WorldWideScience

Sample records for automobile fuel consumption

  1. 基于喷油脉宽测试法的汽车油耗智能测试技术%Automobile fuel consumption intelligent testing technology based on fuel injection pulse-width test method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付百学; 胡胜海

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid growth of automobile ownership in China, the control of automobile fuel consumption is not only an energy problem, but also an environmental one. The carbon balance method is a major, indirect way of testing the automobile fuel consumption with high precision, but the test equipment is expensive, bulky, and hard to move, and the demands of the test environment are high; the sampling connection needs sealing and connecting to the exhaust pipe, so its application is limited. The direct test method tests the automobile fuel consumption through measuring fuel volume and quality within a certain distance or time, and the engine oil circuit needs to be taken apart in order to put in the fuel consumption meter. This method is inconvenient, time-consuming, and poses a security risk, which affects the test precision. At present, the electronic fuel injection system (EFI) engine adopts a special EFI fuel consumption sensor to test automobile fuel consumption, or uses two sets of ordinary flow sensors. Its testing principle is roughly the same: They all concatenate engine oil flow sensors to fuel line of engine, they are complicated operations, and the signal lag of the sensor is greater. Because the fuel injection pressure of the EFI engine is high, the amount of oil return is greater, and the oil temperature is higher, which may easily cause the return pipe of connection on the sensor to inflate and explode. Aiming at the existing problem of automobile fuel-consumption testing, using the single chip microcomputer control technology, we tested automobile fuel consumption through direct measurement of the fuel injection pulse width. We then developed an intelligent testing instrument for automobile fuel consumption. The injection pulse signal from the engine ECU is directly collected by the automobile fuel consumption test system. After it is filtered and embedded into single-chip microcomputer, the injector's cumulative injection time and the number of fuel

  2. Automobile Fuel Economy: What is it Worth?

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Santosh; Espey, Molly

    2004-01-01

    The marginal value of increased automobile fuel economy is estimated using a hedonic model of 2001 model year automobiles sold in the United States. This value is then compared to the average expected lifetime fuel savings attributable to increased fuel economy. Results indicate that automobile buyers fully internalize fuel cost savings attributable to improved fuel economy at low discount rates, and may partially internalize other perceived benefits of improved fuel economy such as reduction...

  3. Mind the gap; The vicious circle of measuring automobile fuel use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Figueroa, M.J.; Price, L. (Strategic Air Command, Offutt AFB, NE (United States). Aircraft Engineering Div.); Espey, M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Economics)

    1993-12-01

    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data of gasoline, diesel and other fuels used for automobiles. Significant uncertainties exist in values of both the number of automobiles in use and the distance each is driven, which together yield total automobile use. We present our own calculations for total automobile fuel use for a variety of OECD countries. We comment briefly on the impact of these gaps on econometric estimates of the price and income elasticities of automobile fuel use. (author)

  4. SYNTHESIS OF AUTOMOBILE IGNITION SYSTEM USING OZONIZED FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pilipenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical model for electronic control system of the angular ignition timing (AIT in the (ICE, which is running on ozonized fuel. An algorithm for  ignition system control of internal combustion engine using ozonized fuel has been developed in the paper. A structure of the dynamic ignition system while using a control unit for supplying  ozone into fuel with a purpose to improve automobile ecological and economical indices adapted to operational conditions. Application of the given system allows to ensure minimum reduction of operational petrol consumption and concentration of incomplete combustion products due to optimum ozone dosage into the fuel.  The paper proposes a controlled automobile ignition system as a sequential scheme which has a great number of discrete inputs and outputs and many discrete internal  states. The scheme establishes a functional dependence between input and output states. The paper provides an assessment of ecological indices according to massive emissions of carbon monoxide СО, hydrocarbon СпНт and nitric oxide NOx .  The analysis of  investigations results has been carried out in the paper.

  5. Fuel flowmeters - measurements of fuel consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Nešpor, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This work is devoted to measuring the fuel consumption. Generally deals with factors affecting consumption and fuels. Furthermore, it describes methods of measuring fuel consumption under the driving modes. Finally, the paper deals with the calculations, the actual selection of fuel gauge, economy and efficiency evaluation of fuel consumption. The conclusion of this work summarizes the above findings.

  6. Automobile Fuel Economy Standards: Impacts, Efficiency, and Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Soren; Parry, Ian; James M. Sallee; FISCHER, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses fuel economy regulations in the United States and other countries. We first describe how these programs affect the automobile market, including their impacts on fuel use and other dimensions of the vehicle fleet. We then review different methodologies for assessing the costs of fuel economy regulations and discuss what the results of these methodologies imply for policy. Following that, we compare the welfare effects of fuel economy regulations to those of fuel taxes and ...

  7. On the baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Business as usual' scenarios in long-term energy forecasts are crucial for scenario-based policy analyses. This article focuses on fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks, a long-disputed issue with serious implications for worldwide energy use and CO2 emissions. The current status in Europe is explained and future developments are analysed with the aid of historical data of the last three decades from the United States and Europe. As a result of this analysis, fuel economy values are proposed for use as assumptions in baseline energy/transport scenarios in the 15 'old' European Union Member States. Proposed values are given for new gasoline and diesel cars and for the years 2010, 2020 and 2030. The increasing discrepancy between vehicle fuel consumption measured under test conditions and that in the real world is also considered. One main conclusion is that the European Commission's voluntary agreement with the automobile industry should not be assumed to fully achieve its target under baseline conditions, nor should it be regarded as a major stimulus for autonomous vehicle efficiency improvements after 2010. A second conclusion is that three very recent studies enjoying authority across the EU tend to be overly optimistic as regards the technical progress for conventional and alternative vehicle propulsion technologies under 'business as usual' conditions

  8. A New Method for Estimation of Automobile Fuel Adulteration

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Anil; Sharma, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of increasing urban air pollution due to fast increasing number of auto mobiles and adulteration of automobile fuel has been pointed out in the context of developing countries. For prevention of the adulteration, the monitoring of fuel quality at the distribution point is essential. For the detection/estimation of the commonly used adulterants (i.e. diesel in petrol and kerosene in diesel), a number of possible methods have been reviewed. As such there is no standard method/equipm...

  9. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-08 Section 600.311-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of combined fuel economy values...

  10. 76 FR 31467 - Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... prevent deceptive fuel economy advertising for new automobiles and to facilitate the use of fuel economy... the Fuel Economy Guide, to help marketers avoid making advertising claims that are unfair or deceptive... CFR Part 259 Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles AGENCY: Federal...

  11. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-86 Section 600.311-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of city and the range of highway...

  12. Estimation of Gasoline Price Elasticities of Demand for Automobile Fuel Efficiency in Korea: A Hedonic Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Tae [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Myunghun [Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    This paper estimates the gasoline price elasticities of demand for automobile fuel efficiency in Korea to examine indirectly whether the government policy of raising fuel prices is effective in inducing less consumption of fuel, relying on a hedonic technique developed by Atkinson and Halvorsen (1984). One of the advantages of this technique is that the data for a single year, without involving variation in the price of gasoline, is sufficient in implementing this study. Moreover, this technique enables us to circumvent the multicollinearity problem, which had reduced reliability of the results in previous hedonic studies. The estimated elasticities of demand for fuel efficiency with respect to the price of gasoline, on average, is 0.42. (author). 30 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  14. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Shukla; C L Jackson; K Scott

    2003-02-01

    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of $ca$. 50 kW supplemented with short bursts up to 80 kW will suffice in most driving requirements. The energy demand depends greatly on driving characteristics but under normal usage is expected to be 200 Wh/km. The advantages and disadvantages of candidate fuel-cell systems and various fuels are considered together with the issue of whether the fuel should be converted directly in the fuel cell or should be reformed to hydrogen onboard the vehicle. For fuel cell vehicles to compete successfully with conventional internal-combustion engine vehicles, it appears that direct conversion fuel cells using probably hydrogen, but possibly methanol, are the only realistic contenders for road transportation applications. Among the available fuel cell technologies, polymer–electrolyte fuel cells directly fueled with hydrogen appear to be the best option for powering fuel cell vehicles as there is every prospect that these will exceed the performance of the internal-combustion engine vehicles but for their first cost. A target cost of $ 50/kW would be mandatory to make polymer–electrolyte fuel cells competitive with the internal combustion engines and can only be achieved with design changes that would substantially reduce the quantity of materials used. At present, prominent car manufacturers are deploying important research and development efforts to develop fuel cell vehicles and are projecting to start production by 2005.

  15. The automobile share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of a conversion of 120 billions metric tons of fossil carbon per year 1 billion are traffic related. But this amount is growing steadily. The global automobile density is about 10 automobiles per capita. It grows with 1.7% per year, as fast as the population. The number of automobiles doubles in 25 years. In all groups of developed countries the automobile density increased from 5 to 50 automobiles per capita in less than 50 years so far. Where is the fuel for the 1 billion automobiles of the year 2030 or 2050? Can one reduce this number or what chances does one have to reduce the adverse consequences? Whatever the number of motor vehicles will be, man will have the chance to reduce fuel consumption and therefore CO2-emission together with other emissions considerably

  16. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  17. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  18. A Study of Conspicuous Consumption in the Chinese Automobile Market

    OpenAIRE

    AU, Tai Shan

    2007-01-01

    Shenzhen (SZ), one the fastest growing province of China, is suffering the problem of excess number of cars in recent years. This problem causes traffic congestion and air-pollution. Many people argue that the problem of excess number of car is caused by conspicuous consumption, which means that people purchase the product not for the utility of products, but for showing off their wealth. Conspicuous consumption has been studied by a number of authors in the past. However, a study of conspicu...

  19. Monitoring of bunker fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D.; Smit, M.

    2013-03-15

    Monitoring of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping is currently under discussion at the EU level as well as at the IMO (International Maritime Organization). There are several approaches to monitoring, each with different characteristics. Based on a survey of the literature and information from equipment suppliers, this report analyses the four main methods for monitoring emissions: (1) Bunker delivery notes (i.e. a note provided by the bunker fuel supplier specifying, inter alia, the amount of fuel bunkered); (2) Tank sounding (i.e. systems for measuring the amount of fuel in the fuel tanks); (3) Fuel flow meters (i.e. systems for measuring the amount of fuel supplied to the engines, generators or boilers); and (4) Direct emissions monitoring (i.e. measuring the exhaust emissions in the stack). The report finds that bunker delivery notes and tank soundings have the lowest investment cost. However, unless tank sounding is automated, these systems have higher operational costs than fuel flow meters or direct emissions monitoring because manual readings have to be entered in monitoring systems. Fuel flow meters have the highest potential accuracy. Depending on the technology selected, their accuracy can be an order of magnitude better than the other systems, which typically have errors of a few percent. By providing real-time feed-back on fuel use or emissions, fuel flow meters and direct emissions monitoring provide ship operators with the means to train their crew to adopt fuel-efficient sailing methods and to optimise their maintenance and hull cleaning schedules. Except for bunker delivery notes, all systems allow for both time-based and route-based (or otherwise geographically delineated) systems.

  20. Reduction of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Pollutant Using Intelligent Transport Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostofa Kamal Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emitted by the transport sector around the world is a serious issue of concern. To minimize such emission the automobile engineers have been working relentlessly. Researchers have been trying hard to switch fossil fuel to alternative fuels and attempting to various driving strategies to make traffic flow smooth and to reduce traffic congestion and emission of greenhouse gas. Automobile emits a massive amount of pollutants such as Carbon Monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC, carbon dioxide (CO2, particulate matter (PM, and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Intelligent transport system (ITS technologies can be implemented to lower pollutant emissions and reduction of fuel consumption. This paper investigates the ITS techniques and technologies for the reduction of fuel consumption and minimization of the exhaust pollutant. It highlights the environmental impact of the ITS application to provide the state-of-art green solution. A case study also advocates that ITS technology reduces fuel consumption and exhaust pollutant in the urban environment.

  1. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks. 109-38.104 Section 109-38.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.1-Fuel Efficient...

  2. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency

  3. Mind the Gap: The Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; author), L. Schipper (main; Price, L.;

    1993-01-01

    of OECD countries. We comment briefly on the impact of these gaps on econometric estimates of the price and income elasticities of automobile fuel use. We show that improper use of the circularity often leads to gross errors in estimating fuel intensity and other indicators of energy use for personal...

  4. Market Energy efficient and new fuel automobile developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Tsinghua University develops mini electric car OUYANG Mingbao, dean of automotive engineering and director of the key national laboratory of automobile safety and energy efficiency, has recently delivered a speech on the development of mini electric car in the university.

  5. Cold start characteristics of ethanol as an automobile fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Leonard

    1982-01-01

    An alcohol fuel burner and decomposer in which one stream of fuel is preheated by passing it through an electrically heated conduit to vaporize the fuel, the fuel vapor is mixed with air, the air-fuel mixture is ignited and combusted, and the combustion gases are passed in heat exchange relationship with a conduit carrying a stream of fuel to decompose the fuel forming a fuel stream containing hydrogen gas for starting internal combustion engines, the mass flow of the combustion gas being increased as it flows in heat exchange relationship with the fuel carrying conduit, is disclosed.

  6. The Role of Technical Innovation and Sustainability on Energy Consumption: A Case Study on the Taiwanese Automobile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wu Chou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global warming and climate change is one of the most critical challenges of the 21st century. The greenhouse effect caused by technological development and industrial pollution has accelerated the speed of global warming. The continuous improvement in automobile energy consumption is one of the most effective ways to reduce global warming. A comparative analysis is proposed to examine the various automobiles that utilize technological innovation to improve their energy consumption. Their contribution to CO2 emissions is then investigated. This study focuses on technical innovation and output power of a conventional engine. The results indicate that innovative engines (such as the Ford turbo petrol/diesel engine, the EcoBoost/TDCi have improved energy consumption and reduce CO2 emissions. In addition, the Toyota hybrid vehicles have also improved energy consumption and reduced greenhouse gases emissions.

  7. Automobiles and global warming: Alternative fuels and other options for carbon dioxide emissions reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automobiles are a source of considerable pollution at the global level, including a significant fraction of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Alternative fuels have received some attention as potential options to curtail the carbon dioxide emissions from motor vehicles. This article discusses the feasibility and desirability (from a technical as well as a broader environmental perspective) of the large-scale production and use of alternative fuels as a strategy to mitigate automotive carbon dioxide emissions. Other options such as improving vehicle efficiency and switching to more efficient modes of passenger transportation are also discussed. These latter options offer an effective and immediate way to tackle the greenhouse and other pollutant emission from automobiles, especially as the limitations of currently available alternative fuels and the technological and other constraints for potential future alternatives are revealed

  8. Hydrogen as fuel carrier in PEM fuelcell for automobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sk, Mudassir Ali; Venkateswara Rao, K.; Ramana Rao, Jagirdar V.

    2015-02-01

    The present work focuses the application of nanostructured materials for storing of hydrogen in different carbon materials by physisorption method. To market a hydrogen-fuel cell vehicle as competitively as the present internal combustion engine vehicles, there is a need for materials that can store a minimum of 6.5wt% of hydrogen. Carbon materials are being heavily investigated because of their promise to offer an economical solution to the challenge of safe storage of large hydrogen quantities. Hydrogen is important as a new source of energy for automotive applications. It is clear that the key challenge in developing this technology is hydrogen storage. Combustion of fossil fuels and their overuse is at present a serious concern as it is creates severe air pollution and global environmental problems; like global warming, acid rains, ozone depletion in stratosphere etc. This necessitated the search for possible alternative sources of energy. Though there are a number of primary energy sources available, such as thermonuclear energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, geothermal energy etc, in contrast to the fossil fuels in most cases, these new primary energy sources cannot be used directly and thus they must be converted into fuels, that is to say, a new energy carrier is needed. Hydrogen fuel cells are two to three times more efficient than combustion engines. As they become more widely available, they will reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In a fuel cell, hydrogen and oxygen are combined in an electrochemical reaction that produces electricity and, as a byproduct, water.

  9. Fuel Consumption Impacts of Auto Roof Racks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche; Meier, Alan

    2016-05-01

    The after-market roof rack is one of the most common components attached to a vehicle for carrying over-sized items, such as bicycles and skis. It is important to understand these racks' fuel consumption impacts on both individual vehicles and the national fleet because they are widely used. We estimate the national fuel consumption impacts of roof racks using a bottom-up approach. Our model incorporates real-world data and vehicle stock information to enable assessing fuel consumption impacts for several categories of vehicles, rack configurations, and usage conditions. In addition, the model draws on two new data-gathering techniques, on-line forums and crowd-sourcing. The results show that nationwide, roof racks are responsible for 0.8% of light duty vehicle fuel consumption in 2015, corresponding to 100 million gallons of gasoline per year. Sensitivity analyses show that results are most sensitive to the fraction of vehicles with installed roof racks but carrying no equipment. The aerodynamic efficiency of typical roof racks can be greatly improved and reduce individual vehicle fuel consumption; however, government policies to minimize extensive driving with empty racks--if successful--could save more fuel nationally.

  10. Viability study of automobile shredder residue as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo, Mar; Aracil, Ignacio; Font, Rafael; Anzano, Manuela; Fullana, Andrés; Collina, Elena

    2013-09-15

    Car Fluff samples collected from a shredding plant in Italy were classified based on particle size, and three different size fractions were obtained in this way. A comparison between these size fractions and the original light fluff was made from two different points of view: (i) the properties of each size fraction as a fuel were evaluated and (ii) the pollutants evolved when each size fraction was subjected to combustion were studied. The aim was to establish which size fraction would be the most suitable for the purposes of energy recovery. The light fluff analyzed contained up to 50 wt.% fines (particle sizerefuse-derived fuel (RDF). Results obtained suggest that removing fines from the original ASR sample would lead to a material product that is more suitable for use as RDF. PMID:23856312

  11. Viability study of automobile shredder residue as fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Edo Giménez, María del Mar; Aracil, Ignacio; Font Montesinos, Rafael; Anzano, Manuela; Fullana Font, Andrés; Collina, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Car Fluff samples collected from a shredding plant in Italy were classified based on particle size, and three different size fractions were obtained in this way. A comparison between these size fractions and the original light fluff was made from two different points of view: (i) the properties of each size fraction as a fuel were evaluated and (ii) the pollutants evolved when each size fraction was subjected to combustion were studied. The aim was to establish which size fraction would be th...

  12. Wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researching wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro in the heating season 2011/2012. The research was conducted in the period October-November 2012 on the sample of 5% of the total number of households which stated to use solid fuels for heating purposes in the 2011 census. Results of the conducted researches on the presence and amounts of fuels consumed in households in Montenegro showed that total firewood consumption in the heating season 2011/2012 (both urban and rural households was 703,571 m3. Wood consumption is the lowest in the households in the municipalities in the coastal zone, it is somewhat higher in central zone and the highest in the zone on the north of Montenegro. Average wood consumption in households in the coastal zone municipalities is 3.79 m3, in the central zone it is 5.02 m3 and on the north of Montenegro it is 6.74 m3/household. Observed on the level of Montenegro, average firewood consumption per household was 5.49 m3 and as such it best represents relatively low consumption level in the coastal zone and high consumption level on the north of Montenegro. Compared to the neighboring countries, average firewood consumption per household in Montenegro in the amount of 5.49 m3 is significantly lower than the average consumption in Serbia which is 7.3 m3/household as well as in Slovenia in the amount of 6.5 m3.

  13. Vehicle routing problem for save fuel consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hao; AI Wen-wen

    2016-01-01

    This study has extended a vehicle routing problem,by considering economy of fuel,and constructing a LF-VRP model,to obtain optimal fixed costs.Our objective was to minimize not only distance,but also the fuel consumption.A example were developed to solve the proposed models.It was found that our proposed models yielded better results than the traditional VRP models.

  14. Viability study of automobile shredder residue as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edo, Mar; Aracil, Ignacio; Font, Rafael; Anzano, Manuela; Fullana, Andrés; Collina, Elena

    2013-09-15

    Car Fluff samples collected from a shredding plant in Italy were classified based on particle size, and three different size fractions were obtained in this way. A comparison between these size fractions and the original light fluff was made from two different points of view: (i) the properties of each size fraction as a fuel were evaluated and (ii) the pollutants evolved when each size fraction was subjected to combustion were studied. The aim was to establish which size fraction would be the most suitable for the purposes of energy recovery. The light fluff analyzed contained up to 50 wt.% fines (particle size<20 mm). However, its low calorific value and high emissions of polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), generated during combustion, make the fines fraction inappropriate for energy recovery, and therefore, landfilling would be the best option. The 50-100 mm fraction exhibited a high calorific value and low PCDD/F emissions were generated when the sample was combusted, making it the most suitable fraction for use as refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Results obtained suggest that removing fines from the original ASR sample would lead to a material product that is more suitable for use as RDF.

  15. Accounting for changes in automobile gasoline consumption in Japan: 2000-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Kagawa, Shigemi; Goto, Yuriko; Suh, Sangwon; Nansai, Keisuke; Kudoh, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes gasoline consumption in Japan for the period 2000- 2007 using the index decomposition analysis (IDA). The changes in gasoline con- sumption in Japan were attributed to five factors: (1) change in the annual average driving distance of new and vintage cars, (2) change in the market share of new pas- senger cars, (3) change in the total number of new passenger cars, (4) change in the fuel economy of new passenger cars, and (5) change in the stock of vintage cars. We used the...

  16. Automobile air pollution: automotive fuels. 1970-May, 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1970-May 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-06-01

    The use of fuels and fuel additives to reduce pollution from automobiles is covered in this bibliography. The use of methyl alcohol, natural gas, methane, and hydrogen is reported. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are discussed, along with studies on lead additives. (This updated bibliography contains 147 abstracts, 10 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  17. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 600 - Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (Applicable to 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (Applicable to 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles) I Appendix I to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App....

  18. Analysis of Virtual Sensors for Predicting Aircraft Fuel Consumption

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous research described the use of machine learning algorithms to predict aircraft fuel consumption. This technique, known as Virtual Sensors, models fuel...

  19. Fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of aircrafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, R. [Institute of Flightmechanics, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of contamination of sensitive atmospheric layers by improved flight planning steps, is investigated. Calculated results have shown, that a further development of flight track planning allows considerable improvements on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Even if air traffic will further increase, optimistic investigations forecast a reduction of the environmental damage by aircraft exhausts, if the effects of improved flight track arrangement and engine innovations will be combined. (R.P.) 4 refs.

  20. Fungal contamination of stored automobile-fuels in a tropical environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos E.Rodríguez-Rodríguez; Evelyn Rodríguez; Rigoberto Blanco; Ivannia Cordero; Daniel Segura

    2010-01-01

    Because of the lack of reports,the base levels of microbial contamination on stored fuels are unknown in tropical regions and it is unclear whether these levels have some influence on fuel quality parameters.Therefore,fungal quality in automobile fuels stored across Costa Rican territory was evaluated during two years according to the standard ASTM D6974-04.For a total of 96 samples,counts and identification of molds and yeasts were performed on regular gas,premium gas and diesel taken from the bottom and superior part of the container tanks.The highest contamination was found on the bottom of the tanks,where an aqueous phase was usually identified,showing populations over the ones present in the hydrocarbon itself (up to 108 CFU/L).Diesel was the most contaminated fuel (up to 107 CFU/L);however,an alteration on the physicochemical parameters was not observed in any kind of fuel.Seventy-five mold strains were isolated,Penicillium sp.being the most common genus (45.8% of the samples),and ten yeast strains,from the genera Candida sp.and Rhodotorula sp.Four of the yeasts were able to grow on diesel as the sole carbon source,at concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 25%.Increasing the frequency of tank cleaning,adding antimicrobial agents and monitoring microbial populations are recommended strategies to improve microbial quality of stored fuels.

  1. Fungal contamination of stored automobile-fuels in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Rodríguez, Evelyn; Blanco, Rigoberto; Cordero, Ivannia; Segura, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Because of the lack of reports, the base levels of microbial contamination on stored fuels are unknown in tropical regions and it is unclear whether these levels have some influence on fuel quality parameters. Therefore, fungal quality in automobile fuels stored across Costa Rican territory was evaluated during two years according to the standard ASTM D6974-04. For a total of 96 samples, counts and identification of molds and yeasts were performed on regular gas, premium gas and diesel taken from the bottom and superior part of the container tanks. The highest contamination was found on the bottom of the tanks, where an aqueous phase was usually identified, showing populations over the ones present in the hydrocarbon itself (up to 10(8) CFU/L). Diesel was the most contaminated fuel (up to 10(7) CFU/L); however, an alteration on the physicochemical parameters was not observed in any kind of fuel. Seventy-five mold strains were isolated, Penicillium sp. being the most common genus (45.8% of the samples), and ten yeast strains, from the genera Candida sp. and Rhodotorula sp. Four of the yeasts were able to grow on diesel as the sole carbon source, at concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 25%. Increasing the frequency of tank cleaning, adding antimicrobial agents and monitoring microbial populations are recommended strategies to improve microbial quality of stored fuels. PMID:21235191

  2. The growing interest of automobile manufacturers for natural gas as an automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects for natural gas vehicles (NGV) are good. The number of trucks, busses and passenger cars that run on natural gas has considerably increased over the last few years. Natural gas is applauded from various sides as the most important alternative engine fuel. Some prestigious automobile manufacturers have meanwhile included NGV in their price list. However, it's up to the authorities and the gas industry itself in particular to make or break the success of NGV. The maximum range of 300 km is still too limited as is the number of natural gas filling stations in most countries. And without financial impetus NGV will not be able to compete with petrol- and diesel-fueled cars. Yet, clean natural gas vehicles appear to realize a market share of 1% soon

  3. Fuel-consumption reflects increasing export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel consumption in Slovakia has been substantially rising during the first three months of this year. During January and February about 6 percent more petrol and 15 percent more diesel fuel were sold compared to last year. Retail sales were growing even faster, informed president of Slovak Association of Petroleum Industry and Trade (SAPPO), Karoly Robak. He considers this an evidence of a substantial economic growth. The export is executed in form of freight transport (lorries), as this, together with agriculture, is the largest diesel fuel consumer. K. Robak, who at the same time is the Deputy General Manager For Retail at Slovnaft, a.s., Bratislava, expects the sales of fuel to grow by about 8 percent this year. Low prices due to a weaker US dollar should only support these tendencies. Last year the sales grew by 8,3 percent and in retail business the increase exceeded 10 percent. At the moment there are about 700 petrol stations in Slovakia (SAPPO) and over 330 out of them are owned by Slovnaft. The sale of fuel is now moving more to the retail business - to petrol stations as the price difference between retail and wholesale is decreasing. Last year for instance the wholesale recorded an increase in sales of diesel by 6,5 percent whereas retail sales grew by 17 percent. With petrol the situation was similar - 6,4 increase in retail sales and 2,5 percent in wholesale. (Author)

  4. Fuel Consumption Potential of the Pushbelt CVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Van der Sluis, Francis; Van Dongen, Tom; Van Spijk, Gert-Jan; Van der Velde, Arie; Van Heeswijk, Ad

    2011-01-01

    The efforts to further reduce fuel consumption of vehicles equipped with a pushbelt type Continuously Variable Transmission(CVT) focus on different sources of loss.In this paper the magnitude of these losses and their potential for reduction is described.Inside the CVT,the variator,its control strategy and the hydraulic actuation circuit can be distinguished as the main potentials.A major opportunity is offered by a new control strategy that takes the actual slip between belt and pulley as the control parameter.The resulting decrease of clamping forces on the pushbelt leads to a reduction of variator and actuation losses.Further potential is found in the hydraulic actuation circuit by an improved tuning of the power supply to the actual power requirement.Outside the CVT additional potential is found in start-stop functionality as supported by measures inside the transmission.The paper describes the theoretical background as well as practical fuel savings of up to 5.5% that were obtained in tests on vehicle level.Slip control adds an inherent robustness to the operation of the pushbelt and opens up the fuel saving potential of the CVT thus reinforcing its position as the benchmark for the near future.

  5. Real-world fuel consumption of passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Eijk, A.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008 Travelcard Nederland BV and TNO collaborate to determine the real-world fuel consumption of modern vehicles. The difference between the official type-approval value and the actual fuel consumption has been reported over the years (Ligterink, 2010 and Ligterink, 2013 and Ligterink, 2014).

  6. Impact of the electric compressor for automotive air conditioning system on fuel consumption and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, A. A.; Dahlan, A. A.; Zulkifli, A. H.; Nasution, H.; Aziz, A. A.; Perang, M. R. M.; Jamil, H. M.; Misseri, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Air conditioning system is the biggest auxiliary load in a vehicle where the compressor consumed the largest. Problem with conventional compressor is the cooling capacity cannot be control directly to fulfill the demand of thermal load inside vehicle cabin. This study is conducted experimentally to analyze the difference of fuel usage and air conditioning performance between conventional compressor and electric compressor of the air conditioning system in automobile. The electric compressor is powered by the car battery in non-electric vehicle which the alternator will recharge the battery. The car is setup on a roller dynamometer and the vehicle speed is varied at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 110 km/h at cabin temperature of 25°C and internal heat load of 100 and 400 Watt. The results shows electric compressor has better fuel consumption and coefficient of performance compared to the conventional compressor.

  7. Imaging diagnostics of ethanol port fuel injection sprays for automobile engine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents characteristics of ethanol sprays at port fuel injection (PFI) conditions with variations in injection and ambient parameters. Details of temporal and spatial development of ethanol PFI sprays are studied using Mie-scattering and high-speed shadowgraph imaging techniques. Momentum flux-based injection rate measurement is also performed. The influences of fuel flow-rate, injection duration, and ambient air cross-flow are of particular interest in an effort to understand ethanol PFI spray characteristics that are relevant to automobile engines. For comparison purposes, the results from gasoline fuel are also presented. Ethanol flow-rate effects are studied using two injectors with different nozzle-hole sizes at a fixed injection pressure. From the experiments, it was found that the actual injection duration was longer for the higher flow-rate injector although an electronic pulse width was fixed. This was due to an extended delay in the injector needle closing as the flow resistance against the needle was increased for the high flow-rate injector. For liquid droplets, the larger hole size of the higher flow-rate injector caused a higher mean droplet diameter and higher number of droplets. Injection duration was also varied to study transient spray behaviour: short-injection sprays with the end-of-injection transient dominating the overall spray development were compared to long, steady-injection sprays. From Mie-scattering images, the number of droplets and mean droplet diameter were found to be less for the short injection sprays. Detailed analysis using an axial profile of the number of droplets and mean droplet diameter suggested that the observed trends were a result of increased evaporation rate near the nozzle after the end of injection. This was consistent with shadowgraph images showing no liquid regions but only the vapour-phase fuel near the nozzle. Under the influence of ambient air cross-flow, both mean droplet diameter and number of

  8. Baseline test data for the EVA electric vehicle. [low energy consumption automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhay, W. C.; Bozek, J.

    1976-01-01

    Two electric vehicles from Electric Vehicle Associates were evaluated for ERDA at the Transportation Research Center of Ohio. The vehicles, loaded to a gross vehicle weight of 3750 pounds, had a range of 56.3 miles at a steady speed of 25 mph and a 27.4 miles range during acceleration-deceleration tests to a top speed of 30 mph. Energy consumption varied from 0.48 kw-hr/mi. to 0.59 kw-hr/mi.

  9. Stirling engines for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beremand, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The results of recent and ongoing automobile Stirling engine development efforts are reviewed and technology status and requirements are identified. Key technology needs include those for low cost, high temperature (1300 - 1500 F) metal alloys for heater heads, and reliable long-life, low-leakage shaft seals. Various fuel economy projections for Stirling powered automobiles are reviewed and assessed.

  10. Automobile with fuel cell and supercapacitor drive; Personenwagen mit Brennstoffzellen und Supercap-Antrieb - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Ph.

    2002-12-15

    In a Volkswagen BORA a power train has been realized, which includes a fuel cell system consisting of 6 stacks of 8 kW electrical power output each, an electrical storage device made of 282 supercap cells storing 360 Wh of electrical energy, a DC/DC converter and an electric motor which delivers up to 75 kW. The power distribution between supercaps and fuel cell is managed by an energy management device, which optimizes the distribution taking the actual operation points into account. The fuel cell system operates in a wide range with an efficiency higher than 40%. The power train has been integrated in a five seat car. This car named HY.POWER{sup R}, realized as technology platform, drove over the Simplon pass (elevation 2000 m over sea level) on 16 January 2002. This test drive proved the maturity of this concept to drive using this technology on public roads and that also severe operating conditions can be handled successfully. The key aspects of that concepts are the new manufacturing process of the bipolar plates for the fuel cells, the system configuration of the fuel cell system and the enhanced energy density of the supercap cells. The combination of a fuel cell system and of a supercap storage device, together with the integration of the DC/DC converter lead to a new power train concept. The consumption in the NEDC is equal to the energy of 5-6 l gasoline, which is quite impressive if it is remembered that the car has an empty mass of nearly 2000 kg. The HY.POWER{sup R} has been used heavily for the communication of the new technology to the public. The first event was the test drive across the Simplon pass. The main other events was the international auto motor show in Geneva in March 2002 and the presentation of the vehicle at the Earth Summit in Johannesburg in September 2002. (author)

  11. Optimal approach minimizing aircraft noise and fuel consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Khardi, Salah; Abdallah, Lina; Houacine, Mohamed; KONOVALOVA, Olena

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a model to find and evaluate optimal flight paths in order to minimize aircraft noise levels around airports and fuel consumption. Aircraft flight dynamics and trajectories have been considered. A continuous descent approach has been found to be the optimal approach procedure minimizing noise levels and fuel consumption. Performance of optimal approach procedure and its comparison to Integrated Noise Model standard procedures have been presented and d...

  12. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutramon, Tamsanya; Supachart, Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods. PMID:20108661

  13. Influence of driving cycles on exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of gasoline passenger car in Bangkok

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NUTRAMON Tamsanya; SUPACHART Chungpaibulpatana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different driving cycles on their exhaust emissions and fuel consumption rate of gasoline passenger car was investigated in Bangkok based on the actual measurements obtained from a test vehicle driving on a standard chassis dynamometer. A newly established Bangkok driving cycle (BDC) and the European driving cycle (EDC) which is presently adopted as the legislative cycle for testing automobiles registered in Thailand were used. The newly developed BDC is constructed using the driving characteristic data obtained from the real on-road driving tests along selected traffic routes. A method for selecting appropriate road routes for real driving tests is also introduced. Variations of keyed driving parameters of BDC with different driving cycles were discussed. The results showed that the HC and CO emission factors of BDC are almost two and four times greater than those of EDC, respectively. Although the difference in the NOx emission factor is small, the value from BDC is still greater than that of EDC by 10%. Under BDC, the test vehicle consumes fuel about 25% more than it does under EDC. All these differences are mainly attributed to the greater proportion of idle periods and higher fluctuations of vehicle speed in the BDC cycle. This result indicated that the exhausted emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles obtained from tests under the legislative modal-type driving cycle (EDC) are significantly different from those actually produced under real traffic conditions especially during peak periods.

  14. Fuel Consumption Management in the Transportation Sector in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dastjerdi, Aliasghar M.; Araghi, Bahar Namaki

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption in the transportation sector in Iran is significantly higher than global norms and standards which caused some issues including wasting national resources, deteriorating air quality, GHG emissions etc. The major purpose of this paper is to introduce practical policies, strategies...... and technologies to reduce liquid fuel consumption known as a dominant source of energy in transport sector in Iran. Since, the road subsector has the major share in consuming liquid fuel amongst others, more attention is given to the methods for reducing consumption in this subsector. The relating policies...

  15. The automobile of the future: engine technologies and automotive fuels developed by IFP; l'automobile du futur: les technologies moteurs et carburants developpes par l'IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O.; Pinchon, Ph.

    2004-07-01

    In front of the challenges of climate change and depletion of petroleum reserves, in front of the continuous strengthening of pollution regulations applied to automobile (Euro IV and V) and the advances of R and D, several ways of research can be explored to answer the mobility needs of the coming decades. The IFP takes stock of these topics in this press kit which comprises 11 documents: the synthesis of O. Appert and P. Pinchon's talk about 'the cleaner and multi-energies automobile of the future', the slides of this presentation, the future evolutions of automobiles motorizations, the long-term evolutions of engines/fuels (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel fuel in the USA (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), bio-fuels in Europe (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel pollution abatement: efficient results from the IFP's diesel combustion process 'NADI'(TM), the presentation of the IFP scientific meeting of September 22-23, 2004 'which fuels for low CO{sub 2} engines?', the strategic positioning of IFP in the world energy and environmental context, the brochures 'IFP engines and fuels: a competitive advantage' and 'innovating for a sustainable development in the domain of energy'. (J.S.)

  16. Applicability of gasoline containing ethanol as Thailand's alternative fuel to curb toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Shing Tet; Muttamara, S.; Laortanakul, Preecha

    Emission rates of benzene, toluene, m-xylene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were measured in a fleet of 16 in-use vehicles. The test was performed on a chassis dynamometer incorporated with Bangkok Driving Cycle test mode. Three different test fuels: unleaded gasoline, gasoline blended with 10% ethanol (E10) and gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) were used to determine the different compositions of exhaust emissions from various vehicles. The effects of ethanol content fuels on emissions were tested by three types of vehicles: cars with no catalytic converter installation, cars with three-way catalytic converter and cars with dual-bed catalytic converter. The test result showed wide variations in the average emission rates with different mileages, fuel types and catalytic converters (benzene: 3.33-56.48 mg/km, toluene: 8.62-124.66 mg/km, m-xylene: 2.97-51.65 mg/km, formaldehyde: 20.82-477.57 mg/km and acetaldehyde: 9.46-219.86 mg/km). There was a modest reduction in emission rate of benzene, toluene and m-xylene in cars using E10 and E15 fuels. Use of ethanol fuels, however, leads to increased formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emission rates. Our analysis revealed that alternative fuels and technologies give significant reduction in toxic VOC pollutants from automobile emission—particularly car with dual-bed catalytic converter using E10 fuel.

  17. Vehicle technologies, fuel-economy policies, and fuel-consumption rates of Chinese vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the principal ways to reduce transport-related energy use is to reduce fuel-consumption rates of motor vehicles (usually measured in liters of fuel per 100 km). Since 2004, China has implemented policies to improve vehicle technologies and lower the fuel-consumption rates of individual vehicles. Policy evaluation requires accurate and adequate information on vehicle fuel-consumption rates. However, such information, especially for Chinese vehicles under real-world operating conditions, is rarely available from official sources in China. For each vehicle type we first review the vehicle technologies and fuel-economy policies currently in place in China and their impacts. We then derive real-world (or on-road) fuel-consumption rates on the basis of information collected from various sources. We estimate that the real-world fuel-consumption rates of vehicles in China sold in 2009 are 9 L/100 km for light-duty passenger vehicles, 11.4 L/100 km for light-duty trucks, 22 L/100 km for inter-city transport buses, 40 L/100 km for urban transit buses, and 24.9 L/100 km for heavy-duty trucks. These results aid in understanding the levels of fuel consumption of existing Chinese vehicle fleets and the effectiveness of policies in reducing on-road fuel consumption, which can help in designing and evaluating future vehicle energy-efficiency policies. - Highlights: ► Vehicle fuel-consumption rate (VFCR) data are rarely available in China. ► We review the fuel-economy policies currently in place in China and their impacts. ► We derive real-world VFCRs on the basis of information collected from various sources. ► Results aid in understanding the fuel consumption levels of Chinese vehicle fleets. ► Results help in designing and evaluating future vehicle energy-efficiency policies.

  18. Reducing fuel consumption by using a new fuel-efficiency support tool

    OpenAIRE

    Voort, van der, R.; Dougherty, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A fuel-efficiency support tool has been designed, which includes a normative model describing optimal driver behaviour for minimising fuel consumption. If actual behaviour deviates from optimal behaviour, the system presents advice on how to change behaviour. Evaluation revealed that drivers used ~16% less fuel compared with `normal driving'

  19. Testing of a low specific fuel consumption turbocompound engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtman, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Refinements to reduce the operating costs of heavy-duty diesel engines have resulted in new production engines with specific fuel consumption (sfc) below 200 g/kW-hr. Turbocompounding the heavy-duty diesel engine results in further reductions in sfc. This paper describes a research program for testing of an 11.3 liter, 6 cylinder turbocompound diesel engine which has demonstrated a significant reduction in specific fuel consumption, down to 180 g/kW-hr, as well as improved transient emissions and response.

  20. Fuel consumption of a sugarcane harvester in different operational settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. G. Ramos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interventions performed during the mechanized harvesting are essential to improve the operational performance of sugarcane harvesters and reduce operational costs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the fuel consumption of a sugarcane harvester in different forward speeds and engine rotations. Harvesting was conducted in a green cane plot, with the variety RB 855156. Flow meters were installed in the harvester's fuel supply system and an electronic device was used for data acquisition. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme (3 x 2, using three engine rotations and two forward speeds, with six replicates. Harvesting capacity and fuel consumption per hour, per area and per ton of harvested sugarcane were analyzed. The results were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test. The variations in engine rotation did not affect the performance for harvesting capacity, but influenced fuel consumption. Forward speed influenced both harvesting capacity and fuel consumption.

  1. Partial Substitution of Fuel Alcohol for Oil Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ With the rapid development of the national economy in the 21st century, China has constantly increased its oil consumption and already depends on imported oil for close to 50% of its supply. Due to various factors, the price of oil keeps increasing. Various biological energy sources have therefore aroused people's interest. As fuel alcohol was developed ahead of the pack, and its technology has now matured worldwide, it has become a focus as a partial substitute in petroleum based fuels.

  2. Fuel Consumption and Emissions from Airport Taxi Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yoon

    2010-01-01

    Developed a method to calculate fuel consumption and emissions of phases of taxi operations. Results at DFW showed that up to 18% of fuel can be saved by eliminating stop-and-go situations. Developed an energy efficient and environmentally friendly surface concept: Spot and Runway Departure Advisory (SARDA) tool. The SARDA tool has been identified as a potential candidate for a technology transfer to the FAA.

  3. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  4. Ethanol as an Alternative Fuel for Automobiles: Using the First Law of Thermodynamics to Calculate the "Corn-Area-per-Car" Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietro, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Students will use the first law of thermodynamics to determine the feasibility of using corn ethanol as an alternative to fossil fuels in automobiles. Energy flow is tracked from the Sun, to photosynthesized carbohydrate, to ethanol through fermentation, and finally to work in the combustion engine. Feasibility is gauged by estimating a…

  5. Oil Giants Urge Changes to Consumption Taxes on Fuels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec), China's two largest companies, have apparently asked the government to temporarily lower or withdraw its levy on fuel oil consumption, according to the reports from

  6. Comments on the Calculations of Specific Electricity and Fuel Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    Calculation of specific consumption of electricity and fuel for model electrical vehicles (passenger cars and vans). Both the present technological level and projected future technological developments. Used as background paper for a review of the scope for electrical vehicles in Denmark, carried...

  7. Heavy truck modeling for fuel consumption. Simulations and measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, T.

    2001-12-01

    Fuel consumption for heavy trucks depends on many factors like roads, weather, and driver behavior that are hard for a manufacturer to influence. However, one design possibility is the power train configuration. Here a new simulation program for heavy trucks is created to find the configuration of the power train that gives the lowest fuel consumption for each transport task. For efficient simulations the model uses production code for speed and gear control, and it uses exchangeable data sets to allow simulation of the whole production range of engine types, on recorded road profiles from all over the world. Combined with a graphical user interface this application is called STARS (Scania Truck And Road Simulation). The forces of rolling resistance and air resistance in the model are validated through an experiment where the propeller shaft torque of a heavy truck is measured. It is found that the coefficient of rolling resistance is strongly dependent on tire temperature, not only on vehicle speed as expected. This led to the development of a new model for rolling resistance. The model includes the dynamic behavior of the tires and relates rolling resistance to tire temperature and vehicle speed. In another experiment the fuel consumption of a test truck in highway driving is measured. The altitude of the road is recorded with a barometer and used in the corresponding simulations. Despite of the limited accuracy of this equipment the simulation program manage to predict a level of fuel consumption only 2% lower than the real measurements. It is concluded that STARS is a good tool for predicting fuel consumption for trucks in highway driving and for comparing different power train configurations.

  8. The external energy consumption in automobiles manufacturing; La consommation d'energie externe dans la fabrication d'automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, F.; Lesne, Ch.

    2003-03-01

    This analysis on the external energy consumption in the automotive industry aims at: estimating the energy consumed in the French territory by the overall transports linked with the automotive industry ('external' energy) and comparing it to the energy consumed in car factories ('internal' energy); estimating the CO{sub 2} emission levels linked with the transportation activity and evaluating the impact of these emissions on the main parameters of the automotive industry production (number of vehicles produced). The methodology is based on a first study carried out with the French car maker Renault at the European scale, and extended to the whole automotive industry of France. The first two chapters are devoted to a descriptive analysis of the car making process in an internationalization context. The methodology of estimation of external energy consumptions and of CO{sub 2} emissions is presented in the third chapter. Finally, a modeling at the scale of France is proposed in the last chapter. A synthesis of the results and the lessons learnt are summarized in the conclusion. (J.S.)

