WorldWideScience

Sample records for automobile efficiency standards

  1. Automobile Fuel Economy Standards: Impacts, Efficiency, and Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Soren; Parry, Ian; James M. Sallee; FISCHER, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses fuel economy regulations in the United States and other countries. We first describe how these programs affect the automobile market, including their impacts on fuel use and other dimensions of the vehicle fleet. We then review different methodologies for assessing the costs of fuel economy regulations and discuss what the results of these methodologies imply for policy. Following that, we compare the welfare effects of fuel economy regulations to those of fuel taxes and ...

  2. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  3. Consumer preferences for automobile energy-efficiency grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, increases in energy prices have made energy conservation and efficiency improvements even more essential than in the past. However, consumers experience difficulty in obtaining reliable information regarding energy efficiency, so that many countries have implemented regulations to enforce energy-efficiency grade labeling. In this study, consumer preferences regarding energy efficiency grades are analyzed by the mixed logit and MDCEV model based on the revealed preference data of past automobile purchases. Findings show that consumers rationally apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. This study discusses political implications of energy efficiency policies as they might impact consumer behaviors of automobile purchase and usage. - Highlights: ► We model discrete choice model to evaluate energy-efficiency grade regulation. ► Consumers apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. ► However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. ► The policies for efficient automobile usage are discussed.

  4. Measures of Technical Efficiency in Two Sectors: Banks and Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Rapacciuolo Ciro

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate technical efficiency in the automobile and the banking industry, using balance sheet data on businesses in the two sectors: the world leading automobile producers and the top-20 Italian banking groups. The measurement of inefficiency, a strand of literature started by Farrell (1957), is conducted by means of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is one of the existing approaches in this field; Fare, Grosskopf e Lovell (1994) prepared the ground for th...

  5. ASE Program Certification Standards for Automobile Technician Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA.

    This document presents and explains the development and application of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) program certification standards that were developed to improve the quality of secondary- and postsecondary-level automobile technician training by implementing a certification program that certifies programs in…

  6. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  7. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles and light trucks. 109-38.104 Section 109-38.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Vehicles § 109-38.104 Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks. (a) (b) All requests to purchase passenger automobiles larger than class IA, IB, or II (small, subcompact, or compact) shall...

  8. Standardization Boosts the Development ofCHANGAN AUTOMOBILE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades,CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE has been sticking to its core value of "technology innovation and consistent care" and dedicating to lead the automobile culture by technology innovation.Till now,it has a complete product range of micro vehicles,passenger cars,buses,trucks,SUV,MPV,etc.,and engineplatforms ranging from 0.8L to 2.5L.CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE brand output ranked 13th in the world and first in China in 2009.Its brand value reached 30.515 billion RMB in 2011,among most valuable brands in China.

  9. Energy and economic evaluation of policies for accelerated investment in efficient automobiles. [Jack Faucett Automobile Sector Forecasting Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Walter; Carhart, Steven C.; McGranahan, Gordon; Mulherkar, Shirish S.

    1978-08-01

    This report examines the effect of an energy-conservation policy that imposes excise taxes on cars having low fuel efficiency, coupled with a rebate on cars having high fuel efficiency. Two oil price cases are considered. The Jack Faucett Automobile Sector Forecasting Model is used to measure direct effects. The Brookhaven National Laboratory-University of Illinois Input-Output/Linear Programming model is used for economy-wide effects and impact on employment.

  10. Technology Demonstration of General Black box Standard for Automobiles (GBSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available GBSA is an upcoming proposal towards Automobile industry and to the federal governing bodies around the world. Here we are intent to create a disciplinary system to save city sons from accident death and to abolish insurance piracy. The proposal is actually developed from the loss of mankind in society but pulled by technology and humanity facts..

  11. Efficient controller area network data compression for automobile applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-jing WU; Jin-Gyun CHUNG

    2015-01-01

    Controller area networks (CANs) have been designed for multiplexing communication between electronic control units (ECUs) in vehicles and many high-level industrial control applications. When a CAN bus is overloaded by a large number of ECUs connected to it, both the waiting time and the error probability of the data transmission are increased. Thus, it is desirable to reduce the CAN frame length, since the duration of data transmission is proportional to the frame length. In this paper, we present a CAN message compression method to reduce the CAN frame length. Experimental results indicate that CAN transmission data can be compressed by up to 81.06%with the proposed method. By using an embedded test board, we show that 64-bit engine management system (EMS) CAN data compression can be performed within 0.16 ms;consequently, the proposed algorithm can be successfully used in automobile applications.

  12. Efficient using of automobile transport for the deep open-pit mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dastan MAHAMBETOV

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the method is proposed of substantiation of the major parameters for zones of effective use of automobile transport of different load-carrying capacity by open cast development of the deep deposits. An efficient ratio is determined between the mining and transport equipment by zone-to -zone use.

  13. EFFICIENCY OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE OF AUTOMOBILE AS MEANS OF PRIORITY ITS OPERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Shapko, V.; Shapko, S.

    2007-01-01

    Exceeded is the analysis of distribution automobile internal combustion engine modes operations on rate crankshaft and on loading with priority of conditions considers engines efficiency. Presented is a methods of analytical determination to optimal conditions use of multi-purpose performance.

  14. Gas prices and fuel efficiency in the U.S. automobile industry: Policy implications of endogenous product choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramlich, Jacob Pleune

    I develop, estimate, and utilize an economic model of the U.S. automobile industry. I do so to address policy questions concerning automotive fuel efficiency (the relationship between gasoline used and distance traveled). Fuel efficiency has played a prominent role in our domestic energy policy for over 30 years. Recently it has received even more attention due to rising gas prices and concern over the environment and energy dependence. The model gives quantitative predictions for market fuel efficiency at various gas prices and taxes. The model makes contributions that are both methodological and policy based, and the two chapters of the dissertation focus on each in turn. The first chapter discusses the economic model of the U.S. automobile industry. The model allows firms to choose the fuel efficiency of their new vehicles, which allows me to predict fuel efficiency responses to policy and market conditions. These predictions were not possible with previous economic models which held fuel efficiency fixed. In the model, consumers care more about fuel efficiency when gas prices are high, and firms face a technological tradeoff between providing fuel efficiency and other quality. The level of the gas price, therefore, working through consumer demand, shifts firms' optimal locations along this technology frontier. Demand is nested logit, supply is differentiated products oligopoly, and data are from the U.S. automobile market from 1971-2007. In addition to endogenizing product choice, I also contribute to the modeling literature by relaxing restrictive identifying assumptions and obtaining more realistic estimates of fuel efficiency preference. The model predicts sales declines and compositions from the summer of 2008 with reasonable success. The second chapter discusses two counterfactual policy scenarios: maintained summer 2008 gas prices, and achieving 35 mpg (miles per gallon). At 3.43 per gallon (the summer 2008 price, 23% above 2007), the model predicts

  15. GISB: Efficiency through standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For those who participated in the numerous day-long development sessions held in the dim, stale basement auditorium of the Department of Energy, the ida that the Gas Industry standards Board (GISB) would be producing standards anytime soon seemed a distant dream. However, the hazy vision of just over a year ago has now become a reality. As summer turns to fall and young gas schedulers throughout this country dream of the gridiron, GISB will have already issued a model electronic-trading partner agreement and 12 standards for capacity-release transactions, as well as three standards for nomination-related transactions. Under the steady hand of Executive directors Rae McQuade and a board of director that looks like a Who's Who of the gas industry, GISB has developed into a organization that will directly influence how gas is purchased, transported, and accounted and paid for in the 21st century. The paper describes the background of the organization, standards that have been released, and issues still to be addressed

  16. Energy efficiency standards and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Van Buskirk et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 114010) demonstrate that the purchase price, lifecycle cost and price of improving efficiency (i.e. the incremental price of efficiency gain) decline at an accelerated rate following the adoption of the first energy efficiency standards for five consumer products. The authors show these trends using an experience curve framework (i.e. price/cost versus cumulative production). While the paper does not draw a causal link between standards and declining prices, they provide suggestive evidence using markets in the US and Europe. Below, I discuss the potential implications of the work.

  17. Efficient dehalogenation of automobile shredder residue in NaOH/ethylene glycol using a ball mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tomohito; Fukuda, Yuuzou; Park, Kye-Sung; Grause, Guido; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of sodium hydroxide/ethylene glycol (NaOH/EG) for dehalogenation of automobile shredder residue (ASR) using a ball mill. Efficient dehalogenation was achieved at atmospheric pressure by combining the use of EG (196 degrees C b.p.) as a replacement solvent for NaOH with ball milling, which improved contact between ASR and OH(-) in solution. Moderate NaOH concentrations and increased ball mill rotation speeds produced high dechlorination that was not significantly affected by the weight ratio of ASR to EG. NaOH/EG dechlorination increased with temperature with an apparent activation energy of 50 kJ mol(-1) confirming that the reaction proceeded under chemical reaction control. The modified shrinking-core model was appropriate to explain the dechlorination process. Low chloro levels in our NaOH/EG-treated ASR suggested that this material could be used for feedstock recycling and the wet process may be applicable for dehalogenation of other important waste streams. PMID:18929394

  18. Regulation on power efficiency in the automobile; Regulacion sobre eficiencia energetica en el automovil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado Susano, Armando; Romero de Vivar Uvaldo, Pascual [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this article it is presented a brief analysis of one of the regulations on the yield of fuel consumption of the light vehicles that promoted substantial changes in the Mexican automotive industry, the decree denominated PREMCE (Average of minimum fuel yield by company), as well as some international experiences relative to the subject. It is also indicated the evolution, in the last years, of the average yields of fuel consumption (Km/L) in Mexico in the new automobiles and the more important technological factors that affect their energy efficiency. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta un breve analisis de una de las regulaciones sobre el rendimiento de consumo de combustible de los vehiculos ligeros que promovio cambios sustanciales en la industria automotriz mexicana, el decreto denominado Premce (Promedio de rendimiento minimo de combustible por empresa), asi como algunas experiencias internacionales relativas al tema. Se senala tambien la evolucion, en los ultimos anos, de los rendimientos promedio de consumo de combustible (Km/L) en Mexico en los automoviles nuevos y los factores tecnologicos mas importantes que influyen en su eficiencia energetica.

  19. GREEN MANUFACTURING IN AUTOMOBILE INDUST RY TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY AS WELL A S ENVIRNOMENTAL COND ITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Sayeed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the green manufacturing is implemented in the automobile industry. The green manufacturing in very effective in the automobile industry. In this paper the green manufacturing is used by the sustainable design to improve the efficiency as well as environmental condition. With regard to the environment, the major environmental concerns in the 21st century are: atmospheric pollution (and its consequences for hu man health, global warming and ozone layer depletion, scarcity of freshwater, raw material and land availability. All these environmental impacts have a great impact on how companies manage their business, and therefore, they are also a driver to innovati on. For instance, the availability of land can create a pressure on the prices for land disposal, which “forces” organizations to innovate in order to reduce the waste from their production sites.

  20. A System Based Approach to Efficiently Implement Color Differentiation Mechanism with Respect to Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMED KHALID KALEEM,; MOHAMMAD IQUEBAL AKHTER

    2011-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence is the intelligence of machines focusing on creating machines that can engage on behaviors that human considers Intelligent Expert Systems are the programs based on their theory and methods of AI. Expert Systems have a wide variety of applications especially when coming to object recognition. This paper explains the applications of expert systems in object recognition and proposes a sample model of an expert system that would recognize an automobile by differentiating ...

  1. A System Based Approach to Efficiently Implement Color Differentiation Mechanism with Respect to Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMED KHALID KALEEM,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Intelligence is the intelligence of machines focusing on creating machines that can engage on behaviors that human considers Intelligent Expert Systems are the programs based on their theory and methods of AI. Expert Systems have a wide variety of applications especially when coming to object recognition. This paper explains the applications of expert systems in object recognition and proposes a sample model of an expert system that would recognize an automobile by differentiating its color.

  2. Estimating the changes in the distribution of energy efficiency in the U.S. automobile assembly industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the EPA's voluntary ENERGY STAR program and the results of the automobile manufacturing industry's efforts to advance energy management as measured by the updated ENERGY STAR Energy Performance Indicator (EPI). A stochastic single-factor input frontier estimation using the gamma error distribution is applied to separately estimate the distribution of the electricity and fossil fuel efficiency of assembly plants using data from 2003 to 2005 and then compared to model results from a prior analysis conducted for the 1997–2000 time period. This comparison provides an assessment of how the industry has changed over time. The frontier analysis shows a modest improvement (reduction) in “best practice” for electricity use and a larger one for fossil fuels. This is accompanied by a large reduction in the variance of fossil fuel efficiency distribution. The results provide evidence of a shift in the frontier, in addition to some “catching up” of poor performing plants over time. - Highlights: • A non-public dataset of U.S. auto manufacturing plants is compiled. • A stochastic frontier with a gamma distribution is applied to plant level data. • Electricity and fuel use are modeled separately. • Comparison to prior analysis reveals a shift in the frontier and “catching up”. • Results are used by ENERGY STAR to award energy efficiency plant certifications

  3. Environmental implications of the automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are over 12 million automobiles in Canada, each travelling over 16,000 km annually. The value of motor vehicles and parts produced in Canada accounts for over 6% of the gross domestic product, and vehicle-related sales account for the largest proportion of Canadian retail activity. The environmental issues related to the high impact of the automobile on Canadian life are discussed. In the manufacture of motor vehicles, over 2 billion kg of metal are used a year; although much of this comes from recycled materials, some depletion of nonrenewable resources is required. It is also estimated that 66-105 GJ of energy are needed to produce a motor vehicle, equivalent to as much as 20% of all the energy consumed during the vehicle's lifetime. Environmental impacts result from this use of resources and energy, including land disturbances and air pollution. Land use impacts are also those related to appropriation of urban and rural land for roadway and service uses, plus pollution of adjoining lands by road runoff. In 1990, the transportation sector used 29% of end-use energy, of which retail gasoline sales for motor vehicles accounted for 54%. Environmental impacts from oil refining, fuel combustion, and waste disposal are described, and programs to mitigate these impacts are outlined. Significant reductions in automobile emissions have already occurred from the increased use of emission control devices, improved fuel efficiency, and stricter standards. Further improvements are possible via such means as better manufacturing procedures, increased recycling of automobile components, better inspection and maintenance, and use of alternative fuels and alternate transportation modes. 35 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Technical efficiency of automobiles: A nonparametric approach incorporating carbon dioxide emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Hampf, Benjamin; Krüger, Jens

    2010-01-01

    We conduct an empirical analysis of the technical efficiency of cars sold in Germany in 2010. The analysis is performed using traditional data envelopment analysis (DEA) as well as directional distance functions (DDF). The approach of DDF allows incorporating the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions as an environmental goal in the efficiency analysis. A frontier separation approach is used to gain deeper insight for different car classes and regions of origin. Natural gas driven cars and spo...

  5. Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurlock, Cecily Anna [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-08

    I explore the effects of two simultaneous changes in minimum energy efficiency and ENERGY STAR standards for clothes washers. Adapting the Mussa and Rosen (1978) and Ronnen (1991) second-degree price discrimination model, I demonstrate that clothes washer prices and menus adjusted to the new standards in patterns consistent with a market in which firms had been price discriminating. In particular, I show evidence of discontinuous price drops at the time the standards were imposed, driven largely by mid-low efficiency segments of the market. The price discrimination model predicts this result. On the other hand, in a perfectly competition market, prices should increase for these market segments. Additionally, new models proliferated in the highest efficiency market segment following the standard changes. Finally, I show that firms appeared to use different adaptation strategies at the two instances of the standards changing.

  6. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  7. HOW TO OBTAIN ECONOMICALLY EFFICIENT ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES FOR CONSTRUCTIVE AUTOMOBILE ROAD AND STREET PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Verenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a methodology for evaluation of technical and economic efficiency of asphalt concrete mixture components. The method allows to perform a directed search for new materials which are used for mixture preparation and it also provides an efficient use of monetary funds. Firstly, it is possible to obtain this result due to optimum price-quality ratio of asphalt mixture which is determined by its service life in a pavement; secondly, it is possible to obtain this result due to  exclusion of errors while selecting components of the asphalt mixture out of the whole range applied presently in the world practice.

  8. Nonpolluting automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoolboom, G.J.; Szabados, B. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-11-01

    The advantages/disadvantages of energy storage devices, which can provide nonpolluting automobile systems are discussed. Four types of storage devices are identified: electrochemical (batteries); hydrogen; electromechanical (flywheels); and molten salt heat storage. A high-speed flywheel with a small permanent magnet motor/generator has more advantages than any of the other systems and might become a real competitor to the internal combustion engine. A flywheel/motor/generator system for automobiles now becomes practical, because of the technological advances in materials, bearings and solid state control circuits. The motor of choice is the squirrel cage induction motor, specially designed for automobile applications. The preferred controller for the induction motor is a forced commutated cycloconverter, which transforms a variable voltage/variable frequency source into a controlled variable-voltage/variable-frequency supply. A modulation strategy of the cycloconverter elements is selected to maintain a unity input displacement factor (power factor) under all conditions of loads voltages and frequencies. The system is similar to that of the existing automobile, if only one motor is used: master controller-controller-motor-gears (fixed)-differential-wheels. In the case of two motors, the mechanical differential is replaced by an electric one: master controller-controller-motor-gears (fixed)-wheel. A four-wheel drive vehicle is obtained when four motors with their own controllers are used. 24 refs.

  9. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise...

  10. Research on automobile culture and entertainment industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li Qing-song; Tang Lan; Cai Yun

    2012-01-01

    Rapid development of the automotive Industry and culture Industry is promoted the rapid rise of automobile industry of the culture and entertainment. With the further development of the automobile industry and people's living standards, automobile industry of the culture and entertainment in the proportion of China's economy is more and more important, but theoretical research in this area is nearly blank. With previous researches, automobile industry of the culture and entertainment in China...

  11. Who Pays for Energy Efficiency Standards?

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Policies to promote energy efficiency in household appliances have different impacts, depending on the structure of market supply. If provision is perfectly competitive, markets will offer the variety of energy efficiency levels that consumers demand. However, if producers can price discriminate, using energy intensity to help segment consumer demand, consumers of low-end appliances are offered too little energy efficiency so that high-end consumers can be charged more for efficient appliance...

  12. Nuclear performance standards: Promoting efficient generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear plant performance standards are designed to share the risks of operation associated with nuclear generation. Such standards often shift risks from ratepayers to utility shareholders, even without a finding of imprudence or mismanagement. The rationale underlying nuclear performance standards is that ratepayers should not be responsible for excessive replacement power costs incurred as a result of unreasonable decisions by utility management, especially because the high fixed costs of nuclear plants are already included in base rates. In addition, performance standards can be designed to provide incentives to reward utilities that achieve superior nuclear performance, for the benefit of both ratepayers and shareholders

  13. 75 FR 7556 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 460 RIN 1904-AC11 Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Advance notice of..., Mailstop EE-2J, Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing, EERE-2009-BT-BC-0021,...

  14. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND... consumption level at or better than the maximum level of energy efficiency that is life-cycle...

  15. Prerequisites for Development of Products Designed for Efficient Assembly - a Study about Making Knowledge Productive in the Automobile Inustry

    OpenAIRE

    Moestam Ahlström, Lena

    2002-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of the competence tocreate assembly efficient products. The assembly-relatedknowledge that is resident within an organisation is ofinestimable value and should be used, refined and developed inorder to obtain assembly efficient products. The question ishow competence development can be promoted organisationally.This thesis has adopted the working hypothesis thatmodularisation promotes competence in the development ofassembly efficient products. This posi...

  16. Efficient vehicles versus efficient transportation : comprehensive comparison of fuel efficiency standards and Transportation Demand Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T.

    2001-11-21

    There are two basic approaches for reducing fuel consumption in vehicles. The first is to increase fuel efficiency, and the other is to increase transportation system efficiency. The three strategies commonly proposed to increase fuel efficiency are: (1) Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency (CAFE) standards, which require vehicle manufacturers to produce and sell more efficient vehicles, (2) Feebates, which impose a surcharge on the purchase of fuel inefficient vehicles. Revenues from Feebates are used to provide a rebate on the purchase of fuel efficient vehicles, and (3) Predictable, long-term fuel tax increases, which involve raising fuel taxes beyond what would otherwise occur to motivate motorists to buy fuel efficient vehicles. There are several transportation management strategies which can help accomplish better efficiency in a transportation system. These include: (1) road pricing which charges motorists for using certain roads, (2) parking pricing, (3) Pay-As-You-Drive vehicle insurance, (4) improved transportation choices such as transit, cycling and walking improvements, rideshare programs, high occupancy vehicle (HOV) priority, telework and delivery services, (5) commute trip reduction programs, and (6) fuel price increases which involve raising fuel taxes to provide incentive to motorists to buy more fuel efficient vehicles. Energy conservation strategies that reduce vehicle mileage result in reduced traffic congestion, savings in parking facility costs, better traffic safety and environmental benefits. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Emissions Control and the Regulation of Product Markets: The Case of Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Rasha Ahmed; Kathleen Segerson

    2007-01-01

    The paper investigates alternative policies to regulate emissions from polluting product markets, specifically considering the case of the automobiles market. The two policies we consider are: a quota that limits the quantity produced of the polluting model and a more flexible average efficiency standard that requires a minimum energy efficiency across all models produced by a firm, similar to the US Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. We use a duopoly model of vertical different...

  18. Voice control in automobiles; Sprachbedienung im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, D.; Sitter, W. [Siemens VDO Automotive AG (Germany). Div. Infotainment Solutions; Kaemmerer, B. [Siemens Corporate Technology (Germany). Fachzentrum Professional Speech Processing

    2006-06-15

    Voice control simplifies handling the growing number of assistance, communication and convenience systems in automobiles. Siemens VDO Automotive have used the company's comprehensive know-how in the field of voice and communications machines from other sectors - particularly the telecommunications sector - to develop a voice control system for automobiles. It is distinguished by its intelligent architecture with high performance and extremely user-friendly features. (orig.)

  19. The automobile share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of a conversion of 120 billions metric tons of fossil carbon per year 1 billion are traffic related. But this amount is growing steadily. The global automobile density is about 10 automobiles per capita. It grows with 1.7% per year, as fast as the population. The number of automobiles doubles in 25 years. In all groups of developed countries the automobile density increased from 5 to 50 automobiles per capita in less than 50 years so far. Where is the fuel for the 1 billion automobiles of the year 2030 or 2050? Can one reduce this number or what chances does one have to reduce the adverse consequences? Whatever the number of motor vehicles will be, man will have the chance to reduce fuel consumption and therefore CO2-emission together with other emissions considerably

  20. 78 FR 37995 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Part 460 RIN 1904-AC11 Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request for Information (RFI). SUMMARY: The U.... Mohammed Khan, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

  1. Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

    2004-08-02

    Energy efficiency standards set minimum levels of energy efficiency that must be met by new products. Depending on the dynamics of the market and the level of the standard, the effect on the market for a given product may be small, moderate, or large. Energy efficiency standards address a number of market failures that exist in the buildings sector. Decisions about efficiency levels often are made by people who will not be responsible for the energy bill, such as landlords or developers of commercial buildings. Many buildings are occupied for their entire lives by very temporary owners or renters, each unwilling to make long-term investments that would mostly reward subsequent users. And sometimes what looks like apathy about efficiency merely reflects inadequate information or time invested to evaluate it. In addition to these sector-specific market failures, energy efficiency standards address the endemic failure of energy prices to incorporate externalities. In the U.S., energy efficiency standards for consumer products were first implemented in California in 1977. National standards became effective starting in 1988. By the end of 2001, national standards were in effect for over a dozen residential appliances, as well as for a number of commercial sector products. Updated standards will take effect in the next few years for several products. Outside the U.S., over 30 countries have adopted minimum energy performance standards. Technologies and markets are dynamic, and additional opportunities to improve energy efficiency exist. There are two main avenues for extending energy efficiency standards. One is upgrading standards that already exist for specific products. The other is adopting standards for products that are not covered by existing standards. In the absence of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards, it is likely that many new products will enter the stock with lower levels of energy efficiency than would otherwise be the case. Once in the stock

  2. HPGe Detector Efficiency Calibration Using HEU Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaymeh, S.R.

    2000-10-12

    The Analytical Development Section of SRTC was requested by the Facilities Disposition Division (FDD) to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility. The 321-M facility was used to fabricate enriched uranium fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the production reactors. The facility also includes the 324-M storage building and the passageway connecting it to 321-M. The results of the holdup assays are essential for determining compliance with the Solid Waste's Waste Acceptance Criteria, Material Control and Accountability, and to meet criticality safety controls. Two measurement systems will be used to determine highly enriched uranium (HEU) holdup: One is a portable HPGe detector and EG and G Dart system that contains high voltage power supply and signal processing electronics. A personal computer with Gamma-Vision software was used to provide an MCA card, and space to store and manipulate multiple 4096-channel g-ray spectra. The other is a 2 inches x 2 inches NaI crystal with an MCA that uses a portable computer with a Canberra NaI plus card installed. This card converts the PC to a full function MCA and contains the ancillary electronics, high voltage power supply and amplifier, required for data acquisition. This report describes and documents the HPGe point, line, area, and constant geometry-constant transmission detector efficiency calibrations acquired and calculated for use in conducting holdup measurements as part of the overall deactivation project of building 321-M.

  3. Stirling engines for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beremand, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The results of recent and ongoing automobile Stirling engine development efforts are reviewed and technology status and requirements are identified. Key technology needs include those for low cost, high temperature (1300 - 1500 F) metal alloys for heater heads, and reliable long-life, low-leakage shaft seals. Various fuel economy projections for Stirling powered automobiles are reviewed and assessed.

  4. Introduction to the High-Efficiency Video Coding Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Wu; Mina Li

    2012-01-01

    The high-efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard is the newest video coding standard currently under joint development by ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) and ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). HEVC is the next-generation video coding standard after H.264/AVC. The goals of the HEVC standardization effort are to double the video coding efficiency of existing H.264/AVC while supporting all the recognized potential applications, such as, video telephony, storage, broadcast, streaming, especially for large picture size video (4k x 2k). The HEVC standard will be completed as an ISO/iEC and ITU-T standard in January 2013. in February 2012, the HEVC standardization process reached its committee draft (CD) stage. The ever-improving HEVC standard has demonstrated a significant gain in coding efficiency in rate-distortion efficiency relative to the existing H.264/AVC. This paper provides an overview of the technical features of HEVC close to HEVC CD stage, covering high-level structure, coding units, prediction units, transform units, spatial signal transformation and PCM representation, intra-picture prediction, inter-picture prediction, entropy coding and in-loop filtering. The HEVC coding efficiency performances comparing with H.264/AVC are also provided.

  5. The automobile and environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocci, G.

    1979-10-01

    Actions taken by Expert's Group WP 29 of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe concerning the protection of the environment from automobile pollution are reported. Regulation 15, adopted by the group, establishes tests and sets limits for the amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides emitted from internal combustion engine automobile exhaust and crankcases under urban and idling conditions. Regulation 29 specifies limits to the same pollutants emitted from diesel engines, to be determined by measurements of the opacity of exhaust fumes during constant engine operation and acceleration. Regulations limiting pollutant emissions from motorcycles and mopeds have also been established, and, while adherence to these regulations has already reduced vehicle emissions, research is continuing on stricter controls, fuel conservation, test standardization for the United States and Japan, and analysis sampling methods.

  6. Efficiency of Management Systems, Based on International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Gafforova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers major trends of management systems standardization development and efficiency. The authors determine possible structure of effects in the process of integrated management systems implementation.

  7. The impact of transport processes standardization on supply chain efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Stajniak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: During continuous market competition, focusing on the customer service level, lead times and supply flexibility is very important to analyze the efficiency of logistics processes. Analysis of supply chain efficiency is one of the fundamental elements of controlling analysis. Transport processes are a key process that provides physical material flow through the supply chain. Therefore, in this article Authors focus attention on the transport processes efficiency. Methods: The research carried out in the second half of 2014 year, in 210 enterprises of the Wielkopolska Region. Observations and business practice studies conducted by the authors, demonstrate a significant impact of standardization processes on supply chain efficiency. Based on the research results, have been developed standard processes that have been assessed as being necessary to standardize in business practice. Results: Based on these research results and observations, authors have developed standards for transport processes by BPMN notation. BPMN allows authors to conduct multivariate simulation of these processes in further stages of research. Conclusions: Developed standards are the initial stage of research conducted by Authors in the assessment of transport processes efficiency. Further research direction is to analyze the use efficiency of transport processes standards in business practice and their impact on the effectiveness of the entire supply chain.

  8. Gasoline taxes or efficiency standards? A heterogeneous household demand analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using detailed consumer expenditure survey data and a flexible semiparametric dynamic demand model, this paper estimates the price elasticity and fuel efficiency elasticity of gasoline demand at the household level. The goal is to assess the effectiveness of gasoline taxes and vehicle fuel efficiency standards on fuel consumption. The results reveal substantial interaction between vehicle fuel efficiency and the price elasticity of gasoline demand: the improvement of vehicle fuel efficiency leads to lower price elasticity and weakens consumers’ sensitivity to gasoline price changes. The offsetting effect also differs across households due to demographic heterogeneity. These findings imply that when gasoline taxes are in place, tightening efficiency standards will partially offset the strength of taxes on reducing fuel consumption. - Highlights: • Model household gasoline demand using a semiparametric approach. • Estimate heterogeneous price elasticity and fuel efficiency elasticity. • Assess the effectiveness of gasoline taxes and efficiency standards. • Efficiency standards offset the impact of gasoline taxes on fuel consumption. • The offsetting effect differs by household demographics

  9. Solar Energy Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    HE Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  10. The automobile in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Lone, Stewart; Madeley, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Lone: The 1920s saw the emergence in Kansai of modern industrial urban living with the development of the underground, air services; wireless telephones, super express trains etc. Automobiles dominated major streets from the early 1920s in the new Age of Speed. Using Kyoto city as an example, the article covers automobile advertising, procedures for taxis, buses and cars and traffic safety and regulation. Madeley: Nissan Motor Company had a longer connection with the British industry than any...

  11. Commercial Discount Rate Estimation for Efficiency Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-13

    Underlying each of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) federal appliance and equipment standards are a set of complex analyses of the projected costs and benefits of regulation. Any new or amended standard must be designed to achieve significant additional energy conservation, provided that it is technologically feasible and economically justified (42 U.S.C. 6295(o)(2)(A)). A proposed standard is considered economically justified when its benefits exceed its burdens, as represented by the projected net present value of costs and benefits. DOE performs multiple analyses to evaluate the balance of costs and benefits of commercial appliance and equipment e efficiency standards, at the national and individual building or business level, each framed to capture different nuances of the complex impact of standards on the commercial end user population. The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis models the combined impact of appliance first cost and operating cost changes on a representative commercial building sample in order to identify the fraction of customers achieving LCC savings or incurring net cost at the considered efficiency levels.1 Thus, the choice of commercial discount rate value(s) used to calculate the present value of energy cost savings within the Life-Cycle Cost model implicitly plays a key role in estimating the economic impact of potential standard levels.2 This report is intended to provide a more in-depth discussion of the commercial discount rate estimation process than can be readily included in standard rulemaking Technical Support Documents (TSDs).

  12. A nuclear standard high-efficiency adsorber for iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of a nuclear standard high-efficiency adsorber, adsorbent and its performance are introduced. The performance and structure were compared with the same kind product of other firms. The results show that the leakage rate is less than 0.005%

  13. Energy-efficiency standards for electric motors in Brazilian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first regulation of the 'Energy Efficient Act' for electric motors, launched in 2002, established two sets of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS), for 'standard' (mandatory) and 'high efficiency' (voluntary) motors. An updated regulation, from the end of 2005 (Edict 553/2005), established the previous high-efficiency MEPS as mandatory for all motors in the Brazilian market. This paper analyses the consequences of this new regulation, which is foreseen to take effect in 2010. These new Brazilian MEPS are compatible with those implemented in other countries. The cost-benefit analysis, considered for different scenarios for industrial consumers, showed that motor substitution (from standard to high efficiency) is generally advantageous. A sample of nine thousand industrial motors has been used, with measured operation in actual conditions, to analyze the investment cost-benefit in three different scenarios. This analysis also demonstrated the benefit of motor substitution, with an average MWh cost from 20 to 35 US$, and with only a few substitutions presenting an unfavorable cost-benefit relationship to the user. We assess that Edict 553 avoided construction of 350 MW of hydroelectric capacity. Nevertheless, since the cost of conserved energy for this energy-saving measure is generally below the marginal cost of expansion of the Brazilian electric system, we propose mechanisms to share investment costs among the society as a whole, including demand-side bidding

  14. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  15. Environmental implications of alternative-fueled automobiles: Air quality and greenhouse gas tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyze alternative fuel-powerstrain options for internal combustion engine automobiles. Fuel/engine efficiency, energy use, pollutant discharges, and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for spark and compression ignited, direct injected (DI), and indirect injected (II) engines fueled by conventional and reformulated gasoline, reformulated diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and alcohols. Since comparisons of fuels and technologies in dissimilar vehicles are misleading, the authors hold emissions level, range, vehicle size class, and style constant. At present, CNG vehicles have the best exhaust emissions performance while DI diesels have the worst. Compared to a conventional gasoline fueled II automobile, greenhouse gases could be reduced by 40% by a DI CNG automobile and by 25% by a DI diesel. Gasoline- and diesel-fueled automobiles are able to attain long ranges with little weight or fuel economy penalty. CNG vehicles have the highest penalty for increasing range, due to their heavy fuel storage systems, but are the most attractive for a 160-km range. DI engines, particularly diesels, may not be able to meet strict emissions standards, at least not without lowering efficiency

  16. Efficient driving; Effizientes Fahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillmann, Gerhard; Prys, Gerhard; Klinkert, Carsten; Sauer, Juergen; Otasevic, Aleksandar; Steinbock, Robert [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    With the BMW Efficient Dynamics development strategy, the new BMW 7 Series is proving that a superior, dynamic driving experience with simultaneous reduction of fuel consumption and emissions can be combined with the premium standards of the luxury automobile class. (orig.)

  17. An efficient interpolation filter VLSI architecture for HEVC standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Lian, Xiaocong; Liu, Zhenyu; Liu, Xiaoxiang

    2015-12-01

    The next-generation video coding standard of High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is especially efficient for coding high-resolution video such as 8K-ultra-high-definition (UHD) video. Fractional motion estimation in HEVC presents a significant challenge in clock latency and area cost as it consumes more than 40 % of the total encoding time and thus results in high computational complexity. With aims at supporting 8K-UHD video applications, an efficient interpolation filter VLSI architecture for HEVC is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a new interpolation filter algorithm based on the 8-pixel interpolation unit is proposed in this paper. It can save 19.7 % processing time on average with acceptable coding quality degradation. Based on the proposed algorithm, an efficient interpolation filter VLSI architecture, composed of a reused data path of interpolation, an efficient memory organization, and a reconfigurable pipeline interpolation filter engine, is presented to reduce the implement hardware area and achieve high throughput. The final VLSI implementation only requires 37.2k gates in a standard 90-nm CMOS technology at an operating frequency of 240 MHz. The proposed architecture can be reused for either half-pixel interpolation or quarter-pixel interpolation, which can reduce the area cost for about 131,040 bits RAM. The processing latency of our proposed VLSI architecture can support the real-time processing of 4:2:0 format 7680 × 4320@78fps video sequences.

  18. Price Variability in Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph A. Fields; Emilio C. Venezian; David Jou

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the causes of variation in automobile insurance prices are examined within a small and homogenous state. The central hypothesis of interest is the relation between the price of automobile insurance and the quality of the product. The findings here indicate that the market is one which contains substantial frictions, making the search for automobile insurance products a worthwhile activity for consumers.

  19. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    OpenAIRE

    Ozomata David AHMED

    2011-01-01

    Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, openi...

  20. The emerging High Efficiency Video Coding standard (HEVC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High definition video (HDV) is becoming popular day by day. This paper describes the performance analysis of latest upcoming video standard known as High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). HEVC is designed to fulfil all the requirements for future high definition videos. In this paper, three configurations (intra only, low delay and random access) of HEVC are analyzed using various 480p, 720p and 1080p high definition test video sequences. Simulation results show the superior objective and subjective quality of HEVC

  1. Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-06-15

    This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration

  2. Northeast:Automobile Feast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet

    2008-01-01

    @@ The northeast has a lot of firsts in the history of China's industrial development,including the first automobile factory-FAW.Due to the system problem and many other complicated factors,quite a number of the northeastern industry enterprises are out of date during the China's economic transition period.

  3. On the automobile lightweight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; Yi Hongliang; Lu Hongzhou; Wan Xinming

    2012-01-01

    The significance, description parameters, evaluation method, implement way and design for lightweight of au- tomobile are comprehensively reviewed. The relationship among the performances of auto parts & components, the prop- erties of materials and application of advanced technologies is also elaborated. According to recently related progress of lightweight and authors' research and developing work, lightweight of automobile is comprehensively and systematically overviewed.

