness. Correlation of the results led to some very significant relationships between passenger rating and ride accelerations. The latter were collapsed using a frequency-weighted root mean square measure of the random vibration. The results suggest the form of a design criterion giving the relationship between ride vibration and acceptable automobile ride quality. Further the ride criterion is expressed in terms that relate to rides with which most people are familiar. The design of the experiment, the ride vibration data acquisition, the concept of frequency weighting and the correlations found between subjective and objective measurements are presented.

  16. Intelligent solar-powered automobile-ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K. David; Tzeng, S.-C.; Ma Weiping; Wu Mingfung

    2005-01-01

    This study adopts airflow management technology to improve the local temperature distributions in an automobile to counteract the greenhouse effect. The automobile's temperature can be reduced to almost the outside temperature before the driver or passenger gets into the vehicle. When the engine is idling, the greenhouse-control system can be activated to remove the hot air from the car. An appropriate negative pressure is maintained to prevent stuffiness and save energy. The greenhouse-control system requires electrical power when the engine is idle, and a battery cannot supply sufficient power. An auxiliary solar-power supply can save energy and reduce the greenhouse effect of sunlight, while creating a comfortable traveling environment. It ensures that the engine is not overburdened and increases its service life, conserving energy, protecting the environment and improving comfort

  17. Additives: The key for automobiles to meet new emission standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Many cities have been perplexed with automobile emissions causing them to become non-attainment areas. These cities usually resort to such tactics as trying to get people to car pool. In principle the concept is excellent, however, the American public is not ready to give up the independence of using their own automobile. Reformulated gasolines are presently being produced and plans for additional plants are being made to meet EPA gasoline requirements. How much reformulated gasoline is available? Where is the present production going? Who else has needs? Does Gasohol have any possibilities still? What contribution can other additives make and are there any bright spots on the horizon and if so what are they? All this will be revealed in this talk and paper at ETE. There will also be a panel discussion for others to present their ideas and contribute to the program

  18. Recent progress of optical thin films in the automobile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taga, Y

    1993-10-01

    There are increasing demands for the application of optical thin films to transparent substrates such as glass and plastics for windows in automobiles with the view of adding fascinating optical properties to them. These properties include surface hardening of plastics, infrared reflection, ultraviolet absorption, polarization and birefringence, and hydrophobicity. Recent examples of applications of sophisticated thin-film processes of plasma treatment and physical vapor deposition are reviewed. The novelty of the functions provided by physical vapor deposition films together with their durability for practical usage are emphasized as areas in which the thin-film process has a significant impact. Characterization of the modified surface and interface is also included to demonstrate recent advances in surface chemistry. Finally, future challenges for optical modification of transparent substrates in the automobile industry are also discussed.

  19. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  20. Design of MEMS accelerometer based acceleration measurement system for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K. Arun; Mathivanan, N.

    2012-10-01

    Design of an acceleration measurement system using a MEMS accelerometer to measure acceleration of automobiles in all the three axes is presented. Electronic stability control and anti-lock breaking systems in automobiles use the acceleration measurements to offer safety in driving. The system uses an ARM microcontroller to quantize the outputs of accelerometer and save the measurement data on a microSD card. A LabVIEW program has been developed to analyze the longitudinal acceleration measurement data and test the measurement system. Random noises generated and added with measurement data during measurement are filtered by a Kalman filter implemented in LabVIEW. Longitudinal velocity of the vehicle is computed from the measurement data and displayed on a graphical chart. Typical measurement of velocity of a vehicle at different accelerations and decelerations is presented.

  1. Aptitude visuelle à la conduite automobile: exemple des candidats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'objectif était d'évaluer l'aptitude visuelle à la conduite automobile des candidats au permis de conduire à Libreville. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique, qui s'est déroulée à Libreville pendant la période du 4 avril 2012 au 14 juillet 2012 (soit 4 mois et 10 jours). La population d'étude concernait ...

  2. Public health, autonomous automobiles, and the rush to market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ben

    2017-05-01

    The USA has the worst motor vehicle safety problem among high-income countries and is pressing forward with the development of autonomous automobiles to address it. Government guidance and regulation, still inadequate, will be critical to the safety of the public. The analysis of this public health problem in the USA reveals the key factors that will determine the benefits and risks of autonomous vehicles around the world.

  3. VISUALIZATION OF MEMS STRUCTURES FOR EDUCATION OF AUTOMOBILE MICROSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomír KARDOŠ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The work is aimed at visualization of working principles of microelectromechanical sensors which are used in automobile electronic systems. Attention is paid to accelerometric, inclinometric, pressure and MAF devices. These are used in systems for stability control, passive and active safety as well as comfort management. The visualizations were realized using modern animation techniques initiated by the creation of virtual materials, 2D and 3D objects, through scene exposure, pending their animation and final cutting.

  4. Loyalty marketing in automobile dealerships : case: car dealer X

    OpenAIRE

    Hyyryläinen, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study how customer loyalty is taken into account in automobile dealerships, what loyalty marketing means are used to improve customer loyalty, and what potential new loyalty marketing means can be implemented. The thesis is commissioned by Car dealer X. In the theoretical part, areas covered are customership and loyalty marketing. Customership includes customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, customer value and customer retention. Loyalty marketing contain...

  5. Dynamic interaction between markets for leasing and selling automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Andrikopoulos, Athanasios; Markellos, Raphael N.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a model of dynamic interactions between price variations in leasing and selling markets for automobiles. Our framework assumes a differential game between multiple Bertrand-type competing firms which offer differentiated products to forward-looking agents. Empirical analysis of our model using monthly US data from 2002 to 2011 shows that variations in selling (cash) market prices lead rapidly dissipating changes of leasing market prices in the opposite direction. We discuss the pra...

  6. A Flowchart Approach to Malaysia's Automobile Industry Cluster Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchiki, Akifumi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a flowchart approach to investigate Malaysia's automobile cluster policy. We investigate whether the industrial cluster policy has been successful or not, suggest policy prescriptions, and propose a way to prioritize policy measures. Our flowchart approach leads to the following three policy prescriptions: (1) Malaysian firms should establish sites for exporting compact cars with automatic transmissions; (2) actors in the public, semi-public and private sector should w...

  7. The Production and Inventory Behavior of the American Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier J. Blanchard

    1982-01-01

    Understanding inventory movements is central to an understanding of business cycles. This paper presents an empirical study of the behavior of inventories in the automobile industry. It finds that inventory behavior is well explained by the assumption of intertemporal optimization with rational expectations. The underlying cost structure appears to have substantial costs of changing production as well as substantial costs of being away from target inventory, the latter being a function of cur...

  8. Do sales tax credits stimulate the automobile market?

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiawei; Esteban, Susanna; Shum, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we quantitatively investigate the effectiveness of a sales tax reduction in stimulating sales and profits of durable goods manufacturers. Our question is motivated by policy makers' recent interest in helping ailing automobile manufacturers and in replacing a fleet of highly polluting vehicles. President Obama's economic stimulus plan, for instance, has directly targeted the primary market by including a sales tax credit on purchases of new cars and trucks. In this paper, we sh...

  9. A historical perspective on the economics of the ownership of mineral rights ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cawood, F.T.; Minnitt, R.C.A. [Technikon SA, Florida (South Africa). Dept. of Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Inauguration of the new political dispensation in South Africa, initiated a dynamic period in the historical development of its minerals policy. The process of substituting the current South African mineral policy framework with an acceptable `post apartheid` system, started soon after the 1994 election of the African National Congress (ANC) government. The Green Paper on a Minerals and Mining Policy for South Africa released for public discussion in February 1998, calls for radical transformation in mineral rights ownership. A shift towards exclusive state ownership of mineral rights, away from the present dual system of private and state ownership, is the most significant proposal. The current holders of mineral rights, or their nominees, who lawfully enjoyed security of tenure under past and present mineral laws are opposed to this transformation because mineral rights were often acquired at considerable cost. The situation is compounded by poor public record-keeping and passive mineral rights administration over a very long period. This paper represents a summary of the historical developments leading to the current legislative environment and forms the basis for any discussion on which future sculpturing of South Africa`s policy regarding mineral rights can take place. One cannot plan for the future without considering the past. 21 refs.

  10. Stroke while driving: Frequency and association with automobile accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamasu, Joji; Nakatsukasa, Masashi; Tomiyasu, Kazuhiro; Mayanagi, Keita; Nishimoto, Masaaki; Oshima, Takeo; Yoshii, Masami; Miyatake, Satoru; Imai, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular events while driving have occasionally been reported. In contrast, there have been few studies on stroke while driving. Aim The objectives of this study were to (1) report the frequency of stroke while driving and (2) evaluate its association with automobile accidents. Methods Clinical data prospectively acquired between January 2011 and December 2016 on 2145 stroke patients (1301 with ischemic stroke, 585 with intracerebral hemorrhage, and 259 with subarachnoid hemorrhage) were reviewed to identify patients who sustained a stroke while driving. The ratio of driving to performing other activities was evaluated for each stroke type. Furthermore, the drivers' response to stroke was reviewed to understand how automobile accidents occurred. Results Among the 2145 patients, 85 (63 ischemic stroke, 20 intracerebral hemorrhage, and 2 subarachnoid hemorrhage) sustained a stroke while driving. The ratio of driving to performing other activities was significantly higher in ischemic stroke (4.8%) than in intracerebral hemorrhage (3.4%) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (0.8%). A majority of drivers either continued driving or pulled over to the roadside after suffering a stroke. However, 14 (16%) patients were involved in automobile accidents. In most patients, an altered mental status due to severe stroke was the presumed cause of the accident. Conclusion Stroke occurred while driving in 4.0% of all strokes and accidents occurred in 16% of these instances.

  11. Hybrid modeling and empirical analysis of automobile supply chain network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-yan; Tang, Jian-ming; Fu, Wei-ping; Wu, Bing-ying

    2017-05-01

    Based on the connection mechanism of nodes which automatically select upstream and downstream agents, a simulation model for dynamic evolutionary process of consumer-driven automobile supply chain is established by integrating ABM and discrete modeling in the GIS-based map. Firstly, the rationality is proved by analyzing the consistency of sales and changes in various agent parameters between the simulation model and a real automobile supply chain. Second, through complex network theory, hierarchical structures of the model and relationships of networks at different levels are analyzed to calculate various characteristic parameters such as mean distance, mean clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. By doing so, it verifies that the model is a typical scale-free network and small-world network. Finally, the motion law of this model is analyzed from the perspective of complex self-adaptive systems. The chaotic state of the simulation system is verified, which suggests that this system has typical nonlinear characteristics. This model not only macroscopically illustrates the dynamic evolution of complex networks of automobile supply chain but also microcosmically reflects the business process of each agent. Moreover, the model construction and simulation of the system by means of combining CAS theory and complex networks supplies a novel method for supply chain analysis, as well as theory bases and experience for supply chain analysis of auto companies.

  12. Measuring Quality in Automobile Aftersales: AutoSERVQUAL Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Galip Gencer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming more important to accurately measure the level of quality in services and especially automobile related services such as after sales service. This study aims to generate a survey to measure the service quality in automobile aftersales services, eventually to be called AutoSERVQUAL. The roadmap for this survey generation process starts by examining the service quality measurement scales in literature first and then continues by the adaptation process of SERVQUAL over automobile aftersales customers. Each and every step in survey generation processes is explained starting from expert interviews and finally statistical analyses. Starting with 45 candidate questions, the study offers a 28 item scale that can measure service quality in after sales car services with high reliability. The scale can be extended to cover aftersales services in general for any type of product and also could be used as input to other models such as QFD and MADM. The scale should also be empirically tested in other countries with specific requirements for after sales services.

  13. Bifurcation analysis of an automobile model negotiating a curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rossa, Fabio; Mastinu, Giampiero; Piccardi, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    The paper deals with the bifurcation analysis of a rather simple model describing an automobile negotiating a curve. The mechanical model has two degrees of freedom and the related equations of motion contain the nonlinear tyre characteristics. Bifurcation analysis is adopted as the proper procedure for analysing steady-state cornering. Two independent parameters referring to running conditions, namely steering angle and speed, are varied. Ten different combinations of front and rear tyre characteristics (featuring understeer or oversteer automobiles) are considered for the bifurcation analysis. Many different dynamical behaviours of the model are obtained by slightly varying the parameters describing the tyre characteristics. Both simple and extremely complex bifurcations may occur. Homoclinic bifurcations, stable and unstable limit cycles (of considerable amplitude) are found, giving a sound and ultimate interpretation to some actual (rare but very dangerous) dynamic behaviours of automobiles, as reported by professional drivers. The presented results are cross-validated by exploiting handling diagram theory. The knowledge of the derived set of bifurcations is dramatically important to fully understand the actual vehicle yaw motions occurring while running on an even surface. Such a knowledge is a pre-requisite for robustly designing the chassis and for enhancing the active safety of vehicles.

  14. Proof of cipher text ownership based on convergence encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weiwei; Liu, Zhusong

    2017-08-01

    Cloud storage systems save disk space and bandwidth through deduplication technology, but with the use of this technology has been targeted security attacks: the attacker can get the original file just use hash value to deceive the server to obtain the file ownership. In order to solve the above security problems and the different security requirements of cloud storage system files, an efficient information theory security proof of ownership scheme is proposed. This scheme protects the data through the convergence encryption method, and uses the improved block-level proof of ownership scheme, and can carry out block-level client deduplication to achieve efficient and secure cloud storage deduplication scheme.

  15. A Literature Review of Foreign Ownership and Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Oana MIHAI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review the results of research papers conducted in the area of foreign ownership impact on company’s performance and to highlight the specifics of this linkage in the environment of transition economies. Several authors have documented greater efficiency of private companies compared to state-owned. According to different studies, an alternative option for transition economies is foreign ownership. Recent studies show that the effect of ownership forms on companies and financial performance is more significant in Eastern European countries compared to developed countries. However, study results are often contradictory, therefore they require additional research.

  16. OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE AND COMPANY PERFORMANCE – RESEARCH AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Varcholova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to summarize the results of published researches conducted in the area of influence of ownership forms on companies and financial performance and to highlight the specifics of these relations in the environment of transition economies. Several authors have documented greater efficiency of private companies compared to state-owned. According to different studies, an alternative option for transition economies is foreign ownership. Recent studies show that the effect of ownership forms on companies and financial performance is more significant in Eastern European countries compared to developed countries. However, study results are often contradictory, therefore they require additional research.

  17. The influence of globalisation on automobile manufacturers in South Africa / Kalanther Ishaq

    OpenAIRE

    Ishaq, Kanther

    2003-01-01

    The South African automobile manufacturing industry has grown since 1920 from an import and assembly industry to an import-substitute industry. From the inception, the automobile manufacturing industry developed under the careful monitoring of the Government to obtain the objectives of the economy of the country. Until 1960, all automobile manufacturers imported completely knocked down sets from abroad to assemble vehicles. These excessive imports drained the South African fore...

  18. Evolution of the Automobile Industry in Asian Countries : Principally Focusing on Southeast Asia and India

    OpenAIRE

    Tomozawa, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1990s, new production trends have been evident in the Asian automobile industry. Japan constituted 85.5% of the total amount of the motor vehicles production in Asia in 1990, but that figure fell to 57.6% by 2000. In contrast, China and India have increased their vehicle production thanks to huge foreign direct investment into their automobile sector. Southeast Asian countries, especially Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, have also experienced a rapid growth of the automobile indust...

  19. Impact of Overhead Costs Apportionment on Selling Price Determination in Malaysian Automobile Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dandago, Kabiru Isa; Zaidi, Zulaikha Rabitah; Amir, Aliana Shazma Amir Binti

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of overhead cost apportionment on selling price determination in the Malaysian automobile manufacturing industry. Specifically, the study looks at the treatment of overhead costs apportionment from the perspective of the profit making effort of automobile manufacturing firms. The methodology used is interview with staff of one automobile manufacturing company in Malaysia taken as a case study: that is Naza Automotive Manufacturing Sdn. Bhd. The findings o...

  20. 41 CFR 301-10.310 - What will I be reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead... automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead? (a) Reimbursement based on Government costs—Unless you are committed to using a Government automobile as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, your...

  1. Nursing home ownership trends and their impacts on quality of care: a study using detailed ownership data from Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, David G; Bramson, Jeffrey S; Grabowski, David C

    2013-01-01

    The role of ownership in the provision of nursing home care has long been a challenging issue for policy makers and researchers. Although much of the focus historically has been on differences between for-profit and not-for-profit facilities, this simple distinction has become less useful in recent years as companies have employed more complicated ownership and management structures. Using detailed ownership data from the state of Texas, we describe the evolution of nursing home corporate structures from 2000 to 2007, analyze the effect of these structures on quality of care and staffing in nursing homes, and discuss the policy implications of these changes.

  2. Production of spheroidal graphite cast iron (S. G. Iron) for an automobile brake drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M.T.Z.; Aziz, S.