  9. Automobile air pollution: Automotive fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of fuels and fuel additives for the reduction of automotive air pollution. Alternative fuels discussed include gasohol, methane, natural gas, and hydrogen. Improvements to gasoline and its properties which affect air pollution are considered, as well as lead and other fuel additives. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Wood fuel supply, costs and home consumption in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizaraite, D.; Mizaras, S.; Sadauskiene, L. [Department of Forest Resources, Economics and Politics, Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Liepu 1, Girionys, Kaunas distr. LT-53101 (Lithuania)

    2007-10-15

    This paper examines the possibilities of increasing the use of wood from private forests in Lithuania for bioenergy purposes. Potential wood fuel supply and consumption were investigated using a literature review and analysis of statistical data. Costs of wood chips production were calculated applying economic simulation. The analysis showed that 0.6 Mm{sup 3} (1.2 TWh) of firewood is produced and about 0.3 Mm{sup 3} (0.6 TWh) of forest logging residues could be used annually for fuel in private forests. The available volume will increase in coming decades. In total, Lithuanian households had increased wood fuel consumption by five times during 10 years and exceeded 2.3 Mm{sup 3} (4.6 TWh) in 2003. Firewood production for home consumption is one of the most important forest owners' objectives. The cost of forest chips varied from 19 to 36 euro m{sup -3} in pre-commercial thinnings and from 20 to 28 euro m{sup -3} in final thinnings. The lack of specific policies supporting the use of natural resources is causing a lack of incentive to increase the use of local fuels. (author)

  11. Fuel Consumption Estimation for Vehicle Configuration Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Söderstedt, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Fuel consumption is one of the factors that are considered when deciding a vehicle’s optimal specification. In order to swiftly estimate the fuel consumed during real world driving scenarios, a simulation tool has been developed that is well suited for vehicle configuration exploration applications. The simulation method described in this paper differs from the static calculation method currently in use at Scania cv since the dynamic translation of the vehicle is considered, yet the simulation t...

  12. Improvement and Primary Application of Theory of Fuel Specific Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The high efficiency utilization of energy conversion systems has been regarded as one of the most effective ways to cope with the everincreasing depletion of fossil fuel and the greenhouse gas effect. The design, optimization and refurbishment of thermal systems definitely need the help of proper application of energy conservation theory, especially exergy analysis. Conventional exergy analysis only considers the energy consumption of each device in isolation without taking the interactions among devices into consideration. In addition, the exergy destruction and exergetic efficiency are always the criterion for the evaluation of the device performances; however, great controversies exist. This paper presents the development of fuel specific consumption analysis considering the interactions among devices to provide more information for energy-savings of thermal systems.

  13. A historical reconstruction of ships' fuel consumption and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endresen, Øyvind; Sørgârd, Eirik; Behrens, Hanna Lee; Brett, Per Olaf; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.

    2007-06-01

    Shipping activity has increased considerably over the last century and currently represents a significant contribution to the global emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases. Despite this, information about the historical development of fuel consumption and emissions is generally limited, with little data published pre-1950 and large deviations reported for estimates covering the last 3 decades. To better understand the historical development in ship emissions and the uncertainties associated with the estimates, we present fuel-based CO2 and SO2 emission inventories from 1925 up to 2002 and activity-based estimates from 1970 up to 2000. The global CO2 emissions from ships in 1925 have been estimated to 229 Tg (CO2), growing to about 634 Tg (CO2) in 2002. The corresponding SO2 emissions are about 2.5 Tg (SO2) and 8.5 Tg (SO2), respectively. Our activity-based estimates of fuel consumption from 1970 to 2000, covering all oceangoing civil ships above or equal to 100 gross tonnage (GT), are lower compared to previous activity-based studies. We have applied a more detailed model approach, which includes variation in the demand for sea transport, as well as operational and technological changes of the past. This study concludes that the main reason for the large deviations found in reported inventories is the applied number of days at sea. Moreover, our modeling indicates that the ship size and the degree of utilization of the fleet, combined with the shift to diesel engines, have been the major factors determining yearly fuel consumption. Interestingly, the model results from around 1973 suggest that the fleet growth is not necessarily followed by increased fuel consumption, as technical and operational characteristics have changed. Results from this study indicate that reported sales over the last 3 decades seems not to be significantly underreported as previous simplified activity-based studies have suggested. The results confirm our previously reported modeling

  14. Reducing DMU fuel consumption by means of hybrid energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Dittus, Holger; Hülsebusch, Dirk; Ungethüm, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper discusses a hybrid energy storage concept and its control strategy for hydro-mechanical DMUs. The hybrid energy storage consists of double layer capacitors and batteries. The new concept aims on reducing fuel consumption and avoiding unhealthy emissions during idling in station area. Methods: Development of a hybrid propulsion concept and control strategy requires adequate methods for modeling system behavior. The simulation environment Dymola is ...

  15. Fuel consumption for double-stack intermodal trains

    OpenAIRE

    Sastre Arbós, Miquel Onofre

    2014-01-01

    This report paper offers the reader an outline of the development of a MLR model to predict fuel consumption for double-stack intermodal trains in Canada. Results suggested the necessity to classify the data in a non-finished project and design categories for various factors. Furthermore, the conclusion extracted is the requirement to compose small-scale models for specific conditions of track and train in order to obtain the results for an entire railroad section. Whereas the ...

  16. Reducing stress and fuel consumption providing road information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor CORCOBA MAGAÑA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a solution to reduce the stress level of the driver, minimize fuel consumption and improve safety. The system analyzes the driving style and the driver’s workload during the trip while driving. If it discovers an area where the stress increases and the driving style is not appropriate from the point of view of energy efficiency and safety for a particular driver, the location of this area is saved in a shared database. On the other hand, the implemented solution warns a particular user when approaching a region where the driving is difficult (high fuel consumption and stress using the shared database based on previous recorded knowledge of similar drivers in that area. In this case, the proposal provides an optimal deceleration profile if the vehicle speed is not adequate. Therefore, he or she may adjust the vehicle speed with both a positive impact on the driver workload and fuel consumption. The Data Envelopment Analysis algorithm is used to estimate the efficiency of driving and the driver’s workload in in each area. We employ this method because there is no preconceived form on the data in order to calculate the efficiency and stress level. A validation experiment has been conducted using both a driving simulator and a real environment with 12 participants who made 168 driving tests. The system reduced the slowdowns (38%, heart rate (4.70%, and fuel consumption (12.41% in the real environment. The proposed solution is implemented on Android mobile devices and does not require the installation of infrastructure on the road. It can be installed on any model of vehicle.

  17. 75 FR 66008 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Parts 433 and 435 RIN 1904-AB96 Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal... proposed rulemaking (NOPR) regarding the fossil fuel- generated energy consumption ] requirements for new... regarding the fossil fuel-generated energy consumption requirements for new Federal buildings and...

  18. 77 FR 18718 - Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption Requirements for Federal Fleets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... petroleum consumption and increase in alternative fuel consumption for Federal fleets (77 FR 14,482 (Mar. 12...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 438 RIN 1904-AB98 Petroleum Reduction and Alternative Fuel Consumption... issue implementing regulations for a statutorily-required reduction in petroleum consumption...

  19. Profile and perceptions of biogas as automobile fuel : A study of Svensk Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Anneli

    2008-01-01

    From an environmental- and health perspective, biogas and other biomass-based fuels have several advantages; nevertheless the majority of motorists fill their cars with petroleum-based fuels. This thesis is designed to explore the profile of biogas in relation to its perceptions. It is a study concerning the communication between the biogas producing company Svensk Biogas and their biogas users and non biogas users. To obtain a thorough understanding of the profile and perceptions of biogas a...

  20. The design of a low specific fuel consumption turbocompound engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Continued emphasis has been placed on reducing the specific fuel consumption (sfc) of heavy-duty diesel engines. Through design improvements, engines with sfc levels of 200 g/kW-hr are now reaching the consumer. With the addition of turbocompounding, sfc can be reduced below 185 g/kW-hr. This paper describes the concept, design, and initial performance test of an 11.3 liter, 6 cylinder non-insulated turbocompound engine. Improvements in the turbocharged engine design resulted in a rated sfc of 192 g/kW-hr. The turbocompound engine demonstrated an sfc of 182 g/kW-hr at the same rating.

  1. Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars

    CERN Document Server

    Güémez, J

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyse the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction forces on the wheels. In usual cars, with front-wheel drive, when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this article we also study thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled with the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters in the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion taking into account the dragging forces is also discussed.

  2. Forces on wheels and fuel consumption in cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by real classroom discussions, we analyze the forces acting on moving vehicles, specifically friction on their wheels. In typical front-wheel-drive cars when the car accelerates these forces are in the forward direction in the front wheels, but they are in the opposite direction in the rear wheels. The situation may be intriguing for students, but it may also be helpful and stimulating to clarify the role of friction forces on rolling objects. In this paper we also study the thermodynamical aspects of an accelerating car, relating the distance traveled to the amount of fuel consumed. The fuel consumption is explicitly shown to be Galilean invariant and we identify the Gibbs free energy as the relevant quantity that enters into the thermodynamical description of the accelerating car. The more realistic case of the car's motion with the dragging forces taken into account is also discussed. (paper)

  3. Framing car fuel efficiency : linearity heuristic for fuel consumption and fuel-efficiency ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, T.M.; Bolderdijk, J.W.; Steg, L.

    2014-01-01

    People are sensitive to the way information on fuel efficiency is conveyed. When the fuel efficiency of cars is framed in terms of fuel per distance (FPD; e.g. l/100 km), instead of distance per units of fuel (DPF; e.g. km/l), people have a more accurate perception of potential fuel savings. People

  4. Impact of Bulldozer's Engine Load Factor on Fuel Consumption, CO2 Emission and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kecojevic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bulldozers consume a large amount of diesel fuel and consequently produce a significant quantity of CO2. Environmental and economic cost issues related to fuel consumption and CO2 emission represent a substantial challenge to the mining industry. Approach: Impact of engine load conditions on fuel consumption and the subsequent CO2 emission and cost was analyzed for Caterpillar bulldozers. Results were compared with the data on bulldozers' fuel consumption from an operating coal surface mine in the United States. Results: There is a strong linear correlation among power, fuel consumption and engine load factor. Reduction in load factor by 15% may significantly reduce the fuel consumption and the CO2 emission. Conclusion/Recommendation: Application of appropriate bulldozer's load factor may help mine operators manage fuel consumption, cost and environmental burden.

  5. Biomass burning fuel consumption rates: a field measurement database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. van Leeuwen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape fires show large variability in the amount of biomass or fuel consumed per unit area burned. These fuel consumption (FC rates depend on the biomass available to burn and the fraction of the biomass that is actually combusted, and can be combined with estimates of area burned to assess emissions. While burned area can be detected from space and estimates are becoming more reliable due to improved algorithms and sensors, FC rates are either modeled or taken selectively from the literature. We compiled the peer-reviewed literature on FC rates for various biomes and fuel categories to better understand FC rates and variability, and to provide a~database that can be used to constrain biogeochemical models with fire modules. We compiled in total 76 studies covering 10 biomes including savanna (15 studies, average FC of 4.6 t DM (dry matter ha−1, tropical forest (n = 19, FC = 126, temperate forest (n = 11, FC = 93, boreal forest (n = 16, FC = 39, pasture (n = 6, FC = 28, crop residue (n = 4, FC = 6.5, chaparral (n = 2, FC = 32, tropical peatland (n = 4, FC = 314, boreal peatland (n = 2, FC = 42, and tundra (n = 1, FC = 40. Within biomes the regional variability in the number of measurements was sometimes large, with e.g. only 3 measurement locations in boreal Russia and 35 sites in North America. Substantial regional differences were found within the defined biomes: for example FC rates of temperate pine forests in the USA were 38% higher than Australian forests dominated by eucalypt trees. Besides showing the differences between biomes, FC estimates were also grouped into different fuel classes. Our results highlight the large variability in FC rates, not only between biomes but also within biomes and fuel classes. This implies that care should be taken with using averaged values, and our comparison with FC rates from GFED3 indicates that also modeling studies have difficulty in representing the dynamics governing FC.

  6. Biomass burning fuel consumption dynamics in the tropics and subtropics assessed from satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andela, Niels; van der Werf, Guido R.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; van Leeuwen, Thijs T.; Wooster, Martin J.; Lehmann, Caroline E. R.

    2016-06-01

    Landscape fires occur on a large scale in (sub)tropical savannas and grasslands, affecting ecosystem dynamics, regional air quality and concentrations of atmospheric trace gasses. Fuel consumption per unit of area burned is an important but poorly constrained parameter in fire emission modelling. We combined satellite-derived burned area with fire radiative power (FRP) data to derive fuel consumption estimates for land cover types with low tree cover in South America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Australia. We developed a new approach to estimate fuel consumption, based on FRP data from the polar-orbiting Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) in combination with MODIS burned-area estimates. The fuel consumption estimates based on the geostationary and polar-orbiting instruments showed good agreement in terms of spatial patterns. We used field measurements of fuel consumption to constrain our results, but the large variation in fuel consumption in both space and time complicated this comparison and absolute fuel consumption estimates remained more uncertain. Spatial patterns in fuel consumption could be partly explained by vegetation productivity and fire return periods. In South America, most fires occurred in savannas with relatively long fire return periods, resulting in comparatively high fuel consumption as opposed to the more frequently burning savannas in Sub-Saharan Africa. Strikingly, we found the infrequently burning interior of Australia to have higher fuel consumption than the more productive but frequently burning savannas in northern Australia. Vegetation type also played an important role in explaining the distribution of fuel consumption, by affecting both fuel build-up rates and fire return periods. Hummock grasslands, which were responsible for a large share of Australian biomass burning, showed larger fuel build-up rates than equally productive grasslands in

  7. A liquid organic carrier of hydrogen as a fuel for automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system of storing energy in a hydrogen containing fuel for the motor car is discussed. The recyclable liquid chemical carrier is: (Methylcyclohexane (liquid)) dehydrogenation (Toluene (liquid)) + (hydrogen (gas)). The reverse reaction, the hydrogenation of toluene, occurs in a regional plant connected to a source of hydrogen (electrolysis of water) with a significant by-product being heat at 200 0C for district heating. The system is able to store hydrogen in liquid form under ambient temperature and pressure even in a small motor car. The concentration of hydrogen is 6.1 % by weight. The release of gaseous hydrogen from the liquid methylcyclohexane needs a chemical catalytic reactor having a temperature of 300 0C and a pressure of some bars. This reaction has been well studied. The thermal energy for the dehydrogenation is taken from the exhaust gases at 780 0C. A layout of the most important processes of the system is given. (Auth.)

  8. The Honey Trap:The democratization of leisure through automobilism

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Michael F. Wagner: The Honey Trap –The democratization of leisure through automobilismThe automobile has achieved a central position in modern everyday life as an essential artefact to mobility. This raises the question how automobiles have been mediated for mass consumption? The central thesis in the article is that the culture of Danish automobilism was constructed around and appropriated through leisure activities conducted primarily by the automobile consumer’s organisation Touring Club d...

  9. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. New technologies for the reduction of the use of fossil fuels in automobiles; Nuevas tecnologias para la reduccion del uso de combustibles fosiles en automoviles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maya Violante, A.; Dorantes Rodriguez, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Energia, Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The new technologies developed for the reduction of the use of fossil fuels in automobiles can be classified by the way these try to reduce the use of energy. In the search for the technologies for the conservation of it the environmental problem is added, that although it is not the subject of this presentation results decisive for the evaluation of the performance of type of technology. The development of technologies in this field has followed three basic tendencies. First: The efficient improvement of internal combustion motors, which consist in the control and constant monitoring the functioning of these motors in order to determine the strictly necessary consumption for the motor operation in accordance with its load conditions. Second, the development of a system that utilizes alternate fuels, as is the case of hybrid vehicles, that utilize gas turbines that can burn these fuels. Third the development of electric driven and energy regeneration systems avoiding the use of fossil fuels. A fourth tendency could be considered, which consists in determining the best way of controlling and using the transportation time, with all the implicit benefits. The purpose of this paper is to answer all these questions beginning with a detailed revision of the main technological innovations developed by the leading car manufacturers at world level, such as BMW, Mercedes Benz, Ford, etc. concerned in bringing to the market the best vehicles that burn less or none fossil fuels and at the same time comply with the every day more strict standards on the environmental pollution subject. Through these innovations the advantages and disadvantages of each one of them are set forth, with special emphasis in the technologies that, to our concern, will be the most convenient to promote in the years to come. [Espanol] Las nuevas tecnologias desarrolladas para la reduccion del uso de combustibles fosiles en automoviles se pueden caracterizar por la manera en que estas tratan de reducir

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of the impact on fuel consumption during operation of the engine.

    OpenAIRE

    Souček, Karel

    2011-01-01

    The introductory part of this work is dedicated to the conversion of fuel energy into mechanical energy by internal combustion engines. Furthermore, an analysis of technical solutions to reduce fuel consumption. The paper addressed the issue of fuel consumption during operation of the combustion engine and its optimization. It is studied and assessed the impact of systems operating on the principle of magnetic resonance in the fuel in internal combustion engine operation.

  12. The construction of a Danish automobile culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation.......The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation....

  13. Consumption of oil fuels and alcohol fuels 1980-1992; Consumo de derivados de petroleo e alcool carburante 1980-1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Sectorial studies about the consumption evolution of petroleum derivatives and alcohol fuels during the years 1980 to 1992, are presented. The tables include the fuel consumption on the industrial and automotive fuels on Brazilian states, the fuel pattern, the quantity spent by year, the percentage and the increase of consumption rates. 3 figs., 55 tabs.

  14. STEEL CONSUMPTION DEMAND FORECASTING FOR AUTOMOBILE MANUFACTURING COMPANIES%汽车制造企业钢材用量需求预测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓东; 缪欣明; 徐广卿

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at reasonable forecasting the steel consumption demand in automobile manufacturing companies, we put forward a set of forecasting technologies suitable for automobile manufacturing companies with full consideration of the impact of past historical data in corresponding months and the data of recent months. The model realises the scientific utilisation of historical data and also reveals the development trends in specific time period at present, so it takes into account the influences of both seasons and policy volatility, and meliorates the rea-sonability and creditability of the forecasting result. Relevant model has been applied to production practice, and a corresponding " visualised tracking system for demand-driven automotive steel" has been developed as well. It effectively improves the fulfilment rates of customers' order , and greatly facilitates the arrangement of production schedule in corporations too. This frames a considerable economic benefit to the enterprises , and has promotional value in further application.%针对汽车制造企业钢材用量需求的合理预测问题,充分考虑到以往相应月份的历史数据和近期各月份数据的影响,建立一套适合于汽车制造企业的钢材实际需求预测技术,不但实现了对历史数据的科学利用,而且体现了当前特定时间段的发展趋势,最大程度地兼顾了季节和政策波动的影响,提高了预测结果的合理性和可信性.相关模型已经被推广应用到生产实践,开发出了相应的“可视化汽车用钢需求拉动跟踪系统”,不但有效地提高了客户订货满足率,且大大方便了企业对生产计划的编排,给企业创造了较大的经济效益,具有进一步推广应用的价值.

  15. In-use vs. type-approval fuel consumption of current passenger cars in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-use fuel consumption data of 924 passenger cars (611 petrol, 313 diesel) were collected from various European sources and were evaluated in comparison to their corresponding type-approval values. The analysis indicated that the average in-use fuel consumption was higher than the type-approval one by 11% for petrol cars and 16% for diesel cars. Comparison of this dataset with the Travelcard database in the Netherlands showed that the deviation increased for late model years and in particular for cars with low type-approval values. The deviation was higher than 60% for vehicles registered in 2012 within the 90–100 gCO2/km bin. Unrealistic vehicle resistances used in type-approval were identified as one of the prime reasons of the difference. A simplified linear model developed in the study may be used to predict in-use fuel consumption based on data publicly available. The model utilizes the fuel consumption measured in type-approval, the mass, and the engine capacity to provide in-use fuel consumption. This may be either used to correct fuel consumption factors currently utilized by emission models (e.g. COPERT, HBEFA, VERSIT+, and others) or could be used independently to make projections on how fuel consumption may develop on the basis of changing future passenger cars characteristics. - Highlights: • In-use fuel consumption of petrol and diesel passenger cars is 11% and 16% higher than type-approval, respectively. • The relative difference between in-use and type-approval increases for late model and vehicles with low consumption. • Unrealistically low vehicle resistances are identified as a prime reason of low type-approval fuel consumption. • A model developed predicts in-use consumption on the basis of type-approval consumption, vehicle mass, and engine capacity

  16. Prediction of fuel consumption of mining dump trucks: A neural networks approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A neural network model of fuel consumption in mining haul trucks was constructed and tested. • Using the cyclic activities, the model was able to predict unseen (testing) data. • Trucks idle times were identified as the most important unnecessary energy consuming portion of the network. • Practical remedies, based on the nature of mining operations, were proposed to reduce the energy consumption. - Abstract: Fuel consumption of mining dump trucks accounts for about 30% of total energy use in surface mines. Moreover, a fleet of large dump trucks is the main source of greenhouse gas (GHG) generation. Modeling and prediction of fuel consumption per cycle is a valuable tool in assessing both energy costs and the resulting GHG generation. However, only a few studies have been published on fuel prediction in mining operations. In this paper, fuel consumption per cycle of operation was predicted using artificial neural networks (ANN) technique. Explanatory variables were: pay load, loading time, idled while loaded, loaded travel time, empty travel time, and idled while empty. The output variable was the amount of fuel consumed in one cycle. Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 10% demonstrated applicability of ANN in prediction of the fuel consumption. The results demonstrated the considerable effect of mining trucks idle times in fuel consumption. A large portion of the unnecessary energy consumption and GHG generation, in this study, was solely due to avoidable idle times. This necessitates implementation of proper actions/remedies in form of both preventive and corrective actions

  17. The automobile after tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    This talk discusses the technical options available for automobiles within the next 5 to 10 years. With the objective to reduce consumption and pollution, several alternative approaches are presented and analyzed using simplified but realistic calculations. Main emphasis is laid on CO{sub 2} emission of the complete energy transformation path from the primary energy carrier to the energy dissipated in test cycles. It is shown that no single optimal solution exist but that a trade-off between consumption, pollution and cost must be made for each specific situation. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Nonpolluting automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoolboom, G.J.; Szabados, B. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-11-01

    The advantages/disadvantages of energy storage devices, which can provide nonpolluting automobile systems are discussed. Four types of storage devices are identified: electrochemical (batteries); hydrogen; electromechanical (flywheels); and molten salt heat storage. A high-speed flywheel with a small permanent magnet motor/generator has more advantages than any of the other systems and might become a real competitor to the internal combustion engine. A flywheel/motor/generator system for automobiles now becomes practical, because of the technological advances in materials, bearings and solid state control circuits. The motor of choice is the squirrel cage induction motor, specially designed for automobile applications. The preferred controller for the induction motor is a forced commutated cycloconverter, which transforms a variable voltage/variable frequency source into a controlled variable-voltage/variable-frequency supply. A modulation strategy of the cycloconverter elements is selected to maintain a unity input displacement factor (power factor) under all conditions of loads voltages and frequencies. The system is similar to that of the existing automobile, if only one motor is used: master controller-controller-motor-gears (fixed)-differential-wheels. In the case of two motors, the mechanical differential is replaced by an electric one: master controller-controller-motor-gears (fixed)-wheel. A four-wheel drive vehicle is obtained when four motors with their own controllers are used. 24 refs.

  19. Emissions and Fuel Consumption Modeling for Evaluating Environmental Effectiveness of ITS Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-yuan Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Road transportation is a major fuel consumer and greenhouse gas emitter. Recently, the intelligent transportation systems (ITSs technologies, which can improve traffic flow and safety, have been developed to reduce the fuel consumption and vehicle emissions. Emission and fuel consumption estimation models play a key role in the evaluation of ITS technologies. Based on the influence analysis of driving parameters on vehicle emissions, this paper establishes a set of mesoscopic vehicle emission and fuel consumption models using the real-world vehicle operation and emission data. The results demonstrate that these models are more appropriate to evaluate the environmental effectiveness of ITS strategies with enough estimation accuracy.

  20. A Computer Model to Estimate Commercial Aviation Fuel Consumption and Emissions in the Continental United States

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Zhihao

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive model is developed to estimate and predict the fuel consumption and emissions by domestic commercial aviation in the Continental United States. Most of the existing fuel consumption and emission models are limited in their ability to predict the annual fuel burn for air transportation at the national level. For example, those models either require real track data or are developed only to model single flight scenarios.  The model developed in this thesis is part of a software f...

  1. Fuel consumption from vehicles of China until 2030 in energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimation of fuel (gasoline and diesel) consumption for vehicles in China under different long-term energy policy scenarios is presented here. The fuel economy of different vehicle types is subject to variation of government regulations; hence the fuel consumption of passenger cars (PCs), light trucks (Lts), heavy trucks (Hts), buses and motor cycles (MCs) are calculated with respect to (i) the number of vehicles, (ii) distance traveled, and (iii) fuel economy. On the other hand, the consumption rate of alternative energy sources (i.e. ethanol, methanol, biomass-diesel and CNG) is not evaluated here. The number of vehicles is evaluated using the economic elastic coefficient method, relating to per capita gross domestic product (GDP) from 1997 to 2007. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) system software is employed to develop a simple model to project fuel consumption in China until 2030 under these scenarios. Three energy consumption decrease scenarios are designed to estimate the reduction of fuel consumption: (i) 'business as usual' (BAU); (ii) 'advanced fuel economy' (AFE); and (iii) 'alternative energy replacement' (AER). It is shown that fuel consumption is predicted to reach 992.28 Mtoe (million tons oil equivalent) with the BAU scenario by 2030. In the AFE and AER scenarios, fuel consumption is predicted to be 734.68 and 600.36 Mtoe, respectively, by 2030. In the AER scenario, fuel consumption in 2030 will be reduced by 391.92 (39.50%) and 134.29 (18.28%) Mtoe in comparison to the BAU and AFE scenarios, respectively. In conclusion, our models indicate that the energy conservation policies introduced by governmental institutions are potentially viable, as long as they are effectively implemented.

  2. A fuel consumption model for off-road use of mobile machinery in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until 2009, the annual reporting of emissions by off-road transport in agriculture in Belgium was based on a 1994 calculation model that needed to be updated. An energy consumption model was established for plant production in Belgium as a backbone for a new emission model. The model starts from agricultural activities involving off-road fuel consumption. Effects of soil type, tractor size, field size and machine load are modelled. Twenty-seven FCIs (fuel consumption indicators) were computed for plant production. FCIs are expressed per year and are used for emission estimates on a regional level. FCIs ranged from 37 to 311 L/ha. Sensitivity analysis showed the highest impact of tractor size with a surplus fuel consumption between 10 and 41% depending on the crop type. Fuel consumption (L) can be further processed into greenhouse gas emissions. FCIs can be adopted in LCA (life cycle assessment) studies. With ∼310 L/ha, orchards are most fuel intensive, followed by field vegetables and sugar beets (∼150 L/ha). The total off-road energy consumption of field vegetables is high because second cropping is a common practice. - Highlights: • An energy consumption model is proposed that is based on farming activities. • No statistical data on fuel consumption are required for the calculation. • The published FCIs can be adopted in LCA studies directly or as an allocation key

  3. Optimization to reduce fuel consumption in charge depleting mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Martini, Ryan D.

    2014-08-26

    A powertrain includes an internal combustion engine, a motor utilizing electrical energy from an energy storage device, and a plug-in connection. A Method for controlling the powertrain includes monitoring a fuel cut mode, ceasing a fuel flow to the engine based upon the fuel cut mode, and through a period of operation including acceleration of the powertrain, providing an entirety of propelling torque to the powertrain with the electrical energy from the energy storage device based upon the fuel cut mode.

  4. A Mathematical Model for Predicting the Effects of Tyre Pressure on Fuel Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Seth Daniel Oduro; Timothy Alhassan; Prince Owusu-Ansah; Prince Y. Andoh

    2013-01-01

    This study studies the relationship between tyre pressure and fuel consumption of vehicles using experimental methods and mathematical model to predict vehicle fuel consumption. The model obtained was F = 0.6272- 2.5941p+3.3428p2±0.018 where F is the fuel consumed and p is the tyre pressure of a vehicle, which can also be used to predict the amount of fuel consumed by other vehicles. The model was validated with its own data which showed a deviation of ±5% which is within experimental error. ...

  5. Impact of methanol-gasoline fuel blend on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a SI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifal, Mohamad; Sinaga, Nazaruddin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effect of methanol-gasoline fuel blend (M15, M30 and M50) on the fuel consumption and exhaust emission of a spark ignition engine (SI) were investigated. In the experiment, an engine four-cylinder, four stroke injection system (engine of Toyota Kijang Innova 1TR-FE) was used. Test were did to know the relation of fuel consumption and exhaust emission (CO, CO2, HC) were analyzed under the idle throttle operating condition and variable engine speed ranging from 1000 to 4000 rpm. The experimental result showed that the fuel consumption decrease with the use of methanol. It was also shown that the CO and HC emission were reduced with the increase methanol content while CO2 were increased.

  6. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  7. OPTIMUM PLANNING OF EXPERIMENTS AT MODELING FUEL CONSUMPTION IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Koshevoy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of optimum experiments planning by cost expenses at studying the processes of fuel consumption internal combustion engines is shown. The mathematical models of these processes in different state of engine working are synthesized.

  8. OPTIMUM PLANNING OF EXPERIMENTS AT MODELING FUEL CONSUMPTION IN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    N. Koshevoy; O. Kostenko; V. Siroklyn

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of optimum experiments planning by cost expenses at studying the processes of fuel consumption internal combustion engines is shown. The mathematical models of these processes in different state of engine working are synthesized.

  9. An econometrics view of worldwide fossil fuel consumption and the role of US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude oil, coal and gas, known as fossil fuels, play a crucial role in the global economy. This paper proposes new econometrics modelling to demonstrate the trend of fossil fuels consumption. The main variables affecting consumption trends are: world reserves, the price of fossil fuels, US production and US net imports. All variables have been analysed individually for more than half a century. The research found that while the consumption of fossil fuels worldwide has increased trends in the US production and net imports have been dependent on the type of fossil fuels. Most of the US coal and gas production has been for domestic use, which is why it does not have a strong influence on worldwide fossil fuel prices. Moreover, the reserves of fossil fuels have not shown any diminution during the last couple of decades and predictions that they were about to run out are not substantiated. The nominal and real price of fossil fuels was found to change depending on the type. Finally, estimates of three econometric models for the consumption of fossil fuels from 1949 to 2006 are presented which identify the effects of significant variables

  10. Evaluation of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions During Engine Warm-up

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hasan, M.

    2007-01-01

    Engine exhaust emission and fuel consumption during warm-up period was experimentally investigated. Experiment was conducted on a four-stroke four-cylinder spark ignition engine alternatively equipped with CIS and EIS. Fuel consumption; and exhaust emissions included hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were measured as a function of ambient temperature; i.e. 7, 25 and 40ºC. In order to simulate engine operation condition during warm - up period under various ambient temperatures a...

  11. FUEL CONSUMPTION: A MAJOR FACTOR INFLUENCING SALES OF NEW PERSONAL VEHICLES. EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIAN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pîrvu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate empirically the validity of our supposition: the fuel consumption is currently the most important factor that influences sales of new personal vehicles. Factors that characterize an economical vehicle make 60 per cent of new personal vehicle buying decisions and the fuel consumption is the most important of these factors. The linear model for estimating the number of new personal vehicle registrations has good fit to the data.

  12. Study on a method for estimating fuel consumption in a seaway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iseki, Toshio; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2013-01-01

    On-board measurement of fuel consumption of a ship has been carried out in a relatively severe sea condition. In the full scale experiment, the ship traveled on several courses to investigate the change of fuel consumption relative to the encounter wave angle. The result shows that the wave...... does not require wave measurements but needs only ship motion data as input and the method is suitable for on-site wave estimation....

  13. Fuel consumption rates of passenger cars in China: Labels versus real-world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, China has implemented many policy measures to control the oil demand of on-road vehicles. In 2010, China started to report the fuel consumption rates of light-duty vehicles tested in laboratory and to require new vehicles to show the rates on window labels. In this study, we examined the differences between the test and real-world fuel consumption of Chinese passenger cars by using the data reported by real-world drivers on the internet voluntarily. The sales-weighted average fuel consumption of new cars in China in 2009 was 7.80 L/100 km in laboratory and 9.02 L/100 km in real-world, representing a difference of 15.5%. For the 153 individual car models examined, the real-world fuel consumption rates were -8 to 60% different from the test values. The simulation results of the International Vehicle Emission model show that the real-world driving cycles in 22 selected Chinese cities could result in -8 to 34% of changes in fuel consumption compared to the laboratory driving cycle. Further government effort on fuel consumption estimates adjustment, local driving cycle development, and real-world data accumulation through communication with the public is needed to improve the accuracy of the labeling policy. - Research highlights: → China requires new cars sold to show the test fuel use levels on window labels. → Real-world fuel consumption rates of cars are 15.5% higher than the label values. → Discrepancy between the test cycle and real conditions is a major cause for the gap. → China should adjust the estimates, collect fuel use data, and develop driving cycles. → More official and academic efforts are needed to improve the labeling policy.

  14. Hydrogen as a renewable and sustainable solution in reducing global fossil fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for reducing global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions are derived depending primarily upon the exergetic utilization ratios of fossil fuels and hydrogen: the fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency, fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator. These relations incorporate predicted exergetic utilization ratios for hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuel resources such as water, etc., and are used to investigate whether or not exergetic utilization of hydrogen can significantly reduce the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient (ranging from 1 to +∞) indicating the fossil fuel consumption and contribute to increase the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator (ranging from 0 to 1) indicating the hydrogen utilization at a certain ratio of fossil fuel utilization. In order to verify all these exergetic expressions, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. For the verification of these parameters, the variations of fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator as the functions of fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency and exergetic utilization of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels are analyzed and discussed in detail. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases

  15. Optimization of Fuel Consumption in a Hybrid Powertrain

    OpenAIRE

    Sivertsson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Increased environmental awareness together with new legislative demands on lowered emissions and a rising fuel cost have put focus on increasing the fuel efficiency in new vehicles. Hybridization is a way to increase the efficiency of the powertrain.The Haldex electric Torque Vectoring Device is a rear axle with a built in electric motor, designed to combine all-wheel drive with hybrid functionality. A method is developed for creating a real time control algorithm that minimizes the fuel cons...

  16. Models about Energy Consumption and Using Cost of Three Different Types of Automobiles%三种类型汽车的能耗和使用成本的建模研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 陈茁

    2012-01-01

    本文对电动,传统,混合动力三种类型汽车的能耗和使用成本问题进行了建模、求解及分析.首先定义了电动汽车的能量利用率ηE。根据能量守恒将所有电量转换成汽油消耗量,而传统车型则直接反映到汽油的消耗上,混合动力汽车则综合电动汽车和传统汽车的能耗模型,从而统一能耗水平评价标准.这样,我们就得到了三种不同类型车的能耗模型再进行模型求解以此来分析比较三种类型车哪一种节能效果好.对电动汽车来说,使用成本主要包括驾驶维护成本、报废处理成本,而对传统汽车来说,使用成本主要包括驾驶维护成本、报废处理成本、环境成本和其他成本,混合动力汽车则结合二者使用成本.因此,根据不同车型使用成本类型建立相应的数学模型,按照建立的公式,可以得到电动汽车的使用成本LCC1、传统汽车的使用成本LCC2和混合动力汽车的使用成本LCC3,从而进行模型求解.%This paper establishes mathematical models to solve and analyze the problems about energy consumption and the using cost of three different types of automobiles, the electric vehicles, the traditional automobiles and the hy- brid electric vehicles. Firstly, it defines ηE as the energy efficiency of the electric vehicles, and then transforms the e- lectric quantity into the consumption of the gasoline according to the law of conservation of energy. The energy con- sumption of traditional automobiles reflects on the consumption of gasoline directly. The hybrid vehicles combine the two models, thus the paper unifies the energy consumption level evaluation standard. In this way, the paper gets the three types of automobiles energy consumption models, by solving these models, it can analyze and compare which type of automobile is the best one in saving energy. For the electric vehicles, the using cost mainly consists of driving

  17. 电动汽车:一个用电增长点的考察%Electric Automobile: Review of the Point of Growth in Electric Power Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛; 杨定顺; 陈虹; 刘洁; 闫晓生

    2002-01-01

      "Spread of marketing needs to be considered from thefact of Tianjin City. At least electric automobile is a goodsuggestion on it." said Kou Shiqing, general manager ofTianjin Electric Power Company. In order to widen themarket of electric power and improve the atmosphere qual-ity of city, Tianjin Electric Power Company invited leaderfrom city economy.……

  18. Fuel consumption as cost indicator. [Cost of machine use in forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanqvist, N.

    1988-01-01

    The scope of the study is to update the data files from 1979 and 1982 concerning forest machine costs and determine changes in these costs over time. Machine costs as a function of fuel consumption is derived. The share of fuel of the total cost has increased from 6 to 13 percent since 1978. (G.B.).

  19. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  20. Causal relationship between fossil fuel consumption and economic growth in Japan: a multivariate approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hazuki Ishida

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores whether Japanese economy can continue to grow without extensive dependence on fossil fuels. The paper conducts time series analysis using a multivariate model of fossil fuels, non-fossil energy, labor, stock and GDP to investigate the relationship between fossil fuel consumption and economic growth in Japan. The results of cointegration tests indicate long-run relationships among the variables. Using a vector error-correction model, the study reveals bidirectional causalit...

  1. Developing more ecological automobile technology; Kohti ekologisempaa autotekniikkaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    Production of driving force is the main factor effecting the energy consumption of an automobile and often also of the entire transportation, as well as the main cause of environmental impacts of transportation. The most significant environmental hazard of the transportation is the formation of emissions polluting the air. Recent development of catalysts and other flue gas purification technology has eased significantly the control of flue gas emissions. New solutions have been developed for NO{sub x} emissions of diesel engines, e.g. the zeolite catalysts, which reduce them also in oxygen-rich flue gases. Particulates form still a significant problem. Continuous tightening of emission restrictions has made the flue gas purification systems more complex and expensive than before. Reduction of energy consumption by developing the engine technology is difficult when the flue gas purity requirements are continuously tightened. More interest is paid to new alternatives, the energy balance of that is better, because the main concern in emission reduction is in control of CO{sub 2}, not in reduction of poisonous emissions. This leads to a reduction of the greenhouse effects of transportation. There are no practical chemical or physical recovery or purification methods for reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions. It is essential to study the means, by which the fuel consumption and the efficiency of engines could be improved. It is possible to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by using alternative fuels, totally new power sources and more effective energy chains. Rolling and air resistances are the main factors consuming energy. When the driving speed doubles the air resistance quadruples, so the driving speed of road traffic effects strongly on the energy consumption of an automobile. The weight of a vehicle effects on fuel consumption especially in urban transport because of the repeated accelerations and decelerations. The efficiency of a Diesel engine is about 20% higher

  2. Characterizing SI Engine Transient Fuel Consumption in ALPHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Examine typical transient engine operation encountered over the EPA's vehicle and engine testing drive cycles to characterize that transient fuel usage, and then describe the changes made to ALPHA to better model transient engine operation.

  3. RANKING OF LOCAL AND DOMESTIC FUEL-ENERGY RECOURSES IN GROSS CONSUMPTION OF BELARUSSIAN FUEL-ENERGY RECOURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Rumiantsava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and domestic fuel-energy recourses of theRepublicofBelarusin gross consumption of fuel-energy  recourses  has  been ranked on the  basis of the  analysis of scientific  literature,  statistical information and also fundamental documentation in the sphere of energy policy and power saving. The paper proposes to give a special emphasis on usage of products after processing domestically manufactured fuel-energy recourses that have been obtained from local and imported raw-materials with the purpose to estimate a power security level of the Republic from a new point of view.

  4. The fuel consumption increase in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M Fullerton Jr; Gabriel Muñoz Sapien; Martha Patricia Barraza de Anda; Lisbeily Domínguez Ruvalcaba

    2012-01-01

    This research analyzes short–run gasoline consumption dynamics in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Parameter estimation is carried out using linear transfer function arima analysis. This market is of interest because it is influenced by regional, national, and international economic conditions due to its location on the border with the United States. Explanatory variables that satisfy the significance criterion include the real price of gasoline in Ciudad Juárez, the price of gasoline in Ciu...

  5. Decadal trends in fossil fuel energy consumption and related air pollutant emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar Reddy, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Boucher, O.

    2003-04-01

    The economic liberalization in the early 1990s in India fuelled the industrial production, enabled the decadal annual average rate of 5.9% in the gross domestic product (GDP) during 1990-2000. This resulted in a steady increase of fossil fuels energy consumption throughout the decade. This paper investigates the trends in the GDP growth rate, sectoral fossil fuels consumption and resultant atmospheric air pollutant emissions during the above period. The fossil fuels energy consumption in the 1990 was 6875 PJ, and increased to 10801 PJ in 2000, with a decadal annual average growth rate of 5.7%. Share of the coal and petroleum fuels are 52% and 35%, respectively during 2000. The relative share contribution of power, industrial, transport, and domestic sectors are 40%, 48%, 5% and 7%, respectively. The contribution of various sectors to fossil fuels energy consumption, and the relative distribution of the different fuels within each sector will be discussed. The annual sulfur dioxide (SO_2) and aerosols (particulate matter, black carbon, organic carbon) emissions are estimated using sector and fuel specific average emission factors (mass of pollutant per unit mass of fuel burnt). The estimates take into account the changes in the fuel characteristics and technology during the study period. The estimated SO_2 emissions are 1.7 Tg S yr-1 in 1990 and increased to 2.5 Tg S yr-1 in 2000, with an annual average increase of 5%. Majority of the SO_2 emissions are from coal consumption accounting 62%, predominantly from the power plants. Trends in fuel and sectoral contributions to SO2 emissions over the decade will be presented. In the transportation sector, diesels contribute significantly to BC. Notably, in India, two-stroke engines account for 78% of total vehicle fleet, and contribute significantly to organic carbon emissions. An analysis of available SO_2 and aerosols concentration measurements will be made to explore the possible correlations between trends in the

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FUEL CONSUMPTION, EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS AND MODELLING FOR GASOLINE AND DIESEL VEHICLES - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANPREET SINGH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of fuel consumption and exhaust pollutants of gasoline and diesel vehicles are reviewed. This paper indicates the effect of fuel consumption and exhaust pollutants/emissions on vehicles during idling, start/stop and speed-acceleration conditions of vehicles. The exhaust pollutants and fuel consumption varies greatly with vehicle engine speed and use of accessories such as air-conditioner. The relationship of gasoline and diesel vehicles with respect to traffic intersection and different road conditions is also studied. For gasoline vehicles, all the exhaust emissions except nitrogen oxides increase 15-30% with acceleration parameters in case of urban driving condition. The emissions such as carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are sensitive to high engine speeds. The carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons increase by 30-40% as number of stops of vehicle increases. For diesel cars, the emission rates are increased with stop frequency and decreased when speed is increased to 35% except for CO in urban areas. The NOx and CO emissions increase by 22% and 27% when acceleration increases. The fuel consumption examines under steady temperature operating conditions are 25-30% lower than those measure below 80°C temperature. The fuel consumption of vehicle is increased by a factor of three when tested below 40°C as compared with hot conditions. It is observed that 98% of vehicle drivers do not turn off the engines of their vehicle at traffic signals. As a result, 0.37 million kg of compressed natural gas, 0.13 million litre of gasoline is consumed everyday due to the idling of vehicles. The idling of vehicles releases 93 million mega tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions and approximately 40.1 billion litres of petrol a year that includes 1.6% of all United States emissions. Furthermore, different models are reviewed for estimating the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption during idling, stop/start and vehicle speedacceleration conditions.

  7. The impact of energy efficient refurbishment on the space heating fuel consumption in English dwellings

    OpenAIRE

    S. H. HONG; Oreszczyn, T.; Ridley, I.; Warm Front Study Grp

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of a major domestic energy efficiency refurbishment programme on domestic space heating fuel consumption. The case study dwellings were monitored either before or after (or both) the introduction of energy efficiency retrofit measures such as cavity wall insulation, loft insulation, draught stripping and energy efficient heating system. Property and utility consumption data were collected and half-hourly living room and main bedroom temperatures ...