  4. Effect of Energy Efficiency Standards on Natural Gas Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnall, Michael; Dale, Larry; Lekov, Alex

    2011-07-26

    A primary justification for the establishment of energy efficiency standards for home appliances is the existence of information deficiencies and externalities in the market for appliances. For example, when a long-term homeowner purchases a new gas-fired water heater, she will maximize the value of her purchase by comparing the life-cycle cost of ownership of available units, including both total installed cost - purchase price plus installation costs - and operating cost in the calculus. Choice of the appliance with the lowest life-cycle costs leads to the most economically efficient balance between capital cost and fuel cost. However, if the purchaser's expected period of ownership is shorter than the useful life of the appliance, or the purchaser does not pay for the fuel used by the appliance, as is often the case with rental property, fuel cost will be external to her costs, biasing her decision toward spending less on fuel efficiency and resulting in the purchase of an appliance with greater than optimal fuel usage. By imposing an efficiency standard on appliances, less efficient appliances are made unavailable, precluding less efficient purchases and reducing fuel usage. The reduction in fuel demanded by residential users affects the total demand for such fuels as natural gas, for example. Reduced demand implies that residential customers are willing to purchase less gas at each price level. That is, the demand curve, labeled D{sub 0} in Figure 1, shifts to the left to D{sub 1}. If there is no change in the supply function, the supply curve will intersect the demand curve at a lower price. Residential demand is only one component of the total demand for natural gas. It is possible that total demand will decline very little if demand in other sectors increases substantially in response to a decline in the price. If demand does decrease, modeling studies generally confirm the intuition that reductions in demand for natural gas will result in reductions

  5. Assessment of the Japanese Energy Efficiency Standards Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Arakawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese energy efficiency standards program for appliances is a unique program which sets and revises mandatory standards based on the products of the highest energy efficiency on the markets. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of the standard settings for air conditioner as a major residential appliance or typical example in the program. Based on analyses of empirical data, the net costs and effects from 1999 to 2040 were estimated. When applying a discount rate of 3%, the cost of abating CO2 emissions realized through the considered standards was estimated to be -13700 JPY/t-CO2. The sensitivity analysis, however, showed the cost turns into positive at a discount rate of 26% or higher. The authors also revealed that the standards’ “excellent” cost-effectiveness largely depends on that of the 1st standard setting, and the CO2 abatement cost through the 2nd standard was estimated to be as high as 26800 JPY/t-CO2. The results imply that the government is required to be careful about the possible economic burden imposed when considering introducing new, additional standards.

  6. Impacts of optimum cost effective energy efficiency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building Codes are increasingly required to be responsive to social and economic policy concerns. In 1990 the State of Connecticut passes An Act Concerning Global Warming, Public Act 90-219, which mandates the revision of the state building code to require that buildings and building elements be designed to provide optimum cost-effective energy efficiency over the useful life of the building. Further, such revision must meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 - 1989. As the largest electric energy supplier in Connecticut, Northeast Utilities (NU) sponsored a pilot study of the cost effectiveness of alternative building code standards for commercial construction. This paper reports on this study which analyzed design and construction means, building elements, incremental construction costs, and energy savings to determine the optimum cost-effective building code standard. Findings are that ASHRAE 90.1 results in 21% energy savings and alternative standards above it result in significant additional savings. Benefit/cost analysis showed that both are cost effective

  7. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  8. Supply Chain Management Practices of Indian Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    B. S. Sahay; Vikram Sharma; G. D. Sardana

    2011-01-01

    The automobile industry is a major contributor to India’s economy. The Indian automobile manufacturers face stiff international competition in the wake of all major US and European car manufacturers entering the Indian market. In the contemporary scenario, supply chain management practices can be adopted to improve operational efficiency and profits. This paper presents the current status of Indian automotive supply chains. For this, data was collected by conducting a nationwide survey. The...

  9. The automobile after tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    This talk discusses the technical options available for automobiles within the next 5 to 10 years. With the objective to reduce consumption and pollution, several alternative approaches are presented and analyzed using simplified but realistic calculations. Main emphasis is laid on CO{sub 2} emission of the complete energy transformation path from the primary energy carrier to the energy dissipated in test cycles. It is shown that no single optimal solution exist but that a trade-off between consumption, pollution and cost must be made for each specific situation. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozomata David AHMED

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, opening of any door will disengage the device and the engine will stop. To restart the engine, the doors must be closed and the codes rendered sequentially-in this case the codes are 1974.

  11. State Energy Efficiency Resource Standards: Design, Status, and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, D.; Zinaman, O.

    2014-05-01

    An energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) is a policy that requires utilities or other entities to achieve a specified amount of energy savings through customer energy efficiency programs within a specified timeframe. EERSs may apply to electricity usage, natural gas usage, or both. This paper provides an overview of the key design features of EERSs for electricity, reviews the variation in design of EERSs across states, and provides an estimate of the amount of savings required by currently specified EERSs in each state. As of December, 2013, 23 states have active and binding EERSs for electricity. We estimate that state EERSs will require annual electricity savings of approximately 8-11% of total projected demand by 2020 in states with EERSs, however the level of savings targeted by the policies varies significantly across states. In addition to the variation in targeted savings, the design of EERSs varies significantly across states leading to differences in the suite of incentives created by the policy, the flexibility of compliance with the policy, the balance of benefits and costs of the policy between producers and consumers, and the certainty with which the policy will drive long-term savings.

  12. Automobile Club CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club CERN

    2010-01-01

     L’Assemblée Générale Ordinaire de «L’Automobile Club du CERN» s’est tenue le mercredi 12 janvier 2010. Le Président, J. Pierlot, souhaite la bienvenue aux membres présents, annonce l’agenda et résume les activités et événements du club pour l’année 2009. Le Club compte environ 600 membres, une petite diminution par rapport aux précédentes années dû surtout aux départs anticipés à la retraite. La cotisation reste inchangée : 50 CHF. Notre trésorier, E. Squadrani, présente de façon détaillée la situation du compte d’exploitation pour 2009 ainsi que le bilan de l’Automobile Club. Les comptes sont équilibrés, la situation de la trés...

  13. 76 FR 65971 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... parts 523 and 535), which were published in the Federal Register of Thursday, September 15, 2011 (76 FR... Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles AGENCY... will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on-road heavy-duty...

  14. Enforcement/certification program for appliance efficiency standards. Task I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-12

    The structure and features of selected certification programs were evaluated, their operational characteristics determined, and primary program problems and successes identified. An initial review of 50 certification programs in the Federal, state, and private sectors was performed, followed by a detailed review of 8 of the programs (EPA New Product noise; EPA Automobile Emissions, AHAM Room Air Conditioners; ARI Unitary Air Conditioners/Heat Pump; NHTSA Automobile Tire Safety; California Applicance Standards; Underwriters Laboratories Product Safety; and Ford's Quality-Assurance Program for Suppliers). Flow charts are presented to illustrate each program's structure and major characteristics. Matrices are developed to list the operating and control features of each program. Analyses of the 8 selected programs were performed to the degree necessary to develop and propose 5 potential approaches to an appliance certification/enforcement program (minimal intervention, strong certification control, strong enforcement audit, balanced certification and enforcement and strong enforcement remedies and deterrents). The approaches are documented in Section 3. The evaluation framework is described in Section 4, while a review of final test procedures and related public testimony are given in Section 5. (MCW)

  15. "Electronic Procurement networks and Parts Transaction Systems: A Case of the Automobile Industry"(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Je-Wheon Oh; Takahiro Fujimoto

    2001-01-01

    Inter-firm information systems in the automobile industry have evolved from firm-specific networks to industrial standard networks and further to internet. This paper examines how electronic parts procurement systems in the automobile industry affected its patterns of inter-firm transactions through empirical studies on information networks, transaction systems, and architectural characteristics of automobile parts. We argue that choice of a certain parts transaction system tends to affect ch...

  16. Standardized efficiency. Further development of international standardization of efficiency classes of electric motors and drive systems; Genormte Energieeffizienz. Aktuelle Weiterentwicklung der internationalen Normung zu Wirkungsgradklassen von Elektroantrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponick, Bernd [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Antriebssysteme und Leistungselektronik

    2011-07-01

    The international standardization of efficiency classes for electric motors and the efficiency legislation of the European Union based on this standardization have already influenced the development of standard motors for industrial applications significantly. On initiative of the European Commission, the next edition of the respective standard, which is currently elaborated, will incorporate also other types of electrical machines into the system of efficiency classes, which is currently restricted to standard cage induction motors. In a parallel standardization project, a new system of efficiency classes for converter fed power drive systems is being developed. These activities have important consequences for the development of new series of electric motors and the further development of electrical drive technology for industrial applications, which are discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  17. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs shoul...

  18. Eine durchgängige modellbasierte Entwicklungsmethodik für die automobile Steuergeräteentwicklung unter Einbeziehung des AUTOSAR Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Die Automobilindustrie befindet sich derzeit in einem Wandel, ausgelöst durch die Verbreitung von internationalen Standards wie AutomotiveSPICE, ISO 26262, AUTOSAR und der Realisierung von innovativen und kooperierenden Funktionen im Fahrzeug. Hierdurch ergeben sich neue Herausforderungen, die das Zusammenspiel zwischen den Automobilherstellern und den Zulieferern nachhaltig verändern. Besonders für die Zulieferer ergeben sich bei der Entwicklung von Steuergeräten Änderungen. Der AUTOSAR Stan...

  19. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  20. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  1. Chery Automobile: Chinese Firms catching up

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Yang, Sheng Yun

    2015-01-01

    textabstractChery Automobile Co., Ltd. is one of the few private automobile companies in China. Compared to state automobile companies, it lacks adequate resources and state support; compared to joint-venture brands, it cannot leverage popular and profitable international models. Despite these obstacles, Chery has developed dramatically over the last decade, becoming the top automobile exporter among all automobile companies in China. Strategic alliances served as the foundation of its amazin...

  2. The Linguistic Features of English Automobile Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐

    2014-01-01

    Household cars are largely demanded today, stimulating the economic development throughout the automobile industry. To enlarge market, all automobile producers pay great efforts to advertisements which result in a large quantity of automobile advertisements. Due to the rare analysis on the linguistic features of automobile advertisements, this essay makes a specific study on this. Analysis will be done through the perspectives of the lexical level, the syntactic level and the rhetoric level. Hence, valid references could be offered to future automobile advertisers.

  3. Automobile Driving and Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Novaco, Raymond W.

    1991-01-01

    Automobile driving and aggressive behavior have had an extensive association. Themes of dominance and territoriality have long been part of automobile driving, which has also involved flagrant assaultive actions. Recent episodes of roadway violence in metropolitan areas have raised community concern about aggressive behavior in driving, although common beliefs about why such violence occurs can be seen as pseudoexplanations. Various themes in the psychology of aggression are presented as they...

  4. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis

  5. 76 FR 45471 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution Transformers; Notice of Intent To Negotiate Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Chapter II RIN 1904-AC04 Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution Transformers; Notice of Intent To Negotiate Proposed Rule AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... Act (NRA) to negotiate proposed Federal standards for the energy efficiency of liquid immersed...

  6. 76 FR 50148 - Notice of Intent to Negotiate Proposed Rule on Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AC62 Notice of Intent to Negotiate Proposed Rule on Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution Transformers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... Negotiated Rulemaking Act (NRA) to negotiate proposed Federal standards for the energy efficiency of...

  7. 50 CFR 600.330 - National Standard 5-Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) General. The term “utilization” encompasses harvesting, processing, marketing, and non-consumptive uses of...) Efficiency. In theory, an efficient fishery would harvest the OY with the minimum use of economic inputs such... techniques of harvesting, processing, or marketing, and should avoid creating strong incentives for...

  8. The Setting of Progressive Energy Efficiency Performance Standards for Products through the Ecodesign Directive

    OpenAIRE

    Dalhammar, Carl

    2016-01-01

    The European Union (EU) sets mandatory energy efficiency standards for appliances and other energy-relevant products through the Ecodesign Directive. The standards set so far have improved energy efficiency in a very cost-effective way. The main aim of the Directive is to remove the worst performing products from the market. There is a discussion on the potential to set more progressive legal standards in order to more rapidly improve the energy efficiency of produc...

  9. WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY

    OpenAIRE

    SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA; SUMIT KUMAR JHA,; DR S.N. SINGH,

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V) automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant curren...

  10. WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant current to the battery.

  11. The Setting of Progressive Energy Efficiency Performance Standards for Products through the Ecodesign Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalhammar, Carl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU sets mandatory energy efficiency standards for appliances and other energy-relevant products through the Ecodesign Directive. The standards set so far have improved energy efficiency in a very cost-effective way. The main aim of the Directive is to remove the worst performing products from the market. There is a discussion on the potential to set more progressive legal standards in order to more rapidly improve the energy efficiency of products, or even induce ‘technology forcing’, which can be defined as standards requiring technology that goes beyond what is currently available on the market. This contribution examines different legal design options to set progressive energy standards and discusses the advantages and drawbacks with applying stricter standard-setting. The European ecodesign standards for vacuum cleaners are analyzed as they provide a recent example of standards with elements of technology forcing.

  12. Efficient Lattice-Based Signcryption in Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Signcryption is a cryptographic primitive that can perform digital signature and public encryption simultaneously at a significantly reduced cost. This advantage makes it highly useful in many applications. However, most existing signcryption schemes are seriously challenged by the booming of quantum computations. As an interesting stepping stone in the post-quantum cryptographic community, two lattice-based signcryption schemes were proposed recently. But both of them were merely proved to be secure in the random oracle models. Therefore, the main contribution of this paper is to propose a new lattice-based signcryption scheme that can be proved to be secure in the standard model.

  13. Meeting the Energy Challenge: New Standards for Industrial Motor Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    With an annual production of approximately 16 million pumps, production in 12 countries and a commercial representation in 52 countries, Grundfos takes its environmental responsibilities seriously. Grundfos takes a life cycle approach to product development, which corresponds to the company’s...... “Total Cost of Ownership” (TCO) philosophy. This is important for Grundfos, as important pump improvements address the energy performance and service cost in the product’s operation period. These improvements include energy savings and increased overall pump efficiency. TCO can, therefore, be used to...

  14. Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

  15. Standards to develop energy control and energy efficiency in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the late nineties, an energy control standardisation steering body was set up at the AFNOR, prompted by the French administration and ADEME which is chairing it. That body, which became a forum in 2006 brings together stakeholders in various areas concerned by that issue (industries, construction, transport, environment, services,...) as well as the representatives of main companies, professional organisations and standardisation operators acting in the area / of energy in France. Its purpose is to help exchange information and express needs in terms of standardisation in the area of energy and energy efficiency. On its initiative, the European standardisation committees CEN and CENELEC set up in 2002 an equivalent body responsible for the strategic coordination of their energy management programmes and entrusted the steering to our country (ADEME chairing, AFNOR secretariat). In order to better serve the interests of its members, the French forum is now working towards the leadership, in partnership with China, of the strategic standardisation group being set up at the ISO (International Standardisation Organisation) on energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. (authors)

  16. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  17. Determinants of automobile loan default and prepayment

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Agarwal; Ambrose, Brent W.; Souphala Chomsisengphet

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine whether a borrower’s choice of automobile reveals information about future loan performance. They find that loans on most luxury automobiles have a higher probability of prepayment, while loans on most economy automobiles have a lower probability of default, even when holding traditional risk factors, such as income and credit score, constant.

  18. 78 FR 54197 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AD01 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue...

  19. 75 FR 34657 - Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Parts 433 and 435 RIN 1904-AC13 Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed... INFORMATION CONTACT: Cyrus Nasseri, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  20. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM AUTOMOBILE INTERIORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of six subcompact automobiles for the emission of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and other organics into the passenger compartment. Evaluated were a Ford Pinto, AMC Gremlin, GMC Vega, GMC Chevette, NMC Datsun 710, and VW Rabbit. VCM was qua...

  1. The Effect of Changes in World Crude Oil Prices on U.S. Automobile Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Belenkiy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an export model where consumers differentiate between different types of automobiles by the distance they can travel on one dollar’s worth of fuel. The model predicts that the overall demand for vehicles falls as crude oil prices rise, and that the demand for less fuel-efficient vehicles falls relatively more. In particular, we estimate that between 2007 and 2008, when the crude oil prices increased by 32 percent, the export demand for the SUVs manufactured in the United States declined by over $700 million. This implies that the relatively less fuel-efficient U.S.-model vehicles will tend to suffer a competitive disadvantage worldwide when crude oil prices are high. We discuss the potential role of the proposed CAFÉ standards in improving fuel-efficiency and growing exports of the U.S. vehicle fleet.

  2. 75 FR 67059 - Public Hearings for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Pickup Trucks and Vans; and (3) Vocational Vehicles, as well as gasoline and diesel heavy-duty engines... tractors, pickup trucks, and vans, and EPA's proposed nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions standards would apply to all heavy- duty engines, pickup trucks, and vans. The proposal also includes...

  3. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  4. Does IT standardization help to boost cost and profit efficiency? Empirical evidence from German savings banks

    OpenAIRE

    Noth, Felix; Slotty, Constantin; Hackethal, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of IT standardization on bank performance based on a panel of 457 German savings banks over the period from 1996 to 2006. We measure IT standardization as the fraction of IT expenses for centralized services over banks' total IT expenses. Bank efficiency, in turn, is measured by traditional accounting performance indicators as well as by cost and profit efficiencies that are estimated by a stochastic frontier approach. Our results suggest that IT standardiza...

  5. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  6. PROSPECTS OF AUTOMOBILE TIRE RECYCLING

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Gusev; V. S. Demyanova

    2012-01-01

    Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize aut...

  7. Prelaunch Forecasting of New Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Glen L.; John R. Hauser; John H. Roberts

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a prelaunch model and measurement system to the marketing planning of a new automobile. The analysis addresses active search by consumers, dealer visits, word-of-mouth communication, magazine reviews, and production constraints---issues that are important in understanding consumer response to durable goods. We address these issues with a detailed consumer flow model which monitors and projects key consumer transitions in response to marketing actions. A test-vs...

  8. Automobile technology of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking ahead to the year 2000, this fascinating publication takes an in-depth look at new technology which will impact the passenger car of tomorrow. New developments in the areas of performance, reliability, comfort, fuel economy, safety, and environmental compatibility are examined. In this book the authors offer analysis on subjects such as the impact of legislation, the acceptance of ABS, and features of the future dashboard. Offering insight to readers with both technical and general interest in automobiles

  9. The dynamics of automobile expenditures

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, Adam

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for light motor vehicles. Consumers solve an optimal stopping problem in deciding if they want a new automobile and when in the model year to purchase it. This dynamic approach allows for determining how the mix of consumers evolves over the model year and for measuring consumers' substitution patterns across products and time. I find that temporal substitution is significant, driving consumers' entry into and exit from the market. Through counterfactuals, ...

  10. Electric automobil - wishes and reality

    OpenAIRE

    Duchoň, Bedřich; Opava, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    The demands on cars energy resources are given by the following items: power, speed, acceleration, operation range. All these factors are under balance: future wishes and contemporary reality. The proposal is dedicated to the analysis of demands related to the electric automobiles. As a hopefulness solution of these transport means can be seen for city transport (forwarding, shopping, postal services etc). The technical and economic approaches are discussed, too.

  11. Hybrid Voltage Regulator for Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sei-Ichi Denda; Tadashi Takahashi; Akihiro Sawamura

    1981-01-01

    In the course of the development of hybrid voltage regulators for automobile use, increasing the reverse blocking voltage with decreasing of saturation voltage for output power darlington transistors, the capability of monolithic IC chip against surge pulses generated in cars, and an improvement of the pattern design of thick film in order to withstand temperature cycling, have been important subjects. Power darlingtons have more than 150 V of reverse voltage as well as large secondary breakd...

  12. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  13. Standardization and Green Economic Change - the Case of Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Faria, Lourenco

    2015-01-01

    is rather to analyse longitudinal trends in the standardisation process itself, seeing these as important constituents of modern economic change. The paper traces more specifically changes in the thematic direction of the standardization process over time. The analysis seeks to capture when, where and how......This paper investigates the role of standardization for green economic change using energy efficiency in buildings as a case. Innovation research on standards tends to focus on the competition between competing emerging standards as well as the economic impacts of these. The idea pursued here...... energy efficiency becomes an issue in standardization work using buildings as a case. The paper seeks more specifically to investigate the rise of building related standards generally over time as well as in different technical areas and geographic regions. The hypothesis pursued in this paper...

  14. Potential energy savings and environmental impact by implementing energy efficiency standard for household refrigerators in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the rapid economic growth and improvement in standard of living, Chinese people are employing more and more household appliances to make their living convenient and comfortable, of which refrigerators are indispensable. Because refrigerators operate continuously irrespective of seasons and regions, the total electricity consumption of refrigerators is huge and consequently causes severe energy-related environmental issues. China has been paying more and more attention to this and issued a national energy efficiency standard, GB12021.2-2003, for refrigerators. This paper first describes the standard briefly. Then it develops a mathematic model to evaluate the potential energy savings and environmental impacts of the standard. The estimated results indicate implementing the standard will save large energy, as well as benefit greatly to environment. Thus, it is very necessary to implement energy efficiency standard for refrigerators in China

  15. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... external power supplies (EPSs). (77 FR 18478) That notice also proposed to establish standards for non... for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... proposed rulemaking to establish energy conservation standards for battery chargers and external...

  16. Pseudo Open Drain IO Standards Based Energy Efficient Solar Charge Sensor Design on 20nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, K; Pandey, B; Nanda, K;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an approach is made to design Pseudo open drain IO standards Based Energy efficient solar charge sensor design on 20nm and 28nm technology. We have used LVCMOS18, POD10, POD10_DCI and POD12 I/O standard. In this design, we have taken two main parameters for analysis that are frequen...

  17. Energy Efficiency Standards of Induction Motors, ¿Are you Prepared Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Londoño-Parra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the regulatory process regarding the energy efficiency of end-use prod-ucts is emerging with the draft technical regulation product labeling RETIQ, which includes in Annex E, the test methods for determining the efficiency of motors alternat-ing current induction. The goal of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency of induction motors between the countries of Latin America and the countries of the major economies of the globe, considering four aspects: the current state of classification standards and test procedures of induction motors efficiency, multilateral agreements of mutual recognition, the infrastructure to conduct tests of the standard and support programs to improve the efficiency of electric motor-driven systems. The study reveals that Latin America is a considerable delay in the implementation of classification standards and methods for testing the efficiency of electric motors, most widely used in the world: IEC 60034-30:2008, IEC 60034-2-1: 2007 IEEE 112:2004 and EPAct'92, with respect to the countries of the European Union, United States, China, Australia, and other developed countries, in which these standards have been adopted. Furthermore, the region is evident in the absence of programs focused on improving the energy efficiency of electric motors and a limited number of accredited laboratories to evaluate their efficiency, which leads to most Latin American countries to establish agreements mutual recognition for this purpose.

  18. Energy Efficiency Standards of Induction Motors, ¿Are you Prepared Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Londoño-Parra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the regulatory process regarding the energy efficiency of end-use products is emerging with the draft technical regulation product labeling RETIQ, which includes in Annex E, the test methods for determining the efficiency of motors alternating current induction. The goal of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency of induction motors between the countries of Latin America and the countries of the major economies of the globe, considering four aspects: the current state of classification standards and test procedures of induction motors efficiency, multilateral agreements of mutual recognition, the infrastructure to conduct tests of the standard and support programs to improve the efficiency of electric motor-driven systems. The study reveals that Latin America is a considerable delay in the implementation of classification standards and methods for testing the efficiency of electric motors, most widely used in the world: IEC 60034-30:2008, IEC 60034-2-1: 2007 IEEE 112:2004 and EPAct'92, with respect to the countries of the European Union, United States, China, Australia, and other developed countries, in which these standards have been adopted. Furthermore, the region is evident in the absence of programs focused on improving the energy efficiency of electric motors and a limited number of accredited laboratories to evaluate their efficiency, which leads to most Latin American countries to establish agreements mutual recognition for this purpose.

  19. 10 CFR 431.97 - Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates. 431.97 Section 431.97 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy...

  20. 75 FR 31323 - Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC22 Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting and availability of... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Mohammed Khan, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy......

  1. The status and development trend of the water chiller energy efficiency standard in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study we present here analyzes the status of the water chiller energy efficiency standard in China. The national standard, GB19577-2004, which sets the grade and scale of water chiller energy efficiency, has been implemented for five years and has produced achievements in energy-saving and emission reduction, which is a basic state policy in China. This paper presents extensive investigations on water chiller energy efficiency conducted in 2009 and compares these results with results from 2003. This analysis shows that the average energy efficiency level in 2009 was higher than in 2003. Moreover, large units with more than a 5000 kW cooling capacity have now appeared, and low efficiency units with EERs (energy efficiency ratios) below 3.8 have been phased out. The standard should be upgraded every five years. Therefore, this paper proposes a draft of a new energy efficiency standard. In the draft, thermodynamic perfectibility η is presented to be used as an indicator instead of the EER; for η, 0.4 is the minimum allowable value and 0.6 is the maximum value. There is one category of cooling capacities, from 100 to 2000 kW, in which the energy efficiency has a linear relationship with its cooling capacity.

  2. Analytical description of the modern steam automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity of operating conditions upon performance of the modern steam automobile is discussed. The word modern has been used in the title to indicate that emphasis is upon miles per gallon rather than theoretical thermal efficiency. This has been accomplished by combining classical power analysis with the ideal Pressure-Volume diagram. Several parameters are derived which characterize performance capability of the modern steam car. The report illustrates that performance is dictated by the characteristics of the working medium, and the supply temperature. Performance is nearly independent of pressures above 800 psia. Analysis techniques were developed specifically for reciprocating steam engines suitable for automotive application. Specific performance charts have been constructed on the basis of water as a working medium. The conclusions and data interpretation are therefore limited within this scope.

  3. Development of amorphous wire type MI sensors for automobile use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkura, Yoshinobu

    2002-08-01

    Amorphous wire type MI sensors have a high sensitivity compared to thin film MI sensors, but there have been reliability problems in developing an amorphous wire type MI sensor for automobile application because of the wide range of operating temperatures. It was difficult to achieve sufficient soldering strength between the amorphous wire and the electrode of the MI chip. In addition, stress is induced in the amorphous wire during soldering thus lowering the temperature stability characteristics. Therefore, we developed a new method for soldering the amorphous wire and a new method for assembly of the MI chip. Together with the redesign of the electronic circuit, these developments have yielded an MI sensor suitable for automobile application. This MI sensor has a sensitivity of 250 mV/Oe, has stable temperature characteristics between -40°C and 85°C and easily passed the thermal shock test, the most stringent durability test for automobile electronic parts. Two different types of products are under development; one is a standard type whose output is linear to the external magnetic field, and the other is a switch type whose output is ON or OFF relative to a threshold magnetic field. Future applications include an ABS sensor, an electronic compass, an automatic tracking system for automobiles and so on.

  4. Development of amorphous wire type MI sensors for automobile use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous wire type MI sensors have a high sensitivity compared to thin film MI sensors, but there have been reliability problems in developing an amorphous wire type MI sensor for automobile application because of the wide range of operating temperatures. It was difficult to achieve sufficient soldering strength between the amorphous wire and the electrode of the MI chip. In addition, stress is induced in the amorphous wire during soldering thus lowering the temperature stability characteristics. Therefore, we developed a new method for soldering the amorphous wire and a new method for assembly of the MI chip. Together with the redesign of the electronic circuit, these developments have yielded an MI sensor suitable for automobile application. This MI sensor has a sensitivity of 250 mV/Oe, has stable temperature characteristics between -40 deg. C and 85 deg. C and easily passed the thermal shock test, the most stringent durability test for automobile electronic parts. Two different types of products are under development; one is a standard type whose output is linear to the external magnetic field, and the other is a switch type whose output is ON or OFF relative to a threshold magnetic field. Future applications include an ABS sensor, an electronic compass, an automatic tracking system for automobiles and so on

  5. Hierarchical functional model for automobile development; Jidosha kaihatsu no tame no kaisogata kino model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, S. [U-shin Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nagamatsu, M.; Maruyama, K. [Hokkaido Institute of Technology, Sapporo (Japan); Hiramatsu, S. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A new approach on modeling is put forward in order to compose the virtual prototype which is indispensable for fully computer integrated concurrent development of automobile product. A basic concept of the hierarchical functional model is proposed as the concrete form of this new modeling technology. This model is used mainly for explaining and simulating functions and efficiencies of both the parts and the total product of automobile. All engineers who engage themselves in design and development of automobile can collaborate with one another using this model. Some application examples are shown, and usefulness of this model is demonstrated. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  6. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  7. The Automobile Buyer Behaviour: Emotional or Rational?

    OpenAIRE

    Economist Phd. Candidate CRUCERU Gheorghe; Assistant Professor Phd. Candidate MICUDA Dan

    2010-01-01

    The automobile buyer’s behaviour is a specific one and the knowledge and understanding of the motivations is important for the automobile manufacturers and distributors. Automobile buyers are the beneficiaries of complex high technology products, which have a long-term use. The paper is focused on understanding the mechanisms that underlie the buying process, the buyers’ expectations and needs, as essential elements for producers and distributors. When these mechanisms are controlled, the com...

  8. Automobile Fuel Economy: What is it Worth?

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Santosh; Espey, Molly

    2004-01-01

    The marginal value of increased automobile fuel economy is estimated using a hedonic model of 2001 model year automobiles sold in the United States. This value is then compared to the average expected lifetime fuel savings attributable to increased fuel economy. Results indicate that automobile buyers fully internalize fuel cost savings attributable to improved fuel economy at low discount rates, and may partially internalize other perceived benefits of improved fuel economy such as reduction...

  9. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (...

  10. 76 FR 49279 - Energy Efficiency Design Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ..., revised Federal building energy efficiency performance standards for new Federal buildings that require... building energy efficiency standards established under section 305. (42 U.S.C. 6835(a)) Section 306(b) bars... Federal agencies achieve building energy efficiency levels of at least 30 percent below ASHRAE Standard...

  11. 78 FR 40945 - Energy Efficiency Design Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... and Production Act (ECPA), as amended, requires DOE to establish building energy efficiency standards... must establish, by rule, revised Federal building energy efficiency performance standards for new... building energy efficiency standards established under section 305. (42 U.S.C. 6835(a)) Section 306(b)...

  12. Reduced Emissions and Lower Costs: Combining Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency into a Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn A [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Combining renewable energy and energy efficiency in Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards has emerged as a key state and national policy option to achieve greater levels of sustainable energy resources with maximum economic efficiency and equity. One advantage of the SEPS relative to a renewable portfolio standard or a stand-along energy efficiency resource standard is enhanced flexibility and broader options for meeting targets.

  13. The construction of a Danish automobile culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation.......The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation....

  14. The Emergence of the Chinese Automobile Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Baker; Markus Hyvonen

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese automobile sector has experienced rapid growth over the past decade, with China recently becoming the world’s largest producer of automobiles. Given the steel-intensive nature of automobile production, the expansion of China’s automobile sector has seen it become an important end-user of steel. With the number of cars in China still very low relative to its large population, car sales are likely to remain at a high level for the foreseeable future; accordingly, Chinese car mak...

  15. ELECTRICITY SAVINGS BY IMPLEMENTING ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS AND LABELS FOR CLOTHES WASHERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABU SALEH AHMED

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Clothes washers being one of the energy consuming household appliances in Malaysia have become a target for energy efficiency improvements. In the present study, a series of experiment investigations have been conducted on six clothes washers of varying capacities. The objectives are to develop the standards and labels. The test has been performed according to IEC (International Electrotechnical Commision clothes washers test specification. Using the experimental data, a baseline standard has been developed by statistical method. From the baseline standards, 10% standards have been developed. The baseline unit energy consumption was calculated to be 32 Wh/kg/cycle (average unit energy consumption of the six models and on the basis of baseline unit, standard unit energy consumption had been proposed to be 29 Wh/kg/cycle. It has been estimated with the introduction of minimum energy efficiency standards for clothes washer 38077037.46 kWh of energy could be saved per year. To develop a comprehensive energy guide labels, three labels had been design, which were star labeling, speedometer labeling and letter bin labeling. A survey was conducted with three different types of labels among the consumers and with the surveys respond, energy guide label of household clothes washers has been proposed for Malaysia. This is result from used of energy-efficient appliances product and is well positioned to promote more widespread efficient improvement.

  16. Improving the efficiency of quantitative (1)H NMR: an innovative external standard-internal reference approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yande; Su, Bao-Ning; Ye, Qingmei; Palaniswamy, Venkatapuram A; Bolgar, Mark S; Raglione, Thomas V

    2014-01-01

    The classical internal standard quantitative NMR (qNMR) method determines the purity of an analyte by the determination of a solution containing the analyte and a standard. Therefore, the standard must meet the requirements of chemical compatibility and lack of resonance interference with the analyte as well as a known purity. The identification of such a standard can be time consuming and must be repeated for each analyte. In contrast, the external standard qNMR method utilizes a standard with a known purity to calibrate the NMR instrument. The external standard and the analyte are measured separately, thereby eliminating the matter of chemical compatibility and resonance interference between the standard and the analyte. However, the instrumental factors, including the quality of NMR tubes, must be kept the same. Any deviations will compromise the accuracy of the results. An innovative qNMR method reported herein utilizes an internal reference substance along with an external standard to assume the role of the standard used in the traditional internal standard qNMR method. In this new method, the internal reference substance must only be chemically compatible and be free of resonance-interference with the analyte or external standard whereas the external standard must only be of a known purity. The exact purity or concentration of the internal reference substance is not required as long as the same quantity is added to the external standard and the analyte. The new method reduces the burden of searching for an appropriate standard for each analyte significantly. Therefore the efficiency of the qNMR purity assay increases while the precision of the internal standard method is retained. PMID:24013124

  17. A New Method for Estimation of Automobile Fuel Adulteration

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Anil; Sharma, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of increasing urban air pollution due to fast increasing number of auto mobiles and adulteration of automobile fuel has been pointed out in the context of developing countries. For prevention of the adulteration, the monitoring of fuel quality at the distribution point is essential. For the detection/estimation of the commonly used adulterants (i.e. diesel in petrol and kerosene in diesel), a number of possible methods have been reviewed. As such there is no standard method/equipm...

  18. Market Analysis of RFID Systems in Indian Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mariappan, Ramachandran

    2010-01-01

    RFID is an emerging hot technology in tracking and tracing physical objects. The market for RFID ranges from technological artefacts like tags and reader infrastructure to software solutions and supply chain services. One of the key business sectors that have seen the initial benefits of RFID applications is the Automobile sector through improvements in local processes related to better production control and increased handling efficiency. In recent years, there has been a palpable shift in t...

  19. HSTL IO Standard Based Energy Efficient Multiplier Design using Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madhok, Shivani; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Kaur, Amanpreet;

    2015-01-01

    this paper we have designed an energy efficient multiplier that consists of three inputs and one output. The temperature has been kept constant that is 25 degree Celsius. Airflow has been kept 250 LFM and medium Heat sink. IO Standards has been varied in order to achieve an energy efficient device. In......In this paper we have designed an energy efficient multiplier using Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah Vedic technique. Vedic mathematics consists of 16 sutras and these sutras were used by our ancient scholars for doing there calculation faster, when there were no computers and calculators...... this paper we have taken HSTL (High Speed Transceiver Logic) IOSTANDARD. In order to achieve speed and high performance in addition to energy efficiency, HSTL IO standard is used. HSTL family consists of HSTL _I, HSTL_II, HSTL_I_18 and HSTL_II_18, HSTL_I_12 and the analysis has been done on these IO...

  20. Efficient Video Transcoding from H.263 to H.264/AVC Standard with Enhanced Rate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Viet-Anh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new video coding standard H.264/AVC has been recently developed and standardized. The standard represents a number of advances in video coding technology in terms of both coding efficiency and flexibility and is expected to replace the existing standards such as H.263 and MPEG-1/2/4 in many possible applications. In this paper we investigate and present efficient syntax transcoding and downsizing transcoding methods from H.263 to H.264/AVC standard. Specifically, we propose an efficient motion vector reestimation scheme using vector median filtering and a fast intraprediction mode selection scheme based on coarse edge information obtained from integer-transform coefficients. Furthermore, an enhanced rate control method based on a quadratic model is proposed for selecting quantization parameters at the sequence and frame levels together with a new frame-layer bit allocation scheme based on the side information in the precoded video. Extensive experiments have been conducted and the results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  1. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to estimate the foreseeable impacts of aggressive minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) programs in the world’s major economies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a scenario to analyze the technical potential of MEPS in 13 major economies around the world1 . The “best available technology” (BAT) scenario seeks to determine the maximum potential savings that would result from diffusion of the most efficient available technologies in these major economies.

