WorldWideScience

Sample records for automobile efficiency standards

  1. Information, complexity and efficiency: The automobile model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenby, B. [Lucent Technologies (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-08

    The new, rapidly evolving field of industrial ecology - the objective, multidisciplinary study of industrial and economic systems and their linkages with fundamental natural systems - provides strong ground for believing that a more environmentally and economically efficient economy will be more information intensive and complex. Information and intellectual capital will be substituted for the more traditional inputs of materials and energy in producing a desirable, yet sustainable, quality of life. While at this point this remains a strong hypothesis, the evolution of the automobile industry can be used to illustrate how such substitution may, in fact, already be occurring in an environmentally and economically critical sector.

  2. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart IIIi... - Determination of Capture Efficiency of Automobile and Light-Duty Truck Spray Booth Emissions From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Automobile and Light-Duty Truck Spray Booth Emissions From Solvent-borne Coatings Using Panel Testing A... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Automobiles and Light... Efficiency of Automobile and Light-Duty Truck Spray Booth Emissions From Solvent-borne Coatings Using...

  4. Market Energy efficient and new fuel automobile developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Tsinghua University develops mini electric car OUYANG Mingbao, dean of automotive engineering and director of the key national laboratory of automobile safety and energy efficiency, has recently delivered a speech on the development of mini electric car in the university.

  5. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  6. Standardization Boosts the Development ofCHANGAN AUTOMOBILE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades,CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE has been sticking to its core value of "technology innovation and consistent care" and dedicating to lead the automobile culture by technology innovation.Till now,it has a complete product range of micro vehicles,passenger cars,buses,trucks,SUV,MPV,etc.,and engineplatforms ranging from 0.8L to 2.5L.CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE brand output ranked 13th in the world and first in China in 2009.Its brand value reached 30.515 billion RMB in 2011,among most valuable brands in China.

  7. Technology Demonstration of General Black box Standard for Automobiles (GBSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available GBSA is an upcoming proposal towards Automobile industry and to the federal governing bodies around the world. Here we are intent to create a disciplinary system to save city sons from accident death and to abolish insurance piracy. The proposal is actually developed from the loss of mankind in society but pulled by technology and humanity facts..

  8. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks. 109-38.104 Section 109-38.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.1-Fuel Efficient...

  9. Energy efficient--advanced oxidation process for treatment of cyanide containing automobile industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudliar, R; Umare, S S; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2009-05-30

    Destruction of cyanide (CN) from an automobile industry wastewater by advance oxidation process (AOP) has been evaluated. The operating conditions (in an indigenously designed photoreactor) for three different treatment strategies have been optimized. The treatment strategies involved use of, ultra violet light (UV), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and ozone (O(3)) in various combinations. Treatment of automobile industry wastewater (250 mg/L CN) showed fastest CN destruction, which was significantly (Pwater bodies. The specific energy consumption by the photoreactor following this treatment was comparable to that obtained by conventional treatments, which use photocatalyst. Since the present treatment does not use catalyst, it provides an excellent energy efficient and economical option for treatment and safe disposal of CN containing industrial wastewater.

  10. High energy efficiency desiccant assisted automobile air-conditioner and its temperature and humidity control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaya, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gunma University Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)]. E-mail: nagaya@me.gunma-u.ac.jp; Senbongi, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gunma University Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Li, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gunma University Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Zheng, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gunma University Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Murakami, I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gunma University Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

    2006-10-15

    The energy efficiency is of importance in air conditioning systems for automobiles. The present article provides a new type air conditioning system for automobiles in which energy loss is small in comparison with the previous system. In the system, a desiccant is installed in the air conditioning system for controlling both temperature and humidity. The control is performed by an electromagnetic control valve, which controls an inclination of the rotating plate of a compressor. It is difficult to control both temperature and humidity precisely, because there are some delays in the control due to the time of heat exchange and that of coolant flow from the actuator (electromagnetic valve) to the evaporator. In order to have precise control, this article also presents a method of control with consideration of control delays. The energy of our system is compared with that in the previous conventional system in the same condition. It is shown that our controlled results and energy efficiency are better than those in the previous system.

  11. Estimation of Gasoline Price Elasticities of Demand for Automobile Fuel Efficiency in Korea: A Hedonic Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Tae [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Myunghun [Keimyung University, Taegu (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    This paper estimates the gasoline price elasticities of demand for automobile fuel efficiency in Korea to examine indirectly whether the government policy of raising fuel prices is effective in inducing less consumption of fuel, relying on a hedonic technique developed by Atkinson and Halvorsen (1984). One of the advantages of this technique is that the data for a single year, without involving variation in the price of gasoline, is sufficient in implementing this study. Moreover, this technique enables us to circumvent the multicollinearity problem, which had reduced reliability of the results in previous hedonic studies. The estimated elasticities of demand for fuel efficiency with respect to the price of gasoline, on average, is 0.42. (author). 30 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Energy efficiency standards and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Van Buskirk et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 114010) demonstrate that the purchase price, lifecycle cost and price of improving efficiency (i.e. the incremental price of efficiency gain) decline at an accelerated rate following the adoption of the first energy efficiency standards for five consumer products. The authors show these trends using an experience curve framework (i.e. price/cost versus cumulative production). While the paper does not draw a causal link between standards and declining prices, they provide suggestive evidence using markets in the US and Europe. Below, I discuss the potential implications of the work.

  13. Regulation on power efficiency in the automobile; Regulacion sobre eficiencia energetica en el automovil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado Susano, Armando; Romero de Vivar Uvaldo, Pascual [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this article it is presented a brief analysis of one of the regulations on the yield of fuel consumption of the light vehicles that promoted substantial changes in the Mexican automotive industry, the decree denominated PREMCE (Average of minimum fuel yield by company), as well as some international experiences relative to the subject. It is also indicated the evolution, in the last years, of the average yields of fuel consumption (Km/L) in Mexico in the new automobiles and the more important technological factors that affect their energy efficiency. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta un breve analisis de una de las regulaciones sobre el rendimiento de consumo de combustible de los vehiculos ligeros que promovio cambios sustanciales en la industria automotriz mexicana, el decreto denominado Premce (Promedio de rendimiento minimo de combustible por empresa), asi como algunas experiencias internacionales relativas al tema. Se senala tambien la evolucion, en los ultimos anos, de los rendimientos promedio de consumo de combustible (Km/L) en Mexico en los automoviles nuevos y los factores tecnologicos mas importantes que influyen en su eficiencia energetica.

  14. Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurlock, Cecily Anna [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-08

    I explore the effects of two simultaneous changes in minimum energy efficiency and ENERGY STAR standards for clothes washers. Adapting the Mussa and Rosen (1978) and Ronnen (1991) second-degree price discrimination model, I demonstrate that clothes washer prices and menus adjusted to the new standards in patterns consistent with a market in which firms had been price discriminating. In particular, I show evidence of discontinuous price drops at the time the standards were imposed, driven largely by mid-low efficiency segments of the market. The price discrimination model predicts this result. On the other hand, in a perfectly competition market, prices should increase for these market segments. Additionally, new models proliferated in the highest efficiency market segment following the standard changes. Finally, I show that firms appeared to use different adaptation strategies at the two instances of the standards changing.

  15. HOW TO OBTAIN ECONOMICALLY EFFICIENT ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES FOR CONSTRUCTIVE AUTOMOBILE ROAD AND STREET PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Verenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a methodology for evaluation of technical and economic efficiency of asphalt concrete mixture components. The method allows to perform a directed search for new materials which are used for mixture preparation and it also provides an efficient use of monetary funds. Firstly, it is possible to obtain this result due to optimum price-quality ratio of asphalt mixture which is determined by its service life in a pavement; secondly, it is possible to obtain this result due to  exclusion of errors while selecting components of the asphalt mixture out of the whole range applied presently in the world practice.

  16. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  17. Setting the Standard for Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Williams, Robert; Perry, Wayne; Li, Tienan

    2007-06-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems use more than 2194 billionkWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largest opportunitiesfor energy savings.1 The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimization of motor driven systems could reduce global electricitydemand by 7 percent through the application of commercially availabletechnologies and using well-tested engineering practices. Yet manyindustrial firms remain either unaware of or unable to achieve theseenergy savings. The same factors that make it so challenging to achieveand sustain energy efficiency in motor-driven systems (complexity,frequent changes) apply to the production processes that they support.Yet production processes typically operate within a narrow band ofacceptable performance. These processes are frequently incorporated intoISO 9000/14000 quality and environmental management systems, whichrequire regular, independent audits to maintain ISO certification, anattractive value for international trade. It is our contention that acritical step in achieving and sustaining energy efficiency ofmotor-driven systems specifically, and industrial energy efficiencygenerally, is the adoption of a corporate energy management standard thatis consistent with current industrial quality and environmentalmanagement systems such as ISO. Several energy management standardscurrently exist (US, Denmark, Ireland, Sweden) and specifications(Germany, Netherlands) others are planned (China, Spain, Brazil, Korea).This paper presents the current status of energy management standardsdevelopment internationally, including an analysis of their sharedfeatures and differences, in terms of content, promulgation, andimplementation. The purpose of the analysis is to describe the currentstate of "best practices" for this emerging area of energy efficiencypolicymaking and tosuggest next steps toward the creation of a trulyinternational energy management standard that is consistent with the ISOprinciples of measurement

  18. 78 FR 37995 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Part 460 RIN 1904-AC11 Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request for Information (RFI). SUMMARY: The U... manufactured homes with higher energy efficiencies, and possible enforcement models for the DOE standards....

  19. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... levels of the baseline building. (b) Energy consumption for the purposes of calculating the 30 percent...-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.4 Energy efficiency performance standard. (a) All Federal agencies shall design new...

  20. Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

    2004-08-02

    Energy efficiency standards set minimum levels of energy efficiency that must be met by new products. Depending on the dynamics of the market and the level of the standard, the effect on the market for a given product may be small, moderate, or large. Energy efficiency standards address a number of market failures that exist in the buildings sector. Decisions about efficiency levels often are made by people who will not be responsible for the energy bill, such as landlords or developers of commercial buildings. Many buildings are occupied for their entire lives by very temporary owners or renters, each unwilling to make long-term investments that would mostly reward subsequent users. And sometimes what looks like apathy about efficiency merely reflects inadequate information or time invested to evaluate it. In addition to these sector-specific market failures, energy efficiency standards address the endemic failure of energy prices to incorporate externalities. In the U.S., energy efficiency standards for consumer products were first implemented in California in 1977. National standards became effective starting in 1988. By the end of 2001, national standards were in effect for over a dozen residential appliances, as well as for a number of commercial sector products. Updated standards will take effect in the next few years for several products. Outside the U.S., over 30 countries have adopted minimum energy performance standards. Technologies and markets are dynamic, and additional opportunities to improve energy efficiency exist. There are two main avenues for extending energy efficiency standards. One is upgrading standards that already exist for specific products. The other is adopting standards for products that are not covered by existing standards. In the absence of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards, it is likely that many new products will enter the stock with lower levels of energy efficiency than would otherwise be the case. Once in the stock

  1. Introduction to the High-Efficiency Video Coding Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Wu; Mina Li

    2012-01-01

    The high-efficiency video coding (HEVC) standard is the newest video coding standard currently under joint development by ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) and ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG). HEVC is the next-generation video coding standard after H.264/AVC. The goals of the HEVC standardization effort are to double the video coding efficiency of existing H.264/AVC while supporting all the recognized potential applications, such as, video telephony, storage, broadcast, streaming, especially for large picture size video (4k x 2k). The HEVC standard will be completed as an ISO/iEC and ITU-T standard in January 2013. in February 2012, the HEVC standardization process reached its committee draft (CD) stage. The ever-improving HEVC standard has demonstrated a significant gain in coding efficiency in rate-distortion efficiency relative to the existing H.264/AVC. This paper provides an overview of the technical features of HEVC close to HEVC CD stage, covering high-level structure, coding units, prediction units, transform units, spatial signal transformation and PCM representation, intra-picture prediction, inter-picture prediction, entropy coding and in-loop filtering. The HEVC coding efficiency performances comparing with H.264/AVC are also provided.

  2. Efficiency of Management Systems, Based on International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena B. Gafforova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers major trends of management systems standardization development and efficiency. The authors determine possible structure of effects in the process of integrated management systems implementation.

  3. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  4. The impact of transport processes standardization on supply chain efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Stajniak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: During continuous market competition, focusing on the customer service level, lead times and supply flexibility is very important to analyze the efficiency of logistics processes. Analysis of supply chain efficiency is one of the fundamental elements of controlling analysis. Transport processes are a key process that provides physical material flow through the supply chain. Therefore, in this article Authors focus attention on the transport processes efficiency. Methods: The research carried out in the second half of 2014 year, in 210 enterprises of the Wielkopolska Region. Observations and business practice studies conducted by the authors, demonstrate a significant impact of standardization processes on supply chain efficiency. Based on the research results, have been developed standard processes that have been assessed as being necessary to standardize in business practice. Results: Based on these research results and observations, authors have developed standards for transport processes by BPMN notation. BPMN allows authors to conduct multivariate simulation of these processes in further stages of research. Conclusions: Developed standards are the initial stage of research conducted by Authors in the assessment of transport processes efficiency. Further research direction is to analyze the use efficiency of transport processes standards in business practice and their impact on the effectiveness of the entire supply chain.

  5. Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

  6. Commercial Discount Rate Estimation for Efficiency Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-13

    Underlying each of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) federal appliance and equipment standards are a set of complex analyses of the projected costs and benefits of regulation. Any new or amended standard must be designed to achieve significant additional energy conservation, provided that it is technologically feasible and economically justified (42 U.S.C. 6295(o)(2)(A)). A proposed standard is considered economically justified when its benefits exceed its burdens, as represented by the projected net present value of costs and benefits. DOE performs multiple analyses to evaluate the balance of costs and benefits of commercial appliance and equipment e efficiency standards, at the national and individual building or business level, each framed to capture different nuances of the complex impact of standards on the commercial end user population. The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis models the combined impact of appliance first cost and operating cost changes on a representative commercial building sample in order to identify the fraction of customers achieving LCC savings or incurring net cost at the considered efficiency levels.1 Thus, the choice of commercial discount rate value(s) used to calculate the present value of energy cost savings within the Life-Cycle Cost model implicitly plays a key role in estimating the economic impact of potential standard levels.2 This report is intended to provide a more in-depth discussion of the commercial discount rate estimation process than can be readily included in standard rulemaking Technical Support Documents (TSDs).

  7. Recent developments in standardization of high efficiency video coding (HEVC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gary J.; Ohm, Jens-Rainer

    2010-08-01

    This paper reports on recent developments in video coding standardization, particularly focusing on the Call for Proposals (CfP) on video coding technology made jointly in January 2010 by ITU-T VCEG and ISO/IEC MPEG and the April 2010 responses to that Call. The new standardization initiative is referred to as High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) and its development has been undertaken by a new Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) formed by the two organizations. The HEVC standard is intended to provide significantly better compression capability than the existing AVC (ITU-T H.264 | ISO/IEC MPEG-4 Part 10) standard. The results of the CfP are summarized, and the first steps towards the definition of the HEVC standard are described.

  8. State options in lighting: efficiency standards for existing public buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeker, F.