  8. Relation between climate and diesel fuel rate consumption for sugar cane agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, some results are shown of a study carried out within the ENERCLIMA project. The principal objective was to establish the relationship between diesel fuel rate consumption by agricultural equipment in activities related to sugar cane production and simple climatic variables. Through a statistical analysis, we show the possibility of obtaining statistical models of an acceptable confidence level, as applied to some of these activities, which could be used in order to plan more rationally the level of fuel consumption of the agricultural companies with access to meteorological stations located nearby

  9. Fuel Consumption Reduction and Weight Estimate of an Intercooled-Recuperated Turboprop Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Roberto; Ghezzi, Umberto; Ingenito, Antonella; Gamma, Fausto

    2012-09-01

    The introduction of intercooling and regeneration in a gas turbine engine can lead to performance improvement and fuel consumption reduction. Moreover, as first consequence of the saved fuel, also the pollutant emission can be greatly reduced. Turboprop seems to be the most suitable gas turbine engine to be equipped with intercooler and heat recuperator thanks to the relatively small mass flow rate and the small propulsion power fraction due to the exhaust nozzle. However, the extra weight and drag due to the heat exchangers must be carefully considered. An intercooled-recuperated turboprop engine is studied by means of a thermodynamic numeric code that, computing the thermal cycle, simulates the engine behavior at different operating conditions. The main aero engine performances, as specific power and specific fuel consumption, are then evaluated from the cycle analysis. The saved fuel, the pollution reduction, and the engine weight are then estimated for an example case.

  10. Fuel consumption as indicator of the economics in mechanization-. [Cost of mechanization in forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, U.; Svanqvist, N.

    1987-01-01

    After a brief discussion of production functions as models for input/output relations in forest work operations, studies of the cost of machine use are reviewed. It is suggested that the fuel consumption of a forest machine can be used as a parameter for assessing the true, total cost of using a machine, exclusively the wage of the operator. Fuel then is not only an input but also represents all other cost items such as capital (depreciation, interest), repairs and maintenance. This has the advantage that all machines in a system can be aggregated and their costs assessed by an easily quantified parameter. Capital (in the form of machines) in production functions, through which the optimum mix of labour and machines for minimizing the cost per unit of production is determined, can be substituted by fuel. It is also suggested that fuel consumption can be used in management as an aggregate indicator in planning, control, remuneration of work and forecasting. (authors).

  11. Estimate of Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impact on an Automated Mobility District: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche; Young, Stanley; Gonder, Jeff; Qi, Xuewei

    2015-12-11

    This study estimates the range of fuel and emissions impact of an automated-vehicle (AV) based transit system that services campus-based developments, termed an automated mobility district (AMD). The study develops a framework to quantify the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of a transit system comprised of AVs, taking into consideration average vehicle fleet composition, fuel consumption/GHG emission of vehicles within specific speed bins, and the average occupancy of passenger vehicles and transit vehicles. The framework is exercised using a previous mobility analysis of a personal rapid transit (PRT) system, a system which shares many attributes with envisioned AV-based transit systems. Total fuel consumption and GHG emissions with and without an AMD are estimated, providing a range of potential system impacts on sustainability. The results of a previous case study based of a proposed implementation of PRT on the Kansas State University (KSU) campus in Manhattan, Kansas, serves as the basis to estimate personal miles traveled supplanted by an AMD at varying levels of service. The results show that an AMD has the potential to reduce total system fuel consumption and GHG emissions, but the amount is largely dependent on operating and ridership assumptions. The study points to the need to better understand ride-sharing scenarios and calls for future research on sustainability benefits of an AMD system at both vehicle and system levels.

  12. The effect of conservation tillage forward speed and depth on farm fuel consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jalali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, production techniques and equipment have been developed for conservation tillage systems that have been adopted by many farmers. With proper management, overall yield averages for conventional and reduced tillage systems are nearly identical. Sometimes, field operations can be combined by connecting two or more implements. Much research has focused on either reducing or eliminating tillage operations to develop sustainable crop production methods. The greatest costs in farm operations are associated with tillage due to greater specific energy requirement in tillage and the high fuel costs. Combined operations reduce both fuel consumption and time and labor requirements by eliminating at least one individual trip over the field. Light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operations can be combined with eitherprimary or secondary tillage or planting operations. The amount of fuel saved depends on the combined operations. Generally, light tillage, spraying, and fertilizing operations consume between 0.25 and 0.50 gallons of diesel fuel per acre. Fuel savings of 0.12 to 0.33 gallons per acre can usually be expected from combining operations. Eliminating one primary tillage operation and combining one light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operation with another tillage or planting operation can usually save at least a gallon of diesel fuel per acre. Combining operations has the added benefit of reducing wheel traffic and compaction. To improve the tillage energy efficiency, implementing effective and agronomic strategies should be improved. Different tillage systems should be tested to determine the most energy efficient ones. Tillage helps seed growth and germination through providing appropriate conditions for soil to absorb sufficient temperature and humidity. Tillage is a time consuming and expensive procedure. With the application of agricultural operations, we can save considerable amounts of fuel, time and

  13. Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, R.J.; Gregg, Jay Sterling; Losey, L.;

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950–2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80...... reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined...... with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models....

  14. Optimisation of MSW collection routes for minimum fuel consumption using 3D GIS modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, G; Zsigraiova, Z; Semiao, V; Carvalho, M G

    2009-03-01

    Collection of municipal solid waste (MSW) may account for more than 70% of the total waste management budget, most of which is for fuel costs. It is therefore crucial to optimise the routing network used for waste collection and transportation. This paper proposes the use of geographical information systems (GIS) 3D route modelling software for waste collection and transportation, which adds one more degree of freedom to the system and allows driving routes to be optimised for minimum fuel consumption. The model takes into account the effects of road inclination and vehicle weight. It is applied to two different cases: routing waste collection vehicles in the city of Praia, the capital of Cape Verde, and routing the transport of waste from different municipalities of Santiago Island to an incineration plant. For the Praia city region, the 3D model that minimised fuel consumption yielded cost savings of 8% as compared with an approach that simply calculated the shortest 3D route. Remarkably, this was true despite the fact that the GIS-recommended fuel reduction route was actually 1.8% longer than the shortest possible travel distance. For the Santiago Island case, the difference was even more significant: a 12% fuel reduction for a similar total travel distance. These figures indicate the importance of considering both the relief of the terrain and fuel consumption in selecting a suitable cost function to optimise vehicle routing. PMID:18835768

  15. The fuel consumption increase in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Fullerton Jr

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes short–run gasoline consumption dynamics in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Parameter estimation is carried out using linear transfer function arima analysis. This market is of interest because it is influenced by regional, national, and international economic conditions due to its location on the border with the United States. Explanatory variables that satisfy the significance criterion include the real price of gasoline in Ciudad Juárez, the price of gasoline in Ciudad Juárez relative to that charged across the border in el Paso, Texas, USA, and formal sector employment in Ciudad Juárez. Out–of–sample simulations indicate that the model is relatively accurate for forecasts of to 1 to 24 months into the future.

  16. Linking biomass fuel consumption and improve cooking stove: A study from Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohel, Md. Shawkat Islam; Rana, Md. Parvez; Akhter, Sayma

    2010-09-15

    The study determines the biomass fuel consumption pattern and environmental consequences of biomass fuel usage in the traditional and improve cooking stove. The introduction of improved cooking stove minimizes people's forest dependence by reducing the amount of fuelwood required to meet their household needs. Firewood was the most frequently used biomass fuel. It has been figured out that the incomplete combustion of biomass in the traditional cooking stove poses severe epidemiological consequences to human health and contributes to global warming. While improve cooking stove help to reduce such consequences.

  17. Evaluation of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions During Engine Warm-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Hasan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine exhaust emission and fuel consumption during warm-up period was experimentally investigated. Experiment was conducted on a four-stroke four-cylinder spark ignition engine alternatively equipped with CIS and EIS. Fuel consumption; and exhaust emissions included hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were measured as a function of ambient temperature; i.e. 7, 25 and 40ºC. In order to simulate engine operation condition during warm - up period under various ambient temperatures axillaries cooling water and cooling air systems were designed and coupled to the engine being tested. Results show that as the ambient temperature increases the concentration of both hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide and fuel consumption decreases while the carbon dioxide increases. Also, the time required for the engine to fully warm-up is shortened. Moreover, operating the engine when equipped with EIS has a greater effect on HC, CO and fuel consumption reduction compared to when equipped with CIS at the same operation conditions.

  18. 49 CFR 1243.3 - Report of fuel cost, consumption, and surcharge revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...'s reporting form. Such reports shall be filed, in duplicate, with the Office of Economics... days after the end of the quarter reported. Appendix to Section 49 CFR 1243.3 OMB Control No. 2140-0014... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of fuel cost, consumption, and...

  19. Fuel load, humus consumption and humus moisture dynamics in Central European Scots pine stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2005-01-01

    Samples of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) humus were burned under different moisture and fuel load scenarios to model humus consumption. For moisture levels below 120% on a dry mass basis, a parabolic increase of humus remaining with increasing moisture content was observed while, for higher moist

  20. Automobile technology of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking ahead to the year 2000, this fascinating publication takes an in-depth look at new technology which will impact the passenger car of tomorrow. New developments in the areas of performance, reliability, comfort, fuel economy, safety, and environmental compatibility are examined. In this book the authors offer analysis on subjects such as the impact of legislation, the acceptance of ABS, and features of the future dashboard. Offering insight to readers with both technical and general interest in automobiles

  1. How hybrid-electric vehicles are different from conventional vehicles: the effect of weight and power on fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C.; Kandlikar, M.

    2007-01-01

    An increasingly diverse set of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) is now available in North America. The recent generation of HEVs have higher fuel consumption, are heavier, and are significantly more powerful than the first generation of HEVs. We compare HEVs for sale in the United States in 2007 to equivalent conventional vehicles and determine how vehicle weight and system power affects fuel consumption within each vehicle set. We find that heavier and more powerful hybrid-electric vehicles are eroding the fuel consumption benefit of this technology. Nonetheless, the weight penalty for fuel consumption in HEVs is significantly lower than in equivalent conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). A 100 kg change in vehicle weight increases fuel consumption by 0.7 l/100 km in ICEVs compared with 0.4 l/100 km in HEVs. When the HEVs are compared with their ICEV counterparts in an equivalence model that differentiates between cars and sports-utility vehicles, the average fuel consumption benefit was 2.7 l/100 km. This analysis further reveals that a HEV which is 100 kg heavier than an identical ICEV would have a fuel consumption penalty of 0.15 l/100 km. Likewise, an increase in the HEV's power by 10 kW results in a fuel consumption penalty of 0.27 l/100 km.

  2. How hybrid-electric vehicles are different from conventional vehicles: the effect of weight and power on fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increasingly diverse set of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) is now available in North America. The recent generation of HEVs have higher fuel consumption, are heavier, and are significantly more powerful than the first generation of HEVs. We compare HEVs for sale in the United States in 2007 to equivalent conventional vehicles and determine how vehicle weight and system power affects fuel consumption within each vehicle set. We find that heavier and more powerful hybrid-electric vehicles are eroding the fuel consumption benefit of this technology. Nonetheless, the weight penalty for fuel consumption in HEVs is significantly lower than in equivalent conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). A 100 kg change in vehicle weight increases fuel consumption by 0.7 l/100 km in ICEVs compared with 0.4 l/100 km in HEVs. When the HEVs are compared with their ICEV counterparts in an equivalence model that differentiates between cars and sports-utility vehicles, the average fuel consumption benefit was 2.7 l/100 km. This analysis further reveals that a HEV which is 100 kg heavier than an identical ICEV would have a fuel consumption penalty of 0.15 l/100 km. Likewise, an increase in the HEV's power by 10 kW results in a fuel consumption penalty of 0.27 l/100 km

  3. Life-cycle global warming and non-renewable energy consumption impacts of ammonia fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ammonia (NH3) as transportation fuel had been a recent topics of research interest. NH3 has fuel properties that are better than those of other alternative fuels, such as it high energy density and simpler storage. However, it has a low flame speed and would require to be mixed with a secondary fuel forming a dual fuel system. Moreover, current industrial methods of NH3 production are major global warming potential (GWP) and non-renewable energy consumption (NREC) impact contributors. This study assessed the life-cycle GWP and NREC of using different NH3-secondary fuel mixtures. Four fuel mixtures were considered, wherein NH3 is mixed with gasoline, diesel, hydrogen or dimethyl ether (DME). Also, our processes of NH3 production were considered: steam reforming (SR), partial oxidation (PO), which are industrial methods and two biomass-based (alternative) processes wherein cereal straw (Salix) and cyanobacteria (Anabaena ATCC 33047) are used feedstocks. Contribution, sensitivity, and uncertainty analyses (via Monte Carlo simulation) were conducted for life-cycle interpretation. Dominance matrix tool was also employed to aid in drawing conclusions. The study concludes that the environmental impacts of NH3 fuel are dependent on (i) NH3 production methods and (ii) type of NH3 fuel mixture. NH3-diesel fuel mixtures have lower GWP compared to pure diesel, while NH3-gasoline fuel mixture have higher GWP compared to pure gasoline. Because of large uncertainty of the NREC pure gasoline and pure diesel, no firm conclusion can be made about the NREC ammonia-diesel and ammonia-gasoline. If fuel mixture types are compared, NH3-H2 mixtures have the lowest GWP and NREC among the four, though this would entail designing new engines. Over-all, it is shown that fuel systems involving biomass-based NH3 have lower environmental impacts as compared to conventionally-produced NH3 counterparts. (author)

  4. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, David J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keisman, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, John L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keisman, Jennifer [American Association for the Advancemetn of Science (AAAS), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  5. More efficiency in fuel consumption using gearbox optimization based on Taguchi method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goharimanesh, Masoud; Akbari, Aliakbar; Akbarzadeh Tootoonchi, Alireza

    2014-05-01

    Automotive emission is becoming a critical threat to today's human health. Many researchers are studying engine designs leading to less fuel consumption. Gearbox selection plays a key role in an engine design. In this study, Taguchi quality engineering method is employed, and optimum gear ratios in a five speed gear box is obtained. A table of various gear ratios is suggested by design of experiment techniques. Fuel consumption is calculated through simulating the corresponding combustion dynamics model. Using a 95 % confidence level, optimal parameter combinations are determined using the Taguchi method. The level of importance of the parameters on the fuel efficiency is resolved using the analysis of signal-to-noise ratio as well as analysis of variance.

  6. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  7. Performance Investigation of Automobile Radiator Operated with ZnFe2O4 Nano Fluid based Coolant

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi Ajay; Chandra H

    2015-01-01

    The cooling system of an Automobile plays an important role in its performance, consists of two main parts, known as radiator and fan. Improving thermal efficiency of engine leads to increase the engine's performance, decline the fuel consumption and decrease the pollution emissions. Water and ethylene glycol as conventional coolants have been widely used in radiators of an automotive industry for many years. These heat transfer fluids offer low thermal conductivity. With the advancement of n...

  8. Harvesting and consumption of fuel and timber wood in rural area of district tank, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study revealed that 90% of the rural people with different age group of District Tank, Pakistan depended upon firewood for catering. The total annual wood consumption for fueling by brick brewers, food sellers and domestic utilization was 18371 metric tons in this remote region. The saw machines also convert 13650 metric tons of timber wood yearly into logs and boards of various grades. The total wood consumption exceeds the quantity of wood harvested by tree fellers, farmers and wood sellers. Therefore the balance of over 13000 metric tons is sourced from neighboring forest of Tehsil Kulachi and Dera Ismail Khan. The quantity of wood removed and consumed for various purposes did not show a significant difference at (0.05) among the six locations. However student t-test showed significant difference existed in the mean annual removal and consumption of wood in the area. The study also enumerated Acacia nilotica, Tamarix aphylla, and Sueda fruticosa as the best and preferred fuel species. While Acacia nilotica, Prosopis farcta and Dalbergia sisso as the frequently used timber species in the region. The criterion of firewood and lumber consumption was very conventional like durability in blaze and opposed to termite. Consequently, it is recommended scientific vegetation conservation strategies meant at improved burning of fuel wood and maximized used of timber products as a complimentary efforts to enforced tree planting for conservation of plant resources. (author)

  9. Automobile technology in a CO{sub 2}-constrained world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S.; Barreto Gomez, L.; Dietrich, Ph. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schafer, A.; Jacoby, H.D. [MIT, Cambridge (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This study identifies the environmental conditions under which less CO{sub 2}-emitting and more expensive automobile technology might enter the North American transportation sector. For that purpose, different exogenous CO{sub 2}-reduction targets are imposed and the resulting market shares of hypothetical future automobile technologies calculated. The criteria for the selection of different types of automobiles/fuels is the minimisation of discounted, cumulative transport sector costs over the scenario time horizon. (author) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  10. Fuel Consumption Modeling of a Transport Category Aircraft Using Flight Operations Quality Assurance Data: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzer, Alan J.

    2002-01-01

    Fuel is a major cost expense for air carriers. A typical airline spends 10% of its operating budget on the purchase of jet fuel, which even exceeds its expenditures on aircraft acquisitions. Thus, it is imperative that fuel consumption be managed as wisely as possible. The implementation of Flight Operations Quality Assurance (FOQA) programs at airlines may be able to assist in this management effort. The purpose of the study is to examine the literature regarding fuel consumption by air carriers, the literature related to air carrier fuel conservation efforts, and the literature related to the appropriate statistical methodologies to analyze the FOQA-derived data.

  11. Analyse de la sensibilité aux paramètres gazoles d'un moteur diesel d'automobile à injection directe Small Direct Injection Diesel Engine Sensitivity to the Diesel Fuel Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montagne X.

    2006-12-01

    particules totales sont plutôt dépendantes de la viscosité et des fractions légères des carburants. Les émissions sonores sont étroitement liées à l'indice de cétane. Par ailleurs, l'ensemble des résultats acquis semble indiquer que les paramètres pilotant le délai d'auto-inflammation sont importants sur ce type de convertisseur. Il serait cependant nécessaire de disposer de mesures directes des caractéristiques des jets d'injection (taille des gouttelettes, pénétration du spray en fonction des différents carburants pour pouvoir quantifier l'effet des paramètres tels que la viscosité et la densité sur la partie physique du délai d'auto-inflammation. Among the technical solutions that can lead to energy converters with low pollutant emissions and low fuel consumption, diesel engines rank, by nature, in a good position. On this base, direct injection diesel engine has been developed and are now spreading in private passanger cars because of their performances, especially in terms of fuel consumption. However, this equipment requires an efficient injection system, electronically driven, needs EGR and an oxidation catalyst to improve the pollutant emissions and the noise level. Thus, it is a major concern to be able to assess precisely the sensitivity to fuel characteristics of direct injection engines as to take the best advantage of this technology. With a set of fuels formulated to cover a large range of chemical nature, viscosity, cetane number and density, an Audi direct injection engine (1Z model was run at the test bench. The impact of the fuel characteristics on pollutant emissions, regulated or unregulated (PAH, aldehydes, and on noise levels was assessed either under standard tuning conditions, either by changing the EGR rate and the injection timing. The results obtained at the end of this program point out the main criteria that have an influence on emissions. They also allow a comparison between direct injection engines and their homologues

  12. Study of operational parameters impacting helicopter fuel consumption. [using computer techniques (computer programs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J. L.; Stevens, D. D.

    1976-01-01

    A computerized study of operational parameters affecting helicopter fuel consumption was conducted as an integral part of the NASA Civil Helicopter Technology Program. The study utilized the Helicopter Sizing and Performance Computer Program (HESCOMP) developed by the Boeing-Vertol Company and NASA Ames Research Center. An introduction to HESCOMP is incorporated in this report. The results presented were calculated using the NASA CH-53 civil helicopter research aircraft specifications. Plots from which optimum flight conditions for minimum fuel use that can be obtained are presented for this aircraft. The results of the study are considered to be generally indicative of trends for all helicopters.

  13. Fuel consumption: short term and long term price impacts per population type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents assessments of the price sensitivity of household fuel consumption. After a literature review on price-elasticity assessments and the use of pseudo-panels, the investigation analyses the deciding factors of the household fuel expense and its evolution between 1985 and 2006. It proposes a short term price-elasticity assessment based on the most recent survey, and also proposes price-elasticity assessments for sub-populations, notably in terms of income level or location (rural or urban areas)

  14. Initiatives to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions during ground operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk JAFERNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines initiatives leading to reduction of fuel consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide by civil passenger aircrafts during ground operations. Airbus A320, one of the most popular nowadays airliners serves as an example. The article refers to initiatives related to operators, manufacturers as well as Air Traffic Control units. Detailed analysis of specific fuel efficiency initiative has been limited to one exemplary flight. Results of analysis can be used as a basis to calculation of gross savings in relation to specific airport.

  15. Analysis of cumulative energy consumption in an oxy-fuel combustion power plant integrated with a CO2 processing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Oxy-fuel combustion is promising CCS technology. • Sum of direct and indirect energy consumption ought to be consider. • This sum is expressed by cumulative energy consumption. • Input–output analysis is adequate method of CCS modeling. - Abstract: A balance of direct energy consumption is not a sufficient tool for an energy analysis of an oxy-fuel combustion power plant because of the indirect consumption of energy in preceding processes in the energy-technological set of interconnections. The sum of direct and indirect consumption expresses cumulative energy consumption. Based on the “input–output” model of direct energy consumption the mathematical model of cumulative energy consumption concerning an integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant has been developed. Three groups of energy carriers or materials are to be distinguished, viz. main products, by-products and external supplies not supplementing the main production. The mathematical model of the balance of cumulative energy consumption based on the assumption that the indices of cumulative energy consumption of external supplies (mainly fuels and raw materials) are known a’priori. It results from weak connections between domestic economy and an integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant. The paper presents both examples of the balances of direct and cumulative energy consumption. The results of calculations of indices of cumulative energy consumption concerning main products are presented. A comparison of direct and cumulative energy effects between three variants has been worked out. Calculations of the indices of cumulative energy consumption were also subjected to sensitive analysis. The influence of the indices of cumulative energy consumption of external supplies (input data), as well as the assumption concerning the utilization of solid by-products of the combustion process have been investigated

  16. Real-world comparison of probe vehicle emissions and fuel consumption using diesel and 5% biodiesel (B5) blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An instrumented EURO I Ford Mondeo was used to perform a real-world comparison of vehicle exhaust (carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen) emissions and fuel consumption for diesel and 5% biodiesel in diesel blend (B5) fuels. Data were collected on multiple replicates of three standardised on-road journeys: (1) a simple urban route; (2) a combined urban/inter-urban route; and, (3) an urban route subject to significant traffic management. At the total journey measurement level, data collected here indicate that replacing diesel with a B5 substitute could result in significant increases in both NOx emissions (8-13%) and fuel consumption (7-8%). However, statistical analysis of probe vehicle data demonstrated the limitations of comparisons based on such total journey measurements, i.e., methods analogous to those used in conventional dynamometer/drive cycle fuel comparison studies. Here, methods based on the comparison of speed/acceleration emissions and fuel consumption maps are presented. Significant variations across the speed/acceleration surface indicated that direct emission and fuel consumption impacts were highly dependent on the journey/drive cycle employed. The emission and fuel consumption maps were used both as descriptive tools to characterise impacts and predictive tools to estimate journey-specific emission and fuel consumption effects. (author)

  17. Design and Fuel Consumption Optimization for a Bio-Inspired Semi-floating Hybrid Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiannan Luo; Yansong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Based on a bionic concept and combing air-cushion techniques and track driving mechanisms, a novel semi-floating hybrid concept vehicle is proposed to meet the transportation requirements on soft terrain. First, the vehicle scheme and its improved duel-spring flexible suspension design are described. Then, its fuel consumption model is proposed accordingly with respect to two vehicle operating parameters. Aiming at minimizing the fuel consumption, two Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are designed and implemented. For the initial one (GA-1), despite getting an acceptable result, there still existed some problems in its optimization process. Based on an analysis of the defects ofGA-l, an improved algorithm GA-2 was developed whose effectiveness and stability were embodied in the optimization process and results. The proposed design scheme and optimization approaches can provide valuable references for this new kind of vehicle with promising applications in the areas of agriculture, petroleum industry, military or scientific exploitations, etc.

  18. Forecasting Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption for Power Generation Using QHSA-Based LSSVM Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Sun; Yujun He; Hong Chang

    2015-01-01

    Accurate forecasting of fossil fuel energy consumption for power generation is important and fundamental for rational power energy planning in the electricity industry. The least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) is a powerful methodology for solving nonlinear forecasting issues with small samples. The key point is how to determine the appropriate parameters which have great effect on the performance of LSSVM model. In this paper, a novel hybrid quantum harmony search algorithm-based L...

  19. Optimizing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of gasoline-HEV with catalytic converter

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Pierre; Charlet, Alain; Colin, Guillaume; Chamaillard, Yann; Bloch, Gérard; Nouillant, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    International audience Because of more and more stringent vehicle emission standards, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) are developed. Gasoline-HEV are equipped with 3-Way Catalytic Converter (3WCC). So the energy management systems of such vehicles , which must reduce not only fuel consumption, but also vehicle pollutant emissions, have to consider the 3WCC heating. A pollutant constrained energy management strategy is presented. A 3WCC multi-0D model is built from physical equations, with a...

  20. The Influence of Intersections on Fuel Consumption in Urban Arterial Road Traffic: A Single Vehicle Test in Harbin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Wu

    Full Text Available The calculating method for fuel consumption (FC was put forward and calibrated and the characteristics of the fuel consumption on intersections were analyzed based on 18 groups of vehicular operating data which were acquired from the test experiment of a single vehicle along the urban arterial roads in Harbin, China. The results obtained show that 50.36% of the fuel consumption for the test vehicle was used at the area of intersections compared with 28.9% of the influencing distance and 68.5% of the running time; and 78.4% of them was burnt at the stages of acceleration and idling. Meanwhile, the type

  1. Influence of malfunctions of the maintenance activities on the urban buses fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Crişan; Nicolae, Filip

    2014-06-01

    Optimization of activities with the aim to provide quality service in conditions of high profitability, is one of the main objectives chased by managers in transportation companies. As a consequence, directing the attention towards monitoring of maintenance activities of vehicles fleet, can achieve desired results. Two of the most important issues related to the maintenance activity, is the increase of reliability and reduction of fuel consumption of the vehicles fleet. Aforementioned actions represents a way forward for raising the quality and profitability of services offered. In this paper, the main ways of monitoring the fuel consumption, in order to reduce it and increase the reliability of transportation vehicles fleet, are presented. For the evaluation of the maintenance system and the degree of influence of malfunctions recorded on the fuel consumption, using the Pareto -ABC method, following case study on a fleet of buses for urban public transport has been conducted. Results obtained highlights the deficiencies of the maintenance process carried out and constitutes a solid base for the reorganization of the maintenance activity, involving preventive maintenance activities, in order to contribute decisively to the results targeted by the management of transport companies.

  2. Usage of Production Functions in the Comparative Analysis of Transport Related Fuel Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torok Adam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims to examine the relationship between the transport sector and the macroeconomy, particularly in fossil energy use, capital and labour relations. The authors have investigated the transport related fossil fuel consumption 2003 -2010 in a macroeconomic context in Hungary and Germany. The Cobb-Douglas type of production function could be justified empirically, while originating from the general CES (Constant Elasticity of Substitution production function. Furthermore, as a policy implication, the results suggest that a solution for the for the reduction of anthropogenic CO2 driven by the combustion of fossil fuels presupposes technological innovation to reach emission reduction targets. Other measures, such as increasing the fossil fuel price by levying taxes, would consequently lead to an undesirable GDP decline.

  3. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  4. Influence of driving cycles on Euro 3 scooter emissions and fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Fuel consumption and emissions of Euro 3 scooters defined on different driving cycles. → Comparison of standard, real world driving cycles and measured urban speed patterns. → Statistical analysis of kinematic parameters to group driving cycle in clusters. → Clusters can explain pollutant and fuel consumption behaviour in hot conditions. → Cold start mixture enrichment strategy has a major influence on extra-emissions. - Abstract: Regulated pollutant emissions and fuel consumption were characterized at the exhaust of two Euro 3 4-stroke medium-size motorcycles during the execution of both standard and real world driving cycles. A principal component analysis was carried out to group in a cluster the driving cycles with similar kinematic parameters. Hot start results, analysed according to this cluster grouping, show that the main differences are explained by overall mean speed and high positive acceleration of driving cycles. Lower mean speeds produce higher CO2 emission factors, while the influence on CO and HC is more complex. NOX are not significantly affected by the driving pattern. Inside the same cluster, the whole duration of the acceleration phases could discriminate emission behaviour. In-depth analysis of cold start results was conducted in order to assess the influence of the driving cycle and vehicle characteristics on cold start duration. Cold start extra emissions are more influenced by the duration of the enrichment phase than by the catalyst light-off. The larger number of accelerations occurring during real world driving cycles produces higher variability of air fuel ratio and hence higher cold start extra emissions.

  5. ELECTRICITY SUPPLY, FOSSIL FUEL CONSUMPTION, CO2 EMISSIONS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: IMPLICATIONS AND POLICY OPTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Chibueze Eze Nnaji; Jude O. Chukwu; Moses Nnaji

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the causal relationship among electricity supply, fossil fuel consumption, CO2 emissions and economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1971-2009, in a multivariate framework.Using the bound test approach to cointegration, we found a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and statistically significant relationship between CO2 emissions and fossil fuel consumption. The findings also indicate that economic growth is associated wit...

  6. Effect Of Platooning on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Vehicles Over a Range of Speeds, Following Distances, and Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; Duran, A.; Diez, J.; Burton, K.; Nicholson, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project evaluates fuel consumption results of two Class 8 tractor-trailer combinations platooned together compared to their standalone fuel consumption. A series of ten modified SAE Type II J1321 fuel consumption track tests were performed to document fuel consumption of two platooned vehicles and a control vehicle at varying steady-state speeds, following distances, and gross vehicle weights (GVWs). The steady-state speeds ranged from 55 mph to 70 mph, the following distances ranged from a 20-ft following distance to a 75-ft following distance, and the GVWs were 65K lbs and 80K lbs. All tractors involved had U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SmartWay-compliant aerodynamics packages installed, and the trailers were equipped with side skirts. Effects of vehicle speed, following distance, and GVW on fuel consumption were observed and analyzed. The platooning demonstration system used in this study consisted of radar systems, Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, vehicle braking and torque control interface, cameras and driver displays. The lead tractor consistently demonstrated an improvement in average fuel consumption reduction as following distance decreased, with results showing 2.7% to 5.3% fuel savings at a GVW of 65k. The trailing vehicle achieved fuel consumption savings ranging from 2.8% to 9.7%; tests during which the engine cooling fan did not operate achieved savings of 8.4% to 9.7%. 'Team' fuel savings, considering the platooned vehicles as one, ranged from 3.7% to 6.4%, with the best combined result being for 55 mph, 30-ft following distance, and 65k GVW.

  7. Auto-Mobile Vehicle Direction in Road Traffic using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Rathinakumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available So far Most of the current work on this area dealswith traffic volume prediction during peak hours and thereasons behind accidents only. This work presents the analysis of automobile vehicle directing in varioustraffic flow conditions using Artificial neural network architecture. Now a days, due to unprecedentedincrease in automobile vehicular traffic especiallyin metro-Politian cities, it has become highly imperativethat we must choose an optimum road route in accordance with our requirements. The requirements are :volume of the traffic, Distance between source anddestination, no of signals in between the source anddestination, the nature of the road condition , fuel consumption and Travel Timing. Artificial Neuralnetworks, a soft computing technique, modeled afterbrain biological neuron functioning, helps to obtainthe required road way or route as per the traininggiven to it. Here we make use of Back propagationnetwork, which changes the weights value of the hidden layers, thereby activation function value whichfires the neuron to get the required output.

  8. Impact of idling on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions and available idle-reduction technologies for diesel vehicles – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In this paper we reviewed the impact of diesel vehicles idling on fuel consumption and exhaust emission. • Fuel consumption and emissions during idling are very high compared to driving cycle. • The effects of various operating on fuel consumption and exhaust emission were discussed. • Available idle-reduction technologies impact on idling fuel consumption and emissions were discussed. • Idling reduction technologies reduce fuel consumption and emissions significantly. - Abstract: In order to maintain cab comfort truck drivers have to idle their engine to obtain the required power for accessories, such as the air conditioner, heater, television, refrigerator, and lights. This idling of the engine has a major impact on its fuel consumption and exhaust emission. Idling emissions can be as high as 86.4 g/h, 16,500 g/h, 5130 g/h, 4 g/h, and 375 g/h for HC, CO2, CO, PM, and NOx, respectively. Idling fuel consumption rate can be as high as 1.85 gal/h. The accessory loading, truck model, fuel-injection system, ambient temperature, idling speed, etc., also affect significantly the emission levels and fuel consumption rate. An increase in accessory loading and ambient temperature increases the emissions and fuel consumption. During idling, electronic fuel-injection systems reduce HC, PM, and CO emission, but increase NOx emissions compared with a mechanical fuel-injection system. An increase of idling speed increases fuel consumption rate. There are many systems available on the market to reduce engine idling and improve air quality and fuel consumption rate, such as an auxiliary power unit (APU), truck stop electrification, thermal storage systems, fuel cells, and direct fire heaters. A direct fire heater reduces fuel consumption by 94–96% and an APU reduces consumption by 60–87%. Furthermore, these technologies increase air quality significantly by reducing idling emissions, which is the reason why they are considered as key alternatives to

  9. Biodiesel of distilled hydrogenated fat and biodiesel of distilled residual oil: fuel consumption in agricultural tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara, Felipe Thomaz da; Lopes, Afonso; Silva, Rouverson Pereira da; Oliveira, Melina Cais Jejcic; Furlani, Carlos Eduardo Angeli [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil); Dabdoub, Miguel Joaquim [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Great part of the world-wide oil production is used in fry process; however, after using, such product becomes an undesirable residue, and the usual methods of discarding of these residues, generally contaminate the environment, mainly the rivers. In function of this, using oil and residual fat for manufacturing biodiesel, besides preventing ambient contamination, turning up an undesirable residue in to fuel. The present work had as objective to evaluate the fuel consumption of a Valtra BM100 4x2 TDA tractor functioning with methylic biodiesel from distilled hydrogenated fat and methylic biodiesel from distilled residual oil, in seven blends into diesel. The work was conducted at the Department of Agricultural Engineering, at UNESP - Jaboticabal, in an entirely randomized block statistical design, factorial array of 2 x 7, with three repetitions. The factors combinations were two types of methylic distilled biodiesel (residual oil and hydrogenated fat) and seven blends (B{sub 0}, B{sub 5}, B{sub 1}5, B{sub 2}5, B{sub 5}0, B{sub 7}5 and B{sub 1}00). The results had evidenced that additioning 15% of biodiesel into diesel, the specific consumption was similar, and biodiesel of residual oil provided less consumption than biodiesel from hydrogenated fat. (author)

  10. An Approach for Power Generation with Reduced Fuel Consumption Using PTO Driven Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Patel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the gear up throttle down concept, suitable power take off (PTO speed required to run a PTO powered generator was decided. For this PTO test was carried out using an eddy current dynamometer. The tractor engine was loaded to different torque values at different engine speeds for obtaining constant PTO power corresponding to the full load of the generator. Fuel consumption, smoke level, exhaust gas temperature and coolant temperature were measured during PTO test. Engine speed fluctuation and engine overloading were also observed to judge whether the engine was running smoothly, or it was overloaded. The specific fuel consumption was reduced from 268.9 g/kW h at 1579 rpm to 242.9 g/kW h at 1000 rpm. Considering the engine speed fluctuation, overloading of the engine, rapid rise of smoke level, exhaust gas temperature and coolant temperature, an engine speed of 1215 rpm was recommended instead of 1579 rpm (corresponding to standard PTO speed of 540 rpm. A suitable power transmission system comprising belt and pulley drive was designed to run the generator at rated speed of 1500 rpm. When the generator was operated at reduced PTO speed of 415 rpm (corresponding to engine speed of 1215 rpm in comparison to standard PTO speed of 540 rpm, fuel saving of 0.35 l/h to 0.55 l/h and 0.43 l/h to 0.48 l/h was achieved at different alternating current (AC and direct current (DC loads on the generator, respectively. Following this approach, a considerable amount of fuel energy could be saved while generating electric power using tractor. Efficient use of fuel will reduce the overall production cost of agricultural products as well as help in protecting our environment.

  11. Sistema de Medición Automático para el Consumo de Material Utilizado en Vestiduras Automotrices Automatic Measurement System for Material Consumption in Automobile Seat Covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia H Rascón

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el proceso de diseño y aplicación de un sistema para la medición automática de material utilizado en el proceso de corte de vestiduras automotrices. El diseño consta de un carrete medidor de material, sensores de presencia, un microcontrolador y una computadora. El microcontrolador cuenta los periodos de la señal de salida del codificador y calcula la medición de material. El sistema registra en una base de datos la cantidad de material utilizado, el material restante en el rollo y el material excedente utilizado en cada requerimiento de corte. El sistema de medición automático no interfiere con el proceso de corte, mide con mayor exactitud el material utilizado y disminuye sustancialmente el material de desperdicio.This work describes the design and application of a system for the automatic measurement of the quantity of material utilized in automobile seat covers. The design consists of a reader system, sensors, a controller, a microcontroller and a computer. When the cutting process finishes, a microprocessor store the measurement. This measurement is sent to a database for further analysis. The system counts the material utilized in the cutting process and the material that is left on a roll. The system adaptation does not interfere with the normal cutting process, allows measuring correctly the material consumption and diminishes the scrap material.

  12. Fuel Consumption and Vehicle Emission Models for Evaluating Environmental Impacts of the ETC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The environmental outcome of the Electronic Toll Collection (ETC system is an important aspect in evaluating the impacts of the ETC system, which is influenced by various factors including the vehicle type, travel speed, traffic volume, and average queue length of Manual Toll Collection (MTC lanes. The primary objective of this paper is to develop a field data-based practical model for evaluating the effects of ETC system on the fuel efficiency and vehicle emission. First, laboratory experiments of seven types of vehicles under various scenarios for toll collection were conducted based on the Vehicle Emissions Testing System (VETS. The indicator calculation models were then established to estimate the comprehensive benefit of ETC system by comparing the test results of MTC lane and ETC lane. Finally, taking Beijing as a case study, the paper calibrated the model parameters, and estimated the monetization value of environmental benefit of the ETC system in terms of vehicle emissions reduction and fuel consumption decrease. The results shows that the applications of ETC system are expected to save fuel consumption of 4.1 million liters and reduce pollution emissions by 730.89 tons in 2013 in Beijing.

  13. Determination of consumption biogenic solid fuels in the commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policy has both national and European level ambitious program aimed at expansion of renewable energy and related to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In the national action plan for renewable energy of the Federal Republic of Germany these goals are defined by 2020. The share of renewable energy in the provision of heat and cold should therefore rise from 6.6% to 15.5% of gross final energy consumption. According to the increasing importance of solar-thermal, near-surface and geothermal heat, the relative share of biomass is decreasing. However biomass makes with those listed in the national action plan with 79% an essential amount in regenerative heat market [BMU 2010]. For the pursuit of goals and reviews, the support measures and packages of measures which are initiated in this context, a regular and timely reporting on the development of the above objectives is mandatory. The diverse and growing reporting requirements such as in the EU directive on the promotion of renewable energy, require, however well-founded knowledge of the sector-specific energy consumption from renewable sources. While the data available for use of biogenic solid fuels in the sectors household and industry has improved significantly in recent years, for the sector commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector) reliable figures are still lacking. Against this background, the objective is to present study, in close cooperation with the Federal Environment Agency (UBA), the determination of the final energy consumption biogenic solid fuels in the tertiary sector in Germany for the year 2008. The basis is, in addition to the development of the current knowledge of the energy and heat consumption, the delimitation and characterization of the sector and the development of an extrapolation tools. The demand for this tool is its expandability and update possibility. From the industry-nonspecific and industry-specific input data can be derived, collecting for the extrapolation

  14. Establishing bonds between vehicle certification data and real-world vehicle fuel consumption – A Vehicle Specific Power approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Innovative methodology to estimate VSP fuel consumption based on public available data. • Model validation with accurate fuel consumption results (absolute deviation from 4.7% to 9.2%). • Best-selling vehicles in Portugal case study was developed for different driving cycles. - Abstract: A method to perform the energy characterization of a vehicle according to the specific power required while driving was developed using public vehicle certification data. Using a portable emission measurement system, fuel consumption was quantified in a second-by-second basis under on-road conditions for 19 vehicles (spark-ignition, compression-ignition and hybrids). This data allowed building generic curves of fuel consumption as a function of the specific power, according to Vehicle Specific Power methodology. Comparing on-road measurements and the model estimates, a R2 higher than 0.9 for conventional and hybrid vehicles was obtained regarding modal fuel consumption. Comparing the fuel consumption measured on the drive cycles performed by each vehicle and the correspondent estimates, an absolute deviation of 9.2% ± 9.2% was found for conventional vehicles and 4.7% ± 1.8% for hybrids vehicles. This methodology was validated and applied to estimate the energy impacts of the best-selling vehicles in Portugal for different driving cycles. This prompt method, that does not require vehicle monitoring, can estimate curves of fuel consumption in g/s, as a function of specific power, which allows quantifying the absolute fuel use for any driving cycle

  15. On board emission and fuel consumption measurement campaign on petrol-driven passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vlieger, I.

    Realistic emission and fuel consumption rates of petrol-driven cars were determined by on-the-road experiments in 1995. A validated, in-house developed, on-board measuring system was used. Six three-way catalyst (TWC) cars and one carburetted non-catalyst car were measured. The effects of road type, driving behaviour and cold start on CO, HC and NO x emissions and fuel consumption were analysed. In real traffic situations, emissions for TWC cars were found to be at least 70% lower than for the non-catalyst car. For TWC cars, emissions decreased across the board from city to rural and motorway traffic. Without a catalyst, motorway traffic resulted in the highest NO x emissions. Compared to normal driving, aggressive driving gave emissions which were up to four times higher. Except for NO x, calm driving resulted in lower emissions still. Comparable fuel consumption rates were obtained from normal and calm driving. Those from aggressive driving were higher, by as much as 40% in city traffic. Cold starts resulted in significantly higher CO and HC emission values than hot starts. These differences were less pronounced for NO x. Emissions from TWC cars were higher than generally expected, compared to the European emission limit values (91/441/EEC) and the emission factors used in Flanders and the Netherlands (Klein,1993) for the national emission inventories. Low-emitting cars during the emission test on a chassis dynamometer, as prescribed by the 91/441/EEC directive, did not necessarily give low emissions in real traffic situations.

  16. The impact of residential density on vehicle usage and fuel consumption: Evidence from national samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinwon; Brownstone, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of residential density on household vehicle usage and fuel consumption. We estimate a simultaneous equations system to account for the potential residential self-selection problem. While most previous studies focus on a specific region, this paper uses national...... samples from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey. The estimation results indicate that residential density has a statistically significant but economically modest influence on vehicle usage, which is similar to that in previous studies. However, the joint effect of the contextual density measure...

  17. Mathematical optimization of variable valve timing for reducing fuel consumption of A SI engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kakaee, Amir-Hasan; Keshavarz, Mehdi; Paykani, Amin; Keshavarz, Mohaamad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the sensitivity analysis and Quasi-Newton algorithms are used to optimize valve timing XU7/L3 engine in order to reduce fuel consumption and increase engine performance. At first, all components of engine are modeled in GT-POWER and a comparison with experimental results is performed to confirm the accuracy of the model. Then, GT-POWER model is coupled with MATLAB-SIMULINK to control inputs and outputs with sensitivity analysis and Quasi-Newton algorithms. The results obtained ...

  18. Measures of Decreasing Blast Furnace Fuel Consumption and Improving Sinter Performance in Guofeng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yuan-hao; FENG Gen-sheng; SU Dong-xue

    2008-01-01

    To further decrease the fuel consumption of blast furnace in Tangshan Guofcng Iron and Steel Co Ltd,measures of improving the quality of sinter and pellet and the performances of raw materials were put forward through phase analysis and physical and chemical performance testing.The measures of increasing the grade of sinter,decreasing the sinter reduction degradation index at low temperature,and increasing the sinter soft melt performance at elevated temperature,as well as the reasonable process parameters of sintering were described in detail.

  19. Reducing Fuel Consumption in Bucharest Terminal Area for Flights Using a Standard Instrument Departure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin George DIACONU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconfiguration of the standard instrument departure and standard arrival routes at certain airports can bring significant reductions in fuel consumption and level of noise. This can be done either by implementing modern radionavigation aids for terminal areas or by eliminating the flying restrictions over cities and inhabited places and designing of low level of noise procedures for these areas. These solutions have other important benefits like decreasing the workload for the air traffic controllers and reducing the total flight time. The paper describes an operational solution in this manner for Bucharest Henri Coanda International Airport.

  20. A High Fuel Consumption Efficiency Management Scheme for PHEVs Using an Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wah Ching Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A high fuel efficiency management scheme for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs has been developed. In order to achieve fuel consumption reduction, an adaptive genetic algorithm scheme has been designed to adaptively manage the energy resource usage. The objective function of the genetic algorithm is implemented by designing a fuzzy logic controller which closely monitors and resembles the driving conditions and environment of PHEVs, thus trading off between petrol versus electricity for optimal driving efficiency. Comparison between calculated results and publicized data shows that the achieved efficiency of the fuzzified genetic algorithm is better by 10% than existing schemes. The developed scheme, if fully adopted, would help reduce over 600 tons of CO2 emissions worldwide every day.