    2005-01-01

    The role of automobile industry for any country has a great importance. Break drum is one of the essential parts of automobile car and its local casting is required in order to achieve the target for automobile industry because it has special significance. Break drum being the important constituent of the system of an automobile requires a great degree of accuracy and reliability. S. G. Iron is preferred because of its mechanical properties i.e., higher strength modulus, impact resistance and ductility along with excellent machinability and manufacturing ease. (author)

  3. Ownership conversion and closure in the nursing home industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowblis, John R

    2011-06-01

    Ownership conversions and closures in the nursing home literature have largely been treated as separate issues. This paper studies the predictors of nursing home ownership conversions and closure in a common framework after the implementation of the Prospective Payment System in Medicare skilled nursing facilities. The switch in reimbursement regimes impacted facilities with greater exposure to Medicare and lower efficiency. Facilities that faced greater financial difficulty were more likely to be involved in an ownership conversion or closure, but after controlling for other factors the effect of exposure to Medicare is small. Further, factors that predict conversion were found to vary between not-for-profit and for-profit facilities, while factors that predict closure were the same for each ownership type. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Origin and concentration: corporate ownership, control and performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Kočenda, Evžen; Švejnar, Jan

    -, č. 259 (2005), s. 1-48 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : ownership * performance * privatization Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp259.pdf

  5. Ownership and firm performance after large-scale privatization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Švejnar, Jan

    -, č. 4143 (2003), s. 1-36 ISSN 0265-8003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : industrial organization * ownership * performance and privatization Subject RIV: AH - Economics www.cepr.org/pubs/dps/DP4143.asp

  6. 42 CFR 423.892 - Change of ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... partners expressly agree otherwise as permitted by applicable State law. (2) Asset sale. Transfer of all or... corporations, resulting in a new corporate body. (b) Change of ownership, exception. Transfer of corporate...

  7. Perception of Body Ownership Is Driven by Bayesian Sensory Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Majed; Chung, Albert Jin; Shams, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that human perception of body ownership is highly malleable. A well-known example is the rubber hand illusion (RHI) wherein ownership over a dummy hand is experienced, and is generally believed to require synchronized stroking of real and dummy hands. Our goal was to elucidate the computational principles governing this phenomenon. We adopted the Bayesian causal inference model of multisensory perception and applied it to visual, proprioceptive, and tactile stimuli. The model reproduced the RHI, predicted that it can occur without tactile stimulation, and that synchronous stroking would enhance it. Various measures of ownership across two experiments confirmed the predictions: a large percentage of individuals experienced the illusion in the absence of any tactile stimulation, and synchronous stroking strengthened the illusion. Altogether, these findings suggest that perception of body ownership is governed by Bayesian causal inference—i.e., the same rule that appears to govern the perception of outside world. PMID:25658822

  8. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership.

  9. Mapping strategy, structure, ownership and performance in European corporations : Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colli, A.; Iversen, M.J.; de Jong, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the introduction to the Business History special issue on European Business Models. The volume presents results of the international project about mapping European corporations, within the strategy, structure, ownership and performance (SSOP) framework. The paper describes the

  10. Total Ownership Cost Reduction Case Study: AEGIS Radar Phase Shifters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bridger, Wray W; Ruiz, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this research is to provide a case study that captures the production and design processes and program management solutions used to reduce total ownership costs of AEGIS Radar Phase Shifters...

  11. Who Owns America: Strategic Ownership Positions in Industrial Corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Thomas R.

    1983-01-01

    In 1981, families and individuals held the largest dollar share of strategic ownership positions in the Fortune 500, surpassing banks, financial firms, employee stock plans, insurance companies, pension funds, and foreign owners. (RM)

  12. How Afghanistan Can Assume Ownership for the Ongoing Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horn, Sr, John M

    2008-01-01

    In view of United States global commitments and larger Global War on Terror (GWOT) strategy, the ultimate security goal in Afghanistan must be for the Afghans to assume ownership of the counterinsurgency struggle...

  13. Young Children's Understanding of the Limits and Benefits of Group Ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Michelle; Friedman, Ori

    2017-01-01

    Group ownership is ubiquitous-property is owned by countries, corporations, families, and clubs. However, people cannot understand group ownership by simply relying on their conceptions of ownership by individuals, as group ownership is subject to complexities that do not arise when property is individually owned. We report 6 experiments…

  14. General practice trainees face practice ownership with fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgiss, Elizabeth; Haesler, Emily; Anderson, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present secondary analysis of data collected in a grounded theory study was to explore the perceptions of Registrars and new Fellows to practice ownership and management. Methods Focus groups and interviews with Registrars and recent Fellows were undertaken to explore the desire to become an owner, facilitators and barriers to practice ownership and delivery models for practice ownership education. A secondary thematic analysis was conducted to understand emerging concepts related to perceptions of general practice ownership. Results A surprisingly strong theme of fear was evident across focus group and interview participants. Expressed fear was specifically related to financial concerns, lack of relevant knowledge and skills and concern over balancing different roles. Moderating factors included previous life and educational experiences, as well as role modelling. Conclusions Graduation of a cohort of new general practitioners (GPs) who express fear towards practice ownership is concerning. Creating more positive learning environments and opportunity for open discussion regarding practice management and ownership is an important step in providing adequate support for new GPs to give serious consideration to career options. What is known about the topic? The traditional model of general practice ownership has been for a doctor to own and/or manage the practice. Fewer new GPs are taking on the role of owning a general practice, and disinterest has been presumed to play a significant role in this trend. It has been reported that current curricula provide insufficient focus on providing learning opportunities for general practice trainees on ownership and management models; however, recent research has shown that general practice trainees have a strong interest in receiving this knowledge during their training. What does this paper add? The present qualitative research evaluated the emotional response that general practice trainees

  15. Firewall Mechanism in a User Centric Smart Card Ownership Model

    OpenAIRE

    Akram , Raja Naeem; Markantonakis , Konstantinos; Mayes , Keith

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Multi-application smart card technology facilitates applications to securely share their data and functionality. The security enforcement and assurance in application sharing is provided by the smart card firewall. The firewall mechanism is well defined and studied in the Issuer Centric Smart Card Ownership Model (ICOM), in which a smart card is under total control of its issuer. However, it is not analysed in the User Centric Smart Card Ownership Model (UCOM) that del...

  16. Regulation, Ownership, and Costs: A Historical Perspective from Indian Railways

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Bogart; Latika Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between operational costs and state ownership in Indian railways between 1874 and 1912. We find the move to state ownership significantly decreased working expenses. The cost declines are not driven by anticipation effects, changes in reporting standards, or long run trends. Rather, the evidence suggests the colonial Government of India reduced operational costs by cutting labor costs. Our surprising results can be explained by the undemocratic colonial nat...

  17. Ownership biases and FDI in China: two provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yasheng

    2005-01-01

    Jiangsu and Zhejiang are of two of China most prosperous and dynamic provinces. This paper first presents a factual account of two empirical phenomena: 1) FDI has played a more substantial role in the economic development of Jiangsu than in Zhejiang, and 2) ownership biases against domestic private firms in Jiangsu were more substantial than in Zhejiang. The paper hypothesizes that there is a connection between these two empirical phenomena. Specifically, ownership biases against domestic pri...

  18. Individualized solutions to environmental problems: a case of automobile pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urmetzer, P.; Blake, D. E.; Guppy, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Air pollution associated with motor vehicle use is one of the prime indicators of the tension between consumerism and the environment. The use of private automobiles seems so convenient, whereas the alternatives are off-putting enough to make significant changes in personal transportation behaviour well-nigh impossible. At the same time, combating the air pollution associated with extensive use of cars has become one of the major policy objectives for cities around the world. Available policy alternatives can be divided into two categories: (1) incentives, such as improved public transportation, and (2) disincentives, such as environmental tax on gasoline. This paper attempt to directly assess links between these two alternatives, associated attitudes towards them, the level of public support for command and control (i.e. regulatory) policy approaches as well as for economic incentive/disincentive policies. Answers are sought and findings discussed relative to the link between opinions about the environment and support for different types of environmental policies, the usefulness of a rational choice perspective in explaining support for environmental policy alternatives, the role that partisan political attachments play in support of environmental policy approaches, and the roles played by environmental activism, knowledge, and action in shaping support for environmental policy alternatives. Overall results indicate that while most people living in urban environments support the ideas of environmental protection and would be willing to incur costs to confront the problem, exposure to air pollution plays an inconsequential (actually nearly non-existent) role in support of automobile-related environmental problems. Automobile users act like 'free-riders' i.e. they tend to support policies that socialize the cost of solutions rather than policies that attempt to pass the cost of pollution directly on to individual car owners. A sample of the responses to

  19. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver’s license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. Results: of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11 years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%. Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver’s license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver’s license for at least one year. Conclusion: among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  20. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Amanda Lima de; Petroianu, Andy; Gonçalves, Dafne Maria Villar; Pereira, Gisele Araújo; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo

    2015-01-01

    traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession) and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver's license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11) years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%). Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver's license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver's license for at least one year. among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  1. Ownership and environmental regulation: Evidence from the European electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clò, Stefano; Ferraris, Matteo; Florio, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigates how ownership affects the environmental performance in developed countries where environmental regulation is introduced in the form of market-based instrument. By looking at a cross-country panel dataset of 29 power markets around Europe over the period 1990–2012, we find empirical evidence that an increase of public ownership, as measured by the OECD ETCR index, is associated with a reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and carbon intensity. We also find that the implementation of the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to lax allocation of allowances. The positive effect of public ownership on environmental performance has been significant even after the introduction of the ETS, giving additional incentives to mitigate emissions when the ETS cap was not stringent enough. This evidence suggests that government control over power companies in Europe can has created idiosyncratic incentives to improve environmental quality, complementing environmental regulation in the achievement of environmental goals when the latter was absent or sub-optimal. - Highlights: • We analyse the power industry's environmental performance in 29 European countries. • Public ownership is associated with lower emissions than private ownership. • Mixed oligopoly is superior to private oligopoly in environmental terms. • The ETS had a limited impact on emissions' reduction due to over-allocation. • Public ownership mitigates the effects of sub-optimal environmental regulation.

  2. OWNERSHIP AND CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF PAKISTANI NON-FINANCIAL FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Shoaib

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Existi ng literature has not yet defi ned a clear-cut relati onship between ownership structure and capital structure. This study aims to contribute to this controversial argument by examining the impact of internal (managerial ownership and external ownership on fi nancing preferences using the case of non-fi nancial fi rms listed on Karachi stock exchange during the period of 2008-2012. Our results suggest that the external ownership has a signifi cant eff ect on capital structure in accordance with the presence of blockholders. In contrast, the internal ownership has a complicated eff ect; it shows signifi cant positi ve and negati ve relati onship to leverage at lower and certain higher proporti on of managerial shareholding respecti vely. Besides, the combined analyses suggest that the presence of blockholders negates the impact of managerial ownership on capital structure. This implies that the presence of large and dominant shareholders in Pakistani fi rms may have caused a bias for debt fi nancing to protect their voti ng power and returns.

  3. Impact of the Ownership Structure on Corporate Management in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieieva Nataliia E.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses impact of the ownership structure on corporate management in the engineering industry of Ukraine. In order to detect impact of the structure of corporate ownership on corporate management the article uses general scientific and special methods of study: method of critical analysis and generalisation of theoretical studies, comparison method and statistical method. Analysis of engineering enterprises confirmed availability of impact of the structure of corporate ownership on corporate management. The article also shows that the engineering industry of Ukraine is characterised with the concentrated ownership structure, which has the following features: restriction of rights of minority shareholders with respect to management and control in a joint stock company; availability of corporate conflicts between majority and minority shareholders; availability of intense control of owners over management, which influences efficiency of making managerial decisions; hired managers and enterprise employees have no possibility to acquire stock of a joint stock company including in the form of bonuses and incentives; the controlling owner is interested in efficient activity of the enterprise and tries to create necessary conditions for this. The conducted studies give a possibility to establish that a share of stock that belongs to a hired executive body is smaller in those joint stock companies in which concentration of ownership is higher. The article also shows that the higher ownership concentration the higher is the probability that the owner would be a part of controlling bodies.

  4. Pet Ownership and Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David O; Lander, Eric M; Wertheim, Betsy C; Manson, JoAnn E; Volpe, Stella L; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Stefanick, Marcia L; Lessin, Lawrence S; Kuller, Lewis H; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2016-09-01

    Pet ownership and cancer are both highly prevalent in the United States. Evidence suggests that associations may exist between this potentially modifiable factor and cancer prevention, though studies are sparse. The present report examined whether pet ownership (dog, cat, or bird) is associated with lower risk for total cancer and site-specific obesity-related cancers. This was a prospective analysis of 123,560 participants (20,981 dog owners; 19,288 cat owners; 1,338 bird owners; and 81,953 non-pet owners) enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative observational study and clinical trials. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HR and 95% confidence intervals for the association between pet ownership and cancer, adjusted for potential confounders. There were no significant relationships between ownership of a dog, cat, or bird and incidence of cancer overall. When site-specific cancers were examined, no associations were observed after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Pet ownership had no association with overall cancer incidence. This is the first large epidemiologic study to date to explore relationships between pet ownership and cancer risk, as well as associated risks for individual cancer types. This study requires replication in other sizable, diverse cohorts. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(9); 1311-6. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Body ownership and embodiment: vestibular and multisensory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, C; Halje, P; Blanke, O

    2008-06-01

    Body ownership and embodiment are two fundamental mechanisms of self-consciousness. The present article reviews neurological data about paroxysmal illusions during which body ownership and embodiment are affected differentially: autoscopic phenomena (out-of-body experience, heautoscopy, autoscopic hallucination, feeling-of-a-presence) and the room tilt illusion. We suggest that autoscopic phenomena and room tilt illusion are related to different types of failures to integrate body-related information (vestibular, proprioceptive and tactile cues) in addition to a mismatch between vestibular and visual references. In these patients, altered body ownership and embodiment has been shown to occur due to pathological activity at the temporoparietal junction and other vestibular-related areas arguing for a key importance of vestibular processing. We also review the possibilities of manipulating body ownership and embodiment in healthy subjects through exposition to weightlessness as well as caloric and galvanic stimulation of the peripheral vestibular apparatus. In healthy subjects, disturbed self-processing might be related to interference of vestibular stimulation with vestibular cortex leading to disintegration of bodily information and altered body ownership and embodiment. We finally propose a differential contribution of the vestibular cortical areas to the different forms of altered body ownership and embodiment.

  6. Measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L.B.; Cobas Flores, E.; McMichael, F.C.; Hendrickson, C.T.; Horvath, A.; Joshi, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    In the paper the following topics are discussed: - the need for public education and involvement in the decision process, - the difficulty of defining sustainability, - the occasional difference between the goals of sustainability and environmental quality, - the need for life cycle analysis to analyze the sustainability and environmental quality implications of a product, process, or material. The importance of environmental input-output analysis is stressed. This new tool can provide the life cycle information cheaply, quickly, and with much less uncertainty. Examples are presented for making an automobile, a seat out of plastic or aluminium, and an electric vehicle. (author) 4 tabs., refs.

  7. High-temperature ceramics for automobile gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, P.

    1978-01-01

    The employment of the high operational temperatures makes it necessary to use, for the construction of the turbines, ceramic materials such as silicon nitride or silicon carbide. Investigations concerning the development of turbine components made of such materials are conducted by a German automobile manufacturer and the ceramics industry. The current status of these investigations is reviewed. Flame tubes and guide-vane rings have successfully passed tests lasting 20 hours. Prototype turbine wheels have withstood the effects of peripheral speeds of 450 m/s. They also showed resistance to thermal shocks which were as high as 6-0 K/s.

  8. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Jackson, CL; Scott, K

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of ca. 50 kW supplemented with short bursts up to 80 kW will suffice in most driving requirements. The energy demand depends greatly on driving characteristics but under normal usage is expected to be 200 Wh/km. T...

  9. Ensuring the quality of logistic service of automobile dealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Salimova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to substantiate the functional directions of activities of the enterprises of dealer chain of an automotive company aimed at ensuring the quality of logistics servicing of automobiles. Methods the study is based on the use of general scientific methods comparison scientific generalization logical analysis analogy and specific scientific methods systemic functional simulation. Results the article states that one of the key criteria of consumer behavior of car buyers is the availability of presales and aftersales service. The current research works in the sphere of logistics services are analyzed which refer to the approaches to its definition as well as selecting the criteria for its functional quality. It is established that the increase of interest in the activities of logistics centers of car service is due to several reasons such as the growing complexity of their construction and the increased competition in this area. The critical review of the scientific literature was conducted as well as the analysis of the scientific problem of determining the functional areas of logistics service of an automobile company with a view to ensuring quality and enhancing the satisfaction of end users of automobiles. The key areas of corporate logistics services were systematized and classified detailing for each of these areas was made. Different approaches were described to defining the range of services at different stages of the life cycle of technical means. Basing on the studied viewpoints four components of the functional activities of service centers were formulated presales service car sales aftersales maintenance and disposal of vehicles. Basing on these components a model of brand service of a car company was formed taking into account the functional characteristics of each component. Scientific novelty a functional model was developed of the system of service vehicles in a brand servicesales chain automotive company allowing to provide

  10. A Review of Voiture Minimum. Le Corbusier and the Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schnoor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Here is a full-on celebration of cars and someone’s addiction to cars. In its midst drives Le Corbusier. The book, Voiture Minimum. Le Corbusier and the Automobile (Cambridge, Mass. and London: MIT Press, 2011, has recently been published by Spanish architect and academic Antonio Amado. What a curious book. It is something between a detective story circling around determining the date of a single drawing (1928 or 1936 and, simultaneously, it is “Everything you always wanted to know about Le Corbusier and cars but were afraid to ask”.