  2. On preparation of efficiency calibration standards for gamma-ray spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work on preparation of calibration standards started for the following reasons: development of gamma-spectrometry hardware and software requires adequate quality assurance system; the calibration standards offered by established firms are expensive. Preparation of standards in geometries to our specification would make them even more expensive; the analyst community accepted the idea of uniform quality assurance program and uniform calibration politics. Studied materials were: organic (styropore, ground coffee, tobacco leaves, seeds, flour, semolina, lentils, sugar, ion exchange resins, PTFE powder, rice, beans and bee honey) and inorganic (quartz sand, chalcedony sand, active charcoal, marble powder, zeolite, different clays, barite, soil, perlite, talc powder and their mixtures). Efficiency curves for geometry TB with different densities; Efficiency for different geometries; Comparison with Czech source 540-01, silicone resin, r = 0,98 g/cm3 for Co-60, Co-57, Cs-137 and Cs-139 are presented. Conclusions: A procedure for preparation of mixed-nuclide efficiency calibration standards in different geometries and having different densities has been developed. Advantages: different natural and artificial matrices used; gravimetrically controlled activity application; activated charcoal used as supporter of the activity; the preparation is in the container of the standard and no losses of activity occurs; high degree of activity distribution homogeneity; fixed volume of the standard

  3. Do Energy Efficiency Standards Improve Quality? Evidence from a Revealed Preference Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houde, Sebastien [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Minimum energy efficiency standards have occupied a central role in U.S. energy policy for more than three decades, but little is known about their welfare effects. In this paper, we employ a revealed preference approach to quantify the impact of past revisions in energy efficiency standards on product quality. The micro-foundation of our approach is a discrete choice model that allows us to compute a price-adjusted index of vertical quality. Focusing on the appliance market, we show that several standard revisions during the period 2001-2011 have led to an increase in quality. We also show that these standards have had a modest effect on prices, and in some cases they even led to decreases in prices. For revision events where overall quality increases and prices decrease, the consumer welfare effect of tightening the standards is unambiguously positive. Finally, we show that after controlling for the effect of improvement in energy efficiency, standards have induced an expansion of quality in the non-energy dimension. We discuss how imperfect competition can rationalize these results.

  4. Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Le groupe Volkswagen, 1er constructeur européen, a récemment annoncé vouloir défier le leader mondial Toyota. Dans ce contexte, les conclusions du suivi scientifique des profondes réformes de l’organisation du travail chez VW tombent à point nommé. Le programme Auto 5000 adopté par les partenaires sociaux en juin 2006 pourrait être la réplique allemande à ce « toyotisme » sur lequel Toyota a construit sa nouvelle compétitivité. (ib)

  5. PROSPECTS OF AUTOMOBILE TIRE RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Gusev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize automobile tires has been indicated. Physical and mechanical indicators have been established and the residual durability of metal cord as a product of tire processing has been evaluated. The comparative analysis with an industrial fiber has been carried out. The most technological and economic directions to be taken in the recycling of rubber scraps in order to do-mestically manufacture tile and of metal cord to manufacture fiber-concrete of various types are suggested for a “floating floor” structure.

  6. Your Automobile Dollar, [Revised.] Money Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Law, Jean L., Ed.

    This booklet on automobile purchasing and maintenance, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook discusses buying, maintaining, and operating cars. Section 1 discusses managing automobile dollars. Topics include…

  7. Evaluation of China's local enforcement of energy efficiency standards and labeling programs for appliances and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: This paper aims to evaluate local enforcement of China's mandatory appliance and equipment energy efficiency standards and labeling programs, two increasingly important policies for meeting national energy and carbon reduction targets. The expected energy savings of efficiency standards and labels can be fully realized only with strong enforcement to ensure compliance for all products sold. This paper provides comprehensive retrospective evaluation of the methodologies, results, progress and remaining challenges in pilot enforcement projects initiated in the absence of consistent national check-testing focused on energy efficiency. Scope: This paper's scope is focused on 2006–2009 pilot local check-tests conducted to verify appliance and equipment compliance with China's mandatory energy label and efficiency standards. Conclusions: This paper finds both improvement and some backsliding in compliance rates over time. Compared to earlier efforts, 2009 check-tests covered a wider regional and product scope but demonstrated greater variation in compliance rates. Labeling display and energy efficiency compliance was generally high across regions and most products, but lower compliance rates were observed in less economically developed regions and for lighting and industrial products. Based on these findings, areas for improvement in local awareness, product sampling methodology, check-testing tools and procedures are identified. - Highlights: • China's mandatory standards and labeling crucial to national energy saving goals. • China's 2006–2009 pilot efficiency check-testing for standards and labeling evaluated. • Wider geographic and product scope in 2009, but greater variation in compliance. • Generally high compliance, but lower rates for less economically developed region. • Local check-test capacity improving but methodological challenges remain

  8. Study of automobile exhaust particles by spectromicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper,automobile exhaust particles of Gol and Santana 3000 were studied by spectro microscopy. The STXM results show that the single particulate is sized at 500 nm, with the mass distribution reducing towards the center. The N 1s NEXAFS spectra of automobile exhaust particles have similar structure with those of nitrates, which can be deduced as the main chemical species of nitrogen in automobile exhaust particles. There are minor amounts of ammonium and organic nitrogen compounds in automobile exhaust particles. A single Gol automobile exhaust particle was stack scanned in the energy range of 396-416 eV. By principal component analysis and cluster analysis, it can be deduced that there are main three chemical species of nitrogen. The particle surface consists of mainly nitrates, the inside consists of mainly ammonium and organic nitrogen compounds, and the middle layer is an inter gradation consisting of mainly nitrates and organic nitrogen compounds. (authors)

  9. Re-Evaluating the Role of Energy Efficiency Standards: A Time-Consistent Behavioral Economics Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tsvetan Tsvetanov; Kathleen Segerson

    2011-01-01

    The economic models that prescribe Pigovian taxation as the first-best means of reducing energy-related externalities and argue that taxes are superior to energy efficiency standards are typically based on the neoclassical model of rational consumer choice. Yet, observed consumer behavior with regards to energy use and the purchase of energy-using durable goods is generally thought to be far from efficient, giving rise to the concept of the “energy-efficiency gap.” In this paper, we present a...

  10. Thinking Globally: How ISO 50001 - Energy Management can make industrial energy efficiency standard practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Desai, Deann; Matteini, Marco; Meffert, William; Williams, Robert; Risser, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Industry utilizes very complex systems, consisting of equipment and their human interface, which are organized to meet the production needs of the business. Effective and sustainable energy efficiency programs in an industrial setting require a systems approach to optimize the integrated whole while meeting primary business requirements. Companies that treat energy as a manageable resource and integrate their energy program into their management practices have an organizational context to continually seek opportunities for optimizing their energy use. The purpose of an energy management system standard is to provide guidance for industrial and commercial facilities to integrate energy efficiency into their management practices, including fine-tuning production processes and improving the energy efficiency of industrial systems. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has identified energy management as one of its top five priorities for standards development. The new ISO 50001 will establish an international framework for industrial, commercial, or institutional facilities, or entire companies, to manage their energy, including procurement and use. This standard is expected to achieve major, long-term increases in energy efficiency (20percent or more) in industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide.This paper describes the impetus for the international standard, its purpose, scope and significance, and development progress to date. A comparative overview of existing energy management standards is provided, as well as a discussion of capacity-building needs for skilled individuals to assist organizations in adopting the standard. Finally, opportunities and challenges are presented for implementing ISO 50001 in emerging economies and developing countries.

  11. Globalization of the automobile industry in China. Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin

    2001-08-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policy making and transport management. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems and stronger emissions control would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. (author)

  12. Energy Transformation: Teaching Youth about Energy Efficiency while Meeting Science Essential Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Chilcote, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Energy Transformation 4-H school enrichment curriculum. The curriculum addresses energy efficiency and conservation while meeting sixth-grade science essential standards requirements. Through experiential learning, including building and testing a model home, youth learn the relationship between various technologies and…

  13. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the

  14. Status of the Local Enforcement of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Program in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fino-Chen, Cecilia; Fridley, David; Ning, Cao

    2011-09-26

    As part of its commitment to promoting and improving the local enforcement of appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling, the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS) launched the National and Local Enforcement of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling project on August 14, 2009. The project’s short-term goal is to expand the effort to improve enforcement of standards and labeling requirements to the entire country within three years, with a long-term goal of perfecting overall enforcement. For this project, Jiangsu, Shandong, Sichuan and Shanghai were selected as pilot locations. This report provides information on the local enforcement project’s recent background, activities and results as well as comparison to previous rounds of check-testing in 2006 and 2007. In addition, the report also offers evaluation on the achievement and weaknesses in the local enforcement scheme and recommendations. The results demonstrate both improvement and some backsliding. Enforcement schemes are in place in all target cities and applicable national standards and regulations were followed as the basis for local check testing. Check testing results show in general high labeling compliance across regions with 100% compliance for five products, including full compliance for all three products tested in Jiangsu province and two out of three products tested in Shandong province. Program results also identified key weaknesses in labeling compliance in Sichuan as well as in the efficiency standards compliance levels for small and medium three-phase asynchronous motors and self-ballasted fluorescent lamps. For example, compliance for the same product ranged from as low as 40% to 100% with mixed results for products that had been tested in previous rounds. For refrigerators, in particular, the efficiency standards compliance rate exhibited a wider range of 50% to 100%, and the average rate across all tested models also dropped from 96% in 2007 to 63%, possibly due to

  15. Projected electricity savings from implementing minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerators in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Malaysian economy has grown rapidly in the last two decades. This growth has increased the ownership of household electrical appliances, especially refrigerator-freezers. Almost every house in Malaysia owns a refrigerator-freezer. The Malaysia Energy Center considered implementing a minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers sometime in the coming year. This paper attempts to predict the amount of energy savings in the residential sector by implementing a minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers. The calculations are based on the growth of refrigerator-freezer ownership data in Malaysian households. By implementing the programs in 2004, about 8722 GWh will be saved in the year 2013. Therefore, efficiency improvement of this appliance will provide a significant impact in future electricity consumption in Malaysia

  16. La dépendance automobile pour l'accès des ménages aux services : Le cas de la grande couronne francilienne

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Motte-Baumvol

    2007-01-01

    The automobile dependence raises the question of social economic standard in mobility. In the outer suburbs of Paris, the automobile is the key element that determines the location of general services and the access of households to those services. Yet, this appreciation must be moderated according to territories and populations. Some territories depend less on the automobile, and part of households have developed an alternative system of mobility that partially compensates the absence or the...

  17. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Pop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  18. Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels in North America: Opportunities for Harmonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanwiemcgrory, Laura; Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harrington, Lloyd

    2002-05-16

    To support the North American Energy Working Group's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document reached the following conclusions: Out of 24 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations, three products -- refrigerators/freezers, split system central air conditioners, and room air conditioners -- have similar or identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in the three countries. These same three products, as well as three-phase motors, have similar or identical test procedures throughout the region. There are 10 products with different MEPS and test procedures, but which have the short-term potential to develop common test procedures, MEPS, and/or labels. Three other noteworthy areas where possible energy efficiency initiatives have potential for harmonization are standby losses, uniform endorsement labels, and a new standard or label on windows. This paper explains these conclusions and presents the underlying comparative data.

  19. Electricity savings from implementation of minimum energy efficiency standard for TVs in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varman, M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-06-01

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD in Malaysia are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the country. With the increasing of overall TV energy consumption, energy efficiency standards are one of highly effective policies for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. Energy efficiency standards are also capable of reducing consumer's electricity bill and contribute towards positive environmental impacts. This paper attempts to predict the amount of energy that can be saved in the residential sector by implementing minimum energy efficiency standard for television sets in Malaysia. Over the past 30 years, television ownership in Malaysian residents has increased from 186,036 units in 1970 to 2,741,640 units in 1991. This figure is expected to reach 6,201,316 units in the year 2010. Hence, efficiency improvement for this appliance will have a significant impact on the future of electricity consumption in this country. (author)

  20. Decision on optimal building energy efficiency standard in China-The case for Tianjin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the optimal choice of building energy efficiency (BEE) standard in the context of centralised urban district heating system in northern China. By employing a techno-economic analysis approach, we demonstrate that the current BEE standard implemented in the Chinese cities should be tightened further in order to achieve a socially optimal level. Without considering the externality costs associated with carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, current BEE standards need to be upgraded to the equivalent level of French RT2005 standard coupled with a properly designed district coal-fired Combined Heat and Power (CHP). In contrast, the equivalent efficiency standard of Swedish building code is preferably to be implemented in the case of explicit carbon emission restriction as long as the marginal cost of carbon emission (carbon price) is sufficiently high. The fuel-switching policy (from coal to natural gas) in the urban district heating system would result in significant increase in overall costs if the BEE upgrade is not taken into account simultaneously. It is also found that BEE improvements in northern Chinese cities are more cost-effective than investing in low-carbon technologies such as wind power or Carbon Capture and storage in the EU and US with regard to CO2 emissions mitigation.

  1. Reduced emissions and lower costs: combining renewable energy and energy efficiency into a sustainable energy portfolio standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn A.; York, Dan; Kushler, Martin

    2007-05-15

    Combining renewable energy and energy efficiency in Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standard (SEPS) has emerged as a key state and national policy option to achieve greater levels of sustainable energy resources with maximum economic efficiency and equity. One advantage of the SEPS relative to a renewable portfolio standard or a stand-alone energy efficiency resource standard is enhanced flexibility and broader options for meeting targets. (author)

  2. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  3. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  4. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  5. Analytical Expressions of the Efficiency of Standard and High Contact Ratio Involute Spur Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pleguezuelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple, traditional methods for computation of the efficiency of spur gears are based on the hypotheses of constant friction coefficient and uniform load sharing along the path of contact. However, none of them is accurate. The friction coefficient is variable along the path of contact, though average values can be often considered for preliminary calculations. Nevertheless, the nonuniform load sharing produced by the changing rigidity of the pair of teeth has significant influence on the friction losses, due to the different relative sliding at any contact point. In previous works, the authors obtained a nonuniform model of load distribution based on the minimum elastic potential criterion, which was applied to compute the efficiency of standard gears. In this work, this model of load sharing is applied to study the efficiency of both standard and high contact ratio involute spur gears (with contact ratio between 1 and 2 and greater than 2, resp.. Approximate expressions for the friction power losses and for the efficiency are presented assuming the friction coefficient to be constant along the path of contact. A study of the influence of some transmission parameters (as the gear ratio, pressure angle, etc. on the efficiency is also presented.

  6. Standardization of electron-capture and complex beta-gamma radionuclides by the efficiency extrapolation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency extrapolation method was improved by establishing ''linearity conditions'' for the discrimination on the gamma channel of the coincidence equipment. These conditions were proved to eliminate the systematic error of the method. A control procedure for the fulfilment of linearity conditions and estimation of residual systematic error was given. For law-energy gamma transitions an ''equivalent scheme principle'' was established, which allow for a correct application of the method. Solutions of Cs-134, Co-57, Ba-133 and Zn-65 were standardized with an ''effective standard deviation'' of 0.3-0.7 per cent. For Zn-65 ''special linearity conditions'' were applied. (author)

  7. Total Digestion Efficient Results For Thorium Isotopes For Standard Reference Material (SRM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemical separation procedures are required to determine thorium isotopes in the environmental samples which has been used in the Radiochemistry and Environment Laboratory (RAS). Therefore, to testify the results is more efficient and reliable, the leaching and totally dissolve acid have been used in the radiochemical separation procedures for ten standard material reference (SRM) samples. From the finding shows different results of U-score, which is a totally dissolved method is more reliable and efficient compared to leaching method. Both of the digested samples are counting using alpha spectrometry counting system for 72 hours. (author)

  8. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  9. Standardization of /sup 137/Cs - some remarks on the efficiency function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballaux, C. (Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium))

    1983-08-01

    A solution of /sup 137/Cs has been standardized by means of 4..pi..(NaI(Tl)) integral counting and by 4..pi..(PC)-..gamma.. efficiency tracing and extrapolation with /sup 134/Cs as tracer. Both methods giving nearly equal results, a ..gamma..-ray-emission probability per decay of 0.8516 +- 0.0020 is deduced for the 661.6-keV transition of sup(137m)Ba. The ..beta..-ray spectra of both cesium isotopes have been calculated in order to attempt to interpret the efficiency function.

  10. Comparison of the Energy Efficiency Prescribed by ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 and ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Liu, Bing; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2006-12-01

    This document presents the qualitative comparison of DOE’s formal determination of energy savings of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004. The term “qualitative” is used in the sense of identifying whether or not changes have a positive, negative, or neutral impact on energy efficiency of the standard, with no attempt made to quantify that impact. A companion document will present the quantitative comparison of DOE’s determination. The quantitative comparison will be based on whole building simulation of selected building prototypes in selected climates. This document presents a comparison of the energy efficiency requirements in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-1999 (herein referred to as Standard 90.1-1999) and ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004 (herein referred to as Standard 90.1-2004). The comparison was done through a thorough review of all addenda to Standard 90.1-1999 that were included in the published ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2001 (herein referred to as Standard 90.1-2001) and also all addenda to Standard 90.1-2001 that were included in the published Standard 90.1-2004. A summary table showing the impact of each addendum is provided. Each addendum to both Standards 90.1-1999 and 90.1-2001 was evaluated as to its impact on the energy efficiency requirements of the standard (greater efficiency, lesser efficiency) and as to significance. The final section of this document summarizes the impacts of the various addenda and proposes which addenda should be included in the companion quantitative portion of DOE’s determination. Addenda are referred to with the nomenclature addendum 90.1-xxz, where “xx” is either “99” for 1999 or “01” for 2001, and z is the ASHRAE letter designation for the addendum. Addenda names are shown in bold face in text. DOE has chosen not to prepare a separate evaluation of Standard 90.1-2001 as that standard does not appear to improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings. What this means for the determination of energy

  11. Efficient premature edge breakdown prevention in SiAPD fabrication using the standard CMOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of premature edge breakdown (PEB) and available PEB prevention (PEBP) techniques in silicon avalanche photodiode fabrication using the standard complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) process are scrutinized in this paper. Impact of device simulation and its induced impacts on fabrication are addressed based on our design, simulation and fabrication experiences. Three most common PEBP techniques are implemented followed by a systematic study aimed at miniaturization, while optimizing the overall performance. The p-well-, p-sub- and n-well-based PEBP techniques are evaluated and compared based on simulation and fabrication results using the standard CMOS process. The results demonstrate that the n-well guard ring offers the most efficient PEBP technique. This technique offers a high-gain (∼800), low-noise dark current rate (DCR = 40 Hz), high detection efficiency (70%) avalanche photodiode with a higher functionality probability. (paper)

  12. Multi-Layer Extension of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Li; Ping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Multi⁃layer extension is based on single⁃layer design of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard and employed as the com⁃mon structure for scalability and multi⁃view video coding extensions of HEVC. In this paper, an overview of multi⁃layer extension is presented. The concepts and advantages of multi⁃layer extension are briefly described. High level syntax (HLS) for multi⁃layer extension and several new designs are also detailed.

  13. Estimating carbon emissions avoided by electricity generation and efficiency projects: A standardized method (MAGPWR)

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, S.; Marnay, C.; Schumacher, K.; Sathaye, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a standardized method for establishing a multi-project baseline for a power system. The method provides an approximation of the generating sources that are expected to operate on the margin in the future for a given electricity system. It is most suitable for small-scale electricity generation and electricity efficiency improvement projects. It allows estimation of one or more carbon emissions factors that represent the emissions avoided by projects, striking a bala...

  14. The rolling and skidding of automobile tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, D.

    1994-09-01

    This article deals in simple terms with the rolling and skidding of automobile tyres. It shows that skid resistance on slippery road surfaces may be significantly increased by using tyre treads of high hysteresis loss.

  15. Information searches by consumers of miniature automobiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dao-ping; LIU Wei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the information search behaviors of Chinese consumers of miniature automobiles. First, we identified the main sources where consumers acquire or seek information about miniature automobiles and discussed their extent of information search. Then, based on logistic regression and optimal scaling regression of statistics, we studied the influences of characteristics of consumers of miniature automobiles on the extent of information search and on Internet usage. The results indicate that consumers often utilize four sources to obtain information about miniature automobiles. The dominant information source for consumers is their friends/family, followed by dealers, newspapers, and TV. Age, occupation, education and income significantly affect the extent of information search, but gender and city of residence do not have significant impacts. Age, city of residence, occupation, education and income produce significant influences on Internet usage. Gender has an insignificant influence on whether a consumer uses the Internet to search for information.

  16. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  17. CHOICE OF STRATEGY DIVERSIFICATION ON AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Bilichenko, V.; Tsymbal, S.

    2005-01-01

    The block diagram which with use of imitating modelling will allow to choose optimum strategy diversification the enterprises of automobile transport is developed, having received the maximal profit at the minimal expenses.

  18. The Honey Trap:The democratization of leisure through automobilism

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Michael F. Wagner: The Honey Trap –The democratization of leisure through automobilismThe automobile has achieved a central position in modern everyday life as an essential artefact to mobility. This raises the question how automobiles have been mediated for mass consumption? The central thesis in the article is that the culture of Danish automobilism was constructed around and appropriated through leisure activities conducted primarily by the automobile consumer’s organisation Touring Club d...

  19. International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-02-28

    Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process

  20. China's Automobile:Walk into Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The press conference and flag presentation ceremony of the 6th China Auto International fAlgeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour was held on November 3,2008 at China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT),Beijing.An international exhibition automobile team,which is composed of China's independent brands and represents the independent research,development and manufacturing level of Chinese automobile industry,is ready to set out for Africa.

  1. Competition in the IndianAutomobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT “Following India's growing openness, the arrival of new and existing models, easy availability of finance at relatively low rate of interest and price discounts offered by the dealers and manufacturers all have stirred the demand for vehicles and a strong growth of the Indian automobile industry”. The main focus of my dissertation will be the Indian automobile industry due to its rich diversity and ever-changing patterns. The Research Question which I would follow would be t...

  2. Efficiency of standard and high capacity HEPA filters during simulated tornado and explosive pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filters were subjected to simulated tornado transients and high capacity HEPA filters to simulated explosive shock waves to determine their filtering efficiency and particulate release characteristics during these events. Efficiencies, measured by introducing a monodispersed aerosol upstream of the test filters and collecting it on nucleopore filters downstream of the test filters proved to be as low as 98.17% during tornado transients and as low as 71% during explosive transients. Particulate released from loaded filters during tornado transients amounted to about 10 μg of polystyrene latex. For explosive transients the mass of released polystyrene particulate was on the order of 1.0 mg. (author)

  3. Distributional impacts of energy-efficiency certificates vs. taxes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency certificates, dubbed 'white certificates', have been recently implemented in the United Kingdom and will soon start in Italy and France. Energy suppliers have to fund a given quantity of energy efficiency measures, or to buy 'white certificates' from other suppliers who exceed their target. We develop a partial equilibrium model to compare white certificates to other policy instruments for energy efficiency, i.e., taxes and standards. Our conclusions are: First, if white certificates are chosen, each supplier's target should be set as a percentage of the energy they sell rather than in absolute terms. Indeed the latter solution decreases sharply energy suppliers' profit since they cannot pass the cost of certificate generation on to consumers. Such a system thus risks generating a fierce opposition from these industries. Furthermore, setting individual targets independently of the evolution of market shares seems unfair. At last, this system risks creating a large rebound effect, i.e., a large increase in energy services consumption. Second, compared to taxes and standards, white certificates (with targets in percentage of energy sold) seem particularly interesting to reach a certain level of energy savings while limiting distributional effects, thus to limit oppositions to its implementation. Furthermore, they generate less rebound effect than standards and seem more able than taxes to mobilise a part of the no regret potential. However if targets are too weak there is a real risk that white certificates systems fund mostly business-as-usual energy efficiency activities, thus having little impact while delaying the implementation of other policy instruments

  4. The enactment of thermal efficiency standard for domestic gas appliances and its foreground of Implementing in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGShini; PENGLuo; FUXiuping

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the principles we should obey and the problems we should be confronted with when thermal efficiency standards for instantaneous gas water heaters and gas ranges are enacted. It is considered that enactment of thermal efficiency standards for domestic gas appliances could intensify economization on domestic gas utilization and marked economic and environmental benefits could be generated consequently.

  5. Impact of higher energy efficiency standards on housing affordability in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of changes to provincial and national building and energy costs, the impact of increasing energy efficiency standards on housing affordability has been questioned. Determining housing affordability is a complicated process. This report presented the results of a costing analysis completed for upgrades of EnerGuide 80 levels of energy efficiency in homes in Calgary and Edmonton, Alberta. The elements of residential construction were identified. In order to better understand the cost impact of energy efficiency upgrades on a home, pricing data was obtained. Costing elements that were examined included housing price indexes; construction material price indexes; unionized trade wages; and land value. Specifically, the report presented the new housing price index analysis using material and labour costs. An analysis of energy efficiency improvement was then presented in terms of lifecycle costs (capital costs and life cycle costing results). It was concluded that although the price of labour and materials is increasing, the value of land is the primary driver for rising house prices. The price of housing is strongly correlated to the price of land and not the price of labour or materials. In addition, moving to EnerGuide 80 levels of energy efficiency for housing in Alberta made homes more affordable for homebuyers by lowering their total monthly housing costs. 4 tabs., 3 figs., 3 appendices.

  6. Carbon dioxide emission standards for U.S. power plants. An efficiency analysis perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampf, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Fachbereich Rechts- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften; Roedseth, Kenneth Loevold [Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Economics and Logistics

    2013-07-01

    On June 25, 2013, President Obama announced his plan to introduce carbon dioxide emission standards for electricity generation. This paper proposes an efficiency analysis approach that addresses which mission rates (and standards) would be feasible if the existing generating units adopt best practices. A new efficiency measure is introduced and further decomposed to identify different sources' contributions to emission rate improvements. Estimating two Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models - the well-known joint production model and the new materials balance model - on a dataset consisting of 160 bituminous-fired generating units, we find that the average generating unit's electricity-to-carbon dioxide ratio is 15.3 percent below the corresponding best-practice ratio. Further examinations reveal that this discrepancy can largely be attributed to non-discretionary factors and not to managerial inefficiency. Moreover, even if the best practice ratios could be implemented, the generating units would not be able to comply with the EPA's recently proposed carbon dioxide standard.

  7. Carbon dioxide emission standards for U.S. power plants. An efficiency analysis perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 25, 2013, President Obama announced his plan to introduce carbon dioxide emission standards for electricity generation. This paper proposes an efficiency analysis approach that addresses which mission rates (and standards) would be feasible if the existing generating units adopt best practices. A new efficiency measure is introduced and further decomposed to identify different sources' contributions to emission rate improvements. Estimating two Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models - the well-known joint production model and the new materials balance model - on a dataset consisting of 160 bituminous-fired generating units, we find that the average generating unit's electricity-to-carbon dioxide ratio is 15.3 percent below the corresponding best-practice ratio. Further examinations reveal that this discrepancy can largely be attributed to non-discretionary factors and not to managerial inefficiency. Moreover, even if the best practice ratios could be implemented, the generating units would not be able to comply with the EPA's recently proposed carbon dioxide standard.

  8. Energy efficiency standards for refrigerators in Brazil: A methodology for impact evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil energy efficiency standards for cold appliances was established in 2007. A specified single set of MEPS (minimum energy performance standards) for refrigerators, freezers and freezer refrigerators was implemented without evaluating its impacts and estimation of potential electricity savings. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the impacts of the Brazilian MEPS for cold appliances. It uses a bottom-up approach to estimate residential end-use consumption and to evaluate the energy saving potential for refrigerators. The household electricity consumption is projected by modeling appliance ownership using an econometric approach based on the recent household survey data. A cost-benefit analysis for more stringent standards is presented from the perspective of the society and electricity customers. The results showed that even considering the current market conditions (high discount rate for financing new efficient equipment) some MEPS options are advantageous for customers. The analysis also demonstrates significant cost-effective saving potential from the society perspective that could reach 21 TWh throughout the period of 2010-2030-about 25% of current residential consumption.

  9. Potential energy savings and environmental impacts of energy efficiency standards for vapor compression central air conditioning units in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Wei [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: tjluwei@163.com

    2007-03-15

    Owing to the rapid development of economy and the stable improvement of people's living standard, central air conditioning units are broadly used in China. This not only consumes large energy, but also results in adverse energy-related environmental issues. Energy efficiency standards are accepted effective policy tools to reduce energy consumption and pollutant emissions. Recently, China issued two national energy efficiency standards, GB19577-2004 and GB19576-2004, for vapor compression central air conditioning units for the first time. This paper first reviews the two standards, and then establishes a mathematic model to evaluate the potential energy savings and environmental impacts of the standards. The estimated results indicate implementing these standards will save massive energy, as well as benefit greatly to the environment. Obviously, it is significant to implement energy efficiency standards for central air conditioning units in China.

  10. Relations de travail dans l’industrie automobile colombienne

    OpenAIRE

    Valero, Edgar Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Les secteurs d'assemblages d'automobiles et de fabrication de pièces de rechange en Colombie décrivent les pressions exercées par l'environnement compétitif international sur l'efficience et la qualité. Ces pressions ont entraîné l'adoption de nouvelles formes d'organisation du travail et le changement quasi général des politiques du personnel durant les quinze dernières années. Un ensemble de transformations significatives des relations de travail dans cette branche de l'industrie est...

  11. Automated Sequencing and Subassembly Detection in Automobile Body Assembly Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The choice of the sequence in which parts or subass em blies are put together in the mechanical assembly of a product can drastical ly affect the efficiency of the assembly process. Unlike metal cutting operation s where computer aided system have been available for some 15 to 25 years to hel p manufacturing engineers in generating cutting sequences and NC programs, the m ajority of assembly planning tasks in automobile body design is still manually p erformed by assembly designers according to their pa...

  12. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The

  13. Can negotiated agreements replace efficiency standards as an instrument for transforming the electrical appliance market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Without reinforced energy saving policies, residential consumption of electricity will increase sharply over the next 20 years, in particular, as a result of expected growth in the specific uses of electricity. The main problem is not a lack of energy-efficient technologies, which do indeed exist for electrical appliances, but one of slow diffusion of existing technologies due to the weakness of the price signal and the purchasing behaviour of consumers. In association with energy labelling, minimum energy performance standards have proved to be very effective in stimulating technological progress and organising market transformation. But standards also suffer from long and often difficult implementation periods because of the resistance of the industrial sector. For manufacturers, similar results could be obtained more easily and more rapidly with voluntary agreements because they introduce flexibility margins in the achievement of commitments. This paper analyses the specific advantages of voluntary agreements for improving energy efficiency in the domestic appliances sector. We conclude that voluntary agreements may be an effective instrument for market transformation in certain conditions, but the alternative of regulatory measures must remain a credible, realistic threat if voluntary agreements are to have a really significant impact on performance improvement

  14. Erosive Wear Assessment of Sandstorm on the Strength Properties of Automobile Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Seun Samuel OWOEYE; Lamidi, Yinusa Daniel; Ajayi, Olusola Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the extent of sandstorms effect on automobile glass in the area mostly prone to sandstorms phenomena typical of the Northern part of Nigeria, sandblasting tests were conducted in laboratory on a laminated soda lime glass of 300mm x 300mm with standard automobile glass thickness of 4mm each and PVB film of 1mm. The sand particles were projected by sandblasting machine with an air flow speed of 54km/hr (15m/s) and the impact angle was fixed at 900 while the blasting duration ...

  15. Renewing Marketing Strategy in Kenyan Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliokuusi, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies how to renew existing marketing strategies for case company; in so doing, the thesis fulfills its main objective. Company X, a market leader in the Kenyan automobile sector and has various well-known brands under their corporate umbrella. The automobile industry in Kenya has faced some hardship with steady decline in sales in the last couple of years and Mercedes-Benz as a brand suffered under the circumstances. One major cause of the drop in sales is due to the influx of ...

  16. Modeling of Electromagnetic Damper for Automobile Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Suda, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Hirofumi; Kondo, Takuhiro

    In this paper, the modeling of the electromagnetic damper (EMD) for automobile suspension is presented and the validation of the model is demonstrated by comparing the numerical results with the experimental results obtained using shaker tests. EMD is used as an active suspension and controlled to have output force calculated from velocities of sprung and unsprung masses. The formulation of EMD system for active suspensions is first developed, and the validation of the EMD model is demonstrated by experiments of the EMD for automobile suspensions. The validity of the formulation of the EMD developed in this investigation is shown for the frequency responses as well as energy balance for its active use.

  17. Mechanisms of injury in automobile crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelke, D F

    1972-02-01

    The only way to determine the causes of injury in automobile collisions is through examination of data collected in detailed investigation of crashes. Such data were gathered from a ten-year study of collisions that caused injury to the occupants of the cars. In a comparison of injuries in the newer model automobiles-vehicles equipped with the safety features-with those in older model cars not equipped with the present-day occupant protection devices, significant reduction in injury severity was noted. PMID:5059662

  18. Automobile Exhaust Pollution and Purification Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    As we all know, the automobile gas exhaust pollution has become more and more severe at recent years. It influences both to the human beings health and to quality of environment. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what are the main components of the exhaust gases, and give a basic and effective way to solve the problem. In this thesis, first the danger of exhaust pollution and its components will be presented. Then the writer will give the general mechanism of automobile exhaust ...

  19. Optimization of a parity of brake forces of automobiles in view of a bias of road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In clause it is shown a method optimization of brake of forces in view of a bias road it is established, that in mountain conditions of loss of coupling weight of automobiles than 2-3 times concerning flat conditions therma are more. The degree of use of coupling weight in result use of a regulator of brake forces very much increases also efficiency of brake systems such a kind of automobiles is provided with definition of optimum factor of coupling at which value of loss of coupling weight is provided minimal

  20. Pain at the Pump: The Differential Effect of Gasoline Prices on New and Used Automobile Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Meghan R. Busse; Christopher R. Knittel; Florian Zettelmeyer

    2009-01-01

    The dramatic increase in gasoline prices from close to $1 in 1999 to $4 at their peak in 2008 made it much more expensive for consumers to operate an automobile. In this paper we investigate whether consumers have adjusted to gasoline price changes by altering what automobiles they purchase and what prices they pay. We investigate these effects in both new and used car markets. We find that a $1 increase in gasoline price changes the market shares of the most and least fuel-efficient quartile...

  1. WAYS AND PERSPECTIVES OF TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT ON AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Bilichenko, V.; Smyrnov, E.

    2005-01-01

    Modern conditions of enterprise on automobile transport are analyzed. Technical development of enterprise on automobile transport as one of the ways of increasing competitive abilities and there profits is considered.

  2. Screening of Available Hollow Structures in Regard to Noise Reduction in Automobile Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Burkhard

    The pressure to improve the efficiency of lightweight automobile concepts is permanent. Therefore, relevant automotive structural materials are progressively being optimized, with some materials seeming to have nearly reached their properties limits. Thus, slight improvements to their potential light weight can only be realized through considerable efforts.

  3. Implementation of energy efficiency standards of household refrigerator/freezer in China: Potential environmental and economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the rapid economic development, living standards in China are improving fast. Chinese families are having more household electrical appliances, among which refrigerators are indispensable. Energy consumption of refrigerators is huge in China and causes environmental concerns. China has issued the national energy efficiency standards of household refrigerators, GB12021.2-2003 and GB12021.2-2008 to promote high-efficiency refrigerator production and use. This study evaluated the impacts of the standards on the environment, manufacturers and consumers over a long-term period of 2003-2023. It first evaluated the potential electricity conservation and GHG emission reduction resulting from energy efficiency improvements driven by the standards. Next, manufacturers' technological and economic concerns about complying with the standards were discussed. Some efficiency improving design options were considered and the resulting increases in manufacturing cost and retail price were estimated. The return of consumers from invest in efficiency was analyzed based on lifecycle cost saving of the improved models. The economical viability of the standards was then evaluated by national consumer costs and benefits. Results showed that the considered efficiency standards will potentially save a cumulative total of 588-1180 TWh electricity, and reduce emission of 629-1260 million tons of CO2, 4.00-8.04 million tons of SOx and 2.37-4.76 million tons of NOx by 2023, depending on sale share of models by efficiency. In a more environmentally optimal case (75% sale share of high-efficiency models), the national consumer benefits are 121 billion RMB (discounted), with the benefit/cost ratio of consumer's expenditure being 1.45:1. However, the preference to high-efficiency models is substantial influenced by consumer's expectation on return from the additional cost on efficiency.

  4. Financial impact of energy efficiency under a federal combined efficiency and renewable electricity standard: Case study of a Kansas 'super-utility'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, local, state and federal policies have separately promoted the generation of electricity from renewable technologies and the pursuit of energy efficiency to help mitigate the detrimental effects of global climate change and foster energy independence. Federal policymakers are currently considering and several states have enacted a combined efficiency and renewable electricity standard which proponents argue provides a comprehensive approach with greater flexibility and at lower cost. We examine the financial impacts on various stakeholders from alternative compliance strategies with a Combined Efficiency and Renewable Electricity Standard (CERES) using a case study approach for utilities in Kansas. Our results suggest that an investor-owned utility is likely to pursue the most lucrative compliance strategy for its shareholders-one that under-invests in energy efficiency resources. If a business model for energy efficiency inclusive of both a lost fixed cost recovery mechanism and a shareholder incentive mechanism is implemented, our analysis indicates that an investor-owned utility would be more willing to pursue energy efficiency as a lower-cost CERES compliance strategy. Absent implementing such a regulatory mechanism, separate energy efficiency and renewable portfolio standards would improve the likelihood of reducing reliance on fossil fuels at least-cost through the increased pursuit of energy efficiency.