  1. Opportunities and insights for reducing fossil fuel consumption by households and organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Paul C.; Janda, Kathryn B.; Brown, Marilyn A.; Steg, Linda; Vine, Edward L.; Lutzenhiser, Loren

    2016-05-01

    Realizing the ambitious commitments of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) will require new ways of meeting human needs previously met by burning fossil fuels. Technological developments will be critical, but so will accelerated adoption of promising low-emission technologies and practices. National commitments will be more achievable if interventions take into account key psychological, social, cultural and organizational factors that influence energy choices, along with factors of an infrastructural, technical and economic nature. Broader engagement of social and behavioural science is needed to identify promising opportunities for reducing fossil fuel consumption. Here we discuss opportunities for change in households and organizations, primarily at short and intermediate timescales, and identify opportunities that have been underused in much of energy policy. Based on this survey, we suggest design principles for interventions by governments and other organizations, and identify areas of emphasis for future social science and interdisciplinary research.

  2. Possibilities of electronics and microelectronics for optimation of the fuel consumption of cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziwisch, G.F.; Meissner, F.

    1980-01-01

    Electronics in cars have established themselves internationally not only because the increase in safety and comfort but also where optimation of energy transformation is concerned. Those elements and functional groups have to operate in wide ranges of operational temperature, they have to have a high tolerance for shocks and vibratory stresses, they must be resistent against air humidity and against aggressive and corrosive media. Further demands are: indifference to fluctuations of the voltage, active and passive interference safety, high reliability, low price. They can be used in: engine (electronic ignition, fuel metering, speed control); power transmission (automatic gear); control equipment (indication of momentary fuel consumption, board diagnosis, speed warning system, indicator for position of choke and handbrake). Further possibilities for successful use of microlectronics and electronics are recording and processing of traffic flows for tasks of traffic planning and channeling, optimization of routing, traffic stream control and utilization of transport capacities.

  3. Solar Energy Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  4. Motorcycle emissions and fuel consumption in urban and rural driving conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K S; Wang, W C; Chen, H M; Lin, C F; Hsu, H C; Kao, J H; Hu, M T

    2003-08-01

    This work reports sampling of motorcycle on-road driving cycles in actual urban and rural environments and the development of representative driving cycles using the principle of least total variance in individual regions. Based on the representative driving cycles in individual regions, emission factors for carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)=NO+NO(2)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)), as well as fuel consumption, were determined using a chassis dynamometer. The measurement results show that the representative driving cycles are almost identical in the three largest cities in Taiwan, but they differ significantly from the rural driving cycle. Irrespective of driving conditions, emission factors differ insignificantly between the urban and rural regions at a 95% confidence level. However, the fuel consumption in urban centers is approximately 30% higher than in the rural regions, with driving conditions in the former usually poor compared to the latter. Two-stroke motorcycles generally have considerably higher HC emissions and quite lower NO(x) emissions than those of four-stroke motorcycles. Comparisons with other studies suggest that factors such as road characteristics, traffic volume, vehicle type, driving conditions and driver behavior may affect motorcycle emission levels in real traffic situations. PMID:12873404

  5. Motorcycle emissions and fuel consumption in urban and rural driving conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.S.; Wang, W.C.; Chen, H.M.; Lin, C.F. [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); Hsu, H.C.; Kao, J.H.; Hu, M.T. [Bureau of Environmental Protection, Pingtung County (Taiwan)

    2003-08-01

    This work reports sampling of motorcycle on-road driving cycles in actual urban and rural environments and the development of representative driving cycles using the principle of least total variance in individual regions. Based on the representative driving cycles in individual regions, emission factors for carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}=NO+NO{sub 2}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), as well as fuel consumption, were determined using a chassis dynamometer. The measurement results show that the representative driving cycles are almost identical in the three largest cities in Taiwan, but they differ significantly from the rural driving cycle. Irrespective of driving conditions, emission factors differ insignificantly between the urban and rural regions at a 95% confidence level. However, the fuel consumption in urban centers is approximately 30% higher than in the rural regions, with driving conditions in the former usually poor compared to the latter. Two-stroke motorcycles generally have considerably higher HC emissions and quite lower NO{sub x} emissions than those of four-stroke motorcycles. Comparisons with other studies suggest that factors such as road characteristics, traffic volume, vehicle type, driving conditions and driver behavior may affect motorcycle emission levels in real traffic situations.

  6. The automobile in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Lone, Stewart; Madeley, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Lone: The 1920s saw the emergence in Kansai of modern industrial urban living with the development of the underground, air services; wireless telephones, super express trains etc. Automobiles dominated major streets from the early 1920s in the new Age of Speed. Using Kyoto city as an example, the article covers automobile advertising, procedures for taxis, buses and cars and traffic safety and regulation. Madeley: Nissan Motor Company had a longer connection with the British industry than any...

  7. ROUTE OPTIMIZATION TO INCREASE ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCE FUEL CONSUMPTION OF COMMUNAL VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša M Jovičić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Collection and transportation within the system of solid waste management may account more than 60% of the overall budget, most of which is for fuel costs. Furthermore, municipal vehicles have great environmental impact through exhaust gases emissions. The aim of this research was to estimate the potential for reduction of fuel consumption and thus the emission of CO2 through the communal vehicles route optimization. General methodology for route optimization is also presented. For the area under study, detailed field experimental research in the City of Kragujevac was conducted. Using GIS and GPS technology, whole municipally infrastructure for waste collection was scanned and all paths of communal tracks was recorded and allocated in developed database. Based on experimental and numerical results, one typical municipal vehicle route was analyzed by using ArcGis software. The obtained result indicates 2700 km of possible savings per year concerning one communal vehicle. In addition, the most fuel-economical route was extracted and compared with the original route, and with the routes extracted from criterions concerning the traffic time and shortest distance. According to available information for the City of Kragujevac and the results from this study, it was estimated that the total savings could be 20% in costs and the associated emissions.

  8. Reduction of aerodynamic drag and fuel consumption for tractor-trailer vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, V. U.; Saltzman, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were performed on a scale model of a cab-over-engine tractor-trailer vehicle and several modifications of the model. Results from two of the model configurations were compared with full-scale drag data obtained from similar configurations during coast-down tests. Reductions in fuel consumption derived from these tests are presented in terms of fuel quantity and dollar savings per vehicle year, based on an annual driving distance of 160,900 km (100,000 mi.). The projected savings varied from 13,001 (3435) to 25,848 (6829) liters (gallons) per year which translated to economic savings from $3435 to about $6829 per vehicle year for an operating speed of 88.5 km/h (55 mph) and wind speeds near the national average of 15.3 km/h (9.5 mph). The estimated cumulative fuel savings for the entire U.S. fleet of cab-over-engine tractor, van-type trailer combinations ranged from 4.18 million kl (26.3 million bbl) per year for a low-drag configuration to approximately twice that amount for a more advanced configuration.

  9. Consumption of wood fuels in households in Serbia: Present state and possible contribution to the climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the research in wood fuels consumption for house-hold needs in Serbia. Research was performed during the period from October 2010 until April 2011, i. e. in the period of heating season in order to get the actual situation regarding the presence of certain fuel types in the consumption of households with special highlight on types and amounts of wood fuels. For this purpose, an adequate methodological concept was defined with the aim to primarily get relevant and reliable data on wood fuels consumption and afterwards, by using FAO WISDOM methodology and adequate GIS software packages to perform their analysis, mapping, and graphic representation. One of the most significant elements of the adopted methodological concept was field research-questionnaire of households which was conducted on the sample of 36.946 households out of which 20.725 urban and 16.221 rural in 22 municipalities in Serbia, which was 1.46% of the total number of households in Serbia. Results of the survey showed that 23.2% of the total number of households in Serbia used district heating system (based on conventional fossil fuels as dominant, 25.3% used electricity, and 10.6% used gas for heating purposes. Most households (40.9% used solid fuels such as fuelwood, coal, briquettes, pellets, agricultural residues and combinations of solid and other fuels.

  10. Instruments for reducing the specific fuel consumption of cars; Instrumente zur Absenkung des spezifischen Treibstoffverbrauchs von Personenwagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, S.; Maibach, M. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Marti, P. [Metron, Brugg (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents three possible courses of action that are to be taken to reduce the specific fuel consumption of private cars. The report first examines existing targets and the degree to which they have been met up to now, whereby the situation both in Switzerland and in the European Union is looked at. The report makes a suggestion for a future target scenario and elaborates three possible ways to met these targets: regulations on fuel-consumption, a bonus/malus system and tradable certificates. For each of the proposed instruments, the report examines implementation variants and discusses the means for their implementation. The report presents the best models for each of the implementation-variants on the basis of comparisons and the results of evaluations of their effects. For these chosen variants, the authors present comparisons of their effect on fuel consumption in graphical form and recommend tradable certificates as the best instrument.

  11. A Study of the Translation of Automobile Trademark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘硕

    2014-01-01

    Name is an interesting thing, almost everything has its name. Nowadays along with the rising of consumption levels in China, the brand name of the car becomes an important topic. And the translation of the name of the automobile is the primary task for establishing the global image of the brand. In this paper, I summarize the translation methods for automobile trademarks and point out the importance of the translation of automobile’s trademarks. In addition, this paper explores the trend in the trans-lation of automobile names in China.

  12. Weight Penalty Incurred in Thermoelectric Recovery of Automobile Exhaust Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, D. M.; Smith, J.; Thomas, G.; Min, G.

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric recovery of automobile waste exhaust heat has been identified as having potential for reducing fuel consumption and environmentally unfriendly emissions. Around 35% of combustion energy is discharged as heat through the exhaust system, at temperatures which depend upon the engine's operation and range from 800°C to 900°C at the outlet port to less than 50°C at the tail-pipe. Beneficial reduction in fuel consumption of 5% to 10% is widely quoted in the literature. However, comparison between claims is difficult due to nonuniformity of driving conditions. In this paper the available waste exhaust heat energy produced by a 1.5 L family car when undergoing the new European drive cycle was measured and the potential thermoelectric output estimated. The work required to power the vehicle through the drive cycle was also determined and used to evaluate key parameters. This enabled an estimate to be made of the engine efficiency and additional work required by the engine to meet the load of a thermoelectric generating system. It is concluded that incorporating a thermoelectric generator would attract a penalty of around 12 W/kg. Employing thermoelectric modules fabricated from low-density material such as magnesium silicide would considerably reduce the generator weight penalty.

  13. ANALISYS OF THE EFFICENCY OF THE SOURCES OF ELECTRIC AND THERMAL ENERGY IN VIEW OF SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolaty V.M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Methodological approach to the evaluation of specific energy consumption of the primary fuel for electricity and heat for the various types of power plants is designed. Method of reduction electrical energy to a thermal unit is offered. Analysis of changes specific energy consumption for different shares of electric and heat energy in the total production of energy is held. Advantages of combined cycle power plants are shown.

  14. The Pneumatic Hybrid Vehicle - A New Concept for Fuel Consumption Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trajkovic, Sasa

    2010-07-01

    Urban traffic involves frequent acceleration and deceleration. During deceleration, the energy previously used to accelerate the vehicle is mainly wasted on heat generated by the friction brakes. If this energy that is wasted in traditional internal combustion engines (ICE) could be saved, the fuel economy would improve. Today there are several solutions to meet the demand for better fuel economy and one of them is the pneumatic hybrids. The idea with pneumatic hybridization is to reduce the fuel consumption by taking advantage of the, otherwise lost, brake energy. In the work presented in this study heavy duty Scania engines were converted to operate as pneumatic hybrid engines. During pneumatic hybrid operation the engine can be used as a 2-stroke compressor for generation of compressed air during vehicle deceleration (compressor mode) and during vehicle acceleration the engine can be operated as an air-motor driven by the previously stored pressurized air (air-motor mode). The compressed air is stored in a pressure tank connected to one of the inlet ports. One of the engine inlet valves has been modified to work as a tank valve in order to control the pressurized air flow to and from the pressure tank. In order to switch between different modes of engine operation there is a need for a fully variable valve actuation (FVVA) system. The engines used in this study are equipped with pneumatic valve actuators that use compressed air in order to drive the valves and the motion of the valves is controlled by a combination of electronics and hydraulics. Initial testing concerning the different pneumatic hybrid engine modes of operation was conducted. Both compressor mode (CM) and air-motor mode (AM) were executed successfully. Optimization of CM and AM with regards to valve timing and valve geometry has been done with great improvements in regenerative efficiency which is defined as the ratio between the energy extracted during AM and the energy consumed during CM. A

  15. Fuel consumption potential of the passenger car diesel engine after EURO 6; Kraftstoffverbrauchspotential des Pkw Dieselmotors nach EURO 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koerfer, T.; Kolbeck, A.; Schnorbus, T.; Busch, H.; Kinoo, B.; Henning, L.; Severin, C. [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The stringent global regulations for the reduction of transport-related emissions of CO{sub 2} require the necessity of a drastic reduction of the mean fuel consumption. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on innovative approaches and details of a holistic concept for powertrain diesel engines for the simultaneous reduction of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption behaviour. Under this aspect, legal test procedures such as NEDC and FTP-75 are considered. Additional courses such as ARTEMIS or other operational scenarios are considered.

  16. Improvement of fuel consumption and maintenance of heating furnaces using a modified heating pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsun-Heng Tsai; Shiuh-Ming Chang

    2007-01-01

    This article studies the transient heat conduction in a slab when passing through various sections of the furnace,and focuses on the thickness of the scale layer formed on the slab.The transient heat conduction behavior ora slab in various sections of the heating furnace is analyzed using the Laplace transformation method,including the pre-heating zone,the first heating zone,the second heating zone,and the soaking zone.The heating pattern of the furnace is then modified to reduce fuel consumption.The simulation results show that the scale layer formed on the slab significantly influences the quality of the hot rolled coil formed,and how the furnace parameters affect the efficiency of the furnace and the quality of the coil.

  17. Optimization of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for Auxiliary Power Unit Based on Multi-Objective Optimization Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yongpeng Shen; Zhendong He; Dongqi Liu; Binjie Xu

    2016-01-01

    Auxiliary power units (APUs) are widely used for electric power generation in various types of electric vehicles, improvements in fuel economy and emissions of these vehicles directly depend on the operating point of the APUs. In order to balance the conflicting goals of fuel consumption and emissions reduction in the process of operating point choice, the APU operating point optimization problem is formulated as a constrained multi-objective optimization problem (CMOP) firstly. The four comp...

  18. Contactless Electric Igniter for Vehicle to Lower Exhaust Emission and Fuel Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An electric igniter for engine/hybrid vehicles is presented. The igniter comprises a flyback converter, a voltage-stacked capacitor, a PIC-based controller, a differential voltage detector, and an ignition coil, of which structure is non-contact type. Since the electric igniter adopts a capacitor to accumulate energy for engine ignition instead of traditional contacttype approach, it enhances the igniting performance of a spark plug effectively. As a result, combustion efficiency is promoted, fuel consumption is saved, and exhaust emission is reduced. The igniter not only is good for fuel efficiency but also can reduce HC and CO emission significantly, which therefore is an environmentally friendly product. The control core of the igniter is implemented on a single chip, which lowers discrete component count, reduces system volume, and increases reliability. In addition, the ignition timing can be programmed so that a timing regulator can be removed from the proposed system, simplifying its structure. To verify the feasibility and functionality of the igniter, key waveforms are measured and real-car experiments are performed as well.

  19. Evaluation of fuel consumption potential of medium and heavy duty vehicles through modeling and simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delorme, A.; Karbowski, D.; Sharer, P.; Energy Systems

    2010-03-31

    The main objective of this report is to provide quantitative data to support the Committee in its task of establishing a report to support rulemaking on medium- and heavy-duty fuel efficiency improvement. In particular, it is of paramount importance for the Committee to base or illustrate their conclusions on established models and actual state-of-the art data. The simulations studies presented in the report have been defined and requested by the members of the National Academy committee to provide quantitative inputs to support their recommendations. As such, various technologies and usage scenarios were considered for several applications. One of the objective is to provide the results along with their associated assumptions (both vehicle and drive cycles), information generally missing from public discussions on literature search. Finally, the advantages and limitations of using simulation will be summarized. The study addresses several of the committee tasks, including: (1) Discussion of the implication of metric selection; (2) Assessing the impact of existing technologies on fuel consumption through energy balance analysis (both steady-state and standard cycles) as well as real world drive cycles; and (3) Impact of future technologies, both individually and collectively.

  20. Quantitative Effects of Vehicle Parameters on Fuel Consumption for Heavy-Duty Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Kelly, Kenneth; Walkowicz, Kevin; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-16

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluations team recently conducted chassis dynamometer tests of a class 8 conventional regional delivery truck over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), West Virginia University City (WVU City), and Composite International Truck Local and Commuter Cycle (CILCC) drive cycles. A quantitative study was conducted by analyzing the impacts of various factors on fuel consumption (FC) and fuel economy (FE) by modeling and simulating the truck using NREL's Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim). Factors used in this study included vehicle weight, and the coefficients of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag. The simulation results from a single parametric study revealed that FC was approximately a linear function of the weight, coefficient of aerodynamic drag, and rolling resistance over various drive cycles. Among these parameters, the truck weight had the largest effect on FC. The study of the impact of two technologies on FE suggested that, depending on the circumstances, it may be more cost effective to reduce one parameter (such as coefficient of aerodynamic drag) to increase fuel economy, or it may be more beneficial to reduce another (such as the coefficient of rolling resistance). It also provided a convenient way to estimate FE by interpolating within the parameter values and extrapolating outside of them. The simulation results indicated that the FC could be reduced from 38.70 L/100 km, 50.72 L/100 km, and 38.42 L/100 km in the baseline truck to 26.78 L/100 km, 43.14 L/100 km and 29.84 L/100 km over the HHDDT, WVU City and CILCC drive cycles, respectively, when the U.S. Department of Energy's three targeted new technologies were applied simultaneously.

  1. Price Variability in Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph A. Fields; Emilio C. Venezian; David Jou

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the causes of variation in automobile insurance prices are examined within a small and homogenous state. The central hypothesis of interest is the relation between the price of automobile insurance and the quality of the product. The findings here indicate that the market is one which contains substantial frictions, making the search for automobile insurance products a worthwhile activity for consumers.

  2. Test methods for evaluating energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with electric, hybrid and fuel cell power trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smokers, R.T.M.; Ploumen, S.; Conte, M.; Buning, L.; Meier-Engel, K.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the MATADOR-project measurement methods have been developed for the evaluation of the energy consumption and emissions of vehicles with advanced propulsion systems, such as battery-electric, hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicles. Based on an inventory of existing and prospective standard

  3. Determination of Fuel Consumption Indexes of Co-generation Combined Cycle Steam and Gas Units with unfired waste heat boilers

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Kachan; V. I. Filazafovich; A. N. Dubravenski

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the developed methodology and the results of determination of fuel consumption indexes of co-generation combined cycle steam and gas units (PGU) with unfired waste heat boilers apply to PGU-230 of 3-d co-generation power plant ofMinsk. 

  4. Determination of Fuel Consumption Indexes of Co-generation Combined Cycle Steam and Gas Units with unfired waste heat boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kachan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the developed methodology and the results of determination of fuel consumption indexes of co-generation combined cycle steam and gas units (PGU with unfired waste heat boilers apply to PGU-230 of 3-d co-generation power plant ofMinsk. 

  5. Northeast:Automobile Feast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet

    2008-01-01

    @@ The northeast has a lot of firsts in the history of China's industrial development,including the first automobile factory-FAW.Due to the system problem and many other complicated factors,quite a number of the northeastern industry enterprises are out of date during the China's economic transition period.

  6. On the automobile lightweight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; Yi Hongliang; Lu Hongzhou; Wan Xinming

    2012-01-01

    The significance, description parameters, evaluation method, implement way and design for lightweight of au- tomobile are comprehensively reviewed. The relationship among the performances of auto parts & components, the prop- erties of materials and application of advanced technologies is also elaborated. According to recently related progress of lightweight and authors' research and developing work, lightweight of automobile is comprehensively and systematically overviewed.

  7. Comparison and Impact of Waste Heat Recovery Technologies on Passenger Car Fuel Consumption in a Normalized Driving Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legros Arnaud

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to compare different waste heat recovery system technologies designed for automotive applications. A complete literature review is done and results in two comparative graphs. In the second part, simulation models are built and calibrated in order to assess the fuel consumption reduction that can be achieved on a real driving cycle. The strength of this article is that the models are calibrated using actual data. Finally, those simulations results are analyzed and the Rankine cycle and turbocompound are the two most profitable solutions. However the simulations of the turbocompound shows its limitations because the impact on the exhaust pressure drop is not taken into account in the assessment of the car fuel consumption. Fuel reduction of up to 6% could be achieved, depending on the driving cycle and the waste heat recovery technology.

  8. Les émissions par perméabilité à travers les canalisations des véhicules automobiles Emissions Due to Permeation Through the Vehicule Fuel Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewimille B.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Un des objectifs de la politique environnementale de l'Union européenne est de réduire les émissions des véhicules automobiles. Les normes Euro 96 et Euro 2000 s'intéressent en particulier aux émissions par évaporation dues à la perméation du carburant à travers les matériaux polymères. Dans ce papier, nous exposons la méthode d'essai des lignes de carburant développée à l'IFP avec PSA et Renault. Nous présentons également des résultats obtenus avec divers types de canalisations et plusieurs fluides d'essai. Au vu de ces résultats et de la sévérité des nouvelles normes, les équipementiers et les fournisseurs de matières doivent développer de nouvelles solutions afin d'améliorer la résistance à la perméation. The aim of the environmental policy of the European Union is to reduce the automotive hydrocarbon emissions. The Euro 96 and future Euro 2000 standards are particularly dealing with the emissions due to fuel permeation through polymeric materials. In this paper, the testing procedure for fuel lines developed at IFP, PSA, and Renault, is described. Results obtained with various types of fuel lines and several fuels are detailed. According to these results and to the new stringent standards, equipment and material suppliers will have to develop new solutions with improved permeation resistance.

  9. On-road pollutant emission and fuel consumption characteristics of buses in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aijuan Wang; Yunshan Ge; Jianwei Tan; Mingliang Fu; Asad Naeem Shah; Yan Ding; Hong Zhao; Bin Liang

    2011-01-01

    On-road emission and fuel consumption (FC) levels for Euro Ⅲ and Ⅳ buses fueled on diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG)were compared, and emission and FC characteristics of buses were analyzed based on approximately 28,700 groups of instantaneous data obtained in Beijing using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). The experimental results revealed that NOx and PM emissions from CNG buses were decreased by 72.0% and 82.3% respectively, compared with Euro Ⅳ diesel buses. Similarly,these emissions were reduced by 75.2% and 96.3% respectively, compared with Euro Ⅲ diesel buses. In addition, CO2, CO, HC,NOx, PM emissions and FC of Euro Ⅳ diesel buses were reduced by 26.4%, 75.2%, 73.6%, 11.4%, 79.1%, and 26.0%, respectively,relative to Euro Ⅲ diesel buses. The CO2, CO, HC, NOx, PM emissions and FC factors all decreased with bus speed increased, while increased as bus acceleration increased. At the same time, the emission/FC rates as well as the emission/FC factors exhibited a strong positive correlation with the vehicle specific power (VSP). They all were the lowest when VSP < 0, and then rapidly increased as VSP increased. Furthermore, both the emission/FC rates and emission/FC factors were the highest at accelerations, higher at cruise speeds,and the lowest at decelerations for non-idling buses. These results can provide a base reference to further estimate bus emission and FC inventories in Beijing.

  10. Optimization of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for Auxiliary Power Unit Based on Multi-Objective Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongpeng Shen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxiliary power units (APUs are widely used for electric power generation in various types of electric vehicles, improvements in fuel economy and emissions of these vehicles directly depend on the operating point of the APUs. In order to balance the conflicting goals of fuel consumption and emissions reduction in the process of operating point choice, the APU operating point optimization problem is formulated as a constrained multi-objective optimization problem (CMOP firstly. The four competing objectives of this CMOP are fuel-electricity conversion cost, hydrocarbon (HC emissions, carbon monoxide (CO emissions and nitric oxide (NO x emissions. Then, the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO algorithm and weighted metric decision making method are employed to solve the APU operating point multi-objective optimization model. Finally, bench experiments under New European driving cycle (NEDC, Federal test procedure (FTP and high way fuel economy test (HWFET driving cycles show that, compared with the results of the traditional fuel consumption single-objective optimization approach, the proposed multi-objective optimization approach shows significant improvements in emissions performance, at the expense of a slight drop in fuel efficiency.

  11. DESIGNING OF AN AUTOMOBILE FLEET NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment volume is considered as an important factor in regional development under current conditions. Logistical infrastructure which ensures a complex transport, distributive, information and other services exerts a significant influence on regional investment attractiveness. Lack of clear vision on development and execution of development strategy for logistics infrastructure from the side of regional authorities results in unwillingness of large federal and transnational companies to provide investments in infrastructure projects. Network of automotive transport terminals is one of the main elements in logistics infrastructure. The network allows to optimize a flow of material goods from the point of their origin to the point of their consumption with the lowest possible costs and the required level of service. Automobile transport is one of the main objects of transport infrastructure and it is characterized by rather high flexibility in comparison with other types of transport facilities that preconditions its widespread application. Network of automobile fleets (terminals has been formed for redistribution of goods traffic within the concerned regions. The purpose of the present research is to develop a mathematical model for formation of transport infrastructure on the territory of regions. The paper proposes an approach for formation of automobile fleet (terminal network on the territory of a large region with due account of the established network of distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities. A model has been developed for solving the problem pertaining to minimization of aggregate costs related to maintenance of automobile fleets, delivery of goods to and from distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities to consumers, ferry of empty trucks and goods handling. The model makes it possible to determine optimal number and location area of automobile fleets (terminals while accounting for their possible locations, capacity

  12. Household fuel consumption and resource use in rural-urban Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: biofuels; land degradation; technology adoption; fuel-savings efficiency; stove R&D; household and community tree investments; fuelwood availability; animal dung; biogas; urban fuel demand; rural hinterlands; northern Ethiopia.   Fuel scarcity and land degradation are intertwin

  13. A Linear Model for the Estimation of Fuel Consumption and the Impact Evaluation of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Nicola Bifulco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of the environmental impact of cars represents one of the biggest transport industry challenges. Beyond more efficient engines, a promising approach is to use eco-driving technologies that help drivers achieve lower fuel consumption and emission levels. In this study, a real-time microscopic fuel consumption model was developed. It was designed to be integrated into simulation platforms for the design and testing of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS, aimed at keeping the vehicle within the environmentally friendly driving zone and hence reducing harmful exhaust gases. To allow integration in platforms employed at early stages of ADAS development and testing, the model was kept very simple and dependent on a few easily computable variables. To show the feasibility of the identification of the model (and to validate it, a large experiment involving more than 100 drivers and about 8000 km of driving was carried out using an instrumented vehicle. An instantaneous model was identified based on vehicle speed, acceleration level and gas pedal excursion, applicable in an extra-urban traffic context. Both instantaneous and aggregate validation was performed and the model was shown to estimate vehicle fuel consumption consistently with in-field instantaneous measurements. Very accurate estimations were also shown for the aggregate consumption of each driving session.

  14. Household level domestic fuel consumption and forest resource in relation to agroforestry adoption: Evidence against need-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sood, Kamal Kishor [Division of Agroforestry, Shere-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu Main Campus-Chatha, Jammu (J and K) 180 009 (India); Mitchell, C. Paul [Institute of Energy Technologies, Fraser Noble Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    The need-based approach (assuming that higher consumption of tree products would motivate farmers to adopt agroforestry) has led to uneven success, in many cases failure, of many agroforestry projects. Current study investigated the association between fuelwood and forest resource use, and agroforestry adoption based on a survey of 401 households in the Indian Western Himalaya. Data on household domestic fuel utilisation and forest resource use were collected using a questionnaire in personal interviews. Agroforestry adoption increased significantly with increase in distance of nearest State forest from the house, distance travelled to collect fuelwood, and consumption of cattle dung, crop residues, charcoal, kerosene and liquid petroleum gas as domestic fuels by the household. Agroforestry adoption was also significantly higher in households with non-forest than those with State forests as primary source of fuelwood and timber. The proportion of adopters decreased significantly with increase in quantity of fuelwood used for domestic consumption, frequency of collection from State forests, total domestic energy consumption, fuelwood dependency, timber consumption and availability of timber through rights of households on State forests. Logistic regression analysis revealed that none of the factors related to need (quantity of fuelwood and timber used) appeared in the model but primary source of fuelwood, distance travelled to collect fuelwood and availability of timber through rights on the State forests appeared as important factors. This implies that need of the tree products is not a necessary condition to motivate farmers to adopt agroforestry, rather, it is accessibility of tree products which influence agroforestry adoption. (author)

  15. Environmentally Benign Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, Daniel; Schipper, Lee; Deluchi, Mark; Wang, Quanlu

    1992-01-01

    His dream has come true. There's now more than one vehicle for every licensed driver in the United States, and other developed countries are not far behind. But has the car's success created the conditions for its own demise? Conventional wisdom of market researchers, consultants, and other experts is that the automobile and its petroleum-powered internal combustion engine will be with us for a long time and that any energy and environmental problems can be readily solved. T...

  16. L'auto adaptation à des mélanges essence/alcool utilisés comme carburant automobile: le moteur souple The Self-Adapting of Gasoline/Alcohol Mixtures Used As Automotive Fuel: the Flexible Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorbon M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le moteur souple est un moteur susceptible d'être alimenté par des carburants constitués de mélanges d'une essence classique et d'un alcool léger (méthanol ou éthanol; si la concentration de chacun des composants de ces mélanges varie, les réglages nécessaires au bon fonctionnement du véhicule se font automatiquement. Dans cet article, sont tout d'abord exposées les propriétés caractéristiques en tant que carburant automobile de l'un de ces alcools légers, le méthanol. Puis viennent les descriptions des dispositifs qui font le moteur souple c'est-à-dire d'une part les systèmes de reconnaissance du carburant et d'autre part les appareillages susceptibles de modifier les réglages du moteur (alimentation et allumage en fonction de la qualité du mélange consommé. A flexible engine is one capable of running on fuels consisting of mixtures of conventional gasoline and a light alcohol (methanol or ethanol. If the concentration of each of these components of such mixtures varies, the tuning required for the proper running of the vehicle takes place automatically. This article begins by describing the characteristic properties of one of these light alcohols (methanol as an automotive fuel. Then the equipment is described that makes an engine flexible, i. e. both the fuel recognition systems and the equipment capable of changing engine tuning (feed and ignition as a function of the quality of the mixture burned.

  17. Potential for reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption from implementing the aluminum intensive vehicle fleet in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automobile industry in China has rapidly developed in recent years which resulted in an increase in gasoline usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Focus on climate change has also accelerated to grow pressure on reducing vehicle weight and improving fuel efficiency. Aluminum (Al) as a light metal has demonstrated a great potential for weight savings in applications such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, wheels, hoods, tailgates etc. However, primary Al production requires intensive energy and the cost of Al is more than traditional steel, which may affect the total benefits realized from using Al in automobiles. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption if the plan is to achieve fleet-wide Al intensive vehicles. This paper describes a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and the general modeling assumptions used to evaluate the impact of Al intensive vehicle on GHG emissions and energy consumption. The results indicated that the reductions in life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption were not significant when the maximum Al content in an automobile is 145 kg, which is the average level of Al usage in automobiles in North America. A neural network methodology was used to forecast the vehicle stock in China from 2010 to 2020 and a vehicle fleet model was established to track GHG emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle fleet. A material availability factor was also introduced into the LCA methodology to further assist decision makers in providing rational proposals for a widespread implementation of Al in automobiles. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of the Al content in a vehicle on the final outcomes. The GHG emissions and energy consumption could be further reduced when the Al content in an automobile increases.

  18. 基于温差发电的汽车电源系统设计%Design of Automobile Power System Based on Thermoelectric Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贻华

    2014-01-01

    为了减少传统汽车的燃油消耗以及提高汽车电池的使用寿命,通过对温差发电技术的研究,利用汽车燃烧产生的废气热量进行发电,将温差发电系统与传统汽车电源系统进行优化,为汽车的用电设备进行充电,可以有效的减少汽车燃油消耗以及提高车用电池的寿命,同时也达到相应的环保功用。%In order to reduce the fuel consumption of traditional automobiles and improve the battery life of cars, on the basis of the re-search of the thermoelectric generation technology, waste heat from cars is used for power generation. The optimization with the combi-nation of thermoelectric power generation system and the traditional automobile power system, which is used for automobile electric e-quipment charging can effectively reduce vehicle fuel consumption and improve vehicle battery life, at the same time, have correspond-ing environmental protection function.

  19. Influences of vehicles’ fuel consumption and exhaust emissions on the trip cost without late arrival under car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yu, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we use car-following model to explore the influences of the vehicle’s fuel consumption and exhaust emissions on each commuter’s trip cost without late arrival on one open road. Our results illustrate that considering the vehicle’s fuel cost and emission cost only enhances each commuter’s trip cost and the system’s total cost, but has no prominent impacts on his optimal time headway at the origin of each open road under the minimum total cost.

  20. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  1. Assessment for Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of China’s Vehicles: Future Trends and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, China’s auto industry develops rapidly, thus bringing a series of burdens to society and environment. This paper uses Logistic model to simulate the future trend of China’s vehicle population and finds that China’s auto industry would come into high speed development time during 2020–2050. Moreover, this paper predicts vehicles’ fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (CO, HC, NOx, and PM and quantificationally evaluates related industry policies. It can be concluded that (1 by 2020, China should develop at least 47 million medium/heavy hybrid cars to prevent the growth of vehicle fuel consumption; (2 China should take the more stringent vehicle emission standard V over 2017–2021 to hold back the growth of exhaust emissions; (3 developing new energy vehicles is the most effective measure to ease the pressure brought by auto industry.

  2. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are passenger automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  3. Gasoline prices, gasoline consumption, and new-vehicle fuel economy: Evidence for a large sample of countries

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Paul J.; Shuhei Nishitateno

    2011-01-01

    Countries differ considerably in terms of the price drivers pay for gasoline. This paper uses data for a large sample of countries to provide new evidence on the implications of these differences for the consumption of gasoline for road transport and the fuel economy of new vehicles. To address the potential for simultaneity bias in ordinary least squares estimation, we use a country's oil reserves as an instrument for its average gasoline pump price. We obtain estimates of the long-run price...

  4. Modeling Heavy/Medium-Duty Fuel Consumption Based on Drive Cycle Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Duran, Adam; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-10-13

    This paper presents multiple methods for predicting heavy/medium-duty vehicle fuel consumption based on driving cycle information. A polynomial model, a black box artificial neural net model, a polynomial neural network model, and a multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model were developed and verified using data collected from chassis testing performed on a parcel delivery diesel truck operating over the Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT), City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), New York Composite Cycle (NYCC), and hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV) drive cycles. Each model was trained using one of four drive cycles as a training cycle and the other three as testing cycles. By comparing the training and testing results, a representative training cycle was chosen and used to further tune each method. HHDDT as the training cycle gave the best predictive results, because HHDDT contains a variety of drive characteristics, such as high speed, acceleration, idling, and deceleration. Among the four model approaches, MARS gave the best predictive performance, with an average absolute percent error of -1.84% over the four chassis dynamometer drive cycles. To further evaluate the accuracy of the predictive models, the approaches were first applied to real-world data. MARS outperformed the other three approaches, providing an average absolute percent error of -2.2% of four real-world road segments. The MARS model performance was then compared to HHDDT, CSHVC, NYCC, and HHV drive cycles with the performance from Future Automotive System Technology Simulator (FASTSim). The results indicated that the MARS method achieved a comparative predictive performance with FASTSim.

  5. TILLAGE EFFECTS ON SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS, L. EMERGENCE, YIELD, QUALITY, AND FUEL CONSUMPTION IN DOUBLE CROPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULLAH SESSIZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The relation between crop growing and soil tillage treatment are play important role in agricultural production. Soils under conventional tillage (CT generally have lower bulk density and associated higher total porosity within the plough layer than under no tillage (NT. No-till farming can reduce soil erosion, conserve soil moisture and minimize labor and fuel consumption. The aim of this study were to investigate the effects of conventional, reduced and notillage methods on soil physical properties, sunfl ower yield and yield components, protein and oil content and fuel consumption in Southeastern of Turkey. Six tillage methods for the second crop sunfl ower were tested and compared each other within after lentil harvesting at 2003 and 2004 years in a clay loam soil. According to results, the fi rst year, the bulk density had decreased from 1.29 to 1.09 g cm-3, the second year the δb had decreased from 1.41 to 1.23 g cm-3. Differences between years and tillage methods in terms of yield were found signifi cant (p<0.05. However, no differences were found between the NT and CT. There were also no signifi cance differences in content of protein, oil and ash among six tillage methods. The highest fuel consumption was measured in conventional method (CT whereas the lowest value was found in direct seeding method as 33.48 L ha-1 and 6.6 L ha-1, respectively.

  6. Optimizing the Fuel Consumption and Providing the Environmental Indicators in Green Architecture by using the Exergy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Bahmn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the reduced consumption of fossil fuels which lead to the environmental pollution, high costs and intensified fuel crisis in global markets. This research is applied based on the objective, has a type of library research and is among the survey research based on the method. The method of library studies with the document branch is applied in order to collect the required¬ data; and the information related to the variables of research is extracted by referring to the scientific sources and accessible documents of relevant organizations. Providing the consumed electric power in this article has been classified into three sections of manufacturing, distribution and consumption. As noted in the theoretical studies, the library studies and review of Ministry of Energy statistics indicate that about 80% of fuel of industry sector is consumed in power plants and refineries and the power plants play the highest role in the environmental pollution after the transportation sector. Therefore, by using the exergy and pinch technologies and developing the thermodynamic laws, it has been tried to provide the computational methods to reduce the energy consumption.

  7. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  8. Modeling studies of water consumption for transportation fuel options: Hawaii, US-48

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C. W.; Webber, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    There are now major drivers to move from petroleum transportation: moving to low-carbon transport life cycles for climate change mitigation, fuel diversity to reduce reliance on imported oil, and economic concerns regarding the relatively high price of oil ( $100/barrel) and the resulting impact on discretionary income. Unfortunately many transportation fuel alternatives also have some environmental impacts, particularly with regard to water consumption and biodiversity. In this presentation we will discuss the water and energy sustainability struggle ongoing in Hawai'i on the island of Maui with a brief history and discussion of energy and water modeling scenarios. The vast majority of surface water on Maui is diverted via man-made ditches for irrigation on sugar cane plantations. Maui currently allocates between 250 and 300 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of irrigation water for sugarcane cultivation each day, and it is likely that the island could support a biofuel-focused sugarcane plantation by shifting production focus from raw sugar to ethanol. However, future water availability is likely to be less than existing water availability because Maui is growing, more water is being reserved for environmental purposes, and precipitation levels are on decline for the past two decades and some expect this trend to continue. While Maui residents cannot control precipitation patterns, they can control the levels of increased requirements for instream flow in Maui's streams. The Hawaii State Commission on Water Resource Management (CWRM) sets instream flow standards, and choosing not to restore instream flow could have what many locals consider negative environmental and cultural impacts that must be weighed against the effects of reducing surface water availability for agriculture. Instream flow standards that reduce legal withdrawals for streams that supply irrigation water would reduce the amount of surface water available for biofuel crop irrigation. Environmental

  9. Projections of motor vehicle growth, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions for the next thirty years in China.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, D.; Wang, M.

    2000-12-12

    Since the early 1990s, China's motor vehicles have entered a period of fast growth resultant from the rapid economic expansion. As the largest developing country, the fast growth of China's motor vehicles will have tremendous effects on the world's automotive and fuel market and on global CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, we projected Chinese vehicle stocks for different vehicle types on the provincial level. First, we reviewed the historical data of China's vehicle growth in the past 10 years and the correlations between vehicle growth and economic growth in China. Second, we investigated historical vehicle growth trends in selected developed countries over the past 50 or so years. Third, we established a vehicle growth scenario based on the historical trends in several developed nations. Fourth, we estimated fuel economy, annual mileage and other vehicle usage parameters for Chinese vehicles. Finally, we projected vehicle stocks and estimated motor fuel use and CO{sub 2} emissions in each Chinese province from 2000 to 2030. Our results show that China will continue the rapid vehicle growth, increase gasoline and diesel consumption and increased CO{sub 2} emissions in the next 30 years. We estimated that by year 2030, Chinese motor vehicle fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions could reach the current US levels.

  10. Powertrain management in sports cars in order to reduce fuel consumption; Antriebsmanagement bei Sportfahrzeugen zur Reduzierung des Kraftstoffverbrauchs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegel, L.; Kerkau, M.; Bofinger, G.; Mueller, S.; Meier, R.; Neusser, H.J. [Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, Weissach (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In current sports car development - where fuel efficiency has always played a predominant role - one of the central targets is the reduction of fuel consumption. In order to maximize the benefits of improved fuel economy it is necessary to consistently optimize many of the known parameters and have them controlled by a corresponding Powertrain Management System. This presentation explains Porsche's layout philosophy and outlines the technologies used to implement a Powertrain Management specifically designed for application in sports cars. This Powertrain Management System coordinates the chosen technologies and combines them into an efficient drive system. The driver is given the possibility of making his choice between a regular program and a sports option. Further, this presentation describes a Thermal Management System meant to optimize engine warm-up as well as the part-load and full-load modes while giving consideration to the specific requirements of sports car operation. It also deals in great detail with the inherent potential of an idle stop system and its integration into the car, which is rather complicated. In addition, this paper looks into adaptive shift strategies for automatic transmissions with the aim of automatically selecting performance-oriented shift points tuned for optimum fuel consumption values. (orig.)

  11. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Adoption Increases Fleet Gasoline Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions under United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês M L; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2016-03-01

    The United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission standards are designed to reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles. They do so by requiring automakers to meet aggregate criteria for fleet fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates. Several incentives for manufacturers to sell alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been introduced in recent updates of CAFE/GHG policy for vehicles sold from 2012 through 2025 to help encourage a fleet technology transition. These incentives allow automakers that sell AFVs to meet less-stringent fleet efficiency targets, resulting in increased fleet-wide gasoline consumption and emissions. We derive a closed-form expression to quantify these effects. We find that each time an AFV is sold in place of a conventional vehicle, fleet emissions increase by 0 to 60 t of CO2 and gasoline consumption increases by 0 to 7000 gallons (26,000 L), depending on the AFV and year of sale. Using projections for vehicles sold from 2012 to 2025 from the Energy Information Administration, we estimate that the CAFE/GHG AFV incentives lead to a cumulative increase of 30 to 70 million metric tons of CO2 and 3 to 8 billion gallons (11 to 30 billion liters) of gasoline consumed over the vehicles' lifetimes - the largest share of which is due to legacy GHG flex-fuel vehicle credits that expire in 2016. These effects may be 30-40% larger in practice than we estimate here due to optimistic laboratory vehicle efficiency tests used in policy compliance calculations.

  12. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Adoption Increases Fleet Gasoline Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions under United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês M L; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2016-03-01

    The United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission standards are designed to reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles. They do so by requiring automakers to meet aggregate criteria for fleet fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates. Several incentives for manufacturers to sell alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been introduced in recent updates of CAFE/GHG policy for vehicles sold from 2012 through 2025 to help encourage a fleet technology transition. These incentives allow automakers that sell AFVs to meet less-stringent fleet efficiency targets, resulting in increased fleet-wide gasoline consumption and emissions. We derive a closed-form expression to quantify these effects. We find that each time an AFV is sold in place of a conventional vehicle, fleet emissions increase by 0 to 60 t of CO2 and gasoline consumption increases by 0 to 7000 gallons (26,000 L), depending on the AFV and year of sale. Using projections for vehicles sold from 2012 to 2025 from the Energy Information Administration, we estimate that the CAFE/GHG AFV incentives lead to a cumulative increase of 30 to 70 million metric tons of CO2 and 3 to 8 billion gallons (11 to 30 billion liters) of gasoline consumed over the vehicles' lifetimes - the largest share of which is due to legacy GHG flex-fuel vehicle credits that expire in 2016. These effects may be 30-40% larger in practice than we estimate here due to optimistic laboratory vehicle efficiency tests used in policy compliance calculations. PMID:26867100

  13. SLIDING MODE CONTROL FOR ACTIVE AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear control methods are presented based on theory of sliding mode control (SMC) or variable structure control (VSC) for application to active automobile suspensions. Requirements of reducing manufacturing cost and energy consumption of the active suspension system may be satisfiedby reasonable design of the sliding surface and hydraulic servo system. Emphasis is placed on the study of the discrete sliding mode control method (DSMC) applicable for a new sort of speed on-off solenoid valves of anti-dust capability and low price. Robustness and effectiveness of the feedback linearized controller in typical road conditions are demonstrated by numerical results fora quarter-car suspension model.