  11. [Epidemiological features of automobile traumatism in Russia and abroad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakunin, S A

    2007-01-01

    The article presents updated epidemiological information on specific features and causes of high automobile traumatism in Russia and abroad for the last 5 years. The number of road accidents and road accident fatalities now not only present a great social-medical problem in Russia but also a problem of national security as road accident mortality is far ahead of the developed countries and showed no trend to lowering. This threatening situation is caused by out-of-date transport infrastructure, social factors, old cars without modern safety systems, absence of special emergency medical care for road accident victims. The experience of foreign countries on reducing road traumatism is analysed.

  12. Etude du confort vibro-acoustique automobile en simulateur

    OpenAIRE

    Amari , Maël

    2009-01-01

    to be available soon....; L'intégration des facteurs humains dans la conception automobile est aujourd'hui un enjeu majeur de l'innovation. De par l'utilisation de plus en plus urbaine des véhicules, le confort de roulage à basse vitesse est au cœur des préoccupations industrielles. Dans cette situation, le confort dépend essentiellement de l'environnement vibro-acoustique de l'habitacle. Les évaluations de confort d'une telle situation constituent le cadre de ce travail de recherche. En comp...

  13. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Todoroki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  14. Premium Forecasting of an Insurance Company: Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Fouladvand, M. Ebrahim; Darooneh, Amir H.

    2002-01-01

    We present an analytical study of an insurance company. We model the company's performance on a statistical basis and evaluate the predicted annual income of the company in terms of insurance parameters namely the premium, total number of the insured, average loss claims etc. We restrict ourselves to a single insurance class the so-called automobile insurance. We show the existence a crossover premium p_c below which the company is loss-making. Above p_c, we also give detailed statistical ana...

  15. Photorealistic ray tracing to visualize automobile side mirror reflective scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hocheol; Kim, Kyuman; Lee, Gang; Lee, Sungkoo; Kim, Jingu

    2014-10-20

    We describe an interactive visualization procedure for determining the optimal surface of a special automobile side mirror, thereby removing the blind spot, without the need for feedback from the error-prone manufacturing process. If the horizontally progressive curvature distributions are set to the semi-mathematical expression for a free-form surface, the surface point set can then be derived through numerical integration. This is then converted to a NURBS surface while retaining the surface curvature. Then, reflective scenes from the driving environment can be virtually realized using photorealistic ray tracing, in order to evaluate how these reflected images would appear to drivers.

  16. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  17. Heat rejection efficiency research of new energy automobile radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W. S.; Shen, W. X.; Zhang, L. W.

    2018-03-01

    The driving system of new energy vehicle has larger heat load than conventional engine. How to ensure the heat dissipation performance of the cooling system is the focus of the design of new energy vehicle thermal management system. In this paper, the heat dissipation efficiency of the radiator of the hybrid electric vehicle is taken as the research object, the heat dissipation efficiency of the radiator of the new energy vehicle is studied through the multi-working-condition enthalpy difference test. In this paper, the test method in the current standard QC/T 468-2010 “automobile radiator” is taken, but not limited to the test conditions specified in the standard, 5 types of automobile radiator are chosen, each of them is tested 20 times in simulated condition of different wind speed and engine inlet temperature. Finally, regression analysis is carried out for the test results, and regression equation describing the relationship of radiator heat dissipation heat dissipation efficiency air side flow rate cooling medium velocity and inlet air temperature is obtained, and the influence rule is systematically discussed.

  18. Ergonomic and usability analysis on a sample of automobile dashboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Raíssa; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This is a research study based on an analysis which sets out to identify and pinpoint ergonomic and usability problems found in a sample of automobile dashboards. The sample consisted of three dashboards, of three different makes and characterized as being a popular model, an average model and a luxury model. The examination was conducted by observation, with the aid of photography, notes and open interview, questionnaires and performing tasks with users, the bases of which are on the principles laid down by methodologies. From this it was possible to point to the existence of problems such as: complaints about the layout, lighting, colors, available area, difficult access to points of interaction, such as buttons, and the difficult nomenclature of dials. Later, the findings and recommendations presented show the need for a further, deeper study, using more accurate tools, a larger sample of users, and an anthropometric study focused on the dashboard, since reading and understanding it have to be done quickly and accurately, and that more attention be given to the study of automobile dashboards, particularly in the most popular vehicles in order to maintain the standards of usability, and drivers' comfort and safety.

  19. Automobile industry and Japan’s strategy for the global environment

    OpenAIRE

    Şerban Georgescu

    2007-01-01

    Japan’s automobile industry evolution for the last five years was a succes story, based on long-term strategy and strong innovative development. This article makes a review of the automobile industry’s main trends and challenges for the Japanese manufacturers.

  20. 32 CFR 552.73 - Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. 552.73 Section 552.73 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Military Reservations § 552.73 Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. Policies sold on...

  1. 29 CFR 785.40 - When private automobile is used in travel away from home community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When private automobile is used in travel away from home community. 785.40 Section 785.40 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... WORKED Application of Principles Traveltime § 785.40 When private automobile is used in travel away from...

  2. Potential for Automobile Weight Reduction Outlook as of 1975-1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    A study has been carried out to evaluate the potential for weight reduction of automobiles. It is concluded that automobiles of lighter weight than those current (1976 models) in the domestic market may be built in each of three size classes, 4, 5, a...

  3. Automotive History and Development of the Automobile; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive history and development of the automobile course is designed to familiarize the beginning student with basic concepts common to the automobile history and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. A course outline is provided and seven pages of post-tests are included in the…

  4. Delegating to the automobile: experimenting with automotive restraints in the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, Jameson M

    2015-04-01

    This article explores the attempts in the United States in the 1970s to implement a new paradigm for automobile safety-crashworthiness, the idea that automobile passengers should be protected in the event of a crash. A large number of strategies were proposed, including air bags, seatbelt modifications, mandatory belt-use laws, and ignition interlocks. Many of these did not initially come to fruition, but they did give the automobile safety community a chance to experiment with different ways of distributing responsibilities between automobile occupants, automobile manufacturers, and, to a lesser extent, government agencies. These experiments helped pave the way for the successful implementation of a number of new strategies in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s.

  5. Aluminium and the automobile. Aluminium und Automobil. Vortraege eines internationalen Symposiums der Aluminium-Zentrale, Duesseldorf, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The first symposium on 'Aluminium and the Automobile' took place in March 1976. The lectures of the latest symposium report on the time in between; with special regard to the extent and intensity with wich aluminium - whose advantages and desadvantages are known - was a subject of research and development work done by car producers and parts- and accessory producing industry. Producers of engine blocks, wheels brakes, sunroofs, window-glass mechanisms, heat exchangers, air-filters, drive shafts - just to mention a few described their success but also gave and account of so far unsolved problems. Aluminum and car producers from abroad gave valuable contributions as well. Good news is the technical progress which was clearly reflected in all the lectures. The automobile of the future needs to be further developed in order te fulfill the requirements of lower weight and energy saving cost reduction is equally important for the German and European car industry due to the increasingly hard competitive struggle. Contrary to previous predictions a sufficient supply of alluminium with be available in the years to come.

  6. Factors associated with furry pet ownership among patients with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Martin J; Roy, Angkana; McGinn, Thomas G; Wisnivesky, Juan P

    2010-09-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens is an established risk factor for poor asthma control. Current guidelines recommend removing pets from the home of patients with asthma. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of furry pet ownership in asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics and to identify factors associated with furry pet ownership among those with asthma. Secondary analysis assessed characteristics among asthmatics that might be associated with allowing a furry pet into the bedroom. Using data from The National Asthma Survey collected from 2003 to 2004, we carried out univariate and multiple regression analyses, in 2009, to identify independent predictors of furry pet ownership in asthma sufferers after controlling for potential confounders. Overall, asthmatics were more likely to own a furry pet than nonasthmatic individuals in the general population (49.9% versus 44.8%, p pet ownership among asthmatics. Additionally, 68.7% of patients with asthma who own a furry pet allowed them into their bedroom. Higher income and carrying out pet into the bedroom. Furry pet ownership is equally or more common among asthmatics compared to those without asthma. The majority of asthmatics with furry pets allow them into the bedroom. Recognizing and addressing these problems may help decrease asthma morbidity.

  7. Patient Attitudes Toward Orthopedic Surgeon Ownership of Related Ancillary Businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Paul H; Cross, Michael B; Johnson, Staci R; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Nunley, Ryan M; Della Valle, Craig J

    2016-08-01

    Physician ownership of businesses related to orthopedic surgery, such as surgery centers, has been criticized as potentially leading to misuse of health care resources. The purpose of this study was to determine patients' attitudes toward surgeon ownership of orthopedic-related businesses. We surveyed 280 consecutive patients at 2 centers regarding their attitudes toward surgeon ownership of orthopedic-related businesses using an anonymous questionnaire. Three surgeon ownership scenarios were presented: (1) owning a surgery center, (2) physical therapy (PT), and (3) imaging facilities (eg, Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanner). Two hundred fourteen patients (76%) completed the questionnaire. The majority agreed that it is ethical for a surgeon to own a surgery center (73%), PT practice (77%), or imaging facility (77%). Most (>67%) indicated that their surgeon owning such a business would have no effect on the trust they have in their surgeon. Although >70% agreed that a surgeon in all 3 scenarios would make the same treatment decisions, many agreed that such surgeons might perform more surgery (47%), refer more patients to PT (61%), or order more imaging (58%). Patients favored surgeon autonomy, however, believing that surgeons should be allowed to own such businesses (78%). Eighty-five percent agreed that patients should be informed if their surgeon owns an orthopedic-related business. Although patients express concern over and desire disclosure of surgeon ownership of orthopedic-related businesses, the majority believes that it is an ethical practice and feel comfortable receiving care at such a facility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inclusion or Exclusion? Local Ownership and Security Sector Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Donais

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dynamics of security sector reform (SSR, a term used to refer to efforts made to reform the security structures of states emerging from conflict or authoritarianism. While "local ownership" is increasingly viewed as a necessary element of any sustainable SSR strategy, there remains a significant gap between international policy and practice in this area. In practice, the SSR agenda continues to be driven largely by international actors, with minimal input, let alone ownership, on the part of either governments or civil society within reforming states. Indeed, the notion of local ownership has come to serve as much as a disciplining mechanism as a tool to overcome exclusion in the making and execution of security policy, and the effectiveness and sustainability of SSR programming have suffered as a result. In light of this, the paper will explore both the potential for, and the limits of, rehabilitating the notion of local ownership to enable more participatory forms of SSR, and argues that any practical local ownership strategy requires a dual policy of negotiating with state actors and engaging with non-state actors.

  9. A survey of attitudes toward responsible pet ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, L A; Rhoades, J D; Hewett, J E; Irvin, J A

    1979-01-01

    The concerns of medical and community officials about responsible pet ownership have increased. Before a practical solution can be found for irresponsible ownership and community health problems associated with pet populations, the public's attitudes on issues related to responsible pet ownership must be determined. Such issues include attitudes on dog and cat overpopulation, potential public health problems associated with pet populations, and methods of controlling pet populations and stray animals. Responses to a questionnaire were used to evaluate the attitudes of 910 pet owners and nonowners toward factors comprising responsible pet ownership. The median age of the respondents was 33 years; 414 (45 percent) were men, and 496 (55 percent) were women. At the time of the study, 18 percent owned a cat and a dog, 35 percent owned only a dog, 11 percent showed only a cat, and 36 percent were nonowners. Not only the sex of the respondent but also the category of pet ownership affected opinions on overpopulation of dogs and cats, nuisance and pollution problems associated with these animals, and methods of controlling pet populations in the community. For example, owners agreed strongly on family planning for pets, but a majority of male owners stated that they would not have their dogs neutered. PMID:572978

  10. Ownership characteristics and crop selection in California cropland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Macaulay

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Land ownership is one of the primary determinants of how agricultural land is used, and property size has been shown to drive many land use decisions. Land ownership information is also key to understanding food production systems and land fragmentation, and in targeting outreach materials to improve agricultural production and conservation practices. Using a parcel dataset containing all 58 California counties, we describe the characteristics of cropland ownership across California. The largest 5% of properties — with “property” defined as all parcels owned by a given landowner — account for 50.6% of California cropland, while the smallest 84% of properties account for 25% of cropland. Cropland ownership inequality (few large properties, many small properties was greatest in Kings, Kern and Contra Costa counties and lowest in Mendocino, Napa and Santa Clara counties. Of crop types, rice properties had the largest median size, while properties with orchard trees had the smallest median sizes. Cluster analysis of crop mixes revealed that properties with grapes, rice, almonds and alfalfa/hay tended to be planted to individual crops, while crops such as grains, tomatoes and vegetables were more likely to be mixed within a single property. Analyses of cropland ownership patterns can help researchers prioritize outreach efforts and tailor research to stakeholders' needs.

  11. Pengaruh Dimensi Pengungkapan Corporate Social Responsibility Terhadap Future Institutional Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Eriandani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility practice becomes important subject in company`s activity, because it will affect the company's reputation. Besides, institutional investors likely prefer to invest in companies that have a social responsibility as it is considered to increase the legitimacy and future performance. This study aims to investigate the effect of CSR disclosure on institutional ownership. We use percentages ownership to measure institutional ownership. CSR measurement instrument used in this study adopted a previous research. The instrument comes from research Hackston and Milne, which was adjusted with Bapepam regulation in Indonesia. We also divided CSR disclosures in four sub-dimensions. The samples used in this research were 115 listed agriculture, mining, and manufacturing companies in indonesian Stock Exchange which studied during the years of 2010. Using SPSS 20, The analysis methods of this research used multiple regression analysis. Studies shows that not all dimensions of CSR disclosure effect on institutional ownership. Only product dimensions of CSR disclosures has a significant positive impact on institutional ownership. However, this paper fail to find any significant impact of another CSR dimensions. Thus, our study suggests that the dimensions of the product can affect investment decisions. In contrast, institutional investors have not focused on environment, employee relation, and community activities in investment decisions.

  12. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  13. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. (a) General... sealed samples in his automobile without further sealing in the United States, upon compliance with this...

  14. 19 CFR 123.51 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States. (a) General... samples by automobile through Canada to another place in the United States without displaying the samples...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59 Protection of Environment... Automobile Refinish Coatings Pt. 59, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59—Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings Coating category Grams VOC per liter Pounds...

  16. 41 CFR 301-10.220 - What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? 301-10.220 Section 301-10.220 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Government Vehicle Government Automobiles § 301-10.220 What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? You must possess...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2301 - Federal compliance date for automobile and light-duty truck coating. Texas Air Control Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal compliance date for automobile... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2301 Federal compliance date for automobile and..., automobile and light-duty truck coating operations were to have complied with final control limits of § A115...

  18. Efficient proof of ownership for cloud storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weiwei; Liu, Zhusong

    2017-08-01

    Cloud storage system through the deduplication technology to save disk space and bandwidth, but the use of this technology has appeared targeted security attacks: the attacker can deceive the server to obtain ownership of the file by get the hash value of original file. In order to solve the above security problems and the different security requirements of the files in the cloud storage system, an efficient and information-theoretical secure proof of ownership sceme is proposed to support the file rating. Through the K-means algorithm to implement file rating, and use random seed technology and pre-calculation method to achieve safe and efficient proof of ownership scheme. Finally, the scheme is information-theoretical secure, and achieve better performance in the most sensitive areas of client-side I/O and computation.

  19. Performance assessment of Portuguese wind farms: Ownership and managerial efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestana Barros, Carlos; Sequeira Antunes, Olinda

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes ownership and unobserved managerial ability as factors affecting the performance of a representative sample of Portuguese wind farms by means of frontier models. These farms are ranked according to their technical efficiency during the period 2004-2008 and homogenous and heterogeneous variables are disentangled in the cost function, which leads us to advise the implementation of common policies as well as policies by segments. Economic implications arising from the study are also considered. - Research highlights: → Wind farms are heterogeneous displaying distinct ownership and managerial characteristics that affect efficiency. → Managerial practices has a positive impact on the efficiency. → Ownership has a positive impact on the efficiency. Large wind farms are more efficient.