    1979-07-01

    This report discusses requirements and options for state lighting-efficiency standards for existing public buildings under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. EPCA, as implemented under present regulations, is found to allow great flexibility to the states in what they adopt, so long as they do adopt some standard. A wide variety of substantive standards is described, and it is recommended that states adopt a standard based on a maximum-lighting power budget with cost-effectiveness criteria. Several options for adoption and enforcement of standards are discussed. It is recommended that states adopt a requirement that owners of all public buildings submit reports of lighting energy audits and estimates of energy savings from modifications to comply with substantive standards. It is further recommended that while filing of reports should be mandatory, substantive compliance, at least initially, need not be; if it turns out that voluntary compliance is not great enought to achieve a state's desired energy savings, compliance could then be made mandatory. It is recommended that exemptions from the standards be limited to small buildings and that variances under a mandatory standard be available only when an applicant can show insufficient capital to make required modifications, even though they would soon pay for themselves in reduced operating costs. It is suggested that a lighting standard of the kind recommended could substantially reduce wasted energy in lighting, be simple enough to be easily understood and applied, be technically and economically reasonable, and allow for needed exemptions without loopholes.

  9. Solar Energy Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  10. An efficient interpolation filter VLSI architecture for HEVC standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Lian, Xiaocong; Liu, Zhenyu; Liu, Xiaoxiang

    2015-12-01

    The next-generation video coding standard of High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is especially efficient for coding high-resolution video such as 8K-ultra-high-definition (UHD) video. Fractional motion estimation in HEVC presents a significant challenge in clock latency and area cost as it consumes more than 40 % of the total encoding time and thus results in high computational complexity. With aims at supporting 8K-UHD video applications, an efficient interpolation filter VLSI architecture for HEVC is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a new interpolation filter algorithm based on the 8-pixel interpolation unit is proposed in this paper. It can save 19.7 % processing time on average with acceptable coding quality degradation. Based on the proposed algorithm, an efficient interpolation filter VLSI architecture, composed of a reused data path of interpolation, an efficient memory organization, and a reconfigurable pipeline interpolation filter engine, is presented to reduce the implement hardware area and achieve high throughput. The final VLSI implementation only requires 37.2k gates in a standard 90-nm CMOS technology at an operating frequency of 240 MHz. The proposed architecture can be reused for either half-pixel interpolation or quarter-pixel interpolation, which can reduce the area cost for about 131,040 bits RAM. The processing latency of our proposed VLSI architecture can support the real-time processing of 4:2:0 format 7680 × 4320@78fps video sequences.

  11. Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-06-15

    This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration

  12. Effect of Energy Efficiency Standards on Natural Gas Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnall, Michael; Dale, Larry; Lekov, Alex

    2011-07-26

    A primary justification for the establishment of energy efficiency standards for home appliances is the existence of information deficiencies and externalities in the market for appliances. For example, when a long-term homeowner purchases a new gas-fired water heater, she will maximize the value of her purchase by comparing the life-cycle cost of ownership of available units, including both total installed cost - purchase price plus installation costs - and operating cost in the calculus. Choice of the appliance with the lowest life-cycle costs leads to the most economically efficient balance between capital cost and fuel cost. However, if the purchaser's expected period of ownership is shorter than the useful life of the appliance, or the purchaser does not pay for the fuel used by the appliance, as is often the case with rental property, fuel cost will be external to her costs, biasing her decision toward spending less on fuel efficiency and resulting in the purchase of an appliance with greater than optimal fuel usage. By imposing an efficiency standard on appliances, less efficient appliances are made unavailable, precluding less efficient purchases and reducing fuel usage. The reduction in fuel demanded by residential users affects the total demand for such fuels as natural gas, for example. Reduced demand implies that residential customers are willing to purchase less gas at each price level. That is, the demand curve, labeled D{sub 0} in Figure 1, shifts to the left to D{sub 1}. If there is no change in the supply function, the supply curve will intersect the demand curve at a lower price. Residential demand is only one component of the total demand for natural gas. It is possible that total demand will decline very little if demand in other sectors increases substantially in response to a decline in the price. If demand does decrease, modeling studies generally confirm the intuition that reductions in demand for natural gas will result in reductions

  13. Assessment of the Japanese Energy Efficiency Standards Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Arakawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese energy efficiency standards program for appliances is a unique program which sets and revises mandatory standards based on the products of the highest energy efficiency on the markets. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of the standard settings for air conditioner as a major residential appliance or typical example in the program. Based on analyses of empirical data, the net costs and effects from 1999 to 2040 were estimated. When applying a discount rate of 3%, the cost of abating CO2 emissions realized through the considered standards was estimated to be -13700 JPY/t-CO2. The sensitivity analysis, however, showed the cost turns into positive at a discount rate of 26% or higher. The authors also revealed that the standards’ “excellent” cost-effectiveness largely depends on that of the 1st standard setting, and the CO2 abatement cost through the 2nd standard was estimated to be as high as 26800 JPY/t-CO2. The results imply that the government is required to be careful about the possible economic burden imposed when considering introducing new, additional standards.

  14. Charge collection efficiency of standard and oxygenated silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Stavitski, I; Bisello, D; Bacchetta, N; Candelori, A; Kaminski, A; Wyss, J

    2002-01-01

    Two silicon microstrip detectors, one fabricated from a standard and the second from a highly oxygenated substrate, were non-uniformly irradiated by 24 GeV protons to fluences ranging between 2.3 and 6.3 * 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -2/. Charge collection efficiency measurements, performed by pulsing the detectors with a 1060 mu m wavelength laser, show that the beneficial effect of the oxygenation remains, although reduced with respect to that observed by C-V measurements on diodes fabricated with the detectors. (10 refs).

  15. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  16. New challenge for residential building energy efficiency standards in Japan: unify energy efficiency of envelope and housing appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakoshi, Chiharu; Nakagami, Hidetoshi; Nakamura, Mikiko [Jyukankyo Research Inst. (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Residential energy efficiency standards of many countries evaluate envelope performance. Japanese energy efficiency standards of residential building were revised in 1999, and include both a performance standard and a prescriptive standard for envelope energy efficiency. The target is for over 50 % of new houses to meet the standard in 2010. Efficiency of residential appliances are governed by the Top Runner standards. However, these standards consider each appliance individually, but do not evaluate the whole house comprehensively.Because residential energy efficiency varies greatly depending on the performance of appliances, we developed a method to evaluate performance of both the envelope and the appliances, with the following characteristics. 1) Evaluate the energy efficiency of the envelope and appliance together. 2) Evaluate the energy efficiency of the whole house using total energy consumption specified for the space conditioning, water heating, lighting, and ventilation appliances at the time of construction. 3) Evaluate the efficiency for space conditioning and water heating appliances using efficiencies during actual operating time. 4) We have performed detailed measurements to understand the efficiency during actual operation. The evaluation method we developed will have a major impact on future Japanese standards for residential energy efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the composition of new standards for housing energy efficiency and explain our method for evaluating energy efficiency of household appliances.

  17. 75 FR 81952 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and...-Duty National Program that will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on... a comprehensive Heavy-Duty National Program that will increase fuel efficiency and reduce...

  18. On the automobile lightweight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; Yi Hongliang; Lu Hongzhou; Wan Xinming

    2012-01-01

    The significance, description parameters, evaluation method, implement way and design for lightweight of au- tomobile are comprehensively reviewed. The relationship among the performances of auto parts & components, the prop- erties of materials and application of advanced technologies is also elaborated. According to recently related progress of lightweight and authors' research and developing work, lightweight of automobile is comprehensively and systematically overviewed.

  19. Hydrogen storage for automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, G.

    1979-01-01

    Results of an analysis of hydrogen-fueled automobiles are presented as a part of a continuing study conducted by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) on Energy Storage Systems for Automobile Propulsion. The hydrogen is stored either as a metal hydride at moderate pressure in TiFe/sub 0/ /sub 9/Mn/sub 0/ /sub 1/H/sub x/ and at low pressure in MgH/sub x/ catalyzed with 10 wt % Ni, or it is stored in hollow glass microspheres at pressures up to about 400 atm. Improved projections are given for the two hydrides, which are used in combination to take advantage of their complementary properties. In the dual-hydride case and in the microsphere case where Ti-based hydride is used for initial operation, hydrogen is consumed in an internal-combustion engine; whereas in the third case, hydrogen from Ti-based hydride is used with air in an alkaline fuel cell/Ni-Zn battery combination which powers an electric vehicle. Each system is briefly described; and the results of the vehicle analysis are compared with those for the conventional automobile and with electric vehicles powered by Pb-acid or Ni-Zn batteries. Comparisons are made on the basis of automobile weight, initial user cost, and life-cycle cost. In this report, the results are limited to those for the 5-passenger vehicle in the period 1985-1990, and are provided as probable and optimistic values.

  20. State Energy Efficiency Resource Standards: Design, Status, and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, D.; Zinaman, O.

    2014-05-01

    An energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) is a policy that requires utilities or other entities to achieve a specified amount of energy savings through customer energy efficiency programs within a specified timeframe. EERSs may apply to electricity usage, natural gas usage, or both. This paper provides an overview of the key design features of EERSs for electricity, reviews the variation in design of EERSs across states, and provides an estimate of the amount of savings required by currently specified EERSs in each state. As of December, 2013, 23 states have active and binding EERSs for electricity. We estimate that state EERSs will require annual electricity savings of approximately 8-11% of total projected demand by 2020 in states with EERSs, however the level of savings targeted by the policies varies significantly across states. In addition to the variation in targeted savings, the design of EERSs varies significantly across states leading to differences in the suite of incentives created by the policy, the flexibility of compliance with the policy, the balance of benefits and costs of the policy between producers and consumers, and the certainty with which the policy will drive long-term savings.

  1. Environmentally Benign Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, Daniel; Schipper, Lee; Deluchi, Mark; Wang, Quanlu

    1992-01-01

    His dream has come true. There's now more than one vehicle for every licensed driver in the United States, and other developed countries are not far behind. But has the car's success created the conditions for its own demise? Conventional wisdom of market researchers, consultants, and other experts is that the automobile and its petroleum-powered internal combustion engine will be with us for a long time and that any energy and environmental problems can be readily solved. T...

  2. China to Develop Rules for Composing a Standards System for Enterprise Energy Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ April 11, 2007, SAC announced a survey on a standards system for enterprise energy efficiency. According to the announcement, "Rules for the Composing of a Standards System for Enterprise Energy Efficiency" shall be developed based on the results of the survey. The rules are designed to better manage energy efficiency through standards and to give advice to companies on energy efficiency. In this way, China will be able to assist companies in energy efficiency on a more professional, strict, and comprehensive basis.

  3. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  4. Emissions reductions as a result of automobile improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Sajal S; Bishop, Gary A; Stedman, Donald H; Slott, Robert

    2003-11-15

    Remote sensing of light duty vehicle on-road tailpipe exhaust has been used to measure on-road mass emissions of automobile fleets in Denver for 13 years and in two other U.S. cities for 5 years. Analysis of these fleets shows that newer automobiles, during a period of fairly constant new car standards, have become continually less polluting independent of measurement location. Improving emissions control technology spurred by federal regulations is thought to have brought about these trends.

  5. Okoliš i automobil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Constant increase of the number of automobiles causes demand for individual materials to get on the rise, thus giving an impulse to the development of recycling logistics. Used automobiles get disassembled and individual parts which can be used as raw materials or additives get recycled. Automobile tires can be reclaimed or vulcanized. In July 1978 the environmental-friendly "Blauer Engel" or "Blue Angel" symbol was first introduced for reclaimed tires. Later, emblems were introduced for other recycled automobile pans. The awarding of the emblem is being controlled and approved by authorized institutes, because the emblem rightfully designates traffic safety.

  6. The automobile after tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    This talk discusses the technical options available for automobiles within the next 5 to 10 years. With the objective to reduce consumption and pollution, several alternative approaches are presented and analyzed using simplified but realistic calculations. Main emphasis is laid on CO{sub 2} emission of the complete energy transformation path from the primary energy carrier to the energy dissipated in test cycles. It is shown that no single optimal solution exist but that a trade-off between consumption, pollution and cost must be made for each specific situation. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. 76 FR 45471 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution Transformers; Notice of Intent To Negotiate Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Chapter II RIN 1904-AC04 Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution Transformers; Notice of Intent To Negotiate Proposed Rule AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... Act (NRA) to negotiate proposed Federal standards for the energy efficiency of liquid immersed...

  8. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... are at least 30 percent below the levels of the baseline building. (b) Energy consumption for the... CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.4 Energy..., 2007, to: (1) Meet ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except...

  9. Automobile Club CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club CERN

    2010-01-01

     L’Assemblée Générale Ordinaire de «L’Automobile Club du CERN» s’est tenue le mercredi 12 janvier 2010. Le Président, J. Pierlot, souhaite la bienvenue aux membres présents, annonce l’agenda et résume les activités et événements du club pour l’année 2009. Le Club compte environ 600 membres, une petite diminution par rapport aux précédentes années dû surtout aux départs anticipés à la retraite. La cotisation reste inchangée : 50 CHF. Notre trésorier, E. Squadrani, présente de façon détaillée la situation du compte d’exploitation pour 2009 ainsi que le bilan de l’Automobile Club. Les comptes sont équilibrés, la situation de la trés...

  10. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards... proposed rulemaking to establish energy conservation standards for battery chargers and external power... must identify the subject matter (``Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Energy...

  11. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  12. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  13. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  14. 75 FR 7556 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., Washington, DC 20024. Phone: (202) 586-2945. Please submit..., or comments received, go to the U.S. Department of Energy, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW... climatic differences should be addressed through a singular energy standard addressing manufactured...

  15. Meeting the Energy Challenge: New Standards for Industrial Motor Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    ’s “Total Cost of Ownership” (TCO) philosophy. This is important for Grundfos, as important pump improvements address the energy performance and service cost in the product’s operation period. These improvements include energy savings and increased overall pump efficiency. TCO can, therefore, be used...

  16. The Setting of Progressive Energy Efficiency Performance Standards for Products through the Ecodesign Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalhammar, Carl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU sets mandatory energy efficiency standards for appliances and other energy-relevant products through the Ecodesign Directive. The standards set so far have improved energy efficiency in a very cost-effective way. The main aim of the Directive is to remove the worst performing products from the market. There is a discussion on the potential to set more progressive legal standards in order to more rapidly improve the energy efficiency of products, or even induce ‘technology forcing’, which can be defined as standards requiring technology that goes beyond what is currently available on the market. This contribution examines different legal design options to set progressive energy standards and discusses the advantages and drawbacks with applying stricter standard-setting. The European ecodesign standards for vacuum cleaners are analyzed as they provide a recent example of standards with elements of technology forcing.

  17. The Linguistic Features of English Automobile Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐

    2014-01-01

    Household cars are largely demanded today, stimulating the economic development throughout the automobile industry. To enlarge market, all automobile producers pay great efforts to advertisements which result in a large quantity of automobile advertisements. Due to the rare analysis on the linguistic features of automobile advertisements, this essay makes a specific study on this. Analysis will be done through the perspectives of the lexical level, the syntactic level and the rhetoric level. Hence, valid references could be offered to future automobile advertisers.

  18. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  19. Efficient Lattice-Based Signcryption in Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Signcryption is a cryptographic primitive that can perform digital signature and public encryption simultaneously at a significantly reduced cost. This advantage makes it highly useful in many applications. However, most existing signcryption schemes are seriously challenged by the booming of quantum computations. As an interesting stepping stone in the post-quantum cryptographic community, two lattice-based signcryption schemes were proposed recently. But both of them were merely proved to be secure in the random oracle models. Therefore, the main contribution of this paper is to propose a new lattice-based signcryption scheme that can be proved to be secure in the standard model.