  14. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozomata David AHMED

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, opening of any door will disengage the device and the engine will stop. To restart the engine, the doors must be closed and the codes rendered sequentially-in this case the codes are 1974.

  15. Poor Economic Statistics Fuel China’s Low Consumption Myth

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Zhang; Tian Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The generally held belief that China’s consumption is too low is a myth based on inadequate theory, a misreading of official statistics and the use of market exchange rates for making international comparisons. Chinese official statistics underestimate consumption expenditure on housing, they omit consumption paid for as benefits by the corporate sector, and there are a number of problems with the household expenditure surveys employed. An adjustment for statistical issues suggests that the...

  16. Quantitative Estimate of the Relation Between Rolling Resistance on Fuel Consumption of Class 8 Tractor Trailers Using Both New and Retreaded Tires (SAE Paper 2014-01-2425)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Road tests of class 8 tractor trailers were conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency on new and retreaded tires of varying rolling resistance in order to provide estimates of the quantitative relationship between rolling resistance and fuel consumption.

  17. Common feature of concave growth pattern of oscillations in terms of speed, acceleration, fuel consumption and emission in car following: experiment and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Junfang; Treiber, Martin; Ma, Shoufeng; Jia, Bin; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    This paper has investigated the growth pattern of traffic oscillations by using vehicle trajectory data in a car following experiment. We measured the standard deviation of acceleration, emission and fuel consumption of each vehicle in the car-following platoon. We found that: (1) Similar to the standard deviation of speed, these indices exhibit a common feature of concave growth pattern along vehicles in the platoon; (2) The emission and fuel consumption of each vehicle decrease remarkably when the average speed of the platoon increases from low value; However, when reaches 30km/h, the change of emission and fuel consumption with is not so significant; (3), the correlations of emission and fuel consumption with both the standard deviation of acceleration and the speed oscillation are strong. Simulations show that with the memory effect of drivers taken into account, the improved two-dimensional intelligent driver model is able to reproduce the common feature of traffic oscillation evolution quite well.

  18. Automobile Club CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club CERN

    2010-01-01

     L’Assemblée Générale Ordinaire de «L’Automobile Club du CERN» s’est tenue le mercredi 12 janvier 2010. Le Président, J. Pierlot, souhaite la bienvenue aux membres présents, annonce l’agenda et résume les activités et événements du club pour l’année 2009. Le Club compte environ 600 membres, une petite diminution par rapport aux précédentes années dû surtout aux départs anticipés à la retraite. La cotisation reste inchangée : 50 CHF. Notre trésorier, E. Squadrani, présente de façon détaillée la situation du compte d’exploitation pour 2009 ainsi que le bilan de l’Automobile Club. Les comptes sont équilibrés, la situation de la trés...

  19. Life-Cycle Analyses of Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions of Natural Gas-Based Alternative Vehicle Fuels in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunmin Ou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsinghua life-cycle analysis model (TLCAM has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions for natural gas- (NG- based alternative vehicle fuels in China. The results show that (1 compress NG- and liquid NG-powered vehicles have similar well-to-wheels (WTW fossil energy uses to conventional gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, but differences emerge with the distance of NG transportation. Additionally, thanks to NG having a lower carbon content than petroleum, CNG- and LNG-powered vehicles emit 10–20% and 5–10% less GHGs than gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, respectively; (2 gas-to-liquid- (GTL- powered vehicles involve approximately 50% more WTW fossil energy uses than conventional gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles, primarily because of the low efficiency of GTL production. Nevertheless, since NG has a lower carbon content than petroleum, GTL-powered vehicles emit approximately 30% more GHGs than conventional-fuel vehicles; (3 The carbon emission intensity of the LNG energy chain is highly sensitive to the efficiency of NG liquefaction and the form of energy used in that process.

  20. Testing system of automobile fuel pump performance based on PLC%基于PLC的汽车电子燃油泵性能检测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    山海峰; 刘涵; 郭吉丰

    2013-01-01

    针对目前无刷电机式汽车电子燃油泵性能检测系统的缺失以及生产过程中燃油泵驱动控制器的质量检验问题,分析了燃油泵运行环境及目前测试方法的不足,以西门子S7-200系列PLC、触摸屏、各种传感器及测试治具为核心部件,运用VB6.0进行了上位机测试软件以及梯形图PLC软件的编写,构建了基于PLC的燃油泵性能在线自动检测系统;在现有已知参数燃油泵的基础上对测试系统进行了验证,得出了系统测试精度以及测试过程中发现的一些常见燃油泵质量问题.研究结果表明,设计的基于PLC的燃油泵自动检测测试系统具有成本较低、测试可靠、使用寿命长、操作方便等特点,对无刷式燃油泵的设计有一定的指导作用.%In order to solve the problems of the weakness of current designed brushless fuel pump detection system and the detection of quality in production process, the test system was investigated. After the analysis of the working principle and test method of fuel pump, the sys tem was established, which was based on Siemens PLC , touch win, pressure sensor, flow sensor and so on, and the VB6.0 was used to de sign the computer software, ladder diagram to PLC program. The known parameters fuel pump was evaluated on the test system, the precision and test error of system were determined. The experimental results show that the designed test system has the advantages of high precision, long life, easy to operate, conduce to the design of brushless fuel pump.

  1. Household fuel consumption and resource use in rural-urban Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreegziabher, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: biofuels; land degradation; technology adoption; fuel-savings efficiency; stove R&D; household and community tree investments; fuelwood availability; animal dung; biogas; urban fuel demand; rural hinterlands; northern Ethiopia.   Fuel scarcity and land degradation are intertwined problems of global concern. Land degradation affects some 2 billion hectares of land world-wide. In Africa some 500 million hectares of land have been affected by land or soil degradation, including abo...

  2. A comparative study of hybrid electric vehicle fuel consumption over diverse driving cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Environmental pollution and declining resources of fossil fuels in recent years,have increased demand for better fuel economy and less pollution for ground transportation.Among the alternative solutions provided by researchers in recent decades,hybrid electric vehicles consisted of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor have been considered as a promising solution in the short-term.In the present study,fuel economy characteristics of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle are investigated by using ...

  3. A STUDY OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN FEDERAL AND STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ON-HIGHWAY FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, HL

    2003-08-11

    Annual highway fuel taxes are collected by the Treasury Department and placed in the Highway Trust Fund (HTF). There is, however, no direct connection between the taxes collected by the Treasury Department and the gallons of on-highway fuel use, which can lead to a discrepancy between these totals. This study was conducted to determine how much of a discrepancy exists between the total fuel usages estimated based on highway revenue funds as reported by the Treasury Department and the total fuel usages used in the apportionment of the HTF to the States. The analysis was conducted using data from Highway Statistics Tables MF-27 and FE-9 for the years 1991-2001. It was found that the overall discrepancy is relatively small, mostly within 5% difference. The amount of the discrepancy varies from year to year and varies among the three fuel types (gasoline, gasohol, special fuels). Several potential explanations for these discrepancies were identified, including issues on data, tax measurement, gallon measurement, HTF receipts, and timing. Data anomalies caused by outside forces, such as deferment of tax payments from one fiscal year to the next, can skew fuel tax data. Fuel tax evasion can lead to differences between actual fuel use and fuel taxes collected. Furthermore, differences in data collection and reporting among States can impact fuel use data. Refunds, credits, and transfers from the HTF can impact the total fuel tax receipt data. Timing issues, such as calendar year vs. fiscal year, can also cause some discrepancy between the two data sources.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF BRAKE THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND BRAKE SPECIFIC FUEL CONSUMPTION OF DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH BIO-DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SHIVA SHANKAR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid depletion in world petroleum reserves and uncertainty in petroleum supply due to political and economical reasons, as well as, the sharp escalations in the petroleum prices have stimulated the search for alternatives to petroleum fuels. The situation is very grave in developing countries like India which imports 70% of the required fuel, spending 30% of her total foreign exchange earnings on oil imports. Petroleum fuels are being consumed by agriculture and transport sector for which diesel engine happens to be the prime mover. Diesel fuelled vehicles discharge significant amount of pollutants like CO, HC, NOx, soot, lead compounds which are harmful to the universe. Though there are wide varieties of alternative fuels available, the research has not yet provided the right renewable fuel to replace diesel. Vegetable oils due to their properties being close to diesel fuel may be a promising alternative for its use in diesel engines. The high viscosity and low volatility are the major drawbacks of the use of vegetable oils in diesel engines. India is the second largest cotton producing country in the world today. The cotton seeds are available in India at cheaper price. Experiments were conducted on 5.2 BHP single cylinder four stroke water-cooled variable compression diesel engine. Methyl ester of cottonseed oil is blended with the commercially available Xtramile diesel. Cottonseed oil methyl ester (CSOME is blended in four different compositions varying from 10% to 40% in steps of 10 vol%. Using these four blends and Xtramile diesel brake thermal efficiency (BTE and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC are determined at 17.5 compression ratio.

  5. Fuel-Efficient Road Vehicle Non-Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The need to address global energy issues, i.e. energy security and climate change, is more urgent than ever. Road vehicles dominate global oil consumption and are one of the fastest growing energy end-uses. This paper studies policies and measures to improve on-road fuel efficiency of vehicles by focusing on energy efficiency of automobile components not generally considered in official fuel efficiency test, namely tyres, cooling technologies and lightings. In this paper, current policies and industry activities on these components are reviewed, fuel saving potential by the components analysed and possible policies to realise the potential recommended.

  6. Hybrid-Electric Passenger Car Carbon Dioxide and Fuel Consumption Benefits Based on Real-World Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmén, Britt A; Sentoff, Karen M

    2015-08-18

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) have lower fuel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions than conventional vehicles (CVs), on average, based on laboratory tests, but there is a paucity of real-world, on-road HEV emissions and performance data needed to assess energy use and emissions associated with real-world driving, including the effects of road grade. This need is especially great as the electrification of the passenger vehicle fleet (from HEVs to PHEVs to BEVs) increases in response to climate and energy concerns. We compared tailpipe CO2 emissions and fuel consumption of an HEV passenger car to a CV of the same make and model during real-world, on-the-road network driving to quantify the in-use benefit of one popular full HEV technology. Using vehicle specific power (VSP) assignments that account for measured road grade, the mean CV/HEV ratios of CO2 tailpipe emissions or fuel consumption defined the corresponding HEV "benefit" factor for each VSP class (1 kW/ton resolution). Averaging over all VSP classes for driving in all seasons, including temperatures from -13 to +35 °C in relatively steep (-13.2 to +11.5% grade), hilly terrain, mean (±SD) CO2 emission benefit factors were 4.5 ± 3.6, 2.5 ± 1.7, and 1.4 ± 0.5 for city, exurban/suburban arterial and highway driving, respectively. Benefit factor magnitude corresponded to the frequency of electric-drive-only (EDO) operation, which was modeled as a logarithmic function of VSP. A combined model explained 95% of the variance in HEV benefit for city, 75% for arterial and 57% for highway driving. Benefit factors consistently exceeded 2 for VSP classes with greater than 50% EDO (i.e., only city and arterial driving). The reported HEV benefits account for real-world road grade that is often neglected in regulatory emissions and fuel economy tests. Fuel use HEV benefit factors were 1.3 and 2 for the regulatory highway (HWFET) and city (FTP) cycles, respectively, 18% and 31% higher than the EPA adjusted

  7. Optimization of the overall energy consumption in cascade fueling stations for hydrogen vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are emerging around and in larger cities in Europe and United States together with a number of hydrogen vehicles. The most stations comply with the refueling protocol made by society of automotive engineers and they use a cascade fueling system on-site for filling...

  8. Regulation on power efficiency in the automobile; Regulacion sobre eficiencia energetica en el automovil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado Susano, Armando; Romero de Vivar Uvaldo, Pascual [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this article it is presented a brief analysis of one of the regulations on the yield of fuel consumption of the light vehicles that promoted substantial changes in the Mexican automotive industry, the decree denominated PREMCE (Average of minimum fuel yield by company), as well as some international experiences relative to the subject. It is also indicated the evolution, in the last years, of the average yields of fuel consumption (Km/L) in Mexico in the new automobiles and the more important technological factors that affect their energy efficiency. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta un breve analisis de una de las regulaciones sobre el rendimiento de consumo de combustible de los vehiculos ligeros que promovio cambios sustanciales en la industria automotriz mexicana, el decreto denominado Premce (Promedio de rendimiento minimo de combustible por empresa), asi como algunas experiencias internacionales relativas al tema. Se senala tambien la evolucion, en los ultimos anos, de los rendimientos promedio de consumo de combustible (Km/L) en Mexico en los automoviles nuevos y los factores tecnologicos mas importantes que influyen en su eficiencia energetica.

  9. Fuel consumption and fire emissions estimates using Fire Radiative Power, burned area and statistical modelling on the fire event scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Leimbach, David; Guenther, Felix; Barradas, Carol; Hoffmann, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Fire Radiative Power (FRP) retrieved by infrared sensors, such as flown on several polar orbiting and geostationary satellites, has been shown to be proportional to fuel consumption rates in vegetation fires, and hence the total radiative energy released by a fire (Fire Radiative Energy, FRE) is proportional to the total amount of biomass burned. However, due to the sparse temporal coverage of polar orbiting and the coarse spatial resolution of geostationary sensors, it is difficult to estimate fuel consumption for single fire events. Here we explore an approach for estimating FRE through temporal integration of MODIS FRP retrievals over MODIS-derived burned areas. Temporal integration is aided by statistical modelling to estimate missing observations using a generalized additive model (GAM) and taking advantage of additional information such as land cover and a global dataset of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), as well as diurnal and annual FRP fluctuation patterns. Based on results from study areas located in savannah regions of Southern and Eastern Africa and Brazil, we compare this method to estimates based on simple temporal integration of FRP retrievals over the fire lifetime, and estimate the potential variability of FRP integration results across a range of fire sizes. We compare FRE-based fuel consumption against a database of field experiments in similar landscapes. Results show that for larger fires, this method yields realistic estimates and is more robust when only a small number of observations is available than the simple temporal integration. Finally, we offer an outlook on the integration of data from other satellites, specifically FireBird, S-NPP VIIRS and Sentinel-3, as well as on using higher resolution burned area data sets derived from Landsat and similar sensors.

  10. Fuel Consumption and Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Impact of Vegetation Types, Meteorological Conditions, Forestry Practices and Fire Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmila; Soja, Amber; Zhila, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forests play a crucial role in carbon budgets with Siberian carbon fluxes and pools making a major contribution to the regional and global carbon cycle. Wildfire is the main ecological disturbance in Siberia that leads to changes in forest species composition and structure and in carbon storage, as well as direct emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. At present, the global scientific community is highly interested in quantitative and accurate estimates of fire emissions. Little research on wildland fuel consumption and carbon emission estimates has been carried out in Russia until recently. From 2000 to 2007 we conducted a series of experimental fires of varying fireline intensity in light-coniferous forest of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior. From 2009 to 2013 we examined a number of burned logged areas to assess the potential impact of forest practices on fire emissions. In 2013-2014 burned areas in dark-coniferous and deciduous forests were examined to determine fuel consumption and carbon emissions. We have combined and analyzed the scarce data available in the literature with data obtained in the course of our long-term research to determine the impact of various factors on fuel consumption and to develop models of carbon emissions for different ecosystems of Siberia. Carbon emissions varied drastically (from 0.5 to 40.9 tC/ha) as a function of vegetation type, weather conditions, anthropogenic effects and fire behavior characteristics and periodicity. Our study provides a basis for better understanding of the feedbacks between wildland fire emissions and changing anthropogenic disturbance patterns and climate. The data obtained could be used by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and by managers to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts on the environmentand human health.

  11. Development of an energy consumption and cost data base for fuel cell total energy systems and conventional building energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, G. D.; Christian, J. E.; Mixon, W. R.; Jackson, W. L.

    1980-07-01

    The procedures and data sources used to develop an energy consumption and system cost data base for use in predicting the market penetration of phosphoric acid fuel cell total energy systems in the nonindustrial building market are described. A computer program was used to simulate the hourly energy requirements of six types of buildings; office buildings; retail stores; hotels and motels; schools; hospitals; and multifamily residences. The simulations were done by using hourly weather tapes for one city in each of the ten Department of Energy administrative regions. Two types of building construction were considered, one for existing buildings and one for new buildings. A fuel cell system combined with electrically driven heat pumps and one combined with a gas boiler and an electrically driven chiller were compared with similar conventional systems. The methods of system simulation, component sizing, and system cost estimation are described for each system.

  12. Identification of Federal Aviation Administration regulations and procedures that impact fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mckinly, J.B.

    1979-10-01

    The impact of the Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) on fuel conservation in the air-transportation system. To date there exist over 89 identifiable fuel-conservation program and research areas. Operational constraints in the areas of FARs and Air Traffic Control (ATC), which hinder further fuel savings in any of the 89 program and research areas, are identified. The nature of this investigation presents an update of analyses from previous FAA, DOE, and NASA publications from a DOE viewpoint. The short duration and cost constraints of this study did not allow an assessment of safety, social, or any of the broader impacts of the regulations. However, this study was not intended to solve all of the regulatory problems. Rather, this was a cursory review of the FARs intended to pinpoint those fuel inefficient regulations which could be changed to improve the overall fuel-conservation effort in the air transportation industry. The program and research areas identified as being negatively impacted by FARs were analyzed to quantify the fuel savings available through revision or removal of those constraints. A recommended list of new R and D initiatives are proposed in order to improve fuel efficiency of the FARs in the air-transportation industry.

  13. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  14. Fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions (Car Labelling); Consommations de carburant et emissions de CO{sub 2} (Car Labelling)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    CO{sub 2} is the most important greenhouse gas produced by internal combustion engines. In the framework of the Kyoto protocol, actions have been implemented in the transportation sector for the abatement of vehicles fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. This study presents the 'honors list' established by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) of the fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions of gasoline, diesel, LPG, NGV, and hybrid electric-powered vehicles. Results are presented in tables per company and model. These data are compiled and summarized in a last part which presents the key data about the evolution of the French automotive market, the emissions and consumptions of vehicles and the technological evolution of the vehicles and its influence on the fuel consumption. (J.S.)

  15. Automotive Transient Fuel Consumption Test Method and Test Analysis%汽车瞬时油耗检测方法与试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚焕新

    2011-01-01

    设计了以AT89S8252单片机为核心的汽车瞬时油耗检测系统,该系统利用汽车喷油器脉冲宽度信号和车速传感器信号检测瞬时燃油消耗量,并具有瞬时油耗和百公里油耗实时显示功能.测试结果表明,该检测方法简单,检测数据相对误差小于15%;信号读取无滞后,系统动态特性好,与其它油耗仪相比具有体积小、成本低、操作和维修方便等优点.%Automotive transient fuel consumption test system with AT89S8252 single-chip machine was designed, this system uses automotive fuel injector pulse width signal and vehicle speed sensor signal to detect transient fuel consumption and can also real-time display transient fuel consumption and fuel consumption per 100 km. The test results show that this test method is easy to use, and relative error of test data is less than 15%; and the system has no lag of signal reading, showing good dynamic property and has advantages of smaller size, lower cost, ease of operation and repair as compared with other fuel consumption gauges.

  16. AUTO-MOBILE VEHICLE DIRECTION IN ROAD TRAFFIC USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Rathinakumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available So far Most of the current work on this area deals with traffic volume prediction during peak hours and the reasons behind accidents only. This work presents the analysis of automobile vehicle directing in various traffic flow conditions using Artificial neural network architecture. Now a days, due to unprecedented increase in automobile vehicular traffic especially in metro-Politian cities, it has become highly imperative that we must choose an optimum road route in accordance with our requirements. The requirements are : volume of the traffic, Distance between source and destination, no of signals in between the source and destination, the nature of the road condition , fuel consumption and Travel Timing. Artificial Neural networks, a soft computing technique, modeled after brain biological neuron functioning, helps to obtain the required road way or route as per the training given to it. Here we make use of Back propagation network, which changes the weights value of the hidden layers, thereby activation function value which fires the neuron to get the required output.

  17. The Linguistic Features of English Automobile Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐

    2014-01-01

    Household cars are largely demanded today, stimulating the economic development throughout the automobile industry. To enlarge market, all automobile producers pay great efforts to advertisements which result in a large quantity of automobile advertisements. Due to the rare analysis on the linguistic features of automobile advertisements, this essay makes a specific study on this. Analysis will be done through the perspectives of the lexical level, the syntactic level and the rhetoric level. Hence, valid references could be offered to future automobile advertisers.

  18. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  19. Searching for Orbits with Minimum Fuel Consumption for Station-Keeping Maneuvers: An Application to Lunisolar Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernando Bertachini de Almeida Prado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper has the goal of developing a new criterion to search for orbits that minimize the fuel consumption for station-keeping maneuvers. This approach is based on the integral over the time of the perturbing forces. This integral measures the total variation of velocity caused by the perturbations in the spacecraft, which corresponds to the equivalent variation of velocity that an engine should deliver to the spacecraft to compensate the perturbations and to keep its orbit Keplerian all the time. This integral is a characteristic of the orbit and the set of perturbations considered and does not depend on the type of engine used. In this sense, this integral can be seen as a criterion to select the orbit of the spacecraft. When this value becomes larger, more consumption of fuel is required for the station keeping, and, in this sense, less interesting is the orbit. This concept can be applied to any perturbation. In the present research, as an example, the perturbation caused by a third body is considered. Then, numerical simulations considering the effects of the Sun and the Moon in a satellite around the Earth are shown to exemplify the method.

  20. Automobile Driving and Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Novaco, Raymond W.

    1991-01-01

    Automobile driving and aggressive behavior have had an extensive association. Themes of dominance and territoriality have long been part of automobile driving, which has also involved flagrant assaultive actions. Recent episodes of roadway violence in metropolitan areas have raised community concern about aggressive behavior in driving, although common beliefs about why such violence occurs can be seen as pseudoexplanations. Various themes in the psychology of aggression are presented as they...

  1. Database of in-situ field measurements for estimates of fuel consumption and fire emissions in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Buryak, Ludmila; Ivanova, Galina; Soja, Amber; Kalenskaya, Olga; Zhila, Sergey; Zarubin, Denis; Groisman, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires show great variability in the amount of fuel consumed and carbon emitted to the atmosphere. Various types of models are used to calculate global or large scale regional fire emissions. However, in the databases used to estimate fuel consumptions, data for Russia are typically under-represented. Meanwhile, the differences in vegetation and fire regimes in the boreal forests in North America and Eurasia argue strongly for the need of regional ecosystem-specific data. For about 15 years we have been collecting field data on fuel loads and consumption in different ecosystem types of Siberia. We conducted a series of experimental burnings of varying fireline intensity in Scots pine and larch forests of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions. In addition, we examined wildfire behavior and effects in different vegetation types including Scots pine, Siberian pine, fir, birch, poplar, and larch-dominated forests; evergreen coniferous shrubs; grasslands, and peats. We investigated various ecosystem zones of Siberia (central and southern taiga, forest-steppe, steppe, mountains) in the different subjects of the Russian Federation (Krasnoyarsk Kray, Republic of Khakassia, Republic of Buryatia, Tuva Republic, Zabaikalsky Kray). To evaluate the impact of forest practices on fire emissions, burned and unburned logged sites and forest plantations were examined. We found large variations of fuel consumption and fire emission rates among different vegetation types depending on growing conditions, fire behavior characteristics and anthropogenic factors. Changes in the climate system result in an increase in fire frequency, area burned, the number of extreme fires, fire season length, fire season severity, and the number of ignitions from lightning. This leads to an increase of fire-related emissions of carbon to the atmosphere. The field measurement database we compiled is required for improving accuracy of existing

  2. Seawater usable for production and consumption of hydrogen peroxide as a solar fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, Kentaro; Yoneda, Masaki; Yamada, Yusuke; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in water has been proposed as a promising solar fuel instead of gaseous hydrogen because of advantages on easy storage and high energy density, being used as a fuel of a one-compartment H2O2 fuel cell for producing electricity on demand with emitting only dioxygen (O2) and water. It is highly desired to utilize the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water for the practical use of H2O2 as a solar fuel. Here we have achieved efficient photocatalytic production of H2O2 from the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water and O2 in a two-compartment photoelectrochemical cell using WO3 as a photocatalyst for water oxidation and a cobalt complex supported on a glassy-carbon substrate for the selective two-electron reduction of O2. The concentration of H2O2 produced in seawater reached 48 mM, which was high enough to operate an H2O2 fuel cell.

  3. Seawater usable for production and consumption of hydrogen peroxide as a solar fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mase, Kentaro; Yoneda, Masaki; Yamada, Yusuke; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in water has been proposed as a promising solar fuel instead of gaseous hydrogen because of advantages on easy storage and high energy density, being used as a fuel of a one-compartment H2O2 fuel cell for producing electricity on demand with emitting only dioxygen (O2) and water. It is highly desired to utilize the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water for the practical use of H2O2 as a solar fuel. Here we have achieved efficient photocatalytic production of H2O2 from the most earth-abundant seawater instead of precious pure water and O2 in a two-compartment photoelectrochemical cell using WO3 as a photocatalyst for water oxidation and a cobalt complex supported on a glassy-carbon substrate for the selective two-electron reduction of O2. The concentration of H2O2 produced in seawater reached 48 mM, which was high enough to operate an H2O2 fuel cell.

  4. Fuel consumption, labour requirement and capacity on reduced tillage and direct seeding; Braendstofforbrug, arbejdsforbrug og kapacitet ved reduceret jordbearbejdning og direkte saening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, V.; Mortensen, H.; Soerensen, K. [Danmarks JordbrugsForskning. Afd. for Jordbrugsteknik (Denmark)

    2004-06-01

    A project which is partly financed by the Danish Energy Agency, was initiated in the autumn of 2001 with the objective of investigating the energy saving potentials involved with the establishment of crops by use of the latest technology. Most of the findings were made at test farms, where fuel meters and chronometers were mounted on the tractors. In addition to this, the tractor drivers would note down digures for area, working depth, soil type, ground and weather conditions, etc. Besides that, technicians from research Centre Bygholm have made a few time studies and measurements on fuel consumption. The following machine types were used for the studies: Single disc coulter drills; Hoe tine drills; Stubble cultivators with wing sweeps; Finnish rotary harrow; Disc harrow; Straw spreader. Results from previous surveys on traditional crop establishment where rotary and compact harrow units were used are also included in the survey. In the case of reduced tillage, the fuel consumption can be reduced by 33-64%, depending on the method and technique used. In the case of direct drilling, the fuel consumption can be reduced by about 70%. The labour requirement and the CO{sub 2} emission can be reduced by nearly the same rates per cent. The fuel consumption is not uniquely lower on sandy soil than on clay soil. Contrary to what would be the case when seeding with Horsch hoe coulter drill with duet wing sweeps, the differences involved with seeding with Vaederstad single disc coulter drill and Koeckerling hoe tine drill with wing sweeps will not be determined by the soil type. When a single disc coulter drill (Kulti-Seeder or Vaederstad) is use for seeding, it is quite common to plough the soil in advance. However, no significant differnces in the fuel consumption were seen, whether or not the soil had been ploughed or harrowed prior to seeding. Significantly lower fuel consumption on seeding was seen for the Dublet Record Kulti-Seeder than for the other seed drills. No

  5. Is the price effect on fuel consumption symmetric? some evidence from an empirical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We generally consider that the price elasticity of the energy demand is quite small. But it appears that strong increases in gasoline price lead to modifications in consumer behaviours. The high volatility of petroleum prices and thus gasoline prices and the strong increases since the beginning of 2000 justify an analysis of price effects on gasoline consumption. Thus, in this paper, we estimate the effects of price variations on gasoline consumption, in the short and the long-term, in two countries: the United States and India. We use a co-integration modelling to test for long-run relationship between gasoline consumption, income, price and vehicle ownership in the two countries. We use an error correction model to test for short-run prices effects and more precisely for asymmetric effects on demand of increases and decreases in gasoline prices. The main conclusions are the following. - The United States: (1) The long-term price elasticity is relatively high for an industrialised country because gasoline taxes are low (2) Households are more sensitive to a price increase than a price decrease. - India: (1) Price elasticity in the long-run is quite high but is quite small in the short run. It is not surprising for an emergent country (2) It seems that there is no asymmetric effect of price variations on gasoline consumption. (author)

  6. Automotive fuel consumption in Brazil: Applying static and dynamic systems of demand equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to investigate and explain the performance of the Brazilian demand for automotive fuels in the period 1970-2005. It estimates the price and income elasticities for all the available fuels in the automotive sector in the country: gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), ethanol and diesel. The analysis of the expenditure allocation process among these fuels is carried out through the estimation of a linear approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model. Two estimation methods were implemented: the static (through a seemingly unrelated regression) and a dynamic (through a vector error correction model). Specification tests support the use of the latter. The empirical analysis suggests a high substitutability between gasoline and ethanol; being this relation higher than the one observed between gasoline and CNG. The study shows that gasoline, ethanol and diesel are normal goods, and with the exception of ethanol, they are expenditure elastic. CNG was estimated as an inferior good.

  7. Automotive fuel consumption in Brazil. Applying static and dynamic systems of demand equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to investigate and explain the performance of the Brazilian demand for automotive fuels in the period 1970-2005. It estimates the price and income elasticities for all the available fuels in the automotive sector in the country: gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), ethanol and diesel. The analysis of the expenditure allocation process among these fuels is carried out through the estimation of a linear approximation of an Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model. Two estimation methods were implemented: the static (through a seemingly unrelated regression) and a dynamic (through a vector error correction model). Specification tests support the use of the latter. The empirical analysis suggests a high substitutability between gasoline and ethanol; being this relation higher than the one observed between gasoline and CNG. The study shows that gasoline, ethanol and diesel are normal goods, and with the exception of ethanol, they are expenditure elastic. CNG was estimated as an inferior good. (author)

  8. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  9. THE DYNAMIC STOCHASTIC LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL FOR MANAGEMENT IN THE CONSUMPTION OF FUEL IN FLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Chagas Rodrigues

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available From the amount invested in fuel prices, the rate of road that owners of vehicles powered by combustion need to run within the city and on the roads in the region, began a study in order to allow a better definition as to the cost of supply of vehicle with Ethanol or gasoline. And to analyze the equation that the government, through Petrobras announces in the media, because it is mentioned that to obtain the lowest cost when the supply should divide the value of a liter of Ethanol Gasoline for that case stay above 0.70 is the ideal fuel to petrol and vice versa.

  10. Fuel Consumption Evaluation of Some Commonly Used Farm Tractors for Ploughing Operations on the Sandy-loam soil of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Adewoyin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Farm Tractors acquired in Oyo State-Nigeria are primarily utilized for ploughing operations which represents the most costly single item in the budget of an arable farmer. Tractor fuel consumption constitutes a significant parameter that affects ploughing operations performances. Ploughing operations, using ASABE standard D 497.5 were carried out using Massey Ferguson(MF 435, 100 hp, Fiat(F130D, 100 hp and Steyr (CVT170, 100 hp tractors that were purchased in 2009. Field experiments were conducted at 5.5, 6.5 and 7.5 km/h ploughing speeds for ploughing depths of 20, 25 and 30 cm. Mean fuel consumption for Fiat, MF and Steyr models were 23.35, 23.58 and 24.55 l/ha while average of 16.78, 22.02 and 32.67 l/ha of diesel were used to plough 20, 25 and 30 cm depths, respectively. Fuel consumption increased by 31% when ploughing depth increased from 20 to 25 cm and 48% when increased from 25 to 30 cm. Mean fuel consumption at 5.5, 6.5 and 7.5 km/h ploughing speeds were 20.0, 24.25 and 27.23 l/ha, respectively. Fuel consumption varies significantly with ploughing depth and speed (p<0.05, 0.87≤r2≤0.99. Fuel consumption values increases with ploughing dept and speed significantly, the depth of crop roots should determine the appropriate ploughing depth in order to minimize expenses on fuel.

  11. Corrosion protection and finishing of automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    finishing of automobiles is an important aspect. There have been considerable reductions of weight in automobiles by the use of composites components replacing heavy metallic components. Fenders previously based on metal have been replaced with plastic and painted with the same colour shade as of the metallic body, this has eps for proper adhesion of the paints on the plastic fender to avoid chipping off the paint form it. This paper discusses the necessary processes required for finishing of an automobile along with the corrosion protection measures. Automobiles contains a variety of engineering materials, engine main body fuel tanks connecting rods heat radiators and other mechanical parts are made from different types of engineering alloys having varying chemical compositions. Other parts like dashboard, front panel and other are made from composites. The main body made from cold roll ed steel having various contours 'c' it due to the different designs is the potential site for corrosion attack, The main body is exposed to the hostile environment through out its life period. An automobile is given a particular finish with a view to counter the hostile environments as they are not limited for plying in a limiting conditions and are taken to different weather conditions in one day thus facing severe stresses and strain. Thus it is essential that an automobile before rolling 'out of the assembly line should properly corrosion resistant and aesthetically pleasant also. Finishing for automobiles being very specialized, the main requirement being maximum durability with minimum numbers of coats baked, at the fastest possible schedule. High gloss and range of good eye catching colours being important to increase sales appeal. In the near past the car finishes were based on alkyd-amino resins baking materials and force drying lacquers, which have excellent appearance originally and maintain it on aging. The finishing system for the synthetic baking type may consist of

  12. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  13. Effects of Village Power Quality on Fuel Consumption and Operating Expenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Wies; Ron Johnson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska's rural village electric utilities are isolated from the Alaska railbelt electrical grid intertie and from each other. Different strategies have been developed for providing power to meet demand in each of these rural communities. Many of these communities rely on diesel electric generators (DEGs) for power. Some villages have also installed renewable power sources and automated generation systems for controlling the DEGs and other sources of power. For example, Lime Village has installed a diesel battery photovoltaic hybrid system, Kotzebue and Wales have wind-diesel hybrid systems, and McGrath has installed a highly automated system for controlling diesel generators. Poor power quality and diesel engine efficiency in village power systems increases the cost of meeting the load. Power quality problems may consist of poor power factor (PF) or waveform disturbances, while diesel engine efficiency depends primarily on loading, the fuel type, the engine temperature, and the use of waste heat for nearby buildings. These costs take the form of increased fuel use, increased generator maintenance, and decreased reliability. With the cost of bulk fuel in some villages approaching $1.32/liter ($5.00/gallon) a modest 5% decrease in fuel use can result in substantial savings with short payback periods depending on the village's load profile and the cost of corrective measures. This project over its five year history has investigated approaches to improving power quality and implementing fuel savings measures through the use of performance assessment software tools developed in MATLAB{reg_sign} Simulink{reg_sign} and the implementation of remote monitoring, automated generation control, and the addition of renewable energy sources in select villages. The results have shown how many of these communities would benefit from the use of automated generation control by implementing a simple economic dispatch scheme and the integration of renewable energy sources

  14. Improving the performance and fuel consumption of dual chamber stratified charge spark ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, S.C.; Pan, S.S.; Bruckbauer, J.J.; Gehrke, G.R.

    1979-09-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the nature of the combustion processes in a dual chamber stratified charge spark ignition engine is described. This work concentrated on understanding the mixing process in the main chamber gases. A specially constructed single cylinder engine was used to both conduct experiments to study mixing effects and to obtain experimental data for the validation of the computer model which was constructed in the theoretical portion of the study. The test procedures are described. Studies were conducted on the effect of fuel injection timing on performance and emissions using the combination of orifice size and prechamber to main chamber flow rate ratio which gave the best overall compromise between emissions and performance. In general, fuel injection gave slightly higher oxides of nitrogen, but considerably lower hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions than the carbureted form of the engine. Experiments with engine intake port redesign to promote swirl mixing indicated a substantial increase in the power output from the engine and, that an equivalent power levels, the nitric oxide emissions are approximately 30% lower with swirl in the main chamber than without swirl. The development of a computer simulation of the combustion process showed that a one-dimensional combustion model can be used to accurately predict trends in engine operation conditions and nitric oxide emissions even though the actual flame in the engine is not completely one-dimensional, and that a simple model for mixing of the main chamber and prechamber intake gases at the start of compression proved adequate to explain the effects of swirl, ignition timing, overall fuel air ratio, volumetric efficiency, and variations in prechamber air fuel ratio and fuel rate percentage on engine power and nitric oxide emissions. (LCL)

  15. The influence of number and values of ratios in stepped gearbox on mileage fuel consumption in NEDC test and real traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, P.; Wędrychowicz, D.

    2016-09-01

    The article presents the influence of number and values of ratios in stepped gearbox on mileage fuel consumption in a city passenger car. The simulations were conducted for a particular vehicle characterized by its mass, body shape, size of tires and equipped with a combustion engine for which the characteristic of fuel consumption in dynamic states was already designated on the basis of engine test bed measurements. Several designs of transmission with different number of gears and their ratios were used in virtual simulations of road traffic, particularly in the NEDC test, to calculate mileage fuel consumption. This allows for a quantitative assessment of transmission parameters in terms of both vehicle economy and dynamic properties. Also, based on obtained results, recommendations for the selection of a particular vehicle for a specific type of exploitation have been formulated.

  16. Roadmap for Development of Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructructure and Analysis of Vehicular Natural Gas Consumption by Niche Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Yborra

    2007-04-30

    Vehicular natural gas consumption is on the rise, totaling nearly 200 million GGEs in 2005, despite declines in total NGV inventory in recent years. This may be attributed to greater deployment of higher fuel use medium- and heavy-duty NGVs as compared to the low fuel use of the natural gas-powered LDVs that exited the market through attrition, many of which were bi-fuel. Natural gas station counts are down to about 1100 from their peak of about 1300. Many of the stations that closed were under-utilized or not used at all while most new stations were developed with greater attention to critical business fundamentals such as site selection, projected customer counts, peak and off-peak fueling capacity needs and total station throughput. Essentially, the nation's NGV fueling infrastructure has been--and will continue--going through a 'market correction'. While current economic fundamentals have shortened payback and improved life-cycle savings for investment in NGVs and fueling infrastructure, a combination of grants and other financial incentives will still be needed to overcome general fleet market inertia to maintain status quo. Also imperative to the market's adoption of NGVs and other alternative fueled vehicle and fueling technologies is a clear statement of long-term federal government commitment to diversifying our nation's transportation fuel use portfolio and, more specifically, the role of natural gas in that policy. Based on the current NGV market there, and the continued promulgation of clean air and transportation policies, the Western Region is--and will continue to be--the dominant region for vehicular natural gas use and growth. In other regions, especially the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic states and Texas, increased awareness and attention to air quality and energy security concerns by the public and - more important, elected officials--are spurring policies and programs that facilitate deployment of NGVs and fueling

  17. Lowering Saudi Arabia's fuel consumption and energy system costs without increasing end consumer prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a multi-sector equilibrium model of the Saudi energy system that handles administered prices in a mixed-complementarity formulation, we present results from a set of policy scenarios that lower oil consumption in the country. Some of these scenarios are the solutions to Mathematical Programs subject to Equilibrium Constraints (MPECs) that maximize the net economic gain for the Saudi economy. The policies examined have the potential to generate economic gains exceeding 23 billion USD in 2011, or about 4% of Saudi Arabia's GDP. This economic gain comes mainly from inter-sectoral fuel pricing policies that incent shifting the mix in technologies that generate electricity and produce water from energy intensive technologies to more efficient ones. We show that when complemented by credits for investments in solar and nuclear power generation capacities, a modest increase in the transfer prices of fuels among sectors is sufficient to produce economic gains close to those achieved by deregulating transfer prices. The approach we develop here is an alternative to the classic recommendation of deregulating inter-sectoral fuel prices in situations where the conditions for successful liberalized markets do not exist. It is a template for introducing the notions of incentivizing behavior using prices into countries that rely more on administrative procedures than markets, leading to a deeper understanding of how markets can lead to economic gain. - Highlights: • The policies examined would have potentially generated economic gains exceeding 23 billion USD in 2011. • We design policies that produce economic benefits close to those achieved by deregulating inter-sectoral fuel prices. • This paper provides a template for building multi-sector models when transfer prices between sectors are administered

  18. Thermal modeling in an engine cooling system to control coolant flow for fuel consumption improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangki; Woo, Seungchul; Kim, Minho; Lee, Kihyung

    2016-09-01

    The design and evaluation of engine cooling and lubrication systems is generally based on real vehicle tests. Our goal here was to establish an engine heat balance model based on mathematical and interpretive analysis of each element of a passenger diesel engine cooling system using a 1-D numerical model. The purpose of this model is to determine ways of optimizing the cooling and lubrication components of an engine and then to apply these methods to actual cooling and lubrication systems of engines that will be developed in the future. Our model was operated under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) mode conditions, which represent the fuel economy evaluation mode in Europe. The flow rate of the cooling system was controlled using a control valve. Our results showed that the fuel efficiency was improved by as much as 1.23 %, cooling loss by 1.35 %, and friction loss by 2.21 % throughout NEDC modes by modification of control conditions.

  19. Is Fuel-Switching a No-Regrets Environmental Policy? VAR Evidence on Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Performance in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Alfredo Marvão; Pereira, Rui Manuel Marvão

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion activities on economic activity in Portugal in order to evaluate the economic costs of policies designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. We find that energy consumption has a significant impact on macroeconomic activity. In fact, a one ton of oil equivalent permanent reduction in aggregate energy consumption reduces output by €6,340 over the long term, an aggregate impact which hi...

  20. Coatings Manufacturing Technology for China's Automobile Industry Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China's automobile industry is experiencing continued phenomenal growth with the first 11 months of 2003 seeing an output of over 4 million units.This has lead to a huge growth in the consumption of automotive coatings with a 30% growth expected in 2004,reaching 200,000 tons-compared to a 7% average growth for the coatings industry as a whole.Output is predieted to reach 300,000 tons by 2010!

  1. Parameter optimization of a diesel engine to reduce noise, fuel consumption, and exhaust emissions using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Win, Z. [Yangon Technological University (Myanmar). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Gakkhar, R.P.; Jain, S.C.; Bhattacharya, M. [Indian Institute of Technology, Rorkee (India). Dept. of Mechanical and Industial Engineering

    2005-10-15

    The conflicting effects of the operating parameters and the injection parameter (injection timing) on engine performance and environmental pollution factors is studied in this paper. As an optimization objective, a 3.5 kW small direct injection diesel engine was used as the test engine, and its speed, load, and static injection timing were varied as per 4 x 4 x 3 full factorial design array. Radiated engine noise, smoke level, brake specific fuel consumption, and emissions of unburned hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides were captured for all test runs. Objective functions relating input and output parameters were obtained using response surface methodology (RSM). Parameter optimization was carried out to control output responses under their mean limit using multi-objective goal programming and minimax programming optimization techniques. (author)

  2. Simulation of the fuel consumption benefits of various transmission arrangements and control strategies within a flywheel based mechanical hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Body, William; Brockbank, Chris [Torotrak (Development) Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Flywheel based mechanical hybrid technology is being developed for both motorsport and mainstream automotive applications. One particular road car application project, part funded by the UK Government Technology Strategy Board, is being led by Jaguar Land Rover, managed by Prodrive and using advanced technology from Flybrid Systems, Ford, Ricardo. Torotrak and Xtrac. During the two year programme, the group will develop the new technology and build a demonstrator vehicle equipped with the system. The mechanical system recovers kinetic energy from the vehicle during braking to a high speed rotating flywheel via a variable drive system. When compared to an electric motor / battery arrangement, the mechanical hybrid system offers benefits in cost, weight, package, efficiency and ultimately vehicle fuel consumption. As part of the development and optimisation process in order to specify the road car system, all aspects of the mechanical hybrid system are under investigation by the group. Alongside the required quantity of energy storage and the rates of energy recovery and reapplication, a number of different physical architectures for the system are being analysed. The Torotrak full-toroidal traction drive has been assigned as the variable drive element of the mechanical hybrid system. Multiple configuration options are available including direct drive, epicyclic shunted, range extended CVT and epicyclic shunted IVT arrangements. In addition, the flywheel and variable drive system can be connected to the powertrain in a variety of different locations, from the engine through the powertrain to the wheels. This paper describes the simulation of the mechanical hybrid system with particular focus on the impact on the fuel consumption benefit, over multiple drive cycles, of the variable drive configuration, the location of the variable drive and flywheel system and the control strategy options. (orig.)

  3. Development of a model for the prediction of the fuel consumption and nitrogen oxides emission trade-off for large ships

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Ulrik; Pierobon, Leonardo; Baldi, Francesco; HAGLIND, Fredrik; Ivarsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The international regulations on fuel efficiency and NOx emissions of commercial ships motivate the investigation of new system layouts, which can comply with the regulations. In combustion engines, measures to reduce the fuel consumption often lead to increased NOx emissions and careful consideration of this trade-off mechanism is required in the design of marine propulsion systems. This study investigates five different configurations of two-stroke diesel-based machinery systems for large s...

  4. 40 CFR 600.107-93 - Fuel specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978... chapter. (c) The test fuel specifications for methanol fuel used in Otto-cycle automobiles are given...