  20. OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE AND THE CORPORATE GOVERNANCE ROLE OF DIVIDENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Setia Atmaja

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed the theoretical and empirical literature on the relationshipbetween ownership structure and dividends. Agency theory suggested that dividend was servedto reduce agency problems between owners (or large controlling shareholders and managers(or minority shareholders by reducing the amount of free cash flow and increasing monitoringby external parties. It also proposed that ownership concentration and composition mightmitigate or exacerbate agency problems. We might expect substitutability or complementaryrelationship existed between dividend and ownership concentration/composition. Empiricalevidence showed that the relationship between dividend and managerial or large shareholdingscould be negative (i.e., consistent with substitute argument, positive (i.e., consistent withcomplementary argument or non-linear (i.e., consistent with entrenchment hypothesis. Inaddition, the literature suggested that family controlled firms might expropriate minorityshareholders by paying lower dividends or mitigate moral hazard conflicts by distributingmore cash. Empirical research on this issue, however, provided mixed findings.

  1. Household firearm ownership and suicide rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah; Hemenway, David

    2002-09-01

    In the United States, more people kill themselves with firearms than with all other methods combined. A central question regarding the relation between firearms and suicide is whether the ready availability of firearms increases the suicide rate, rather than merely increasing the proportion of suicides from guns. We used publicly available data for the nine regions and 50 states in the United States over a 10-year period (1988-1997) to examine the association between levels of household firearm ownership and rates of suicide, firearm suicide, and non-firearm suicide by age groups and gender. In both regional and state-level analyses, for the U.S. population as a whole, for both males and females, and for virtually every age group, a robust association exists between levels of household firearm ownership and suicide rates. Where firearm ownership levels are higher, a disproportionately large number of people die from suicide.

  2. Marketized State Ownership and Foreign Expansion of Emerging Market Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming Hua; Cui, Lin; Lu, Jiangyong

    2017-01-01

    direct investment. We argue that firms with marketized state ownership may derive institutional competitive advantages from their dual responsiveness to shifting global market conditions and home government expectations which has a positive impact on their foreign investment decisions. However......, such advantages are likely to vary in magnitude for firms with marketized state ownership at central and local levels of government due to different patterns of corporate restructuring. We predict that such ownership effects are contingent on firms' affiliation to meso-level institutional structures such as state...... business groups which reallocate resources among members. Using a longitudinal sample of 973 Chinese publicly listed firms, we find empirical support for our arguments. Our research offers new insights on how emerging market multinationals may derive institutional advantages from pro-market reforms...

  3. Preliminary research on virtual thermal comfort of automobile occupants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobet, Tiberiu; Danca, Paul; Nastase, Ilinca; Bode, Florin

    2018-02-01

    Numerical simulation of climate conditions in automotive industry for the study of thermal comfort had become more and more prominent in the last years compared with the classical approach which consists in wind tunnel measurements and field testing, the main advantages being the reduction of vehicle development time and costs. The study presented in this paper is a part of a project intended to evaluate different strategies of cabin ventilation for improving the thermal comfort inside vehicles. A virtual thermal manikin consisting of 24 parts was introduced on the driver seat in a vehicle. A heat load calculated for summer condition in the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania was imposed as boundary condition. The purpose of this study was to elaborate a virtual thermal manikin suitable for our research, introduction of the manikin inside the vehicle and to examine his influence inside the automobile. The thermal comfort of the virtual manikin was evaluated in terms of temperature and air velocity.

  4. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  5. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  6. Simulation of absorption refrigeration system for automobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Anand

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An automotive air-conditioning system based on absorption refrigeration cycle has been simulated. This waste heat driven vapor absorption refrigeration system is one alternate to the currently used vapour compression refrigeration system for automotive air-conditioning. Performance analysis of vapor absorption refrigeration system has been done by developing a steady-state simulation model to find the limitation of the proposed system. The water-lithium bromide pair is used as a working mixture for its favorable thermodynamic and transport properties compared to the conventional refrigerants utilized in vapor compression refrigeration applications. The pump power required for the proposed vapor absorption refrigeration system was found lesser than the power required to operate the compressor used in the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system. A possible arrangement of the absorption system for automobile application is proposed.

  7. Les sections sanitaires automobiles féminines

    OpenAIRE

    Monsuez, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Confronté à la pénurie d’ambulances et d’ambulanciers au début des années 1940, le ministère français de la Guerre a accepté l’offre de la Croix-Rouge française de lui fournir des personnels sanitaires particuliers attachés au transport des blessés militaires sur le champ de bataille. La mise en application de ces « Instructions » a crée les sections sanitaires automobiles féminines (SSA) ; unités officielles ayant un statut administratif, attaché au 19e train. Pour préparer les trois premièr...

  8. Modular Analysis of Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Power Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y. D.; Zhang, Y.; Su, C. Q.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, an automobile exhaust thermoelectric power generation system is packaged into a model with its own operating principles. The inputs are the engine speed and power, and the output is the power generated by the system. The model is divided into two submodels. One is the inlet temperature submodel, and the other is the power generation submodel. An experimental data modeling method is adopted to construct the inlet temperature submodel, and a theoretical modeling method is adopted to construct the power generation submodel. After modeling, simulation is conducted under various engine operating conditions to determine the variation of the power generated by the system. Finally, the model is embedded into a Honda Insight vehicle model to explore the energy-saving effect of the system on the vehicle under Economic Commission for Europe and cyc-constant_60 driving cycles.

  9. Intergenerational preferences for radio loudness during automobile driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Frederick Howard Bateman; Adjei Boakye, Eric; Mikulec, Anthony Alan

    2017-07-01

    The comparative contribution to human noise exposure from the vehicular radio is unknown, as are the radio volume preferences of different generations when driving an automobile. A single vehicle was used to measure radio listening level in decibels of three generations (age 16-17 years, age 32-50 years, and age 51-73 years) in various conditions, ranging from engine off with windows closed to 60 miles per hour (mph) with windows open. No differences in radio loudness based on the sex of the driver were found. Statistically significant differences were identified in preferred signal to noise ratio among multiple vehicular paradigms, with the youngest generation preferring the largest signal to noise ratio in conditions with low background noise. The youngest generation favored the largest signal to noise ratio (radio level above background noise), a preference which waned with increasing background noise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results.

  11. Catalytically and noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust: biological effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, G.P. (Univ. of Cincinnati); Lewkowski, J.P.; Hastings, L.; Malanchuk, M.

    1977-12-01

    Chronic exposure to catalytically treated or noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust significantly depressed the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) of rats. Exposure to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ alone or CO at comparable levels did not alter the SLA. Exposure to noncatalytically treated exhaust resulted in significant reductions in growth rate and food and water intake. However, these effects were not evident in the exposure to catalytically treated exhaust or in the control H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and CO exposures. Blood acid-base analyses indicated that exposure to either catalytically treated exhaust or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ elicits a metabolic alkalosis, while exposure to CO alone results in a metabolic acidosis. All acid-base parameters were within the normal range several weeks after the termination of exposure.

  12. Pulmonary Adverse Effects of Welding Fume in Automobile Assembly Welders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Akbar Sharifian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Welding is one of the key components of numerous manufacturing industries, which has potential physical and chemical health hazards. Many components of welding fumes can potentially affect the lung function. This study investigates the effects of welding fumes on lung function and respiratory symptoms among welders of an automobile manufacturing plant in Iran. This historical cohort study assesses 43 male welders and 129 office workers by a questionnaire to record demographic data, smoking habits, work history and respiratory symptoms as well as lung function status by spirometry. The average pulmonary function values of welders were lower relative to controls with dose-effect relationship between work duration and pulmonary function impairment. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was higher in welders than controls. Our findings suggest that welders are at risk for pulmonary disease.

  13. PRIORITY DISPATCH SCHEDULING IN AN AUTOMOBILE REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE WORKSHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOYEJO OYEBOLA T.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research work applied a simulation model in determining the optimal number of artisans to employ to carry out routine checks on vehicles on a waiting line. The waiting line under consideration is that of an automobile repair and maintenance workshop in South- Western Nigeria. The data collection was based on arrival pattern of vehicles and service pattern of artisans in the maintenance workshop. A discrete distribution was assumed for both the inter–arrival and service time patterns. An optimal number of 7 servers serving one queue were obtained as against 4 servers and 1 queue in the system in use. There was also a savings in cost of N2.45 Million per month when compared to the system in use. The results of this research work will be significant and important for decision making.

  14. Biomonitoring of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in automobile varnishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslitz, Stephan; Meier, Swetlana; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger Martin; Brüning, Thomas; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones are important organic solvents for varnishes in industry. This study investigates exposure to N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP) in varnishing of hard plastic components in an automobile plant. Two specific biomarkers of exposure, 5-hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI), were analyzed in urine samples of 14 workers. For this purpose, pre-shift, post-shift and next day pre-shift urine samples were collected midweek. Twelve workers performed regular work tasks (loading, wiping and packing), whereas two workers performed special work tasks including cleaning the sprayer system with organic solvents containing N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones. Spot urine samples of nine non-exposed persons of the same plant served as controls. Median post-shift urinary levels of workers with regular work tasks (5-HNEP: 0.15 mg/L; 2-HESI: 0.19 mg/L) were ∼5-fold higher compared to the controls (0.03 mg/L each). Continuously increasing metabolite levels, from pre-shift via post-shift to pre-shift samples of the following day, were observed in particular for the two workers with the special working tasks. Maximum levels were 31.01 mg/L (5-HNEP) and 8.45 mg/L (2-HESI). No clear trend was evident for workers with regular working tasks. In summary, we were able to show that workers can be exposed to NEP during varnishing tasks in the automobile industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pet ownership and blood pressure in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Joel David; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Morton, Deborah J; Wingard, Deborah L; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2007-09-01

    It has been proposed that pet ownership improves cardiovascular health. This study examines the relation of pet ownership with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, and hypertension in a large sample of older men and women. Participants were 1179 community-dwelling men (n = 498) and women (n = 681) age 50-95 years. Participants responded to a 1991-1992 mailed questionnaire ascertaining pet ownership, and they attended a 1992-1996 clinic visit at which systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were measured and use of antihypertensive medication was validated. Pulse pressure was calculated as SBP minus DBP. Mean arterial pressure was calculated as (SBP+DBP)/2. Body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and information on other potential confounders were obtained. Average age of participants was 70.4 +/- 10.8 years; 30.0% reported current pet ownership. Mean SBP was 137.5 +/- 21.4 mm Hg, and DBP was 76.1 +/- 9.3 mm Hg; 55.6% were hypertensive (SBP >or= 140, DBP >or= 90 or taking hypertension medication). Pet owners were younger and slightly more overweight and they exercised less than nonowners; owners were somewhat more likely to have diabetes and to use beta-blockers. In unadjusted analyses, pet owners had lower SBP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure, and a reduced risk of hypertension (odds ratio = 0.62; 95% confidence interval = 0.49-0.80). However, after adjustment for age and other confounders, pet ownership was not associated with systolic or diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure or risk of hypertension. Results suggest that pet ownership is not independently associated with blood pressure, vascular reactivity, or hypertension.

  16. Managerial Ownership in Nursing Homes: Staffing, Quality, and Financial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sean Shenghsiu; Bowblis, John R

    2017-06-20

    Ownership of nursing homes (NHs) has primarily focused broadly on differences between for-profit (FP), nonprofit (NFP), and government-operated facilities. Yet, among FPs, the understanding of detailed ownership structures at individual NHs is rather limited. Particularly, NH administrators may hold significant equity interests in their facilities, leading to heterogeneous financial incentives and NH outcomes. Through the principal-agent theory, this article studies how managerial ownership of individual facilities affects NH outcomes. We use a unique panel dataset of Ohio NHs (2005-2010) to empirically examine the relationship between managerial equity ownership and NH staffing, quality, and financial performance. We identify facility administrators as owner-managers if they have more than 5% of the equity stakes or are relatives of the owners. The statistical analysis is based on the pooled ordinary least squares and NH-fixed effect models. We find that owner-managed NHs are associated with higher nursing staff levels compared to other FP NHs. Surprisingly, despite higher staffing levels, owner-managed NHs are not associated with better quality and we find no statistically significant difference in financial performance between owner-managed and nonowner-managed FP NHs. Our results do not support the principal-agent model and we offer alternative explanations for future research. Our findings provide empirical evidence that NH ownership structures are more nuanced than simply broadly categorizing facilities as FP or NFP, and our results do not fully align with the standard principal-agent model. The role of managerial ownership should be considered in future NH research and policy discussions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Ownership and Risk Management: Shareholder versus Stakeholder Satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    2002-01-01

    of the largest shareholder and (2) whether risk management decisions are made in order to satisfy shareholders in particular or stakeholders in general. Covering a sample of Danish, non-financial companies a statistically significant, negative relationship is found between personal ownership and the likelihood...... that the aim of risk management is to satisfy shareholders in particular. No significant relationship is found for foundation-owned companies. Furthermore, a positive relationship is found between the size of the company and the tendency to satisfy shareholders in particular. The finding in relation...... to personal ownership is believed to rest on non-financial relations between the companies and the persons in question....

  18. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  19. Assessment of Levels of Ultraviolet A Light Protection in Automobile Windshields and Side Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer Wachler, Brian S

    2016-07-01

    Ultraviolet A (UV-A) light is associated with the risks of cataract and skin cancer. To assess the level of UV-A light protection in the front windshields and side windows of automobiles. In this cross-sectional study, 29 automobiles from 15 automobile manufacturers were analyzed. The outside ambient UV-A radiation, along with UV-A radiation behind the front windshield and behind the driver's side window of all automobiles, was measured. The years of the automobiles ranged from 1990 to 2014, with an average year of 2010. The automobile dealerships were located in Los Angeles, California. Amount of UV-A blockage from windshields and side windows. The average percentage of front-windshield UV-A blockage was 96% (range, 95%-98% [95% CI, 95.7%-96.3%]) and was higher than the average percentage of side-window blockage, which was 71% (range, 44%-96% [95% CI, 66.4%-75.6%]). The difference between these average percentages is 25% (95% CI, 21%-30% [P UV-A blockage (>90%) was found in 4 of 29 automobiles (13.8%). The level of front-windshield UV-A protection was consistently high among automobiles. The level of side-window UV-A protection was lower and highly variable. These results may in part explain the reported increased rates of cataract in left eyes and left-sided facial skin cancer. Automakers may wish to consider increasing the degree of UV-A protection in the side windows of automobiles.

  20. High energy X-ray CT system using a linear accelerator for automobile parts inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, T.; Sukita, T.

    1995-01-01

    A high energy X-ray CT system (maximum photon energy: 0.95 MeV) has been developed for industrial use. This system employs a linear accelerator as an X-ray source. It is able to image the cross section of automobile parts and can be applied to a solidification analysis study of the cylinder head in an automobile. This paper describes the features of the system and application results which can be related to solidification analysis of the cylinder head when fabricated from an aluminum casting. Some cross-sectional images are also presented as evidence for nondestructive inspection of automobile parts. (orig.)

  1. Research on the Bionics Design of Automobile Styling Based on the Form Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aili, Zhao; Long, Jiang

    2017-09-01

    From the heritage of form gene point of view, this thesis has analyzed the gene make-up, cultural inheritance and aesthetic features in the evolution and development of forms of brand automobiles and proposed the bionic design concept and methods in the automobile styling design. And this innovative method must be based on the form gene, and the consistency and combination of form element must be maintained during the design. Taking the design of Maserati as an example, the thesis will show you the design method and philosophy in the aspects of form gene expression and bionic design innovation for the future automobile styling.

  2. Mind the Gap: The Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; author), L. Schipper (main; Price, L.

    1993-01-01

    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data...... of OECD countries. We comment briefly on the impact of these gaps on econometric estimates of the price and income elasticities of automobile fuel use. We show that improper use of the circularity often leads to gross errors in estimating fuel intensity and other indicators of energy use for personal...

  3. Effect of Air Velocity on Thermal Comfort in an Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özgün Korukçu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of air velocity on thermal comfort during heating period in an automobile cabin with experiments. In the evaluation of comfort in automobiles, in general temperature, humidity, air velocity and radiant temperature measurements are taken. In the study, ambient temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature and mean skin temperature of the driver inside the automobile cabin during heating for different vent air mass flow rates were measured in a parked car. Subjective survey was performed during the experiments to the driver. The results for different vent air mass flow rate values were compared with answers taken from the subject and discussed.