  20. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are passenger automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  1. Energy efficiency in automobiles. The electric car, a challenge of this present; Eficiencia energetica en la automoacion. el vehiculo electrico un reto del presente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazquez Lidoy, J.; Martin Moreno, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    In order to reduce significantly energy consumption and oil dependence, Spanish Government has, recently, set an ambitious objective in terms of electric and hybrid cars. Spain should have 1.000.000 of electric and hybrid cars in year 2014. This paper analyses all the different green technologies currently available in the Spanish market and compares them with the traditional gasoline and gasoil engines. These green technologies are bi oethanol 85, bio diesel, conventional hybrid cars, liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas vehicle and electric vehicle. The paper concludes that the most efficient technology from the point of view of the consumer is the electric one. (Author) 8 refs.

  2. Standardization and Green Economic Change - the Case of Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Faria, Lourenco

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of standardization for green economic change using energy efficiency in buildings as a case. Innovation research on standards tends to focus on the competition between competing emerging standards as well as the economic impacts of these. The idea pursued here...... energy efficiency becomes an issue in standardization work using buildings as a case. The paper seeks more specifically to investigate the rise of building related standards generally over time as well as in different technical areas and geographic regions. The hypothesis pursued in this paper...

  3. Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

  4. 78 FR 9631 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC88 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue...

  5. WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant current to the battery.

  6. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  7. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles. 600... 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.315-82 Classes of comparable automobiles. (a) The Secretary will classify automobiles as passenger automobiles or light trucks (nonpassenger automobiles)...

  8. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles. 600... 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.315-08 Classes of comparable automobiles. (a) The Secretary will classify automobiles as passenger automobiles or light trucks (nonpassenger automobiles)...

  9. 10 CFR 431.97 - Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates. 431.97 Section 431.97 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy...

  10. 75 FR 31323 - Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC22 Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting and availability of... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Mohammed Khan, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy......

  11. 75 FR 34657 - Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Parts 433 and 435 RIN 1904-AC13 Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed... proposed rulemaking (NOPR) regarding the application of sustainable design principals with respect to...

  12. Energy Efficiency Standards of Induction Motors, ¿Are you Prepared Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Londoño-Parra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the regulatory process regarding the energy efficiency of end-use products is emerging with the draft technical regulation product labeling RETIQ, which includes in Annex E, the test methods for determining the efficiency of motors alternating current induction. The goal of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency of induction motors between the countries of Latin America and the countries of the major economies of the globe, considering four aspects: the current state of classification standards and test procedures of induction motors efficiency, multilateral agreements of mutual recognition, the infrastructure to conduct tests of the standard and support programs to improve the efficiency of electric motor-driven systems. The study reveals that Latin America is a considerable delay in the implementation of classification standards and methods for testing the efficiency of electric motors, most widely used in the world: IEC 60034-30:2008, IEC 60034-2-1: 2007 IEEE 112:2004 and EPAct'92, with respect to the countries of the European Union, United States, China, Australia, and other developed countries, in which these standards have been adopted. Furthermore, the region is evident in the absence of programs focused on improving the energy efficiency of electric motors and a limited number of accredited laboratories to evaluate their efficiency, which leads to most Latin American countries to establish agreements mutual recognition for this purpose.

  13. Energy Efficiency Standards of Induction Motors, ¿Are you Prepared Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Londoño-Parra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the regulatory process regarding the energy efficiency of end-use prod-ucts is emerging with the draft technical regulation product labeling RETIQ, which includes in Annex E, the test methods for determining the efficiency of motors alternat-ing current induction. The goal of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency of induction motors between the countries of Latin America and the countries of the major economies of the globe, considering four aspects: the current state of classification standards and test procedures of induction motors efficiency, multilateral agreements of mutual recognition, the infrastructure to conduct tests of the standard and support programs to improve the efficiency of electric motor-driven systems. The study reveals that Latin America is a considerable delay in the implementation of classification standards and methods for testing the efficiency of electric motors, most widely used in the world: IEC 60034-30:2008, IEC 60034-2-1: 2007 IEEE 112:2004 and EPAct'92, with respect to the countries of the European Union, United States, China, Australia, and other developed countries, in which these standards have been adopted. Furthermore, the region is evident in the absence of programs focused on improving the energy efficiency of electric motors and a limited number of accredited laboratories to evaluate their efficiency, which leads to most Latin American countries to establish agreements mutual recognition for this purpose.

  14. HSTL IO Standard Based Energy Efficient Multiplier Design using Nikhilam Navatashcaramam Dashatah on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madhok, Shivani; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Kaur, Amanpreet

    2015-01-01

    standards. Frequency scaling is one of the best energy efficient techniques for FPGA based VLSI design and is used in this paper. At the end we can conclude that we can conclude that there is 23-40% saving of total power dissipation by using SSTL IO standard at 25 degree Celsius. The main reason for power...... consumption is leakage power at different IO Standards and at different frequencies. In this research work only FPGA work has been performed not ultra scale FPGA....

  15. The Effect of Changes in World Crude Oil Prices on U.S. Automobile Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Belenkiy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an export model where consumers differentiate between different types of automobiles by the distance they can travel on one dollar’s worth of fuel. The model predicts that the overall demand for vehicles falls as crude oil prices rise, and that the demand for less fuel-efficient vehicles falls relatively more. In particular, we estimate that between 2007 and 2008, when the crude oil prices increased by 32 percent, the export demand for the SUVs manufactured in the United States declined by over $700 million. This implies that the relatively less fuel-efficient U.S.-model vehicles will tend to suffer a competitive disadvantage worldwide when crude oil prices are high. We discuss the potential role of the proposed CAFÉ standards in improving fuel-efficiency and growing exports of the U.S. vehicle fleet.

  16. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  17. Implications of building energy standard for sustainable energy efficient design in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwaro, Joseph; Mwasha, Abraham [University of West Indies, W. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, St. Augustine Campus (Trinidad and Tobago)

    2010-07-01

    The rapid growth of energy use, worldwide, has raised concerns over problems of energy supply, energy sustainability and exhaustion of energy resources. While most of the developed countries are implementing building energy standard rapidly to reduce building energy consumption and moving aggressively to achieve sustainable energy efficient building; the position of developing countries respect to energy standard implementation for this purpose is either poorly documented or not documented at all. Presently, there exists a gap between existing building designs and the increasing demand for sustainable energy efficient building design in developing countries. In that respect, this paper investigates the implementation status of building energy standards in developing countries and its implications for sustainable energy efficient designs in building. The present implementation status of building energy standard in 60 developing countries around the world, were analyzed using online survey. Hence, this study revealed the present implementation status of building energy standards in developing countries, implications for sustainable energy efficient designs in building and how building energy standards can be used to fill the gap between existing building designs and increasing demand for sustainable energy efficient building.

  18. ELECTRICITY SAVINGS BY IMPLEMENTING ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS AND LABELS FOR CLOTHES WASHERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABU SALEH AHMED

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Clothes washers being one of the energy consuming household appliances in Malaysia have become a target for energy efficiency improvements. In the present study, a series of experiment investigations have been conducted on six clothes washers of varying capacities. The objectives are to develop the standards and labels. The test has been performed according to IEC (International Electrotechnical Commision clothes washers test specification. Using the experimental data, a baseline standard has been developed by statistical method. From the baseline standards, 10% standards have been developed. The baseline unit energy consumption was calculated to be 32 Wh/kg/cycle (average unit energy consumption of the six models and on the basis of baseline unit, standard unit energy consumption had been proposed to be 29 Wh/kg/cycle. It has been estimated with the introduction of minimum energy efficiency standards for clothes washer 38077037.46 kWh of energy could be saved per year. To develop a comprehensive energy guide labels, three labels had been design, which were star labeling, speedometer labeling and letter bin labeling. A survey was conducted with three different types of labels among the consumers and with the surveys respond, energy guide label of household clothes washers has been proposed for Malaysia. This is result from used of energy-efficient appliances product and is well positioned to promote more widespread efficient improvement.

  19. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  20. Policy,standard,regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Automobile Standardization Committee secretariat collects comments on the phase III fuel consumption level limit The Committee intends to formulate the standard based on a comprehensive evaluation of the previous two phases.

  1. Energy autonomous sensors in the automobile; Energieautarke Sensorik im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehne, Ingo [Hochschule Heilbronn (Germany). Studiengang Energieoekologie; Schreiter, Matthias [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Li, Xiaoming [Daimler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany); Hehn, Thorsten [Hahn-Schickard-Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Forschung e.V., Freiburg (Germany). HSG-IMIT, Inst. fuer Mikro- und Informationstechnik; Thewes, Marcell; Scholl, Gerd [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ., Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany); Wagner, Dieter [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); Manoli, Yiannos [Univ. Freiburg (Germany). IMTEK; Frey, Alexander [Hochschule Augsburg (Germany). Fakultaet Elektrotechnik

    2013-04-01

    A brief outline of energy autonomous sensors in the automobile is given. For this purpose the variety of sensors in today's automotive vehicles is reported. The rationale for the deployment of energy autonomous sensors is given. In addition the potential of using environmental energy and the possibilities of their energy conversion are presented. As part of the funded project ASYMOF, two pioneer applications - a tire pressure monitoring and an anti-theft alarm system - are studied and discussed.

  2. 雨天汽车观后镜外置除水雾器的设计%Design of Efficient Exterior Water Mist Remover of Rear View Mirror for Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕刘泉; 陈晓杰

    2011-01-01

    It is necessary to fix an anti-wind board,on which an electric heating instrument is installed.When the automobile is in high speed,the airstream thus produced will blow away the water mist on the rear view mirror.If the speed is slow and the airstream is not strong,the heating instrument can be started,so as to heat the airstream,and evaporate the water mist after the heated airstream blows onto rear view mirror.The design is fit for automobile as well as other automobiles with rear view mirror.%在汽车观后镜上设计安装一迎风板,并在迎风板上安装电加热装置。在汽车高速行驶时利用汽车运动时产生的气流将附着在观后镜上的水珠或水雾吹散。若车速较低、气流较小,可启动加热装置,对气流加热使气流吹在观后镜上,蒸发观后镜上的水珠。此设计适用于汽车,电瓶车或有观后镜的其他车辆。

  3. Efficient Video Transcoding from H.263 to H.264/AVC Standard with Enhanced Rate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Viet-Anh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new video coding standard H.264/AVC has been recently developed and standardized. The standard represents a number of advances in video coding technology in terms of both coding efficiency and flexibility and is expected to replace the existing standards such as H.263 and MPEG-1/2/4 in many possible applications. In this paper we investigate and present efficient syntax transcoding and downsizing transcoding methods from H.263 to H.264/AVC standard. Specifically, we propose an efficient motion vector reestimation scheme using vector median filtering and a fast intraprediction mode selection scheme based on coarse edge information obtained from integer-transform coefficients. Furthermore, an enhanced rate control method based on a quadratic model is proposed for selecting quantization parameters at the sequence and frame levels together with a new frame-layer bit allocation scheme based on the side information in the precoded video. Extensive experiments have been conducted and the results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  4. Japan's Residential Energy Demand Outlook to 2030 Considering Energy Efficiency Standards"Top-Runner Approach"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris

    2008-05-15

    As one of the measures to achieve the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions agreed to in the"Kyoto Protocol," an institutional scheme for determining energy efficiency standards for energy-consuming appliances, called the"Top-Runner Approach," was developed by the Japanese government. Its goal is to strengthen the legal underpinnings of various energy conservation measures. Particularly in Japan's residential sector, where energy demand has grown vigorously so far, this efficiency standard is expected to play a key role in mitigating both energy demand growth and the associated CO2 emissions. This paper presents an outlook of Japan's residential energy demand, developed by a stochastic econometric model for the purpose of analyzing the impacts of the Japan's energy efficiency standards, as well as the future stochastic behavior of income growth, demography, energy prices, and climate on the future energy demand growth to 2030. In this analysis, we attempt to explicitly take into consideration more than 30 kinds of electricity uses, heating, cooling and hot water appliances in order to comprehensively capture the progress of energy efficiency in residential energy end-use equipment. Since electricity demand, is projected to exhibit astonishing growth in Japan's residential sector due to universal increasing ownership of electric and other appliances, it is important to implement an elaborate efficiency standards policy for these appliances.

  5. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to estimate the foreseeable impacts of aggressive minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) programs in the world’s major economies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a scenario to analyze the technical potential of MEPS in 13 major economies around the world1 . The “best available technology” (BAT) scenario seeks to determine the maximum potential savings that would result from diffusion of the most efficient available technologies in these major economies.

  6. Do Energy Efficiency Standards Improve Quality? Evidence from a Revealed Preference Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houde, Sebastien [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Minimum energy efficiency standards have occupied a central role in U.S. energy policy for more than three decades, but little is known about their welfare effects. In this paper, we employ a revealed preference approach to quantify the impact of past revisions in energy efficiency standards on product quality. The micro-foundation of our approach is a discrete choice model that allows us to compute a price-adjusted index of vertical quality. Focusing on the appliance market, we show that several standard revisions during the period 2001-2011 have led to an increase in quality. We also show that these standards have had a modest effect on prices, and in some cases they even led to decreases in prices. For revision events where overall quality increases and prices decrease, the consumer welfare effect of tightening the standards is unambiguously positive. Finally, we show that after controlling for the effect of improvement in energy efficiency, standards have induced an expansion of quality in the non-energy dimension. We discuss how imperfect competition can rationalize these results.

  7. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  8. Hierarchical functional model for automobile development; Jidosha kaihatsu no tame no kaisogata kino model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, S. [U-shin Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nagamatsu, M.; Maruyama, K. [Hokkaido Institute of Technology, Sapporo (Japan); Hiramatsu, S. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A new approach on modeling is put forward in order to compose the virtual prototype which is indispensable for fully computer integrated concurrent development of automobile product. A basic concept of the hierarchical functional model is proposed as the concrete form of this new modeling technology. This model is used mainly for explaining and simulating functions and efficiencies of both the parts and the total product of automobile. All engineers who engage themselves in design and development of automobile can collaborate with one another using this model. Some application examples are shown, and usefulness of this model is demonstrated. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Thinking Globally: How ISO 50001 - Energy Management can make industrial energy efficiency standard practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Desai, Deann; Matteini, Marco; Meffert, William; Williams, Robert; Risser, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Industry utilizes very complex systems, consisting of equipment and their human interface, which are organized to meet the production needs of the business. Effective and sustainable energy efficiency programs in an industrial setting require a systems approach to optimize the integrated whole while meeting primary business requirements. Companies that treat energy as a manageable resource and integrate their energy program into their management practices have an organizational context to continually seek opportunities for optimizing their energy use. The purpose of an energy management system standard is to provide guidance for industrial and commercial facilities to integrate energy efficiency into their management practices, including fine-tuning production processes and improving the energy efficiency of industrial systems. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has identified energy management as one of its top five priorities for standards development. The new ISO 50001 will establish an international framework for industrial, commercial, or institutional facilities, or entire companies, to manage their energy, including procurement and use. This standard is expected to achieve major, long-term increases in energy efficiency (20percent or more) in industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide.This paper describes the impetus for the international standard, its purpose, scope and significance, and development progress to date. A comparative overview of existing energy management standards is provided, as well as a discussion of capacity-building needs for skilled individuals to assist organizations in adopting the standard. Finally, opportunities and challenges are presented for implementing ISO 50001 in emerging economies and developing countries.