  5. A STUDY ON ASYNCHRONOUS SERIAL COMMUNICATON BETWEEN COMPONENTS IN AUTOMOBILES

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, Yaşar Güneri

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTIn connection with the developments in the automobile sector, the number of in-automobile components, the amount of cable used for providing in-automobile communication between these components and costs are increased gradually. In this study, a method is presented in which asynchronous serial connection is used for decreasing the initial and maintenance costs by means of decreasing the amount of cables used in middle and lower class automobiles. The electronic circuits required to es...

  6. The Strategic Transformation of Automobile Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Som Techakanjanakit; Meifang Huang

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the global automobile industry is developing difficultly because of the influence from the financial crisis. In contrast, China's automobile production and sales are still having a blowout type growth, and jumped into the world's largest automobile production and sales market. At the same time, Chinese automobile companies continue to deepen and join with international brand cooperation; independent research and development of the independent brand production, and their...

  7. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  8. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health...

  9. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding...

  10. Standardized workflows for increasing efficiency and productivity in discovery stage bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Kevin P; Cohen, Lucinda; Emary, Bart; Pucci, Vincenzo

    2013-07-01

    Merck consolidated discovery stage bioanalytical functions into the Department of Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics & Drug Metabolism in 2007. Since then procedures and equipment used to provide important quantitative data to project teams have been harmonized and in many cases standardized. This approach has enabled movement of work across the network of laboratories and has resulted in a lean, flexible and efficient organization. The overall goal was to reduce time and resources spent on routine activities while creating time to perform research in new areas and technologies to support future scientific needs. The current state of discovery bioanalysis at Merck is discussed, including hardware and software platforms, workflow procedures and performance metrics. Examples of improved processes will be discussed for compound tuning, LC method development, analytical acceptance criteria, automated sample preparation, sample analysis platforms, data processing and data reporting. PMID:23862710

  11. The energy efficiency standards in Mexico; Las normas de eficiencia energetica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulido, Ybo [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The Ley Federal sobre Metrologia y Normalizacion (Federal Law on Metrology and Standardization) that is in force since July 16, 1992, establishes that it corresponds to the agencies of the federal public administration, in its scope of competition, to constitute the National Consultative Committees of Standardization (CCNN) to issue Mexican Official Standards (NOM) on products, systems, processes, methods, facilities, services or activities, as well as to certify, verify and inspect its fulfillment. The NOM are of compulsory application because they have as finality the establishing of the characteristics and/or specifications, criteria and procedures that allow to protect and to promote the improvement of the environment and of the ecosystems, as well as the preservation of the natural resources. The Secretariat of Energy issues the NOM on energy efficiency, which are formulated by the National Consultative Committee of Standardization for the Preservation and Rational Use of Energy Resources (CCNNPURRE), which is presided over by the General Director of CONAE. The standardization of Energy Efficiency in Mexico has allowed savings, in the consumption of electrical and thermal energy, estimated for 2001 of 7,700 GWh and an avoided electrical power of 1 270 MW, which locates it as an important measure in the achievement of the objectives of the CONAE-CCNNPURRE, to conceive and to promote strategies and guidelines of action relative to the saving and efficient and rational use of the energy and as a consequence the preservation of the nonrenewable natural resources. [Spanish] La Ley Federal sobre Metrologia y Normalizacion que esta en vigor desde el 16 de julio de 1992, establece que corresponde a las dependencias de la administracion publica federal, en su ambito de competencia, constituir los Comites Consultivos Nacionales de Normalizacion (CCNN) para expedir Normas Oficiales Mexicanas (NOM) sobre productos, sistemas, procesos, metodos, instalaciones, servicios o

  12. Improved automobile gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Katsanis, T.; Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Wong, R. Y.; Schumann, L. F.; Galvas, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Upgraded engine delivers 100 hp in 3500 lb vehicle. Improved fuel economy is due to combined effects of reduced weight, reduced power-to-weight ratio, increased turbine inlet pressure, and improved component efficiencies at part power.

  13. Trends in chassis and automobile electronics components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackenberg, Ulrich [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The rapidly-growing importance of electronics in automobile construction is in part determined by the debate on sustainability and the clear trend towards electric power trains. Another factor, however, is the decisive impact of electronics on the further development of components, e.g. for chassis. Apart from environmental protection, key motivators for component development include comfort, safety, infotainment and driver assistance. (orig.)

  14. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  15. A review on test procedure, energy efficiency standards and energy labels for room air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Saidur, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-09-15

    Air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers are major energy users in a household environment and hence efficiency improvement of these appliances can be considered as an important step to reduce their energy consumption along with environmental pollution prevention. Energy efficiency standards and labels are commonly used tools to reduce the energy uses for household appliances for many countries around the world. The first step towards adopting energy efficiency standards is to establish a test procedure for rating and testing of an appliance. It may be mentioned that an energy test procedure is the technical foundation for energy efficiency standards, energy labels, and other related programs. This paper reviews requirements and specifications of various international test standards for testing and rating of room air conditioners and refrigerators. A review on the development of the energy efficiency standards has been provided as well. Finally, energy labels that provide some useful information for identifying energy efficient products have been reviewed for these appliances. It may be stated that the review will be useful for the developing countries who wish to develop these energy savings strategies. It is also expected to be useful to revise the existing strategies for a few selected countries who already implemented these strategies earlier. (author)

  16. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

    2011-02-04

    This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national

  17. Ergonomic and usability analysis on a sample of automobile dashboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Raíssa; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This is a research study based on an analysis which sets out to identify and pinpoint ergonomic and usability problems found in a sample of automobile dashboards. The sample consisted of three dashboards, of three different makes and characterized as being a popular model, an average model and a luxury model. The examination was conducted by observation, with the aid of photography, notes and open interview, questionnaires and performing tasks with users, the bases of which are on the principles laid down by methodologies. From this it was possible to point to the existence of problems such as: complaints about the layout, lighting, colors, available area, difficult access to points of interaction, such as buttons, and the difficult nomenclature of dials. Later, the findings and recommendations presented show the need for a further, deeper study, using more accurate tools, a larger sample of users, and an anthropometric study focused on the dashboard, since reading and understanding it have to be done quickly and accurately, and that more attention be given to the study of automobile dashboards, particularly in the most popular vehicles in order to maintain the standards of usability, and drivers' comfort and safety. PMID:22316929

  18. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  19. 75 FR 74151 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... heavy-duty vehicles: Combination Tractors; Heavy-Duty Pickup Trucks and Vans; and Vocational Vehicles... standards would apply to air conditioning systems in tractors, pickup trucks, and vans, and EPA's proposed..., pickup trucks, and vans. EPA is also requesting comment on possible alternative CO 2...

  20. 76 FR 57105 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... heavy-duty vehicles: Combination Tractors; Heavy-duty Pickup Trucks and Vans; and Vocational Vehicles... standards to control leakage from air conditioning systems in combination tractors, and pickup trucks and... apply to all heavy- duty engines, pickup trucks and vans. EPA's final greenhouse gas emission...

  1. Automobile Pollution Control in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Ferraz; Ronaldo Seroa da Motta

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution concentrations have been rapidly increasing in the major urban areas of Brazil caused mainly by the increasing use of vehicles. In the presence of this negative externality, environmental regulation is required. Car emission control policies in Brazil have relied basically on mandatory emission standards and subsidies for specific cleaner technology resulting in substantial decrease of car emission rates. Nevertheless, car sale taxes, differentiated by vehicles’ size and fuel, h...

  2. Standard test of labelling efficiency for quality control of no carrier added 90YCl3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle emitting radionuclides (e.g. beta-emitters 90Y and 177Lu, alpha-emitter 211At, Auger electron emitter 165Er or positron emitter 86Y) are beeing more and more frequently used in research and clinical practice for imaging and targeted therapy in nuclear medicine. This radiometals, altogether three valent lanthanides or actinides with high specific radioactivity, coupled to biomolecule carriers (peptides or monoclonal antibodies) through chelating link (e.g. DTPA or DOTA) are targeted against specific antigens and receptors of diseased tissues in order to obtain their image or to cause their radiation ablation. The radionuclide precursor 90YCl3 (solution of hard β-emitter 90Y in a diluted HCl) with high purity and specific activity is already commercially produced and successfully used in nuclear medicine, e.g. for radioimmunotherapy of Lymphoma. Specification and purity of our product obtained by extraction 90Sr/90Y generator (using technology of centrifuge extractors with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid) is examined and compared to other similar products in this contribution. A standard method for determination of labelling efficiency of the precursor with DOTA Octreotide (DOTATATE) using ITLC/SG chromatography is also described and proposed for quality assesment. (Author)

  3. Energy efficiency standardizing in vertical pumps; Normalizacion de eficiencia energetica en bombas verticales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, Rosa Aracely; Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) supporting the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (National Commission for Energy Saving) developed the project of a standard on energy efficiency of vertical pumps, turbine type with external motor. This documents has fulfilled the necessary formalities for the issuing of a norm, being published the Mexican Official Norm (NOM-001-ENER-1995) on December 22, 1995. This article relates the results of the study for the elaboration of this norm, considering the energy saving, as well as the economic evaluation that supports the project of the norm, indicating also the environmental impact that its implantation will have. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) apoyando a la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) elaboro el anteproyecto de norma de eficiencia energetica en bombas verticales tipo turbina con motor externo. Dicho documento ha cumplido con los tramites necesarios para la emision de una norma, habiendose publicado como Norma Oficial Mexicana (NOM-001-ENER-1995) el 22 de diciembre de 1995. En el presente articulo se mencionan los resultados del estudio para la realizacion de esta norma, considerando los ahorros energeticos, asi como la evaluacion economica que sustenta el proyecto de norma, indicando tambien el impacto ambiental que tendra su implantacion.

  4. Hybridní pohon automobilů

    OpenAIRE

    Tvrdý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Obsahem této bakalářské práce je přehled možných hybridních pohonů automobilů a jejich praktické využití. Je zaměřena na hlavní výhody a nevýhody hybridního pohonu a zabývá se dopadem takto vybavených automobilů na životní prostředí, především na produkci skleníkových plynů. Také uvádí pohled na hybridy z finančního hlediska. This bachelor thesis deals with an overview of all possible hybrid vehicle propulsion systems and their practical usage. It is focused on the main advantages and disa...

  5. Amarok Pikap: interactive percussion playing automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Artut, Selçuk Hüseyin; Artut, Selcuk Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Alternative interfaces that imitate the audio-structure of authentic musical instruments are often equipped with sound generation techniques that feature physical attributes similar to those of the instruments they imitate. Amarok Pikap project utilizes an interactive system on the surface of an automobile that is specially modified with the implementation of various electronic sensors attached to its bodywork. Sur-faces that will be struck to produce sounds in percussive instrument modeling ...

  6. Estimation of Claim Numbers in Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Arató, Miklós; Martinek, László

    2012-01-01

    The use of bonus-malus systems in compulsory liability automobile insurance is a worldwide applied method for premium pricing. If certain assumptions hold, like the conditional Poisson distribution of the policyholders claim number, then an interesting task is to evaluate the so called claims frequency of the individuals. Here we introduce 3 techniques, two is based on the bonus-malus class, and the third based on claims history. The article is devoted to choose the method, which fits to the ...

  7. Telematics Strategy for Automobile Insurers : Whitepaper

    OpenAIRE

    Paefgen, Johannes; Fleisch, Elgar; Staake, Thorsten; Ackermann, Lukas; Best, Jonas; Egli, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    This whitepaper investigates the business implications telematics services and Pay-as-you-drive (PAYD) insurance in particular, from the perspective of automobile insurance providers. Specifically, it discusses - the PROFITABILITY and competitive dynamics of PAYD insurance, - a simplified BUSINESS CASE for a new market entrant with a PAYD product, - the present STRUCTURE OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETS for insurance telematics services, - DRIVERS AND BARRIERS for the focus markets Swit...

  8. THE COST OF INACCURATE AUTOMOBILE MILEAGE INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sexauer, Benjamin; Roe, Terry L.; Kinsey, Jean D.

    1981-01-01

    The model in this paper integrates the possibility of misinformation into consumer utility theory. If the utility realized from a good differs from the utility anticipated at time of purchase, shifts in demand would occur, and thus changes in consumer surplus. These changes provide a measure of the cost of misinformation or value of improved information. The empirical analysis yields estimates of the private and social cost of inaccuracies in automobile buyers; pre-purchase mileage estimates....

  9. Statistical machine translation for automobile marketing texts

    OpenAIRE

    Läubli, Samuel; Fishel, Mark; Weibel, Manuela; Volk, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We describe a project on introducing an in-house statistical machine translation system for marketing texts from the automobile industry with the final aim of replacing manual translation with post-editing, based on the translation system. The focus of the paper is the suitability of such texts for SMT; we present experiments in domain adaptation and decompounding that improve the baseline translation systems, the results of which are evaluated using automatic metrics as well as manual evalua...

  10. New type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system for identification and measuring of contamination with natural and artificial gamma isotopes is described. developed. Its main principle is a maximal use of the energy resolution of NaJ(Tl) detectors. The system consists of a spectrometer working simultaneously with a set of 1-16 scintillator blocks and a registration/ data processing unit. The operational mode, optimal performance and control subsystem are described

  11. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  12. Potential Impact of Adopting Maximum Technologies as Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in the U.S. Residential Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Letschert, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE) has placed lighting and appliance standards at a very high priority of the U.S. energy policy. However, the maximum energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction achievable via minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) has not yet been fully characterized. The Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), first developed in 2007, is a global, generic, and modular tool designed to provide policy makers with estimates of potential impacts resulting from MEPS...

  13. Efficiency in the execution of environmental standards for hydropower projects; Eficiencia na execucao das normas ambientais para empreendimentos hidreletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadaud, Gabriela Caiuby Ariani; Young, Carlos Eduardo Frickmann [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    In the search for greater efficiency in meeting environmental standards related to hydropower projects, this article presents a proposal of indicators that can guide the entrepreneur. From the observation that the mere compliance with legal requirements for obtaining licenses does not minimize the risks of conflicts and their resulting expenses, this methodology of indicators is presented as a tool that allows more efficient compensation measures and consequent social-environmental cost reductions of hydroelectric projects. (author)

  14. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  15. Corrosion protection and finishing of automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    finishing of automobiles is an important aspect. There have been considerable reductions of weight in automobiles by the use of composites components replacing heavy metallic components. Fenders previously based on metal have been replaced with plastic and painted with the same colour shade as of the metallic body, this has eps for proper adhesion of the paints on the plastic fender to avoid chipping off the paint form it. This paper discusses the necessary processes required for finishing of an automobile along with the corrosion protection measures. Automobiles contains a variety of engineering materials, engine main body fuel tanks connecting rods heat radiators and other mechanical parts are made from different types of engineering alloys having varying chemical compositions. Other parts like dashboard, front panel and other are made from composites. The main body made from cold roll ed steel having various contours 'c' it due to the different designs is the potential site for corrosion attack, The main body is exposed to the hostile environment through out its life period. An automobile is given a particular finish with a view to counter the hostile environments as they are not limited for plying in a limiting conditions and are taken to different weather conditions in one day thus facing severe stresses and strain. Thus it is essential that an automobile before rolling 'out of the assembly line should properly corrosion resistant and aesthetically pleasant also. Finishing for automobiles being very specialized, the main requirement being maximum durability with minimum numbers of coats baked, at the fastest possible schedule. High gloss and range of good eye catching colours being important to increase sales appeal. In the near past the car finishes were based on alkyd-amino resins baking materials and force drying lacquers, which have excellent appearance originally and maintain it on aging. The finishing system for the synthetic baking type may consist of

  16. Perspectives d'amélioration du rendement à très faible charge des moteurs d'automobile Prospects for Lmprovinq the Very-Low-Load Efficiency of Automotive Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaud A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le mauvais rendement énergétique des véhicules utilisés à très faible charge (circulation urbaine, vitesses limitées provient entre autres des combustions non optimales. Celles-ci sont de plusieurs types : combustion lente et/ou tardive, ratés de propagation. L'acquisition de cycles de pression au moyen du système DIGITAP développé à l'In-titut Français du Pétrole (IFP est décrite et le calcul instantané du travail cycle-à-cycle permet de définir un critère de stabilité de fonctionnement du moteur. L'analyse thermodynamique des cycles montre que la composition du mélange air + carburant + gaz résiduels, trop proche des limites de propagabilité de flamme, est à l'origine des phénomènes observés. Des voies d'action portant sur les gaz résiduels, la turbulence et les paramètres du système d'allumage sont dégagées et permettent des améliorations importantes du rendement. The poor energy efficiency of vehicles used at very low engine load (urban traffic, limited speeds comes from non-optimum combustion, among other causes. Such combustion may be of several types, i. e. slow and/or late combustion, propagation misfiring. The recording of pressure cycles by the DIGITAP system developed at Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP is described, and the instantaneous computing of the cycle-to-cycle work enables a stability criterion for engine operating to be described. The thermodynamic analysis of the cycles shows that the composition of the air + fuel + residuel gas mixture which is too close to flame propagation limits is at the origin of the phenomena observed. Methods of action concerning residual gases, turbulence and the parameters of the ignition system are determined and make for great improvements in efficiency and stability for such types of running.

  17. Automobile technology in a CO{sub 2}-constrained world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S.; Barreto Gomez, L.; Dietrich, Ph. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schafer, A.; Jacoby, H.D. [MIT, Cambridge (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This study identifies the environmental conditions under which less CO{sub 2}-emitting and more expensive automobile technology might enter the North American transportation sector. For that purpose, different exogenous CO{sub 2}-reduction targets are imposed and the resulting market shares of hypothetical future automobile technologies calculated. The criteria for the selection of different types of automobiles/fuels is the minimisation of discounted, cumulative transport sector costs over the scenario time horizon. (author) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  18. Globalization of the Automobile Industry ; Traditional Locations under Pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Spatz, Julius; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Even though the automobile industry is technologically advanced, the increasing integration of low-income countries into the global division of labor has put competitive pressure on traditional automobile producing countries. New end-producers emerged in Asia, Latin America as well as Southern and Central Europe. In addition, the automobile industries of Germany, Japan and the United States engaged in outsourcing of relatively labor intensive segments of the value chain, especially on a regio...

  19. Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook forAppliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2005-04-28

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and several other organizations identified on the cover of this guidebook recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This second edition of the guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year, four years after the preparation of the first edition, with a significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation helps maintain this book as the international guidance tool it has become. The lead authors would like to thank the members of the Communications Office of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design

  20. Cost-benefit analysis of implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ownership of household electrical appliances especially refrigerator-freezer has increased rapidly in Malaysia. Almost every household in this country has a refrigerator-freezer. To reduce energy consumption in this sector the refrigerator is one of the top priorities of the energy efficiency program for household appliances. Malaysian authority is considering implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for refrigerator-freezer sometime in the coming year. This paper attempts to analyze cost-benefit of implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia. The calculations were made based on growth of ownership data for refrigerators in Malaysian households. The number of refrigerator-freezer has increased from 175,842 units in 1970 to 4,196,486 in 2000 and it will be about 11,293,043 in the year of 2020. Meanwhile it has accounted for about 26.3% of electricity consumption in a single household. Therefore, efficiency improvement of this appliance will give a significant impact in the future of electricity consumption in this country. Furthermore, it has been found that implementing an energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers is economically justified

  1. Automobiles and global warming: Alternative fuels and other options for carbon dioxide emissions reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automobiles are a source of considerable pollution at the global level, including a significant fraction of the total greenhouse gas emissions. Alternative fuels have received some attention as potential options to curtail the carbon dioxide emissions from motor vehicles. This article discusses the feasibility and desirability (from a technical as well as a broader environmental perspective) of the large-scale production and use of alternative fuels as a strategy to mitigate automotive carbon dioxide emissions. Other options such as improving vehicle efficiency and switching to more efficient modes of passenger transportation are also discussed. These latter options offer an effective and immediate way to tackle the greenhouse and other pollutant emission from automobiles, especially as the limitations of currently available alternative fuels and the technological and other constraints for potential future alternatives are revealed

  2. A mathematic model of thermoelectric module with applications on waste heat recovery from automobile engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over two-thirds energy of fuel consumed by an automobile is discharged to the surroundings as waste heat. The fuel usage can be more efficient if thermoelectric generators (TEG) are used to convert heat energy into electricity. In this study, a thermoelectric module composed of thermoelectric generators and a cooling system is developed to improve the efficiency of an IC engine. Two potential positions on an automobile are chosen to apply this module, e.g. exhaust pipe and radiator to examine the feasibility. To predict the behaviors of this module, a one dimensional thermal resistance model is also build, and the results are verified with experiments. The maximum power produced from the module is 51.13 mWcm-2 at 290 oC temperature difference. The model results show that, TE module presents better performance on the exhaust pipe than on the radiator.

  3. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  4. Vibrational Analysis and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composite Material for Automobile Leaf Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakaran, M; M.Rajendran

    2015-01-01

    The composites have found extensive application in various fields. The aim of this work is to analyze the mechanical properties and damping effect of the laminates of the composites. The vibration in the composite material that to be used in the application of automobiles for the purpose of leaf spring has to be reduced. So the damping capacity of the composites was found out. Also the tensile and impact properties were studied using existing ASTM standard testing procedures and the results a...

  5. SLIDING MODE CONTROL FOR ACTIVE AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear control methods are presented based on theory of sliding mode control (SMC) or variable structure control (VSC) for application to active automobile suspensions. Requirements of reducing manufacturing cost and energy consumption of the active suspension system may be satisfiedby reasonable design of the sliding surface and hydraulic servo system. Emphasis is placed on the study of the discrete sliding mode control method (DSMC) applicable for a new sort of speed on-off solenoid valves of anti-dust capability and low price. Robustness and effectiveness of the feedback linearized controller in typical road conditions are demonstrated by numerical results fora quarter-car suspension model.

  6. Labeling of Energy Efficiency in China to Be Expanded to 20 Categories of Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Mr. Wang Ruohong,director of the Energy Efficiency Management Center of the China Institute for Standardization, expressed in the "High-efficiency and Energy-saving Electric Appliance Promotion Quarter"that compulsory labeling of energy efficiency will be continued in China on frequency-converting air-conditioners, gas heaters, electric heaters and electromagnetic ovens. By the end of the "11th Five Year", compulsory labeling of energy efficiency will be expanded to include 20 categories of products, including household appliances, automobiles, architecture, motors, and offices. Labeling in other industries will continue, but the number of levels will be reduced from the current five to three.

  7. 76 FR 44402 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...' eligibility for automobile adaptation equipment or other conveyance allowance. DATES: Written comments and... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Automobile or...

  8. The Study of Automobile Electron Cloud Manufacturing Architecture based on Automobile Open System Architecture%基于汽车开放系统架构的汽车电子云制造架构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钺

    2015-01-01

    In order to further satisfy the real-time and reliability requirement of automobile electronic manufacturing industry, this paper based on the automobile electron cloud manufacturing architecture as the main research content, through analyzing automobile electronic standard(AUTOSAR) and the Service oriented architecture(SOA) component model, to designing and illustrating the automobile electron cloud manufacturing architecture which was based on automobile open system architecture.%为进一步满足汽车电子制造业的实时性与可靠性要求,本文以汽车电子云制造架构作为主要研究内容,通过对汽车电子标准AUTOSAR与面向服务体系结构的组件模型SOA进行分析,进而对以汽车开放系统架构为基础的汽车电子云制造架构进行了设计和说明.

  9. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declined faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs. (letter)

  10. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buskirk, R. D.; Kantner, C. L. S.; Gerke, B. F.; Chu, S.

    2014-11-01

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declined faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs.

  11. High Efficiency Three Phase Resonant Conversion for Standardized Architecture Power System Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A low-cost, standardized-architecture power system is proposed for NASA electric propulsion (EP) applications. Three approaches are combined to develop a system...

  12. Alternativní pohony automobilů

    OpenAIRE

    Filip, Vojtěch

    2016-01-01

    Náplní této bakalářské práce je analýza aktuálně používaných alternativních pohonů automobilů, jejich srovnání se současnými zážehovými a vznětovými spalovacími motory. Seznámení s technickým řešením jednotlivých pohonů a jejich kategorizace do několika základních skupin, podle charakteristických klíčových rysů. Dále obsahuje bližší seznámení s nejdůležitějšími komponenty automobilů, vyžívajících tyto alternativní pohony a současně jejich přednostmi ale také nedostatky, které nyní brzdí rozší...

  13. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvokon, A.; Bondarenko, A.

    2012-01-01

    Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  14. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kryvokon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  15. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  16. The Impact of Price Controls on Mandatory Automobile Insurance Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Jason

    2006-01-01

    This is a theoretical paper that models a mandatory automobile insurance market using a partial equilibrium concept where automobile insurance is one good and a composite good represents all others. Price controls, heterogeneous service, administrative, and adjusting costs, as well as capital reserves and capital costs are all included in this simple model.

  17. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into..., Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii) Minicompact cars. Interior volume index less than 85... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  18. I/O Standard Based Thermal/Energy Efficient Green Communication For Wi-Fi Protected Access on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Tanesh; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Das, Teerath;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed how does life and reliability of an integrated circuit is affected when it is operated in different regions under different temperatures. We have taken Fibonacci generator as our target circuit and LVCMOS as I/O standards. WPA and WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access) key can...... be generated with Fibonacci generator. Here, thermal efficient green Fibonacci Generator is used to generate key for Wi-Fi Protected Access in order to make green communication possible under different room temperature. By analysis it is observed that at standard normal temperature (21degrees C), LVCMOS12 have...

  19. Efficiency – an Explicit and General Guarantee for a Fair Criminal Trial in Romania. National Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea DAMASCHIN

    2012-01-01

    As far as the criminal trial is concerned, celerity generally implies both a swift solution of criminal causes, and, if the case may be, a simplified criminal processual activity. At the same time, celerity implies the pursuance of specific activities by the criminal investigation body which has at its disposal the most efficient means for administering evidence. The efficient performance of a criminal investigation (which is a characteristic of the entire criminal trial), though it cannot be...

  20. Heat Shock-Enhanced Conjugation Efficiency in Standard Campylobacter jejuni Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Ximin; Ardeshna, Devarshi; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, the leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the United States, displays significant strain diversity due to horizontal gene transfer. Conjugation is an important horizontal gene transfer mechanism contributing to the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis and antimicrobial resistance. It has been observed that heat shock could increase transformation efficiency in some bacteria. In this study, the effect of heat shock on C. jejuni conjugation efficiency and the ...

  1. Automotive emission standards. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains citations concerning emission standards and air quality standards applied to automobile emissions. Included are federal and state regulations and policies regarding these emission standards. Techniques to meet emission standards are also addressed, involving fuel injection, catalysts, alternate engines, and automotive fuel refinery operations. Studies concerning implementation of automobile emission standards explore economic and environmental effects, testing and inspection procedures, and the automobile industry point of view. Most of the citations refer to gasoline engines, but a few pertain to diesel and other fuels. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regarding tort liability. In addition, the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of...

  3. Summary of efficiency testing of standard and high-capacity high-efficiency particulate air filters subjected to simulated tornado depressurization and explosive shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressure transients in nuclear facility air cleaning systems can originate from natural phenomena such as tornadoes or from accident-induced explosive blast waves. This study was concerned with the effective efficiency of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters during pressure surges resulting from simulated tornado and explosion transients. The primary objective of the study was to examine filter efficiencies at pressure levels below the point of structural failure. Both standard and high-capacity 0.61-m by 0.61-m HEPA filters were evaluated, as were several 0.2-m by 0.2-m HEPA filters. For a particular manufacturer, the material release when subjected to tornado transients is the same (per unit area) for both the 0.2-m by 0.2-m and the 0.61-m by 0.61-m filters. For tornado transients, the material release was on the order of micrograms per square meter. When subjecting clean HEPA filters to simulated tornado transients with aerosol entrained in the pressure pulse, all filters tested showed a degradation of filter efficiency. For explosive transients, the material release from preloaded high-capacity filters was as much as 340 g. When preloaded high-capacity filters were subjected to shock waves approximately 50% of the structural limit level, 1 to 2 mg of particulate was released

  4. 78 FR 73737 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ...) Engineering; (2) energy use; (3) product price; (4) life-cycle cost and payback period; (5) national impacts... 2007 (EISA) directed DOE to conduct two rulemaking cycles to evaluate energy conservation standards for.... 18, 2012). For the first rulemaking cycle, EPCA, as amended by EISA, directs DOE to initiate...

  5. 76 FR 43287 - Building Energy Standards Program: Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency Improvements in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Detailed Textual Analysis 2. Results of Detailed Textual Analysis B. Quantitative Analysis 1. Discussion of... reference code to Standard 90.1-2004. 73 FR 79868. ECPA also requires the Secretary to permit extensions of.... 75 FR 54117, September 30, 2010. In arriving at a final determination, the DOE first reviewed...

  6. 75 FR 54117 - Building Energy Standards Program: Preliminary Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... Register updating the reference code to Standard 90.1-2004. 73 FR 79868. ECPA also requires the Secretary... workshop in the Federal Register (74 FR 4169; Jan. 23, 2009) in which it outlined changes in the..._sum_dcu_nus_a.htm .) DOE recognizes that actual fuel costs will vary somewhat by building type...

  7. Economic feasibility of maximising daylighting of a standard office building with efficient electric lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontoynont, Marc; Ramananarivo, Karine; Soreze, Thierry; Fernez, Gerald; Skov, Karen Guldhammer

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the cost of developing various daylighting strategies for a standard office building in relation to their ability to reduce electric lighting consumption. The reference building design for this study corresponds to a typical configuration that minimises the construction co...

  8. Application of standard and modified Eh-Star test method for induction motor stray load losses and efficiency measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koprivica Branko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the application of one simple and accurate method for the measurement of stray load losses (additional load losses in induction machines. That is the Eh-Star method given in the IEC 60034-2-1 standard. In this paper the theoretical background of the method and the measurement procedure have been explained. All measurements have been performed using modern measurement systems based on a personal computer, data acquisition cards and LabVIEW software. According to the measured results for the stray load losses, the efficiency of the induction motor has been calculated. The efficiency obtained has been compared with the IEC standard efficiency classes, in order to determine the efficiency class of the tested motor. Additionally, measurements have been performed using the modified Eh-Star method. The results obtained have been compared with those obtained using the Eh-Star method. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods have been analyzed in this paper.

  9. An expert system for detecting automobile insurance fraud using social network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Šubelj, Lovro; Bajec, Marko; 10.1016/j.eswa.2010.07.143

    2011-01-01

    The article proposes an expert system for detection, and subsequent investigation, of groups of collaborating automobile insurance fraudsters. The system is described and examined in great detail, several technical difficulties in detecting fraud are also considered, for it to be applicable in practice. Opposed to many other approaches, the system uses networks for representation of data. Networks are the most natural representation of such a relational domain, allowing formulation and analysis of complex relations between entities. Fraudulent entities are found by employing a novel assessment algorithm, \\textit{Iterative Assessment Algorithm} (\\textit{IAA}), also presented in the article. Besides intrinsic attributes of entities, the algorithm explores also the relations between entities. The prototype was evaluated and rigorously analyzed on real world data. Results show that automobile insurance fraud can be efficiently detected with the proposed system and that appropriate data representation is vital.

  10. On the efficiency of frequency reconfigurable high-Q antennas for 4G standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Pelosi, Mauro; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    In the actual context of reducing antenna size and operating in multiple bands tunable antennas are investigated. Moreover, high-Q and low-Q tunable antennas are compared with respect to their efficiency. The loss issue that tunable high-Q antennas present is addressed. Using a variable capacitor...

  11. Overcoming Codes and Standards Barriers to Innovations in Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Pamala C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2015-02-15

    In this journal article, the authors discuss approaches to overcoming building code barriers to energy-efficiency innovations in home construction. Building codes have been a highly motivational force for increasing the energy efficiency of new homes in the United States in recent years. But as quickly as the codes seem to be changing, new products are coming to the market at an even more rapid pace, sometimes offering approaches and construction techniques unthought of when the current code was first proposed, which might have been several years before its adoption by various jurisdictions. Due to this delay, the codes themselves can become barriers to innovations that might otherwise be helping to further increase the efficiency, comfort, health or durability of new homes. . The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America, a program dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of America’s housing stock through research and education, is working with the U.S. housing industry through its research teams to help builders identify and remove code barriers to innovation in the home construction industry. The article addresses several approaches that builders use to achieve approval for innovative building techniques when code barriers appear to exist.

  12. ACCESSING OVERSEAS MARKETS ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS AND APPLIANCE LABELING IN ASIA AND LATIN AMERICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the project is to reduce pollution and environmental degradation by increasing the efficiency of energy end-uses in the industrial and household sectors of key Asian and Latin American countries. This will be accomplished by encouraging the adoption and harmo...

  13. Standard specification for high efficiency particulate air filters. Revision No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This specification covers the requirements for four types and four sizes of high efficiency particulate air filters, assembled with or without separators and gaskets. Types include Fire Resistant and Moisture Resistant; Hydrogen Fluoride Fume (HF) Resistant; Fire Resistant and Moisture Resistant and Chemical Resistant; and Fire Resistant and Moisture Resistant, High Temperature and High Humidity

  14. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N

    1987-10-01

    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates. PMID:3675807

  15. Enhancing efficiency and quality of statistical estimation of immunogenicity assay cut points through standardization and automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Cheng; Zhou, Lei; Hu, Zheng; Weng, Winnie; Subramani, Jayanthi; Tadkod, Vineet; Hamilton, Kortney; Bautista, Ami; Wu, Yu; Chirmule, Narendra; Zhong, Zhandong Don

    2015-10-01

    Biotherapeutics can elicit immune responses, which can alter the exposure, safety, and efficacy of the therapeutics. A well-designed and robust bioanalytical method is critical for the detection and characterization of relevant anti-drug antibody (ADA) and the success of an immunogenicity study. As a fundamental criterion in immunogenicity testing, assay cut points need to be statistically established with a risk-based approach to reduce subjectivity. This manuscript describes the development of a validated, web-based, multi-tier customized assay statistical tool (CAST) for assessing cut points of ADA assays. The tool provides an intuitive web interface that allows users to import experimental data generated from a standardized experimental design, select the assay factors, run the standardized analysis algorithms, and generate tables, figures, and listings (TFL). It allows bioanalytical scientists to perform complex statistical analysis at a click of the button to produce reliable assay parameters in support of immunogenicity studies. PMID:26130368

  16. Secondary Standardizations with Digital Computer Techniques to Normalize Multiple Gamma-Ray Spectra for Direct Efficiency Determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new standardization technique for gamma-ray emitting nuclides has been developed. The method is based on the use of gamma-ray spectral data in digital format from absolutely standardized samples of radionuclides. A system for collecting a library of gamma-ray spectra from such absolutely standardized samples was perfected in conjunction with a least-squares gamma-spectral resolution programme. A pooling programme was devised to combine six gamma-ray spectra from multiple sample mounts from the single master solution. The programme was written in FORTRAN-FAP for the IBM 1090 computer; it corrects for background, decay, and gain shift, and then converts the spectral data from counts/second/channel to counts/disintegration/channel using the disintegration rate of the standard sample as an input parameter. The spectral data are treated statistically with an analysis of variance to get a high degree of accuracy in the library of spectra. Since the gamma-ray spectra from the pooling programme consist of channel-by-channel data in units of counts per disintegration, these response curves comprise a channel-by-channel measure of the efficiency of detection for the given gamma-ray spectrometer system. By combining these individual channel efficiencies for some region of the gamma-ray spectrum that is not affected greatly by external processes (e.g. a prominent photopeak), it is possible to assign directly an efficiency factor for the detection of each of the library nuclides. An assay system has been developed with the digital data in the form of punched paper tape. The paper-tape standard may be read into the memory of a multichannel analyser where a direct comparison may be made with the unknown sample. The system has been found to be independent of detector resolution as long as the region chosen for the comparison of standard and unknown encompasses an entire photopeak. A library of standard spectra in the described format has been collected for 42 radionuclides using

  17. OmniPaper: Towards a Universal Standard Model for Efficient Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Schranz, M

    2005-01-01

    Modern Information Society is overwhelmed with steadily raising quantities of information in a continuously integrating digital network involving standard PC, networked mobile devices and individual personal assistants, promising to us the optimum access to all the data we need. On the downside the uncontrolled information amount creates an enormous overload and costs enterprises and individuals money, often in ways that are not easily measured: Costs that result from lowered productivity and...

  18. 78 FR 9631 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... areas: (1) Engineering; (2) energy-use characterization; (3) product price; (4) life-cycle cost and...=FR%252BPR%252BN%252BO%252BSR%252BPS;rpp=25;po=0;D=EER E-2012-BT-STD-0047. This Web page contains a... the first required review of minimum standards for boilers under 42 U.S.C. 6295(f)(4)(B). 72 FR...