  4. Pet ownership and human health: a brief review of evidence and issues

    OpenAIRE

    McNicholas, June; Gilbey, Andrew; Rennie, Ann; Ahmedzai, Sam; Dono, Jo-Ann; Ormerod, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Research into the association between pet ownership and human health has produced intriguing, although frequently contradictory, results often raising uncertainty as to whether pet ownership is advisable on health grounds

  5. Effects of ownership and financial structure on corporate environmental performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Earnhart, D.; Lízal, Lubomír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2002, č. 203 (2002), s. 1-48 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : Czech Republic * environmental protection * pollution -ownership Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp203.pdf

  6. Ownership Structure Reform and Bank Performance in Nigeria | Ani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result further provides an empirical answer to a question recently posed by the governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria – does ownership of financial institution matter? It appears that in a normal environment government shareholding of financial institutions should be limited as far as possible because of the tendency of ...

  7. Teachers' Views on Organizational Deviance, Psychological Ownership and Social Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argon, Türkan; Ekinci, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify Bolu central district secondary school teachers' views on organizational deviance, psychological ownership and social innovation and to determine whether these views were related. The universe of the study conducted with relational screening model was composed of 360 teachers employed in Bolu central district secondary…

  8. International financial reporting standards and foreign ownership in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous literature suggests that the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) can facilitate cross-border capital flows, as it results in an increase in market liquidity and comparability benefits. Using foreign ownership levels in South African listed companies during the period 2003 to 2007, we test ...

  9. Study on knowledge, attitude and dog ownership patterns related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted from May 2003 to August 2003 in Addis Ababa with the objective of understanding the distribution of stray and owned dogs, dog ownership patterns and attitudes of people towards rabies and its prevention and control methods. A total of 2390 households were selected from 6 Sub Cities of Addis ...

  10. Distortionary company car taxation: deadweight losses through increased car ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.N.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the effects of distortionary company car taxation through increased household car consumption for the Netherlands. We use several identification strategies and demonstrate that for about 20 % of households company car possession increases car ownership. The annual welfare loss of

  11. Examining the links between livestock ownership, gender, and food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-06

    Jun 6, 2016 ... Livestock ownership plays a vital role in ensuring that households have a more diversified, higher-protein diet. But research has shown that the extent to which livestock contributes to food security depends on household dynamics — whether women own assets, and to what extent they participate in making ...

  12. Ownership and care in culturally significant architecture: Three case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Earth-constructed buildings, as soft architecture used for public buildings, need more care and maintenance than buildings in brick, stone, concrete and steel. The ownership and care of private and public buildings reflect social attitudes and sustainable means. The attitudes towards the durability and technical performance ...

  13. Ownership and utilization of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though ITNs are the most prominent measure for large-scale deployment in highly endemic areas their compliance in terms of ownership and usage needs attention. The aim of this study was therefore to ... included from malarious areas. Data were collected by using structured questionnaires and observational checklist.

  14. Effects of ownership and financial status on corporate environmental performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Earnhart, D.; Lízal, Lubomír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4-5 (2002), s. 67-68 ISSN 1020-5470 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : ownership structures * privatization * financial performance Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://go.worldbank.org/JL12RVXEW0

  15. Security Sector Reform, Local Ownership and Community Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Gordon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Local ownership is widely considered to be one of the core principles of successful Security Sector Reform (SSR programmes. Nonetheless, there remains a gap between policy and practice. This article examines reasons for this gap, including concerns regarding limited capacity and lack of expertise, time and cost constraints, the allure of quantifiable results and quick wins, and the need to ensure that other principles inherent to SSR are not disregarded. In analysing what is meant by local ownership, this article will also argue that, in practice, the concept is narrowly interpreted both in terms of how SSR programmes are controlled and the extent to which those at the level of the community are actively engaged. This is despite policy guidance underscoring the importance of SSR programmes being inclusive and local ownership being meaningful. It will be argued that without ensuring meaningful and inclusive local ownership of SSR programmes, state security and justice sector institutions will not be accountable or responsive to the needs of the people and will, therefore, lack public trust and confidence. The relationship between the state and its people will be weak and people will feel divorced from the decisions that affect their security and their futures. All this will leave the state prone to further outbreaks of conflict. This article will suggest that the requisite public confidence and trust in state security and justice sector institutions, and ultimately, the state itself, could be promoted by SSR programmes incorporating community safety structures.

  16. Women, Livestock Ownership and Markets: Bridging the gender gap ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-10-30

    Oct 30, 2013 ... Factors that influence this access are also examined. Practical strategies for increasing women's market participation and access to information and services are discussed. The book ends with recommendations on how to mainstream gender in livestock research and development if livestock ownership is ...

  17. Access over ownership: the case of meeting facilities in Lyngby

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Brinkø, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative Consumption, access economy or the sharing economy are all terms describing the new fast growing business built on the sharing of resources and promoting access over ownership. It is a paradigm shift that has made it to the Times magazine list of the “10 ideas that will change the w...

  18. UK Ownership and Control: A Transformational Analysis | Lotto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reveals that, 42% of UK companies have multiple large shareholders and about 40% of the sample firms separate cash flow-rights from control-rights, confirming the presence of controlling block holders. This is contrary to the traditional understanding that UK ownership structure is dispersed. Therefore, this study ...

  19. Inequality of ownership of foreign and local tourism investments and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent at which inequality of tourism ownership constrains the implementation of business social responsibility (BSR) in the Western Cape tourism industry. A total of 307 different tourism businesses were surveyed using stratified sampling, in which 452 employees were ...

  20. Dimensions of Corporate Ownership in For-Profit Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The recent growth of for-profit higher education has been marked by the rising importance of institutional ownership by publicly traded corporations. This paper looks at 13 publicly traded corporations that own degree-granting for-profit institutions of higher education in the United States, examining corporate growth strategies and their…

  1. Customary Land Ownership and Gender Disparity - Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies draw attention to gender inequalities in land tenure. While some insist that gender inequalities in land tenure exists others do not. This paper discusses a study that examined gender issues in customary land ownership in the Wa Municipality. It sought to understand and find ways of bridging the gender gaps, if any.

  2. Statutory Law, Patriarchy and Inheritance: Home ownership among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the ways in which urban widows in Uganda are deprived of home ownership upon the death of their husbands. It is based on a qualitative research conducted in the middle-income areas of Kampala between 2004 and 2007. The results show that the institutional legal framework and the patriarchal ...

  3. Ownership and firm performance after large-scale privatization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Švejnar, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2003, č. 209 (2003), s. 1-36 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9058117 Keywords : ownership * performance * privatization * panel data Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp209.pdf

  4. Ownership Concentration and CSR Policy of European Multinational Enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, Lammertjan; Scholtens, Bert

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how ownership concentration in European multinational firms is associated with these firms' corporate social responsibility (CSR). We employ factor analysis on responsibility data from EIRiS and use a regression analysis. Using firm-level data for almost 700 European firms,

  5. 45 CFR 149.700 - Change of ownership requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable state law. (2) Asset sale. Transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the sponsor to... consolidation of the sponsor's organization with one or more other corporations, resulting in a new corporate body. (b) Change of ownership; exception. Transfer of corporate stock or the merger of another...

  6. Community Based Distributors and Increased Ownership of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Based Distributors and Increased Ownership of the Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets in Rural Area of Jos Plateau State. ... those that served as community based distributors (CBDs) who were pregnant women themselves that could read and write and understood English, Hausa and the native language Birom.

  7. Pet Ownership by Elderly People: Two New Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David W. E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined two issues of pet ownership in mail questionnaire and interview survey of 1,595 older adults over age 60, 377 of whom had a pet. Found evidence that pets were important determinant of housing choice. Many elderly pet owners had made no arrangements for pet if they predecease it or become unable to care for it. (Author/NB)

  8. Risk and cooperation: managing hazardous fuel in mixed ownership landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige Fischer; Susan. Charnley

    2012-01-01

    Managing natural processes at the landscape scale to promote forest health is important, especially in the case of wildfire, where the ability of a landowner to protect his or her individual parcel is constrained by conditions on neighboring ownerships. However, management at a landscape scale is also challenging because it requires cooperation on plans and actions...

  9. Joint Ownership of family land in Uganda: Examining the responses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The family, because of social change, is barely functioning as an enduring, secure and mutual support ... Legally, joint ownership of the family land is viewed in terms of each party's proportion of rights to the land, and .... stability of marriage (27%), personality of the spouse (27%), the type of marriage (16%), and whether the ...

  10. 42 CFR 495.360 - Software and ownership rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Software and ownership rights. 495.360 Section 495.360 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE...

  11. Do institutions, ownership, exporting and competition explain firm performance?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Commander, S.; Švejnar, Jan

    -, č. 65 (2008), s. 1-73 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : firm performance * ownership * competition * export Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/60636/4/IPC-working%20paper-065-CommanderSvejnar.pdf

  12. Regulation and the Ownership Structure of European Listed Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Marc Steffen; Trinchera, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explore an extensive panel data set covering more than 4,000 listed firms in 16 European countries to study the effects of shareholder protection on ownership structure and firm performance. We document a negative firm-level correlation between shareholder protection and ownersh...

  13. Foreign ownership and its effects on employment and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännlund, Runar; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Stage, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study how foreign ownership of Swedish companies affects employment and wages. To study these effects, we specify a model based on the assumption that the Swedish labour market can be described as one where trade unions and employers bargain over employment and wages. Our...

  14. Agency Enhances Body Ownership Illusion of Being a Virtual Bat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Anastassia; Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    This poster describes a within-subject study of agency´s influence on virtual body ownership (VBO) using anatomically similar but morphologically different body of a virtual bat. Paricipants were exposed to flight under four conditions: voluntary movement through virtual environment (VE) with ava...

  15. Gift exchange and the separation of ownership and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maximiano, S.; Sloof, R.; Sonnemans, J.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous gift exchange experiments have found a positive relationship between employers' wage offers and workers' effort levels. In (almost) all these experiments the employer both owns and controls the firm. Yet in reality many firms are characterized by the separation of ownership and control. In

  16. 12 CFR 745.3 - Single ownership accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Single ownership accounts. 745.3 Section 745.3 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS SHARE... accounts. This provision is effective as of October 22, 2008, for all existing and future mortgage...

  17. Study on knowledge, attitude and dog ownership patterns related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted from May 2003 to August 2003 in Addis Ababa with the objective of understanding the distribution of stray and owned dogs, dog ownership patterns and attitudes of people towards rabies and its prevention and control methods. A total of 2390 households were selected from 6 Sub Cities of Addis.

  18. Total Cost of Ownership and Cost-to-Serve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen reviewer den eksisterende litteratur vedrørende økonomistyringsværktøjerne Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) og Cost-to-Serve (CtS). Herefter kortlægges det, hvordan TCO og CtS bidrager til en identificering af direkte omkostninger såvel som indirekte omkostninger henholdsvis up-stream og down...

  19. Bank efficiency and foreign ownership : Do good institutions matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Meesters, A.J.; Naaborg, I.

    This paper contributes to the literature on foreign ownership and bank efficiency by examining whether the efficiency of foreign banks depends on the institutional quality of the host country and on institutional differences between the home and host country. Using stochastic frontier analysis for a

  20. Ownership, Finance and Strategy in the Segment of Product Tankers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Martin Jes; Nielsen, Peter Tuborgh Arnth; Pretzmann, Louise

    projects, the latter aiming at developing key concepts and building up a basic industry knowledge-base for further development of CBS Maritime research and teaching. This report attempts to map the fundamental changes in financing methods, ownership structures and strategies within the Danish product...

  1. The Psychological Effect of Pet-Ownership on Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamtil, Rosemary

    A study examined the possible influence that pets may have on children's reading achievement. Subjects, 61 students from three third-grade classes in an urban school, completed a questionnaire about pet ownership. Responses were compiled and score values established to recognize the length of time the child had owned the pet and how much…

  2. Multi-level determinants of inward FDI ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhupatiraju, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we empirically analyse the determinants of FDI ownership into developing countries. We do this by using firm-level data obtained from the Enterprise Surveys data of the World Bank and country level data from various sources. Using a multi-level logit model, we analyse how

  3. Ownership and care in culturally significant architecture: Three case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Public buildings are not permanent, but at most durable and robust enough to outlast a few generations. Earth-constructed buildings, as soft architecture used for public buildings, need more care and maintenance than buildings in brick, stone, concrete and steel. The ownership and care of private and public ...

  4. 12 CFR 7.1000 - National bank ownership of property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... liability company). (b) Fixed assets. A national bank may own fixed assets necessary for the transaction of its business, such as fixtures, furniture, and data processing equipment. (c) Investment in bank... AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1000 National bank ownership of property. (a) Investment in real estate...

  5. 12 CFR 701.36 - FCU ownership of fixed assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.36 FCU ownership of fixed assets. (a) Investment in... investment. The request must also indicate the approximate aggregate amount of fixed assets, as a percentage... of fixed assets only if the aggregate all of such future investments in fixed assets does not exceed...

  6. Government bond yields and foreign ownership of debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broos, Menno; de Haan, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the government bond yield spread vis-a-vis Germany for 10 countries in the euro area for the period 1991 to 2009. Our results suggest a positive relationship between the marginal impact of government debt on the spread and foreign ownership of the government debt of the country concerned

  7. Ownership Structure and the Value of the Firm: The Case of REITs

    OpenAIRE

    H. Swint Friday; G. Stacy Sirmans; C. Mitchell Conover

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the relation between ownership structure and firm value as proxied by market-to-book ratios for real estate investment trusts (REITs) over the period 1980 to 1994. Piecewise regression analysis reveals a nonlinear relationship between REIT market-to-book ratios and ownership structure. Low levels of inside ownership are associated with increased market-to-book ratios for equity REITs. However, as inside block ownership rises above 5%, equity REIT market-to-book ratios de...

  8. Revisiting the Gun Ownership and Violence Link; a multi- level analysis of victimisation survey data.

    OpenAIRE

    van Kesteren, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    The link between gun ownership victimisation by violent crime remains one of the most contested issues in criminology. Some authors claim that high gun availability facilitates serious violence. Others claim that gun ownership prevents crime. This article revisits these issues using individual and aggregate data on gun ownership and victimisation from the ICVS. Analysis at country level shows that the level of hand gun ownership is positively related to serious violence but not for lesser ser...

  9. THE EFFECTS OF DIVIDEND POLICY AND OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE TOWARDS DEBT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Fransisca Santosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research used multiple regression methods to examine the relationshipbetween the dividend policy, institutional ownership, and insider ownership withthe debt policy. Hypotheses tests of this researchused 64 manufacturingcompanies which were listed in the Indonesian StockExchange (IDX from theyear of 2007 until 2010 as the samples. The resultsof this research show that thedividend policies and the insider ownership had noeffects towards the debtpolicy, while the institutional ownership had a significant negative effect towardsthe debt policy.

  10. 77 FR 50628 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... procedures the Commission uses for assessing foreign ownership of the controlling U.S.-organized parents of... policy framework for foreign ownership of the controlling U.S. parents of licensees under section 310(b..., under section 310(b)(4), greater than 25 percent foreign ownership in the controlling U.S.-organized...

  11. 48 CFR 904.7003 - Disclosure of foreign ownership, control, or influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ownership, control, or influence. 904.7003 Section 904.7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... ownership, control, or influence. (a) If a contract requires a contractor to have a Facility Clearance, DOE must determine whether the contractor is or may be subject to foreign ownership, control or influence...

  12. 30 CFR 773.27 - Burden of proof for ownership or control challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... challenges. 773.27 Section 773.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... for ownership or control challenges. This section applies to you if you challenge an ownership or control listing or finding. (a) When you challenge a listing of ownership or control, or a finding of...

  13. 26 CFR 1.318-1 - Constructive ownership of stock; introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constructive ownership of stock; introduction. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Definitions; Constructive Ownership of Stock § 1.318-1 Constructive ownership of stock; introduction. (a) For the purposes of certain provisions of chapter 1 of the Code...

  14. 26 CFR 1.267(c)-1 - Constructive ownership of stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constructive ownership of stock. 1.267(c)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.267(c)-1 Constructive ownership of stock. (a) In general. (1) The determination of stock ownership for purposes of section 267(b) shall be in...

  15. 27 CFR 1.27 - Change in ownership, management, or control of the applicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Basic Permits Applications for Permits § 1.27 Change in ownership, management, or control of the applicant. In the event of any change in the ownership, management, or control of... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in ownership...

  16. 42 CFR 489.18 - Change of ownership or leasing: Effect on provider agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Change of ownership or leasing: Effect on provider... APPROVAL General Provisions § 489.18 Change of ownership or leasing: Effect on provider agreement. (a) What... another corporation into the provider corporation does not constitute change of ownership. (4) Leasing...

  17. 7 CFR 3560.405 - Borrower organizational structure or ownership interest changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Organizational structure and ownership documentation must include the following items: (i) A current organization... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrower organizational structure or ownership... Servicing § 3560.405 Borrower organizational structure or ownership interest changes. (a) General. The...

  18. 24 CFR 904.115 - Achievement of ownership by subsequent homebuyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the LHA's debt, if there are any subsequent homebuyers who have not acquired ownership of their... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Achievement of ownership by... Description § 904.115 Achievement of ownership by subsequent homebuyers. (a) Definition. In the event the...