  10. Energy Transformation: Teaching Youth about Energy Efficiency while Meeting Science Essential Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Chilcote, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Energy Transformation 4-H school enrichment curriculum. The curriculum addresses energy efficiency and conservation while meeting sixth-grade science essential standards requirements. Through experiential learning, including building and testing a model home, youth learn the relationship between various technologies and…

  11. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  12. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the

  13. Molecular indexing enables quantitative targeted RNA sequencing and reveals poor efficiencies in standard library preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Glenn K; Xu, Weihong; Wilhelmy, Julie; Mindrinos, Michael N; Davis, Ronald W; Xiao, Wenzhong; Fodor, Stephen P A

    2014-02-01

    We present a simple molecular indexing method for quantitative targeted RNA sequencing, in which mRNAs of interest are selectively captured from complex cDNA libraries and sequenced to determine their absolute concentrations. cDNA fragments are individually labeled so that each molecule can be tracked from the original sample through the library preparation and sequencing process. Multiple copies of cDNA fragments of identical sequence become distinct through labeling, and replicate clones created during PCR amplification steps can be identified and assigned to their distinct parent molecules. Selective capture enables efficient use of sequencing for deep sampling and for the absolute quantitation of rare or transient transcripts that would otherwise escape detection by standard sequencing methods. We have also constructed a set of synthetic barcoded RNA molecules, which can be introduced as controls into the sample preparation mix and used to monitor the efficiency of library construction. The quantitative targeted sequencing revealed extremely low efficiency in standard library preparations, which were further confirmed by using synthetic barcoded RNA molecules. This finding shows that standard library preparation methods result in the loss of rare transcripts and highlights the need for monitoring library efficiency and for developing more efficient sample preparation methods.

  14. Roadway Automobile Stability. A Numerical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Nedev, Valentin; Bachvarov, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model of the roadway automobile motion is numerically analyzed. This model is intended to describe the roadway automobile stability. A previous paper [6] described the model in detail and the general method of qualitative analysis. In the present paper, we continue the discussion of stability by numerical simulations and the specific question we attempted to answer is: which parameter(s) of automobile geometry and quality of the roadway can serve as a reliable predictor(s) for ...

  15. The construction of a Danish automobile culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation.......The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation....

  16. Pseudo Open Drain IO Standards Based Energy Efficient Solar Charge Sensor Design on 20nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, K; Pandey, B; Nanda, K

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an approach is made to design Pseudo open drain IO standards Based Energy efficient solar charge sensor design on 20nm and 28nm technology. We have used LVCMOS18, POD10, POD10_DCI and POD12 I/O standard. In this design, we have taken two main parameters for analysis...... solar charge inverter. We also observed maximum total power reduction in LVCMOS18 (Artix-7 FPGA) as compared to other I/O standards at 10 GHz. Also there is maximum total power reduction in POD12 (Ultra Scale Kintex) as compared to other I/O standards at 2 GHz. There is also a significant change...... in device static, I/O power and Clock Power....

  17. Electricity savings from implementation of minimum energy efficiency standard for TVs in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varman, M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-06-01

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD in Malaysia are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the country. With the increasing of overall TV energy consumption, energy efficiency standards are one of highly effective policies for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. Energy efficiency standards are also capable of reducing consumer's electricity bill and contribute towards positive environmental impacts. This paper attempts to predict the amount of energy that can be saved in the residential sector by implementing minimum energy efficiency standard for television sets in Malaysia. Over the past 30 years, television ownership in Malaysian residents has increased from 186,036 units in 1970 to 2,741,640 units in 1991. This figure is expected to reach 6,201,316 units in the year 2010. Hence, efficiency improvement for this appliance will have a significant impact on the future of electricity consumption in this country. (author)

  18. Decision on optimal building energy efficiency standard in China. The case for Tianjin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun; Giraud, Pierre-Noel [CERNA-Mines Paris Tech, 60 Boulevard Saint-Michel, 75006 Paris (France); Colombier, Michel [Institute du developpement durable et des relations internationales, 13 Rue de L' Universite, 75007 Paris (France)

    2009-07-15

    This paper investigates the optimal choice of building energy efficiency (BEE) standard in the context of centralised urban district heating system in northern China. By employing a techno-economic analysis approach, we demonstrate that the current BEE standard implemented in the Chinese cities should be tightened further in order to achieve a socially optimal level. Without considering the externality costs associated with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, current BEE standards need to be upgraded to the equivalent level of French RT2005 standard coupled with a properly designed district coal-fired Combined Heat and Power (CHP). In contrast, the equivalent efficiency standard of Swedish building code is preferably to be implemented in the case of explicit carbon emission restriction as long as the marginal cost of carbon emission (carbon price) is sufficiently high. The fuel-switching policy (from coal to natural gas) in the urban district heating system would result in significant increase in overall costs if the BEE upgrade is not taken into account simultaneously. It is also found that BEE improvements in northern Chinese cities are more cost-effective than investing in low-carbon technologies such as wind power or Carbon Capture and storage in the EU and US with regard to CO{sub 2} emissions mitigation. (author)

  19. Decision on optimal building energy efficiency standard in China-The case for Tianjin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jun [CERNA-Mines Paris Tech, 60 Boulevard Saint-Michel, 75006 Paris (France); Colombier, Michel [Institute du developpement durable et des relations internationales, 13 Rue de L' Universite, 75007 Paris (France)], E-mail: michel.colombier@iddri.org; Giraud, Pierre-Noel [CERNA-Mines Paris Tech, 60 Boulevard Saint-Michel, 75006 Paris (France)

    2009-07-15

    This paper investigates the optimal choice of building energy efficiency (BEE) standard in the context of centralised urban district heating system in northern China. By employing a techno-economic analysis approach, we demonstrate that the current BEE standard implemented in the Chinese cities should be tightened further in order to achieve a socially optimal level. Without considering the externality costs associated with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, current BEE standards need to be upgraded to the equivalent level of French RT2005 standard coupled with a properly designed district coal-fired Combined Heat and Power (CHP). In contrast, the equivalent efficiency standard of Swedish building code is preferably to be implemented in the case of explicit carbon emission restriction as long as the marginal cost of carbon emission (carbon price) is sufficiently high. The fuel-switching policy (from coal to natural gas) in the urban district heating system would result in significant increase in overall costs if the BEE upgrade is not taken into account simultaneously. It is also found that BEE improvements in northern Chinese cities are more cost-effective than investing in low-carbon technologies such as wind power or Carbon Capture and storage in the EU and US with regard to CO{sub 2} emissions mitigation.

  20. Reduced emissions and lower costs: combining renewable energy and energy efficiency into a sustainable energy portfolio standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn A.; York, Dan; Kushler, Martin

    2007-05-15

    Combining renewable energy and energy efficiency in Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standard (SEPS) has emerged as a key state and national policy option to achieve greater levels of sustainable energy resources with maximum economic efficiency and equity. One advantage of the SEPS relative to a renewable portfolio standard or a stand-alone energy efficiency resource standard is enhanced flexibility and broader options for meeting targets. (author)

  1. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  2. Analytical Expressions of the Efficiency of Standard and High Contact Ratio Involute Spur Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pleguezuelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple, traditional methods for computation of the efficiency of spur gears are based on the hypotheses of constant friction coefficient and uniform load sharing along the path of contact. However, none of them is accurate. The friction coefficient is variable along the path of contact, though average values can be often considered for preliminary calculations. Nevertheless, the nonuniform load sharing produced by the changing rigidity of the pair of teeth has significant influence on the friction losses, due to the different relative sliding at any contact point. In previous works, the authors obtained a nonuniform model of load distribution based on the minimum elastic potential criterion, which was applied to compute the efficiency of standard gears. In this work, this model of load sharing is applied to study the efficiency of both standard and high contact ratio involute spur gears (with contact ratio between 1 and 2 and greater than 2, resp.. Approximate expressions for the friction power losses and for the efficiency are presented assuming the friction coefficient to be constant along the path of contact. A study of the influence of some transmission parameters (as the gear ratio, pressure angle, etc. on the efficiency is also presented.

  3. Analysis of Standards Efficiency in Digital Television Via Satellite at Ku and Ka Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landeros-Ayala Salvador

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an analysis on the main technical features of digital television standards for satellite transmission is carried out. Based on simulations and link budgets, the standard with the best operational performance is defined, based on simulations and link budget analysis, as well as a comparative efficiency analysis is conducted for the Ku and Ka bands for both transparent and regenerative transponders in terms of power, bandwidth, information rate and link margin, including clear sky, uplink rain, downlink rain and rain in both.

  4. Economic Efficiency of Social Insurance in the Field of Health in the Context of European Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ALEXANDRU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic efficiency analysis in health services has the general objective of the Romanian health care system evaluation in the context of current European standards. Comparative studies show a low level of efficiency as a result of complying with the policies of Western countries, and a modest health management. Polls reflect the population's dissatisfaction with the current health care system, medical staff and disagreement regarding the government policies in this area. Research results lead to the need and opportunity to reform the medical system and social health insurance system.

  5. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  6. Reporting detection efficiency for semiconductor neutron detectors: A need for a standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, Douglas S., E-mail: mcgregor@ksu.ed [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Kenneth Shultis, J. [S.M.A.R.T. Laboratory, Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2011-03-11

    In the past few years, there has been an increased interest in the development of alternative neutron detection technologies. Included among many promising alternative neutron detection technologies are semiconductor-based neutron detectors. These detectors are typically small and compact, hence those methods used to characterize large gas-filled neutron detectors are inappropriate. Proposed are standard methods that can be used to model the performance of semiconductor neutron detectors and to characterize experimentally the intrinsic efficiency of these detectors.

  7. SSTL I/O Standard based environment friendly energyl efficient ROM design on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansal, Neha; Bansal, Meenakshi; Saini, Rishita

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we are making energy efficient 32-bit ALU by using different classes of LVCMOS IO standard. Here, we are operating our design with operating speed of 4th generation i7 processor in order to test the compatibility of our design with the latest state of the art technology based proces......, LVCMOS15, LVCMOS 18 at 2.9GHz respectively. In this we used, VERILOG hardware description language, XILINX ISE simulator, and Virtex-6 FPGA and XPower analyzer....

  8. Multi-Layer Extension of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Li; Ping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Multi⁃layer extension is based on single⁃layer design of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard and employed as the com⁃mon structure for scalability and multi⁃view video coding extensions of HEVC. In this paper, an overview of multi⁃layer extension is presented. The concepts and advantages of multi⁃layer extension are briefly described. High level syntax (HLS) for multi⁃layer extension and several new designs are also detailed.

  9. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd (hereafter referred to as "Jiangqi Group"),established on May 18, 1997 with approval of Anhui provincial government, is one of 12 key provincial owned enterprises. Its predecessor was Hefei Jianghuai Automobile Factory built in 1964.……

  10. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd (hereafter referred to as "Jiangqi Group"),established on May 18, 1997 with approval of Anhui provincial government, is one of 12 key provincial owned enterprises. Its predecessor was Hefei Jianghuai Automobile Factory built in 1964.

  11. CRUISE FUZZY CONTROL FOR AUTOMOBILE WITH CVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To develop cruise control system of an automobile with the metal pushing V-belt type CVT, the dynamic model of automobile travelling longitudinally is established, and the fuzzy controller of control system is designed. Considering uncertainty system parameter and exterior resistance disturbances, the stability of controller is investigated by simulating. The results of its simulation show that the fuzzy controller designed has practicability.

  12. Globalization of the automobile industry in China. Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin

    2001-08-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policy making and transport management. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems and stronger emissions control would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. (author)

  13. International Review of the Development and Implementation of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2012-02-28

    Appliance energy efficiency standards and labeling (S&L) programs have been important policy tools for regulating the efficiency of energy-using products for over 40 years and continue to expand in terms of geographic and product coverage. The most common S&L programs include mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) that seek to push the market for efficient products, and energy information and endorsement labels that seek to pull the market. This study seeks to review and compare some of the earliest and most well-developed S&L programs in three countries and one region: the U.S. MEPS and ENERGY STAR, Australia MEPS and Energy Label, European Union MEPS and Ecodesign requirements and Energy Label and Japanese Top Runner programs. For each program, key elements of S&L programs are evaluated and comparative analyses across the programs undertaken to identify best practice examples of individual elements as well as cross-cutting factors for success and lessons learned in international S&L program development and implementation. The international review and comparative analysis identified several overarching themes and highlighted some common factors behind successful program elements. First, standard-setting and programmatic implementation can benefit significantly from a legal framework that stipulates a specific timeline or schedule for standard-setting and revision, product coverage and legal sanctions for non-compliance. Second, the different MEPS programs revealed similarities in targeting efficiency gains that are technically feasible and economically justified as the principle for choosing a standard level, in many cases at a level that no product on the current market could reach. Third, detailed survey data such as the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and rigorous analyses provide a strong foundation for standard-setting while incorporating the participation of different groups of stakeholders further strengthen the process

  14. On the efficiency of frequency reconfigurable high-Q antennas for 4G standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Pelosi, Mauro; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    In the actual context of reducing antenna size and operating in multiple bands tunable antennas are investigated. Moreover, high-Q and low-Q tunable antennas are compared with respect to their efficiency. The loss issue that tunable high-Q antennas present is addressed. Using a variable capacitor...... as a tuning mechanism, simulations and measurements of a self-resonating antenna show the mismatch and the radiation efficiencies of the high-Q and the low-Q antennas. The investigated frequencies are in the low band of the 4G standard. Measurements are conducted for different tuning stages and the study...... shows that the high-Q design performs worse than the low-Q one. A 1.4 dB degradation in total efficiency is observed for a high-Q antenna in a tunable system....

  15. Environmental efficiency and regulatory standards. The case of CO{sub 2} emissions from OECD industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zofio, J.L. [Departamento de Analisis Economico: Teoria Economica e Historia Economica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Prieto, A.M. [I.R.N.A.-C.S.I.C., Cordel de Merinas 40-52, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2001-01-01

    It is generally accepted that production processes should take into account environmental sustainability principles. Hence, any attempt to measure the performance of these processes should highlight, as a reference standard, those processes that combine greater amounts of desirable production with lower levels of undesirable outputs, e.g. waste generation or emissions of greenhouse gases. Using this concept of environmental performance, it is possible to establish efficiency scores within a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) framework, and to calculate desirable output losses when specific environmental standards on undesirable production are set by the authority, i.e. legislative opportunity costs. This can be achieved by solving programming models that call for a reduction of undesirable outputs and that stress the weak disposability of such outputs. Once a standard is set, it congests or binds the technology if the reductions in undesirable production required to meet it imply lower desirable output levels, i.e. the regulation is costly. DEA enables us to simulate, for each producer, the effect of any regulatory standard on production, and the limits beyond which production is impossible - lower limits, or superfluous - upper limits, because the chosen standard does not bind production. The empirical implications of the DEA process are analyzed considering different regulatory scenarios on CO{sub 2} emissions for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)'s manufacturing industries.

  16. The enactment of thermal efficiency standard for domestic gas appliances and its foreground of Implementing in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGShini; PENGLuo; FUXiuping

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the principles we should obey and the problems we should be confronted with when thermal efficiency standards for instantaneous gas water heaters and gas ranges are enacted. It is considered that enactment of thermal efficiency standards for domestic gas appliances could intensify economization on domestic gas utilization and marked economic and environmental benefits could be generated consequently.