  5. Investigation of diesel engine operating and injection system parameters for low noise, emissions, and fuel consumption using Taguchi methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Win, Z. [Yangon Technological University (Myanmar). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Gakkhar, R.P.; Jain, S.C.; Bhattacharya, M. [Indian Institute of Technology, Rorkee (India). Dept. of Mechanical and Industial Engineering

    2005-10-15

    In order to optimize the performance of a small direct injection (DI) diesel engine with respect to noise, emissions, and fuel economy, an experimental investigation was undertaken using Taguchi methods. A single-cylinder 3.5 kW diesel engine was selected for performance tests at different levels of two operating parameters (speed and load) and six injection parameters of the engine (static injection timing, plunger diameter, nozzle valve opening pressure, nozzle hole diameter, number of nozzle holes, and nozzle tip protrusion). These controlled parameters were varied at two levels, and the resulting changes in responses were investigated, namely engine noise, combustion noise, smoke, brake specific fuel consumption (b.s.f.c.), and emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), and carbon monoxide (CO) were investigated. The optimum values of engine noise, combustion noise, smoke, emissions, and b.s.f.c. could be predicted using signal-noise (S/N) ratios, and a relevant combination of controlled input parameters was specified. Results of confirmation runs of the engine showed good agreement with the predicted quantities of interest based on Taguchi analysis. The relative importance of the controlled parameters to the above responses was evaluated in terms of the percentage contributions of the parameters using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The Taguchi method of experimental design was found to be robust and more cost effective for understanding the relationship between diesel engine parameters and noise, emissions, and b.s.f.c. than full factorial design. (author)

  6. Determinants of automobile loan default and prepayment

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Agarwal; Ambrose, Brent W.; Souphala Chomsisengphet

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine whether a borrower’s choice of automobile reveals information about future loan performance. They find that loans on most luxury automobiles have a higher probability of prepayment, while loans on most economy automobiles have a lower probability of default, even when holding traditional risk factors, such as income and credit score, constant.

  7. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  8. Fair division of generation profile and fuel consumption in isolated micro-grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Heussen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    leads to more stressed loading conditions of diesel generators. We propose a control strategy employing fair division of generator allocation using a compensation procedure based on social choice methods. A co-simulation set up with separate power system and control strategy simulators is used...... to provide a proof-of-concept case study of an isolated micro-grid with two wind turbines and three diesel generators. In comparison with a simple master- slave allocation, the proposed coordination scheme improves the distribution of fuel allocation by 27,5%, reduces under-load time by 43,5% and decreases...... the standard deviation of the under-load distribution between individual diesels by 80,7%....

  9. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel economy standards. 531.5 Section 531.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel... passenger automobile fleet shall comply with the fuel economy level calculated for that model year...

  10. Direct measurement of the overall efficiency and annual fuel consumption of residential oil-fired boilers. Annual report, Fiscal Year 1977. Burner-boiler/furnace efficiency test project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batey, J E; Allen, T W; McDonald, R J; Hoppe, R J; Salzano, F J; Berlad, A L

    1978-01-01

    A direct measurement procedure has provided accurate evaluation of the efficiency of residential heating units during full-load and part-load operation. Laboratory-measured efficiency data for each heating unit are translated into a more useful form as annual fuel consumption and fuel-weighted seasonal efficiency values. The changes in fuel use and seasonal efficiency are evaluated for variations in operating conditions, including: geographic location, design head load of the building, domestic hot water use, and design fuel-firing rate. The combination of direct, accurate efficiency measurement and calculation of annual fuel use provide a standard method for comparison of individual heating units and retrofit modifications on a common and realistic basis. The cost-effectiveness and payback periods of equipment modifications can be quantitatively evaluated.

  11. Alternative fuel information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  12. 车辆发动机油耗测量系统设计%Design of the Fuel Consumption Measurement System for Vehicle Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马健军; 赵新; 张洪蛟

    2015-01-01

    为解决现有车辆发动机油耗仪测量操作繁琐、效率低、需拆解车辆等问题,利用液位压力变化与燃油消耗体积变化量之间的关系,设计了车辆发动机燃油消耗量测量系统。系统采用涡轮流量计、液位变送器等高精度传感器采集试验数据,数据处理程序采用LabVIEW软件编写,实现了车辆发动机燃油消耗量的不解体测量。系统试验表明,测量系统结构简便、测量效率较高,燃油消耗量测量精度符合要求。%In order to solve the problems in existing fuel consumption meter for vehicle engines, such as tedious measuring operation, low measurement efficiency and disassembly needed, thus by adopting the relationship between level pressure variation and volume change of fuel consumption, the fuel consumption measurement system for vehicle engine has been designed. In the system, the test data are collected by high precision transducers, i. e. , turbine flowmeter and level transmitter;data processing program is written by using LabVIEW software;thus fuel consumption measurement without disassembly for vehicle engine is implemented. The system test indicates that this system features simple structure, higher measurement efficiency;the measurement accuracy of fuel consumption measurement meets the requirement.

  13. 基于行驶工况特征的汽车燃油消耗的预测%Vehicle Fuel Consumption Prediction Based on Driving Cycle Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜平; 石琴

    2014-01-01

    Fuel consumptions are predicted according to the characteristic parameters of driving cycle in the paper. Firstly the collected data on 100km fuel consumption and driving cycles on typical roads are divided into a large number of driving segments. Then three principal components are obtained from 13 characteristic parameters of all driving segments by principal component analysis. Finally fuel consumptions are predicted by BP neural network based on the scores of three principal components. The results show that compared with BP neural network, the fuel consumption prediction model based on the combination of principal component analysis and neural network can bet-ter predict the fuel consumption of driving cycle on urban roads with simplified network structure and improved pre-diction accuracy.%本文从行驶工况特征参数来进行燃油消耗的预测。首先对典型道路上采集的百公里燃油消耗和行驶工况数据进行划分,获得大量行驶片段。接着用主成分分析法从所有行驶片段的13个特征参数中得到了3个主成分。最后利用BP神经网络对3个主成分的得分进行燃油消耗的预测。结果表明,与一般的BP神经网络相比,采用主成分分析和神经网络相结合的燃油消耗预测模型,简化了网络结构,提高了预测精度,可用来预测城市道路行驶工况的燃油消耗。

  14. Fuel consumption of private cars in France 1988-2006; Consommations de carburants des voitures particulieres en France 1988-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    The results of this study come from the exploitation of the 'TNSworldpanel Petrol' inquiry launched in April 1987. This panel follows the consumption of 3300 cars belonging to individuals living in France (company vehicles are excluded). This is the only operation of this scale ever carried out in France. The main results indicate: the continuation of the average consumption decay of individual cars (all kind of fuel considered); a new and significant progress of diesel-fueled vehicles: 57% of the cars purchased by households (50% in 2003, 33% in 1995); a new decay of the total distance covered by households: -1.1% in parallel to the rise of fuel prices. (J.S.)

  15. Development of a management protocol for the reduction of fuel consumption and decreasing of the emanations of CO2 as contaminant of environment in air service companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A management protocol is developed for air services companies to improve the eco-efficiency of its processes. The application of operational procedures have allowed the reduction of fuel consumption and decreased the emanations of CO2 into the environment. The methodology of the research has consisted in quantitative and qualitative analysis of the variables and processes that have influenced significantly in the operation of airline fleet. An integral analysis is realized of the procedures of management and use of resources in the cockpits of the aircraft (Cockpit Resource Management) and navigation based in performance (NBP). The results of analysis are used to elaborate a protocol to minimize the fuel consumption and energy through the application of practices and operational procedures more efficient and safe. The environmental burdens associated with the services that are provided in the airline industry are minimized. The application of methods of improvement and procedures that are updated continuously have achieved the sustainability of the protocol. The operational procedures are applied to decrease the fuel consumption. Sensitization programs are developed for the utilization of more efficient operational practices and friendly with the environment. An incentive program is implemented to optimize the fuel consumption safely by pilots. A new procedure of flight scheduling is modified based on performance of the pilots and fleet degradation factors, assigning the pilots who have had higher consumption to airplanes with lower degradation, and the pilots who have had lower consumption, to airplanes with higher degradation. A self-liquidating incentive plan is developed based on the savings achieved in the operation in high-performance, could reinforce the change of attitude necessary for the group of pilots can support the implementation of the protocol

  16. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  17. Fossil fuel consumption and heavy metal emissions into the atmosphere in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades more and more attention has been paid to the problem of ecosystem pollution by heavy metals. Many trace elements are registered now as a global pollutant due to their toxic nature. Their negative influence on the environment is caused by accumulation in different ecosystem components and increased involvement in biochemical cycles. The atmosphere is the main medium through which pollutants transported from emission sources to background territories where heavy metals are deposited into water and on plants. Heavy metal emissions into the atmosphere cause certain global environmental problems due to their long lifetime and the long-term transport of these elements in the atmosphere, as well as the increasing rate of their accumulation in the environment even at most remote territories. Moreover, heavy metals have evidently entered human food chains. The influence of global ecosystem pollution by heavy metals on human health is not well known as yet. Most trace elements comes into the atmosphere with natural and man-made aerosols. The main sources of natural aerosols in the atmosphere are soil erosion and weathering of mountain rocks, volcanic and space dust, forest firing smoke, and others. Major anthropogenic sources of toxic elements are fossil fuel combustion, mining, industrial processes, and waste incineration. The anthropogenic flow of heavy metals to the atmosphere is about 94-97 per cent of the total. An inventory of emission sources should be the first step in developing a control strategy and modelling global and regional cycles of trace elements. In this article the situation with lead, cadmium and mercury emissions from coal combustion of power plants and gasoline combustion by road transport is discussed. Pollutant amounts released into the atmosphere in industrial regions induce not only local deterioration of air, but they also affect on remote areas, and areas sensitive to contamination, such as the Arctic region. Problems on the

  18. The tires and their effect in fuel consumption; Los neumaticos y su efecto en el consumo de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barjau Peralta, Emilio; Fernandez Ramirez, Adrian; Maldonado Susano, Armando [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper are presented some of the impacts that the tire has in the fuel consumption in the light vehicles as well as in the heavy ones; emphasis is made in the measures that can be taken to diminish this effect and some of the results of the investigations or experiences obtained in other countries are also presented. Also mention is made of the most frequent faults of the tires and the cause of the same ones. This affects not so much the life of the tire as the operation cost, but also it involves energy costs when having to invest energy in the manufacture of new tires. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan algunas de los impactos que tienen el neumatico en el consumo de combustible en los vehiculos tanto ligeros como pesados, se hace enfasis en las medidas que pueden ser tomadas para disminuir este efecto y se muestran algunos resultados de las investigaciones o experiencias obtenidas en otros paises. Tambien se hace mencion de las fallas mas frecuentes en los neumaticos y la causa de las mismas. Esto afecta tanto la vida del neumatico como el costo de operacion, pero tambien involucra costos energeticos al tener que invertir energia en la fabricacion de neumaticos nuevos.

  19. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  20. Prelaunch Forecasting of New Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Glen L.; John R. Hauser; John H. Roberts

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a prelaunch model and measurement system to the marketing planning of a new automobile. The analysis addresses active search by consumers, dealer visits, word-of-mouth communication, magazine reviews, and production constraints---issues that are important in understanding consumer response to durable goods. We address these issues with a detailed consumer flow model which monitors and projects key consumer transitions in response to marketing actions. A test-vs...

  1. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  2. Electric automobil - wishes and reality

    OpenAIRE

    Duchoň, Bedřich; Opava, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    The demands on cars energy resources are given by the following items: power, speed, acceleration, operation range. All these factors are under balance: future wishes and contemporary reality. The proposal is dedicated to the analysis of demands related to the electric automobiles. As a hopefulness solution of these transport means can be seen for city transport (forwarding, shopping, postal services etc). The technical and economic approaches are discussed, too.

  3. Hybrid Voltage Regulator for Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sei-Ichi Denda; Tadashi Takahashi; Akihiro Sawamura

    1981-01-01

    In the course of the development of hybrid voltage regulators for automobile use, increasing the reverse blocking voltage with decreasing of saturation voltage for output power darlington transistors, the capability of monolithic IC chip against surge pulses generated in cars, and an improvement of the pattern design of thick film in order to withstand temperature cycling, have been important subjects. Power darlingtons have more than 150 V of reverse voltage as well as large secondary breakd...

  4. PROSPECTS OF AUTOMOBILE TIRE RECYCLING

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Gusev; V. S. Demyanova

    2012-01-01

    Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize aut...

  5. The Calculation of Fuel Consumption Reduction in the Drying Process of Camomile and Mint as a Function of Wasted Air Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Šeruga

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The fuel saving calculated according to defined model for wasted air temperature from 40 and 50 °C with applying solar collector and recuperating heat exchanger. In function of burnt gas amount reduction in energy plant at dryer for camomile and mint, pollution of human environment reduction, and at the end environmental air the reduction of fuel consumption was analysed. Results showed that 41-53% energy saving could be obtained for maximum air flow and 56-59% for minimum air flow.

  6. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  7. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (...

  8. The Emergence of the Chinese Automobile Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Baker; Markus Hyvonen

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese automobile sector has experienced rapid growth over the past decade, with China recently becoming the world’s largest producer of automobiles. Given the steel-intensive nature of automobile production, the expansion of China’s automobile sector has seen it become an important end-user of steel. With the number of cars in China still very low relative to its large population, car sales are likely to remain at a high level for the foreseeable future; accordingly, Chinese car mak...

  9. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  10. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region.

  11. Study for application of multi fuel technology in the Brazilian automobilistic market; Estudo para aplicacao da tecnologia multi combustivel no mercado automobilistico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparotto, Alexsander David [FIAT/GM Powertrain (Brazil); Massarani, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work is a study for the application of a new technology that will be used in the engine management system in the vehicle; where the final consumer can opt for the inquiry performance or seeking an economy for the fuel consumption depending on its daily use and of the prices offered in the gas stations. Flexible Fuel is a technology in development for the automobile market that mixes the use of two fuels (gasoline and ethanol) and their mixtures in the internal combustion engine. (author)

  12. CRUISE FUZZY CONTROL FOR AUTOMOBILE WITH CVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To develop cruise control system of an automobile with the metal pushing V-belt type CVT, the dynamic model of automobile travelling longitudinally is established, and the fuzzy controller of control system is designed. Considering uncertainty system parameter and exterior resistance disturbances, the stability of controller is investigated by simulating. The results of its simulation show that the fuzzy controller designed has practicability.

  13. Your Automobile Dollar, [Revised.] Money Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Law, Jean L., Ed.

    This booklet on automobile purchasing and maintenance, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook discusses buying, maintaining, and operating cars. Section 1 discusses managing automobile dollars. Topics include…

  14. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd (hereafter referred to as "Jiangqi Group"),established on May 18, 1997 with approval of Anhui provincial government, is one of 12 key provincial owned enterprises. Its predecessor was Hefei Jianghuai Automobile Factory built in 1964.……

  15. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd (hereafter referred to as "Jiangqi Group"),established on May 18, 1997 with approval of Anhui provincial government, is one of 12 key provincial owned enterprises. Its predecessor was Hefei Jianghuai Automobile Factory built in 1964.

  16. Effect of turbo charger system on engine fuel consumption and tractor power and traction (ITM475, ITM485 and ITM800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh PashaiHulasu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tractors are considered as the main power generators in mechanized agriculture. Hence, the experts and engineers in tractor manufacturing of the country, are required to focus on developing and designing new features in tractor manufacturing. This must be, of course, paralleled with the economic aspects. Achieving this goal, Iran Tractor Manufactories Co., (ITMCO has designed and developed tractors equipped with turbochargers. This has been performed on ITM800 & ITM485 models, according to world standards. The turbocharger system, with harnessing of lost energy in engine output fumes, compresses the air entering the engine and more air enters the cylinder. This will cause the engine to burn fuel more efficiently and thus produce more power. Materials and Methods: This study has been carried out on ITM485 & ITM800 tractors (with turbocharger system and ITM285 & ITM475 tractors (without turbocharger system to assure the improvement of engine performance and compare them employing OECD world standards. Experiments were performed in the concrete runway of Tabriz Tractor Manufacturing Company. For experiments, a dynamometer was used to measure the traction force between two tractors, a measuring unit for fuel, a thermometer unit and a timer to measure the quantities of fuel consumption, drawbar force and power. For drawbar traction test, each of the tested tractors pulled the rear tractor in different gears and the dynamometer between these 2 tractors recorded the tractors traction force by data loggers. To measure tractors fuel consumption, a measuring unit of fuel (VDO - EDM 1404 was used that calculated the flow rate in the path of fuel from the fuel tank to the engine and the return path from the engine to the fuel tank and showed the quantity of fuel consumption in liters per hour digitally. Results and Discussion: In comparison of traction power and force of tractors with turbochargers and without turbochargers in different gears

  17. PROSPECTS OF AUTOMOBILE TIRE RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Gusev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize automobile tires has been indicated. Physical and mechanical indicators have been established and the residual durability of metal cord as a product of tire processing has been evaluated. The comparative analysis with an industrial fiber has been carried out. The most technological and economic directions to be taken in the recycling of rubber scraps in order to do-mestically manufacture tile and of metal cord to manufacture fiber-concrete of various types are suggested for a “floating floor” structure.

  18. Study of automobile exhaust particles by spectromicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper,automobile exhaust particles of Gol and Santana 3000 were studied by spectro microscopy. The STXM results show that the single particulate is sized at 500 nm, with the mass distribution reducing towards the center. The N 1s NEXAFS spectra of automobile exhaust particles have similar structure with those of nitrates, which can be deduced as the main chemical species of nitrogen in automobile exhaust particles. There are minor amounts of ammonium and organic nitrogen compounds in automobile exhaust particles. A single Gol automobile exhaust particle was stack scanned in the energy range of 396-416 eV. By principal component analysis and cluster analysis, it can be deduced that there are main three chemical species of nitrogen. The particle surface consists of mainly nitrates, the inside consists of mainly ammonium and organic nitrogen compounds, and the middle layer is an inter gradation consisting of mainly nitrates and organic nitrogen compounds. (authors)

  19. Peak-Seeking Control For Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-Test Results For The Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed FA-18 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. This presentation also focuses on the design of the flight experiment and the practical challenges of conducting the experiment.

  20. A discrete-event model to simulate the effect of truck bunching due to payload variance on cycle time, hauled mine materials and fuel consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Soofastaei; S.M. Aminossadati; M.S. Kizil; P. Knights

    2016-01-01

    Data collected from truck payload management systems at various surface mines shows that the payload variance is significant and must be considered in analysing the mine productivity, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and associated cost. Payload variance causes significant differences in gross vehicle weights. Heavily loaded trucks travel slower up ramps than lightly loaded trucks. Faster trucks are slowed by the presence of slower trucks, resulting in‘bunching’, production losses and increasing fuel consumptions. This paper simulates the truck bunching phenomena in large surface mines to improve truck and shovel systems’ efficiency and minimise fuel consumption. The study concentrated on complet-ing a practical simulation model based on a discrete event method which is most commonly used in this field of research in other industries. The simulation model has been validated by a dataset collected from a large surface mine in Arizona state, USA. The results have shown that there is a good agreement between the actual and estimated values of investigated parameters.

  1. Can switching fuels save water? A life cycle quantification of freshwater consumption for Texas coal- and natural gas-fired electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal electricity generation is a major consumer of freshwater for cooling, fuel extraction and air emissions controls, but the life cycle water impacts of different fossil fuel cycles are not well understood. Much of the existing literature relies on decades-old estimates for water intensity, particularly regarding water consumed for fuel extraction. This work uses contemporary data from specific resource basins and power plants in Texas to evaluate water intensity at three major stages of coal and natural gas fuel cycles: fuel extraction, power plant cooling and power plant emissions controls. In particular, the water intensity of fuel extraction is quantified for Texas lignite, conventional natural gas and 11 unconventional natural gas basins in Texas, including major second-order impacts associated with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. Despite the rise of this water-intensive natural gas extraction method, natural gas extraction appears to consume less freshwater than coal per unit of energy extracted in Texas because of the high water intensity of Texas lignite extraction. This work uses new resource basin and power plant level water intensity data to estimate the potential effects of coal to natural gas fuel switching in Texas’ power sector, a shift under consideration due to potential environmental benefits and very low natural gas prices. Replacing Texas’ coal-fired power plants with natural gas combined cycle plants (NGCCs) would reduce annual freshwater consumption in the state by an estimated 53 billion gallons per year, or 60% of Texas coal power’s water footprint, largely due to the higher efficiency of NGCCs. (letter)

  2. Auto-Mobile Vehicle Direction in Road Traffic Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.SankaraSubramanian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available So far Most of the current work on this area deals with traffic volume prediction during peak hours and the reasons behind accidents only. This w ork presents the analysis of automobile vehicle directing in various traffic flow condition s using Artificial neural network architecture. Now a days, due to unprecedented increase in automo bile vehicular traffic especially in metro- Politian cities, it has become highly imperative th at we must choose an optimum road route in accordance with our requirements. The requirements are : volume of the traffic, Distance between source and destination, no of signals in be tween the source and destination, the nature of the road condition , fuel consumption and Travel Timing. Artificial Neural networks, a soft computing technique, modeled after brain biological neuron functioning, helps to obtain the required road way or route as per the training give n to it. Here we make use of Back propagation network, which changes the weights valu e of the hidden layers, thereby activation function value which fires the neuron to get the re quired output.

  3. End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

  4. An Analysis of Various Policy Instruments to Reduce Congestion, Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emissions in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Anas, Alex; Govinda R. Timilsina; Zheng, Siqi

    2009-01-01

    Using a nested multinomial logit model of car ownership and personal travel in Beijing circa 2005, this paper compares the effectiveness of different policy instruments to reduce traffic congestion and CO2 emissions. The study shows that a congestion toll is more efficient than a fuel tax in reducing traffic congestion, whereas a fuel tax is more effective as a policy instrument for reduci...

  5. Capability of a SOFC-APU to optimise the fuel consumption of motor vehicles; Potenzial einer SOFC-APU bei der Verbrauchsoptimierung von Kraftfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegelmann, Christian B.

    2008-04-28

    While the energy system motor vehicle is analysed in this work different application possibilities of a SOFC-Auxiliary Power Unit for reducing the fuel consumption are identified. Apart from the pure electric power supply the APU can support functions like the engine-stop automatism or electric driving (hybrid vehicle). In addition the SOFC-APU generates waste heat at a high temperature level. The waste heat can be used for heating the passenger cabin or for preheating the combustion engine. Several methods are used for evaluating the conservation potentials. A simple estimate of the fuel consumption by means of medium efficiency and power already suffices to identify and evaluate the major impacts. The conservation potential of a SOFC-APU mainly depends on three factors, the start-up consumption of the APU, the operating period and the required electric power. A cold APU must first be heated-up to an operational temperature between 700 and 800 degrees Celsius. The heat-up process requires energy resulting in an excess consumption first. This excess consumption will only be compensated by the high efficiency of the SOFC-APU after a longer operating period. The operating period strongly depends on the electric power. In case of higher electric power the APU achieves a higher conservation rate. An APU is particularly interesting in standard applications with high energy demand. The APU avoids an operation of the combustion engine in the extreme underload range. In case of an air-conditioning at idling speed lasting for 30 minutes a fuel conservation of approx. 36% can be achieved including the start-up consumption. Conservation potentials in fuel consumption can only be achieved in the driving mode if the APU is operational and in case of a longer operating period. The difference in consumption compared to vehicles without APU was determined at vehicles with different basic operating strategies (current vehicle, vehicle with engine-stop automatism, vehicle with

  6. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Pop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  7. Pain at the Pump: The Differential Effect of Gasoline Prices on New and Used Automobile Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Meghan R. Busse; Christopher R. Knittel; Florian Zettelmeyer

    2009-01-01

    The dramatic increase in gasoline prices from close to $1 in 1999 to $4 at their peak in 2008 made it much more expensive for consumers to operate an automobile. In this paper we investigate whether consumers have adjusted to gasoline price changes by altering what automobiles they purchase and what prices they pay. We investigate these effects in both new and used car markets. We find that a $1 increase in gasoline price changes the market shares of the most and least fuel-efficient quartile...

  8. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  9. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  10. A better crank mechanism with reduced environmental impact: The Scotch Yoke engine combines high power density with improved fuel consumption and lower noise and exhaust emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenkranz, H.G. [CMC Research Pty. Ltd., (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    The slider crank mechanism of modern reciprocating piston engines has until now, after more than 100 years of engine development, not been seen as an area which could help to achieve the pressing objectives of today`s engine research, e.g. lower fuel consumption, reduced exhaust emissions and improved noise and vibration. This paper describes the short comings of the conventional crank mechanism, which is being used in combustion engines with reciprocating piston motion without exception. In contrast, a Scotch Yoke crank mechanism has convincing advantages, as shown in theoretical simulations and as the result of comparison tests between two identical engines, one with conventional, the other with a Scotch Yoke crank mechanism. The Scotch Yoke engine does not represent a technical risk any more and has many environmental advantages. These include its fuel efficient operation and high power density with low noise and vibrations and reduced exhaust emissions. (author). 10 figs., 9 refs.

  11. Random torsional vibration in automobile transmissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The action of a road profile to the torsional vibrations in automobile transmissions is studied. The model to calculate the random torsional vibrations in the transmissions is proposed and the values of the model parameters are determined by both computation and experiment. Furthermore, the dynamic characteristics and the responses of automobile transmissions to the random excitation of road profile are calculated. The results of road experiment demonstrate that the theoretic analyses and the calculation are correct, which imply that the low frequency torsional vibrations in automobile transmissions are caused by the random excitation of a road profile.

  12. Lessons from China’s automobile industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世锦

    2009-01-01

    Two controversies have emerged in the development of China’s automobile industry.The first is the role of government approval in economy of scale,industrial concentration and redundant construction.Second is the role of foreign-funded companies in the growth of China’s automobile industry.Correct understanding of these matters offers a unique"intellectual asset"for approaching the institutional and policy matters of China’s automobile industry and other sectors.It also serves as guidance in the selection of growth patterns.

  13. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751-1991; and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.; Boden, T.; Bischof, S.

    1994-10-01

    This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring and cement manufacture. These emphases include: (1) updating the 1950 to present time series of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, (2) extending this time series back to 1751, (3) gridding the data at 1{sup 0} by 1{sup 0} resolution, and (4) estimating the isotopic signature of these emissions. In 1991, global emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel and cement increased 1.5% over 1990 levels to 6188 {times} 10{sup 6} metric tonnes C. The Kuwaiti oil fires can account for all of the increase. Recently published energy data (Etemad et al., 1991) allow extension of the CO emissions time series back to 1751. Preliminary examination shows good agreement with two other, but shorter, energy time series. A latitudinal distribution of carbon emissions is being completed. A southward shift in the major mass of CO{sub 2} emissions is occurring from European-North American latitudes towards central-southeast Asian latitudes, reflecting the growth of population and industrialization at these lower latitudes. The carbon isotopic signature of these emissions has been re-examined. The emissions of the last two decades are approximately 1{per_thousand} lighter than previously reported (Tans, 1981). This lightening of the emissions signature is due to fossil fuel gases and liquids, including a revision of their {delta}{sup 13}C isotopic signature and an increased production rate.

  14. Effect of Pavement Type on Fuel Consumption and Emissions%路面类型对能耗和排放影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王陆峰; 王俊峰; 李树杰

    2012-01-01

    The impact of pavement type on fuel consumption and emissions was studied. The results showed that rigid and flexible pavement surfaces in fuel consumption and emissions have significant differences. And this study suggested that fuel consumption and emission should be considered in life cycle cost analyses of alternative designs. Rigid and flexible pavement surfaces in the constant speed and acceleration driving mode for comparative study are chosed. The differences in fuel consumption rates were determined to be statistically significant at 10% level of significance for the constant speed runs with the rate for the rigid section being lower. Under the acceleration mode, while the rigid pavement runs again showed lower rates, the differences were not statistically significant. The total fuel consumption amounts were then used to estimate the total annual CO2 productions in the Dallas-Fort Worth region in Texas under each pavement surface type. Under similar urban driving conditions ( 30 mph) , the rigid pavement results in a total fuel savings of about 177 million gallons and a reduction of approximately 0. 62 million metric tons of CO2 per annum.%研究了路面类型对能耗和排放的影响.结果表明:刚性和柔性路面之间在燃油消耗和气体排放方面存在巨大的差异,尤其是在道路设计使用年限内能耗和排放总量上的差别更大.同时,建议将能耗和排放列入到道路生命周期成本分析中.选择刚性和柔性两种类型的城市道路,以及恒速和加速行驶两种行驶模式作为对比研究.测试数据显示:在显著水平为10%的统计数据下,刚性路面试验段的燃油消耗率要比柔性路面低;而在加速模式下,尽管刚性路面的燃油消耗也是较低,但从统计数据上看并不明显.以陕西省城市道路为例,以年度燃油消耗的总量来评估不同路面类型的年度二氧化碳排放总量.在相同的驾驶条件下(48 km/h),刚性

  15. The Review of Design Methods for Lightweight of Automobile Structure%汽车结构的轻量化设计方法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传博; 谢然; 郭琳

    2012-01-01

    Lightweight of automobile structure is important for vehicle emissions reduction and fuel consumption. It can be realized by using lightweight-high-strength materials, relative advanced forming process for automobile structure parts, connection technology and structure optimization or other innovation methods. This article describes a few representative research projects on automotive structural lightweight; elaborates the use of high strength steel, aluminum-magnesium alloy, plastics and other lightweight- high-strength materials in the lightweight of body structure; analyzes advanced forming process for new materials, such as tailored blanks, hydraulic and pneumatic forming, hot stamping, and advanced connectivity technology of the self-pierce riveting. It also presents the relative methods for structural optimization and innovative design. Finally, it prospects the development trend of design method for lightweight of automobile structure.%汽车结构轻量化对降低汽车排放和油耗具有重要意义.文章介绍了汽车结构轻量化的几个代表性研究项目;对高强度钢板、铝镁合金及塑料等轻质高强度材料在车身结构轻量化中的应用进行了阐述;围绕新材料的先进成形工艺,如激光拼焊板、液压和气压成形,热冲压工艺等成形工艺,以及自冲铆接等先进连接工艺进行了分析;同时还介绍了有关的汽车结构优化和创新设计方法,最后对汽车结构轻量化设计方法的发展动向进行了展望.

  16. Information searches by consumers of miniature automobiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dao-ping; LIU Wei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the information search behaviors of Chinese consumers of miniature automobiles. First, we identified the main sources where consumers acquire or seek information about miniature automobiles and discussed their extent of information search. Then, based on logistic regression and optimal scaling regression of statistics, we studied the influences of characteristics of consumers of miniature automobiles on the extent of information search and on Internet usage. The results indicate that consumers often utilize four sources to obtain information about miniature automobiles. The dominant information source for consumers is their friends/family, followed by dealers, newspapers, and TV. Age, occupation, education and income significantly affect the extent of information search, but gender and city of residence do not have significant impacts. Age, city of residence, occupation, education and income produce significant influences on Internet usage. Gender has an insignificant influence on whether a consumer uses the Internet to search for information.

  17. The rolling and skidding of automobile tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, D.

    1994-09-01

    This article deals in simple terms with the rolling and skidding of automobile tyres. It shows that skid resistance on slippery road surfaces may be significantly increased by using tyre treads of high hysteresis loss.

  18. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  19. CHOICE OF STRATEGY DIVERSIFICATION ON AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Bilichenko, V.; Tsymbal, S.

    2005-01-01

    The block diagram which with use of imitating modelling will allow to choose optimum strategy diversification the enterprises of automobile transport is developed, having received the maximal profit at the minimal expenses.

  20. The Eighth China (Guangzhou) International Automobile Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The annual China (Guangzhou) International Automobile Exhibition was held at the China Import and Export Commodity Fair on December 21-27, 2010. This year’s exhibition covered about 160,000 square meters. The world’s most

  1. China's Automobile:Walk into Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The press conference and flag presentation ceremony of the 6th China Auto International fAlgeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour was held on November 3,2008 at China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT),Beijing.An international exhibition automobile team,which is composed of China's independent brands and represents the independent research,development and manufacturing level of Chinese automobile industry,is ready to set out for Africa.

  2. Competition in the IndianAutomobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT “Following India's growing openness, the arrival of new and existing models, easy availability of finance at relatively low rate of interest and price discounts offered by the dealers and manufacturers all have stirred the demand for vehicles and a strong growth of the Indian automobile industry”. The main focus of my dissertation will be the Indian automobile industry due to its rich diversity and ever-changing patterns. The Research Question which I would follow would be t...

  3. Influence of mobile air-conditioning on vehicle emissions and fuel consumption: a model approach for modern gasoline cars used in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilenmann, Martin F; Vasic, Ana-Marija; Stettler, Peter; Novak, Philippe

    2005-12-15

    The influence of air-conditioning activity on the emissions and fuel consumption of passenger cars is an important issue, since fleet penetration and use of these systems have reached a high level. Apart from the MOBILE6 study in the United States, little data is available on the impact of air-conditioning devices (A/Cs). Since weather conditions and A/C technologies both differ from those in the U. S., a test series was designed for the European setting. A fleet of six modern gasoline passenger cars was tested in different weather conditions. Separate test series were carried out for the initial cooldown and for the stationary situation of keeping the interior of the vehicle cool. As assumed, CO2 emissions and fuel consumption rise with the thermal load. This also causes a notable rise in CO and hydrocarbons (HCs). Moreover, A/Cs do not stop automatically at low ambient temperatures; if necessary, they produce dry air to demist the windscreen. A model is proposed that shows a constant load for lower temperatures and a linear trend for higher temperatures. The initial cooldown tests highlight significant differences among cars but show that A/C operation for the initial cooling of an overheated passenger compartment does not result in any extra emissions for the fleet as a whole.

  4. Fuel reduction and electricity consumption impact of different charging scenarios for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, G. Scott

    2011-08-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) consume both gasoline and grid electricity. The corresponding temporal energy consumption and emission trends are valuable to investigate in order to fully understand the environmental benefits. The 24-h energy consumption and emission profile depends on different vehicle designs, driving, and charging scenarios. This study assesses the potential energy impact of PHEVs by considering different charging scenarios defined by different charging power levels, locations, and charging time. The region selected for the study is the South Coast Air Basin of California. Driving behaviors are derived from the National Household Travel Survey 2009 (NHTS 2009) and vehicle parameters are based on realistic assumptions consistent with projected vehicle deployments. Results show that the reduction in petroleum consumption is significant compared to standard gasoline vehicles and the ability to operate on electricity alone is crucial to cold start emission reduction. The benefit of higher power charging on petroleum consumption is small. Delayed and average charging are better than immediate charging for home, and non-home charging increases peak grid loads.

  5. Real-world emissions and fuel consumption of diesel buses and trucks in Macao: From on-road measurement to policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Li, Zhenhua; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-11-01

    A total of 13 diesel buses and 12 diesel trucks in Macao were tested using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) including a SEMTECH-DS for gaseous emissions and a SEMTECH-PPMD for PM2.5. The average emission rates of gaseous pollutants and CO2 are developed with the operating mode defined by the instantaneous vehicle specific power (VSP) and vehicle speed. Both distance-based and fuel mass-based emission factors for gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, THC and NOX) are further estimated under typical driving conditions. The average distance-based NOX emission of heavy-duty buses (HDBs) is higher than 13 g km-1. Considering the unfavorable conditions for selective reductions catalyst (SCR) systems, such as low-speed driving conditions, more effective technology options (e.g., dedicated natural gas buses and electric buses) should be considered by policy makers in Macao. We identified strong effects of the vehicle size, engine displacement and driving conditions on real-world CO2 emission factors and fuel consumption for diesel vehicles. Therefore, detailed profiles regarding vehicle specifications can reduce the uncertainty in their fleet-average on-road fuel consumption. In addition, strong correlations between relative emission factors and driving conditions indicated by the average speed of generated micro-trips are identified based on a micro-trip method. For example, distance-based emission factors of HDBs will increase by 39% for CO, 29% for THC, 43% for NOX and 26% for CO2 when the average speed decreases from 30 km h-1 to 20 km h-1. The mitigation of on-road emissions from diesel buses and trucks by improving traffic conditions through effective traffic and economic management measures is therefore required. This study demonstrates the important role of PEMS in understanding vehicle emissions and mitigation strategies from science to policy perspectives.

  6. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy. [Hydrocarbon (HC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  7. Improved automobile gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Katsanis, T.; Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Wong, R. Y.; Schumann, L. F.; Galvas, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Upgraded engine delivers 100 hp in 3500 lb vehicle. Improved fuel economy is due to combined effects of reduced weight, reduced power-to-weight ratio, increased turbine inlet pressure, and improved component efficiencies at part power.

  8. Vehicle emissions and fuel consumption of diesel vehicles fueled with ethanol-butanol-diesel blends%乙醇-丁醇-柴油混合燃料的车辆排放性和经济性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈振斌; 倪计民; 张惜辉; 叶年业; 郝汝林; 麦瑞礼

    2012-01-01

    Exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a diesel passenger car and a diesel minibus on road were measured to investigate the vehicle emissions and fuel consumption with ethanol-butanol-diesel blends. The experimental data from the car fueled with an E10 blend that contains 10% ethanol and 4% butanol by volume, was compared with those from the fossil diesel, it resulted in decreases of 10.42% in NOX emissions, 27.43% in HC+NOX emissions and 2.13% in PM emissions. The fuel consumption also declined by 7.66% and 3.71% under the car in constant velocity conditions of 90 and 120 km/h, respectively. Nevertheless, the results showed increases of 31.43% in CO emissions and 4.48% in fuel consumption for the car in terms of New European Driving Cycle or NEDC. Yet the E10 mixture in the minibus reduced the emissions of free acceleration exhaust smoke by 31.11%. This research demonstrates the practical applications of ethanol-butanol- diesel blends for improving vehicle emissions and fuel consumption.%为了研究乙醇-丁醇-柴油混合燃料的车辆排放性和经济性,该文对分别使用乙醇-丁醇-柴油混合燃料和柴油的在用柴油轿车的排放性能和燃油经济性,以及在用柴油客车的自由加速排气烟度排放进行了对比试验.研究结果表明:相对于柴油,在用柴油轿车使用E10(体积比,乙醇10%、丁醇4%、柴油86%)混合燃料的NOx排放减少10.42%,HC+NOx排放减少27.43%,微粒(PM)排放减少2.13%,90和120km/h等速行驶燃料消耗量分别减少7.66%和3.71%;然而CO排放增加31.43%,工况循环综合燃料消耗量增加4.48%.此外,在用柴油客车使用E10混合燃料的自由加速排气烟度排放减少31.11%.该研究结果对于完善乙醇柴油混合燃料的车辆排放性和经济性具有实用价值.

  9. Municipal solid waste conversion to transportation fuels: a life-cycle estimation of global warming potential and energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pressley, Phillip N.; Aziz, Tarek N.; DeCarolis, Joseph F.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper utilizes life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to evaluate the conversion of U.S. municipal solid waste (MSW) to liquid transportation fuels via gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (FT). The model estimates the cumulative energy demand and global warming potential (GWP) associated...

  10. Impacts of fuel consumption taxes on mobility patterns and CO2 emissions using a system dynamic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman Garcia, Luis Angel; Hoz Sánchez, Daniel de la; Pfaffenbichler, Paul; Shepherd, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Current transport behaviour leads to increasing congestion of the infrastructure, growing dependence on fossil fuels, increasing energy demand, and growing CO2 emissions. Policies based principally on increasing system speed and in particular car speeds will lead to greater urban sprawl with increases in average trip lengths. Time saved by speed increases are traded for more distance. This trend is not sustainable in the longer term. Transport policies based just on time savings for citize...

  11. Consumer protection issues in energy: a guide for attorneys general. Insulation, solar, automobile device, home devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Harry I.; Hulse, William S.; Jones, Robert R.; Langer, Robert M.; Petrucelli, Paul J.; Schroeder, Robert J.

    1979-11-01

    The guide attempts to bring together two important and current issues: energy and consumer protection. Perhaps the most basic consumer-protection issue in the energy area is assuring adequate supplies at adequate prices. It is anticipated, though, that consumers will want to consider new ways to lower enegy consumption and cost, and will thus be susceptible to fraudulent energy claims. Information is prepared on insulation, solar, energy-saving devices for the home, and energy-saving devices for the automobile.

  12. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification...

  13. Biogas and Renewable Fuel Consumption : 2008 Figures for Linköping and Östergötland

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, biogas consumption in Linköping has been increasing. With the expansion of infrastructure and vehicles capable of using biogas, Linköping is a leading model for biogas vehicles and fleet worldwide. Over the past few years biogas production has grown at a nearly constant rate of 20%. Since the start when only a limited amount of biogas was delivered primarily to the bus fleet, over 8.5 million m3 were delivered in 2009 (Svensk Biogas, 2009). Currently biogas is used in t...

  14. Optimization of automobile sales portfolio under new environmental policy in China

    OpenAIRE

    殳, 善蓉; 中野, 冠

    2012-01-01

    As the result of rapid development of auto industry in China, two severe problems emerged: air pollution and energy crisis. To deal with those two problems, the Chinese government continued to draw out related environmental policies. From this year (2012), the third phase of "Limits of fuel consumption for passenger cars" will be executed. A new concept CAFC (Corporation Average Fuel Consumption) is introduced. It requires auto manufacturer to control their yearly average fuel consumption to ...

  15. Combining artificial neural network and multi-objective optimization to reduce a heavy-duty diesel engine emissions and fuel consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir-Hasan; Kakaee; Pourya; Rahnama; Amin; Paykani; Behrooz; Mashadi

    2015-01-01

    Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm Ⅱ(NSGA-Ⅱ) is well known for engine optimization problem. Artificial neural networks(ANNs) followed by multi-objective optimization including a NSGA-Ⅱ and strength pareto evolutionary algorithm(SPEA2) were used to optimize the operating parameters of a compression ignition(CI) heavy-duty diesel engine. First, a multi-layer perception(MLP) network was used for the ANN modeling and the back propagation algorithm was utilized as training algorithm. Then, two different multi-objective evolutionary algorithms were implemented to determine the optimal engine parameters. The objective of the present study is to decide which algorithm is preferable in terms of performance in engine emission and fuel consumption optimization problem.

  16. Combining artificial neural network and multi-objective optimization to reduce a heavy-duty diesel engine emissions and fuel consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir-Hasan Kakaee; Pourya Rahnama; Amin Paykani; Behrooz Mashadi

    2015-01-01

    Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is well known for engine optimization problem. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) followed by multi-objective optimization including a NSGA-II and strength pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2) were used to optimize the operating parameters of a compression ignition (CI) heavy-duty diesel engine. First, a multi-layer perception (MLP) network was used for the ANN modeling and the back propagation algorithm was utilized as training algorithm. Then, two different multi-objective evolutionary algorithms were implemented to determine the optimal engine parameters. The objective of the present study is to decide which algorithm is preferable in terms of performance in engine emission and fuel consumption optimization problem.

  17. Using solar energy to arrest the increasing rate of fossil-fuel consumption: The southwestern states of the USA as case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper first reviews some recently introduced ideas concerning the feasibility of realizing concentrator photovoltaic systems on a very large (state-wide) scale. In particular, energy and cost assumptions are re-discussed, the concepts of double and triple sustainability are recalled and used to perform a sensitivity study of the various assumed parameter values. The model is then applied to each of the southwestern states of the USA in order to assess the economic potential for each state to freeze its fossil fuel consumption at present levels and to provide all future electricity needs entirely from solar. It is found that the scheme is economically feasible for all of the states considered, varying in attractiveness from Utah (where low electricity tariffs are problematic), to California and Nevada, where the economics are by far the most attractive among all the states

  18. Improving the fuel consumption and the operational behaviour of internal combustion engines with turbocompounding. Verbesserung von Kraftstoffverbrauch und Betriebsverhalten von Verbrennungsmotoren durch Turbocompounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergbauer, F.

    1989-07-18

    The energy contained in the exhaust fumes of an internal combustion engine is equal to the energy used for performance. It is therefore desirable to recapture and recycle part of this energy. This thesis investigates the utilization of the pressure difference between exhaust gas and ambient air by means of a turbine located in the exhaust gas flow of the engine. The turbine is expected to contribute to an improved fuel consumption and operational behaviour. The effect of combustion chamber insulation and the influence of exhaust gas treatment systems on the turbocompoundmotor are also investigated. Detailed are supplied on: theoretical improvement of consumption, carrying out of the tests, a comparison between calculation and measurements for diesel engines, optimation of diesel engines and their partial load behaviour (medium-speed engine, utility vehicle-diesel engine). Similar comparisons were made with otto-engines whose partial load behaviour was also investigated. The turbocompound engine with insulated combustion chamber and the impact of exhaust gas treatment methods are dealt with. (HWJ).

  19. WAYS AND PERSPECTIVES OF TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT ON AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Bilichenko, V.; Smyrnov, E.

    2005-01-01

    Modern conditions of enterprise on automobile transport are analyzed. Technical development of enterprise on automobile transport as one of the ways of increasing competitive abilities and there profits is considered.