  19. Pet ownership and survival in the elderly hypertensive population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Enayet K; Nelson, Mark R; Jennings, Garry L R; Wing, Lindon M H; Reid, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    To assess the association of pet ownership and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality over a long-term follow-up among elderly treated hypertensive participants. Pet-ownership data from a subcohort of the Second Australian National Blood Pressure study were used. Participants were aged 65-84 years at enrolment (1995-1997) and responded to a pet-ownership questionnaire during year 2000. Participants' survival information was determined over a median of 10.9 years that includes Second Australian National Blood Pressure in-trial period (median 4.2 years) together with posttrial follow-up period (median 6.9 years). For the current study, end points were any fatal cardiovascular event and all-cause fatal events. Of those who responded to a pet-ownership questionnaire (4039/6018 - 67%), 86% (3490/4039) owned at least one pet at any-time during their life (current or previous pet owner), with 36% (1456/4039) owning at least one pet at the time of the survey. During the follow-up period, 958 participants died including 499 deaths of cardiovascular origin. Using a Cox proportional hazard regression model adjusting for possible confounders, there was a 22 and 26% reduction in cardiovascular mortality observed among previous and current pet owners, respectively, compared with those who had never owned one. A similar nonsignificant trend was observed for all-cause mortality once adjusted for potential confounders. Pet ownership was associated with an improved cardiovascular disease survival in a treated elderly hypertensive population.

  20. Problems Related to the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinsberga Jolanta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal relationship between apartment owners in residential buildings and the land owners, that is, divided real estate ownership, was created in the Republic of Latvia in 1990, within the framework of the Land Reform, restoring property rights of the former owners or their heirs or privatising apartments in multi-apartment residential buildings. The existence of such legal relationship created different lease problems and restrictions on the property rights to the owners of both the building and the land. To abolish the legal relationship related to divided real estate ownership, the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Latvia has developed a draft law Regarding the Abolition of Mandatory Divided Real Estate Ownership in Multi-Apartment Buildings (hereinafter referred to as Draft Law. Unfortunately, in the opinion of authors of this article, there are serious shortcomings to the Draft Law which must be corrected. The aim of the research is to identify the problematic issues by selecting and analysing the legislation on the abolition of the divided real estate ownership, which is related to the calculation of redemption price, payment method and consequences of non-payment, which are not regulated by the new Draft Law. The article reflects research on the determination and calculation of redemption price reglamented by the Draft Law and also analyses the Law of December 8, 1938, On the Abolition of Divided Real Estate Ownership and its practical implementation, which may significantly influence the redemption price and the method of its calculation; however, the mentioned law has been disregarded in developing the Draft Law. Thus the research has both theoretical and practical significance. For the research purposes general research methods, such as historical, analytical, inductive, deductive, logical-constructive and descriptive methods, are used. For the interpretation of legislation norms, grammatical, systemic, teleological and historical

  1. Upcoming tactile events and body ownership in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Francesca; Costantini, Marcello; Salone, Anatolia; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Chiarelli, Antonio; Merla, Arcangelo; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Gallese, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenic patients may report unusual perception of their own body. Studies using the rubber hand illusion (RHI) proposed that they exhibit a distorted sense of body ownership. However, since the RHI is mostly achieved with the contribution of visuo-tactile integration, the stronger RHI observed in schizophrenic patients could reflect either a general increase of the response to multisensory stimuli or a larger influence of visual cues on the tactile sensory experience. The purpose of the present study is to investigate patients' perception of their own body by means of a behavioral paradigm that measures their proneness to the RHI without relying on multisensory integration occurring during actual experience of touch. In a previous study we demonstrated in healthy participants that expectation of touch experience arising at the sight of a human hand approaching a rubber hand is enough to induce a sense of ownership over the same hand. Here we take advantage of the same paradigm to investigate body ownership in schizophrenia. Patients observed the experimenter's hand while approaching--without touching--either a rubber hand or a piece of wood placed in front of them. The seen object could be either aligned to participant's hand or rotated by 180°. Phenomenology of the illusion revealed that schizophrenic patients exhibited sense of ownership over the rubber hand, but more weakly than healthy controls. The present study sheds new light on the experience of body ownership in schizophrenic patients, corroborating the notion that alterations of bodily self-awareness play an important role in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Automobile driver on-road performance test. Volume 3, Examiner's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    This report provides procedures for administering and scoring the Automobile Driver On-Road Performance Test (ADOPT). The ADOPT checks 21 separate driving performances. Performances are checked at pre-determined locations along a 10-minute route and ...

  3. Automobile driver on-road performance test. Volume 2, Administrator's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    This report provides procedures for setting up, administering, and scoring the Automobile Driver On-Road Performance Test (ADOPT). The ADOPT checks 21 separate driving performances. Performances are checked at pre-determined locations along a 10-minu...

  4. Increased automobile fuel efficiency and synthetic fuels: alternatives for reducing oil imports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    This report assesses and compares increased automobile fuel efficiency and : synthetic fuels production with respect to their potential to reduce : conventional oil consumption, and their costs and impacts. Conservation and : fuel switching as a mean...

  5. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  6. Main factors influencing the fall of sales in the Russian automobile market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya A. Kurilova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the negative factors affecting the development of the Russian automobile market. Methods systemic approach generalization and comparison of results method of induction. The findings are based on the research results and observations obtained with the comparativehistorical dialecticalsynthetic and abstractlogical methods. Results basing on data of the International organization of motor vehicle manufacturers OICA the rate of vehicles overproduction worldwide was determined the analysis of motorization index in various countries allowed to form the forecast for the development of automotive fleet in Russia basing on the analysis of macroeconomic data the main factors influencing the development of the Russian automobile market were determined. Scientific novelty the regularities of dynamics of development of the global and Russian automobile markets were revealed. The factors influencing the Russian car market were identified. Practical significance the Russian car manufacturers can use information about the development of the global and Russian automobile markets to create plans for their activities. nbsp

  7. Computer-Based Resource Accounting Model for Automobile Technology Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    A computer-implemented resource accounting model has been developed for assessing resource impacts of future automobile technology options. The resources tracked are materials, energy, capital, and labor. The model has been used in support of the Int...

  8. Technological Change in the U.S. Automobile Industry : Assessing Past Federal Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    In the future, further reduction in fatalities, fuel consumption and emissions dur to automobile use will be needed. To insure that these goals are achieved, it is necessary to understand more thoroughly the role of the federal initiatives and regula...

  9. A bivariate model for analyzing recurrent multi-type automobile failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunethra, A. A.; Sooriyarachchi, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    The failure mechanism in an automobile can be defined as a system of multi-type recurrent failures where failures can occur due to various multi-type failure modes and these failures are repetitive such that more than one failure can occur from each failure mode. In analysing such automobile failures, both the time and type of the failure serve as response variables. However, these two response variables are highly correlated with each other since the timing of failures has an association with the mode of the failure. When there are more than one correlated response variables, the fitting of a multivariate model is more preferable than separate univariate models. Therefore, a bivariate model of time and type of failure becomes appealing for such automobile failure data. When there are multiple failure observations pertaining to a single automobile, such data cannot be treated as independent data because failure instances of a single automobile are correlated with each other while failures among different automobiles can be treated as independent. Therefore, this study proposes a bivariate model consisting time and type of failure as responses adjusted for correlated data. The proposed model was formulated following the approaches of shared parameter models and random effects models for joining the responses and for representing the correlated data respectively. The proposed model is applied to a sample of automobile failures with three types of failure modes and up to five failure recurrences. The parametric distributions that were suitable for the two responses of time to failure and type of failure were Weibull distribution and multinomial distribution respectively. The proposed bivariate model was programmed in SAS Procedure Proc NLMIXED by user programming appropriate likelihood functions. The performance of the bivariate model was compared with separate univariate models fitted for the two responses and it was identified that better performance is secured by

  10. Vertical Keiretsu and International Market Entry: The Case of the Japanese Automobile Ancillary Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kunal Banerji; Rakesh B Sambharya

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated whether small Japanese automobile ancillary firms followed the major Japanese automakers in setting up production facilities in the United States. Based on Dunning's eclectic theory of foreign direct investment and resource dependence theory, hypotheses were generated to explain the determinants of foreign investment of Japanese suppliers. It was hypothesized that mutual dependencies between the major Japanese automobile firms and their suppliers, firm-specific ownersh...

  11. Product Quality Selection and Firm Survival. Evidence from the British Automobile Industry, 1895-1970.

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanyuan Peng

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an additional determininant of firm survival. Based on a detailed examination of firm survival in the British automobile industry between 1895 and 1970, we conclude that firm’s selection of submarket-defined by quality level-influenced survival. In contrast to findings for the US automobile industry, there is no evidence of first-mover advantage in the market as a whole. However, we do find evidence of first-mover advantage after conditioning on submarket choice.

  12. Optimizing Diamond Structured Automobile Supply Chain Network Towards a Robust Business Continuity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Abednico Montshiwa

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an optimized diamond structured automobile supply chain network towards a robust Business Continuity Management model. The model is necessitated by the nature of the automobile supply chain. Companies in tier two are centralized and numerically limited and have to supply multiple tier one companies with goods and services. The challenge with this supply chain structure is the inherent risks in the supply chain. Once supply chain disruption takes place at tier 2 level, the ...

  13. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study will be useful to both managers in the auto industry as well as policy makers. It will help managers in the auto industry to gain a better understanding of consumer intentions and identify the factors which influence them. Policy makers in Pakistan’s auto sector would benefit from the insights of this study when developing the long overdue Auto Policy. Analysis of the data collected has revealed that the three key factors identified from studies in other Asian countries are also relevant for Pakistani auto consumers.

  14. Time Resolved FTIR Analysis of Tailpipe Exhaust for Several Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Allen R.; Allen, James; Devasher, Rebecca B.

    2011-06-01

    The automotive catalytic converter reduces or eliminates the emission of various chemical species (e.g. CO, hydrocarbons, etc.) that are the products of combustion from automobile exhaust. However, these units are only effective once they have reached operating temperature. The design and placement of catalytic converters has changed in order to reduce both the quantity of emissions and the time that is required for the converter to be effective. In order to compare the effectiveness of catalytic converters, time-resolved measurements were performed on several vehicles, including a 2010 Toyota Prius, a 2010 Honda Fit, a 1994 Honda Civic, and a 1967 Oldsmobile 442 (which is not equipped with a catalytic converter but is used as a baseline). The newer vehicles demonstrate bot a reduced overall level of CO and hydrocarbon emissions but are also effective more quickly than older units. The time-resolved emissions will be discussed along with the impact of catalytic converter design and location on the measured emissions.

  15. Study of hydrogen-powered versus battery-powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, J.J. Jr.; Greayer, W.C.; Nichols, R.J.; Escher, W.J.D.

    1979-05-01

    A study conducted to compare the technological status and the resultant potential vehicle characteristics for hydrogen- and battery-powered automobiles that could be produced from 1985 to 2000 is documented in 3 volumes. The primary objectives of the study were: the assessments of applicable energy storage and propulsion technology for the two basic vehicle types (applied to four-passenger cars); a rigorous comparison of vehicle weight, size, and usefulness versus design range; and an investigation of the relative efficiencies of expending energy from various primary sources to power the subject vehicle. Another important objective, unique to hydrogen powered vehicles, was the assessment of the technology, logistics, and cost implications of a hydrogen production and delivery capability. This volume, Volume III, contains three major sections: the assessment of battery electric vehicle technology for energy storage and the drivetrain system; the technical and economic comparison of hydrogen- and battery-powered vehicles derived primarily from data in the previous vehicle technology assessments, with consideration of alternative energy sources; and a series of appendices that support the vehicle definitions and comparisons.

  16. PCS optical fibers for an automobile data bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkin, James P.; Timmerman, Richard J.; Stolte, Gary W.; Klein, Karl-Friedrich

    2005-02-01

    Optical fibers have been used for data communications in automobiles for several years. The fiber of choice thus far has been a plastic core/plastic clad optical fiber (POF) consisting of the plastic polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The POF fiber provides a low cost fiber with relatively easy termination. However, increasing demands regarding temperature performance, transmission losses and bandwidth have pushed the current limits of the POF fiber, and the automotive industry is now moving towards an optical fiber with a silica glass core/plastic clad (PCS). PCS optical fibers have been used successfully in industrial, medical, sensor, military and data communications systems for over two decades. The PCS fiber is now being adapted specifically for automotive use. In the following, the design criteria and design alternatives for the PCS as well as optical, thermal, and mechanical testing results for key automotive parameters are described. The fiber design tested was 200&mum synthetic silica core/230&mum fluoropolymer cladding/1510&mum nylon buffer. Key attributes such as 700 - 900 nm spectral attenuation, 125°C thermal soak, -40 to 125°C thermal cycling, bending losses, mechanical strength, termination capability, and cost are discussed and compared. Overall, a specifically designed PCS fiber is expected to be acceptable for the use in an automotive data bus, and will show improvement in optical transmission, temperature range and bandwidth. However, the final selection of buffer and jacket materials and properties will be most dependent on the selection of a reliable and economical termination method.

  17. On the baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariadis, Theodoros

    2006-01-01

    'Business as usual' scenarios in long-term energy forecasts are crucial for scenario-based policy analyses. This article focuses on fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks, a long-disputed issue with serious implications for worldwide energy use and CO 2 emissions. The current status in Europe is explained and future developments are analysed with the aid of historical data of the last three decades from the United States and Europe. As a result of this analysis, fuel economy values are proposed for use as assumptions in baseline energy/transport scenarios in the 15 'old' European Union Member States. Proposed values are given for new gasoline and diesel cars and for the years 2010, 2020 and 2030. The increasing discrepancy between vehicle fuel consumption measured under test conditions and that in the real world is also considered. One main conclusion is that the European Commission's voluntary agreement with the automobile industry should not be assumed to fully achieve its target under baseline conditions, nor should it be regarded as a major stimulus for autonomous vehicle efficiency improvements after 2010. A second conclusion is that three very recent studies enjoying authority across the EU tend to be overly optimistic as regards the technical progress for conventional and alternative vehicle propulsion technologies under 'business as usual' conditions

  18. Design and analysis of automobile components using industrial procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedar, B.; Ashok, B.; Rastogi, Nisha; Shetty, Siddhanth

    2017-11-01

    Today’s automobiles depend upon mechanical systems that are crucial for aiding in the movement and safety features of the vehicle. Various safety systems such as Antilock Braking System (ABS) and passenger restraint systems have been developed to ensure that in the event of a collision be it head on or any other type, the safety of the passenger is ensured. On the other side, manufacturers also want their customers to have a good experience while driving and thus aim to improve the handling and the drivability of the vehicle. Electronics systems such as Cruise Control and active suspension systems are designed to ensure passenger comfort. Finally, to ensure optimum and safe driving the various components of a vehicle must be manufactured using the latest state of the art processes and must be tested and inspected with utmost care so that any defective component can be prevented from being sent out right at the beginning of the supply chain. Therefore, processes which can improve the lifetime of their respective components are in high demand and much research and development is done on these processes. With a solid base research conducted, these processes can be used in a much more versatile manner for different components, made up of different materials and under different input conditions. This will help increase the profitability of the process and also upgrade its value to the industry.

  19. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-10-01

    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  20. Studies on Automobile Clutch Release Bearing Characteristics with Acoustic Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoliang; Chen, Xiaoyang

    Automobile clutch release bearings are important automotive driveline components. For the clutch release bearing, early fatigue failure diagnosis is significant, but the early fatigue failure response signal is not obvious, because failure signals are susceptible to noise on the transmission path and to working environment factors such as interference. With an improvement in vehicle design, clutch release bearing fatigue life indicators have increasingly become an important requirement. Contact fatigue is the main failure mode of release rolling bearing components. Acoustic emission techniques in contact fatigue failure detection have unique advantages, which include highly sensitive nondestructive testing methods. In the acoustic emission technique to detect a bearing, signals are collected from multiple sensors. Each signal contains partial fault information, and there is overlap between the signals' fault information. Therefore, the sensor signals receive simultaneous source information integration is complete fragment rolling bearing fault acoustic emission signal, which is the key issue of accurate fault diagnosis. Release bearing comprises the following components: the outer ring, inner ring, rolling ball, cage. When a failure occurs (such as cracking, pitting), the other components will impact damaged point to produce acoustic emission signal. Release bearings mainly emit an acoustic emission waveform with a Rayleigh wave propagation. Elastic waves emitted from the sound source, and it is through the part surface bearing scattering. Dynamic simulation of rolling bearing failure will contribute to a more in-depth understanding of the characteristics of rolling bearing failure, because monitoring and fault diagnosis of rolling bearings provide a theoretical basis and foundation.

  1. Study of lead pollution from automobile emissions in Khartoum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, A.S.