  17. Analysis of Power Transfer Efficiency of Standard Integrated Circuit Immunity Test Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Au Huynh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct power injection (DPI and bulk current injection (BCI methods are defined in IEC 62132-3 and IEC 62132-4 as the electromagnetic immunity test method of integrated circuits (IC. The forward power measured at the RF noise generator when the IC malfunctions is used as the measure of immunity level of the IC. However, the actual power that causes failure in ICs is different from forward power measured at the noise source. Power transfer efficiency is used as a measure of power loss of the noise injection path. In this paper, the power transfer efficiencies of DPI and BCI methods are derived and validated experimentally with immunity test setup of a clock divider IC. Power transfer efficiency varies significantly over the frequency range as a function of the test method used and the IC input impedance. For the frequency range of 15 kHz to 1 GHz, power transfer efficiency of the BCI test was constantly higher than that of the DPI test. In the DPI test, power transfer efficiency is particularly low in the lower test frequency range up to 10 MHz. When performing the IC immunity tests following the standards, these characteristics of the test methods need to be considered.

  18. Economic and environmental analysis of standard, high efficiency, rainwater flushed, and composting toilets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, C; Apul, D S

    2011-03-01

    The current sanitation technology in developed countries is based on diluting human excreta with large volumes of centrally provided potable water. This approach is a poor use of water resources and is also inefficient, expensive, and energy intensive. The goal of this study was to compare the standard sanitation technology (Scenario 1) with alternative technologies that require less or no potable water use in toilets. The alternative technologies considered were high efficiency toilets flushed with potable water (Scenario 2), standard toilets flushed with rainwater (Scenario 3), high efficiency toilets flushed with rainwater (Scenario 4), and composting toilets (Scenario 5). Cost, energy, and carbon implications of these five design scenarios were studied using two existing University of Toledo buildings. The results showed that alternative systems modeled in Scenarios 2, 4, and 5 were viable options both from an investment and an environmental performance perspective. High efficiency fixtures that use potable water (Scenario 2) is often the most preferred method in high efficiency buildings due to reduced water use and associated reductions in annual water and wastewater costs. However, the cost, energy, and CO(2)EE analyses all showed that Scenarios 4 and 5 were preferable over Scenario 2. Cost payback periods of scenarios 2, 4 and 5 were less than 10 years; in the future, increase in water and wastewater services would further decrease the payback periods. The centralized water and wastewater services have high carbon footprints; therefore if carbon footprint reduction is a primary goal of a building complex, alternative technologies that require less potable water and generate less wastewater can largely reduce the carbon footprint. High efficiency fixtures flushed with rainwater (Scenario 4) and composting toilets (Scenario 5) required considerably less energy than direct energy demands of buildings. However, the annual carbon footprint of these technologies

  19. Development and implementation of energy efficiency standards and labeling programs in China: Progress and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina Zheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-31

    Over the last twenty years, with growing policy emphasis on improving energy efficiency and reducing environmental pollution and carbon emissions, China has implemented a series of new minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and mandatory and voluntary energy labels to improve appliance energy efficiency. As China begins planning for the next phase of standards and labeling (S&L) program development under the 12th Five Year Plan, an evaluation of recent program developments and future directions is needed to identify gaps that still exist when compared with international best practices. The review of China’s S&L program development and implementation in comparison with major findings from international experiences reveal that there are still areas of improvement, particularly when compared to success factors observed across leading international S&L program. China currently lacks a formalized regulatory process for standard-setting and do not have any legal or regulatory guidance on elements of S&L development such as stakeholder participation or the issue of legal precedence between conflicting national, industrial and local standards. Consequently, China’s laws regarding standard-setting and management of the mandatory energy label program could be updated, as they have not been amended or revised recently and no longer reflects the current situation. While China uses similar principles for choosing target products as the U.S., Australia, EU and Japan, including high energy-consumption, mature industry and testing procedure and stakeholder support, recent MEPS revisions have generally aimed at only eliminating the bottom 20% efficiency of the market. Setting a firm principle based on maximizing energy savings that are technically feasible and economically justified may help improve the stringency of China’s MEPS program and reduce the need for frequent revisions. China also lacks robust survey data and relies primarily on market research data in

  20. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Pop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  1. Regional cooperation in energy efficiency standard-setting and labeling in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiel, Stephen; Van Wie McGrory, Laura

    2003-08-04

    The North American Energy Working Group (NAEWG) was established in 2001 by the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The goals of NAEWG are to foster communication and cooperation on energy-related matters of common interest, and to enhance North American energy trade and interconnections consistent with the goal of sustainable development, for the benefit of all three countries. At its outset, NAEWG established teams to address different aspects of the energy sector. One, the Energy Efficiency Expert Group, undertook activity in three areas: (1) analyzing commonalities and differences in the test procedures of Canada, Mexico, and the United States, and identifying specific products for which the three countries might consider harmonization; (2) exploring possibilities for increased mutual recognition of laboratory test results; and (3) looking at possibilities for enhanced cooperation in the Energy Star voluntary endorsement labeling program. To support NAEWG's Expert Group on Energy Efficiency (NAEWG-EE), USDOE commissioned Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, representing the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), to prepare a resource document comparing current standards, labels, and test procedure regulations in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The resulting document identified 46 energy-using products for which at least one of the three countries has energy efficiency regulations. Three products--refrigerators/freezers, room air conditioners, and integral horsepower three-phase electric motors--have identical minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and test procedures in the three countries. Ten other products have different MEPS and test procedures, but have the near-term potential for harmonization. NAEWG-EE is currently working to identify mechanisms for mutual recognition of test results. With consultative support from the United States and Canada through NAEWG-EE, Mexico is exploring possibilities

  2. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The

  3. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  4. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  5. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for incomplete automobile... AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, §§ 529.5 and 529.6, each incomplete automobile manufacturer is considered,...

  6. Lessons from China’s automobile industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世锦

    2009-01-01

    Two controversies have emerged in the development of China’s automobile industry.The first is the role of government approval in economy of scale,industrial concentration and redundant construction.Second is the role of foreign-funded companies in the growth of China’s automobile industry.Correct understanding of these matters offers a unique"intellectual asset"for approaching the institutional and policy matters of China’s automobile industry and other sectors.It also serves as guidance in the selection of growth patterns.

  7. Random torsional vibration in automobile transmissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The action of a road profile to the torsional vibrations in automobile transmissions is studied. The model to calculate the random torsional vibrations in the transmissions is proposed and the values of the model parameters are determined by both computation and experiment. Furthermore, the dynamic characteristics and the responses of automobile transmissions to the random excitation of road profile are calculated. The results of road experiment demonstrate that the theoretic analyses and the calculation are correct, which imply that the low frequency torsional vibrations in automobile transmissions are caused by the random excitation of a road profile.

  8. Appliance Diffusion Model for Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Evaluation in the Capital of Lao Pdr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Sasaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the rapid growth of energy demand in developing countries, policies for energy efficiency are receiving increasing attention. Although energy efficiency standards and labeling (EES&L is a standard policy tool in many countries, some developing countries, such as Lao PDR, have not yet implemented them fully. In order to understand the potential impact of EES&L, this paper aims at collecting data that contribute to EES&L and at analysing appliance possessions in Vientiane City, Lao PDR. We conducted an interview survey on 600 households in Vientiane City and performed logistic regression analysis that set possession of appliances as the dependent variable. As a result of the analysis, we identified that the income level and the electricity consumption are the principal independent variables and the relationship of these variables with possession rates depends on appliances. Our model helps identify appliances that are expected to be in high demand associated with either economic growth or human population increase in Vientiane City.

  9. An Evaluation of the Consumer Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessans, Mark D.

    Of the modern-day policies designed to encourage energy efficiency, one with a significant potential for impact is that of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS). EERS policies place the responsibility for meeting an efficiency target on the electric and gas utilities, typically setting requirements for annual reductions in electricity generation or gas distribution to customers as a percentage of sales. To meet these requirements, utilities typically implement demand-side management (DSM) programs, which encourage energy efficiency at the customer level through incentives and educational initiatives. In Maryland, a statewide EERS has provided for programs which save a significant amount of energy, but is ultimately falling short in meeting the targets established by the policy. This study evaluates residential DSM programs offered by Pepco, a utility in Maryland, for cost-effectiveness. However, unlike most literature on the topic, analysis focuses on the costs-benefit from the perspective of the consumer, and not the utility. The results of this study are encouraging: the majority of programs analyzed show that the cost of electricity saved, or levelized cost of saved energy (LCSE), is less expensive than the current retail cost of electricity cost in Maryland. A key goal of this study is to establish a metric for evaluating the consumer cost-effectiveness of participation in energy efficiency programs made available by EERS. In doing so, the benefits of these programs can be effectively marketed to customers, with the hope that participation will increase. By increasing consumer awareness and buy-in, the original goals set out through EERS can be realized and the policies can continue to receive support.

  10. Information searches by consumers of miniature automobiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dao-ping; LIU Wei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the information search behaviors of Chinese consumers of miniature automobiles. First, we identified the main sources where consumers acquire or seek information about miniature automobiles and discussed their extent of information search. Then, based on logistic regression and optimal scaling regression of statistics, we studied the influences of characteristics of consumers of miniature automobiles on the extent of information search and on Internet usage. The results indicate that consumers often utilize four sources to obtain information about miniature automobiles. The dominant information source for consumers is their friends/family, followed by dealers, newspapers, and TV. Age, occupation, education and income significantly affect the extent of information search, but gender and city of residence do not have significant impacts. Age, city of residence, occupation, education and income produce significant influences on Internet usage. Gender has an insignificant influence on whether a consumer uses the Internet to search for information.

  11. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  12. China's Automobile:Walk into Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The press conference and flag presentation ceremony of the 6th China Auto International fAlgeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour was held on November 3,2008 at China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT),Beijing.An international exhibition automobile team,which is composed of China's independent brands and represents the independent research,development and manufacturing level of Chinese automobile industry,is ready to set out for Africa.

  13. A life-cycle comparison of alternative automobile fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, H L; Lave, L B; Lankey, R; Joshi, S

    2000-10-01

    We examine the life cycles of gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), and ethanol (C2H5OH)-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) automobiles. Port and direct injection and spark and compression ignition engines are examined. We investigate diesel fuel from both petroleum and biosources as well as C2H5OH from corn, herbaceous bio-mass, and woody biomass. The baseline vehicle is a gasoline-fueled 1998 Ford Taurus. We optimize the other fuel/powertrain combinations for each specific fuel as a part of making the vehicles comparable to the baseline in terms of range, emissions level, and vehicle lifetime. Life-cycle calculations are done using the economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) software; fuel cycles and vehicle end-of-life stages are based on published model results. We find that recent advances in gasoline vehicles, the low petroleum price, and the extensive gasoline infrastructure make it difficult for any alternative fuel to become commercially viable. The most attractive alternative fuel is compressed natural gas because it is less expensive than gasoline, has lower regulated pollutant and toxics emissions, produces less greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and is available in North America in large quantities. However, the bulk and weight of gas storage cylinders required for the vehicle to attain a range comparable to that of gasoline vehicles necessitates a redesign of the engine and chassis. Additional natural gas transportation and distribution infrastructure is required for large-scale use of natural gas for transportation. Diesel engines are extremely attractive in terms of energy efficiency, but expert judgment is divided on whether these engines will be able to meet strict emissions standards, even with reformulated fuel. The attractiveness of direct injection engines depends on their being able to meet strict emissions standards without losing their greater efficiency. Biofuels offer lower GHG emissions, are sustainable, and

  14. The energy efficiency standards in Mexico; Las normas de eficiencia energetica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulido, Ybo [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The Ley Federal sobre Metrologia y Normalizacion (Federal Law on Metrology and Standardization) that is in force since July 16, 1992, establishes that it corresponds to the agencies of the federal public administration, in its scope of competition, to constitute the National Consultative Committees of Standardization (CCNN) to issue Mexican Official Standards (NOM) on products, systems, processes, methods, facilities, services or activities, as well as to certify, verify and inspect its fulfillment. The NOM are of compulsory application because they have as finality the establishing of the characteristics and/or specifications, criteria and procedures that allow to protect and to promote the improvement of the environment and of the ecosystems, as well as the preservation of the natural resources. The Secretariat of Energy issues the NOM on energy efficiency, which are formulated by the National Consultative Committee of Standardization for the Preservation and Rational Use of Energy Resources (CCNNPURRE), which is presided over by the General Director of CONAE. The standardization of Energy Efficiency in Mexico has allowed savings, in the consumption of electrical and thermal energy, estimated for 2001 of 7,700 GWh and an avoided electrical power of 1 270 MW, which locates it as an important measure in the achievement of the objectives of the CONAE-CCNNPURRE, to conceive and to promote strategies and guidelines of action relative to the saving and efficient and rational use of the energy and as a consequence the preservation of the nonrenewable natural resources. [Spanish] La Ley Federal sobre Metrologia y Normalizacion que esta en vigor desde el 16 de julio de 1992, establece que corresponde a las dependencias de la administracion publica federal, en su ambito de competencia, constituir los Comites Consultivos Nacionales de Normalizacion (CCNN) para expedir Normas Oficiales Mexicanas (NOM) sobre productos, sistemas, procesos, metodos, instalaciones, servicios o

  15. Automated Sequencing and Subassembly Detection in Automobile Body Assembly Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The choice of the sequence in which parts or subass em blies are put together in the mechanical assembly of a product can drastical ly affect the efficiency of the assembly process. Unlike metal cutting operation s where computer aided system have been available for some 15 to 25 years to hel p manufacturing engineers in generating cutting sequences and NC programs, the m ajority of assembly planning tasks in automobile body design is still manually p erformed by assembly designers according to their pa...

  16. An efficient auto TPT stitch guidance generation for optimized standard cell design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samboju, Nagaraj C.; Choi, Soo-Han; Arikati, Srini; Cilingir, Erdem

    2015-03-01

    As the technology continues to shrink below 14nm, triple patterning lithography (TPT) is a worthwhile lithography methodology for printing dense layers such as Metal1. However, this increases the complexity of standard cell design, as it is very difficult to develop a TPT compliant layout without compromising on the area. Hence, this emphasizes the importance to have an accurate stitch generation methodology to meet the standard cell area requirement as defined by the technology shrink factor. In this paper, we present an efficient auto TPT stitch guidance generation technique for optimized standard cell design. The basic idea here is to first identify the conflicting polygons based on the Fix Guidance [1] solution developed by Synopsys. Fix Guidance is a reduced sub-graph containing minimum set of edges along with the connecting polygons; by eliminating these edges in a design 3-color conflicts can be resolved. Once the conflicting polygons are identified using this method, they are categorized into four types [2] - (Type 1 to 4). The categorization is based on number of interactions a polygon has with the coloring links and the triangle loops of fix guidance. For each type a certain criteria for keep-out region is defined, based on which the final stitch guidance locations are generated. This technique provides various possible stitch locations to the user and helps the user to select the best stitch location considering both design flexibility (max. pin access/small area) and process-preferences. Based on this technique, a standard cell library for place and route (P and R) can be developed with colorless data and a stitch marker defined by designer using our proposed method. After P and R, the full chip (block) would contain the colorless data and standard cell stitch markers only. These stitch markers are considered as "must be stitch" candidates. Hence during full chip decomposition it is not required to generate and select the stitch markers again for the

  17. 78 FR 40945 - Energy Efficiency Design Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Part 433 RIN 1904-AC60 Energy Efficiency Design Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family... Federal buildings that require such buildings be designed to achieve energy consumption levels that are at... Standard 90.1-2010. Section 306(a) of ECPA provides that each Federal agency and the Architect of...