  19. New Path for Building Compliance in ASHRAE Model Energy Efficiency Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2016-02-09

    This article describes a new path for performance based compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1. Using Appendix G, the Performance Rating Method, this path allows the same simulated baseline model to be used for both code compliance and beyond code programs. The baseline is fixed at approximately 90.1-2004 and independent of the designer's chosen design solutions to the greatest extent possible

  20. The challenges of automobile-dependent urban transport strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental aims of sustainable urban development and the pro-automobile oriented economic development are on a collision course. It is obvious that automobile-dependent urban development is under heavy/powerful influence of the automobile lobby (automobile and oil industries, along with construction. In this domain famous land-use-transportation studies (or ‘grand transportation studies’ are, unfortunately, still prevailing - a vicious circle of self-fulfilling prophecy of congestion, road building, sprawl, congestion and more road building. Until recently, it was commonly thought that investment in public transport was not economically sustainable and that focusing on the development of the automobile industry and financing the construction of roadways stimulated economic growth. In this paper we clearly show that automobile industry is now overcapitalized, less profitable than many other industries (and may become even less profitable in the future, that transport market is characterized with huge distortions (more than a third of motor-vehicle use can be explained by underpriced driving, while new road investment does not have a major impact on economic growth (especially in a region with an already well-developed infrastructure, and that pro-automobile transport strategy inexorably incurs harmful global, regional and local ecological consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  1. Financial Impact of Energy Efficiency under a Federal Renewable Electricity Standard: Case Study of a Kansas"super-utility"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Cappers, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Local, state and federal policies that jointly promote the generation of electricity from renewable technologies and the pursuit of energy efficiency are expected to help mitigate the detrimental effects of global climate change and foster energy independence. We examine the financial impacts on various stakeholders from alternative compliance strategies with a Combined Efficiency and Renewable Electricity Standard (CERES) using a case study approach for utilities in Kansas. If only supply-side options are considered, our analysis suggests that a Kansas"super-utility" would prefer to build its own renewable energy resources, while ratepayers would favor a procurement strategy that relies on long-term renewable power purchase agreements. Introducing energy efficiency under varying levels as a CERES resource will, under our analysis, reduce ratepayer bills by ~;;$400M to ~;;$1.0B between 2009 and 2028, but commensurately erode shareholder returns by ~;;10 to ~;;100 basis points. If a business model for energy efficiency inclusive of both a lost fixed cost recovery mechanism and a shareholder incentive mechanism is implemented, our results illustrate how shareholder returns can be improved through the pursuit of energy efficiency, by at most ~;;20 basis points if certain conditions apply, while ratepayers continue to save between $10M and ~;;$840M over 20 years.

  2. A Study of the Translation of Automobile Trademark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘硕

    2014-01-01

    Name is an interesting thing, almost everything has its name. Nowadays along with the rising of consumption levels in China, the brand name of the car becomes an important topic. And the translation of the name of the automobile is the primary task for establishing the global image of the brand. In this paper, I summarize the translation methods for automobile trademarks and point out the importance of the translation of automobile’s trademarks. In addition, this paper explores the trend in the trans-lation of automobile names in China.

  3. A Colorimetric Interdental Probe as a Standard Method to Evaluate Interdental Efficiency of Interdental Brush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, D.; Carrouel, F.; Llodra, J.C.; Bravo, M.; Viennot, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the concordance between the empirical choice of interdental brushes of different diameters compared to the gold standard, the IAP CURAPROX© calibrating colorimetric probe. It is carried out with the aim of facilitating the consensus development of best practices. All the subjects’ interproximal spaces were evaluated using the reference technique (colorimetric probe), then after a time lapse of 1.2 ± 0.2 hours, using the empirical clinical technique (brushes) by the same examiner. Each examiner explored 3 subjects. The order the patients were examined with the colorimetric interdental probe (CIP) was random. 446 sites were selected in the study out of 468 potential sites. The correspondence of scores between interdental bushes vs. colorimetric probe is 43.0% [95%-CI: 38.5-47.6]. In 33.41% of the 446 sites, the brush is inferior to the probe; in 23.54% of cases, the brush is superior to the probe. Among the discrepancies there is thus a tendency for the subjects to use brushes with smaller diameter than that recommended by the colorimetric probe. This review has found very high-quality evidence that colorimetric probes plus interdental brushing is more beneficial than interdental brushing alone for increase the concordance between the empirical choice of interdental brushes of different diameters compared to the gold standard. Uncertainties remain and further research is required to provide detailed data on user satisfaction. PMID:26966470

  4. Efficiency – an Explicit and General Guarantee for a Fair Criminal Trial in Romania. National Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea DAMASCHIN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As far as the criminal trial is concerned, celerity generally implies both a swift solution of criminal causes, and, if the case may be, a simplified criminal processual activity. At the same time, celerity implies the pursuance of specific activities by the criminal investigation body which has at its disposal the most efficient means for administering evidence. The efficient performance of a criminal investigation (which is a characteristic of the entire criminal trial, though it cannot be regarded as a rule for this trial, is provided by many regulations comprised in the Criminal Procedure Code. As far as criminal trials are concerned, the principle of reasonable time is indissolubly linked with the principle of celerity. From this point of view, the slow judgment of a criminal case infringes upon the right of a person to have his case solved within a reasonable time, which is an essential characteristic of a fair trial. The topic of this paper is not necessarily a particular issue for our national legal system; in fact, it represents a real problem for most national processual systems and this aspect is revealed by the large number of national and international programmes dedicated to the study of the causes which lead to the non-observance of the reasonable time within which a criminal trial should be judged.

  5. Plant work flow mapping pays off - a standardized corner stone to efficient nuclear plant engineering management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodology is described of a development project established in June 1988 at the Power Plant Engineering Division of Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) company. One part of the quality management development project was the creation of a standardized engineering work flow aiming at cost and time savings in constructing nuclear power plants. The next step and level in the work flow development was to divide various phases into disciplines or products according to the company practice. The third step was the creation of task flow diagrams. Tasks belonging to certain activities were analyzed and described as to their inputs, input data supplier, results and customer (internal or external). Thus a harmonized basis for a uniform working culture was formed. The most important results are the increase in productivity and quality through common language, decrease in misunderstandings, errors, discrepancies, cost and timely delivery of all engineering products. (Z.S.). 4 figs

  6. Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard

    CERN Document Server

    Rabus, H; Richter, M; Ulm, G; Friese, J; Gernhäuser, R; Kastenmüller, A; Maier-Komor, P; Zeitelhack, K

    1999-01-01

    Differently prepared CsI samples have been investigated in the 120-220 nm spectral range for their quantum efficiency, spatial uniformity and the effect of radiation aging. The experiments were performed at the PTB radiometry laboratory at the Berlin synchrotron radiation facility BESSY. A calibrated GaAsP Schottky photodiode was used as transfer detector standard to establish traceability to the primary detector standard, because this type of photodiode - unlike silicon p-on-n photodiodes - proved to be of sufficiently stable response when exposed to vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The paper reviews the experimental procedures that were employed to characterize and calibrate the GaAsP photodiode and reports the results that were obtained on the investigated CsI photocathodes.

  7. Potential energy savings and reduction of CO2 emissions through higher efficiency standards for polyphase electric motors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan has shut down more than 70% of its nuclear power plants since the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and the ensuing accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The country has been challenged with power shortages in the short-term and faces complex energy security decisions in the long-term. Japan has a long history of implementing energy conservation policies, such as the Top Runner Program, which covers 23 products including appliances and industrial equipment. However, Japan's efficiency policy for polyphase electric motors is considered below international standards. Polyphase electric motors accounted for about 55% of the nation's total power consumption in 2008. The aim of this study is to estimate potential energy savings and reduction in CO2 emissions (2014–2043) by examining scenarios involving adopting two different polyphase motor efficiency standards and comparing them to a base case and concludes by suggesting pathways for further policy development using the results obtained. The study finds that if level IE2 of the international efficiency standard IEC 60034-30 were implemented, it would save 8.3 TWh (or 0.03 quads) per year, which is equivalent to about 0.8% of Japan's total electric power consumption in 2010. If level IE3 of the IEC 60034-30 were implemented instead, it would save about 13.3 TWh (or 0.05 quads) per year. The corresponding cumulative energy savings and reduction in CO2 emissions for the IE2 scenario would be 249 TWh (or 0.85 quads) and 93 Mt. The corresponding cumulative energy savings and reduction in CO2 emissions for the IE3 scenario would be 398 TWh (or 1.36 quads) and 149 Mt. - Highlights: ► The study examines two higher efficiency standards for polyphase motors in Japan. ► The energy savings between 2014 and 2030 for Scenario 1 would be 249 TWh. ► The energy savings for Scenario 2 would be 398 TWh. ► The reduction in CO2 emissions for Scenario 1 would be 93 Mt. ► The reduction in CO2 emissions for

  8. Cost-optimal analysis and technical comparison between standard and high efficient mono-residential buildings in a warm climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recast of EU (European Union) Directive on EPBD (Energy Performance of Buildings) requires nZEBs (nearly zero energy buildings) as the building target from 2018 onwards and the establishment of cost-optimal levels of minimum energy performance requirements in buildings. This paper presents the results of the application of a methodology to identify cost-optimal levels in new residential buildings located in a warm climate. Mono-residential buildings have been considered as virtual reference buildings in this study. Different energy efficiency measures have been selected for the envelope and the systems. A combination of technical variants has been then applied to the reference case in order to obtain several configurations to be compared in terms of primary energy consumption and global costs. The cost-optimal solution is identified assessing technical features and energy performance. Standard and high efficiency buildings are analysed to show how the selected configuration allows a decrease of primary energy consumption and CO2 emissions at the lowest cost. Results are useful for comparison with other climates and building types. They also show the feasibility of the methodology to comply with EU requirements and to support the choice of economically efficient nZEBs solutions at the design stage. - Highlights: • A methodology is applied to obtain cost-optimal levels in mono-residential reference buildings. • A conventional baseline reference building located in a warm climate is described. • Energy performance is assessed for different packages of energy efficiency technical measures. • Global costs are evaluated to identify the cost-optimal solution. • A comparison between standard and high performance buildings is given at the design level

  9. 40 CFR 59.102 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 59.102 Section 59.102... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.102 Standards. (a) Except as provided...

  10. Fuzzy analytic network process based multi criteria decision making methodology for a family automobile purchasing decision

    OpenAIRE

    Yesim Yayla, A.; Yildiz, A

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in parallel with the advancing technology, automobiles that have substantially advanced technological properties are being manufactured. Intended uses of the automobiles have been changing in our days in contrast to 1960s when automobiles were only used for transportation. Consumers, in our day and age, expect profoundly different properties from an automobile. In this context, more than one criterion become effective on making decision on purchasing an automobile that has the requi...

  11. On the baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Business as usual' scenarios in long-term energy forecasts are crucial for scenario-based policy analyses. This article focuses on fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks, a long-disputed issue with serious implications for worldwide energy use and CO2 emissions. The current status in Europe is explained and future developments are analysed with the aid of historical data of the last three decades from the United States and Europe. As a result of this analysis, fuel economy values are proposed for use as assumptions in baseline energy/transport scenarios in the 15 'old' European Union Member States. Proposed values are given for new gasoline and diesel cars and for the years 2010, 2020 and 2030. The increasing discrepancy between vehicle fuel consumption measured under test conditions and that in the real world is also considered. One main conclusion is that the European Commission's voluntary agreement with the automobile industry should not be assumed to fully achieve its target under baseline conditions, nor should it be regarded as a major stimulus for autonomous vehicle efficiency improvements after 2010. A second conclusion is that three very recent studies enjoying authority across the EU tend to be overly optimistic as regards the technical progress for conventional and alternative vehicle propulsion technologies under 'business as usual' conditions

  12. Study of hydrogen-powered versus battery-powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, J.J. Jr.; Greayer, W.C.; Nichols, R.J.; Escher, W.J.D.

    1979-05-01

    A study conducted to compare the technological status and the resultant potential vehicle characteristics for hydrogen- and battery-powered automobiles that could be produced from 1985 to 2000 is documented in 3 volumes. The primary objectives of the study were: the assessments of applicable energy storage and propulsion technology for the two basic vehicle types (applied to four-passenger cars); a rigorous comparison of vehicle weight, size, and usefulness versus design range; and an investigation of the relative efficiencies of expending energy from various primary sources to power the subject vehicle. Another important objective, unique to hydrogen powered vehicles, was the assessment of the technology, logistics, and cost implications of a hydrogen production and delivery capability. This volume, Volume III, contains three major sections: the assessment of battery electric vehicle technology for energy storage and the drivetrain system; the technical and economic comparison of hydrogen- and battery-powered vehicles derived primarily from data in the previous vehicle technology assessments, with consideration of alternative energy sources; and a series of appendices that support the vehicle definitions and comparisons.

  13. On the baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachariadis, Theodoros [Economics Research Centre, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)]. E-mail: zach@hol.gr

    2006-09-15

    'Business as usual' scenarios in long-term energy forecasts are crucial for scenario-based policy analyses. This article focuses on fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks, a long-disputed issue with serious implications for worldwide energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current status in Europe is explained and future developments are analysed with the aid of historical data of the last three decades from the United States and Europe. As a result of this analysis, fuel economy values are proposed for use as assumptions in baseline energy/transport scenarios in the 15 'old' European Union Member States. Proposed values are given for new gasoline and diesel cars and for the years 2010, 2020 and 2030. The increasing discrepancy between vehicle fuel consumption measured under test conditions and that in the real world is also considered. One main conclusion is that the European Commission's voluntary agreement with the automobile industry should not be assumed to fully achieve its target under baseline conditions, nor should it be regarded as a major stimulus for autonomous vehicle efficiency improvements after 2010. A second conclusion is that three very recent studies enjoying authority across the EU tend to be overly optimistic as regards the technical progress for conventional and alternative vehicle propulsion technologies under 'business as usual' conditions.

  14. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-10-01

    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  15. Evolution of organizational structure and strategy of the automobile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, S.H.; Wibbelink, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a historically oriented study of the automobile industry. It sets out to understand why have the structure and strategy of the dominant companies in the automobile industry changed in the way they have done. Our findings suggest three factors at work, namely the knowledge of car production and of customers, the capability of the technological system, and the business environment. The knowledge system represents the level of know-how and the availability of information. In a sens...

  16. Computer Model for Automobile Climate Control System Simulation and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Oker

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A software to simulate the dynamic operation of climate control system for a generic automobile has been developed. The transient nature of passenger cabin temperature and relative humidity are predicted using the principles of thermodynamics. Analysis include detailed simulations of every component of the automobile air conditioning network. The methodology is validated by comparing the simulation results with the experimental results.

  17. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira; Andy Petroianu; Dafne Maria Villar Gonçalves; Gisele Araújo Pereira; Luiz Ronaldo Alberti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the regio...

  18. Enforcement/certification program for appliance efficiency standards. Task II, report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-28

    The research and analysis program at Vitro Labs. in support of the appliance certification and enforcement program provides Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement (C/E). The approach established the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy-efficiency performance for 13 categories of consumer products (furnaces, humidifiers, dehumidifiers, dishwashers, television, clothes washers, freezers, air conditioners, stoves, refrigerators, water heaters). Section 2 summarizes the recommended approach. Section 3 contains detailed evaluations and comparisons for four independent alternative approaches considered (minimal government intevention, strong certification control, strong enforcement audit, and mixed certification/enforcement). The fifth C/E approach (strong remedy/deterrent) involves the remedies available to the government should non-compliance be discovered and could affect the choice among the approaches, but this approach has not been evaluated. Section 4 summarizes the analysis methodology used to select the recommended approach. Additional information is provided in 6 appendices.

  19. Detective quantum efficiency: a standard test to ensure optimal detector performance and low patient exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escartin, Terenz R.; Nano, Tomi F.; Cunningham, Ian A.

    2016-03-01

    The detective quantum efficiency (DQE), expressed as a function of spatial frequency, describes the ability of an x-ray detector to produce high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) images. While regulatory and scientific communities have used the DQE as a primary metric for optimizing detector design, the DQE is rarely used by end users to ensure high system performance is maintained. Of concern is that image quality varies across different systems for the same exposures with no current measures available to describe system performance. Therefore, here we conducted an initial DQE measurement survey of clinical x-ray systems using a DQE-testing instrument to identify their range of performance. Following laboratory validation, experiments revealed that the DQE of five different systems under the same exposure level (8.0 μGy) ranged from 0.36 to 0.75 at low spatial frequencies, and 0.02 to 0.4 at high spatial frequencies (3.5 cycles/mm). Furthermore, the DQE dropped substantially with decreasing detector exposure by a factor of up to 1.5x in the lowest spatial frequency, and a factor of 10x at 3.5 cycles/mm due to the effect of detector readout noise. It is concluded that DQE specifications in purchasing decisions, combined with periodic DQE testing, are important factors to ensure patients receive the health benefits of high-quality images for low x-ray exposures.

  20. Vibro-acoustics of automobile engines; Vibro-acoustique des moteurs d'automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclere, Q.; Laulagnet, B.; Guyader, J.L. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Polac, L. [Renault DM, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France)

    2006-04-15

    This article treats of the vibro-acoustics of automobile engines. A presentation of the phenomena leading to noise emission is performed: internal sources, dynamical behaviour of the structure, acoustic radiation of the external engine envelope. The complexness of engines leads to multiple noise sources which are described, analyzed and quantified. The technical solutions for their abatement are presented. The following points are successively described: dynamical behaviour of the engine-propulsion system, acoustic radiation, inertia stresses, combustion noise, common rail diesel injection system noise, piston slap, distribution drive noise, turbo-charger whistle, gearbox noise. (J.S.)

  1. Does Adoption of Management Standards Deliver Efficiency Gain in Firms’ Pursuit of Sustainability Performance? An Empirical Investigation of Chinese Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Building on longitudinal data from 73 Chinese manufacturing firms during 2009–2012, we assess whether and how firms gain higher efficiency in achieving their sustainability goals by adopting management practice standards (ISO 9001, ISO 14001, and/or OHSAS 18001. We propose four pathways for firms to gain sustainability efficiency in their certification journey: participation, qualitative integration, quantitative expansion, and temporal accumulation. Our results confirm that firms certifying management standards gain higher efficiency in pursuing their sustainability goals than firms without these standards. We also find some support for increased efficiency effect in firms with diverse management systems over firms with only a single certificate in 2011. Finally, our results highlight the experiential and temporal accumulation effect of such efficiency gains, that is, firms with prior certification experience or having a longer certification history demonstrate higher efficiency gains in pursuing their sustainability goals.

  2. Energy-efficient technologies and policies can help us win the race to save the planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past achievements in energy efficiency in the residential sector are reviewed and policy mechanisms for continuing such savings are discussed. Between 1973 and 1985, the efficiency of most new individual energy-using products doubled, and this occurred with minimal investments; the price difference between the existing and the more efficient product was typically recovered through reduced energy bills in three years or less. This is illustrated with examples including automobiles, refrigerators, windows, and lighting. With the recent decline in oil prices, energy use per unit of gross national product in the USA has risen slightly and high energy prices no longer provide the main motivation for further energy efficiency improvements. Other considerations that promote energy efficiency include the economic growth that results from using energy efficient products, environmental protection, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Further energy efficiency improvements can be made using effective policies, such as establishment of energy-use labels for appliances and equipment, imposing energy efficiency standards, providing incentives for appliance and equipment manufacturers to produce energy efficient products, using fees and rebates to reduce energy use, building automobile insurance costs into gasoline prices, integrated resource planning and demand side management by energy utilities, and mortgage rates based on energy efficiency and conservation considerations. 42 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Efficient and Generic Construction of Certification-Based Encryption in the Standard Model Based on the NIZK Proof System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Certificate-based encryption (CBE is a new public key encryption paradigm which combines traditional PKI-based public-key encryption (PKE and identity-based encryption (IBE, and preserves some of their most attractive features. CBE provides an efficient implicit certificate mechanism and allows a periodical update of certificate status. It eliminates third-party queries for the certificate status and simplifies the certificate revocation problem in the traditional PKI, while it solves the key escrow problem and the key distribution problem inherent in IBE. In this paper, we propose a new generic construction of CBE schemes from PKE and IBE, and prove it to be CCA-secure in the standard model. In our construction, we use an efficient one-time simulation-sound adaptive NIZK proof system as the security enhancing building block to guarantee the CCA-security of the generated CBE schemes. When compared to the previous method, the security requirements of the primitive encryption schemes in our construction are much weaker and the performance of the generated CBE schemes from our construction is much more efficient.

  4. High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-09-01

    Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20-30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects.

  5. High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20–30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects. (letter)

  6. Consumer life-cycle cost impacts of energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the federal government's efforts to raise the minimum energy-efficiency standards for residential-type central air conditioners and heat pumps, a consumer life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to demonstrate the economic impacts on individual consumers from revisions to the standards. LCC is the consumer's cost of purchasing and installing an air conditioner or heat pump and operating the unit over its lifetime. The LCC analysis is conducted on a nationally representative sample of air conditioner and heat pump consumers resulting in a distribution of LCC impacts showing the percentage of consumers that are either benefiting or being burdened by increased standards. Relative to the existing minimum efficiency standard of 10 SEER, the results show that a majority of split system air conditioner and heat pump consumers will either benefit or be insignificantly impacted by increased efficiency standards of up to 13 SEER

  7. Modified A{sup ++}-standard refrigerator with 30% reduction of energy consumption. Higher efficiency by compressor modification - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, M.; Stahl, S.; Ganz, J.

    2010-06-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how a modified refrigerator can be given a higher efficiency by modifying the compressor. The modified refrigerator was fitted with a variable-speed compressor. This compressor could be run at much lower speeds so that it was in operation for up to 90% of the time. It was shown that less electricity was consumed the more the compressor ran. The report discusses the aims of the work and presents details on the standard refrigerator used for the tests. The compressor normally used and the variable-speed compressor used in the test are described. Systems for temperature control and data acquisition during the tests are described. The results obtained are examined and the influence of various factors is discussed.

  8. Mind the Gap: The Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; author), L. Schipper (main; Price, L.;

    1993-01-01

    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data of...... gasoline, diesel and other fuels used for automobiles. We note that significant uncertainties exist in values of both the number of automobiles in use and the distance each is driven, which together yield total automobile use. We present our own calculations for total automobile fuel use for a variety of...

  9. Considerations regarding tax optimization in implanted multinational enterprises through external growth for the automobile industry in Central Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitu Antonie Renata

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The business strategy of multinational enterprises (MNEs from the automobile industry implanted in Central-Eastern European (CEE countries (Poland, Czech Republic and Romania is an offensive one, global from operational perspective. Mainly it aims the extension of market share through horizontal growth, generally external type single-domain (Mergers and Acquisitions and internal type (Greenfield investments in a lower degree. These enterprises put in practice also a defending strategy for the owned market shares through increasing the efficiency of the production network at global level. This paper aims to present the less evident aspects of tax optimization of the applied business strategy by implemented MNEs in the automobile industry in CEE, and in this context, the necessity to establish transfer prices in accordance with the OECD recommendations, as an obligation assessed by the tax legislations of the considered countries, but also from the necessity of efficient run of these enterprises.

  10. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Automobile Exhaust by Means of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    1979-01-01

    A chromatographic method has been developed and applied to the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter in automobile exhaust, in petrols, and in crankcase oils. The PAHs were purified from other organic compounds by thin-layer chromatography, separated by high......-performance liquid chromatography, and measured by means of on-line fluorescence detection. The identities of the PAHs were verified by comparing the emission spectra obtained by a stop-flow technique with those of standard PAHs...

  11. Exposure to emissions from gasoline within automobile cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasoline is emitted from automobiles as uncombusted fuel and via evaporation. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) from gasoline are at higher levels in roadway air than in the surrounding ambient atmosphere and penetrate into automobile cabins, thereby exposing commuters to higher levels than they would experience in other microenvironments. Measurements of VOC concentrations and carbon monoxide were made within automobiles during idling, while driving on a suburban route in New Jersey, and on a commute to New York City. Concentrations of VOC from gasoline were determined to be elevated above the ambient background levels in all microenvironments while VOC without a gasoline source were not. The variability of VOC concentrations with location within the automobile was determined to be smaller than inter-day variability during idling studies. VOC and carbon monoxide levels within the automobile cabin differed among the different routes examined. The levels were related to traffic density and were inversely related to driving speed and wind speed. Overall, daily VOC exposure for gasoline-derived compounds during winter commuting in New Jersey was estimated to range between 5 and 20% and constituted between 15 and 40% of an individual's daily exposure based on comparison to urban and suburban settings, respectively. VOC exposure during commuting in Southern California was estimated to range between 15 and 60%

  12. Development of automobile tyre lateral runout measurement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xie; Ye, Lingjian; Yao, Guanghui; Wang, Di; Zhi, Xiongfei

    2013-10-01

    Automobile tyre lateral runout is one of the important indexes to measure the quality of the tyre, it will affect the safety of the automobile in moving. This paper introduces a sensor for automobile tyre lateral runout measurement. The variation of the automobile tyre lateral runout causes the change of guide rod probe displacement and deforms of the cantilever beam which connects with the guide bar. The deformation of the cantilever beam leads to the change of the resistance value of strain gauge which is pasted on the cantilever beam. Through measuring circuit, the resistance value of the strain gauge is converted into output voltage that has a certain relationship with automobile tyre lateral runout. Then, the voltage signal is transformed by A/D convertor and send to SCM to process and display the value of runout. Meanwhile, SCM output control signal to control the actuator and adjust the equipment running status in real time so as to ensure the tyre lateral runout is within the allowed range.

  13. Setting effective mandatory energy efficiency standards and labelling regulations: A review of best practices in the Asia Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • S and L regulations are needed to materialize the various benefits of energy efficiency. • S and L regulations can appear in various formats as in the Asia–Pacific region. • Effective regime has to be clear, authoritative, open, and enforceable. • Clear policy, customisation, inclusiveness, transparency and flexibility are desirable. - Abstract: This paper attempts to inform policy makers and legislators on how to set energy efficiency standards and labelling (S and L) regulations. It draws lessons from the literature on S and L regulations in the Asia–Pacific region and from practical experience in drafting the S and L regulations for Brunei Darussalam. The paper proposes necessary components for effective S and L regulations, as follows: clear liabilities, authoritative administration, open principles for technical systems, and enforceable mechanisms. It also recommends some key issues in good practice toward effective S and L regulations, such as policy making in advance, customised legislation, inclusive and transparent legislative procedure, and flexibility in the legislation

  14. Energy, economic and environmental benefits of using high-efficiency motors to replace standard motors for the Malaysian industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric motors use major share (i.e. about 30-80% of total industrial energy consumption) of total industrial energy use around the world. Experiences from other countries show that government intervention in the form of regulations such as mandatory and voluntary approaches can save sizeable amount of energy along with the reduction in emissions associated with energy savings. This paper presents potential energy savings by introducing high-efficiency motors as a case study in Malaysian industrial sector. Emission reductions associated with the energy savings has been estimated and presented as well. It was also estimated that a cumulative amount of 1940 and 892 GWh of energy can be saved for 20 and 120 kW motors, respectively, in Malaysia relative to BAU over the next 10 years. Similarly, a cumulative amount of USD 100 million and USD 60 million can be saved as utility bills for the same motor categories. It has been found that the payback period of different capacities of motors are less than a year. Based on results, it was found that 1789 million kg of CO2 emission can be avoided by replacing standard motors with high-efficiency motors.

  15. Performance Investigation of Automobile Radiator Operated with ZnFe2O4 Nano Fluid based Coolant

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi Ajay; Chandra H

    2015-01-01

    The cooling system of an Automobile plays an important role in its performance, consists of two main parts, known as radiator and fan. Improving thermal efficiency of engine leads to increase the engine's performance, decline the fuel consumption and decrease the pollution emissions. Water and ethylene glycol as conventional coolants have been widely used in radiators of an automotive industry for many years. These heat transfer fluids offer low thermal conductivity. With the advancement of n...

  16. CO2 and energy efficiency car standards in the EU in the context of a decarbonisation strategy: A model-based policy assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union introduced CO2 emission standards on cars as an obligation to manufacturers to reduce carbon footprint of cars in EU transportation. The car industry is already marketing low carbon emitting technologies to adjust to the 95 gCO2/km target set for 2020. An alternative policy option is setting energy efficiency standards, measured as energy consumption per kilometre. A policy based on a long-term commitment on continuously decreasing standards and the choice of the focus between CO2 or energy efficiency will strongly influence car technology choice. The aim of this paper is to assess these candidate policies for the EU in terms of effectiveness, costs and emission implications until 2050 on the basis of scenarios quantified using the PRIMES-TREMOVE energy economic transport model. The scenarios assume various configurations of the standards and the assessment draws on comparisons to a Reference scenario which does not strengthen standards after 2025. The analysis shows that restructuring the EU car fleet towards significant reductions of energy consumption and CO2 emissions is affordable provided that preconditions are met regarding technology progress and development of refuelling/recharging infrastructure. CO2 standards allow a diversified use of technologies, while efficiency standards are more “risky” favouring a single technology. -- Highlights: •We perform a comparison between CO2 and energy efficiency standards for cars. •Both policies can lead to deep emission cuts from passenger cars. •CO2 standards are technology and fuel neutral but imply higher total costs. •Energy efficiency standards are not neutral favouring battery electric vehicles

  17. Automobile air-conditioning its energy and environmental impact; La climatisation automobile impact energetique et environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.; Gagnepain, L.

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maxi-mum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the inter-national climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-condition ng (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential ed ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. All of these studies and additional data are presented in greater detail in the document,-'Automobile Air-conditioning' (ADEME reference no. 4985). (author)

  18. Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.

  19. Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dianliang; Zhu, Hongmin

    2010-05-01

    Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.

  20. Adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长生

    2008-01-01

    The adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface was analyzed and the formula about it was derived.Some suggestions about highway construction,driving safety of the drivers and the judgment of the traffic accidents were presented.The results show that the adhesion coefficient is a function with the extreme value.If there is atmospheric pressure in the tire,the load of the vehicle and the degree of the coarse on the road surface is not selected properly,it will reach the least and affect the safety of the running automobile.

  1. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  2. Atmospheric pollution coming from automobiles and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air pollution coming from automobile is responsible of different diseases in respiratory or cardiovascular system. epidemiological studies in professional or general media give information in term of public health. If the role of air pollution from automobile at short terms is well established, for effects at long term (such cancers or chronic diseases of respiratory system) the measurement or estimation of the exposure is not sufficient for the moment and makes the epidemiology unable to quantify effects. In spite of these lacks, it is important to reduce the risk for the most fragile people. (N.C.)

  3. Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)

  4. "互联网+"互动式汽车营销模式研究%Research of"Internet Plus"Interactive Automobile Marketing Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 肖俊涛

    2015-01-01

    "互联网+"互动式汽车营销模式是对传统汽车营销模式的创新,分析了该营销模式内涵、理念、模型、优势以及如何运用,指出该营销模式的实施可以提高汽车营销的有效性和精准性.%"Internet Plus"interactive automobile marketing mode is the innovation of traditional auto-mobile marketing mode. The connotation, concept, model, advantages and application of the marketing mode were analyzed. It concludes that the implementation of the marketing mode can improve the effi-ciency and accuracy of the automobile marketing.

  5. Evaluating the Economic Impacts of Technological Innovation in the Automobile Industry: The Input-Output Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shibusawa, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Takafumi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the economic impacts of technological innovation, such as electric and hybrid vehicles, in the automobile industry in Japan are examined. The automobile industry has to develop environmentally friendly vehicles in the face of the global warming issue and the exhaustion problem of petroleum. The conventional automobiles with gasoline and diesel oil don’t meet the demands of present age. The new generation automobiles will become popular for coming several decades. The indust...

  6. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-86 Section 600.311-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of city and the range of highway...

  7. 76 FR 61779 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive... refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0067.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Automobile or..., servicepersons and their survivors complete VA Form 21-4502 to apply for automobile or other conveyance...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  9. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by...

  10. Web technology to support work processes in energy policy research - A case study with energy efficiency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on a process to design and build a web-based system to assist staff in day-to-day management and contemporaneous documentation of their work. Other groups that want to use web technology to support their work could apply the approach presented here, but the design itself pertains to a particular set of issues in a unique context. Each user must apply the approach to identify their objectives and design a site to meet them. The main question that the Energy Efficiency Standards Group addressed was: ''How can we facilitate documentation of interim results and final products while conducting a complex, interdependent set of analyses by multiple authors under time pressures for delivering a final product?'' The approach to address this question includes categorization of the components of the work, discussions with staff, development of infrastructure support for documentation, implementation of the documentation process and integration with the workflow, and follow- up with staff. The search for a solution raised a number of issues such as the need for a thorough understanding of the work, consensus building by inclusion of key staff, and deliverable scheduling to allow for contemporaneous documentation. Documentation results vary among the product analyses, from extensive internal and external use to much slower adoption. Complaints include the length of the input forms and pressure from clients to deliver results. But with repeated demand for interim output, the need for thorough contemporaneous documentation still remains. Accordingly, as problems arise there is continued commitment among the staff to address them

  11. Revision of the standards in the application of high efficiency induction motors; Revision de la normatividad en la aplicacionon de motores, de induccion, de eficiencia alta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acoltzi Acoltzi, Higinio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this work the elements contained in the national and international standards to obtain the benefits in the application of high efficiency electrical motors are presented. A table of associated normal and minimum efficiency is presented, and one with values of nominal efficiency at full load for totally enclosed motors of standard efficiency, for opened motors of standard efficiency and high efficiency. Graphs are given where the comparison of nominal efficiencies is shown for AC induction motors to closed and opened poles. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan los elementos contenidos en las normas nacionales e internacionales para conseguir los beneficios en la aplicacion de motores electricos de eficiencia alta. Se muestra una tabla de eficiencia normal y minima asociados, y una con valores de eficiencia nominal a plena carga para motores cerrados de eficiencia estandar, para motores abiertos de eficiencia estandar y de eficiencia alta. Se da graficas donde se muestra la comparacion de eficiencias nominales, para motores de CA de induccion, a polos cerrados y a polos abiertos.

  12. EnergyPlus Analysis Capabilities for Use in California Building Energy Efficiency Standards Development and Compliance Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Buhl, Fred; Haves, Philip

    2008-03-28

    California has been using DOE-2 as the main building energy analysis tool in the development of building energy efficiency standards (Title 24) and the code compliance calculations. However, DOE-2.1E is a mature program that is no longer supported by LBNL on contract to the USDOE, or by any other public or private entity. With no more significant updates in the modeling capabilities of DOE-2.1E during recent years, DOE-2.1E lacks the ability to model, with the necessary accuracy, a number of building technologies that have the potential to reduce significantly the energy consumption of buildings in California. DOE-2's legacy software code makes it difficult and time consuming to add new or enhance existing modeling features in DOE-2. Therefore the USDOE proposed to develop a new tool, EnergyPlus, which is intended to replace DOE-2 as the next generation building simulation tool. EnergyPlus inherited most of the useful features from DOE-2 and BLAST, and more significantly added new modeling capabilities far beyond DOE-2, BLAST, and other simulations tools currently available. With California's net zero energy goals for new residential buildings in 2020 and for new commercial buildings in 2030, California needs to evaluate and promote currently available best practice and emerging technologies to significantly reduce energy use of buildings for space cooling and heating, ventilating, refrigerating, lighting, and water heating. The California Energy Commission (CEC) needs to adopt a new building energy simulation program for developing and maintaining future versions of Title 24. Therefore, EnergyPlus became a good candidate to CEC for its use in developing and complying with future Title 24 upgrades. In 2004, the Pacific Gas and Electric Company contracted with ArchitecturalEnergy Corporation (AEC), Taylor Engineering, and GARD Analytics to evaluate EnergyPlus in its ability to model those energy efficiency measures specified in both the residential and

  13. A Review of the Fatigue Analysis of an Automobile Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadav Chetan S., Panchal Khushbu C., Patel Fajalhusen*

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an effort is made to review theinvestigations that have been made on the differentfatigue analysis techniques of automobile frames. Anumber of analytical and experimental techniquesare available for the fatigue analysis of theautomobile frames. Determination of the differentanalysis around different condition in anautomobile frames has been reported in literature.

  14. The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

    A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

  15. Hysteretic Current Controlled Zvs Dc/Dc Converter For Automobile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cernat, M.; Scortarul, P.; Tanase, A.;

    2007-01-01

    A novel bi-directional dc-dc converter with ZVS and interleaving for dual voltage systems in automobiles is presented. A variable frequency extended band hysteretic current control method is proposed. In comparison with classical fixed frequency current control PWM, the reverse polarity peak...

  16. New Technology and Human Resource Development in the Automobile Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This document contains five case studies of plants within large enterprises in the automobile industry (Ford, Toyota, Volkswagen, Renault, and Volvo), plus reports of each company's views on human resource development, new technology, and changes in work organization and skill formation. The document is composed of five narrative sections,…

  17. Making cars smarter: The growing role of electronics in automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas H. Klier; James M. Rubenstein

    2011-01-01

    Electronics make up nearly 40% of the content of today’s average new automobile, and their share will continue to grow. On June 2, 2011, as part of the eighteenth annual Automotive Outlook Symposium (AOS), the Chicago Fed hosted a panel of experts at its Detroit Branch to examine the current and future roles of electronics in motor vehicles.