    2002-07-01

    Aerosol and soil samples were collected from places near the main roads in Khartoum area. The samples were analyzed by energy Dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique, to study the lead (Pb) concentration in air and soil near roadsides due to automobile emissions. The aim of the study was also to make a comparison with the results of previous measurements made in the same field (Ahmed, 1983) . Thee aerosol samples were taken from three sites in Khartoum area. Tuti island taken as a control area, central Khartoum as a commercial area and south of Khartoum as a residential area. Soil samples were taken from a place near Al Gurashi Park and another near Abu Hamama traffic junction in Khartoum area. The data obtained of (Pb) concentrations in the roadside air were statistically analyzed. Comparisons were made between the concentrations at the various times of the day and correlation were made with meteorological parameters. The (Pb) concentrations in the roadside soil were observed to be inversely proportional to the distance from the road and the depth from the layer of the earth. Finally, the results obtained are discussed and some recommendations are suggested. (Author)

  2. Firearm Ownership and Violent Crime in the U.S.: An Ecologic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monuteaux, Michael C; Lee, Lois K; Hemenway, David; Mannix, Rebekah; Fleegler, Eric W

    2015-08-01

    Although some view the ownership of firearms as a deterrent to crime, the relationship between population-level firearm ownership rates and violent criminal perpetration is unclear. The purpose of this study is to test the association between state-level firearm ownership and violent crime. State-level rates of household firearm ownership and annual rates of criminal acts from 2001, 2002, and 2004 were analyzed in 2014. Firearm ownership rates were taken from a national survey and crime data were taken from the Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports. Rates of criminal behavior were estimated as a function of household gun ownership using negative binomial regression models, controlling for several demographic factors. Higher levels of firearm ownership were associated with higher levels of firearm assault and firearm robbery. There was also a significant association between firearm ownership and firearm homicide, as well as overall homicide. The findings do not support the hypothesis that higher population firearm ownership rates reduce firearm-associated criminal perpetration. On the contrary, evidence shows that states with higher levels of firearm ownership have an increased risk for violent crimes perpetrated with a firearm. Public health stakeholders should consider the outcomes associated with private firearm ownership. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental compatibility of automobiles - instruments for the BMW product development process; Automobil-Umweltvertraeglichkeit - neue Instrumente im BMW-Produktentwicklungsprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franze, H.A.; Neumann, U.; Vornberger, K.; Hoock, R.; Hemberger, R.

    1995-09-01

    The environmental impact of the automobile and its components is of growing importance not only in public debates but also in the complex decision making process regarding future car concepts. To calculate the environmental compatibility of car components BMW had developed various quantifying instruments and a holistic Life-Cycle Analysis (LCA) approach. The development phase significantly affects the entire life-cycle of a product. Suitable design criteria, recycling requirements and in-house standards have therefore been developed and established. They enable the designer to handle the more and more complex conflicts of technical, economic and ecological objectives during the development process with special view to the customer, i.e. the market. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur nachhaltigen Verbesserung der Umweltvertraeglichkeit von Automobilen und Bauteilen hat BMW quantitative Instrumente entwickelt: Den `Anforderungskatalog Gesamtfahrzeug`, die BMW-Recycling-Norm, die Demontageanalyse von Automobilen und die lebenszyklusbezogene Bauteil-Bilanzierung. Sie sollen es dem Konstrukteur in der Entwicklungsphase praxisgerecht ermoeglichen, verschiedene Bauteilvarianten oekologisch zu bewerten. Nur so koennen die weiter zunehmenden komplexen Zielkonflike in der Automobilentwicklung, die sowohl technisch-wirtschaftlicher als auch oekonomisch-oekologischer und teilweise gesellschaftspolitischer Natur sind, in Zukunft beherrscht und damit den Markt- und Kundenanforderungen gerecht werden. (orig.)

  4. OFF-ROAD CAPABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF MAZ-AUTOMOBILE HAVING AGRICULTURAL MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Bobrovnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains requirements to parameters of an automobile being designed with axle arrangement 6x4 and technically permissible mass of 25 tons with its all year round operation in agricultural industry with the purpose to ensure in-time load transportation and technological cycle in crop production of the agricultural complex in accordance with time schedule of the executed mechanized works. The future automobile should also have a power takeoff device.The paper presents operation chart flowsheets for cultivation of main crops on mineral and peat soils with indication of automobile motion modes and type of transported loads. Specific properties of peat-bog soils are given in the paper. The paper considers off-road capability of mobile machines when they are moving on soils with low bearing capacity. The paper indicates field applications of automobiles with limited and high off-road capability. Description of wheel interaction with bearing surface area, values of soil resistivity after multiple automobile passages have been given in the paper.The paper specifies values of rolling resistance coefficient and adhesion coefficient of the automobile undercarriage systems in spring and autumn for wheeled and crawler units. Schemes of the automobile front axle drives (electric, hydraulic, mechanical and their characteristics have been analyzed in the paper. An elastic flexible drive with separation of flow power has been proposed for reduction of dynamic loads in a power transmission drive. The paper describes a drive system of auto-analogue steering wheels with hydraulic hydrostatic drive which is located within a front wheel hub that ensure additional thrust. Recommendations for MAZ-automobile modernization with axle arrangement 6x4 have been given with the purpose to improve its off- road capability.Metallic anti-skid chain, segment and small link, track and crawler chains, wideners have obtained a wide application for improvement of automobile

  5. Joint attention for stimuli on the hands: Ownership matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eTaylor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The visual system treats the space near the hands with unique, action-related priorities. For example, attention orients slowly to stimuli on the hands (Taylor & Witt, 2014. In this article, we asked whether jointly attended hands are attended in the same way. Specifically, we examined whether ownership over the hand mattered: Do we attend to our hands and the hands of others in the same way? Pairs of participants performed a spatial cueing task with stimuli that could be projected onto one partner’s hands or on a control surface. Results show delayed orienting of attention to targets appearing on the hands, but only for the owner of the hands. For an observer, others’ hands are like any other surface. This result emphasizes the importance of ownership for hand-based effects on vision, and in doing so, is inconsistent with some expectations of the joint action literature.

  6. The reversal of agricultural reform in Uganda: ownership and values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Joughin, James

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the nature of ownership in a reform of the multi-donor-funded agricultural advisory service in Uganda. We argue that although there was a long process of programme formulation in which all stakeholders were heard, ownership was not as encompassing as it first appeared....... In essence, the agricultural reform programme represented market-oriented values that were not echoed in large parts of the Ugandan polity. The eventual reversal of policy, back to government-provided extension, and to a large programme of heavily subsidised input supply, testifies to that. In addition, key...... stakeholders, notably local politicians and officials in the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry, and Fisheries (MAAIF), were shut out from the original programme and this threatened its viability. If a genuine analysis of the economic and political context had been carried out, the donors might have...

  7. Car ownership and use taxes as pollution correcting instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabit, Stefan Lindhard; Mulalic, Ismir

    There have been many attempts to alter the taxation of private vehicles to obtain more energy-efficient car transport. The last significant reform in Denmark was completed in 2007. The most important objective was to improve fuel efficiency and consequently to reduce emissions related to car...... transport. To analyse the effects of such a reform it is necessary to model both long term decision like car ownership and short term decision like car usage in a combined framework. The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent Danish households change their car ownership and their car use after...... a change in car taxes. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data to estimate the joint demand for vehicles and kilometres. The empirical results point at effects that have important implications....

  8. Nursing home closures, changes in ownership, and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Nicholas G

    2005-01-01

    This research examines the relationship of competition among nursing homes and the likelihood of their closure or change in ownership. The study uses nationally representative data from the 1992-1998 Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting system, and is supplemented with several other primary and secondary data sources. It is hypothesized that facilities located in more competitive environments will be more likely to close. Multinomial logistic regression analyses are employed to examine this hypothesis in a model containing organizational and aggregate resident characteristics, and market factors. The Herfindahl index is used as a measure of competition. The descriptive analysis shows that 621 nursing homes closed and 6,471 changed ownership from 1992 to 1998. The incidence rate of closures was .7% of facilities per year. The multivariate analysis shows that facilities located in more competitive environments were significantly more likely to close.

  9. RFID Ownership Transfer with Positive Secrecy Capacity Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Munilla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RFID ownership transfer protocols (OTPs transfer tag ownership rights. Recently, there has been considerable interest in such protocols; however, guaranteeing privacy for symmetric-key settings without trusted third parties (TTPs is a challenge still unresolved. In this paper, we address this issue and show that it can be solved by using channels with positive secrecy capacity. We implement these channels with noisy tags and provide practical values, thus proving that perfect secrecy is theoretically possible. We then define a communication model that captures spatiotemporal events and describe a first example of symmetric-key based OTP that: (i is formally secure in the proposed communication model and (ii achieves privacy with a noisy tag wiretap channel without TTPs.

  10. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Rohrbaugh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006 which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons.

  11. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Melissa G; Bogue, Kelsey; Rohrbaugh, Nick

    2012-09-28

    Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006) which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons.

  12. Multinationals, Minority Ownership and Tax-Efficient Financing Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Schindler; Guttorm Schjelderup

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a theory model that simultaneously accounts for the financing decisions and ownership structure in affiliates of multinational firms. We find that affiliates of multinationals have higher internal and overall debt ratios and lower rental rates of physical capital than comparable domestic firms. We also show that affiliates with minority owners have less debt than wholly owned affiliates and a less tax-efficient financing structure. The latter is due to an externality where...

  13. En differentieret tilgang til total cost of ownership (TCO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2010-01-01

    Økonomistyring er en nødvendig brik i forsøget på at kunne styre dele af eller hele forsyningskæden, og til dette bruges diverse økonomistyringsværktøjer. Denne artikel omhandler økonomistyringsværktøjet 'total cost of ownership', og hvordan dette kan bruges til at forbedre samarbejdet med...

  14. Economic Analysis of Navy Ownership versus Leasing of Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    H 36 -1—••- V. ECONOMIC ANALISIS OP THE ALTERNATIVES This thesis has, to this point, provided a discussion of the relative merits of ownership...CO 1A VO CO r-l VA OS CA ON CO O- O- vO W, VA O O O O O O O X X X OS UN ,_| VP, CO Ov -d" O CM Ov O- CO ON *A CA Ov O CA O r

  15. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene

    OpenAIRE

    Nick Rohrbaugh; Kelsey Bogue; Melissa G. Hunt

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones during the 2011 Hurricane Irene were surveyed about whether or not they evacuated and about their experiences during the hurricane. Although pet-ownership was not statistically associated with evacuation failure, many pet owners who chose not to evacuate still claimed that they did not evacuate because of difficulties with evacuating their pet. These findings suggest that more work needs to be done ...

  16. State Ownership of the praeda bellica during the Roman Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Piquer-Marí

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From a Public Law perspective, and with particular regards to the subject of public property, this paper examines the praeda bellica as an asset belonging to the Roman people during the times of the Republic. Through an analysis of the ownership of the praeda bellica, the research intends to provide an in depth understanding of legal and proprietary relationships shaping the Public branch of the Law.

  17. Relationships between dog ownership and physical activity in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David O; Wertheim, Betsy C; Manson, JoAnn E; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Volpe, Stella L; Howard, Barbara V; Stefanick, Marcia L; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2015-01-01

    Positive associations between dog ownership and physical activity in older adults have been previously reported. The objective of this study was to examine cross-sectional associations between dog ownership and physical activity measures in a well-characterized, diverse sample of postmenopausal women. Analyses included 36,984 dog owners (mean age: 61.5years), and 115,645 non-dog owners (mean age: 63.9years) enrolled in a clinical trial or the observational study of the Women's Health Initiative between 1993 and 1998. Logistic regression models were used to test for associations between dog ownership and physical activity, adjusted for potential confounders. Owning a dog was associated with a higher likelihood of walking ≥150min/wk (Odds Ratio, 1.14; 95% Confidence Interval, 1.10-1.17) and a lower likelihood of being sedentary ≥8h/day (Odds Ratio, 0.86; 95% Confidence Interval, 0.83-0.89) as compared to not owning a dog. However, dog owners were less likely to meet ≥7.5MET-h/wk of total physical activity as compared to non-dog owners (Odds Ratio, 1.03; 95% Confidence Interval, 1.00-1.07). Dog ownership is associated with increased physical activity in older women, particularly among women living alone. Health promotion efforts aimed at older adults should highlight the benefits of regular dog walking for both dog owners and non-dog owners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Total cost of ownership: the role of clinical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockel, Dale; Kintner, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Hospitals often incur substantial hidden costs associated with service agreements that they enter into with original equipment manufacturers at the time of equipment purchase. Hospitals should perform an analysis of the total cost of ownership (TCO) of their organizations' medical equipment to identify opportunities for performance improvement and savings. The findings of the TCO analysis can point to areas where clinical engineering service management can be improved through investments in technology, training, and teamwork.

  19. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim that mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (1) permissive gun laws, (2) widespread gun ownership, (3) encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters, and cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source m...

  20. The building blocks of the full body ownership illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Antonella; Slater, Mel

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has reported that it is not difficult to give people the illusion of ownership over an artificial body, providing a powerful tool for the investigation of the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying body perception and self consciousness. We present an experimental study that uses immersive virtual reality (IVR) focused on identifying the perceptual building blocks of this illusion. We systematically manipulated visuotactile and visual sensorimotor contingencies, visual perspective, and the appearance of the virtual body in order to assess their relative role and mutual interaction. Consistent results from subjective reports and physiological measures showed that a first person perspective over a fake humanoid body is essential for eliciting a body ownership illusion. We found that the illusion of ownership can be generated when the virtual body has a realistic skin tone and spatially substitutes the real body seen from a first person perspective. In this case there is no need for an additional contribution of congruent visuotactile or sensorimotor cues. Additionally, we found that the processing of incongruent perceptual cues can be modulated by the level of the illusion: when the illusion is strong, incongruent cues are not experienced as incorrect. Participants exposed to asynchronous visuotactile stimulation can experience the ownership illusion and perceive touch as originating from an object seen to contact the virtual body. Analogously, when the level of realism of the virtual body is not high enough and/or when there is no spatial overlap between the two bodies, then the contribution of congruent multisensory and/or sensorimotor cues is required for evoking the illusion. On the basis of these results and inspired by findings from neurophysiological recordings in the monkey, we propose a model that accounts for many of the results reported in the literature.

  1. Land use and ownership and the Czech farm development

    OpenAIRE

    Doucha, Tomas; Divila, Emil; Fischer, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of the present land usage, land ownership and the land market in the Czech Republic — the distribution of the Czech Utilised Agricultural Area (UAA) among owners and users, driving barriers on the Czech Land market. A regional view on the Czech UAA from the points of view of natural conditions, agro-environmental and rural sensitivity. Definition of policy scenarios for the 2013 horizon with the respect of coupled/decoupled direct payments, LFA payments, legislation related ...

  2. The building blocks of the full body ownership illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Antonella; Slater, Mel

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has reported that it is not difficult to give people the illusion of ownership over an artificial body, providing a powerful tool for the investigation of the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying body perception and self consciousness. We present an experimental study that uses immersive virtual reality (IVR) focused on identifying the perceptual building blocks of this illusion. We systematically manipulated visuotactile and visual sensorimotor contingencies, visual perspective, and the appearance of the virtual body in order to assess their relative role and mutual interaction. Consistent results from subjective reports and physiological measures showed that a first person perspective over a fake humanoid body is essential for eliciting a body ownership illusion. We found that the illusion of ownership can be generated when the virtual body has a realistic skin tone and spatially substitutes the real body seen from a first person perspective. In this case there is no need for an additional contribution of congruent visuotactile or sensorimotor cues. Additionally, we found that the processing of incongruent perceptual cues can be modulated by the level of the illusion: when the illusion is strong, incongruent cues are not experienced as incorrect. Participants exposed to asynchronous visuotactile stimulation can experience the ownership illusion and perceive touch as originating from an object seen to contact the virtual body. Analogously, when the level of realism of the virtual body is not high enough and/or when there is no spatial overlap between the two bodies, then the contribution of congruent multisensory and/or sensorimotor cues is required for evoking the illusion. On the basis of these results and inspired by findings from neurophysiological recordings in the monkey, we propose a model that accounts for many of the results reported in the literature. PMID:23519597

  3. Determinants of employees’ psychological ownership on budgetary slack

    OpenAIRE

    Kamisah Ismail; Cheok Mui Yee; Edward Wong Sek Khin

    2018-01-01

    The existence of budgetary slack permeates every level of private sector organisations. Employees (i.e., budget makers) usually request excessive budgetary resources in the budgeting process. Due to its dysfunctional nature, existing researchers had extensively examined the relationship between budgetary slack and employees’ performance. This study adopted a survey questionnaire approach to examine the relationship between determinants of psychological ownership and employees’ intention to cr...