  20. Design of Device for Reliablity, Durability Test of Automobile Fuel Tank%汽车燃油箱牢固性、耐久性试验装置设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锋; 谢东

    2011-01-01

    In order to study fuel tank's leak-proof quality, reliablity, destructiveness, alternation pressure durability, an exper iment device was designed. The test device was constituted by test rig and cistern, touch screen, PLC, pneumatic control circuit, pressure sensor. It was used to inspect performance indexes of the fuel tank through filling different pressure air into the tank and hold ing different time. The device can be used for the incoming check of batch product, quality technical analysis and experiment of new material, new craft.%为了检验燃油箱的密封性、牢固性、破坏性、交变压力耐久性,设计一个试验装置.该试验装置主要由试验台及水槽、触摸屏、PLC、气动控制回路、压力传感器组成,用于向燃油箱充入不同压力的空气,达到不同的保压时间后检验燃油箱的性能指标.该装置可用于汽车燃油箱批量产品入厂检查、质量技术分析及新材料、新工艺的开发试验.

  1. A mathematic model of thermoelectric module with applications on waste heat recovery from automobile engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over two-thirds energy of fuel consumed by an automobile is discharged to the surroundings as waste heat. The fuel usage can be more efficient if thermoelectric generators (TEG) are used to convert heat energy into electricity. In this study, a thermoelectric module composed of thermoelectric generators and a cooling system is developed to improve the efficiency of an IC engine. Two potential positions on an automobile are chosen to apply this module, e.g. exhaust pipe and radiator to examine the feasibility. To predict the behaviors of this module, a one dimensional thermal resistance model is also build, and the results are verified with experiments. The maximum power produced from the module is 51.13 mWcm-2 at 290 oC temperature difference. The model results show that, TE module presents better performance on the exhaust pipe than on the radiator.

  2. Renewing Marketing Strategy in Kenyan Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliokuusi, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies how to renew existing marketing strategies for case company; in so doing, the thesis fulfills its main objective. Company X, a market leader in the Kenyan automobile sector and has various well-known brands under their corporate umbrella. The automobile industry in Kenya has faced some hardship with steady decline in sales in the last couple of years and Mercedes-Benz as a brand suffered under the circumstances. One major cause of the drop in sales is due to the influx of ...

  3. Automobile Exhaust Pollution and Purification Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    As we all know, the automobile gas exhaust pollution has become more and more severe at recent years. It influences both to the human beings health and to quality of environment. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what are the main components of the exhaust gases, and give a basic and effective way to solve the problem. In this thesis, first the danger of exhaust pollution and its components will be presented. Then the writer will give the general mechanism of automobile exhaust ...

  4. 77 FR 63917 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Certain Measures Affecting the Automobile and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Automobile and Automobile-Parts Industries AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... export performance to ] automobile and automobile-parts enterprises in China. These measures appear to be... automobile and automobile-parts enterprises in China. Specifically, the United States is challenging...

  5. Performance model to assist solar thermal power plant siting in northern Chile based on backup fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrain, Teresita; Escobar, Rodrigo; Vergara, Julio [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Metalurgica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-08-15

    In response to environmental awareness, Chile introduced sustainability goals in its electricity law. Power producers must deliver 5% from renewable sources by 2010 and 10% by 2024. The Chilean desert has a large available surface with one of the highest radiation levels and clearest skies in the World. These factors imply that solar power is an option for this task. However, a commercial plant requires a fossil fuel system to backup the sunlight intermittency. The authors developed a thermodynamical model to estimate the backup fraction needed in a 100 MW hybrid -solar-fossil- parabolic trough power plant. This paper presents the model aiming to predicting the performance and exploring its usefulness in assisting site selection among four locations. Since solar radiation data are only available in a monthly average, we introduced two approaches to feed the model. One data set provided an average month with identical days throughout and the other one considered an artificial month of different daylight profiles on an hourly basis for the same monthly average. We recommend a best plant location based on minimum fossil fuel backup, contributing to optimal siting from the energy perspective. Utilities will refine their policy goals more closely when a precise solar energy data set becomes available. (author)

  6. A STUDY ON ASYNCHRONOUS SERIAL COMMUNICATON BETWEEN COMPONENTS IN AUTOMOBILES

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, Yaşar Güneri

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTIn connection with the developments in the automobile sector, the number of in-automobile components, the amount of cable used for providing in-automobile communication between these components and costs are increased gradually. In this study, a method is presented in which asynchronous serial connection is used for decreasing the initial and maintenance costs by means of decreasing the amount of cables used in middle and lower class automobiles. The electronic circuits required to es...

  7. The Strategic Transformation of Automobile Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Som Techakanjanakit; Meifang Huang

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the global automobile industry is developing difficultly because of the influence from the financial crisis. In contrast, China's automobile production and sales are still having a blowout type growth, and jumped into the world's largest automobile production and sales market. At the same time, Chinese automobile companies continue to deepen and join with international brand cooperation; independent research and development of the independent brand production, and their...

  8. Research on automobile culture and entertainment industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li Qing-song; Tang Lan; Cai Yun

    2012-01-01

    Rapid development of the automotive Industry and culture Industry is promoted the rapid rise of automobile industry of the culture and entertainment. With the further development of the automobile industry and people's living standards, automobile industry of the culture and entertainment in the proportion of China's economy is more and more important, but theoretical research in this area is nearly blank. With previous researches, automobile industry of the culture and entertainment in China...

  9. Imitating model of the electronic regulator frequencies of rotation of the automobile diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Тырловой, С. И.

    2011-01-01

    The imitating model of an frequency electronic regulator of rotation of high-speed diesel engine an automobile diesel engine with the distributive fuel pump of Bosch company is resulted. Is executed simulation transitive modes of a diesel engine with mechanic and electronic regulators. Deterioration influence plungers steams on dinamic and economic indicators of a diesel engine is analysed. Operational indicators of a diesel engine with mechanic and electronic regulators are compared. The obt...

  10. Emissions Control and the Regulation of Product Markets: The Case of Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Rasha Ahmed; Kathleen Segerson

    2007-01-01

    The paper investigates alternative policies to regulate emissions from polluting product markets, specifically considering the case of the automobiles market. The two policies we consider are: a quota that limits the quantity produced of the polluting model and a more flexible average efficiency standard that requires a minimum energy efficiency across all models produced by a firm, similar to the US Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. We use a duopoly model of vertical different...

  11. An Economic Model of Australian Passenger Automobile Demand: A segmented Markets Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper estimates a set of equations explaining the demand for passenger automobiles in Australia for small, medium and luxury size vehicles for the period 1973(1) through 1982(4). These equations are useful because they enable the examinations of hypotheses concerned with changing demand compositions. Model results support the hypothesis that small cars gained in popularity over the period as a second car, while the demand for medium size vehicles fell because of the poor relative fuel ef...

  12. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health...

  13. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding...

  14. Heat insulation of combustion chamber walls - A measure to decrease the fuel consumption of I. C. engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woschni, G.; Spindler, W.; Kolesa, K.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental investigations were made with a single-cylinder direct-injection Diesel engine with heat-insulated piston. The most important result is an inferior economy compared with the not insulated aluminum-piston engine. It was found that this phenomenon is not caused by neither a changed combustion process nor increased blowby nor different friction losses, but rather by a drastic increase of the heat transfer coefficient during the first part of combustion with increasing surface temperature. This is taken into account in a modified equation for the heat transfer coefficient. Cycle-simulations using this modified equation show that there is neither a gain in fuel economy of naturally aspirated nor of turbocharged nor of turbocompound Diesel engines with ''heat insulated'' combustion chamber walls.

  15. The simple economics of motor vehicle pollution: A case for fuel tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume of pollution produced by an automobile is determined by driver's behavior along three margins: (i) vehicle selection, (ii) kilometers driven, and (iii) on-road fuel economy. The first two margins have been studied extensively, however the third has received scant attention. How significant is this ‘intensive margin’? What would be the optimal policies when it is taken into account? The paper develops and analyzes a simple model of the technical and behavioral mechanisms that determine the volume emissions produced by a car. The results show that an optimal fuel tax would provide drivers with appropriate incentives along all three margins and that only public information is needed for a fuel tax to be set optimally. In contrast, an optimal distance tax would require private information. Lastly, relative to the optimal fuel tax, a simple uniform fuel tax is shown to be progressive. Thus, being already deployed worldwide, a uniform fuel tax is an attractive second-best policy. These findings should be accounted for when designing new mechanisms to alleviate motor vehicle pollution. -- Highlights: •The paper analyzes motor vehicle pollution and optimal policy responses. •The intensive margin of vehicle use (on-road fuel consumption) is modeled explicitly. •An optimal fuel tax requires only public information, unlike an optimal distance tax. •Fuel taxes should remain the core instrument for car pollution control. •Other policies, such as a car tax, may complement fuel taxes but are not substitutes

  16. Fuel consumption of tractor for different soil types in semi-arid regions; Consumo de combustivel de um trator agricola para diferentes tipos de solo em regioes semi-aridas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanha, Gustavo K. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FAC/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: gmontanha@fca.unesp.br; Guerra, Saulo P.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial; Andrade-Sanchez, Pedro; Heun, John [The University of Arizona, Maricopa, AZ (United States); Monteiro, Leonardo A. [The University of Arizona (MAC/UA), Maricopa, AZ (United States). Maricopa Agricultural Center

    2010-07-01

    The appropriate use of agricultural machinery enables greater operational efficiency and higher productivity for the farmer. Some factors such as soil type can influence the fuel consumption, one of the biggest costs. This study aimed to compare the fuel consumption of a tractor operating in two different conditions of soil in semi-arid regions. The area used for testing is located in the city of Maricopa, in Arizona, belonging to 'The University of Arizona'. The area 1 is classified as sandy clay loam soil (52% sand, 35% clay, 13% silt). The area 2 is classified as a sandy loam soil (71% sand, 12% clay and 17% silt). The tractor 4 x 2 TDA, with 88 kw (120 hp) engine power equipped with auto pilot system and an implement for tillage were used in the experiment. A data acquisition system was installed in the tractor to collect the data generated by the GPS and fuel consumption sensor. The results showed significant statistical difference in fuel consumption between soil textures. (author)

  17. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... multi-stage vehicles per year; or (3) A work truck. (b) The following vehicles rated at more than 6,000... which would satisfy the criteria in § 523.4 (relating to passenger automobiles) but for their gross vehicle weight rating. (2) Vehicles which would satisfy the criteria in § 523.5 (relating to light...

  18. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  19. Experimental Investigations on the Engine Performance and Characteristics of Compression Ignition (CI Engine Using Dual Bio – Fuel Methyl Ester As Alternate Fuel With Exhaust Gas Recirculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inturi Vamsi,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum products and resources are limited and their consumption is increasing very fast with globalization and high technology development since last decade. The emissions from the petroleum products polluting the environment considerably. Bio-fuels can be produced from diverse sources, which are subject to local geography, topology and climatology. Hence, every nation will have its own choice of a source. Duel bio-fuel represents an untapped resource of energy easily available in India. This study investigates the potential substitution of duel bio-fuel methyl ester blends for diesel as fuel for automobiles and other industrial purposes. This study is concerned with the analysis of the performance and emission characteristics of the duel bio-fuel methyl esters and comparing with petroleum diesel. The fuels used were neat methyl ester, diesel and different blends of the methyl ester with diesel. The tests were carried out on a 4.4 KW, single cylinder, direct injection, air-cooled diesel engine. The fuels used were neat duel bio-fuel methyl ester, diesel and different blends of the methyl ester with diesel. The experimental result shows that 20% of blend shows better performance with reduced pollution. This analysis shows that duel bio-fuel methyl ester and its blends are a potential substitute for diesel.

  20. Potential contribution of currently operating nuclear-fueled electric-generating units to reducing US oil consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the prospect for performance improvement in the 62 light water reactors in operation in the US as of the end of last year and which are deemed to have current commercial design features. These units represent a total net capacity of 49,481 MW(e). In the last two years (1978 to 1979), total capacity factor losses for these units was 36.5%. This study finds that in the short-term, capacity factor improvement of about 16% could be achieved, for example, in response to a short-term energy crisis. In the long-term a gain of perhaps 18% could be achieved. Such gains would represent a decrease in equivalent oil consumption of approximately 350,000 barrels a day. In addition, this study evaluated potential increases in the operating power level of these units, and concluded that a short term power level increase of about 2500 MW(e) could be achieved, in addition to a long term increase of about 1700 MW(e). This total short term power level increase would be equivalent to 138,000 barrels of oil per day

  1. The Effect and Potential Study of Eco-driving on Taxi Fuel Consumption%出租车驾驶员驾驶行为对油耗的影响及潜力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓华; 陈晨; 伍毅平; 荣建; 刘莹; 程颖; 胡莹

    2015-01-01

    Taxi actual operating data on Beijing urban basic freeway section is taken and then divided according to driving cycle and level of service(LOS), based on which the effect and potential to fuel consumption of eco-driving under different conditions is analyzed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to analyze the effect to fuel consumption of driver behavior under different conditions. The result shows that taxis accelerating and decelerating are frequently on urban basic freeway section. With the improvement of LOS, taxi fuel consumption is increased under the condition of acceleration and steady running, but it is reduced under deceleration. The main vehicle fuel consumption comes from the accelerating process at low LOS. Considering the conditions' contribution to total fuel consumption, eco-driving fuel-saving potential calculation method is proposed to analyze benefits of eco-driving. It turns out that accelerating process has highest fuel-saving potential and the whole fuel consumption reduction on urban basic freeway section could be 11.18%when adopting eco-driving.%本文基于北京市出租车实际运行数据,研究城市快速路基本路段不同工况、服务水平下驾驶行为对出租车油耗的影响,分析各条件下生态驾驶节能潜力.应用方差分析方法,分析不同条件下驾驶行为对出租车油耗的影响.研究结果表明,出租车在城市快速路基本路段加、减速频繁;随服务水平提高,加速、匀速工况下车辆油耗升高,减速工况下车辆油耗降低;低服务水平下加速工况油耗是车辆油耗的主要来源.考虑各条件下油耗对出租车总油耗的贡献,提出生态驾驶行为节能潜力计算方法.分析结果表明,加速工况下生态驾驶节能潜力最高,出租车在快速路基本路段取生态驾驶行为的综合节能潜力可达11.18%.

  2. Research and modification of jet fuel consumption evaluation index based on ridge regression%基于岭回归法的航油消耗评价指标研究与修正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓津; 张蝶

    2013-01-01

    Along with the constant increase of China air transportation turnover volume,jet fuel consumption continues to rise.However,as the jet fuel price and environmental costs(i.e,from carbon trade schemes or taxes) are higher and higher,airlines have to take good measures on fuel-saving.To evaluate the jet fuel consumption of airlines more precisely,this paper studies the existing evaluation index of fuel consumption,per ton-kilometer,based on the 1981-2010 statistical data of China air transportation with least square method,introduces the index of taking off and landing fuel consumption,solves multicollinearity by method of ridge regression and achieves standard ridge regression equation.The results show that the fuel consumption when taking off and landing is higher than when cruising,and introducing the index of taking off and landing fuel consumption is more in line with the actual situation of China air transportation.%随着中国航空运输周转量不断增长,航油消耗量也在持续增长.然而,航油价格和环境成本(碳交易或碳税)的增加使航空公司不得不大力节油.为了更加精确地评估航空公司的航油消耗,基于中国航空运输业1981-2010年的统计数据,运用最小二乘法对现有的油耗评价指标——单位吨公里油耗进行研究,并在此基础上引入了起飞爬升下降油耗这个指标,同时运用岭回归法解决了回归过程中存在的多重共线性问题,最终得到标准化的岭回归方程.结果表明,飞机起飞爬升下降时耗油比巡航时要高,增加指标更符合中国航空运输业的实际情况.

  3. Fuel consumption and CO2/pollutant emissions of mobile air conditioning at fleet level - new data and model comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilenmann, Martin F; Alvarez, Robert; Keller, Mario

    2010-07-01

    Mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems are the second-largest energy consumers in cars after driving itself. While different measurement series are available to illustrate their behavior in hot ambient conditions, little data are available for lower temperatures. There are also no data available on diesel vehicles, despite these being quite common in Europe (up to 70% of the fleet in some countries). In the present study, six representative modern diesel passenger cars were tested. In combination with data from previous measurements on gasoline cars, a new model was developed - EEMAC = Empa Emission model for Mobile Air Conditioning systems - to predict emissions from air conditioning. The measurements obtained show that A/C activity still occurs at temperatures below the desired interior temperature. The EEMAC model was applied to the average meteorological year of a central European region and compared with the US EPA MOBILE6 model. As temperatures in central Europe are often below 20 degrees C (the point below which the two models differ), the overall results differ clearly. The estimated average annual CO(2) output according to EEMAC is six times higher than that of MOBILE6. EEMAC also indicates that around two-thirds of the fuel used for air conditioning could be saved by switching the MAC system off below 18 degrees C.

  4. Treatment of post-consumption oils from Paraiba state - Brazil - clays for application as bio fuel; Tratamento de oleos pos-consumo a partir de argilas da Paraiba para aplicacao como biocombustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, E.P.; Oliveira, S.V. de; Medeiros, K.M. de; Silva, D.F. da; Araujo, E.M.; Fook, M.V.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (DEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail: elainepatriciaaraujo@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The utilization of fuels of agricultural origin in the cycle diesel engines is a good alternative to reduce dependence on importation petroleum, since these fuels are a renewable source of energy. The utilization of biodiesel as biofuel is a contribution to the environment, reducing the qualitative and quantitative form levels of environmental pollution. The recycling of post-consumption oil helps reduce the uncontrolled disposal and environmentally dangerous, than to obtain fuel with a cost / benefit and offering a competitive alternative commercial advantage. However, these oils should go through a process of decontamination and clearing up the stage of chemical conversion which is used clay to lighten the oil. This work had as its objective to make a literature revision evaluating the potential of the clearing clay modified in Paraiba, used in post-consumption oils for application as biofuel. (author)

  5. Air quality and use of natural gas fuels: Assessment of improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the application of the ARICOM code in the evaluation of air pollution and air quality in the Italian district of Verona. The study compared the environmental effects resulting from the use of natural gas, diesel fuels and fuel oils in a variety of real and simulated consumption schemes involving different mixes of fuels for space heating, automobile operation and industrial processes. The Verona district was divided into one square kilometer sections and the exhaust emission data were utilized in a dispersion model to calculate ground level pollution concentration levels. Real condition scenario pollution concentration levels calculated with this code were validated by actual measurements taken with an air quality monitoring network. The results evidenced the reduction in sulfur oxide pollution levels which can be obtained with the increased use of natural gas

  6. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  7. Carburation automobile. Contribution à l' étude d'un dispositif d'injection de GPL en phase gazeuse Automotive Fuel: Research on a New Gas-Phase Lpg Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubois J. P.

    2006-11-01

    of engine shutdown;(d a cold-starting module preventing the vaporiser from flooding down to -10°C. The system has the following advantages:(a it is a multipurpose system, and the same model can be used on any vehicle from 60 to 130 hp;(b no adjustment is necessary (except for idling;(c the air/gas ratio is controlled to the desired value;(d the performance/consumption ratio is good;(e actual operating conditions are taken into consideration.

  8. Impact of Spanish electricity mix, over the period 2008–2030, on the Life Cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of Electric, Hybrid Diesel-Electric, Fuel Cell Hybrid and Diesel Bus of the Madrid Transportation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We assess the performance of 4 buses that run on different alternative fuel types and technologies. • The buses assessed are Fuel Cell-Hybrid Bus, Hybrid Diesel-Electric Bus, Battery Electric Bus, and a Diesel Bus. • We examine the environmental impact caused by the Life Cycle of each vehicle technology, fossil fuel and energy carrier. • Life Cycle of Battery Electric Bus shows that it has a big potential of improvement in terms of environmental impact. - Abstract: In spite of the advanced research in automotive technology, and the improvement of fuels, the road transport sector continues to be an environmental concern, since the increase in transport demand is offsetting the effects of these technological improvements. Therefore, this poses the following question: what combination of technology and fuel is more efficient in terms of energy consumption and green house gas (GHG) emissions? To fully address this question it is necessary to carry out a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This paper presents a global LCA of 4 buses that run on the following fuel types and technologies: (1) Fuel Cell- Hybrid Bus, (2) Hybrid Diesel-Electric Bus (series configuration), (3) Battery Electric Bus and (4) Combustion Ignition Engine Bus. The impact categories assessed are: primary energy consumption, fossil energy and GHG emissions. Among the principal results, we can conclude that the Global LCA of buses (3) and (1) (which are the more sensitive pathways to the electricity mix variation) have for the 2008–2030 period a room for improvement of 25.62% and 28.16% in terms of efficiency of fossil energy consumption and a potential GHG emission reduction of 28.70% and 30.88% respectively

  9. Energy efficient--advanced oxidation process for treatment of cyanide containing automobile industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudliar, R; Umare, S S; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2009-05-30

    Destruction of cyanide (CN) from an automobile industry wastewater by advance oxidation process (AOP) has been evaluated. The operating conditions (in an indigenously designed photoreactor) for three different treatment strategies have been optimized. The treatment strategies involved use of, ultra violet light (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and ozone (O(3)) in various combinations. Treatment of automobile industry wastewater (250 mg/L CN) showed fastest CN destruction, which was significantly (Pwater bodies. The specific energy consumption by the photoreactor following this treatment was comparable to that obtained by conventional treatments, which use photocatalyst. Since the present treatment does not use catalyst, it provides an excellent energy efficient and economical option for treatment and safe disposal of CN containing industrial wastewater.

  10. The Factors Influencing Transport Energy Consumption in Urban Areas: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport energy consumption accounts for about one third of total energy consumption in EU. Despite significant advances in transport technology and fuel formulation, transport energy consumption has increased in most EU countries over the last three decades. This increase in consumption occurred as a result of factors such as higher car ownership, a growth in automobile use and an increase in vehicle distances traveled. As travel and land-use are a function of one another, it is often hypothesized that changing urban structure can result in changes in energy consumption. Understanding how different land use characteristics may influence travel behaviour and the corresponding energy consumption is crucial for planners and policy makers in order to develop strategic actions to shrink the environmental footprint of the urban transportation sector. The aim of this article is to review the current literature on the connections between land use, travel behavior and energy consumption. In particular, this paper seeks to identify the determinants of transport energy consumption in urban areas by reviewing evidence from empirical studies. To this aim, nine characteristics of land use are presented and their effects on both travel behaviour and energy use are discussed Our review shown that, in contrast to the focus on the effect of the built environment on travel, only few researchers have empirically investigated the linkage between the built environment and transportation energy use. The research described in this paper has been developed within the PON04a2_E Smart Energy Master project. It represents part of a much broader research project aimed at the development of an integrated model of urban energy efficiency.

  11. Research and Development in the Vehicle Fuel Consumption Information Extraction and Remote Monitoring System%车辆油耗信息提取与远程监控系统研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国凯; 褚林涛; 刘应吉

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the level of the vehicle's energy consumption statistics,a vehicle fuel on a local extraction and remote monitoring system has been designed.This system is based on vehicles which use the CAN-bus,and Integrates GPS,GPRS and SD card module.This system can collect and store the vehicle fuel consumption information through the CAN-bus,and feedback this information to the business' monitoring center by GPRS.The system allows managers to remotely understand the vehicle's fuel consumption information and to make appropriate management measures.Hence,the vehicle's fuel economical efficiency could be improved by this system.%为提高车辆的能源消耗统计水平,提出并设计了车辆油耗本地提取与远程监控系统。该系统以带CAN总线的车辆为基础,整合GPS、GPRS以及SD卡模块,可通过CAN总线采集并存储车辆的油耗信息,并通过GPRS无线传输网络传至监控中心。该系统可使管理人员远程了解车辆的油耗信息,并做出相应的经营管理对策,提高车辆的燃油经济性。

  12. Developments in batteries and fuel cells for electric and hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to ever increasing threats of climate change, urban air pollution and costly and depleting oil and gas sources a lot of work is being done for the development of electric vehicles. Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and all electric vehicles are powered by batteries or by hydrogen and fuel cells are the main types of vehicles being developed. Main types of batteries which can be used for electric vehicles are lead-acid, Ni-Cd, Nickel-Metal-Hybrid ( NiMH) and Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries which are discussed and compared. Lithium ion battery is the mostly used battery. Developments in the lithium ion batteries are discussed and reviewed. Redox flow batteries are also potential candidates for electric vehicles and are described. Hybrid electric vehicles can reduce fuel consumption considerably and is a good midterm solution. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles are discussed. Electric vehicles are necessary to mitigate the effects of pollution and dependence on oil. For all the electric vehicles there are two options: batteries and fuel Cells. Batteries are useful for small vehicles and shorter distances but for vehicle range greater than 150 km fuel cells are superior to batteries in terms of cost, efficiency and durability even using natural gas and other fuels in addition to hydrogen. Ultimate solution for electric vehicles are hydrogen and fuel cells and this opinion is also shared by most of the automobile manufacturers. Developments in fuel cells and their applications for automobiles are described and reviewed. Comparisons have been done in the literature between batteries and fuel cells and are described. (author)

  13. Life cycle optimization of automobile replacement: model and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Keoleian, Gregory A; Grande, Darby E; Bean, James C

    2003-12-01

    Although recent progress in automotive technology has reduced exhaust emissions per mile for new cars, the continuing use of inefficient, higher-polluting old cars as well as increasing vehicle miles driven are undermining the benefits of this progress. As a way to address the "inefficient old vehicle" contribution to this problem, a novel life cycle optimization (LCO) model is introduced and applied to the automobile replacement policy question. The LCO model determines optimal vehicle lifetimes, accounting for technology improvements of new models while considering deteriorating efficiencies of existing models. Life cycle inventories for different vehicle models that represent materials production, manufacturing, use, maintenance, and end-of-life environmental burdens are required as inputs to the LCO model. As a demonstration, the LCO model was applied to mid-sized passenger car models between 1985 and 2020. An optimization was conducted to minimize cumulative carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), and energy use over the time horizon (1985-2020). For CO, NMHC, and NOx pollutants with 12000 mi of annual mileage, automobile lifetimes ranging from 3 to 6 yr are optimal for the 1980s and early 1990s model years while the optimal lifetimes are expected to be 7-14 yr for model year 2000s and beyond. On the other hand, a lifetime of 18 yr minimizes cumulative energy and CO2 based on driving 12000 miles annually. Optimal lifetimes are inversely correlated to annual vehicle mileage, especially for CO, NMHC, and NOx emissions. On the basis of the optimization results, policies improving durability of emission controls, retiring high-emitting vehicles, and improving fuel economies are discussed.

  14. Hybridní pohon automobilů

    OpenAIRE

    Tvrdý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Obsahem této bakalářské práce je přehled možných hybridních pohonů automobilů a jejich praktické využití. Je zaměřena na hlavní výhody a nevýhody hybridního pohonu a zabývá se dopadem takto vybavených automobilů na životní prostředí, především na produkci skleníkových plynů. Také uvádí pohled na hybridy z finančního hlediska. This bachelor thesis deals with an overview of all possible hybrid vehicle propulsion systems and their practical usage. It is focused on the main advantages and disa...

  15. Automobile active suspension system with fuzzy control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 黄中华; 陈毅章

    2004-01-01

    A quarter-automobile active suspension model was proposed. High speed on/off solenoid valves were used as control valves and fuzzy control was chosen as control method . Based on force analyses of system parts, a mathematical model of the active suspension system was established and simplified by linearization method. Simulation study was conducted with Matlab and three scale coefficients of fuzzy controller (ke, kec, ku) were acquired. And an experimental device was designed and produced. The results indicate that the active suspension system can achieve better vibration isolation performance than passive suspension system, the displacement amplitude of automobile body can be reduced to 55%. Fuzzy control is an effective control method for active suspension system.

  16. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-88 Fuel economy calculations....

  17. 40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-78 Fuel economy calculations....

  18. Amarok Pikap: interactive percussion playing automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Artut, Selçuk Hüseyin; Artut, Selcuk Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Alternative interfaces that imitate the audio-structure of authentic musical instruments are often equipped with sound generation techniques that feature physical attributes similar to those of the instruments they imitate. Amarok Pikap project utilizes an interactive system on the surface of an automobile that is specially modified with the implementation of various electronic sensors attached to its bodywork. Sur-faces that will be struck to produce sounds in percussive instrument modeling ...

  19. Estimation of Claim Numbers in Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Arató, Miklós; Martinek, László

    2012-01-01

    The use of bonus-malus systems in compulsory liability automobile insurance is a worldwide applied method for premium pricing. If certain assumptions hold, like the conditional Poisson distribution of the policyholders claim number, then an interesting task is to evaluate the so called claims frequency of the individuals. Here we introduce 3 techniques, two is based on the bonus-malus class, and the third based on claims history. The article is devoted to choose the method, which fits to the ...

  20. Statistical machine translation for automobile marketing texts

    OpenAIRE

    Läubli, Samuel; Fishel, Mark; Weibel, Manuela; Volk, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We describe a project on introducing an in-house statistical machine translation system for marketing texts from the automobile industry with the final aim of replacing manual translation with post-editing, based on the translation system. The focus of the paper is the suitability of such texts for SMT; we present experiments in domain adaptation and decompounding that improve the baseline translation systems, the results of which are evaluated using automatic metrics as well as manual evalua...

  1. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  2. New type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system for identification and measuring of contamination with natural and artificial gamma isotopes is described. developed. Its main principle is a maximal use of the energy resolution of NaJ(Tl) detectors. The system consists of a spectrometer working simultaneously with a set of 1-16 scintillator blocks and a registration/ data processing unit. The operational mode, optimal performance and control subsystem are described

  3. Telematics Strategy for Automobile Insurers : Whitepaper

    OpenAIRE

    Paefgen, Johannes; Fleisch, Elgar; Staake, Thorsten; Ackermann, Lukas; Best, Jonas; Egli, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    This whitepaper investigates the business implications telematics services and Pay-as-you-drive (PAYD) insurance in particular, from the perspective of automobile insurance providers. Specifically, it discusses - the PROFITABILITY and competitive dynamics of PAYD insurance, - a simplified BUSINESS CASE for a new market entrant with a PAYD product, - the present STRUCTURE OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETS for insurance telematics services, - DRIVERS AND BARRIERS for the focus markets Swit...

  4. Experimental study on characteristics of emissions and fuel consumption for combines%联合收割机排放和油耗特性的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛蕴珊; 刘红坤; 丁焰; 尹航; 付明亮; 李加强

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural machinery has been considered an important contributor to atmospheric pollution. However, as the volume of agricultural machinery increases, studies on the emission characteristics and fuel consumption of agricultural machinery have been rarely reported, especially for real-word characteristics of combines’ emissions and fuel consumption.Only twelve large and middle-sized agricultural tractors were tested by using a portable emission measurement system in 2013, and the emissions characteristics of tractors were studied. Therefore, it is difficult for the policymakers and researchers to understand the actual emissions characteristics and fuel consumption of combines. In order to deepen the understanding of the factual emission and fuel consumption of agricultural machinery, 10 combines were tested by using a portable emission measurement system in this study, These combines’ emission standards included Pre-ChinaⅠ (the combines before 2007 model year were defined as Pre-ChinaⅠ), and ChinaⅠand ChinaⅡ. All the tested combines’ fuel was 0# diesel oil bought on the market. Three typical operating modes were included in the tests, namely idling, moving, and working. Both emission factors and fuel consumption were obtained in different operating modes. The results showed that fuel consumption of grain combines was 6.799L/h, as for corn combines, the value turned out to be 10.287L/h. The largest averaged fuel consumption from grain combines was under working among the three modes, as same as the corn combines. It was also indicated that instantaneous fuel consumption during working mode was higher than that during idle and moving modes. However, fuel-based CO and HC emissions measured at idling appeared higher than that measured in moving and working modes. Fuel-based NO x and PM emissions revealed their peaks in moving and working respectively. Generally, the emission factors of grain combines were higher than that of corn combines. The 400

  5. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-10-01

    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  6. The Effect of Changes in World Crude Oil Prices on U.S. Automobile Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Belenkiy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an export model where consumers differentiate between different types of automobiles by the distance they can travel on one dollar’s worth of fuel. The model predicts that the overall demand for vehicles falls as crude oil prices rise, and that the demand for less fuel-efficient vehicles falls relatively more. In particular, we estimate that between 2007 and 2008, when the crude oil prices increased by 32 percent, the export demand for the SUVs manufactured in the United States declined by over $700 million. This implies that the relatively less fuel-efficient U.S.-model vehicles will tend to suffer a competitive disadvantage worldwide when crude oil prices are high. We discuss the potential role of the proposed CAFÉ standards in improving fuel-efficiency and growing exports of the U.S. vehicle fleet.

  7. Globalization of the Automobile Industry ; Traditional Locations under Pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Spatz, Julius; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Even though the automobile industry is technologically advanced, the increasing integration of low-income countries into the global division of labor has put competitive pressure on traditional automobile producing countries. New end-producers emerged in Asia, Latin America as well as Southern and Central Europe. In addition, the automobile industries of Germany, Japan and the United States engaged in outsourcing of relatively labor intensive segments of the value chain, especially on a regio...

  8. 锰矿烧结降低固体燃耗的生产实践%PRODUCTION PRACTICE ON MANGANESE ORE SIN-TERING TO REDUCE SOLID FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亮; 王刚; 龙遇海; 朱洁

    2015-01-01

    For production status of sintering machine and material condition, it analyses the main factors which influ-ences the sintering solid fuel consumption, through a thick layer sintering and other advanced technologies, technical in-novation and use of new equipment to continuously reduce the sintering solid fuel consumption. That cost decreasing and benefit increasing, energy conservation and emissions reduction effect is remarkable.%针对烧结机生产情况及原料条件,分析了影响烧结固体燃耗的主要因素,通过推行厚料层烧结等先进工艺、技术改造、采用新设备,不断降低了烧结机的固体燃耗。降本增效,节能减排效果显著。

  9. Cardiovascular disease-risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy: A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul, E-mail: paulg@iastate.ed [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW (Rm.4059 So. Bldg), United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250 (United States); Bachewe, Fantu [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Fischer, Amelia [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the cardiovascular disease mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-sectional regressions of the mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cardiovascular disease rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 60 cardiovascular disease deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $30.3 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated Value of Statistical Life (VSL) benefit is $202.7 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations banned leaded gasoline, and mandated reduction in specific chemicals and smog components. Second, technologies such as the Catalytic Converter (CC) for the automobile and the low particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels.

  10. Cardiovascular disease - risk benefits of clean fuel technology and policy. A statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Paul; Fischer, Amelia [Economics Department, 481 Heady Hall, Iowa State University, Ames Iowa 50011 (United States); Lazarus, William; Bachewe, Fantu [Applied Economics Department, 253 COB, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55455 (United States); Shapouri, Hosein; Conway, Roger [Office of Energy Policy and New Uses, 400 Independence Avenue, SW (Rm.4059 So. Bldg), United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC 20250 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The hypothesis of this study is that there is a statistical relationship between the cardiovascular disease mortality rate and the intensity of fuel consumption (measured in gallons/square mile) at a particular location. We estimate cross-sectional regressions of the mortality rate due to cardiovascular disease against the intensity of fuel consumption using local data for the entire US, before the US Clean Air Act (CAA) in 1974 and after the most recent policy revisions in 2004. The cardiovascular disease rate improvement estimate suggests that up to 60 cardiovascular disease deaths per 100,000 residents are avoided in the largest urban areas with highest fuel consumption per square mile. In New York City, for instance, the mortality reduction may be worth about $30.3 billion annually. Across the US, the estimated Value of Statistical Life (VSL) benefit is $202.7 billion annually. There are likely three inseparable reasons that contributed importantly to this welfare improvement. First, the CAA regulations banned leaded gasoline, and mandated reduction in specific chemicals and smog components. Second, technologies such as the Catalytic Converter (CC) for the automobile and the low particulate diesel engine were adopted. Third, biofuels have had important roles, making the adoption of clean air technology possible and substituting for high emission fuels. (author)

  11. Converting Municipal Waste into Automobile Fuel: Ethanol from Newspaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascal, Mark; Scown, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Waste newspaper is pulped with acid and its cellulose is hydrolyzed. The resulting glucose syrup is fermented with yeast and distilled to give ethanol. The experiment highlights the potential of applied chemistry to confront problems of economic importance, that is, the effective utilization of biomass to reduce dependence on non-renewable…

  12. 76 FR 44402 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...' eligibility for automobile adaptation equipment or other conveyance allowance. DATES: Written comments and... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Automobile or...

  13. Energy and resource consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The present and projected energy requirements for the United States are discussed. The energy consumption and demand sectors are divided into the categories: residential and commercial, transportation, and industrial and electrical generation (utilities). All sectors except electrical generation use varying amounts of fossile fuel resources for non-energy purposes. The highest percentage of non-energy use by sector is industrial with 71.3 percent. The household and commercial sector uses 28.4 percent, and transportation about 0.3 percent. Graphs are developed to project fossil fuel demands for non-energy purposes and the perdentage of the total fossil fuel used for non-energy needs.

  14. Electrolytic hydrogen production at off-peak consumption and his utilization as energy vector at peak consumption through use of fuel cells; Producao de hidrogenio eletrolitico nos horarios fora de ponta e sua utilizacao como vetor energetico nos horarios de ponta atraves do uso de celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambetta, Francielle [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: fgambetta@fem.unicamp.br; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Hidrogenio

    2008-07-01

    Due the fact that consumers have different demand, depending on the pace of economic activities and their daily habits of consumption, there is a different electrical demand throughout the day. Demand, in general, is minimal during the morning and it grows with the move for hours to reach peak consumption between 18:00 and 22:00, then turning to fall. It is old the idea of storing electricity produced in off-peak for its consumption in peak hours. To store large amounts of electrical power is required its conversion into some other form of energy, since it is impossible to store electrical energy as such in large quantities. One way of storing electricity is in the form of hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water which then can be stored, purified and converted into electricity through fuel cells. When there is an increase in demand for electricity, there is a need to expand the supply of energy, which means investments in generation, transmission and distribution. This work was performed a preliminary analysis of the production of electrolytic hydrogen in hours of low demand and its use in the generation of electricity in peak hours, making use of the fuel cells, so that to a certain limit value of increased electricity demand, there is no need for expansion of supply of Foz do Iguacu/PR. Moreover, at this work, the ability to harness the heat generated in fuel cells for heating water in homes was considered. (author)

  15. The alcohol fuels in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation shows the antecedents of the production of alcohol fuel in Guatemala as an alternative to imported gasoline, also presents current statistics of consumption, importation of liquid fossil fuels, production of alcohol fuel, consumption, and trends of consumption mixed with gasoline and yield data

  16. WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant current to the battery.

  17. High temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is a comprehensive review of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). PEMFCs are the preferred fuel cells for a variety of applications such as automobiles, cogeneration of heat and power units, emergency power and portable electronics. The first 5 chapters...

  18. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvokon, A.; Bondarenko, A.

    2012-01-01

    Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  19. The Impact of Price Controls on Mandatory Automobile Insurance Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Jason

    2006-01-01

    This is a theoretical paper that models a mandatory automobile insurance market using a partial equilibrium concept where automobile insurance is one good and a composite good represents all others. Price controls, heterogeneous service, administrative, and adjusting costs, as well as capital reserves and capital costs are all included in this simple model.

  20. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kryvokon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  1. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into..., Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii) Minicompact cars. Interior volume index less than 85... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  2. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  3. OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Jha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine.

  4. Alternativní pohony automobilů

    OpenAIRE

    Filip, Vojtěch

    2016-01-01

    Náplní této bakalářské práce je analýza aktuálně používaných alternativních pohonů automobilů, jejich srovnání se současnými zážehovými a vznětovými spalovacími motory. Seznámení s technickým řešením jednotlivých pohonů a jejich kategorizace do několika základních skupin, podle charakteristických klíčových rysů. Dále obsahuje bližší seznámení s nejdůležitějšími komponenty automobilů, vyžívajících tyto alternativní pohony a současně jejich přednostmi ale také nedostatky, které nyní brzdí rozší...

  5. ANALYSIS OF VIBRATION ON MULTI-LEAF SPRING IN AN AUTOMOBILE UNDER LOADING USING FEM TOOL ANSYS

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran Jadhav*, Rahul Joshi, Dr Pradip Kumar Patil

    2016-01-01

    The leaf springs are widely used in suspension system of railway carriages and automobiles. But the form in which it is normally seen is laminated leaf spring.To assure proper spring life, the maintenance and inspection process must include the entire suspension system of springs and chassis parts. The motoring public has learned that proper maintenance on their vehicles is essential to obtain longer life and economical service in this age of rising equipment and fuel costs. In most norma...

  6. Reduced fuel consumption through weight-saving passenger in vehicles - importance of steel as a lightweight material; Kraftstoffminderverbrauch durch Gewichtseinsparung an Personenfahrzeugen - Bedeutung des Stahls als Leichtbauwerkstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aichinger, H.M. [Verein Deutscher Eisenhuettenleute (VDEh), Duesseldorf (Germany). Abt. Energiewirtschaft und Waermetechnik

    1996-07-17

    The manufacture of lightweight autobodies from steel, aluminium, plastics and composite materials is in many cases a controversial topic of discussion. Whether or not a certain lightweight design is advantageous in terms of primary energy, ecology or economy compared with an alternative lightweight design depends decisively on the reduction in fuel consumption actually achieved during the utilization of the vehicle. To determine such a reduction it is necessary to take account of the diverse individual influences exerted by the engine, vehicle, driver, environment and traffic. A study has shown that engine efficiency has the strongest influence on the overall efficiency of a vehicle. A second important loss-reducing measure is the optimization of the entire drive train, including clutch, manually operated gearbox, universal joints, axle and differential gearing, and auxiliary drives. The reduction of road resistance and drag offers a further potential for savings. It is possible to influence almost two-thirds of the total vehicle weight by using steel. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Entwicklung von neuen verbrauchs- und emissionsaermeren Personenfahrzeugen mit Otto- und Dieselmotoren ist gegenwaertig vorrangiges Ziel der Automobilhersteller. Die technischen Hauptmassnahmen konzentrieren sich hierbei auf die Motorwirkungsgradverbesserung, Aggregateoptimierung, Verminderung der Fahrwiderstaende und Gewichtseinsparung. Zur Bewertung der Verbrauchsersparnis von Leichtbaumassnahmen und um den Stellenwert einer Gewichtseinsparung im Vergleich zu den anderen Entwicklungen zur Verbrauchsminderung aufzuzeigen, wurde auf einheitlicher Datengrundlage das Kraftstoffeinsparpotential durch gewichtsmindernde Massnahmen beim Bau von Personenfahrzeugen ermittelt. Die Untersuchung zeigt, dass von der Weiterentwicklung der verschiedenen Motorenkonzepte die groesste technische und zugleich oekonomisch und oekologisch wirkungsvollste Kraftstoffeinsparung zu erwarten ist. Die kraftstoffsparenden

  7. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regarding tort liability. In addition, the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of...

  8. Using Less Oil Despite the unquenchable thirst for oil to fuel nina's fast growing economy,the oil consumption growth rate is dropping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    At first glance, the official figures of China's oil consumption in 2005 seem a bit confusing. With a robust economic growth and rising annual oil imports, China made the surprise announcement that its oil consumption growth rate was dropping sharply, from 15.3 percent in 2004 to 2.1 percent in 2005. Earlier, China's Ministry of

  9. Analysis on the Influence of Driver Deceleration Behavior During Bus Stop on Fuel Consumption%城市公交司机进站操作特征对油耗影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢辉; 陈双喜; 马红杰; 黄登高

    2015-01-01

    The influence of driver behavior on fuel consumption was studied. Based on 100,000 kilometers’ real-time data from a Tianjin bus route,which was collected by a wireless remote monitoring system,a large amount of driver deceleration behavior samples were acquired. The study focuses on the analysis on statistical characteristics of initial velocity and speed range by adopting curve cluster driver features extraction method. Results show that the initial ve-locity accords with normal distribution at the same bus stop,and there exists a narrow deceleration velocity corridor. Statistical analysis on the effect of two drivers’ deceleration operations difference on fuel consumption at the same stop was conducted. Fuel consumption decreased by 12.2% when average engine coast time percentage increased by 46.4%. A GT-SUITE vehicle model was built to verify the relationship between deceleration operations and fuel consumption. By reducing the coast end velocity,fuel economy can be improved.%针对司机驾驶操作差异影响油耗的问题,基于远程监控系统采集的天津市某公交线路超过1×105,km的实车运行数据,提取了大量司机减速行为样本,采用曲线簇截面速度特征量提取的方法,分析了司机进站初始速度和速度运行区间的统计特征;研究了司机在同一站点的进站操作特征差异对油耗的影响,并利用 GT-SUITE 车辆模型,仿真验证了倒拖制动操作对进站油耗的影响.结果表明:同一站点司机进站初始速度符合正态分布,且减速过程存在一个狭窄的速度通道;平均倒拖时间百分比提高46.4%,进站油耗降低12.2%;降低了倒拖结束车速,可以提高进站燃油经济性.