  18. BEGA-a biaxial excitation Generator for automobiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scridon, S.; Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, L.;

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results for a biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA), which has a three-phase stator and a salient-pole excited heteropolar rotor with multiple flux barriers filled with low-cost permanent magnets (PMs). For this new generator, the low-vo...

  19. Classification of Surface Quality of Automobile Lamp—Reflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁旭军; 贺莉清; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces an installation for quickly classifying automobile's metal reflectors based on their roughness.The measuring principle and the mechanical structure are presented.Schematics of circuits and experimental results are given.Elimination and reduction of the effect of background lights or different bulbs on the measuring results are also described in detail.

  20. Key Human Factors of Vehicle Interior Occupant Packaging in SAE Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yi; HU Ping; JIN Chun-ning; WU Xiao-jun

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen SAE standards related to accommodation and occupant packaging for vehicle interior are studied.The influencing factors,key reference accommodation points and major design dimensions and their relationships of occupant packaging and ergonomics during the vehicle interior layout design and development are analyzed.Prototypes are presented to verify the results and how to achieve the packaging is shown.Automobile designers can achieve significant practical guidance for human safety,efficiency accommodation and occupant packaging of all passengers during the vehicle design process.

  1. Estimating the Impact on Efficiency of the Adoption of a Voluntary Environmental Standard: An Empirical Study of the Global Copper Mining Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lise Tole; Gary Koop

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses data on the worldÂ's copper mining industry to measure the impact on efficiency of the adoption of the ISO 14001 environmental standard. Anecdotal and case study literature suggests that fiÂ…rms are motivated to adopt this standard so as to achieve greater efficiency through changes in operating procedures and processes. Using plant level panel data from 1992-2007 on most of the worldÂ's industrial copper mines, the study uses stochastic frontier methods to investigate the eff...

  2. Two-Dimensional Cutting (TDC) Vitrectome: In Vitro Flow Assessment and Prospective Clinical Study Evaluating Core Vitrectomy Efficiency versus Standard Vitrectome

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrofanis Pavlidis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate comparative aspiration flow performance and also vitrectomy operating time efficiency using a double-cutting open port vitreous cutting system incorporated in a two-dimensional cutting (TDC, DORC International) vitrectome design versus standard vitreous cutter. Methods. In vitro investigations compared aspiration flow rates in artificial vitreous humor at varying cutter speeds and vacuum levels using a TDC vitrectome and a standard vitrectome across different aspiration p...

  3. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2010-06-01

    Since the late 1970s, energy labeling programs and mandatory energy performance standards have been used in many different countries to improve the efficiency levels of major residential and commercial equipment. As more countries and regions launch programs covering a greater range of products that are traded worldwide, greater attention has been given to harmonizing the specific efficiency criteria in these programs and the test methods for measurements. For example, an international compact fluorescent light (CFL) harmonization initiative was launched in 2006 to focus on collaboration between Australia, China, Europe and North America. Given the long history of standards and labeling programs, most major energy-consuming residential appliances and commercial equipment are already covered under minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and/or energy labels. For these products, such as clothes washers and CFLs, harmonization may still be possible when national MEPS or labeling thresholds are revised. Greater opportunity for harmonization exists in newer energy-consuming products that are not commonly regulated but are under consideration for new standards and labeling programs. This may include commercial products such as water dispensers and vending machines, which are only covered by MEPS or energy labels in a few countries or regions. As China continues to expand its appliance standards and labeling programs and revise existing standards and labels, it is important to learn from recent international experiences with efficiency criteria and test procedures for the same products. Specifically, various types of standards and labeling programs already exist in North America, Europe and throughout Asia for products in China's 2010 standards and labeling programs, namely clothes washers, water dispensers, vending machines and CFLs. This report thus examines similarities and critical differences in energy efficiency values, test procedure specifications and

  4. Competence: sciences, clean engines: the automobile safety; Competences: sciences, moteurs propres: le salut de l'automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiret, M.

    2004-05-01

    In the framework of the greenhouse gases emission reduction in the automobile sector, this paper presents the possible technological innovations for the engines: an optimization prior to the combustion hopeful the electronic of the injections, the consumption decrease and the electromagnetic valves. (A.L.B.)

  5. Electricity and heat supply of a settlement at different standards of energy efficiency; Strom- und Waermeversorgung einer Siedlung bei unterschiedlichen Energieeffizienz-Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuberth, Jens; Tschetschorke, Katja

    2013-07-15

    The underlying study analyses the ecologic impact and the economic efficiency of several conventional and innovative heat supply systems to provide a quarter heat for space and water heating and electricity for residential and commercial application and for street lighting. Retrofits of buildings change the ratio of demands for electricity and heat. The demand for heat decreases more than the demand for electricity, and the share of distribution losses in heat grids rises. The question is if it is still economically efficient to build or extend local and long-distance district heating networks. Demands for final and primary energy, greenhouse gas emissions and costs (for operation, energy consumption and investments) of the different systems are compared and rated both in charts and tables. A sensitivity analysis includes increasing energy purchasing costs and assesses the possible economic efficiency of the supply systems in future. Another sensitivity analysis estimates how the climate impact of the supply systems for heat and electricity changes if electricity generation becomes less harmful for climate. Additionally, costs for environmental damage - so-called external costs - are internalised in the analysis of economic efficiency. In an overall rating ecologic and economically efficient systems are recommended.

  6. Study of the automatic measuring technique and instrument for an automobile shock-absorber connecting rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chan-Yao; Dai, Shuguang; Zhang, R. J.; Mu, Ping-An

    1993-09-01

    The autinobile shock absorber connecting rod makes very strict tolerance requirements on the diameter size, roundness, straightness. Because it is a kind of thin and long workpiece, it is difficult to measure the errors of the roundness and axis straightness. Furthermore, it brings much difficulty to realize the highly efficient autinatic measurment as the connecting rod is mass produced. Therefore, there is not any kind of connecting rod automatic measuring instrument available in China. In this article, the authors put forword the methods and principles which can autiatically and efficiently measure the above-mentioned errors of the connecting rod and have designed a reliable and simple automatic measuring instrument, Furthermore, the designing requirements and methods of the software and the electrical system are also introduced. The problem of the automatic measurement of the automobile shock absorber connecting rod has been solved. and it not only guarantees the quality of the rod, but also provides the basis for technical analysis of the product.

  7. Expediency substantiation of company’s product policy changes for ensuring the competitiveness of automobile enterprises products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Yurynets

    2014-03-01

    vehicle (technical equipment and providing usage of the mathematical models of changes in the competitiveness of automobile enterprises. The algorithm of analysis and evaluation of qualitative characteristics of the analyzed products was developed; versions of management actions based on the results of the analysis were identified and a graphical interpretation and mathematical algorithm to enable the rationale for product policy changes of the enterprises were presented. During the study, a number of uncertainties, that provides creating of the analysis algorithm, which would allow proving the potential management actions and minimizing the risks of their implementation were figured out. First is lack of developed sequence analysis of automobile enterprises in a competitive environment. Second is lack of methods qualitative evaluation component (technical equipment car due to the modern trend of competition between the different car classes. Third is lack of mathematical tools assessing changes in the competitiveness of automobile enterprises. Conclusions and directions of further researches. This study need for further investigation of new trends of competition cars of different classes, but in the same price range, need to develop efficient methods of price analysis and the need to develop a strategic internal competitiveness of domestic products in the enterprise, rather than small- or large assembly of foreign cars at the junction Ukrainian enterprises.

  8. Web technology to support work processes in energy policy research - A case study with energy efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benenson, Peter; McMahon, James E.; Brown, Stephen R.

    2002-03-08

    This paper focuses on a process to design and build a web-based system to assist staff in day-to-day management and contemporaneous documentation of their work. Other groups that want to use web technology to support their work could apply the approach presented here, but the design itself pertains to a particular set of issues in a unique context. Each user must apply the approach to identify their objectives and design a site to meet them. The main question that the Energy Efficiency Standards Group addressed was: ''How can we facilitate documentation of interim results and final products while conducting a complex, interdependent set of analyses by multiple authors under time pressures for delivering a final product?'' The approach to address this question includes categorization of the components of the work, discussions with staff, development of infrastructure support for documentation, implementation of the documentation process and integration with the workflow, and follow- up with staff. The search for a solution raised a number of issues such as the need for a thorough understanding of the work, consensus building by inclusion of key staff, and deliverable scheduling to allow for contemporaneous documentation. Documentation results vary among the product analyses, from extensive internal and external use to much slower adoption. Complaints include the length of the input forms and pressure from clients to deliver results. But with repeated demand for interim output, the need for thorough contemporaneous documentation still remains. Accordingly, as problems arise there is continued commitment among the staff to address them.

  9. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  10. Predicting Human Thermal Comfort in Automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugh, J.; Bharathan, D.; Chaney, L.

    2005-06-01

    The objects of this report are to: (1) increase national energy security by reducing fuel use for vehicle climate control systems; (2) show/demonstrate technology that can reduce the fuel used by LD vehicles' ancillary systems; and (3) develop tools to evaluate the effectiveness of energy-efficient systems including--comfort, cost, practicality, ease-of-use, and reliability.

  11. Hopes in the Crisis——Chinese Automobile Market in the World Auto manufacturing Industry Shuffle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shurong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Global automobile markets shuffle against the economic crisis The economic crisis spread rapidly around the world,making automobile industry one of the victims who are shocked hardest,leading to an industrial shuffle in global automobile industry.USA,EU and Japan,the traditional top three leading countries in global automobile industry,could not have their lucks to escape from the crisis.The weak global automobile market forces these transnational auto companies to be more cautious about the future than ever.As reflected in the latest performance reports,though governments took measures to maintain the market,the sharp decline in global automobile sales volume continued in the first quarter.Automobile market bottomed out in the second quarter.US auto industrywas affected the most,with two out of the top three manufacturers getting bankrupt and regrouped.

  12. An Innovative Approach to Enhancing the Sustainable Development of Japanese Automobile Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese automobile industry has been hit sharply by the economic downturn of recent decades. The rise in costs and decline in sales have led to serious problems in the auto industry. In order to address these issues, most companies engage in downsizing and redesigning production operations. It is crucial to investigate the time wasted by replacing assembly boards occurring in manufacturing lines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide an integrated approach, Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskih Zadatch (TRIZ, to providing efficient solutions for the automobile industry. The first step of this methodology is to detail the technical problems using the Function and Attribute Analysis (FAA model. Secondly, a contradiction matrix and the inventive principle were applied to find the solutions. In this study, an auto part supplier named Sumi-Hanel located in Hanoi, Vietnam, was taken as a case study; the empirical results showed that waste time had been reduced to 67%, nearly 8400 square meters was saved, and a 20% cost reduction was achieved by reusing old frames. The research proves that the combination of TRIZ and lean manufacturing successfully increases production performance and reduces waste due to technological advancements.

  13. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bojda, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?

  14. The automobile of the future: engine technologies and automotive fuels developed by IFP; l'automobile du futur: les technologies moteurs et carburants developpes par l'IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O.; Pinchon, Ph.

    2004-07-01

    In front of the challenges of climate change and depletion of petroleum reserves, in front of the continuous strengthening of pollution regulations applied to automobile (Euro IV and V) and the advances of R and D, several ways of research can be explored to answer the mobility needs of the coming decades. The IFP takes stock of these topics in this press kit which comprises 11 documents: the synthesis of O. Appert and P. Pinchon's talk about 'the cleaner and multi-energies automobile of the future', the slides of this presentation, the future evolutions of automobiles motorizations, the long-term evolutions of engines/fuels (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel fuel in the USA (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), bio-fuels in Europe (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel pollution abatement: efficient results from the IFP's diesel combustion process 'NADI'(TM), the presentation of the IFP scientific meeting of September 22-23, 2004 'which fuels for low CO{sub 2} engines?', the strategic positioning of IFP in the world energy and environmental context, the brochures 'IFP engines and fuels: a competitive advantage' and 'innovating for a sustainable development in the domain of energy'. (J.S.)

  15. Endommagement des aciers TWIP pour application automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Lorthios, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Co-encadrement de la thèse : Matthieu Mazière Ultra high strength Fe-Mn-C Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) austenitic steels exhibit excellent formability for automotive safety parts. By refining the microstructure during straining, deformation twinning induces a high hardening rate and provides high ultimate tensile strength (>1000MPa) combined with excellent ductility (>50%). However, plastic instabilities and TWIP effect lead to atypical failures modes and standard forming limit curve...

  16. Fuel taxes, motor vehicle emission standards and patents related to the fuel-efficiency and emissions of motor vehicles. Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebergh, H. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency MNP, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2010-01-21

    Contribution to the project on Taxation, Innovation and the Environment of OECD's Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts. It studies the impacts of motor vehicle fuel taxes and mandatory fuel efficiency standards on relevant car-related innovation activity in selected car-producing countries.

  17. Fuel taxes, motor vehicle emission standards and patents related to the fuel-efficiency and emissions of motor vehicles. Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contribution to the project on Taxation, Innovation and the Environment of OECD's Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts. It studies the impacts of motor vehicle fuel taxes and mandatory fuel efficiency standards on relevant car-related innovation activity in selected car-producing countries.

  18. Building energy saving potential in Hot Summer and Cold Winter (HSCW) Zone, China—Influence of building energy efficiency standards and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot Summer and Cold Winter (HSCW) region plays an important role in China's building energy conservation task due to its high consumption in recent years for both climate and social reasons. National and local building energy standards according to which the buildings are built and operated can affect the building energy consumption to a great extent. This study investigated the energy saving potential in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone under different level of energy efficiency standards (China local, China national, and UK standard). Chongqing was taken as an example, and the commercial energy simulation tool eQuest was applied to analyze the building end-use energy. With the existing situation as a baseline, the building energy saving for residential section could achieve 31.5% if the Chinese national standard were satisfied, and the value would further increase to 45.0% and 53.4% when the Chongqing local and UK standard were met. For public buildings, the corresponding energy saving potentials were 62.8%, 67.4% and 75.9%. Parameter sensitivity analysis was conducted. The analysis was able to provide suggestions on energy saving implementation priorities for residential and public buildings. Indications to improve building energy standards and their implementation were also discussed. - Highlights: ► Building energy efficiency standards were compared among China, UK and the US. ► Heating energy consumption takes 1/3 of that of the residential building in HSCW Zone, China. ► Building energy saving in Chongqing is 30–70% applying various building standards. ► Public and residential buildings are most sensitive to LPD and COP respectively. ► Building energy standards should be improved and implementation should be enforced

  19. Bioavailability of platinum emitted from automobile exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artelt, S; Kock, H; Nachtigall, D; Heinrich, U

    1998-08-01

    A model substance was used which is similar in respect to platinum content of exhaust particles emitted from a three-way-catalytic converter equipped engine. The bioavailability of platinum from such exhaust particles and the kind of platinum species formed in vivo were assessed. An in vitro solubility test showed a solubility of approximately 10 percent of platinum content of the model substance in physiological sodium chloride solution. Two short-term animal studies (8 days) were performed. In all examined rat tissues and body fluids platinum could be detected. In addition, the contribution of the overall bioavailability caused by swallowing a certain amount of the intratracheally applied platinum was evaluated by oral application. It was very low. An analytical method was developed to determine platinum species. Synthetic samples (matrix with a platinum standard solution) were analysed. In rat bronchoalveolar lavage spiked with a platinum standard solution only low molecular complexed platinum was found whereas in rat blood plasma all platinum was bound to proteins. In ongoing studies, the model substance is being tested in a three month rat inhalation study. PMID:9820662

  20. Design of MEMS accelerometer based acceleration measurement system for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K. Arun; Mathivanan, N.

    2012-10-01

    Design of an acceleration measurement system using a MEMS accelerometer to measure acceleration of automobiles in all the three axes is presented. Electronic stability control and anti-lock breaking systems in automobiles use the acceleration measurements to offer safety in driving. The system uses an ARM microcontroller to quantize the outputs of accelerometer and save the measurement data on a microSD card. A LabVIEW program has been developed to analyze the longitudinal acceleration measurement data and test the measurement system. Random noises generated and added with measurement data during measurement are filtered by a Kalman filter implemented in LabVIEW. Longitudinal velocity of the vehicle is computed from the measurement data and displayed on a graphical chart. Typical measurement of velocity of a vehicle at different accelerations and decelerations is presented.

  1. The Inherited Traditional Culture of Automobile Molding DNA Design Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of automobile modeling DNA is the core that makes enterprises establish a good and unique brand image to win on market. This paper described the definition and meaning of production DNA, also discussed the composition of production DNA and researched the design ideas of production DNA from both macro and micro aspects. Finally, it recommended would research the traditional culture into the past, present and future of three periods, explored the idea of traditional culture that the automobile modeling DNA inherited under these three periods and analyzed with the red flag car as an example. This research provided a guideline to help automotive corporations to implement brand strategies, and helped to design autos with Chinese elements, sense of the times and fashion trends and can perform the modern mental outlook of Chinese people.

  2. AN FE ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED SUBGRADE UNDER AUTOMOBILE LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shuwang; ZHANG Xinqiang; LIU Run

    2004-01-01

    An FE analysis procedure was presented to predict the behavior of soil-geogrid interaction under automobile loading. The dynamic interactions between the transverse bars, the longitudinal ribs and the soil were simulated by a system consisting of nonlinear springs, dashpots and masses, to study the deformation properties of the reinforced soil. The equivalent stiffness and damping ratios could be determined with the shaking table. The dynamic responses of a reinforced subgrade were analyzed with the 3D finite element approach. This approach is programmed and applied to analyze the soil-geogrid interaction under dynamic loading. The comparative analysis of the response of the reinforced subgrade and that of the subgrade without reinforcement shows that the geogrid placed at the bottom of the base layer may effectively reduce the accumulative plastic deformation due to the cyclic automobile loading.

  3. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  4. Study on the Fuzzy COntrol Strategy of Automobile with CVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuJianjun; QINDatong; 等

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the dynamic characteristics of automobile with a CVT system, a bond graph analysis model of continuously variable transmission is established.On the base of the simulation state space equations that are established with bond graph theory,a fuzzy control strategy with an expert system of starting process has been introduced.Considering uncertain system parameters and exterior resistance disturbing,the effect of the profile of membership function and the defuzzification algorthm on the capacity of the fuzzy controller has been studied.The result of simulation proves that the proposed fuzzy controller is effective and feasible,Such controller has been employed in the actual control and has proved practicable.The study lays a foundation for design of the fuzzy controller for automobile with a CVT system.

  5. Automobile ride quality experiments correlated to iso-weighted criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, A. J.; Young, R. K.; Smith, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    As part of an overall study to evaluate the usefulness of ride quality criteria for the design of improved ground transportation systems an experiment was conducted involving subjective and objective measurement of ride vibrations found in an automobile riding over roadways of various roughness. Correlation of the results led to some very significant relationships between passenger rating and ride accelerations. The latter were collapsed using a frequency-weighted root mean square measure of the random vibration. The results suggest the form of a design criterion giving the relationship between ride vibration and acceptable automobile ride quality. Further the ride criterion is expressed in terms that relate to rides with which most people are familiar. The design of the experiment, the ride vibration data acquisition, the concept of frequency weighting and the correlations found between subjective and objective measurements are presented.

  6. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities Improve Their Computer-Pointing Efficiency with Hand Swing through a Standard Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chiu, Sheng-Kai; Chu, Chiung-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien; Liao, Yung-Kun; Lin, Chia-Chen

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities would be able to improve their pointing performance using hand swing with a standard mouse through an Extended Dynamic Pointing Assistive Program (EDPAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, and changes a mouse into a precise…

  7. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Yunsong Xu; Shen Yin; Jinyong Yu; Hamid Reza Karimi

    2014-01-01

    The traditional mechanical instrument lacks the ability to satisfy the market with characters of favorable compatibility, easy upgrading, and fashion. Thus the design of a TFT-LCD (thin film transistor-liquid crystal display) based automobile instrument is carried out. With a 7-inch TFT-LCD and the 32-bit microcontroller MB91F599, the instrument could process various information generated by other electronic control units (ECUs) of a vehicle and display valuable driving parameters on the 7-in...

  8. Digital Laser Welding System for Automobile Side Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hong-Seok; Choi, Hung-Won

    2010-01-01

    The laser as economical and flexible tool has established a solid ground in industrial manufacturing area. Specially at welding BIW (Body In White) in automobile industry, the importance of it has been increased due to the technological characteristics such as high process speed, slim seam and good capability of automation and so on. For application of laser welding technique, welding principle and influential factors were investigated based on the analysis of laser welding processes. With th...

  9. A Flowchart Approach to Malaysia's Automobile Industry Cluster Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchiki, Akifumi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a flowchart approach to investigate Malaysia's automobile cluster policy. We investigate whether the industrial cluster policy has been successful or not, suggest policy prescriptions, and propose a way to prioritize policy measures. Our flowchart approach leads to the following three policy prescriptions: (1) Malaysian firms should establish sites for exporting compact cars with automatic transmissions; (2) actors in the public, semi-public and private sector should w...

  10. Life Cycle Assessment Practices: Benchmarking Selected European Automobile Manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Chanaron, Jean-Jacques

    2007-01-01

    With the rise of environmental concerns in the general public, re-appropriated by influential politicians, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has become a widely used set of tools for the management of all impacts on environment by industrial products. LCA is carried out at the very early stages of product research, development and design. This is particularly true in the automobile industry where vehicle manufacturers Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are launching several new or re-vamped mo...

  11. STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE IN THE BRAZILIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso Carneiro Lima; Edison Fernandes Polo; Fátima Regina Ney Matos

    2010-01-01

    This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE). The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors...

  12. "Uniqueness seeking and demand estimation in the German automobile industry"

    OpenAIRE

    Guerzoni, Marco; Soellner, René

    2009-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the determinants of demand in the German automobile industry. Our primary goal is to refine the existing literature on that topic by exploring the impact of uniqueness seeking behaviour of individuals on the demand schedule. Using a dataset on the segment of compact cars in the German market, we show that consumers have an intrinsic need for uniqueness seeking, and the degree a product satisfies this need is to be considered as an additional product characteris...

  13. Translation of Automobile Brands from the Perspective of Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘竹林; 王俊

    2013-01-01

    With the steady growth of the Chinese economy, more and more countries are focusing on China. A great number of brands are entering the Chinese market and auto brand is one of them. Brand translation plays an important role for success of opening international market. This paper applies the Skopos theory to automobile brand translation, so as to provide a new angle to translation practice.

  14. Teamwork in the Automobile Industry - an Anglo-German Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Niels-Erik Wergin

    2004-01-01

    Teamwork in the automotive industry varies significantly from plant to plant. This article compares teamwork in four automobile plants in Germany and Britain, and addresses two questions: (1) Do different models of teamwork fit into a bi-polar model of teamwork, being either innovative or structural conservative? (2) Do current models of teamwork signify a development towards post-fordism, or are they merely part of a neo-fordist rationalisation of production? The following answers are sugges...

  15. Promoting automobile safety belt use by young children.

    OpenAIRE

    Sowers-Hoag, K M; Thyer, B A; Bailey, J S

    1987-01-01

    A program using behavioral practice, assertiveness training, and social and contrived reinforcers was developed to establish and maintain automobile safety belt use by young children. Sixteen children (ages 4.8 to 7 years) who never used their safety belts during a 5-day preexperimental observation period were randomly assigned to two groups of eight each. A multiple baseline design across groups was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the training program. During the 8-day baseline period ...

  16. Loyalty marketing in automobile dealerships : case: car dealer X

    OpenAIRE

    Hyyryläinen, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study how customer loyalty is taken into account in automobile dealerships, what loyalty marketing means are used to improve customer loyalty, and what potential new loyalty marketing means can be implemented. The thesis is commissioned by Car dealer X. In the theoretical part, areas covered are customership and loyalty marketing. Customership includes customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, customer value and customer retention. Loyalty marketing contain...

  17. DAARIA: Driver Assistance by Augmented Reality for Intelligent Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    George, Paul; Thouvenin, Indira; Fremont, Vincent; Cherfaoui, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    International audience Taking into account the drivers' state is a major challenge for designing new advanced driver assistance systems. In this paper we present a driver assistance system strongly coupled to the user. DAARIA 1 stands for Driver Assistance by Augmented Reality for Intelligent Automobile. It is an augmented reality interface powered by several sensors. The detection has two goals: one is the position of obstacles and the quantification of the danger represented by them. The...

  18. Hybrid GPS-GSM Localization of Automobile Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad A. Al-Khedher

    2012-01-01

    An integrated GPS-GSM system is proposed to track vehicles using Google Earth application. The remote module has a GPS mounted on the moving vehicle to identify its current position, and to be transferred by GSM with other parameters acquired by the automobile's data port as an SMS to a recipient station. The received GPS coordinates are filtered using a Kalman filter to enhance the accuracy of measured position. After data processing, Google Earth application is used to view the current loca...

  19. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    OpenAIRE

    H.P. Khairnar; V.M. Phalle; S. S. Mantha

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained hav...

  20. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF; NOOR AZMI HASHIM

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study ...

  1. Determinants of Expenditure in Automobile Maintenance: Some Evidence from Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Bitros, George C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper derives a model of maintenance expenditures from an analytical framework in which maintenance, utilization and service life are appropriately integrated and estimates it with the help of automobile data from Greece. On the theoretical plain it is shown that the model allows endogenously for most of the variables that have been identified in the relevant literature as important determinants of maintenance expenditures. Also the model yields sharp sign predictions for the included va...

  2. Profit and Concentration in Commercial Automobile Insurance Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Vickie L. Bajtelsmit; Raja Bouzouita

    1998-01-01

    Pricing of commercial insurance has generally been thought to be more competitive than that of personal insurance. For this reason, there has been little academic interest in the impact of market structure on insurer profitability for these lines, despite findings of such a relationship in other lines. This study examines whether such a relationship exists for commercial automobile insurance and finds that states with higher levels of concentration have higher average profit margins. This is ...

  3. Efficient Transparency in Meat Supply Chains with IT-Standards: EPCIS based Tracking & Tracing for Business Partners, Consumers and Authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartram, T.; Scholten, H.; Kassahun, A.; Kläser, S.; Tröger, R.; Hartog, R.J.M.; Schillings-Schmitz, A.; Meier, S.

    2014-01-01

    How can the future agri-food business be made more efficient, transparent and safe? This article on a new MIP meat transparency system describes a future system aiming for an efficient transparency in meat supply chains with ITstandards. The shape of the new system will be highlighted on the backgro

  4. STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE IN THE BRAZILIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Carneiro Lima

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE. The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors, and the adoption of its strategic positioning in exploring two automobile market niches: in the B2B market, vehicles adapted to specific operational functions; and in the B2C, off-road vehicles with a strong appeal to consumers’ life styles. This case study allowed us to visualize the challenging path of a genuinely Brazilian small company in a sector dominated by large multinational groups, besides demonstrating decision-related dilemmas and aspects related to managerial creativity.Key-words: Automobile industry. Case study. Strategic entrepreneurship. Discovery theory. Strategic positioning.

  5. Nuclear power and carbon dioxide free automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy has been developed as a major source of electric power in Canada. Electricity from nuclear energy already avoids the emission of about 100 million tonnes of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in Canada. This is a significant fraction of the 619 million tonnes of Canadian greenhouse gas emissions in 1995. However, the current scope of application of electricity to end use energy needs in Canada limits the contribution nuclear energy can make to carbon dioxide emission reduction. Nuclear energy can also contribute to carbon dioxide emissions reduction through expansion of the use of electricity to less traditional applications. Transportation, in particular contributed 165 million tonnes of carbon dioxide to the Canadian atmosphere in 1995. Canada's fleet of personal vehicles consisted of 16.9 million cars and light trucks. These vehicles were driven on average 21,000 km/year and generated 91 million tonnes of greenhouse gases expressed as a C02 equivalent. Technology to improve the efficiency of cars is under development which is expected to increase the energy efficiency from the 1995 level of about 10 litres/100 km of gasoline to under 3 litres/100km expressed as an equivalent referenced to the energy content of gasoline. The development of this technology, which may ultimately lead to the practical implementation of hydrogen as a portable source of energy for transportation is reviewed. Fuel supply life cycle greenhouse gas releases for several personal vehicle energy supply systems are then estimated. Very substantial reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are possible due to efficiency improvements and changing to less carbon intensive fuels such as natural gas. C02 emissions from on board natural gas fueled versions of hybrid electric cars would be decreased to approximately 25 million t/year from the current 91 million tonnes/year. The ultimate reduction identified is through the use of hydrogen fuel produced via electricity from CANDU power

  6. Vibrational Analysis and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composite Material for Automobile Leaf Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prabhakaran

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The composites have found extensive application in various fields. The aim of this work is to analyze the mechanical properties and damping effect of the laminates of the composites. The vibration in the composite material that to be used in the application of automobiles for the purpose of leaf spring has to be reduced. So the damping capacity of the composites was found out. Also the tensile and impact properties were studied using existing ASTM standard testing procedures and the results are reported. Based on the experimental study, it is observed that the tensile and impact strength are similar to that of steel. After studying the tensile strength, impact strength, damping capacity and water absorption of the composite, it is useful in suggesting the different types of composites, may be hybrid or may be with uni-directional fiber or with some other fibers, so that the required mechanical properties is achieved.

  7. Financial Statement as a Veritable Source of Strategic Information in Automobile and Tyre Industries in Nigeria (R T Briscoe Nigeria Plc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Josiah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is derives from the concern of the users of financial statements in ability to understand, interpret and appreciate the importance of information provided in the statement as a basis for decision making and policy formulation. Due to this reason, they cannot make the best use of the information provided. This is exactly what led to this research study. This study was carried out to provide an insight into accounting information provided in the financial statements which is capable of satisfying the interest of all those who have dealings with R. T. Briscoe Nig. Plc in whatever capacity and it also tries to throw light on how to make use of accounting ratio in the evaluation of the performance automobile and tyre industries. The study also carried out an evaluation of the performance of the Automobile and tyre industries in a more relative term using accounting ratios as indicators. A thorough investigation was conducted into the efficiency performance in key areas such as liquidity, profitability, activity, and leverage ratios. The ratios computed were analyzed. After the analysis was made, the findings showed that the performance of the Automobile and tyre industries in the key areas mentioned above are well above average and that it compared favourably over the years for which the ratios were computed. The researcher however wish to stress the need for the Automobile and tyre industries to sustain, consolidate and improve on some of its profitability ratios and improving its liquidity ratio.

  8. 41 CFR 301-10.310 - What will I be reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead... automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead? (a) Reimbursement based on Government costs—Unless you are committed to using a Government automobile as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  9. Evaluation of heavy metals in hazardous automobile shredder residue thermal residue and immobilization with novel nano-size calcium dispersed reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Hyeon; Truc, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to synthesize and apply a nano-size calcium dispersed reagent as an immobilization material for heavy metal-contaminated automobile shredder residues (ASR) dust/thermal residues in dry condition. Simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 dispersion mixture immobilized 95-100% of heavy metals in ASR dust/thermal residues (including bottom ash, cavity ash, boiler and bag filter ash). The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The morphology and elemental composition of the nanometallic Ca/CaO-treated ASR residue were characterized by field emission scanning election microscopy combined with electron dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS). The results indicated that the amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR thermal residue surface decreased and the Ca/PO4 mass percent increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis indicated that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on ASR residue included Ca/PO4- associated crystalline complexes, and that immobile Ca/PO4 salts remarkably inhibited the desorption of heavy metals from ASR residues. These results support the potential use of nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 as a simple, suitable and highly efficient material for the gentle immobilization of heavy metals in hazardous ASR thermal residue in dry condition. PMID:25935297

  10. The influence of globalisation on automobile manufacturers in South Africa / Kalanther Ishaq

    OpenAIRE

    Ishaq, Kanther

    2003-01-01

    The South African automobile manufacturing industry has grown since 1920 from an import and assembly industry to an import-substitute industry. From the inception, the automobile manufacturing industry developed under the careful monitoring of the Government to obtain the objectives of the economy of the country. Until 1960, all automobile manufacturers imported completely knocked down sets from abroad to assemble vehicles. These excessive imports drained the South African fore...

  11. The Relationship Between Cash Flow And Capital Expenditure: Evidence From German Automobile Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Saffarizadeh, Navid

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study investigates the long run equilibrium relationship between cash flow and capital expenditure in German automobile sector as one of the leaders of the automobile industry in the world. Johansen co-integration test confirmed the relationship between cash flow and capital expenditure in the long run. Cash flow has significant and inelastic impact on capital expenditure (-0.963). Error correction model reveals that capital expenditure in German automobile sector conver...

  12. “Separation -A Better Tomorrow-Economy” A Study of Marketing Strategies On Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Ekta Chakravarty

    2013-01-01

    Automobile is one of the largest industries in global market. Being the leader in product and process technologies in the manufacturing sector, it has been recognized as one of the drivers of economic growth. During the last decade, well directed efforts have been made to provide a new look to the automobile policy for realizing the sector's full potential for the economy. Aggressive marketing by the auto finance companies have also played a significant role in boosting automobile demand, esp...

  13. The effects of automobile production and local government expenditure on poverty in alabama

    OpenAIRE

    Sooriyakumar Krishnapillai; Henry Kinnucan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of automobile production on the poverty rate of Alabama's counties. The findings suggest that automobile production in Alabama significantly reduces the poverty rate in all counties. The impact of automobile production on poverty reduction in distressed black belt counties is greater than in other counties. The local government expenditure is not very effective in reducing the poverty. This implies that industrial development may be more effective in reducing pov...

  14. Folk Quantification of Transportation Energy: An initial investigation of perceptions of automobile energy use

    OpenAIRE

    Silvis, Julia; Leighty, Wayne; Karner, Alex

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we seek to document what, if any, divergences exist between how experts and ‘lay’ people conceptualize the energy used in automobiles, motivated by previously-documented divergences in the home energy sector. From a total of 15 interviews with 19 individuals, we identify several common ways ‘lay’ people think about automobile energy use, and draw a number of conclusions relevant to the development of transportation energy policy. In our informants’ minds, automobiles us...

  15. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  16. Design of field experiments: Influence of treatment response relative to standard deviation and blocking factor characteristics on efficient blocking strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selection of experimental design can markedly influence efficiency of field research. This study used Monte Carlo simulations to compare the ability of different field experimental designs to distinguish defined treatment differences, and the paper concludes with a section on practical use of the in...

  17. Individualized solutions to environmental problems: a case of automobile pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urmetzer, P.; Blake, D. E.; Guppy, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Air pollution associated with motor vehicle use is one of the prime indicators of the tension between consumerism and the environment. The use of private automobiles seems so convenient, whereas the alternatives are off-putting enough to make significant changes in personal transportation behaviour well-nigh impossible. At the same time, combating the air pollution associated with extensive use of cars has become one of the major policy objectives for cities around the world. Available policy alternatives can be divided into two categories: (1) incentives, such as improved public transportation, and (2) disincentives, such as environmental tax on gasoline. This paper attempt to directly assess links between these two alternatives, associated attitudes towards them, the level of public support for command and control (i.e. regulatory) policy approaches as well as for economic incentive/disincentive policies. Answers are sought and findings discussed relative to the link between opinions about the environment and support for different types of environmental policies, the usefulness of a rational choice perspective in explaining support for environmental policy alternatives, the role that partisan political attachments play in support of environmental policy approaches, and the roles played by environmental activism, knowledge, and action in shaping support for environmental policy alternatives. Overall results indicate that while most people living in urban environments support the ideas of environmental protection and would be willing to incur costs to confront the problem, exposure to air pollution plays an inconsequential (actually nearly non-existent) role in support of automobile-related environmental problems. Automobile users act like 'free-riders' i.e. they tend to support policies that socialize the cost of solutions rather than policies that attempt to pass the cost of pollution directly on to individual car owners. A sample of the responses to

  18. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver’s license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. Results: of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11 years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%. Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver’s license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver’s license for at least one year. Conclusion: among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  19. Measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L.B.; Cobas Flores, E.; McMichael, F.C.; Hendrickson, C.T.; Horvath, A.; Joshi, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    In the paper the following topics are discussed: - the need for public education and involvement in the decision process, - the difficulty of defining sustainability, - the occasional difference between the goals of sustainability and environmental quality, - the need for life cycle analysis to analyze the sustainability and environmental quality implications of a product, process, or material. The importance of environmental input-output analysis is stressed. This new tool can provide the life cycle information cheaply, quickly, and with much less uncertainty. Examples are presented for making an automobile, a seat out of plastic or aluminium, and an electric vehicle. (author) 4 tabs., refs.

  20. SCHEDULING OF MECHANICS IN AUTOMOBILE REPAIR SHOPS USING ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SHIVASANKARAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling problems are NP – Hard combinatorial optimization problems, since many algorithms have been developed which offers new promising insights for solving resource allocation problems. Considering the problems faced in automobile repair shops, who sets the customer due dates of the car based on processing time, jobs already waiting for processing and mechanic available time. Also the workload of the mechanic should be balanced and minimize the make-span of the work. So this paper is concerned with determination of optimal allocation of repair jobs to the mechanic using Artificial Neural Network and hence to determine the minimum Total cost and make span of repair.