  18. Efficient hierarchical identity based encryption scheme in the standard model over lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-he WANG; Chun-xiao WANG; Zhen-hua LIU

    2016-01-01

    Using lattice basis delegation in a fi xed dimension, we propose an efficient lattice-based hierarchical identity based encryption (HIBE) scheme in the standard model whose public key size is only (dm2+mn) log q bits and whose message-ciphertext expansion factor is only log q, where d is the maximum hierarchical depth and (n,m,q) are public parameters. In our construction, a novel public key assignment rule is used to averagely assign one random and public matrix to two identity bits, which implies that d random public matrices are enough to build the proposed HIBE scheme in the standard model, compared with the case in which 2d such public matrices are needed in the scheme proposed at Crypto 2010 whose public key size is (2dm2+mn+m) log q. To reduce the message-ciphertext expansion factor of the proposed scheme to log q, the encryption algorithm of this scheme is built based on Gentry’s encryption scheme, by which m2 bits of plaintext are encrypted into m2 log q bits of ciphertext by a one time encryption operation. Hence, the presented scheme has some advantages with respect to not only the public key size but also the message-ciphertext expansion factor. Based on the hardness of the learning with errors problem, we demonstrate that the scheme is secure under selective identity and chosen plaintext attacks.

  19. A review on test procedure, energy efficiency standards and energy labels for room air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Saidur, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-09-15

    Air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers are major energy users in a household environment and hence efficiency improvement of these appliances can be considered as an important step to reduce their energy consumption along with environmental pollution prevention. Energy efficiency standards and labels are commonly used tools to reduce the energy uses for household appliances for many countries around the world. The first step towards adopting energy efficiency standards is to establish a test procedure for rating and testing of an appliance. It may be mentioned that an energy test procedure is the technical foundation for energy efficiency standards, energy labels, and other related programs. This paper reviews requirements and specifications of various international test standards for testing and rating of room air conditioners and refrigerators. A review on the development of the energy efficiency standards has been provided as well. Finally, energy labels that provide some useful information for identifying energy efficient products have been reviewed for these appliances. It may be stated that the review will be useful for the developing countries who wish to develop these energy savings strategies. It is also expected to be useful to revise the existing strategies for a few selected countries who already implemented these strategies earlier. (author)

  20. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

    2011-02-04

    This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national

  1. 77 FR 51499 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 535 RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions... purpose of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because the GHG standards fundamentally regulate...

  2. 76 FR 65971 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 523 and 535 RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas... will increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions for on-road heavy-duty...

  3. Future possibilities for energy-storage automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, L.G.

    1981-04-23

    Because of the potential threat of a future petroleum shortage, there is increased interest in developing alternative propulsion systems for automobiles, systems that will allow the nation to reduce its demand for petroleum by this part of the transportation sector. A four-year study which assessed the future of energy storage devices for use in automobile propulsion systems has been completed. Results of the energy storage device evaluation are presented. This includes projections of future device characteristics. In addition, the results of the propulsion system analysis are given. Future energy storage automobiles were conceptually designed and they are compared to each other and the baseline internal combustion engine vehicle for several levels of performance.

  4. Energy efficiency standardizing in vertical pumps; Normalizacion de eficiencia energetica en bombas verticales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Torres, Rosa Aracely; Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) supporting the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (National Commission for Energy Saving) developed the project of a standard on energy efficiency of vertical pumps, turbine type with external motor. This documents has fulfilled the necessary formalities for the issuing of a norm, being published the Mexican Official Norm (NOM-001-ENER-1995) on December 22, 1995. This article relates the results of the study for the elaboration of this norm, considering the energy saving, as well as the economic evaluation that supports the project of the norm, indicating also the environmental impact that its implantation will have. [Espanol] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) apoyando a la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) elaboro el anteproyecto de norma de eficiencia energetica en bombas verticales tipo turbina con motor externo. Dicho documento ha cumplido con los tramites necesarios para la emision de una norma, habiendose publicado como Norma Oficial Mexicana (NOM-001-ENER-1995) el 22 de diciembre de 1995. En el presente articulo se mencionan los resultados del estudio para la realizacion de esta norma, considerando los ahorros energeticos, asi como la evaluacion economica que sustenta el proyecto de norma, indicando tambien el impacto ambiental que tendra su implantacion.

  5. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health...

  6. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding...

  7. Labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances: current situation, main results and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-09-01

    To control the rise in electricity consumption for specific uses, the industrialized countries started by introducing special programs aimed at improving energy efficiency. Among the different instruments available, labeling programs and minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) have proved to be very effective. The first part of this document presents the current situation, the main results and recommendations concerning the labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances. This analyze is done for each country in details providing the name of the program or measure, the date of implementation, the objective and the main characteristics of the program, the impacts and evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  8. Efficiency in the execution of environmental standards for hydropower projects; Eficiencia na execucao das normas ambientais para empreendimentos hidreletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadaud, Gabriela Caiuby Ariani; Young, Carlos Eduardo Frickmann [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    In the search for greater efficiency in meeting environmental standards related to hydropower projects, this article presents a proposal of indicators that can guide the entrepreneur. From the observation that the mere compliance with legal requirements for obtaining licenses does not minimize the risks of conflicts and their resulting expenses, this methodology of indicators is presented as a tool that allows more efficient compensation measures and consequent social-environmental cost reductions of hydroelectric projects. (author)

  9. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of Defense... OF REASONABLE CHARGES FOR HEALTHCARE SERVICES § 220.11 Special rules for automobile...

  10. Active Engine Mount Technology for Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Z.; Spanos, J.

    1996-01-01

    We present a narrow-band tracking control using a variant of the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm [1,2,3] for supressing automobile engine/drive-train vibration disturbances. The algorithm presented here has a simple structure and may be implemented in a low cost micro controller.

  11. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  12. Improved automobile gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Katsanis, T.; Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Wong, R. Y.; Schumann, L. F.; Galvas, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Upgraded engine delivers 100 hp in 3500 lb vehicle. Improved fuel economy is due to combined effects of reduced weight, reduced power-to-weight ratio, increased turbine inlet pressure, and improved component efficiencies at part power.

  13. DESIGNING OF AN AUTOMOBILE FLEET NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment volume is considered as an important factor in regional development under current conditions. Logistical infrastructure which ensures a complex transport, distributive, information and other services exerts a significant influence on regional investment attractiveness. Lack of clear vision on development and execution of development strategy for logistics infrastructure from the side of regional authorities results in unwillingness of large federal and transnational companies to provide investments in infrastructure projects. Network of automotive transport terminals is one of the main elements in logistics infrastructure. The network allows to optimize a flow of material goods from the point of their origin to the point of their consumption with the lowest possible costs and the required level of service. Automobile transport is one of the main objects of transport infrastructure and it is characterized by rather high flexibility in comparison with other types of transport facilities that preconditions its widespread application. Network of automobile fleets (terminals has been formed for redistribution of goods traffic within the concerned regions. The purpose of the present research is to develop a mathematical model for formation of transport infrastructure on the territory of regions. The paper proposes an approach for formation of automobile fleet (terminal network on the territory of a large region with due account of the established network of distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities. A model has been developed for solving the problem pertaining to minimization of aggregate costs related to maintenance of automobile fleets, delivery of goods to and from distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities to consumers, ferry of empty trucks and goods handling. The model makes it possible to determine optimal number and location area of automobile fleets (terminals while accounting for their possible locations, capacity

  14. Automobile shredder residue : a waste or a resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, M. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Inst. for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology

    2000-07-01

    In recent years several recycling and resource recovery technologies have been tested for the challenging task of recycling automobile shredder residues (ASR) with varying degrees of success. ASR is the nonrecyclable residue that remains after recyclable metals are extracted from old automobiles. The use of ASR as a landfill day cover seems to be a viable alternative for this material. Scientific evidence suggests that ASR is capable of acting as a sponge for heavy metals. The absorption capacity of ASR for heavy metal lead was presented along with evaluations for both standard leaching test protocols and dynamic column testing. Compared to soil, ASR has a greater absorption capacity for heavy metals such as lead. ASR also has other desirable features that make it an ideal choice for landfill day cover. For example, ASR provides a stable mat for vehicle traffic, minimizes erosion due to rainfall run off and is less prone to dusting. ASR is also capable of compression to less than 5 cm when overfilled. This conserves landfill volume and allows excavated soil to be used for other purposes. In addition, the use of ASR could prevent contamination of groundwater by preventing the leaching of heavy metals from landfills. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. Ergonomic and usability analysis on a sample of automobile dashboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Raíssa; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This is a research study based on an analysis which sets out to identify and pinpoint ergonomic and usability problems found in a sample of automobile dashboards. The sample consisted of three dashboards, of three different makes and characterized as being a popular model, an average model and a luxury model. The examination was conducted by observation, with the aid of photography, notes and open interview, questionnaires and performing tasks with users, the bases of which are on the principles laid down by methodologies. From this it was possible to point to the existence of problems such as: complaints about the layout, lighting, colors, available area, difficult access to points of interaction, such as buttons, and the difficult nomenclature of dials. Later, the findings and recommendations presented show the need for a further, deeper study, using more accurate tools, a larger sample of users, and an anthropometric study focused on the dashboard, since reading and understanding it have to be done quickly and accurately, and that more attention be given to the study of automobile dashboards, particularly in the most popular vehicles in order to maintain the standards of usability, and drivers' comfort and safety.

  16. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  17. 76 FR 49279 - Energy Efficiency Design Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... 1904-AC41 Energy Efficiency Design Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise... such buildings be designed to achieve energy consumption levels that are at least 30 percent below the... parts 433 and 435. Section 306(a) of ECPA provides that each Federal agency and the Architect of...

  18. Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook forAppliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2005-04-28

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and several other organizations identified on the cover of this guidebook recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This second edition of the guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year, four years after the preparation of the first edition, with a significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation helps maintain this book as the international guidance tool it has become. The lead authors would like to thank the members of the Communications Office of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design

  19. A MEPS is a MEPS is a MEPS. Comparing Ecodesign and Top Runner schemes for setting product efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siderius, P.J.S. [NL Agency, Croeselaan 15, P.O. Box 8242, 3503 RE Utrecht (Netherlands); Nakagami, H. [Jyukankyo Research Institute, 3-29, Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo, 102-0094 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Both Top Runner in Japan and Ecodesign in the European Union are schemes to set requirements on the energy efficiency (minimum efficiency performance standards, MEPS) of a variety of products. This article provides an overview of the main characteristics and results of both schemes and gives recommendations for improving them. Both schemes contribute significantly to the energy efficiency targets set by the European Commission and the Japanese government. Although it is difficult to compare the absolute levels of the requirements, comparison of the relative improvements and of the savings on household electricity consumption (11 % in Japan, 16 % in the EU) suggest they are in the same range. Furthermore, the time needed to set or review requirements is in both schemes considerable (between 5 and 6 years on average) and the manageability increasingly will become a challenge. The appeal of the Top Runner approach is that the most efficient product (Top Runner) sets the standard for all products at the next target year. Although the Ecodesign scheme includes the elements for a Top Runner approach, it could exploit this principle more explicitly. On the other hand, the Top Runner scheme could benefit by using a real minimum efficiency performance standard instead of a fleet average. This would make the monitoring and enforcement more simple and transparent, and would open the scheme for products where the market situation is less clear.

  20. Application of mechatronics in the automobile; Mechatronik im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, P.; Herrmann, R.

    1996-04-01

    The automotive electronics of the 90`s suffers from increasing performance and economical pressure. New solutions are necessary if the target `better performance at lower cost` has to be fulfilled in the future, as the integration of sub-assemblies on the mechanical and electronical levels is essentially exhausted. The mechatronics as a form of integration of mechanical and electronical functions appears to be one approach to this problem. Hella works on mechatronics mainly in the field of illumination and electro-mechanics/electronics. The article shows that mechatronics integration is possible with standard electronics design as well as PCB technology, but also with new technologies such as MID and microsystems technology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Automobilelektronik der neunziger Jahre steht unter starkem Leistungs- und Kostendruck. Um der Zielsetzung`bessere Produkte zu niedrigen Preisen` kuenftig gerecht zu werden, bedarf es neuer Loesungswege. Die Baugruppenintegration auf mechanischer und elektronischer Ebene ist weitestgehend ausgereizt. Die Mechatronik, Integration mechanischer und elektronischer Funktionen, scheint ein Loesungsansatz fuer diese Problemstellung zu sein. Bei Hella wird deshalb vorrangig auf den Gebieten der Beleuchtung und der Elektromechanik/Elektronik and Mechatonik-Loesungen gearbeitet. Sowohl mit Standard-Aufbautechniken der Elektronik wie der Leiterplattentechnik als auch mit neuartigen Techniken wie der MID- und Mikrosystemtechnik ist eine Mechatronikintegration moeglich. (orig.)

  1. 75 FR 54117 - Building Energy Standards Program: Preliminary Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... energy consumption of buildings built to Standard 90.1-2007, as compared with buildings built to Standard... building energy consumption. Additionally, DOE has preliminarily determined site energy savings are...] [FR Doc No: 2010-22060] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [Docket No. EERE-2006-BC-0132] RIN 1904-AC18......

  2. Organizational and economic aspects of benchmarking innovative products at the automobile industry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Taraniuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to determine the nature and characteristics of the use of benchmarking in the activity of domestic enterprises of automobile industry under current economic conditions. The results of the analysis. The article identified the concept of benchmarking, examining the stages of benchmarking, determination the efficiency of benchmarking in work automakers. It is considered the historical aspects of the emergence of benchmarking method in world economics. It is determined the economic aspects of the benchmarking in the work of enterprise automobile industry. The analysis on the stages of benchmarking of innovative products in the modern development of the productive forces and the impact of market factors on the economic activities of companies, including in the enterprise of automobile industry. The attention is focused on the specifics of implementing benchmarking at companies of automobile industry. It is considered statistics number of owners of electric vehicles worldwide. The authors researched market of electric vehicles in Ukraine. Also, it is considered the need of benchmarking using to improve the competitiveness of the national automobile industry especially CJSC “Zaporizhia Automobile Building Plant”. Authors suggested reasonable steps for its improvement. The authors improved methodical approach to assessing the selection of vehicles with the best technical parameters based on benchmarking, which, unlike the existing ones, based on the calculation of the integral factor of technical specifications of vehicles in order to establish better competitive products of companies automobile industry among evaluated. The main indicators of the national production of electric vehicles are shown. Attention is paid to the development of important ways of CJSC “Zaporizhia Automobile Building Plant”, where authors established the aspects that need to pay attention in the management of the

  3. Automobile emissions in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, S.; Bishop, G.; Stedman, D.

    1996-09-01

    In order to determine the exhaust characteristics of the Mexico City vehicle fleet, a Fuel Efficiency Automotive Test (FEAT) unit was placed at 5 different sites over a 10 day period from 11 February 1991 through 21 February 1991. Valid data for the percent of carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) were obtained on 31 838 vehicles. This represents approximately 1 % of the entire Mexico City fleet.

  4. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buskirk, R. D.; Kantner, C. L. S.; Gerke, B. F.; Chu, S.

    2014-11-01

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declined faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs.