  10. Performance Investigation of Automobile Radiator Operated with ZnFe2O4 Nano Fluid based Coolant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cooling system of an Automobile plays an important role in its performance, consists of two main parts, known as radiator and fan. Improving thermal efficiency of engine leads to increase the engine's performance, decline the fuel consumption and decrease the pollution emissions. Water and ethylene glycol as conventional coolants have been widely used in radiators of an automotive industry for many years. These heat transfer fluids offer low thermal conductivity. With the advancement of nanotechnology, the new generation of heat transfer fluids called, “nanofluids” have been developed and researchers found that these fluids offer higher thermal conductivity compared to that of conventional coolants. This study focused on the preparation of Zinc based nanofluids (ZnFe2O4 using chemical co-precipitation method and its application in an automotive cooling system along with mixture of ethylene glycol and water (50:50. Relevant input data, nanofluids properties and empirical correlations were obtained from literatures to investigate the heat transfer enhancement of an automotive car radiator operated with nano fluid-based coolants. It was observed that, overall heat transfer coefficient and heat transfer rate in engine cooling system increased with the usage of nanofluids (with ethylene glycol the base-fluid compared to ethylene glycol (i.e. base-fluid alone. It is observed that, about 78% of heat transfer enhancement could be achieved with the addition of 1% ZnFe2O4 particles in a base fluid at the Reynolds number of 84.4x103 and 39.5x103 for air and coolant respectively

  11. High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-09-01

    Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20-30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects.

  12. High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20–30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects. (letter)

  13. Energy consumption projection of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Dalgaard, Tommy;

    2014-01-01

    differing from each other on the basis of growth rates of economic indicators: total GDP, GDP-agriculture, GDP-trade, GDP-industry, and other variables including growth in private consumptions, population, transport vehicles numbers, prices of fossil fuels etc. Scenarios are: Business as Usual (BAU), Medium...... Growth Scenario (MGS) and High Growth Scenario (HGS). Energy consumption in all the sectors and for all fuel types are not statistically correlated with every economic parameters tested in the assessment. Hence, the statistically correlated models are included in the prognosis of energy consumption...

  14. ELARGISSEMENT DE LA PLAGE DE FONCTIONNEMENT D’UN TURBOCOMPRESSEUR DESURALIMENTATION AUTOMOBILE

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtar, Hani

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, much greater emphasis is being placed on improving fuel consumption of automotive engines, due to increasingly stringent exhaust emission regulations. High pressure turbo charging is indispensable to improving fuel consumption by enabling downsizing. To this end, improved flow range and pressure ratio of turbocharger compressor is required. Turbocharger compressor board stable flow range is increasingly difficult to achieve as increased pressure ratio is demanded, this due to compre...

  15. Determination of consumption biogenic solid fuels in the commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector). Final report; Ermittlung des Verbrauchs biogener Festbrennstoffe im Sektor Gewerbe, Handel, Dienstleistungen (GHD-Sektor). Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehmann, Cornelia; Westerkamp, Tanja; Schwenker, Andre; Schenker, Marian; Thraen, Daniela; Lenz, Volker [DBFZ Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Ebert, Marcel [Leipziger Institut fuer Energie GmbH (Ireland), Leipzig (DE)

    2012-07-01

    The policy has both national and European level ambitious program aimed at expansion of renewable energy and related to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In the national action plan for renewable energy of the Federal Republic of Germany these goals are defined by 2020. The share of renewable energy in the provision of heat and cold should therefore rise from 6.6% to 15.5% of gross final energy consumption. According to the increasing importance of solar-thermal, near-surface and geothermal heat, the relative share of biomass is decreasing. However biomass makes with those listed in the national action plan with 79% an essential amount in regenerative heat market [BMU 2010]. For the pursuit of goals and reviews, the support measures and packages of measures which are initiated in this context, a regular and timely reporting on the development of the above objectives is mandatory. The diverse and growing reporting requirements such as in the EU directive on the promotion of renewable energy, require, however well-founded knowledge of the sector-specific energy consumption from renewable sources. While the data available for use of biogenic solid fuels in the sectors household and industry has improved significantly in recent years, for the sector commercial sector, trade, services (tertiary sector) reliable figures are still lacking. Against this background, the objective is to present study, in close cooperation with the Federal Environment Agency (UBA), the determination of the final energy consumption biogenic solid fuels in the tertiary sector in Germany for the year 2008. The basis is, in addition to the development of the current knowledge of the energy and heat consumption, the delimitation and characterization of the sector and the development of an extrapolation tools. The demand for this tool is its expandability and update possibility. From the industry-nonspecific and industry-specific input data can be derived, collecting for the extrapolation

  16. Consumer preferences for automobile energy-efficiency grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, increases in energy prices have made energy conservation and efficiency improvements even more essential than in the past. However, consumers experience difficulty in obtaining reliable information regarding energy efficiency, so that many countries have implemented regulations to enforce energy-efficiency grade labeling. In this study, consumer preferences regarding energy efficiency grades are analyzed by the mixed logit and MDCEV model based on the revealed preference data of past automobile purchases. Findings show that consumers rationally apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. This study discusses political implications of energy efficiency policies as they might impact consumer behaviors of automobile purchase and usage. - Highlights: ► We model discrete choice model to evaluate energy-efficiency grade regulation. ► Consumers apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. ► However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. ► The policies for efficient automobile usage are discussed.

  17. The challenges of automobile-dependent urban transport strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental aims of sustainable urban development and the pro-automobile oriented economic development are on a collision course. It is obvious that automobile-dependent urban development is under heavy/powerful influence of the automobile lobby (automobile and oil industries, along with construction. In this domain famous land-use-transportation studies (or ‘grand transportation studies’ are, unfortunately, still prevailing - a vicious circle of self-fulfilling prophecy of congestion, road building, sprawl, congestion and more road building. Until recently, it was commonly thought that investment in public transport was not economically sustainable and that focusing on the development of the automobile industry and financing the construction of roadways stimulated economic growth. In this paper we clearly show that automobile industry is now overcapitalized, less profitable than many other industries (and may become even less profitable in the future, that transport market is characterized with huge distortions (more than a third of motor-vehicle use can be explained by underpriced driving, while new road investment does not have a major impact on economic growth (especially in a region with an already well-developed infrastructure, and that pro-automobile transport strategy inexorably incurs harmful global, regional and local ecological consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  18. Female identity discourse in automobile advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat López Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the way in which the modern car-advertisement defines the identity of women as potential purchasers – to whom it is designed to get through. The research includes language and iconic instruments by which this type of advertisement aims to create a feminized market of products formerly recognized as traditionally masculine. The identification of the addressee of each publicity material might be subsumed under a set of stereotypes, thus enabling advertisers to get across their message using the code of addressee’s own values. The present paper concentrates on the linguistic specifity of the ads for high-tech goods (automobiles targeting the feminine public and eventually points out their high degree of markedness according to the sex of addressees. Discourse analysis and a closer look at linguistic means appearing in French, Spanish and Polish automotive commercials both reveals a stereotyped woman’s image and shows how they happen to perpetutate it.

  19. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N

    1987-10-01

    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates. PMID:3675807

  20. Analytical description of the modern steam automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity of operating conditions upon performance of the modern steam automobile is discussed. The word modern has been used in the title to indicate that emphasis is upon miles per gallon rather than theoretical thermal efficiency. This has been accomplished by combining classical power analysis with the ideal Pressure-Volume diagram. Several parameters are derived which characterize performance capability of the modern steam car. The report illustrates that performance is dictated by the characteristics of the working medium, and the supply temperature. Performance is nearly independent of pressures above 800 psia. Analysis techniques were developed specifically for reciprocating steam engines suitable for automotive application. Specific performance charts have been constructed on the basis of water as a working medium. The conclusions and data interpretation are therefore limited within this scope.

  1. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  2. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.)

  3. The three cylinder Ecotec Compact Engine from Opel with port deactivation - a contribution to reduce the fleet average fuel consumption; Der Dreizylinder Ecotec Compact Motor von Opel mit Kanalabschaltung - ein Beitrag zur Absenkung des Flottenverbrauchs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebe, U.D. [Opel (A.) AG, Ruesselsheim (Germany); Kapus, P.E.; Poetscher, P. [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    1999-07-01

    The Ecotec Compact Engine, introduced in 1997 by Adam Opel AG, utilizes four valve technology consequently for the reduction of fuel consumption. The introduction of the 1.0 l three cylinder engine in the Opel Corsa resulted in a reduction of fuel consumption of 11% in the European MVEG cycle compared to the 1.2 l two valve engine. This paper describes the application of a port deactivation and a high EGR rate system. Due to the high combustion stability it is possible to apply very high EGR rates of up to 25% in the vehicle. This charge dilution leads to a remarkable dethrottling of the engine at part load. Due to this and additional measures to reduce engine friction fuel consumption in the MVEG cycle could be reduced by additional 10.5% to 5.1 l/100 ml. This engine was also used for the demonstration of a so called '3-liter-car' (90 g CO{sub 2}/km). With the 750 kg concept car 'G90' presented at the 1999 Frankfurt International Motor Show (IAA) it was for the first time possible to approach the 90 g CO{sub 2}/km border with a conventional gasoline engine with port fuel injection. The consequent improvement of the engine while maintaining mixture preparation with port fuel injection leads to a considerable improvement in fuel consumption with acceptable system complexity. In that way an attractive price of the new vehicle for the customer can be realized in combination with very low operating expenses over the lifetime of the vehicle. Only by doing so it is possible to have great influence on the sales-weighted fleet average fuel consumption. (orig.) [German] Der 1997 von der Adam Opel AG vorgestellte Ecotec Compact Motor nutzt die Vierventiltechnik konsequent zur Verbrauchsreduzierung. Der 1,0 l Dreizylindermotor ermoeglichte im Opel Corsa eine Verbrauchsreduzierung im MVEG Testzyklus von annaehernd 11% gegenueber dem Vorgaenger mit 1,2 l Hubraum und Zweiventiltechnik. In diesem Beitrag wird die Anwendung einer Kanalabschaltung und eines Hoch

  4. Mitigation potential of greenhouse gas emission and implications on fuel consumption due to clean energy vehicles as public passenger transport in Kathmandu Valley of Nepal: A case study of trolley buses in Ring Road

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Shreekar; Ale, Bhakta Bahadur [Institute of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Tribhuvan University, GPO Box: 1175, Kathmandu (Nepal); Amatya, Vishwa Bhusan [Alternative Energy Promotion Center, Energy Sector Assistance Programme, His Majesty' s Government of Nepal, Dhobighat, Lalitpur (Nepal)

    2006-09-15

    This paper estimates the consequences in fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission due to the possible intervention of the electric run trolley buses in the existing public transport system in a particular road up to the year 2025 in Kathmandu Valley. It projects the scenarios on the basis that the passenger travel demand is the function of population and income. Basically, it uses the Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning System software to develop Business as Usual scenario and the five alternative scenarios. The alternative scenarios are 100% replacement of vehicles catering to mass-transit in the concerned routes, 50% replacement, 25% replacement, stopping future growth of other vehicles catering to mass-transit in the concerned routes and 25% replacement in the first year, and combination scenarios. The results estimate that the passenger travel demand will increase by three folds from the year 2003 to the year 2025. It projects the three-fold increase of the existing vehicle activity by the year 2025 in Business as Usual scenario. The fuel consumption will increase by 2.4 times compared to the year 2003. It estimates the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission as 8.5 thousands tons in year 2003 which will increase by more than 3 times in year 2025. It estimates that 174.3 thousands tCO{sub 2}e can be avoided in combination scenario. The paper concludes that the intervention of clean energy transport in the existing public transport can have a significant positive impact on the GHG emission and current fuel consumption. (author)

  5. Mitigation potential of greenhouse gas emission and implications on fuel consumption due to clean energy vehicles as public passenger transport in Kathmandu Valley of Nepal: A case study of trolley buses in Ring Road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper estimates the consequences in fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emission due to the possible intervention of the electric run trolley buses in the existing public transport system in a particular road up to the year 2025 in Kathmandu Valley. It projects the scenarios on the basis that the passenger travel demand is the function of population and income. Basically, it uses the Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning System software to develop Business as Usual scenario and the five alternative scenarios. The alternative scenarios are 100% replacement of vehicles catering to mass-transit in the concerned routes, 50% replacement, 25% replacement, stopping future growth of other vehicles catering to mass-transit in the concerned routes and 25% replacement in the first year, and combination scenarios. The results estimate that the passenger travel demand will increase by three folds from the year 2003 to the year 2025. It projects the three-fold increase of the existing vehicle activity by the year 2025 in Business as Usual scenario. The fuel consumption will increase by 2.4 times compared to the year 2003. It estimates the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission as 8.5 thousands tons in year 2003 which will increase by more than 3 times in year 2025. It estimates that 174.3 thousands t CO2 e can be avoided in combination scenario. The paper concludes that the intervention of clean energy transport in the existing public transport can have a significant positive impact on the GHG emission and current fuel consumption

  6. Reliability-based design for automobiles in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yimin ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The level of automobile design and manufac-turing is an important sign of leadership in science and technology and economic power. The achievements of theories and methods for reliability-based design of auto-mobiles in China are reviewed. For reliability-based design, the theories and practices, optimization, sensitiv-ity, and robustness are estimated. The techniques of reli-ability-based design for automobiles are developed. The techniques service to the "hollow" phenomena of kernel technology, product innovative power, and independent development power can be solved.

  7. Standardization Boosts the Development ofCHANGAN AUTOMOBILE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades,CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE has been sticking to its core value of "technology innovation and consistent care" and dedicating to lead the automobile culture by technology innovation.Till now,it has a complete product range of micro vehicles,passenger cars,buses,trucks,SUV,MPV,etc.,and engineplatforms ranging from 0.8L to 2.5L.CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE brand output ranked 13th in the world and first in China in 2009.Its brand value reached 30.515 billion RMB in 2011,among most valuable brands in China.

  8. Recent trends in global production and utilization of bio-ethanol fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. A number of environmental and economic benefits are claimed for bio-fuels. Bio-ethanol is by far the most widely used bio-fuel for transportation worldwide. Production of bio-ethanol from biomass is one way to reduce both consumption of crude oil and environmental pollution. Using bio-ethanol blended gasoline fuel for automobiles can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. Bio-ethanol can be produced from different kinds of raw materials. These raw materials are classified into three categories of agricultural raw materials: simple sugars, starch and lignocellulose. Bio-ethanol from sugar cane, produced under the proper conditions, is essentially a clean fuel and has several clear advantages over petroleum-derived gasoline in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality in metropolitan areas. Conversion technologies for producing bio-ethanol from cellulosic biomass resources such as forest materials, agricultural residues and urban wastes are under development and have not yet been demonstrated commercially. (author)

  9. Proposals for the gradual reduction of the inefficiencies associated with the account of consumption of fossil fuels of isolated systems; Propostas para a gradativa reducao das ineficiencias associadas a conta de consumo de combustiveis fosseis dos sistemas isolados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Pedro Coelho de Souza Monteiro; Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Restricted access to electricity, the existence of an energy matrix based on fossil fueled electricity plants and the lack of financial means by the population living in the Northern region of Brazil to afford the costs with electricity generation, transmission and distribution in the region created the need to implement cross subsidies in the country's Electric Sector Isolated System. The subsidy policies have aimed at allowing the access to electricity for the population and industries in the north of Brazil and at promoting the economic development of this region, but have brought a great cost to society, particularly the Fuel Consumption Account (CCC). This paper evaluates the current structure and the regulatory norms of the electricity sector' subsidies granted to the Isolated Systems, and indicates solutions to the inefficiency associated to cross-subsidization. (author)

  10. Motorcycles, mopeds: polluting emissions and energy consumption. Initial observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.

    2001-05-01

    The present French fleet of two-wheel vehicles is very heterogeneous (2- and 4-stroke engines with cubic capacity from 50 cm{sup 3} to 1300 cm{sup 3} and automatic or manual transmissions) and generally lacking in any anti-pollution system, which leads to high emission levels of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. Mopeds have high emission levels compared to those of 4-wheel vehicles, which have decreased markedly since 1970. The following chart of limit values confirms that the gap between these two vehicle categories in polluting emissions has increased in just a few years. The implementation of more restrictive regulations about pollution emissions was delayed for a long time because of cumulative technological delays in comparison to private vehicles. But in the end a European directive differentiating two kinds of two-wheel vehicles: mopeds and motorcycles was voted in 1997 (no. 97/24). There are two stages (in 1999 and 2002 respectively) for lowering emissions levels for mopeds (engine size smaller than 50 cm{sup 3}). For motorcycles a single stage was set for 1999, with a second stage still under consideration. Given the high stakes in terms of decreased pollution emission rom the necessary technological leap for the shift from outmoded carburetor engines to more refined technology (injection + post-treatment) under ADEME's guidance, the issue of exhaust-pollution reduction of two-wheel vehicles was included in both the PRIMEQUAL programme, 'Automobile Pollution Emissions' and the PREDIT call for proposals, 'Cycle Fuel Engine Pollution Reduction' in 1999. Several projects of varying technical natures (evaluations of existing engines and technological studies of new solutions in engines and exhaust pollution reduction) have been implemented in partnership with specialist research laboratories (such as the IFP) and manufacturers and outfitters in the sector (Sagem, Arvin Exhaust, Peugeot Motorcycles). Moreover, as the principle

  11. Sustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The intention of this chapter is to explore the role of consumption and consumers in relation to sustainability transition processes and wider systemic transformations. In contrast to the individualistic focus in much research on sustainable consumption, the embeddedness of consumption activities...... in wider social, economic and technological frameworks is emphasised. In particular, the chapter is inspired by practice theory and transition theory. First, various trends in consumption are outlined to highlight some of the challenges for sustainability transitions. Then, it is discussed how consumption...... patterns are shaped over time and what should be considered in sustainability strategies. While discussions on consumption often take their point of departure in the perspective of the individual and then zoom to the wider context, the present approach is the opposite. The outline starts with the basic...

  12. 40 CFR 600.307-95 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.307-95 Fuel economy label...

  13. 40 CFR 600.209-85 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values §...

  14. 40 CFR 600.307-86 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.307-86 Fuel economy label...

  15. 40 CFR 600.307-08 - Fuel economy label format requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy label format requirements...) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.307-08 Fuel economy label...

  16. 40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values §...

  17. 40 CFR 600.211-08 - Sample calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample calculation of fuel economy... AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel...

  18. 40 CFR 600.207-86 - Calculation of fuel economy values for a model type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel...

  19. 40 CFR 600.209-95 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values §...

  20. 40 CFR 600.510-86 - Calculation of average fuel economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy... Trucks and Passenger Automobiles)-Procedures for Determining Manufacturer's Average Fuel Economy § 600.510-86 Calculation of average fuel economy. (a) Average fuel economy will be calculated to the...

  1. Equipamento para medição do consumo de combustível em experimentos agrícolas An equipment for measuring tractor fuel consumption in agricultural experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Valdemar Gonzalez Maziero

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available É descrito e aferido (em condições de laboratório um equipamento para medição de consumo de combustível para uso em experimentos com máquinas agrícolas. O medidor, construído com tubos-reservatórios de PVC, tubo de vidro graduado, tanque plástico de combustível e eletroválvulas (12 VCC, é ligado ao sistema de alimentação do trator com mangueiras de plástico de baixa pressão, controlando-se o fluxo de combustível mediante uma chave elétrica liga/desliga. Faz parte do conjunto um medidor de temperatura para possibilitar o cálculo da densidade do combustível, quando necessário medir seu consumo específico. O equipamento, desenvolvido pela Seção de Máquinas de Tração e de Potência, é simples, econômico, de fácil utilização, e tem precisão adequada para medir consumo de combustível variando de 5,0 a 50,0 l/h.A description and test's results of an equipment for measuring tractor fuel consumption in agricultural experiments are presented. The equipment was constructed with two reservoir tanks made of PVC tube, a feeder tank, a graduated glass tube and solenoidal valves (12 VCC which are connected to the tractor fuel system with low pressure hoses. The flow is controlled by input/output key. A thermometer integrates the equipment for determining the density of fuel when it is necessary to measure the specific fuel consumption. This equipment developed by the Seção de Máquinas de Tração e de Potência, State of São Paulo, Brazil, is simple, inexpensive, easy to use and has satisfactory accuracy for measuring tractor fuel consumption from 5.0 to 50.0 l/h.

  2. 基于驾驶模拟实验的生态驾驶行为节能减排潜力%Potential of Eco-driving in Reducing Fuel Consumption and Emissions Based on a Driving Simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍毅平; 赵晓华; 荣建; 刘莹; 徐龙

    2015-01-01

    Eco-driving has been proven to have a great potentialin reducing vehicle fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in many developed countries, however, this potential in China might be different due to different vehicle technologies, driving groups and driving habits. In China, eco-driving was just introduced in recent years and the potentialin energy saving and emissions reduction of this fuel-efficient driving concept is not clear. Based on a driving simulator, the amount of fuel consumption and emissions before and after eco-driving training of 22 recruited drivers was calculated and compared. The training has two different levels, from receiving only staticinformation ( education) to guided practicing of eco-driving rules ( coaching) . Results show that the potential of eco-drivingin saving fuel consumptionis 3. 43%-5. 45%, and the potential of eco-driving on emissions reduction is 3. 39%-26. 15%, corresponding to different emission indexes. The benefits of eco-driving will be enlarged as the level of training reinforced. Additionally, the potential of fuel consumption saving and emissions reduction after eco-driving training is different between professional and non-professional drivers.%针对生态驾驶行为在中国节能减排潜力尚不明确的问题,研究基于驾驶模拟实验平台,选取22名驾驶人进行生态驾驶行为培训和驾驶模拟实验测试,通过对比分析生态驾驶行为培训前和培训后的车辆能耗排放改善情况,确定生态驾驶行为的节能减排潜力.研究结果表明:生态驾驶行为节约汽车燃油消耗的潜力可达3.43%~5.45%;对应不同尾气排放物( CO2、CO、HC和NOx ),生态驾驶行为的减排潜力可达3.39%~26.15%.随着培训强度的增加,生态驾驶行为所体现出的节能减排效益也相应增大.另外,职业和非职业司机驾驶行为节能减排潜力存在明显差异.

  3. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...... positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...

  4. Research of Dynamic Material Handling in an Automobile General Assembly Line Based on Real-time Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Nan; LI Shi-qi; WANG Jun-feng; ZHANG Zhen-li

    2012-01-01

    The status of material delivery of an automobile general assembly line is analyzed, and the technique to achieve the real-time tracking of assembly status information is proposed based on RFID( Radio Frequency Identification). Thus the consumption of line-side buffer is obtained dynamically, then the type and quantity of needed material are fed back to the subsystem of material handling; the algorithm for determining the best time departure time of delivery driver based on minimizing of total time penalty function is proposed. This approach makes the material amount of a single delivery trip maximized and improves the efficiency of delivery drivers significantly in the case of does not affect the assembly line normal throughput. Additionally, although this dynamic material handling method is developed for the automobile assembly plant, it should be pointed out that this method is also applicable to other mixed model assembly plants such as electronics, semiconductor and aerospace industry.

  5. Fuzzy analytic network process based multi criteria decision making methodology for a family automobile purchasing decision

    OpenAIRE

    Yesim Yayla, A.; Yildiz, A

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in parallel with the advancing technology, automobiles that have substantially advanced technological properties are being manufactured. Intended uses of the automobiles have been changing in our days in contrast to 1960s when automobiles were only used for transportation. Consumers, in our day and age, expect profoundly different properties from an automobile. In this context, more than one criterion become effective on making decision on purchasing an automobile that has the requi...

  6. Reduction of steam and cooling water consumption in distilling of alcohol fuel; Reducao do consumo de vapor e de agua de resfriamento na destilacao de alcool carburante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Pio Caetano; Silveira, Marlos Mazzeu [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG, (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Mecanica]. E-mail: pclobo@iem.efei.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the availability analysis (exergy analysis) of the sugar cane fuel alcohol distillation, aiming his exergetic optimization. Real operation data from a distillation plant are used performing of an energetic auditing.

  7. Effect of aftermarket automobile window tinting films on driver vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, J; Ridder, W; Yeung, K; De Land, P

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the level of automobile window tint that causes a significant reduction of vision for automobile drivers. Contrast sensitivity was measured on 20 participants, of whom 10 were age 20 to 29 years and 10 were age 60 to 69 years, through a stock automobile window (control) and two windows darkened with plastic film. For the younger drivers, a car window with 37% transmittance did not significantly reduce contrast sensitivity, but a darker tint of 18% transmittance reduced contrast sensitivity at higher spatial frequencies. For the older drivers, a tint of 37% transmittance significantly reduced mid-to- high spatial frequency contrast sensitivity. The typical state standard (no tint with less than 35% transmittance) would thus seem to be appropriate for younger drivers; however, further examination of the standard may be necessary in regard to older drivers. Actual or potential applications of this research include guidelines and regulations regarding tinting of automobile windows. PMID:11022888

  8. Analysis for the Dynamic Characteristic of the Automobile Transmission Gearbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujin Yu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Automobile transmission gearbox, as one of the major components, which will inevitably bring about the vibration and noise of automobile vehicle. The objective of this study to reduce the noise and vibration of automobile transmission by structural optimization of the gearbox in order to better control its functional operation and improve its performance. For this purpose, based on the working characteristics of the gearbox, modal analysis of automobile transmission gearbox is formulated using 3D graphics software Pro/E together with Finite Element Method. In addition, the modal test of gearbox is conducted also. Through comparing model analysis results to test results, test results verify the correctness of the finite element analysis results, thus provide the theoretic basis to analyze its dynamic characteristics of the gearbox structure as well as its improvement to reduce vibration and noise.

  9. Avaliação de parâmetros de consumo de combustível do Tritrem no transporte de madeira Evaluation of fuel consumption parameters on Tritrem wood transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Lima da Silveira

    2004-02-01

    ções superiores a 2.000 rpm implicam desperdício de combustível. O ponto de rotação máxima ideal para o motor dos veículos nas condições estudadas está na faixa de 1.700 rpm. Um pequeno número de equipes foi responsável pelo elevado número de infrações cometidas. A falta de treinamento dos motoristas contribui para o aumento de consumo de combustível. O cumprimento das normas sobre condução econômica ajuda a reduzir os custos com combustível.The parameters low gear, excess engine rotation over 2,000 rpm, neutral gear and speed superior to 80 km/h were evaluated to monitor fuel consumption of two wood transporters (A and B using data from a board computer installed on a Mercedes-Benz, LS 2638 model. Low gear increased fuel consumption cost by R$ 19,164.50 (91.32% and R$ 17,449.61 (99.09% per month, since, on average, the vehicle engines functioned about 24.47% and 25.79% of the running time for the transporters A and B, respectively. Excess engine rotation also increased fuel consumption cost by R$ 69.45 (0.33% and R$ 155.62 (0.88% for the transporters A and B, respectively. Neutral Gear contributed to fuel consumption cost of R$ 1,751.73 (8.35% and R$ 4.80 (0.03%, respectively, for transporters A and B. The methodology used is specific for the OM 457 LA engine, but it could be used in other studies, provided some adaptation is made; low gear had the highest fuel consumption in wood transport followed by neutral gear and excess engine rotation. Significant fuel consumption reduction is possible in wood transport in relation to low gear, due to the long waiting time (loading, unloading, lines, and mandatory stops Neutral gear and excess vehicle speed do not save fuel and compromise safety. Engine rotations superior to 2,000 rpm waste fuel. The ideal maximum rotation point for vehicle engine was about 1,700 rpm. A few teams were accounted responsible for the high number of driving violations. The lack of trained drivers contributed to fuel consumption increase

  10. Supply Chain Management Practices of Indian Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    B. S. Sahay; Vikram Sharma; G. D. Sardana

    2011-01-01

    The automobile industry is a major contributor to India’s economy. The Indian automobile manufacturers face stiff international competition in the wake of all major US and European car manufacturers entering the Indian market. In the contemporary scenario, supply chain management practices can be adopted to improve operational efficiency and profits. This paper presents the current status of Indian automotive supply chains. For this, data was collected by conducting a nationwide survey. The...

  11. Measures of Technical Efficiency in Two Sectors: Banks and Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Rapacciuolo Ciro

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate technical efficiency in the automobile and the banking industry, using balance sheet data on businesses in the two sectors: the world leading automobile producers and the top-20 Italian banking groups. The measurement of inefficiency, a strand of literature started by Farrell (1957), is conducted by means of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is one of the existing approaches in this field; Fare, Grosskopf e Lovell (1994) prepared the ground for th...

  12. Evolution of organizational structure and strategy of the automobile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, S.H.; Wibbelink, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a historically oriented study of the automobile industry. It sets out to understand why have the structure and strategy of the dominant companies in the automobile industry changed in the way they have done. Our findings suggest three factors at work, namely the knowledge of car production and of customers, the capability of the technological system, and the business environment. The knowledge system represents the level of know-how and the availability of information. In a sens...

  13. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira; Andy Petroianu; Dafne Maria Villar Gonçalves; Gisele Araújo Pereira; Luiz Ronaldo Alberti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the regio...

  14. Emissions reductions as a result of automobile improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Sajal S; Bishop, Gary A; Stedman, Donald H; Slott, Robert

    2003-11-15

    Remote sensing of light duty vehicle on-road tailpipe exhaust has been used to measure on-road mass emissions of automobile fleets in Denver for 13 years and in two other U.S. cities for 5 years. Analysis of these fleets shows that newer automobiles, during a period of fairly constant new car standards, have become continually less polluting independent of measurement location. Improving emissions control technology spurred by federal regulations is thought to have brought about these trends.

  15. Computer Model for Automobile Climate Control System Simulation and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Oker

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A software to simulate the dynamic operation of climate control system for a generic automobile has been developed. The transient nature of passenger cabin temperature and relative humidity are predicted using the principles of thermodynamics. Analysis include detailed simulations of every component of the automobile air conditioning network. The methodology is validated by comparing the simulation results with the experimental results.

  16. Taxing Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Richard M. Bird

    2009-01-01

    Domestic consumption in most countries is taxed through general sales taxes, excise taxes on specific commodities, and a variety of miscellaneous taxes on such services as hotels and transfers of property. This note considers only the first two of these categories, with particular attention to general sales taxes. Consumption taxes are obviously related both to customs duties and other tax...

  17. Improvement of the Consumption Problem of SH93 Type Fuel Pipe Drier%SH93型燃油管道式烘丝机燃油消耗问题的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任玉江; 朱敏

    2012-01-01

    介绍了sH93型燃油管道式烘丝机在实际应用中存在油耗的大的问题,主要原因有:料头控制无加水程序控制;预热温度设置不合理。通过增加料头加水控制程序及优化烘丝机预热温度设置的改进后,燃油消耗由原来的1.67L/100kg降低到1.43L/100kg,出口水分合格率由原来的96.77%提升到98.81%。%SH93 type fuel pipe drier in the practical application of the existing oil consumption big problem, main reason : the head without water control program control; the preheating temperature setting is not reasonable. First, by adding water control program and optimization of dryer set improvement after preheating temperature, fuel consumption from the original 1.67L / 100kg reduced to 1.43L / 100kg, outlet water qualified rate from 96.77% to 98.81%.

  18. Application of solar flat plate collector in automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawge, P. [Peenya Alloys Pvt. Ltd., Parvati, Pune (India)

    2004-07-01

    In any industry, heating, cooling and compressed air the costliest part, which affects the production cost of any product. There are three types of indirect heat requirement or the requirement of heat can be divided in the three main categories. (1) low temp. 40 - 60 Deg. (2) Medium temp. 80 - 150 deg. (3) High Temp applications - above 150. Solar Flat Collectors have been proven for the use of solar energy for medium temp. application in hotels, boiler feed water preheating, dairy for pasteurization and some other indirect heating applications. There is another neglected area of application of Solar Flat Plate collector is heat treatment for powder coating plants where heat requirement is bet 50 Deg C - 70 Deg C. In any automobile industry the aesthetic or look of the vehicle place a very important role as far as the sale is concern (after the mechanical performance). The aesthetic means the body and colour of the vehicle. To get a long lasting good quality color, the powder coating procedure plays a major role. Before powder coating there is requirement of different chemical treatment for the removal of rust, grease and other cleaning of the specific sheet metal body parts. The time duration and chemical composition is depends on the selection of body material. A proven method of a chemical treatment is seven / eight tank process. The common system of heating chemicals is by way of electrical heaters, by diesel or other fuel fired boilers. This increases the cost of heat treatment process due the high cost of electricity (for industries rate of electricity is 1.5 to 2 times than the domestic rate) or oils. This can be replaced by Solar water heating system which can efficiently generate the temp of liquid upto 85 Deg C. (orig.)

  19. A review on idling reduction strategies to improve fuel economy and reduce exhaust emissions of transport vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Introduce various idling reduction technologies for transport vehicles. • Exhibit their energy use, advantages, disadvantages to understand their capability. • Conduct critical review to improve fuel economy and exhaust emissions. • Suggest better technology according to their performance ability. - Abstract: To achieve reductions in vehicle idling, strategies and actions must be taken to minimize the time spent by drivers idling their engines. A number of benefits can be obtained in limiting the idling time. These benefits include savings in fuel use and maintenance costs, vehicle life extension, and reduction in exhaust emissions. The main objective of idling reduction (IR) devices is to reduce the amount of energy wasted by idling trucks, rail locomotives, and automobiles. During idling, gasoline vehicles emit a minimum amount of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and negligible particulate matter (PM). However, generally a large amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) are produced from these vehicles. Gasoline vehicles consume far more fuel at an hourly rate than their diesel counterparts during idling. Higher NOx and comparatively larger PM are produced by diesel vehicles than gasoline vehicles on the average during idling. Auxiliary power unit (APU), direct-fired heaters, fuel cells, thermal storage system, truck stop electrification, battery-based systems, engine idle management (shutdown) systems, electrical (shore power) solutions, cab comfort system, and hybridization are some of the available IR technologies whose performances for reducing fuel consumption and exhaust emissions have been compared. This paper analyzes the availability and capability of most efficient technologies to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions from diesel and gasoline vehicles by comparing the findings of previous studies. The analysis reveals that among all the options direct fired heaters, APUs and electrified parking spaces exhibit better

  20. Technological options in regard to reducing harmful environmental effects of road traffic. Fuel cell technology compared with combustion engines; Technische Optionen zur Verminderung der Verkehrsbelastungen. Brennstoffzellenfahrzeuge im Vergleich zu Fahrzeugen mit Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolke, R. [comp.

    1999-05-01

    The German Umweltbundesamt (federal environmental agency) commissioned a cost-benefit analysis to be made, testing the practical performance of fuel cell-driven automobiles, for state-of-the-art assessment of their benefits and drawbacks as compared to other available automotive fuel systems. Results available so far of calculations based on the cost-benefit analysis show that the targets involved, such as cutback of emissions and conservation of resources, can be realised within the foreseeable future at much lesser expense through the use of fuel consumption-optimized Otto engines offering lowest emission levels (of the type ULEV, ultra-low emission vehicle, or EURO 4 standard), as compared to the relevant contributions to emission reduction and other targets offered by the fuel cell-driven automobiles.(orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das Umweltbundesamt hat die Brennstoffzellentechnik im Verkehr einer Kosten-Nutzen-Betrachtung unterzogen, um zu ermitteln, welche Vor- und Nachteile sie im Vergleich zu anderen Antriebskonzepten im Verkehr nach derzeitigem Wissensstand hat. Nach den bisherigen Berechnungen am Beispiel einer Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse zeichnet sich ab, dass Emissionsminderungen und Ressourcenschutz fuer die absehbare Zeit wesentlich kostenguenstiger durch verbrauchsoptimierte Fahrzeuge mit Ottomotor mit niedrigsten Abgasemissionen (ULEV-`Ultra Low Emission Vehicle` oder EURO 4-Standard) realisiert werden koennen als durch Fahrzeuge mit Brennstoffzellenantrieb. (orig.)

  1. Crash test of a liquid hydrogen automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegold, J. G.; Van Vorst, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Details of the conversion of a U.S. Postal Service mail truck to hydrogen-fueled operation are given. Specific reference is made to design safety considerations. A traffic accident is described that caused the mail truck (mounted on a trailer) to turn on its side at approximately 20 mph and to finally slide to a stop and turn upside down. No one was injured, and there was essentially no damage to the liquid hydrogen fuel system. The mail truck was driven away from the scene of the accident. Suggestions to insure the safety of hydrogen-fueled experimental vehicles are made.

  2. Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.

  3. Atmospheric Photochemistry Studies of Pollutant Emissions from Transportation Vehicles Operating on Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffries, H.; Sexton, K.; Yu, J.

    1998-07-01

    This project was undertaken with the goal of improving our ability to predict the changes in urban ozone resulting from the widespread use of alternative fuels in automobiles. This report presents the results in detail.

  4. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  5. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  6. Sustainable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prothero, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Freund, Jim;

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores sustainable consumption and considers possible roles for marketing and consumer researchers and public policy makers in addressing the many sustainability challenges that pervade our planet. Future research approaches to this interdisciplinary topic need to be comprehensive an...

  7. Resource Usage Strategies and Trade-Offs between Cropland Demand, Fossil Fuel Consumption, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions—Building Insulation as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hansen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioresources are used in different production systems as materials as well as energy carriers. The same is true for fossil fuel resources. This study explored whether preferential resource usages exist, using a building insulation system as an example, with regard to the following sustainability criteria: climate impact, land, and fossil fuel demand. We considered the complete life cycle in a life cycle assessment-based approach. The criteria were compared for two strategies: one used natural fibers as material and generated production energies from fossil fuels; the other generated production energies from bioenergy carriers and transformed fossil resources into the insulation material. Both strategies finally yielded the same insulation effect. Hence, the energy demand for heating the building was ignored. None of the strategies operated best in all three criteria: While cropland demand was lower in the bioenergy than in the biomaterial system, its fossil fuel demand was higher. Net contribution to climate change was in the same range for both strategies if we considered no indirect changes in land use. Provided that effective recycling concepts for fossil-derived insulations are in place, using bioresources for energy generation was identified as a promising way to mitigate climate change along with efficient resource use.

  8. Consumption demand

    OpenAIRE

    Attanasio, O.

    1998-01-01

    Consumption is the largest component of GDP. Since the 1950s, the life cycle and the permanent income models have constituted the main analytical tools to the study of consumption behavior, both at the micro and at the aggregate levels. Since the late 1970s the literature has focused on versions of the model that incorporate the hypothesis of Rational Expectations and a rigorous treatment of uncertainty. In this paper, I survey the most recent contribution and assess where the life cycle mode...

  9. Conspicuous Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China validated a new consumption tax policy on April 1 that levies higher taxes on luxury goods such as yachts and limousines, as well as wooden disposable chopsticks and wooden flooring. This marked the most profound change in the consumption tax since 1994 and is thought to be the first step in an overall tax reform in the country. Consumer tariffs, which are handed over to state coffers, consist of excise taxes and the taxes on imported goods collected by customs agencies.

  10. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities

  11. 40 CFR 600.314-08 - Updating label values, annual fuel cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cost, Gas Guzzler Tax, and range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. 600.314-08 Section 600.314-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and...

  12. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  13. The causes and effects of the Alternative Motor Fuels Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yimin

    The corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard is the major policy tool to improve the fleet average miles per gallon of automobile manufacturers in the U.S. The Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) provides special treatment in calculating the fuel economy of alternative fuel vehicles to give manufacturers CAFE incentives to produce more alternative fuel vehicles. AMFA has as its goals an increase in the production of alternative fuel vehicles and a decrease in gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This dissertation examines theoretically the effects of the program set up under AMFA. It finds that, under some conditions, this program may actually increase gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The dissertation also uses hedonic techniques to examine whether the Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) has a significant effect on the implicit price of fuel economy and whether the marginal value of vehicle fuel efficiency changes over time. It estimates the change of implicit price in miles per gallon after the production of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). Results indicate that every year consumers may evaluate vehicle fuel economy differently, and that since AFVs came to the market, the marginal value of fuel economy from specific companies producing AFVs has decreased. This finding suggests that since the AMFA provides extra Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) credit for those automakers producing AFVs, the automakers can take advantage of the incentive to produce more profitable conventional vehicles and meet CAFE standards without improving the fleet fuel economy. In this way, manufacturers who produce AFVs are willing to offer a lower price for the fuel economy under the AMFA. Additionally, this paper suggests that the flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the market are not significantly more expensive than comparable conventional vehicles, even if FFVs are also able to run on an alternative fuel and may cost more than conventional vehicles

  14. Energy consumption in the Danish fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2004-01-01

    that there are great differences in fuel consumption between fisheries targeting groundfish or shellfish and those targeting pelagic fish or industrial fish. Here, I show that fuel consumption per kilogram of caught fish varies considerably as a function of fishing gear and vessel size, even considering the same...... fisheries targeting groundfish or shellfish and those targeting pelagic fish or industrial fish. Here, I show that fuel consumption per kilogram of caught fish varies considerably as a function of fishing gear and vessel size, even considering the same target species. I argue that these differences need...

  15. Research on Engine Fuel-efficient Method of Light Load%一种发动机轻载节油方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈建军; 冯忠绪; 杨建辉

    2012-01-01

    汽车在减速滑行状态下,有很大一部分能量消耗在发动机制动阻力上,为了减小这一部分能量消耗,提出一种发动机轻载节油的新方法,设计了轻载节油的工作机构与控制系统,使汽车在挂档减速滑行状态时,能控制发动机停止喷油,同时强制打开排气门释压,从而充分利用汽车惯性能量,使汽车滑行距离更远,达到节能减排的目的.汽车挂档滑行距离对比试验表明,在相同时间内,发动机在轻载节油工况下的滑行距离与正常挂档滑行距离基本相同,但由于此时发动机停止了喷油,节油7.2%,证实发动机轻载节油方法可行.%When automobile is slowing and sliding, a large part of energy is consumed in engine braking resistance . In order to reduce this part of energy consumption,way of saving fuel on engine light load was put forward, which included the design of the working mechanism and control system. When automobile is slowing and sliding in gear, the above way can stop the injection of engine and force exhaust valve to open for releasing pressure, which finally makes full use of automobile inertia energy to make car' s sliding distance greater and further save energy as well as reduce the emission. Through the experiments on the distance of automobile sliding, it is well known that, at the same time, the distance of car sliding in condition of engine light load is almost the same as the distance of car sliding normally in gear. Meanwhile, the engine' s stopping injection leads to a 7. 2% fuel consumption reduction. So the way of saving fuel on engine light load is proved to be feasible.

  16. Synergistic effect of Brønsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay.

  17. NF EN 14214. - Automotive fuels. - Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engines. - Requirements and test methods; NF EN 14214. - Carburants pour automobiles. - Esters methyliques d'acides gras (EMAG) pour moteurs Diesel. - Exigences et methodes d'essais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    This standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used either as automotive fuel for diesel engines, at 100% concentration, or as an extender for automotive fuel for diesel engines, in accordance with the requirements of EN 590. At 100% concentration it is applicable to fuel for use in diesel engine vehicles designed or subsequently adapted to run on 100% FAME.

  18. Collaborative Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Netter, Sarah

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore barriers and opportunities for business models based on the ideas of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry. Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is based on a multiple-­‐‑case study of Scandinavian fashion libraries – a new...... to the new phenomenon of fashion libraries and does not cover other types of collaborative consumption within the fashion industry (Swap-­‐‑parties, etc.). Originality/value: The paper is one of the first attempts to examine new business models of collaborative consumption in general and the fashion library...... concept in particular. The study contributes to the discussions of whether and how fashion sharing and collaboration holds promise as a viable business model and as a means to promote sustainability....

  19. Unsustainable Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    Our dominant way of living is not sustainable and our activities as private individuals and households directly and indirectly account for a large and increasing share of total environmental impacts. These impacts are related to the structure as well as the level of consumption. In this article......, research on the root causes of environmentally harmful human behavior is reviewed. Why is there no satiation of consumption in sight, even in the most affluent countries, and why do people continue to make choices that are known to be environmentally harmful? While potentially catastrophic, the harms from...... unsustainable consumption are mostly unintentional, which means that informational and educational means are not sufficient to produce the needed changes. They need to be implemented in concert with pervasive structural changes to make the right choice the easy choice....

  20. Metalworking Lasers In Automobile Fabrication - A View From The UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, C. J.

    1986-11-01

    The development of the CO2 gas laser in the mid-sixties, has paved the way for the potential use of lasers in the fabrication of various driveline and body parts for automobiles. Much laser and laser metalworking research has been conducted in the United Kingdom and Europe (early research on cutting dates back to 1967). However, the automobile industries in both communities have been cautious in using lasers in production for heat treatment and welding. This paper outlines, in respect to the automobile industry, developments in laser equipments, current production applications, potential application studies and particular problem areas which are being researched. The application areas discussed cover: laser cutting, heat treatment and welding.