  1. WHO KILLED SAAB AUTOMOBILE?:Obituary of an Automotive Icon

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Nick; Holweg, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Saab Automobile AB was declared bankrupt on December 19, 2011. This marked the end of 62 years of car production for the iconic brand, which during its final years was beset with financial problems and changes of ownership. More than 3,700 workers lost their jobs when the Trollhättan factory finally closed its doors after producing a total of 4.5 million Saab vehicles over the years. But what was the root cause for the company’s demise? Was it preventable? And who was to blame? The failure o...

  2. CUSTOMER IMPORTANCE RATING OF SERVICE QUALITY DIMENSIONS FOR AUTOMOBILE SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATYENDRA SHARMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Customers are the center of an organization’s universe: they define quality. They expect performance, reliability, responsiveness, competitive prices, on-time delivery, service, clear and correct transaction processing and more. Customer satisfaction/Service quality management has become a strategic imperative for most firms. In the present circumstances, it is vital to measure customer perceptions and how well the company delivers on the critical factors/dimensions of the business. The main objective of this paper is to be acquainted with customer importance rating of service quality dimensions or Voice of Customers for an Automobile service centre. A questionnaire has been used for the purpose.

  3. Preparation of composite aluminum automobile radiator by inversion casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The inversion casting technics of producing three-ply Al-Mn/Al-Si composite strap used in automobile radiator was studied. The physical processes of inversion casting, including the flux-supporting reacting and volatilizing at high temperature, the melting and solidification when the elements of solid and liquid fresh alloys meet with each other, the mutual diffusion of elements in solid and liquid, the crystallization and forming of metallurgical combination and the following rolling process, were analyzed. At the same time, the composite mechanism of this technique was also discussed.

  4. Differences between pickup truck and automobile driver-owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C L; Winn, D G; Agran, P F

    1999-01-01

    This study compares pickup truck driver-owners and drivers who owned only automobiles with respect to demographic factors, conditions of use, risk-taking driving behavior, prior driving history and attitudes towards motor vehicle laws. A telephone survey conducted in Riverside County, CA determined that 36% of the households had a pickup truck. Pickup truck owners were primarily male, aged 30-39 years, married, reported lower restraint use and more risky driving behaviors, and had more traffic citations. Differences in behaviors and attitudes were largely a function of age and gender. There is a need to design appropriate occupant safety interventions for those most likely to own pickup trucks. PMID:10084620

  5. Community Essay: Sustainable approach to automobile society in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fujimoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the difference between electric vehicles (EVs in society and an EV society? “EVs in society” means simply the replacement of gasoline-powered cars with EVs without taking into consideration pervasive social issues. By contrast, an “EV society” is a concept whereby EVs are more fundamentally woven into the fabric of society with the aim of solving a range of social problems, while at the same time questioning the meaning of what an automobile “is” and “can be.” It is this “game-changing” principle of integration that drives our research.

  6. Passive House at the crossroads: The past and the present of a voluntary standard that managed to bridge the energy efficiency gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving energy efficiency in dwellings is generally seen as the low-hanging fruit of climate change mitigation. In particular decreased heat loss through better insulation is suggested as one of the most cost-effective means to achieve the ambitious national and international goals of climate gas reduction. However, the literature shows that a profitable technological solution is not sufficient to reach the energy goals. Aspects such as a lack of information, unobserved costs, and heterogeneity among users can compromise the success of technical innovation. Still, there are successful concepts that drive the technological development in the construction sector. The Passive House is an example for such innovations that manage to bridge the energy efficiency gap. This paper addresses the Passive House concept and standard as a success story of technological innovation. With Bruno Latour's Science in Action (1987) as a starting point, we describe the conditions under which the standard was created, the role of the network built around the Passive House Institute, and the consequences of exporting the standard. We identify success factors that have supported the diffusion of the Passive House standard and concept and discuss its possible development in the current situation which is characterized by its wide-spread adoption. - Highlights: • We present the Passive House (PH) as example of technological innovation. • The developers of PH managed to overcome the barriers to energy efficiency. • Successful innovation is more than good technology. • The heterogeneity of adopters of PH is growing. • The future of PH: the tension between rigid control and flexible adaptability

  7. An updated estimation of the stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of automobile CO emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunogai, Urumu; Hachisu, Yosuke; Komatsu, Daisuke D.; Nakagawa, Fumiko; Gamo, Toshitaka; Akiyama, Ken-ichi

    We estimate up-to-date values of the average isotopic compositions of CO emitted from automobiles. In the estimation, we determined the isotopic compositions of CO in tail pipe exhaust for four gasoline automobiles and two diesel automobiles under varying conditions of both idling and running. While the dependence on the automobile manufacturer is little, each automobile equipped with functional catalytic converter exhibits a large temporal δ13C and δ18O variation. They tend to show 13C and 18O enrichment in accordance with the reduction of CO in exhaust, suggesting that the functional catalytic converter in engines enhances the δ13C and δ18O values of CO from tail pipes through a kinetic isotope effect during CO destruction. Assuming that automobiles run a modeled driving cycle, we estimated the average δ13C and δ18O of CO to be -23.8±0.8‰ PDB and +25.3±1.0‰ SMOW, respectively, for recent gasoline automobiles, and -19.5±0.7‰ PDB and +15.1±1.0‰ SMOW, respectively, for recent diesel automobiles. While the δ13C and δ18O values of recent gasoline automobiles coincide well with the isotopic compositions of source CO in present trunk road atmosphere estimated in this study, those are +4-+6‰ ( δ13C) and +1-+3‰ ( δ18O) higher than those reported previously and also those emitted from old, non-catalyst automobiles determined in this study. Recent improvements in functional catalytic converters have enhanced and will enhance the δ13C and δ18O values of CO from automobiles.

  8. Cell-sealing efficiency and reproductive workers in the species Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Meliponini): double standard and possible rogue conduct

    OpenAIRE

    Koedam, Dirk; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera

    2012-01-01

    In many hymenopteran insect societies, selfish workers are policed, as selfishness can negatively affect the average inclusive fitness of one or both castes by reducing either the degree of average relatedness to the colony's male offspring or colony efficiency. In stingless bees, the rapid capping of brood cells could aid in controlling selfishness; to this end, we studied cell-sealing efficacy in Melipona bicolor. Execution of cell sealing was found to be both rapid and almost continuous. C...

  9. Providing Consumers with Web-Based Information on the Environmental Effects of Automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.

    2003-08-25

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provide consumers with web-based information on the environmental effects of automobiles so that individuals can make informed choices about the vehicles they use or may purchase. DOE and EPA maintain a web site (www.fueleconomy.gov) that provides users with information about fuel economy [as well as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution emissions] for the cars and trucks they use or may consider purchasing. EPA also maintains a separate web site (www.epa.gov/greenvehicles) that offers similar information, with the focus on air pollution emissions rather than fuel economy. The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) (www.greenercars.com) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) (www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/ccbg/ccbg.htm) also maintain web sites that provide consumers with information on the environmental effects of automobiles. Through the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE has supported some initial qualitative research with people who are interested in purchasing a new or used vehicle and whose actions identify them as at least somewhat concerned about the environment. The purpose of this research was to explore and understand how these people respond to the different ratings and measurements of environmental effects provided by the four web sites. The goal of the research is to optimize the communication of information provided on the DOE/EPA web site (www.fueleconomy.gov). Working with a private marketing research firm (The Looking Glass Group of Knoxville, Tennessee), NTRC staff initiated this research by meeting with two focus groups in Knoxville on February 27, 2001. To obtain information for comparison, staff from the NTRC and the Looking Glass Group also met with two focus groups in Los Angeles, California, on August 13, 2001.

  10. Studies for the elaboration of standards of energy efficiency in constructions; Estudios para la elaboracion de normas de eficiencia energetica en edificaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio; Heard, Christopher [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez Pensado, Fernando [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The obtaining of the first drafts of standard of energy efficiency implicate diverse research work previous to its elaboration, which include the justification and the analysis of the reason of the variables to consider, the corresponding cost-benefit study that gives viability to the standard and a procedure of calculation for its fulfillment. The present paper relates the diverse aspects that were analyzed for the justification, the revision and the obtaining of the first drafts of the first standards of energy efficiency in nonresidential constructions that are hoped to be implemented in Mexico. [Spanish] La obtencion de los anteproyectos de norma de eficiencia energetica implica diversos trabajos de investigacion previos a su elaboracion, los cuales incluyen la justificacion y el analisis del porque de las variables a considerar, el estudio costo- beneficio correspondiente, que da viabilidad a la norma y un procedimiento de calculo para su cumplimiento. El presente trabajo relata los diversos aspectos que se analizaron para la justificacion, la revision y la obtencion de los anteproyectos de las primeras normas de eficiencia energetica en edificaciones no residenciales que se esperan implantar en Mexico.

  11. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  12. SYNTHESIS OF AUTOMOBILE IGNITION SYSTEM USING OZONIZED FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pilipenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical model for electronic control system of the angular ignition timing (AIT in the (ICE, which is running on ozonized fuel. An algorithm for  ignition system control of internal combustion engine using ozonized fuel has been developed in the paper. A structure of the dynamic ignition system while using a control unit for supplying  ozone into fuel with a purpose to improve automobile ecological and economical indices adapted to operational conditions. Application of the given system allows to ensure minimum reduction of operational petrol consumption and concentration of incomplete combustion products due to optimum ozone dosage into the fuel.  The paper proposes a controlled automobile ignition system as a sequential scheme which has a great number of discrete inputs and outputs and many discrete internal  states. The scheme establishes a functional dependence between input and output states. The paper provides an assessment of ecological indices according to massive emissions of carbon monoxide СО, hydrocarbon СпНт and nitric oxide NOx .  The analysis of  investigations results has been carried out in the paper.

  13. BODY PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OF AUTOMOBILE DRIVING HUMAN MACHINE CONTACT INTERFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Juan; HONG Jun; ZHANG E; LIANG Jian; LU Bingheng

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the fatigue and comfort issues of human-machine contact Interface in automobile driving and based on physiological and anatomical principle, the physiological and biochemical process of muscles and nerves in the formation and development of fatigue is analyzed systematically. The fatigue-causing physiological characteristic Indexes are mapped to biomechanical Indexes like muscle stress-strain, the compression deformation of Wood vessels and nerves etc.from the perspective of formation mechanism. The geometrical model of skeleton and parenchyma is established by applying CT-scanned body data and MRI images. The general rule of comfort body pressure distribution is acquired through the analysis of anatomical structure of buttocks and femoral region. The comprehensive lest platform for sitting comfort of 3D adjustable contact Interface is constructed. The lest of body pressure distribution of human-machine contact interface and its comparison with subjective evaluation indicates that the biomechanical Indexes of automobile driving human-machine contact interface and body pressure distribution rule studied can effectively evaluate the fatigue and comfort issues of human-machine contact interface and provide theoretical basis for the optimal design of human-machine contact interface.

  14. Designing Logistic Information Platform to Fostering Development Trend in China Automobile Manufacturing Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yue

    2009-01-01

    The logistics resource in China's automobile group can't be optimized and allocated because of the "information island" problem in the group's logistics information platform in the whole group. In addition, it is the development trend of China's automobile group LIN to build a logistics e - market in the range of the group.

  15. La Securite des Enfants vs. la Circulation - Auto. (Children's Safety vs. Automobile Traffic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report, the sixteenth in a series of twenty reports undertaken by the Children's Environments Advisory Service for the 1979 International Year of the Child, analyzes the difficulties of designing automobile traffic patterns for areas in which children reside. Automobile traffic and play patterns in 21 multiple-housing projects in the…

  16. A Tractor or an Automobile? A 1920s Farm Family Faces a Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Joel P.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a lesson plan in which students role play a 1920s farm family deciding whether to buy an automobile or a tractor. Other students act as automobile and tractor sales groups. Explains how the lesson illuminates relationships between technological advance and social history. Includes handouts identifying benefits of purchasing cars or…

  17. 75 FR 80350 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... date for the final rule published on November 29, 2010 at 75 FR 72965 remains November 29, 2010. The...-AJ09 Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile Mileage Reimbursement When Government Owned Automobiles Are Authorized; Miscellaneous...

  18. Automobile industry and Japan’s strategy for the global environment

    OpenAIRE

    Şerban Georgescu

    2007-01-01

    Japan’s automobile industry evolution for the last five years was a succes story, based on long-term strategy and strong innovative development. This article makes a review of the automobile industry’s main trends and challenges for the Japanese manufacturers.

  19. 29 CFR 785.40 - When private automobile is used in travel away from home community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When private automobile is used in travel away from home community. 785.40 Section 785.40 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... WORKED Application of Principles Traveltime § 785.40 When private automobile is used in travel away...

  20. 32 CFR 552.73 - Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. 552.73 Section 552.73 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Military Reservations § 552.73 Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. Policies sold...

  1. 25 CFR 11.419 - Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles. 11... OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.419 Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she operates another person's...

  2. Divided Combustion Chamber Gasoline Engines - A Review for Emissions and Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascunana, Jose L.

    1974-01-01

    Describes characteristic designs of the engine. Data for fuel economy and emission are presented. Data show that automobiles equipped with one of the engines described have passed the 1975 Federal Emissions Standards. (SLH)

  3. The PROMIS Physical Function item bank was calibrated to a standardized metric and shown to improve measurement efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Matthias; Bjørner, Jakob; Gandek, Barbara;

    2014-01-01

    of 16,065 adults answered item subsets (n>2,200/item) on the Internet, with oversampling of the chronically ill. Classical test and item response theory methods were used to evaluate 149 PROMIS PF items plus 10 Short Form-36 and 20 Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index items. A graded...... response model was used to estimate item parameters, which were normed to a mean of 50 (standard deviation [SD]=10) in a US general population sample. RESULTS: The final bank consists of 124 PROMIS items covering upper, central, and lower extremity functions and instrumental activities of daily living....... In simulations, a 10-item computerized adaptive test (CAT) eliminated floor and decreased ceiling effects, achieving higher measurement precision than any comparable length static tool across four SDs of the measurement range. Improved psychometric properties were transferred to the CAT's superior ability...

  4. Two-Dimensional Cutting (TDC Vitrectome: In Vitro Flow Assessment and Prospective Clinical Study Evaluating Core Vitrectomy Efficiency versus Standard Vitrectome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrofanis Pavlidis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate comparative aspiration flow performance and also vitrectomy operating time efficiency using a double-cutting open port vitreous cutting system incorporated in a two-dimensional cutting (TDC, DORC International vitrectome design versus standard vitreous cutter. Methods. In vitro investigations compared aspiration flow rates in artificial vitreous humor at varying cutter speeds and vacuum levels using a TDC vitrectome and a standard vitrectome across different aspiration pump systems. A prospective single-centre clinical study evaluated duration of core vitrectomy in 80 patients with macular pucker undergoing 25-gauge or 27-gauge vitrectomy using either a TDC vitrectome at 16,000 cuts per minute (cpm or standard single-cut vitrectome, combined with a Valve Timing intelligence (VTi pump system (EVA, DORC International. Results. Aspiration flow rates remained constant independent of TDC vitrectome cut rate, while flow rates decreased linearly at higher cutter speeds using a classic single-blade vitrectome. Mean duration of core vitrectomy surgeries using a TDC vitreous cutter system was significantly (p<0.001 shorter than the mean duration of core vitrectomy procedures using a single-cut vitrectome of the same diameter (reduction range, 34%–50%. Conclusion. Vitrectomy surgery performed using a TDC vitrectome was faster than core vitrectomy utilizing a standard single-action vitrectome at similar cut speeds.

  5. Two-Dimensional Cutting (TDC) Vitrectome: In Vitro Flow Assessment and Prospective Clinical Study Evaluating Core Vitrectomy Efficiency versus Standard Vitrectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, Mitrofanis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate comparative aspiration flow performance and also vitrectomy operating time efficiency using a double-cutting open port vitreous cutting system incorporated in a two-dimensional cutting (TDC, DORC International) vitrectome design versus standard vitreous cutter. Methods. In vitro investigations compared aspiration flow rates in artificial vitreous humor at varying cutter speeds and vacuum levels using a TDC vitrectome and a standard vitrectome across different aspiration pump systems. A prospective single-centre clinical study evaluated duration of core vitrectomy in 80 patients with macular pucker undergoing 25-gauge or 27-gauge vitrectomy using either a TDC vitrectome at 16,000 cuts per minute (cpm) or standard single-cut vitrectome, combined with a Valve Timing intelligence (VTi) pump system (EVA, DORC International). Results. Aspiration flow rates remained constant independent of TDC vitrectome cut rate, while flow rates decreased linearly at higher cutter speeds using a classic single-blade vitrectome. Mean duration of core vitrectomy surgeries using a TDC vitreous cutter system was significantly (p vitrectomy procedures using a single-cut vitrectome of the same diameter (reduction range, 34%-50%). Conclusion. Vitrectomy surgery performed using a TDC vitrectome was faster than core vitrectomy utilizing a standard single-action vitrectome at similar cut speeds. PMID:27190635

  6. Carrots and Sticks: A Comprehensive Business Model for the Successful Achievement of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards Environmental Energy Technologies DivisionMarch 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchwell, Andrew; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2011-03-22

    Energy efficiency resource standards (EERS) are a prominent strategy to potentially achieve rapid and aggressive energy savings goals in the U.S. As of December 2010, twenty-six U.S. states had some form of an EERS with savings goals applicable to energy efficiency (EE) programs paid for by utility customers. The European Union has initiated a similar type of savings goal, the Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive, where it is being implemented in some countries through direct partnership with regulated electric utilities. U.S. utilities face significant financial disincentives under traditional regulation which affects the interest of shareholders and managers in aggressively pursuing cost-effective energy efficiency. Regulators are considering some combination of mandated goals ('sticks') and alternative utility business model components ('carrots' such as performance incentives) to align the utility's business and financial interests with state and federal energy efficiency public policy goals. European countries that have directed their utilities to administer EE programs have generally relied on non-binding mandates and targets; in the U.S., most state regulators have increasingly viewed 'carrots' as a necessary condition for successful achievement of energy efficiency goals and targets. In this paper, we analyze the financial impacts of an EERS on a large electric utility in the State of Arizona using a pro-forma utility financial model, including impacts on utility earnings, customer bills and rates. We demonstrate how a viable business model can be designed to improve the business case while retaining sizable ratepayer benefits. Quantifying these concerns and identifying ways they can be addressed are crucial steps in gaining the support of major stakeholder groups - lessons that can apply to other countries looking to significantly increase savings targets that can be achieved from their own utility

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59 Protection of Environment... Automobile Refinish Coatings Pt. 59, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59—Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings Coating category Grams VOC per liter...

  8. 41 CFR 301-10.220 - What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? 301-10.220 Section 301-10.220 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Government Vehicle Government Automobiles § 301-10.220 What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? You must...

  9. 29 CFR 779.371 - Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments may qualify for exemption under section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments... OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Automobile, Truck, Farm Implement, Trailer, and Aircraft Sales and Services § 779.371 Some automobile, truck, and farm...

  10. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 531.5 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel economy standards. 531.5 Section 531.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5...

  11. 40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds 60.392 Section 60.392 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic...

  12. Energy Efficiency of the IEEE 802.15.4 Standard in Dense Wireless Microsensor Networks: Modeling and Improvement Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Bougard, Bruno; Daly, Denis C; Chandrakasan, Anantha; Dehaene, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Wireless microsensor networks, which have been the topic of intensive research in recent years, are now emerging in industrial applications. An important milestone in this transition has been the release of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard that specifies interoperable wireless physical and medium access control layers targeted to sensor node radios. In this paper, we evaluate the potential of an 802.15.4 radio for use in an ultra low power sensor node operating in a dense network. Starting from measurements carried out on the off-the-shelf radio, effective radio activation and link adaptation policies are derived. It is shown that, in a typical sensor network scenario, the average power per node can be reduced down to 211m mm mW. Next, the energy consumption breakdown between the different phases of a packet transmission is presented, indicating which part of the transceiver architecture can most effectively be optimized in order to further reduce the radio power, enabling self-powered wireless microsensor networks...

  13. Plant pollution from lead produced by automobile exhaust system near certain highways of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants polluted with Pb produced by automobiles along the roads and highways have extensively been reported all over the world. It is the most important source of pollution in the environment. This research was carried out to determine the polluting degree of plants along the highways such as: Rasht-Anzaly, Kelachay-Ramsar, Tehran-Karaj, and Isfahan-Tehran. At each arbitrary point, a transect 100 meters long perpendicular to the highway was selected for sampling. Along each transect, plants were sampled at 15 cm above the ground, in different distances from the highway. Samples were transported to the laboratory and analyzed by a standard method. The average concentration of total Pb determined in Anzali, Ramsar, Karaj and Delijan (east and west of the road) areas respectively were 114.5, 58.3, 260.2, 75.1 and microgram per gram dry plant weight. Total Pb content in plants along the roads were high and exponentially decreasing with distance from the roadside. Pb concentration in plants were higher than threshold of Standard, so the risk of entrain g of this poisonous element in nutrition system along the roads is very considerable. The plants were polluted from medium degree up to a very high degree. The rate of pollution in plant samples is very high in Karaj area, high in Anzali area, and medium in Ramsar and Delijan areas. Plant pollution was directly related to the traffic volume in road

  14. Increased efficiency of silicon light-emitting diodes in a standard 1.2-um silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Lukas W.; Aharoni, Herzl; du Plessis, Monuko; Gouws, Rudolph B.

    1998-07-01

    Scaled versions of a variety of silicon light-emitting diode elements (Si LEDs) have been realized using a standard 1.2- micrometers , double-polysilicon, double-metal, n-well CMOS fabrication process. The devices operated with a n+p junction biased in the avalanche breakdown mode and were realized by using standard features of the ORBIT FORESIGHT design rules. The elements emit optical radiation in a broad band in the 450- to 850-nm range. An emitted intensity of up to 7.1 (mu) W/cm2 has been obtained with 5 mA of current at an operating voltage of 18.5 V. Excellent uniformity in emission intensity of better than 1 percent variation was obtained over areas as large as 100 X 500 micrometers . A best power conversion efficiency of 8.7 X 10-8 and a quantum efficiency of 7.8 X 10-7 were measured. All of these values are about one order of magnitude better than previously reported values for Si LED avalanche devices. Coupling between the elements as well as electro- optical coupling between an element and an optical fiber was realized.

  15. Development and environment of new electric automobile, `Ecovehicle`; Shingata denki jidosha eko vehicle kaihatsu to kankyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, H. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    This paper introduces history of the development of an electric automobile, `Ecovehicle`. It is provided with a high overall energy efficiency compared with an engine vehicle. The Ecovihicle is 1.2m in width, 3.3m in length, 2 seating capacities and 910kg in overall weight with serially connected 56 batteries of each 4V, 40Ah and having the total weight of 269kg. Its travel distance per charging is 130km at a speed of 80 k.p.h. This vehicle is capable of running with an energy of approximately one third as much as that of a light car. In addition, the vehicle is provided with polycrystal solar batteries placed on 0.6m{sup 2} area on the roof and spoiler generating 60W maximum. Assuming the annual duration of sunshine is 1,800 hours, charging is possible for 63kWh annually. Assuming the charging efficiency is 83%, charging is possible about seven times, which is an equivalent of travelling about 1,000km annually. The characteristics for example are the employment of brushless DC motor, use of energy saving switching element IGBT in order to realize a low level of loss in the inverter, in-wheel motor system, and storage of storage batteries in a hollow aluminum frame installed under the floor. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Introduction. L’automobile, objet d’étude pluridisciplinaire

    OpenAIRE

    Garçon, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    « Révolutionnaire… ! » Cet adjectif, Citroën en fit un slogan publicitaire, il y a quelques années, pour imposer auprès de sa clientèle sa voiture dernière-née. Le constructeur résumait ainsi tout à la fois ce qui faisait la spécificité de la marque et d’une manière générale, ce qui fait la spécificité de l’objet. Et si le modèle, en tant que tel, n’a pas vraiment défrayé la chronique automobile, du moins, par la grâce du jeu publicitaire s’inséra-t-il dans la lignée des voitures innovantes –...

  17. ALGORITHM OF PRETREATMENT ON AUTOMOBILE BODY POINT CLOUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; ZHOU Yu; DU Farong; QU Weiwei; XIONG Yonghua

    2007-01-01

    As point cloud of one whole vehicle body has the traits of large geometric dimension, huge data and rigorous reverse precision, one pretreatment algorithm on automobile body point cloud is put forward. The basic idea of the registration algorithm based on the skeleton points is to construct the skeleton points of the whole vehicle model and the mark points of the separate point cloud, to search the mapped relationship between skeleton points and mark points using congruence triangle method and to match the whole vehicle point cloud using the improved iterative closed point (ICP) algorithm. The data reduction algorithm, based on average square root of distance, condenses data by three steps, Computing datasets' average square root of distance in sampling cube grid, sorting order according to the value computed from the first step, choosing sampling percentage. The accuracy of the two algorithms above is proved by a registration and reduction example of whole vehicle point cloud of a certain light truck.

  18. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vicianová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the corporate social responsibility should be seen not only in theory, but mainlyat the level of business practice. Companies that apply the concept of corporate socialresponsibility are aware not only of social and environmental benefits, but also theeconomic benefits that this approach brings. Assumptions of social responsibility are tomaximize the market value of the business provided that companies respect the laws andresponsibilities of owners, managers and employees. Benefits of the corporate socialresponsibility are not only companies and their stakeholders, but also society. This factinspires many large enterprises to start up a socially responsible business. The paper dealswith the corporate social responsibility concept and its implementation in the car industryin Slovak republic. The aim of the article is basically on the theories of corporate socialresponsibility to identify the level of application of this concept in automobile industry inSlovakia.

  19. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  20. Present conditions and perspectives of the standardization of the energy efficiency in Mexico; Actualidad y perspectivas del programa de normalizacion de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu Pulido, Henry Anli; Sanchez Ramos, Itha [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The first energy efficiency standards of compulsory type were implemented in some states of the U.S. and in 1990 this country`s Federal government adopted them, since then, they have spread all over the world. This paper describes that under the frame of the National Program for Energy Modernization (1900-1994) and the National Development Program (1995-2000) of Mexico were considered as a priority the rational use of the energy, the conservation of the energy resources and the environmental protection. It is particularly mentioned, the standardization program of energy efficiency that has been developed that includes the limiting specification of the energy consumption or equipment efficiency, an essay method to determine the energy performance and the description of the label that will inform the users of the equipment energy performance [Espanol] Las primeras normas de eficiencia energetica de tipo obligatorio se implantaron en algunos estados de Estados Unidos y en 1990 las adopto el gobierno federal de ese pais, a partir de entonces se han difundido por todo el mundo. En el presente trabajo se describe que en el marco del Programa Nacional de Modernizacion Energetica (1900-1994) y del Plan Nacional de Desarrollo (1995-2000) de Mexico, se consideran como prioridad el uso racional de energia, la conservacion de recursos energeticos y la proteccion al medio ambiente. Se menciona particularmente, el programa de normalizacion de eficiencia energetica que se ha desarrollado incluye la especificacion del limite de consumo energetico o eficiencia del equipo, un metodo de ensayo para determinar el rendimiento energetico y la descripcion de la etiqueta que informara a los usuarios sobre el comportamiento energetico del equipo

  1. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  2. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

    2013-03-01

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48-100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20-30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals.

  3. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48–100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20–30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals. (letter)

  4. Effect of Air Velocity on Thermal Comfort in an Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özgün Korukçu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of air velocity on thermal comfort during heating period in an automobile cabin with experiments. In the evaluation of comfort in automobiles, in general temperature, humidity, air velocity and radiant temperature measurements are taken. In the study, ambient temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature and mean skin temperature of the driver inside the automobile cabin during heating for different vent air mass flow rates were measured in a parked car. Subjective survey was performed during the experiments to the driver. The results for different vent air mass flow rate values were compared with answers taken from the subject and discussed.

  5. High energy X-ray CT system using a linear accelerator for automobile parts inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high energy X-ray CT system (maximum photon energy: 0.95 MeV) has been developed for industrial use. This system employs a linear accelerator as an X-ray source. It is able to image the cross section of automobile parts and can be applied to a solidification analysis study of the cylinder head in an automobile. This paper describes the features of the system and application results which can be related to solidification analysis of the cylinder head when fabricated from an aluminum casting. Some cross-sectional images are also presented as evidence for nondestructive inspection of automobile parts. (orig.)

  6. Effects of Automobile Emissions on Air Pollution in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ryan; Singh, Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    Currently, about more than 253,000,000 automobiles and trucks, some are new, old, gas and electric, ply on the roads in the United States of America. Around the world, human activities and energy demand are the main sources for the air pollution and ozone depletion, causing dense haze, fog and smog especially during winter season in the country like China and India and also observed in different parts of the world. In recent years, automakers have been pushed by new governmental regulations and global expectations to create more fuel-efficient vehicles that burn less fossil fuels and create fewer harmful emissions. Automakers are exploring alternative fuel options such as hydrogen, natural gas, hybrids, and completely electric vehicles. Since the Nissan Leaf's introduction in 2010, fully electric vehicles have become widely produced and just fewer than 400,000 fully electric cars have been sold in the United States. Taking the influx of more fuel-efficient and alternative energy vehicles in the market into account, we have analyzed satellite and ground observed atmospheric pollution and greenhouse gases during 2009-2014 in the United States of America. Our results show that the increasing population of hybrid and fuel efficient vehicles have cut down the atmospheric pollution and greenhouse emissions in US in general, whereas in California the pollution level has increased as a result frequency of fog and haze events are seen during winter season. We will present a comparison of atmospheric pollution over US and California State in view of the increasing hybrid and fuel efficient vehicles.

  7. Analysis of large and non-standard geometry samples of ancient potteries by internal monostandard neutron activation analysis using in situ detection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The k0-based internal monostandard neutron activation analysis (IM-NAA) method was used for the analysis of 30 large and non-standard geometry ancient pottery samples obtained from Buddhist sites of Andhra Pradesh, India. One freshly finished pottery and a sun-drenched pottery were also analyzed for comparison. Samples were irradiated in thermal column facility of Apsara reactor and also in graphite reflector position of critical facility of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Radioactive assay was carried out using a 40% relative efficiency HPGe detector coupled to MCA. Concentration ratios of 15 elements with respect to Sc were determined. The La/Ce values as well as statistical cluster analysis utilizing concentration ratios of elements were used for grouping/provenance of the potteries. (author)

  8. Use of powered electric vehicles in automobile fleets. Help elements for decision; Utilisation de vehicules electriques dans les flottes automobiles. Elements d`aide a la decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    One of the primary causes of degradation in the quality of urban life is automobile transportation. The introduction of electric vehicles within automobile fleets can help mitigate some of the associated impacts. This guide has assembled a set of technical tools vital to all fleet managers, whether they be with public-sector agencies or companies, who are involved in vehicle-purchasing decisions. It deals with the specific issues related to the use, maintenance and acquisition of electric vehicles. Besides those elements intended to convince both decision-makers and users alike, the automobile fleet manager will find herein, as a conclusion, some examples of comparative economic assessments. These serve to highlight the opportunities available for using electric vehicles in a wide variety of situations. (authors) 18 refs.

  9. Reconstruction of Automobile Destruction: An Example of the Interaction between Language and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Palmer, John C.

    1974-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which subjects viewed films of automobile accidents and then answered questions about events occurring in the films. Wording of questions regarding speed influenced subjects' estimates of speed. (Author/RM)

  10. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  11. Fungal contamination of stored automobile-fuels in a tropical environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos E.Rodríguez-Rodríguez; Evelyn Rodríguez; Rigoberto Blanco; Ivannia Cordero; Daniel Segura

    2010-01-01

    Because of the lack of reports,the base levels of microbial contamination on stored fuels are unknown in tropical regions and it is unclear whether these levels have some influence on fuel quality parameters.Therefore,fungal quality in automobile fuels stored across Costa Rican territory was evaluated during two years according to the standard ASTM D6974-04.For a total of 96 samples,counts and identification of molds and yeasts were performed on regular gas,premium gas and diesel taken from the bottom and superior part of the container tanks.The highest contamination was found on the bottom of the tanks,where an aqueous phase was usually identified,showing populations over the ones present in the hydrocarbon itself (up to 108 CFU/L).Diesel was the most contaminated fuel (up to 107 CFU/L);however,an alteration on the physicochemical parameters was not observed in any kind of fuel.Seventy-five mold strains were isolated,Penicillium sp.being the most common genus (45.8% of the samples),and ten yeast strains,from the genera Candida sp.and Rhodotorula sp.Four of the yeasts were able to grow on diesel as the sole carbon source,at concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 25%.Increasing the frequency of tank cleaning,adding antimicrobial agents and monitoring microbial populations are recommended strategies to improve microbial quality of stored fuels.

  12. THE EFFECT OF SOLAR RADIATION ON AUTOMOBILE ENVIRONMENT THROUGH NATURAL CONVECTION AND MIXED CONVECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. FAISAL KADER

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the effect of solar radiation on automobiles has been studied by both experimentally and numerically. The numerical solution is done by an operation friendly and fast CFD code – SC/Tetra with a full scale model of a SM3 car and turbulence is modeled by the standard k-ε equation. Numerical analysis of the three-dimensional model predicts a detailed description of fluid flow and temperature distribution in the passenger compartment during both the natural convection due to the incoming solar radiation and mixed convection due to the flow from defrost nozzle and radiation. It can be seen that solar radiation is an important parameter to raise the compartment temperature above the ambient temperature during summer. During natural convection, the rate of heat transfer is fast at the initial period. In the mixed convection analyses, it is found that the temperature drops down to a comfortable range almost linearly at the initial stage. Experimental investigations are performed to determine the temperature contour on the windshield and the local temperature at a particular point for further validation of the numerical results.

  13. Influence of particulate trap oxidizers on emission of mutagenic compounds by diesel automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, R E; Devillez, G; Smith, L R

    1989-06-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are known to contain mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. The aim of this study was to determine whether, and to what extent, catalytic particulate trap oxidizers on light-duty diesel engines may reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic chemicals into the environment. Exhaust particles were collected from Mercedes Benz and Volkswagen diesel automobiles, equipped with or without the manufacturer's exhaust traps, while running on a chassis dynamometer under specified load conditions. Exhaust particles were collected from a dilution tunnel onto 20" X 20" Teflon-coated fiberglass filters. Mutagenesis tests of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the particles were conducted using the Ames Salmonella bacterial test system. The mutation rate was calculated in terms of histidine revertants per mile of travel during a set of standard test cycles. With both vehicles the traps produced an 87-92% reduction in the total amount of particulate material collected by the filters. There was no significant change in the specific mutagenic activity (revertants per microgram of DCM particle extract) with or without the traps. These studies support the notion that installation of exhaust traps which reduce particulate emission on diesel-powered vehicles will also reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic and carcinogenic materials into the environment. PMID:2473105

  14. Fungal contamination of stored automobile-fuels in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Rodríguez, Evelyn; Blanco, Rigoberto; Cordero, Ivannia; Segura, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Because of the lack of reports, the base levels of microbial contamination on stored fuels are unknown in tropical regions and it is unclear whether these levels have some influence on fuel quality parameters. Therefore, fungal quality in automobile fuels stored across Costa Rican territory was evaluated during two years according to the standard ASTM D6974-04. For a total of 96 samples, counts and identification of molds and yeasts were performed on regular gas, premium gas and diesel taken from the bottom and superior part of the container tanks. The highest contamination was found on the bottom of the tanks, where an aqueous phase was usually identified, showing populations over the ones present in the hydrocarbon itself (up to 10(8) CFU/L). Diesel was the most contaminated fuel (up to 10(7) CFU/L); however, an alteration on the physicochemical parameters was not observed in any kind of fuel. Seventy-five mold strains were isolated, Penicillium sp. being the most common genus (45.8% of the samples), and ten yeast strains, from the genera Candida sp. and Rhodotorula sp. Four of the yeasts were able to grow on diesel as the sole carbon source, at concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 25%. Increasing the frequency of tank cleaning, adding antimicrobial agents and monitoring microbial populations are recommended strategies to improve microbial quality of stored fuels. PMID:21235191

  15. Development of painting technology using plasma surface technology for automobile parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, C.-K. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: ckjung7818@skku.edu; Bae, I.-S. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.-B. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, J.-H. [Woosin Cryovac Co., Ltd. Uiwang 437-820 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, E.-S. [Woosin Cryovac Co., Ltd. Uiwang 437-820 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.-C. [Plakor Co., Ltd, Seoul 152-050 (Korea, Republic of); Boo, J.-H. [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jhboo@chem.skku.ac.kr

    2006-05-26

    One of the major areas in organic coatings for corrosion protection of automobile parts is the surface treatment of polyolefin (Polypropylene (RX-2000)) bumper substrates. In order to develop the painting technology, in this work, we directly tried to paint on the plastic bumper substrates without both wet washing process with VOC solvents and phosphate primer spray process. Microwave (MW) plasma treatment represents an efficient, clean and economic alternative to activate polymeric surfaces. O{sub 2} plasma treatment at room temperature within 300 s in the power range of 300-1000 W were used to elevate hydrophilic property of the polyolefin surfaces, resulting in distinctive change of wettability and adhesion between painting layer and polymeric bumper substrates. The treated surfaces have been analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Wettability and adhesion properties were elevated by the measurement of the contact angle, adhesion test, impact test, cold resistant impact test and water resistant impact test. We confirmed that the O{sub 2} plasma treatment was a very reliable method for the synthesis of polyolefin substrates with high wettability and adhesion performance.