  5. Automobile active suspension system with fuzzy control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 黄中华; 陈毅章

    2004-01-01

    A quarter-automobile active suspension model was proposed. High speed on/off solenoid valves were used as control valves and fuzzy control was chosen as control method . Based on force analyses of system parts, a mathematical model of the active suspension system was established and simplified by linearization method. Simulation study was conducted with Matlab and three scale coefficients of fuzzy controller (ke, kec, ku) were acquired. And an experimental device was designed and produced. The results indicate that the active suspension system can achieve better vibration isolation performance than passive suspension system, the displacement amplitude of automobile body can be reduced to 55%. Fuzzy control is an effective control method for active suspension system.

  6. Application of Wireless Sensor Networks to Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Jorge; Velez, Fernando J.; Ferro, João M.

    2008-01-01

    Some applications of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) to the automobile are identified, and the use of Crossbow MICAz motes operating at 2.4 GHz is considered together with TinyOS support. These WSNs are conceived in order to measure, process and supply to the user diverse types of information during an automobile journey. Examples are acceleration and fuel consumption, identification of incorrect tire pressure, verification of illumination, and evaluation of the vital signals of the driver. A brief survey on WSNs concepts is presented, as well as the way the wireless sensor network itself was developed. Calibration curves were produced which allowed for obtaining luminous intensity and temperature values in the appropriate units. Aspects of the definition of the architecture and the choice/implementation of the protocols are identified. Security aspects are also addressed.

  7. Occupational injuries in automobile repair workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Heer; Das, Subir; Mehta, Shashank

    2011-01-01

    Mechanics are exposed to varied work stressors such as hot noisy environments, strenuous postures, improperly designed tools and machinery and poor psycho-social environments which may exert an influence on their health and safety. The study aimed to examine the occupational injury patterns and identify work stressors associated with injury amongst automobile mechanics. A descriptive ergonomic checklist and questionnaire on general health and psycho-social issues were administered to male workers (N=153). The relative risk factors and correlation statistics were used to identify the work stressors associated with occupational injury. 63% of the workers reported injuries. Cuts were the chief injuries being reported. Poor work environment, machinery and tool characteristics, suffering from poor health and psycho-social stressors were associated with injury occurrence amongst automobile repair workers.

  8. Labeling of Energy Efficiency in China to Be Expanded to 20 Categories of Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Mr. Wang Ruohong,director of the Energy Efficiency Management Center of the China Institute for Standardization, expressed in the "High-efficiency and Energy-saving Electric Appliance Promotion Quarter"that compulsory labeling of energy efficiency will be continued in China on frequency-converting air-conditioners, gas heaters, electric heaters and electromagnetic ovens. By the end of the "11th Five Year", compulsory labeling of energy efficiency will be expanded to include 20 categories of products, including household appliances, automobiles, architecture, motors, and offices. Labeling in other industries will continue, but the number of levels will be reduced from the current five to three.

  9. High Efficiency Three Phase Resonant Conversion for Standardized Architecture Power System Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A low-cost, standardized-architecture power system is proposed for NASA electric propulsion (EP) applications. Three approaches are combined to develop a system that...

  10. Perspectives d'amélioration du rendement à très faible charge des moteurs d'automobile Prospects for Lmprovinq the Very-Low-Load Efficiency of Automotive Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaud A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le mauvais rendement énergétique des véhicules utilisés à très faible charge (circulation urbaine, vitesses limitées provient entre autres des combustions non optimales. Celles-ci sont de plusieurs types : combustion lente et/ou tardive, ratés de propagation. L'acquisition de cycles de pression au moyen du système DIGITAP développé à l'In-titut Français du Pétrole (IFP est décrite et le calcul instantané du travail cycle-à-cycle permet de définir un critère de stabilité de fonctionnement du moteur. L'analyse thermodynamique des cycles montre que la composition du mélange air + carburant + gaz résiduels, trop proche des limites de propagabilité de flamme, est à l'origine des phénomènes observés. Des voies d'action portant sur les gaz résiduels, la turbulence et les paramètres du système d'allumage sont dégagées et permettent des améliorations importantes du rendement. The poor energy efficiency of vehicles used at very low engine load (urban traffic, limited speeds comes from non-optimum combustion, among other causes. Such combustion may be of several types, i. e. slow and/or late combustion, propagation misfiring. The recording of pressure cycles by the DIGITAP system developed at Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP is described, and the instantaneous computing of the cycle-to-cycle work enables a stability criterion for engine operating to be described. The thermodynamic analysis of the cycles shows that the composition of the air + fuel + residuel gas mixture which is too close to flame propagation limits is at the origin of the phenomena observed. Methods of action concerning residual gases, turbulence and the parameters of the ignition system are determined and make for great improvements in efficiency and stability for such types of running.

  11. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  12. Recommendations for enforcing and administering lighting-efficiency standards in existing public buildings in New York State. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-09-30

    To determine the most efficient, cost-effective means of enforcing lighting standards in existing public buildings, various enforcement procedures were investigated. A summary of conclusions and recommendations are presented. In Chapter 1, the adoption of a modified version of the sections of the proposed ASHRAE 100 standards that relate to lighting is recommended. The basic features of the proposed ASHRAE 100 standards are described and compared with those of other types of standards, and the modifications recommended to facilitate implementation are then presented. In Chapter 2, the structure is outlined and the details are provided of the enforcement strategy devised based on self-certification and penalties for noncompliance. Chapter 3 is intended to guide the state in implementing that strategy; it is suggested that the State Energy Office begin to conduct inspections of buildings selected first randomly and then according to a specific discriminant-analysis scheme. The timetable that should be followed and the management responsibilities that should be assigned if the state is to meet its 1980 goals related to saving energy through the implementation of lighting-efficiency standards are delineated in Chapter 4. The appendixes provide additional information and data supporting the specific conclusions and recommendations presented throughout the text. (MCW)

  13. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  14. Development of High-Temperature Superconducting DC Motor for Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hitoshi; Shinzato, Tsuyoshi

    In recent years, electrification of automobiles is in progress. Following the advent of passenger electric vehicles, large size commercial vehicles with electric drive are also being developed. One of the problems in the development of large electric vehicles is the heavy weight which leads to short driving distances. Energy saving by the use of high-efficiency motors will be a solution. The authors have developed a prototype electric vehicle equipped with a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) motor and a refrigerator. The test results showed that the motor has torque of 136 Nm and an output of 30 kW, and the prototype vehicle obtains the maximum speed of 80 km/h.

  15. Standardized Patient Training Programs: an Efficient Solution to the Call for Quality Improvement in Oncologist Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Melody; Berman, Abigail T; Vapiwala, Neha

    2015-09-01

    Several key medical and oncologic professional societies have endorsed the importance of physician communication as a quality improvement metric. Despite this clear message, there remain substantial barriers to communication skills training (CST) in oncologic specialties. Herein, we describe the major barriers to communications training and propose standardized patient (SP) programs as efficient and strategic starting points and as expansion opportunities for new and existing CSTs.

  16. Automobile technology in a CO{sub 2}-constrained world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S.; Barreto Gomez, L.; Dietrich, Ph. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schafer, A.; Jacoby, H.D. [MIT, Cambridge (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This study identifies the environmental conditions under which less CO{sub 2}-emitting and more expensive automobile technology might enter the North American transportation sector. For that purpose, different exogenous CO{sub 2}-reduction targets are imposed and the resulting market shares of hypothetical future automobile technologies calculated. The criteria for the selection of different types of automobiles/fuels is the minimisation of discounted, cumulative transport sector costs over the scenario time horizon. (author) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  17. Economic feasibility of maximising daylighting of a standard office building with efficient electric lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontoynont, Marc; Ramananarivo, Karine; Soreze, Thierry Silvio Claude

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the cost of developing various daylighting strategies for a standard office building in relation to their ability to reduce electric lighting consumption. The reference building design for this study corresponds to a typical configuration that minimises the construction co...

  18. 76 FR 50148 - Notice of Intent to Negotiate Proposed Rule on Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Electric Joe Ashley Eaton Corp Carlos Siqueiros Federal Pacific Rob Greeson GE Bill Forsythe Hammond Power... Electric Thomas Patzner Sola HD/Emerson Dale Corel WEG Electric Bill Oliver The list provided above... performing much of the same analysis as it would during a normal standards rulemaking process and...

  19. 75 FR 29933 - Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... establish revised performance standards for the construction of new Federal buildings and major renovations... for green buildings that encourages a comprehensive and environmentally-sound approach to certification of green buildings. DATES: Public comments on this proposed rule will be accepted until July...

  20. Application of standard and modified Eh-Star test method for induction motor stray load losses and efficiency measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koprivica Branko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the application of one simple and accurate method for the measurement of stray load losses (additional load losses in induction machines. That is the Eh-Star method given in the IEC 60034-2-1 standard. In this paper the theoretical background of the method and the measurement procedure have been explained. All measurements have been performed using modern measurement systems based on a personal computer, data acquisition cards and LabVIEW software. According to the measured results for the stray load losses, the efficiency of the induction motor has been calculated. The efficiency obtained has been compared with the IEC standard efficiency classes, in order to determine the efficiency class of the tested motor. Additionally, measurements have been performed using the modified Eh-Star method. The results obtained have been compared with those obtained using the Eh-Star method. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods have been analyzed in this paper.

  1. 76 FR 64904 - Building Energy Standards Program: Final Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency Improvements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... were added to the analysis. DOE used the same simulation tool and data for weighing the results by... rooms, however none of the prototype building models that DOE uses in its simulations have data centers...'' is listed as a major positive and noted as a new efficiency requirement. When the prototype...

  2. Overcoming Codes and Standards Barriers to Innovations in Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Pamala C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2015-02-15

    In this journal article, the authors discuss approaches to overcoming building code barriers to energy-efficiency innovations in home construction. Building codes have been a highly motivational force for increasing the energy efficiency of new homes in the United States in recent years. But as quickly as the codes seem to be changing, new products are coming to the market at an even more rapid pace, sometimes offering approaches and construction techniques unthought of when the current code was first proposed, which might have been several years before its adoption by various jurisdictions. Due to this delay, the codes themselves can become barriers to innovations that might otherwise be helping to further increase the efficiency, comfort, health or durability of new homes. . The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America, a program dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of America’s housing stock through research and education, is working with the U.S. housing industry through its research teams to help builders identify and remove code barriers to innovation in the home construction industry. The article addresses several approaches that builders use to achieve approval for innovative building techniques when code barriers appear to exist.

  3. 汽车产业商业模式分析%Analysis on Business Model for Automobile Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 杨一帆; 魏云捷; 季梦晨; 乔晗; 汪寿阳

    2016-01-01

    汽车产业是我国国民经济的支柱产业。在能源日益短缺、节能环保标准日趋严格,以及“互联网+”的不断冲击和“工业4.0”方兴未艾的背景下,我国汽车产业亟需进行转型升级,因此对其商业模式的研究具有重要的意义。本文从汽车制造、销售和售后的3个环节对传统汽车产业的商业模式进行了分析,将现代汽车产业的商业模式总结为信息化、服务化和绿色化的发展趋势,并针对汽车产业商业模式创新提出相关建议。%Automobile industry is the pillar industry of our national economy. In this era of "Internet +" and "industry 4.0", when energy shortage, energy saving and environmental protection standards are becoming increasingly stringent, Chinese automobile industry is urgent for transformation and upgrading. In such circumstance, it has great importance to investigate the business model of automobile industry. This paper analyzes the business model of the traditional automobile industry from the aspects of automobile manufacturing, sales and after-sales service, and summarizes the developing trend of the modern automobile industry’s business model as informatization, servitization and greening. Finally, our paper puts forward several suggestions on the innovation of business model of automobile industry.

  4. Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe dominant economic theory, neoclassical economics, employs a single economic evaluative criterion: efficiency. Moreover, it assigns this criterion a very specific meaning. Other – heterodox – schools of thought in economics tend to use more open concepts of efficiency, related to comm

  5. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  6. New Path for Building Compliance in ASHRAE Model Energy Efficiency Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2016-02-09

    This article describes a new path for performance based compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1. Using Appendix G, the Performance Rating Method, this path allows the same simulated baseline model to be used for both code compliance and beyond code programs. The baseline is fixed at approximately 90.1-2004 and independent of the designer's chosen design solutions to the greatest extent possible

  7. Recovery of palladium from a spent automobile catalyst leaching solution by a thiodiglycolamide derivative

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In the sequence of previous research on the development of novel liquid-liquid amidetype compounds to efficiently and selectively extract platinum-group metals (PGMs) from concentrated hydrochloric acid media, a specific thiodiglycolamide derivative – N,N’-dimethyl-N,N’-dicyclohexylthiodiglycolamide (DMDCHTDGA) – has been applied for the recovery of palladium(II) from a spent automobile catalyst leaching solution, containing palladium(II) and rhodium(III) as PGMs. The results obtained are rat...

  8. 76 FR 44402 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...' eligibility for automobile adaptation equipment or other conveyance allowance. DATES: Written comments and... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Automobile or...

  9. Life cycle optimization of automobile replacement: model and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Keoleian, Gregory A; Grande, Darby E; Bean, James C

    2003-12-01

    Although recent progress in automotive technology has reduced exhaust emissions per mile for new cars, the continuing use of inefficient, higher-polluting old cars as well as increasing vehicle miles driven are undermining the benefits of this progress. As a way to address the "inefficient old vehicle" contribution to this problem, a novel life cycle optimization (LCO) model is introduced and applied to the automobile replacement policy question. The LCO model determines optimal vehicle lifetimes, accounting for technology improvements of new models while considering deteriorating efficiencies of existing models. Life cycle inventories for different vehicle models that represent materials production, manufacturing, use, maintenance, and end-of-life environmental burdens are required as inputs to the LCO model. As a demonstration, the LCO model was applied to mid-sized passenger car models between 1985 and 2020. An optimization was conducted to minimize cumulative carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), and energy use over the time horizon (1985-2020). For CO, NMHC, and NOx pollutants with 12000 mi of annual mileage, automobile lifetimes ranging from 3 to 6 yr are optimal for the 1980s and early 1990s model years while the optimal lifetimes are expected to be 7-14 yr for model year 2000s and beyond. On the other hand, a lifetime of 18 yr minimizes cumulative energy and CO2 based on driving 12000 miles annually. Optimal lifetimes are inversely correlated to annual vehicle mileage, especially for CO, NMHC, and NOx emissions. On the basis of the optimization results, policies improving durability of emission controls, retiring high-emitting vehicles, and improving fuel economies are discussed.

  10. SLIDING MODE CONTROL FOR ACTIVE AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear control methods are presented based on theory of sliding mode control (SMC) or variable structure control (VSC) for application to active automobile suspensions. Requirements of reducing manufacturing cost and energy consumption of the active suspension system may be satisfiedby reasonable design of the sliding surface and hydraulic servo system. Emphasis is placed on the study of the discrete sliding mode control method (DSMC) applicable for a new sort of speed on-off solenoid valves of anti-dust capability and low price. Robustness and effectiveness of the feedback linearized controller in typical road conditions are demonstrated by numerical results fora quarter-car suspension model.