  4. Pet ownership increases human risk of encountering ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E H; Hinckley, A F; Hook, S A; Meek, J I; Backenson, B; Kugeler, K J; Feldman, K A

    2018-02-01

    We examined whether pet ownership increased the risk for tick encounters and tickborne disease among residents of three Lyme disease-endemic states as a nested cohort within a randomized controlled trial. Information about pet ownership, use of tick control for pets, property characteristics, tick encounters and human tickborne disease were captured through surveys, and associations were assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Pet-owning households had 1.83 times the risk (95% CI = 1.53, 2.20) of finding ticks crawling on and 1.49 times the risk (95% CI = 1.20, 1.84) of finding ticks attached to household members compared to households without pets. This large evaluation of pet ownership, human tick encounters and tickborne diseases shows that pet owners, whether of cats or dogs, are at increased risk of encountering ticks and suggests that pet owners are at an increased risk of developing tickborne disease. Pet owners should be made aware of this risk and be reminded to conduct daily tick checks of all household members, including the pets, and to consult their veterinarian regarding effective tick control products. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Market risks and oilfield ownership - Refining oil and gas disclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, Gavin L.; Hatherly, David; Misund, Bard

    2007-01-01

    Market risk exposures of balance sheet asset values are becoming an increasingly important accounting issue. In oil and gas, oilfield exposures to oil prices are specific and contractual, presenting a contingency problem for investors, financial analysts, standard setting bodies and government agencies. Our paper uses an extensive sample of 292 oilfields to provide evidence that the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) supplementary disclosures do not capture the price sensitivities of oil and gas disclosures implicit in the two main forms of oilfield ownership, concession and production sharing contracts (PSCs). Current asset disclosures neither distinguish between global variations in oilfield ownership terms, nor on market risk implications for the value of oilfield assets. Importantly, we show that unlike concessions, reserve and production disclosures vary in response to oil price movements for PSC regimes. Our results highlight the need to differentiate PSC disclosures from concession fields, and to fully reflect price risks implicit in oilfield ownership contracts. We extend findings by Rajgopal [1999. Early evidence on the informativeness of the SEC's market risk disclosures: the case of commodity price risk exposure of oil and gas producers. The Accounting Review 74, 251-280] and propose refinements to capture market risk in financial reporting. (author)

  6. Hospital ownership, decisions on supervisory board characteristics, and financial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Ludwig; Pulm, Jannis; Wittland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic and complex transformations in the hospital market increase the relevance of good corporate governance. However, hospital performance and the characteristics of supervisory boards differ depending on ownership. The question therefore arises whether hospital owners can influence performance by addressing supervisory board characteristics. The objective of this study is to explain differences in the financial performance of hospitals with regard to ownership by studying the size and composition of supervisory boards. The AMADEUS database was used to collect information on hospital financial performance in 2009 and 2010. Business and quality reports, hospital websites, and data from health insurer were used to obtain information on hospital and board characteristics. The resulting sample consisted of 175 German hospital corporations. We utilized ANOVA and regression analysis to test a mediation hypothesis that investigated whether decisions regarding board size and composition were associated with financial performance and could explain performance differences. Financial performance and board size and composition depend on ownership. An increase in board size and greater politician participation were negatively associated with all five tested measures of financial performance. Furthermore, an increase in physician participation was positively associated with one dimension of financial performance, whereas one negative relationship was identified for nurse and economist participation. For clerics, no associations were found. Decisions concerning board size and composition are important as they relate to hospital financial performance. We contribute to existing research by showing that, in addition to board size and physician participation, the participation of other professionals can also influence financial performance.

  7. Determinants of employees’ psychological ownership on budgetary slack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamisah Ismail

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The existence of budgetary slack permeates every level of private sector organisations. Employees (i.e., budget makers usually request excessive budgetary resources in the budgeting process. Due to its dysfunctional nature, existing researchers had extensively examined the relationship between budgetary slack and employees’ performance. This study adopted a survey questionnaire approach to examine the relationship between determinants of psychological ownership and employees’ intention to create slack in budgeting. There were 475 budget makers from private sector organisations in the Klang Valley, Malaysia who participated in this study through a questionnaire survey. Preliminary data analysis was performed using normality, multi-collinearity, variance inflation index (VIF, common method variance, and reliability analysis. Multiple regression analysis was also applied to investigate the relationships of each dimension of employees’ psychological ownership on budgetary slack. This paper is considered a pioneer empirical study that investigates the determinants of psychological ownership on budgetary slack among budget makers from the psychological perspective in the context of private sector organisations in Malaysia, where slack activities in budgeting existed.

  8. Foreign Ownership and Skill-biased Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Michael; Smolka, Marcel

    Understanding the effects of foreign direct investment and the behavior of multinational enterprises (MNEs) is a core issue in the study of international economics. We exploit within-firm variation in ownership structure induced by foreign acquisitions in Spain to provide a new angle on the relat......Understanding the effects of foreign direct investment and the behavior of multinational enterprises (MNEs) is a core issue in the study of international economics. We exploit within-firm variation in ownership structure induced by foreign acquisitions in Spain to provide a new angle...... firms due to access to foreign markets through the foreign parent. This market size effect, coupled with a technology-skill complementarity, raises the demand for high-skilled workers as well as worker training upon acquisition. The largest productivity gains predicted by the model accrue to those firms...... empirical evidence that foreign-acquired firms, not only increase their technology level, but also engage in skill upgrading upon acquisition (through both hiring and training). Moreover, we show that these changes are driven by the market size effect, and not by changes in the ownership structure per se...

  9. The Association Between Gun Ownership and Statewide Overall Suicide Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Houtsma, Claire

    2018-04-01

    An extensive body of research has demonstrated an association between gun ownership and suicide that extends beyond the effects of a range of covariates. We aimed to expand on extant research by examining the extent to which gun ownership predicts statewide overall suicide rates beyond the effects of demographic, geographic, religious, psychopathological, and suicide-related variables. By extending the list of covariates utilized, considering those covariates simultaneously, and using more recent data, we sought to present a more stringent test. Gun ownership predicted statewide overall suicide rates, with the full model accounting for more than 92% of the variance in statewide suicide rates. The correlation between firearm suicide rates and the overall suicide rate was significantly stronger than the correlation between nonfirearm suicide rates and the overall suicide rate. These findings support the notion that access to and familiarity with firearms serves as a robust risk factor for suicide. Therefore, means safety efforts aimed at reducing accessibility and increasing safe storage of firearms would likely have a dramatic impact on statewide overall suicide rates. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  10. Economics of human performance and systems total ownership cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkham, Wilawan; Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

    2012-01-01

    Financial costs of investing in people is associated with training, acquisition, recruiting, and resolving human errors have a significant impact on increased total ownership costs. These costs can also affect the exaggerate budgets and delayed schedules. The study of human performance economical assessment in the system acquisition process enhances the visibility of hidden cost drivers which support program management informed decisions. This paper presents the literature review of human total ownership cost (HTOC) and cost impacts on overall system performance. Economic value assessment models such as cost benefit analysis, risk-cost tradeoff analysis, expected value of utility function analysis (EV), growth readiness matrix, multi-attribute utility technique, and multi-regressions model were introduced to reflect the HTOC and human performance-technology tradeoffs in terms of the dollar value. The human total ownership regression model introduces to address the influencing human performance cost component measurement. Results from this study will increase understanding of relevant cost drivers in the system acquisition process over the long term.

  11. Efficiency, ownership, and financing of hospitals: the case of Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czypionka, Thomas; Kraus, Markus; Mayer, Susanne; Röhrling, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    While standard economic theory posits that privately owned hospitals are more efficient than their public counterparts, no clear conclusion can yet be drawn for Austria in this regard. As previous Austrian efficiency studies rely on data from the 1990s only and are based on small hospital samples, the generalizability of these results is questionable. To examine the impact of ownership type on efficiency, we apply a Data Envelopment Analysis which extends the existing literature in two respects: first, it evaluates the efficiency of the Austrian acute care sector, using data on 128 public and private non-profit hospitals from the year 2010; second, it additionally focusses on the inpatient sector alone, thus increasing the comparability between hospitals. Overall, the results show that in Austria, private non-profit hospitals outperform public hospitals in terms of technical efficiency. A multiple regression analysis confirms the significant association between efficiency and ownership type. This conclusive result contrasts some international evidence and can most likely be attributed to differences in financial incentives for public and private non-profit hospitals in Austria. Therefore, by drawing on the example of the Austrian acute care hospital sector and existing literature on the German acute care hospital sector, we also discuss the impact of hospital financing systems and their incentives on efficiency. This paper thus also aims at providing a proof of principle, pointing out the importance of the respective market conditions when internationally comparing hospital efficiency by ownership type.

  12. Automobile Accidents Attended by Mobile Emergency Care Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Virgínia Gomes Barros

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Automobile accidents are increasing every day and are becoming a serious public health problem due to the high morbidity and mortality rate. The goal of the current study was to characterise the traffic accidents attended by the Mobile Emergency Care Service (MECS in Ibiara, PB. Methods: This exploratory, descriptive, documentary study adopted a quantitative approach and analysis of data. The population consisted of all victims of traffic accidents attended by MECS in the city of Ibiara, PB, from June 2015 to June 2016. The following variables were studied: age, gender, time and day of the week the accident occurred, nature of the incident, substance ingested by the victim, wearing personal protective equipment (PPE or not, the anatomical lesions on the victim and the body regions hit during the accident. Results: The sample consisted of 49 accident victims, and the majority (81.6% were male, predominately 30 to 59 years. Events occurring at night (63.3% and during the week (65.3% predominated. The most frequent type of accident was motorcycle fall (71.4%, with almost half having consumed alcohol (46.9% and most not wearing PPE (77.6%. The regions of the body most affected were the lower limbs (67.3% and upper limbs (53.1%. Conclusion: The main factor/cause of these accidents was due to imprudence and violation of traffic laws, highlighting the need to invest in traffic education policies, to direct campaigns for the prevention of traffic accidents, as well as expand the surveillance of traffic laws by authorities.

  13. Automobile materials competition: energy implications of fiber-reinforced plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings-Saxton, J.

    1981-10-01

    The embodied energy, structural weight, and transportation energy (fuel requirement) characteristics of steel, fiber-reinforced plastics, and aluminum were assessed to determine the overall energy savings of materials substitution in automobiles. In body panels, a 1.0-lb steel component with an associated 0.5 lb in secondary weight is structurally equivalent to a 0.6-lb fiber-reinforced plastic component with 0.3 lb in associated secondary weight or a 0.5-lb aluminum component with 0.25 lb of secondary weight. (Secondary weight refers to the combined weight of the vehicle's support structure, engine, braking system, and drive train, all of which can be reduced in response to a decrease in total vehicle weight.) The life cycle transportation energy requirements of structurally equivalent body panels (including their associated secondary weights) are 174.4 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 104.6 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 87.2 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. The embodied energy requirements are 37.2 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 22.1 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 87.1 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. These results can be combined to yield total energy requirements of 211.6 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 126.7 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 174.3 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. Fiber-reinforced plastics offer the greatest improvements over steel in both embodied and total energy requirements. Aluminum achieves the greatest savings in transportation energy.

  14. Pressure pain thresholds and musculoskeletal morbidity in automobile manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Judith E; Punnett, Laura; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2006-02-01

    Reduced pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) have been reported in occupational groups with symptoms of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSDs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether automobile manufacturing workers (n=460) with signs and symptoms of UEMSDs had reduced PPTs (greater sensitivity to pain through pressure applied to the skin) when compared with unaffected members of the cohort, which served as the reference group. The association of PPTs with symptom severity and localization of PE findings was investigated, as was the hypothesis that reduced thresholds would be found on the affected side in those with unilateral physical examination (PE) findings. PPTs were measured during the workday at 12 upper extremity sites. A PE for signs of UEMSDs and symptom questionnaire was administered. After comparison of potential covariates using t tests, linear regression multivariable models were constructed with the average of 12 sites (avgPPT) as the outcome. Subjects with PE findings and/or symptoms had a statistically significant lower avgPPT than non-cases. AvgPPT was reduced in those with more widespread PE findings and in those with greater symptom severity (test for trend, P

  15. Pyrolysis and gasification-melting of automobile shredder residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Seon Ah; Kim, Woo Hyun; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tae Jin; Kwak, Yeon Ho; Seo, Yong Chil

    2013-10-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea has commonly been disposed of in landfills. Due to the growing number of scrapped cars and the decreasing availability of landfill space, effective technology for reducing ASR is needed. However ASR is a complex mixture, and finding an appropriate treatment is not easy on account of the harmful compounds in ASR. Therefore, research continues to seek an effective treatment technology. However most studies have thus far been performed in the laboratory, whereas few commercial and pilot studies have been performed. This paper studies the pyrolysis and gasification-melting of ASR. The pyrolyis characteristics have been analyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), a Lindberg furnace, and a fixed-bed pyrolyzer to study the fundamental characteristics of ASR thermal conversion. As a pilot study, shaft-type gasification-melting was performed. High-temperature gasification-melting was performed in a 5000 kg/day pilot system. The gas yield and syngas (H2 and CO) concentration increase when the reaction temperature increases. Gas with a high calorific value of more than 16,800 kJ/m3 was produced in the pyrolyzer. From the gasification-melting process, syngas of CO (30-40%) and H2(10-15%) was produced, with 5% CH4 produced as well. Slag generation was 17% of the initial ASR, with 5.8% metal content and 4% fly ash. The concentration of CO decreases, whereas the H2, CO2, and CH4 concentrations increase with an increase in the equivalence ratio (ER). The emission levels of dioxin and air pollution compounds except nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were shown to satisfy Korean regulations.

  16. The Moderation Role of the Audit Committee Quality on the Effect of the Ownership Structure on Intellectual Capital Disclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Desi Alifia; Muhammad Khafid

    2018-01-01

    Intellectual capital is an intangible asset which is able to increase company’s value. Intellectual capital inherent to skill, knowledge and experience that can create competitive advantage for company. The purposes of this study are to analyze the effect of ownership structure (managerial ownership, institutional ownership, government ownership, foreign ownership with the quality of audit committee as moderating variable on intellectual capital. The population of this study is financial comp...

  17. Summary of semi-initiative and initiative control automobile engine vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Qu, Zhou

    2009-07-01

    Engine vibration accounts for around 55% of automobile vibration, separating the engine vibration from transmitting to automobile to the utmost extent is significant for improving NVH performance. Semi-initiative and initiative control of engine vibration is one of the hot spots of technical research in domestic and foreign automobile industry, especially luxury automobiles which adopt this technology to improve amenity and competitiveness. This article refers to a large amount of domestic and foreign related materials, fully introduces the research status of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension of engine vibration suspension and many kinds of structural style, and provides control policy and method of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension system. Compare and analyze the structural style of semi-initiative and initiative control and merits and demerits of current structures of semi-initiative and initiative control of mechanic electrorheological, magnetorheological, electromagnetic actuator, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostriction material, pneumatic actuator etc. Models of power assembly mounting system was classified.Calculation example indicated that reasonable selection of engine mounting system parameters is useful to reduce engine vibration transmission and to increase ride comfort. Finally we brought forward semi-initiative and initiative suspension which might be applied for automobiles, and which has a promising future.

  18. Evaluation of malodor for automobile air conditioner evaporator by using laboratory-scale test cooling bench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Sun Hwa; Jung, Young Rim; Kim, Man Goo

    2008-09-12

    As one of the measures to improve the environment in an automobile, malodor caused by the automobile air-conditioning system evaporator was evaluated and analyzed using laboratory-scale test cooling bench. The odor was simulated with an evaporator test cooling bench equipped with an airflow controller, air temperature and relative humidity controller. To simulate the same odor characteristics that occur from automobiles, one previously used automobile air conditioner evaporator associated with unpleasant odors was selected. The odor was evaluated by trained panels and collected with aluminum polyester bags. Collected samples were analyzed by thermal desorption into a cryotrap and subsequent gas chromatographic separation, followed by simultaneous olfactometry, flame ionization detector and identified by atomic emission detection and mass spectrometry. Compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, and organic acids were identified as responsible odor-active compounds. Gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/olfactometry combined sensory method with instrumental analysis was very effective as an odor evaluation method in an automobile air-conditioning system evaporator.

  19. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  20. Evaluation of failures in mechanical crankshafts of automobile based on expert opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kareem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, mechanical crankshaft failures for automobiles are evaluated based on experts’ opinion. This was done using data obtained using techniques based on oral interviews and questionnaire administration on mechanical failure of crankshafts from the experts working in the areas of automobile maintenance and crankshafts reconditioning. The data collected were analyzed using statistical methods based on probability. With this technique, probability of failure for each category of automobiles namely private, commercial cars and buses were evaluated. The results obtained show that private cars had lowest failure rate at the initial stage while commercial buses had the highest failure rate. At later periods all categories of automobile crankshafts considered had their failure rates converged steadily with stable reliability. Application of 6-sigma continuous improvement tool to the process indicated a further reliability improvement through improved oil lubrication system, especially in the thrust bearing. This showed that increased enlightenment campaign among the various stakeholders in automobile industries will improve on the choice of reliable mechanical crankshafts.