  16. Improving the cooling performance of automobile radiator with Al2O3/water nanofluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, forced convective heat transfer in a water based nanofluid has experimentally been compared to that of pure water in an automobile radiator. Five different concentrations of nanofluids in the range of 0.1-1 vol.% have been prepared by the addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles into the water. The test liquid flows through the radiator consisted of 34 vertical tubes with elliptical cross section and air makes a cross flow inside the tube bank with constant speed. Liquid flow rate has been changed in the range of 2-5 l/min to have the fully turbulent regime (9 x 103 4). Additionally, the effect of fluid inlet temperature to the radiator on heat transfer coefficient has also been analyzed by varying the temperature in the range of 37-49 oC. Results demonstrate that increasing the fluid circulating rate can improve the heat transfer performance while the fluid inlet temperature to the radiator has trivial effects. Meanwhile, application of nanofluid with low concentrations can enhance heat transfer efficiency up to 45% in comparison with pure water. - Highlights: → Application of nanofluid in the car radiator has been studied experimentally. → Heat transfer enhancement of about 45% compared to water has been recorded. → Increasing particle concentration and velocity improves heat transfer performance.

  17. Corrosion of spray formed Al-Si-Cu alloys in ethanol automobile fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traldi, S.M.; Costa, I. [IPEN, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Cidade Univ., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rossi, J.L. [Powder Processing Center CCP, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    The use of aluminium alloys in the automotive industry has the weight saving attractiveness leading to improved engine efficiency and reduced vibration. The main restriction for the use of highly alloyed aluminium-silicon alloys is the casting difficulty. The spray forming technique allows the production of preforms of uniform microstructure, fine grains and low segregation effects. There are feasible commercial markets for spray formed Al-Si alloy for pistons, con-rod and cylinder liners. The use of these alloys in the automotive industry means that their corrosion performance in fuel environments needs to be evaluated. Lately, the interest in alcoholic fuels has been increasing due to pollutant emission restrictions. In this investigation, the corrosion behaviour of two Al-Si-Cu alloys produced by spray forming has been studied by means of weight loss measurements, electrochemical impedance measurements and potentiodynamic polarisation tests. The tests were carried out in ethanol automobile fuel. The corrosion of a grey cast iron has also been investigated, in the same solution for comparison reasons. (orig.)

  18. The impacts of air-pollution motivated automobile consumption tax adjustments of China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Junji; Ju, Heng

    2011-01-01

    A concomitant of the rapid development of the automobile industry in China is the serious air pollution and carbon dioxide emission. There are various regulation instruments to reduce the air pollution from automobile sources. China government chooses a small-displacement oriented consumption tax as well as fuel tax to alleviate the worse air pollution. This paper evaluates the effects of both policy instruments on fuel consumption and social welfare. Our empirical results show that fuel tax ...

  19. Determinants of EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) Adoption and Integration in the US and Japanese Automobile Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Kurokawa; Seiji Manabe

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of EDI adoption and integration in the US and Japanese automobile suppliers. The paper constructs several hypotheses based on the transaction-cost and resource- dependence approaches, and tests these hypotheses by using data from the automobile suppliers. Our study shows: (1) the resource-dependence approach seemed more effective in explaining EDI adoption, while the transaction-cost approach seemed more effective in explaining EDI integration; (2) the transac...

  20. Automobile air pollution: public health (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-Mar 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-03-01

    The annotated bibliography deals with information on the human effects of the major components of automobile exhaust gases. These include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, and lead. Also included are data on platinum, palladium, and manganese salts, which are exhausts from air pollution control devices, specifically catalytic converters. Studies which do not identify the automobile as the source of these gases have been excluded. (This updated bibliography contains 75 abstracts, 5 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  1. Noise Reduction of Rectangular Cavity with Sandwich Polycarbonate Window Pane for Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Min Shen; Kazuteru Nagamura

    2013-01-01

    In the automobile industry, the use of Polycarbonate (PC) window pane is well developed. However, the sound insulation performance of automobile’s Polycarbonate composite pane is poor than traditional glass pane because of its high rate of stiffness to low weight. There is need to design polycarbonate window pane with superior acoustical insulating property for automobile consumer comfort. In this study, the innovative super thin sandwich structure (less th...

  2. A Cycle of Dependence: Automobiles, Accessibility, and the Evolution of the Transportation and Retail Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Handy, Susan

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores how the automobile has indirectly led to dramatic changes in patterns of accessibility to retail and service activity within metropolitan regions. The automo­ bile instigated a greater articulation of the hierarchy of transportation facilities, as reflected in a greater differentia­ tion between the local and the regional systems. At the same time, the automobile instigated a collapse in the retail hierarchy, by encouraging the growth of community and regional centers at t...

  3. Automobile Safety Inspections and Enforcing Norms: Case Study of Japan Using Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores, using panel data of Japan, whether automobile inspections help to reduce accidents. Two innovations introduced by this paper are the control of endogeneity by the 2sls fixed effects model and the taking into account of norm enforcement in order to control the omitted variable bias. We found through this estimation that automobile inspections and the enforcing of social norms play a critical role in reducing fatalities but not non-fatal accidents.

  4. Peugeot’s repositioning : how to change people’s engagement towards an automobile brand

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Francisco Quedas Rodrigues dos

    2015-01-01

    Peugeot, acting in the automobile sector, represents about 9,5% of the Portuguese passengers car market. This market is characterized by representing risky and planned acquisitions and usually with many influencers throughout the buying process in order to lower the risk to the buyer. In 2013, after the verified crisis in the automobile sector in terms of sales, the group was conducted to a new strategy – ‘Back In The Race’ – described by a repositioning of the already exist...

  5. Evaluation of failures in mechanical crankshafts of automobile based on expert opinion

    OpenAIRE

    B. Kareem

    2015-01-01

    In this study, mechanical crankshaft failures for automobiles are evaluated based on experts’ opinion. This was done using data obtained using techniques based on oral interviews and questionnaire administration on mechanical failure of crankshafts from the experts working in the areas of automobile maintenance and crankshafts reconditioning. The data collected were analyzed using statistical methods based on probability. With this technique, probability of failure for each category of automo...

  6. Non-Convex Costs and Capital Utilization: A Study of Production Scheduling at Automobile Assembly Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, George J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies how managers at automobile assembly plants organize production across time. Detailed data from eleven single-source automobile assembly plants display considerable cross-plant heterogeneity. At plants which make low- and medium-selling vehicles the capital stock often sits idle, production is more variable than sales, and week-long shutdowns are often used to vary output. In contrast, at plants which make high-selling vehicles, the capital stock rarely sits idle, production...

  7. The Feasibility Study of the Waste Heat Air—Conditioning System for Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-pingLin; Xiu-ganYuan; 等

    1994-01-01

    In this paper,the feasibility of application of a solid-absorption system using ammonia and chlorides as working pair to automobile air-conditioning system is investigated.This system has the advantages of minimum environmental problem and utilizing waste heat from the automobile engine as thermal energy input.Analyses show that the main problem associated with the application of solid-absorption system is the size of the reactors.Techniques to solve this problem are discussed.

  8. THE ISSUES OF THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FORMATION OF AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY COMPANIES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Simkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose this study of is to consider the problems to ensure the efficiency of of automobile industry enterprise, to identify measures and areas of improvement and optimization of freight trucking companies and to prove the methods and ways to optimize cargo transportation process, which will give the opportunity to influence the technical level of the new technology and production as a whole. Methods: Monitoring and researching problems ensure, trucking companies, classification and description of components improve the management and optimization of transportation that will enable to transport enterprises to influence the design of the transportation process efficiency, reduce transportation costs and production as a whole. Correlation-regression analysis of the effectiveness determining rational route of vehicles that can improve the technical and operational performance of the rolling stock, increase productivity and reduce the cost of cars of cargo. Results: identified areas to ensure the efficiency of transportation companies automotive industry through the development and adoption of decisions on optimization of freight trucking companies through the development of rational route of vehicle design proposals from warehouse management (number vehicle fleet, improvement of dispatching service and optimization of organizational structure . Discussion: identifying areas of improvement of transport enterprises automotive industry due to the need to increase the volume of freight traffic, increase usage of rolling stock, saving material and energy resources, reduce labor costs. Decision-making to improve the management and optimization of freight is an important topic for future research, which will create an opportunity for the company to influence the technical level of the new technology and production as a whole.

  9. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study will be useful to both managers in the auto industry as well as policy makers. It will help managers in the auto industry to gain a better understanding of consumer intentions and identify the factors which influence them. Policy makers in Pakistan’s auto sector would benefit from the insights of this study when developing the long overdue Auto Policy. Analysis of the data collected has revealed that the three key factors identified from studies in other Asian countries are also relevant for Pakistani auto consumers.

  10. Study of lead pollution from automobile emissions in Khartoum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosol and soil samples were collected from places near the main roads in Khartoum area. The samples were analyzed by energy Dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique, to study the lead (Pb) concentration in air and soil near roadsides due to automobile emissions. The aim of the study was also to make a comparison with the results of previous measurements made in the same field (Ahmed, 1983) . Thee aerosol samples were taken from three sites in Khartoum area. Tuti island taken as a control area, central Khartoum as a commercial area and south of Khartoum as a residential area. Soil samples were taken from a place near Al Gurashi Park and another near Abu Hamama traffic junction in Khartoum area. The data obtained of (Pb) concentrations in the roadside air were statistically analyzed. Comparisons were made between the concentrations at the various times of the day and correlation were made with meteorological parameters. The (Pb) concentrations in the roadside soil were observed to be inversely proportional to the distance from the road and the depth from the layer of the earth. Finally, the results obtained are discussed and some recommendations are suggested. (Author)

  11. Keep the driver in control: Automating automobiles of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Automated automobiles will be on our roads within the next decade but the role of the driver has not yet been formerly recognised or designed. Rather, the driver is often left in a passive monitoring role until they are required to reclaim control from the vehicle. This research aimed to test the idea of driver-initiated automation, in which the automation offers decision support that can be either accepted or ignored. The test case examined a combination of lateral and longitudinal control in addition to an auto-overtake system. Despite putting the driver in control of the automated systems by enabling them to accept or ignore behavioural suggestions (e.g. overtake), there were still issues associated with increased workload and decreased trust. These issues are likely to have arisen due to the way in which the automated system has been designed. Recommendations for improvements in systems design have been made which are likely to improve trust and make the role of the driver more transparent concerning their authority over the automated system. PMID:26141907

  12. (Auto-)mobile data acquisition and measurement data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneuer, E.; Schwartze, S. [Werum Datenverarbeitungssysteme GmbH, Lueneburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This lecture introduces a concept of measurement technology with video integration for commercial vehicles. We would like to present DAVIS-CAR, a system for mobile data acquisition. It enables the simultaneous evaluation of video data and test data and consists of mobile as well as of stationary components in a client/server architecture. The product DAVIS-CAR is suitable not only for testing entire vehicles but for external suppliers developing vehicle components or for analysing a person's driving performance. Even for completely stationary systems DAVIS-CAR provides advantages in situations when video data are recorded to get additional information on tests. The mobile server collects the data of the driving car. The storage of these data can be triggered either manually or by events derived from signal states. The stationary system is capable of administering the measurement data and the associated Meta information from several mobile systems at the same time and of providing this information to the connected clients. The ASAM-ODS interface facilitates the integration of DAVIS-CAR in environments typically found in the automobile industry. The overall architecture also enables the integration of data provided by other measurement systems. (orig.)

  13. Death and injury from automobile collisions: an overlooked epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jason L; Watchko, Aileen Y; Segui-Gomez, Maria

    2011-05-01

    Automobile collisions are a major source of injury, death, and disability worldwide. Roadway injuries are affected by societal and cultural influences as much as any other health-related event, but have historically received relatively little attention from the medical anthropology community. The development of safety intervention strategies is affected by notions of responsibility for preventive care, including a balance between regulation, technology, and personal choice. This balance may be affected by perceptions of the risks associated with roadway use, potentially related to notions of individual control and the portrayal of collisions in the popular media and lexicon. Prevention efforts are also affected by the definition of injury as a disease-a biological phenomenon requiring research and intervention efforts from the medical and public health communities. Injury prevention priorities and strategies also differ across cultures and locales, dependent in part on economic constraints, native mobility practices, and the quality and expediency of post-trauma care. Progressing injury prevention worldwide requires multidisciplinary action, including an examination of these various cultural and societal influences. We believe that future efforts will benefit from the expertise and analysis of the medical anthropology community. PMID:21590580

  14. Synthesis of a Novel High Solid Coating Used in Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Lu; CHEN Hua-lin; LIANG Shou-tian; LIU Bai-ling

    2004-01-01

    High solid coating is one of the most important environmental friendly coatings, and has been obtained great attention since 70s' last century. For there are high volatile organic compounds(VOCs) in the conventional coatings, which cause both a serious pollution and consume of a plentiful of natural resource, such as petroleum. The development and production of high solid coatings is pressing target for all the countries, especially for China due to our heavy population and short of resources. Based on the requirement, a novel coating with high solid content has been developed in our lab. The solid content of the resin is 80%, compared to the 55% of conversional resin. This coating is characterized by its unique molecular architecture, it is a kind of hyper-branched polymer with uniform distribution of the reactive groups along the molecular backbone, which can react with other chemicals to form a cross-linking structure at high temperature.The coating has a lower viscosity and lower Tg corresponding to its branched structure( scheme 1).This coating has been applied in the automobile finishing. The experimental results indicated that the developed coating presented high performance properties in fastness, mar resistance, and hardness, it also reduced the baking temperature, resulting in a energy saving.

  15. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Khairnar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the similar obtained from virtual Matlab/Simulink models for drum and disc brakes. The results evidenced that friction radius predominantly affects brake pressure and thus the friction coefficient, also the increase in contact force resulted with decrease in friction coefficient both for drum and disc brakes. Further it has been found that disc brakes exhibit gradual decrease of friction coefficient due to the equitable distribution of braking effort while drum brake presents sudden variations in friction coefficient. It can be revealed that frictional behaviour of disc brake is more consistent than drum brake.

  16. The influence of the calibration standard and the chemical composition of the water samples residue in the counting efficiency of proportional detectors for gross alpha and beta counting. Application on the radiologic control of the IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the efficiency calibration curves of thin-window and low background gas-flow proportional counters were determined for calibration standards with different energies and different absorber thicknesses. For the gross alpha counting we have used 241Am and natural uranium standards and for the gross beta counting we have used 90Sr/90Y and 137Cs standards in residue thicknesses ranging from 0 to approximately 18 mg/cm2. These sample thicknesses were increased with a previously determined salted solution prepared simulating the chemical composition of the underground water of IPEN The counting efficiency for alpha emitters ranged from 0,273 +- 0,038 for a weightless residue to only 0,015 +- 0,002 in a planchet containing 15 mg/cm2 of residue for 241Am standard. For natural uranium standard the efficiency ranged from 0,322 +- 0,030 for a weightless residue to 0,023 +- 0,003 in a planchet containing 14,5 mg/cm2 of residue. The counting efficiency for beta emitters ranged from 0,430 +- 0,036 for a weightless residue to 0,247 +- 0,020 in a planchet containing 17 mg/cm2 of residue for 137Cs standard. For 90Sr/90Y standard the efficiency ranged from 0,489 +- 0,041 for a weightless residue to 0,323 +- 0,026 in a planchet containing 18 mg/cm2 of residue. Results make evident the counting efficiency variation with the alpha or beta emitters energies and the thickness of the water samples residue. So, the calibration standard, the thickness and the chemical composition of the residue must always be considered in the gross alpha and beta radioactivity determination in water samples. (author)

  17. OFF-ROAD CAPABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF MAZ-AUTOMOBILE HAVING AGRICULTURAL MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Bobrovnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains requirements to parameters of an automobile being designed with axle arrangement 6x4 and technically permissible mass of 25 tons with its all year round operation in agricultural industry with the purpose to ensure in-time load transportation and technological cycle in crop production of the agricultural complex in accordance with time schedule of the executed mechanized works. The future automobile should also have a power takeoff device.The paper presents operation chart flowsheets for cultivation of main crops on mineral and peat soils with indication of automobile motion modes and type of transported loads. Specific properties of peat-bog soils are given in the paper. The paper considers off-road capability of mobile machines when they are moving on soils with low bearing capacity. The paper indicates field applications of automobiles with limited and high off-road capability. Description of wheel interaction with bearing surface area, values of soil resistivity after multiple automobile passages have been given in the paper.The paper specifies values of rolling resistance coefficient and adhesion coefficient of the automobile undercarriage systems in spring and autumn for wheeled and crawler units. Schemes of the automobile front axle drives (electric, hydraulic, mechanical and their characteristics have been analyzed in the paper. An elastic flexible drive with separation of flow power has been proposed for reduction of dynamic loads in a power transmission drive. The paper describes a drive system of auto-analogue steering wheels with hydraulic hydrostatic drive which is located within a front wheel hub that ensure additional thrust. Recommendations for MAZ-automobile modernization with axle arrangement 6x4 have been given with the purpose to improve its off- road capability.Metallic anti-skid chain, segment and small link, track and crawler chains, wideners have obtained a wide application for improvement of automobile

  18. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  19. Digital manufacturing in fiat group automobiles: virtual simulations for preliminary ergonomics optimization of workcells in the design phase of a new car model

    OpenAIRE

    Spada, Stefania; Frascà, Fabrizio; Sessa, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    New standards on work organization in the automotive industry, require a new concept of design methods: the human centred process. In Fiat Group Automobiles (FGA) the “Digital Manufacturing” (DM) project has started with the goal to create simulation tools and methods to improve the design of new cars’manufacturing processes giving a special attention to manual operations. The DM approach is based on a detailed “virtual plant” where virtual mannequins interact with digital models of car’s com...

  20. Supplier Relationship in Product Development: A Survey of the Chinese Automobile Industry during the Growth Period, 2005-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Jooyoung Kwak; Hyunjoo Min; Peishan Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study compares supplier relationship by multinational assemblers in China vis-à-vis the Chinese assemblers in the stage of product development. We surveyed seven automobile firms (four international joint ventures and three Chinese firms) during 2005-2007, when the Chinese automobile industry began to rear up. Based on the survey, we examined the roles of suppliers, which is one of the critical dimensions in product development of the automobile industry. Our findings suggest that, durin...

  1. NATURAL FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES FOR AUTOMOBILE ACCESSORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chandramohan

    2013-01-01

    Electron Microscope. The disclosure includes the process to make the composite and also the variety of products in automobile accessories.

  2. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Shukla; C L Jackson; K Scott

    2003-02-01

    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of $ca$. 50 kW supplemented with short bursts up to 80 kW will suffice in most driving requirements. The energy demand depends greatly on driving characteristics but under normal usage is expected to be 200 Wh/km. The advantages and disadvantages of candidate fuel-cell systems and various fuels are considered together with the issue of whether the fuel should be converted directly in the fuel cell or should be reformed to hydrogen onboard the vehicle. For fuel cell vehicles to compete successfully with conventional internal-combustion engine vehicles, it appears that direct conversion fuel cells using probably hydrogen, but possibly methanol, are the only realistic contenders for road transportation applications. Among the available fuel cell technologies, polymer–electrolyte fuel cells directly fueled with hydrogen appear to be the best option for powering fuel cell vehicles as there is every prospect that these will exceed the performance of the internal-combustion engine vehicles but for their first cost. A target cost of $ 50/kW would be mandatory to make polymer–electrolyte fuel cells competitive with the internal combustion engines and can only be achieved with design changes that would substantially reduce the quantity of materials used. At present, prominent car manufacturers are deploying important research and development efforts to develop fuel cell vehicles and are projecting to start production by 2005.

  3. Measurement of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of digital X-ray detectors according to the novel standard IEC 62220-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mobile measurement facility which complies with IEC 62220-1 has been set up to determine the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of digital X-ray detector systems. Exemplary measurements were performed for two similar CR detector systems, a CsI-based indirect detector and an Se-based direct detector. The standardised radiation quality RQA 5 was applied for measurement and for three of these systems RQA 9 was also applied. A pronounced dependence of DQE on radiation quality was observed for the direct detector, where the DQEs for RQA 5 and RQA 9 differ by a factor of ∼2. The uncertainty (95% confidence interval) associated with the measured DQE values is within 0.01 and 0.04 depending on, for example, the spatial frequency. Thus, it has been demonstrated that the DQE can be measured accurately and reliably with the accuracy required by the international standard IEC 62220-1. It is now possible to objectively measure and compare DQE values of digital X-ray detector systems. (authors)

  4. Comparison of standards to determine the efficiency of three-phase induction motors; Comparacion de normas para determinar la eficiencia de motores de induccion trifasicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renier, B and others [IEEE, (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The Mexican industry often acquires from different countries, complete systems of production or auxiliaries, most of them impelled by squirrel cage electric motors, whose efficiency stated by the manufacturer is calculated by applying regional or local standards. For this reason, for the accomplishment of an energy balance -one of the first steps to follow is to determine the saving potential of a plant- it is important to know how the mentioned motor saving potentials were evaluated. It is worthwhile to indicate that an incorrect estimation could get to modify the economics of the applied measures. [Spanish] La industria mexicana a menudo adquiere de distintos paises, sistemas completos de produccion o auxiliares, la mayor parte de los cuales estan impulsados por motores electricos tipo aula de ardilla cuya eficiencia declarada por el fabricante se calcula aplicando normas regionales o locales. Por tal motivo, para la realizacion de un balance de energia -uno de los primeros pasos a seguir para determinar los potenciales de ahorro de una planta- resulta importante conocer como fueron evaluadas los mencionados motores. Cabe senalar que una estimacion incorrecta pudiera llegar a modificar la rentabilidad de la medida aplicada.

  5. Enabling benchmarking and improving operational efficiency at nuclear power plants through adoption of a common process model: SNPM (standard nuclear performance model)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    others. The goal of the SNPM is to give the people maintaining and operating nuclear power stations a common model on which to base their business processes and measure/benchmark themselves against others. The importance of benchmarking and comparing 'apples to apples' has and will continue to safely drive improvement and efficiencies throughout the business. For example, in the mid 1990's it was quite difficult to compare work management statistics and programs between plants. The introduction of several INPO documents, which eventually became the SNPM work management process (AP 928) enabled plants to benchmark and compare information on many aspects of work management, in fact INPO began to evaluate the nuclear plants on their implementation and usage of AP 928. Also, the standardization enabled the identification and benchmarking of innovations in plant processes and performance, which in turn helped to facilitate those innovations being accepted in other plants-thus furthering the cycle of continuous improvement. Using a master plan, all communities of practice are able to identify specific improvement projects and coordinate the implementation of the processes to ensure smooth transitions between the various process interface or intersection points. In essence the nuclear energy industry in the United States is working as one company-driving efficiencies and operational improvements. Key enablers in adopting the best practices like the SNPM are work, asset and supply chain management solutions - both from a functional and a technological point of view. In addition to the importance of supporting industry best practices, there are two additional attributes a nuclear power operating company should evaluate regarding software solutions for work, asset, and supply chain management: breadth of assets managed, and the architecture of solution. (author)

  6. CITY DEVELOPMENT FOR KEEPING POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS FROM MOTOR VEHICLES IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS IN ACCORDANCE WITH AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Владимир Васильевич Балакин

    2016-01-01

    The dependency of carbon monoxide concentrations on wind speed has been obtained in the field studies. It is used in determining optimum ventilation modes for street space to ensure keeping the content of the toxic components from automobile exhaust in accordance with public health standards.Environmental basis for development optimization for busy primary streets has been provided to avoid dangerous levels of ambient air pollution with automobile emissions.Positive effect on air quality from...

  7. Caractérisation des procédés de fabrication de pièces de securité automobile. optimisation multiobjectifs de la mise en forme

    OpenAIRE

    Gildemyn, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Automotive safety parts manufactured out of steel sheets are more and more expansive due to the increase in price of raw materials. Moreover, these parts are subjected to increasingly demanding European standards. This is why automobile equipment supplier, such as company DEVILLÉ S.A. are looking to develop numerical tools in order to optimize and predict the behavior of these parts, in-service, by integrating the entire manufacturing process. The work presented here is a contribution to this...

  8. Experimental analysis of synchronization and dynamics in an automobile as a complex system

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cruz, C. A.; Jáuregui-Correa, J. C.; López-Cajún, C.; Sen, M.; Domínguez-González, A.

    2015-08-01

    A complex system is composed of many interacting elements, and its behavior, as a whole, can be quite different from that of the individual elements. An automobile is an example of a common mechanical system composed of a large number of individual elements. These elements are connected through soft and hard linkages that transmit motion to each other. This paper proposes a variety of analytical tools to study experimental data from complex systems using two elements of an automobile as an example. Accelerometer measurements were taken from two elements within an automobile: the door and the dashboard. Two types of data were collected: response to impact loading, and response to road excitation of the automobile driven at different speeds. The signals were processed via Fourier and wavelet transforms, cross-correlation coefficients, Hilbert transform, and Kuramoto order parameters. A new parameter, called the order-deficit parameter, is introduced. Considerable, but not complete, synchronization can be found between the accelerations measured at these two locations in the automobile, and the degree of synchronization is quantified using the order-deficit parameter.

  9. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  10. Summary of semi-initiative and initiative control automobile engine vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Qu, Zhou

    2009-07-01

    Engine vibration accounts for around 55% of automobile vibration, separating the engine vibration from transmitting to automobile to the utmost extent is significant for improving NVH performance. Semi-initiative and initiative control of engine vibration is one of the hot spots of technical research in domestic and foreign automobile industry, especially luxury automobiles which adopt this technology to improve amenity and competitiveness. This article refers to a large amount of domestic and foreign related materials, fully introduces the research status of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension of engine vibration suspension and many kinds of structural style, and provides control policy and method of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension system. Compare and analyze the structural style of semi-initiative and initiative control and merits and demerits of current structures of semi-initiative and initiative control of mechanic electrorheological, magnetorheological, electromagnetic actuator, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostriction material, pneumatic actuator etc. Models of power assembly mounting system was classified.Calculation example indicated that reasonable selection of engine mounting system parameters is useful to reduce engine vibration transmission and to increase ride comfort. Finally we brought forward semi-initiative and initiative suspension which might be applied for automobiles, and which has a promising future.

  11. Effect of Solvents on Microalbuminuria Among Automobile Painters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Shushtarizadeh

    2008-06-01

    SPSS 11.5.Results: Several studies showed that solvents cause renal disorder (tubular and glomerular, although glomerulonephritis is more prevalent. The mean age of the solvent group was 28.6 ±2.7 years and was 33.7 ±7 years in control group (p<0.05. The mean duration of solvent exposure was 4.8 ±1.5 years. Statistically meaningful differences were found between solvent and control groups for microalbuminuria, increased serum BUN and creatinine levels (p<0.05, although there was no significant correlation between these parameters and the duration of exposure (p>0.05.Conclusion: The results suggest that kidney dysfunction results from chronic occupational exposure to solvents at levels found in automobile painting rooms in Iran. We recommend increased monitoring of workers using solvents and increased review and enforcement of safety regulations regarding such use of solvents.

  12. [Medicolegal and compensation scientific approach to automobile accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Haruo

    2002-09-01

    medico legal and scientific compensation approach to automobile accident is now necessary. PMID:12415831

  13. Development of gasification and melting system for energy recovery from automobile shredder residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As one of the efforts to increase recycling rate of end of life vehicles enforcing by the governmental regulation, automobile shredder residue (ASR) was considered to treat by a thermal method with converting waste to energy. Gasification and melting experimental processes of lab (1 kg/ hour) and pilot (5 ton/ day) scale were installed. ASR collected from a domestic shredding company was experimented at a lab-scale and pilot-scale gasification and melting process which is similar to the shaft type gasification melting furnace. The characteristics of syngas, tar and residue (slag) generated from a conversion process (gasification and melting) were analyzed to provide the information to further utilize them as fuel and recyclable materials in scaled up plants. A series of experiments have been conducted with various air equivalent ratios (ERs), and syngas compositions, carbon conversion efficiency, heating value of syngas, yield and characteristics of slag were analyzed. Finally, slags generated from the process were recycled with various alternative technologies. In summary, energy conversion technology of ASR with the least production of residue by gasification and slag utilization has been developed. The main components in product gas were H2, CO, CH4 and CO2; and concentrations of C2H4 and C2H6 were less. This can be used as clean fuel gas whose heating value ranged from 2.5 to 14.0 MJ/ m3. Most of slag generated from the process can further be fabricated to valuable and usable products. Such combined technology would result in achieving almost zero waste release from ELVs. (author)

  14. Heart rate and core temperature responses of elite pit crews during automobile races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, David P; Bowen, Robert S; Lightfoot, J Timothy

    2011-08-01

    There is limited information regarding the physiological and psychological demands of the racing environment, and the subsequent effect on the performance of pit crew athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heart rates (HRs) and core body temperatures (CTs) of pit crew athletes in the race environment. The HR and CT of pit crew athletes (n = 7) and control subjects were measured during 6 National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing Sprint Cup races using ingestible sensors (HQ Inc, Palmetto, FL, USA). The HR and CT were measured before each race, at 15-minute intervals during the race, and upon completion of each pit stop. Compared to the control subject at each race, the pit crew athletes had significantly (p = 0.014) lower core temperatures (CTs). The pit crew athletes displayed higher HRs on the asphalt tracks than on concrete tracks (p = 0.011), and HR responses of the crew members were significantly (p = 0.012) different between pit crew positions, with the tire changers and jackman exhibiting higher HRs than the tire carriers. Unexpectedly, the CTs of the pit crew athletes were not elevated in the race environment, despite high ambient temperatures and the extensive fire-protection equipment (e.g., helmet, suit, gloves) each pit crew athlete wore. The lack of CT change is possibly the result of the increased HR more efficiently shunting blood to the skin and dissipating heat as a consequence of the athletes' extensive training regimen and ensuing heat acclimation. Additionally, it is possible that psychological stress unique to several of the tracks provided an additive effect resulting in increased heart rates. PMID:21654342

  15. Separation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from automobile shredder residue (ASR) by froth flotation with ozonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to develop froth flotation to separate polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from automobile shredder residue (ASR) plastic mixtures of variable composition. Some polymers in ASR polymer mixtures have similar density and hydrophobicity with PVC and thus selective flotation of PVC from ASR polymer mixtures cannot be achieved. The present study focused on the surface modification of PVC with ozonation, and then the modified PVC can be separated from other polymers by the following froth flotation. The results of this study indicate that the selective recovery of PVC from real ASR polyethylene tetra pethelate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polybutyl methacralate (PBMA), ethyl acrylate (EA), polycarbonate (PC) and rubber mixtures can be accomplished in a three-step process involving a gravity separation, ozonation and froth flotation. The rubber was removed from other heavy ASR (PVC, PET, PMMA, PBMA, EA and PC) polymers by froth flotation without mixing. It was found that ozonation process produced the desired difference in contact angle required (from 89.5 to 73.0o) for separation of PVC from other heavy ASR polymers, whereas the contact angles of other polymers was slightly decreased. The most of the load ASR, i.e. about 72.4% is floated away and 27.6% was settled down. The highest component 96.7% of PVC was recovered in the settled fraction. As a result of this research effort, the surface modification of PVC with ozonation can be efficiently useful to separate the PVC from other similar density ASR mixed polymers

  16. Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.,Ltd.—China’s Heavy Truck Giant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.,Ltd. (formerly Shaanxi Automobile Manufacturing Plant) was originally a weak enterprise. Relying on the reorganization of assets,the introduction of the"Double Best"project and opportunities for development,it has entered the fast track of development by es- tablishing a brand image and implementing a forward-looking strategy.In 1990,Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.Ltd.was a loss- making enterprise with an annual sales of 100 million yuan ($14.1 million).In 2007,its sales income surpassed 10 billion yuan ($1.4 billion),and it was not only listed among China’s top 500 companies,but also ranked 37th among the top 500 machinery companies of China and came first in Shaanxi Province

  17. Evaluation of heavy metals in hazardous automobile shredder residue thermal residue and immobilization with novel nano-size calcium dispersed reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chi-Hyeon; Truc, Nguyen Thi Thanh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byeong-Kyu, E-mail: bklee@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Mitoma, Yoshiharu [Department of Environmental Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, 562 Nanatsuka-Cho Shobara City, Hiroshima 727-0023 (Japan); Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy, E-mail: srireddys@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of possible mechanisms determining the heavy metals immobilization efficiencyof ASR dust/thermal residues after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4}. - Highlights: • Nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} for heavy metals immobilization in ASR residue. • Heavy metals immobilization in dry condition attained about 95–100%. • Remaining heavy metals were lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit. • The amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR dust surface decreased. • Nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} has a promising potential for heavy metal remediation. - Abstract: This study was conducted to synthesize and apply a nano-size calcium dispersed reagent as an immobilization material for heavy metal-contaminated automobile shredder residues (ASR) dust/thermal residues in dry condition. Simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} dispersion mixture immobilized 95–100% of heavy metals in ASR dust/thermal residues (including bottom ash, cavity ash, boiler and bag filter ash). The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The morphology and elemental composition of the nanometallic Ca/CaO-treated ASR residue were characterized by field emission scanning election microscopy combined with electron dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS). The results indicated that the amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR thermal residue surface decreased and the Ca/PO{sub 4} mass percent increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis indicated that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on ASR residue included Ca/PO{sub 4}− associated crystalline complexes, and that immobile Ca/PO{sub 4} salts remarkably inhibited the desorption of heavy metals from ASR residues. These results support the potential use of nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} as a simple, suitable and

  18. Evaluation of heavy metals in hazardous automobile shredder residue thermal residue and immobilization with novel nano-size calcium dispersed reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of possible mechanisms determining the heavy metals immobilization efficiencyof ASR dust/thermal residues after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4. - Highlights: • Nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 for heavy metals immobilization in ASR residue. • Heavy metals immobilization in dry condition attained about 95–100%. • Remaining heavy metals were lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit. • The amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR dust surface decreased. • Nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 has a promising potential for heavy metal remediation. - Abstract: This study was conducted to synthesize and apply a nano-size calcium dispersed reagent as an immobilization material for heavy metal-contaminated automobile shredder residues (ASR) dust/thermal residues in dry condition. Simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 dispersion mixture immobilized 95–100% of heavy metals in ASR dust/thermal residues (including bottom ash, cavity ash, boiler and bag filter ash). The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The morphology and elemental composition of the nanometallic Ca/CaO-treated ASR residue were characterized by field emission scanning election microscopy combined with electron dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS). The results indicated that the amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR thermal residue surface decreased and the Ca/PO4 mass percent increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis indicated that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on ASR residue included Ca/PO4− associated crystalline complexes, and that immobile Ca/PO4 salts remarkably inhibited the desorption of heavy metals from ASR residues. These results support the potential use of nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 as a simple, suitable and highly efficient material for the gentle

  19. Use of a standardized protocol to identify factors affecting the efficiency of artificial insemination services for cattle through progesterone measurement in fourteen countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this co-ordinated research project (CRP) was to quantify the main factors limiting the efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) services in cattle under the prevailing conditions of developing countries, in order to recommend suitable strategies for improving conception rates (CR) and the level of usage of AI by cattle farmers. A standardized approach was used in 14 countries over a five-year period (1995-1999). The countries were: Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam in Asia; and Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela in Latin America. A minimum of 500 cows undergoing first insemination after calving were expected to be monitored in each country. Data regarding farms, AI technicians, semen used, cow inseminated, characteristics of the heat expression and factors related to the insemination were recorded. Three milk samples (or blood samples for dairy heifers and beef cows) were collected for each service to measure progesterone by radioimmunoassay. These were collected on the day of service (day 0) and on days 10-12 and 22-24 after service. Field and laboratory data were recorded in the computer package AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) which was developed for this CRP. The study established the current status of AI services at selected locations in participating countries and showed important differences between Asian and Latin American farming systems. The mean (±s.d.) of the interval from calving to first service for 7992 observations was 120.0 ± 82.1 days (median 95 days) with large differences between countries (P<0.05). The overall CR to first service was 40.9% (n=8196), the most efficient AI services being the ones in Vietnam (62.1%), Chile (61.9%) and Myanmar (58.9%). The interval between the first and second service was 44.6 ± 44.4 days (n=1959). Progesterone data in combination with clinical findings showed that 17.3% of the services were performed in non

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of automobile beam steels produced by EAF-CSP process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengzhi Zhao; Yonglin Kang; Hao Yu

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure, mechanical properties, and misorientation of automobile beam steels produced by EAF-CSP process were studied using optical microscopy (OM) and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). It is shown that the microstructure of strips is mainly polygonal ferrite, and the average grain size is about 5-8 μm. The electron back-scattered diffraction results show that grain boundaries in ferrite are basically high-angle grain boundaries without remarkable preferred orientation. Hot strips of automobile beam steels possess a good combination of strength and plasticity because of their fine microstructures and low quantity of impurities.