  11. Differences in Basic Non-Standard Situational Efficiency Indicators between Winning and Defeated European Senior Basketball Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trninić, Marko; Perica, Ante; Jeličić, Mario

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the conducted research was to identify and explain the differences in basic non-standard situational efficiency indicators between winning and defeated European senior basketball teams. Discriminant analysis and Mann-Whitney U-test were used with the purpose of investigating the differences between winning and defeated teams in the domain of basic non-standard situational variables. The grouping variable distinguished 24 defeated teams from 24 winning teams participating in 2009/2010 season of Euroleague Top 16. The research clearly reveals the differences between the winning and defeated European senior basketball teams in the domain of non-standard situational variables of position and transition offense and defense. Eight situational efficiency indicators were used which include the overall number of successful and unsuccessful position and transition defenses and offenses. Based on the results obtained by parametric and non-parametric methods, it has been noticed that successful position defense is crucial for winning, and unsuccessful position offense is an indicator of defeat prediction. Therefore, practical aims in situational training must involve balanced development of relevant abilities and skills which determine successful simultaneous performance of multiple tasks in all the phases of game flow. Such process of sport preparation improves the overall actual quality of players and whole team performance. In conclusion, it is important to emphasize that the process of improving position and transition defense stimulates the development of position and transition offense, and vice versa.

  12. A Colorimetric Interdental Probe as a Standard Method to Evaluate Interdental Efficiency of Interdental Brush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, D; Carrouel, F; Llodra, J C; Bravo, M; Viennot, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the concordance between the empirical choice of interdental brushes of different diameters compared to the gold standard, the IAP CURAPROX(©) calibrating colorimetric probe. It is carried out with the aim of facilitating the consensus development of best practices. All the subjects' interproximal spaces were evaluated using the reference technique (colorimetric probe), then after a time lapse of 1.2 ± 0.2 hours, using the empirical clinical technique (brushes) by the same examiner. Each examiner explored 3 subjects. The order the patients were examined with the colorimetric interdental probe (CIP) was random. 446 sites were selected in the study out of 468 potential sites. The correspondence of scores between interdental bushes vs. colorimetric probe is 43.0% [95%-CI: 38.5-47.6]. In 33.41% of the 446 sites, the brush is inferior to the probe; in 23.54% of cases, the brush is superior to the probe. Among the discrepancies there is thus a tendency for the subjects to use brushes with smaller diameter than that recommended by the colorimetric probe. This review has found very high-quality evidence that colorimetric probes plus interdental brushing is more beneficial than interdental brushing alone for increase the concordance between the empirical choice of interdental brushes of different diameters compared to the gold standard. Uncertainties remain and further research is required to provide detailed data on user satisfaction.

  13. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kryvokon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  14. Quantum efficiency of cesium iodide photocathodes in the 120-220 nm spectral range traceable to a primary detector standard

    CERN Document Server

    Rabus, H; Richter, M; Ulm, G; Friese, J; Gernhäuser, R; Kastenmüller, A; Maier-Komor, P; Zeitelhack, K

    1999-01-01

    Differently prepared CsI samples have been investigated in the 120-220 nm spectral range for their quantum efficiency, spatial uniformity and the effect of radiation aging. The experiments were performed at the PTB radiometry laboratory at the Berlin synchrotron radiation facility BESSY. A calibrated GaAsP Schottky photodiode was used as transfer detector standard to establish traceability to the primary detector standard, because this type of photodiode - unlike silicon p-on-n photodiodes - proved to be of sufficiently stable response when exposed to vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The paper reviews the experimental procedures that were employed to characterize and calibrate the GaAsP photodiode and reports the results that were obtained on the investigated CsI photocathodes.

  15. Decomposing Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Regulatory Standards in the Energy Conversion Efficiency and Tractive Energy Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannone, Greg [Novation Analytics; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Reale, Michael [Novation Analytics; Betz, Brian [Novation Analytics

    2017-01-01

    The three foundational elements that determine mobile source energy use and tailpipe carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are the tractive energy requirements of the vehicle, the on-cycle energy conversion efficiency of the propulsion system, and the energy source. The tractive energy requirements are determined by the vehicle's mass, aerodynamic drag, tire rolling resistance, and parasitic drag. Oncycle energy conversion of the propulsion system is dictated by the tractive efficiency, non-tractive energy use, kinetic energy recovery, and parasitic losses. The energy source determines the mobile source CO2 emissions. For current vehicles, tractive energy requirements and overall energy conversion efficiency are readily available from the decomposition of test data. For future applications, plausible levels of mass reduction, aerodynamic drag improvements, and tire rolling resistance can be transposed into the tractive energy domain. Similarly, by combining thermodynamic, mechanical efficiency, and kinetic energy recovery fundamentals with logical proxies, achievable levels of energy conversion efficiency can be established to allow for the evaluation of future powertrain requirements. Combining the plausible levels of tractive energy and on-cycle efficiency provides a means to compute sustainable vehicle and propulsion system scenarios that can achieve future regulations. Using these principles, the regulations established in the United States (U.S.) for fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are evaluated. Fleet-level scenarios are generated and compared to the technology deployment assumptions made during rule-making. When compared to the rule-making assumptions, the results indicate that a greater level of advanced vehicle and propulsion system technology deployment will be required to achieve the model year 2025 U.S. standards for fuel economy and CO2 emissions.

  16. Factors affecting recovery efficiency in isolation of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from vegetables for standard method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L J; Gjerde, B

    2001-11-01

    While recently published techniques for recovering parasites from fruits and vegetables demonstrate a marked increase in efficiency and utility, there is still scope for further improvement in developing a standard method, particularly with difficult, but important, sample matrices such as bean sprouts. Herein, a number of parameters used in published techniques are investigated more closely. While sample size reduction may improve recovery efficiency because of a range of factors, it is important to keep the sample large enough for detection of low-level contamination. Age of sample is also important, and samples should be as fresh as possible. Elution procedures may contribute to losses of Giardia and should be more thoroughly investigated. Improved immunomagnetic separation techniques currently coming onto the market also have the potential to increase recovery efficiency substantially, even with difficult samples such as aged bean sprouts. However, merely increasing magnetic strength of the capturing magnet does not affect recovery efficiency, which must be reliant on a superior bead system, buffering system, or both.

  17. A Power-Efficient LC Quadrature VCO for RFID, Zigbee and Bluetooth Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TORKZADEH, P.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A multi-band CMOS LC Quadrature Voltage Control Oscillator (QVCO with minimum power consumption is developed to meet the phase noise and frequency band requirements of RFID, Zigbee and Bluetooth standards. To accomplish the multi-band receiving architecture at low power consumption, current switching technique with optimized cross-coupled transistor sizes has been used. A comprehensive analysis of small signal model for complementary architecture including transistor noise sources and their effects on output phase noise amount has been discussed. Using extracted small signal model, coupled and coupling transistor sizes for minimum power consumption and the least achievable phase noise have been optimized. Designed QVCO has been implemented using TSMC 0.18um CMOS technology operating at 1.8V supply voltage. Proposed QVCO generates two separated frequency bands of 1.65-1.85GHz and 2.4-2.5GHz with phase noise of -125dBc/Hz at frequency offset of 3MHz. The total current drawn by QVCO is 7.5mA which makes the power consumption as low as 13.5mW.

  18. 汽车主题园定位研究%Research on automobile theme park location

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崇婧

    2012-01-01

    分别针对目前国内具有标准赛车级别的汽车主题园和以休闲活动为主的汽车主题园作了具体介绍,在此基础上对溧阳瓦屋山汽车炫动城的定位进行了分析和思考,提出了该项目发展思路——依托汽车赛事,以休闲娱乐为主。%This paper respectively introduced current domestic automobile theme park location had standards racing level and mainly leisure activ- ities, on this basis made analysis and reflection on the location of the Liyang Wawushan automobile tourism city, put forward the development thought was rely on ear races, mainly to leisure and entertainment.

  19. Impacts of the EISA 2007 Energy Efficiency Standard on General Service Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantner, Colleen L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Alstone, Andrea L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerke, Brian F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hosbach, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-01-20

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007), requires that, effective beginning January 1, 2020, the Secretary of Energy shall prohibit the sale of any general service lamp (GSL) that does not meet a minimum efficacy standard of 45 lumens per watt. This is referred to as the EISA 2007 backstop. The U.S. Department of Energy recently revised the definition of the term GSL to include certain lamps that were either previously excluded or not explicitly mentioned in the EISA 2007 definition. For this subset of GSLs, we assess the impacts of the EISA 2007 backstop on national energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and consumer expenditures. To estimate these impacts, we projected the energy use, purchase price, and operating cost of representative lamps purchased during a 30-year analysis period, 2020-2049, for cases in which the EISA 2007 backstop does and does not take effect; the impacts of the backstop are then given by the difference between the two cases. In developing the projection model, we also performed the most comprehensive assessment to date of usage patterns and lifetime distributions for the analyzed lamp types in the United States. There is substantial uncertainty in the estimated impacts, which arises from uncertainty in the speed and extent of the market conversion to solid state lighting technology that would occur in the absence of the EISA 2007 backstop. In our central estimate we find that the EISA 2007 backstop results in significant energy savings of 27 quads and consumer net present value of $120 billion (at a seven percent discount rate) for lamps shipped between 2020 and 2049, and carbon dioxide emissions reduction of 540 million metric tons by 2030 for those GSLs not explicitly included in the EISA 2007 definition of a GSL.

  20. Supplement to the ``determination analysis`` (ORNL-6847) and analysis of the NEMA efficiency standard for distribution transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Das, S.; McConnell, B.W.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1997-09-01

    This report contains additional information for use by the US Department of Energy in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. An earlier determination study by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory determined that cost-effective, technically feasible energy savings could be achieved by distribution transformer standards and that these savings are significant relative to other product conservation standards. This study was documented in a final report, ``Determination Analysis of Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers`` (ORNL-6847, July 1996). The energy conservation options analyzed in this study were estimated to save 5.2 to 13.7 quads from 2000--2030. The energy savings for the determination study cases have been revised downward for a number of reasons. The transformer market, both present and future, was overestimated in the previous study, particularly for dry-type transformers, which have the greatest energy-saving potential. Moreover, a revision downwards of the effective annual loads for utility owned transformers also results in lower energy savings. The present study assesses four of the five conservation cases from the earlier determination study as well as the National Electrical Manufacturers Association energy efficiency standard NEMA TP 1-1996 using the updated data and a more accurate disaggregated analysis model. According to these new estimates, the savings ranged from 2.5 to 10.7 quads of primary energy for the 30-year period 2004 to 2034. For the TP-1 case, data were available to calculate the payback period required to recover the extra cost from the value of the energy saved. The average payback period based on the average national cost of electricity is 2.76 years. 15 figs., 23 tabs.

  1. 40 CFR 59.102 - Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards. 59.102 Section 59.102... VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.102 Standards. (a) Except as provided...

  2. The challenges of automobile-dependent urban transport strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental aims of sustainable urban development and the pro-automobile oriented economic development are on a collision course. It is obvious that automobile-dependent urban development is under heavy/powerful influence of the automobile lobby (automobile and oil industries, along with construction. In this domain famous land-use-transportation studies (or ‘grand transportation studies’ are, unfortunately, still prevailing - a vicious circle of self-fulfilling prophecy of congestion, road building, sprawl, congestion and more road building. Until recently, it was commonly thought that investment in public transport was not economically sustainable and that focusing on the development of the automobile industry and financing the construction of roadways stimulated economic growth. In this paper we clearly show that automobile industry is now overcapitalized, less profitable than many other industries (and may become even less profitable in the future, that transport market is characterized with huge distortions (more than a third of motor-vehicle use can be explained by underpriced driving, while new road investment does not have a major impact on economic growth (especially in a region with an already well-developed infrastructure, and that pro-automobile transport strategy inexorably incurs harmful global, regional and local ecological consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  3. Stability analysis of automobile driver steering control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    In steering an automobile, the driver must basically control the direction of the car's trajectory (heading angle) and the lateral deviation of the car relative to a delineated pathway. A previously published linear control model of driver steering behavior which is analyzed from a stability point of view is considered. A simple approximate expression for a stability parameter, phase margin, is derived in terms of various driver and vehicle control parameters, and boundaries for stability are discussed. A field test study is reviewed that includes the measurement of driver steering control parameters. Phase margins derived for a range of vehicle characteristics are found to be generally consistent with known adaptive properties of the human operator. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of driver adaptive behavior.

  4. Methemoglobinemia secondary to automobile exhaust fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, R.F.; Hoffman, R.S. (Department of Emergency Medicine, Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Methemoglobinemia is an uncommon cause of cyanosis. A 28-year-old male presented to the emergency department cyanotic and short of breath after exposure to noxious automobile fumes. He did not improve with the administration of 100% oxygen therapy. The initial arterial blood gas with cooximetry was: pH of 7.38, PaCO2 of 43 mm Hg, PaO2 of 118 mm Hg, measured oxygen saturation of 70%, and a methemoglobin level of 24.8%. Methylene blue was given (2 mg/kg intravenously) and the patient's symptoms resolved. On the following day he was discharged home without complication. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed no reported cases of methemoglobinemia secondary to accidental exposure to exhaust fumes.17 references.

  5. Opportunities for energy harvesting in automobile factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, E. I.; Edwards, R. M.; Whittow, Will; Bindel, Axel; Peca, Marco

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the opportunities of deploying distributed sensors within the manufacturing environment of a large scale automobile plant using energy harvesting techniques. Measurements were taken in three domains at the plant in order to characterize ambient energy. Due to the location of the plant, the RF power density for radio access technologies present varied between -127 dBm/cm2 and -113 dBm/cm2. The maximum temperature difference measured within accessible distance from machine parts on the production lines surveyed was 10°C. Indoor lighting was dominant at the plant via fluorescent tubes, with average irradiance of 1 W/m2. The results obtained from this measurement campaign showed that indoor lighting was the most suitable ambient source for energy harvesting.

  6. Female identity discourse in automobile advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat López Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the way in which the modern car-advertisement defines the identity of women as potential purchasers – to whom it is designed to get through. The research includes language and iconic instruments by which this type of advertisement aims to create a feminized market of products formerly recognized as traditionally masculine. The identification of the addressee of each publicity material might be subsumed under a set of stereotypes, thus enabling advertisers to get across their message using the code of addressee’s own values. The present paper concentrates on the linguistic specifity of the ads for high-tech goods (automobiles targeting the feminine public and eventually points out their high degree of markedness according to the sex of addressees. Discourse analysis and a closer look at linguistic means appearing in French, Spanish and Polish automotive commercials both reveals a stereotyped woman’s image and shows how they happen to perpetutate it.

  7. The ergonomics simulation and evaluation architecture for the automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Yang, Ying; Sun, Shouqian; Liu, Tao

    2005-12-01

    The architecture of ergonomics simulation and evaluation for the automobile was described. Ergonomics analysis and evaluation is one of the most important processes in product design at present. This ergonomics simulation system based on the elements of ergonomics analysis and evaluation can provide an excellent solution to take human element into account earlier in the design phase and make proactive choices in automobile design than those traditional methods. Thinking of the characteristics of the automobile industry, this system adopted the anatomy-based and parameterized human model for Chinese, the simulation technique using motion editing and the mathematical models of ergonomics to solve real ergonomic design problems in the design phases.

  8. Reliability-based design for automobiles in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yimin ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The level of automobile design and manufac-turing is an important sign of leadership in science and technology and economic power. The achievements of theories and methods for reliability-based design of auto-mobiles in China are reviewed. For reliability-based design, the theories and practices, optimization, sensitiv-ity, and robustness are estimated. The techniques of reli-ability-based design for automobiles are developed. The techniques service to the "hollow" phenomena of kernel technology, product innovative power, and independent development power can be solved.

  9. A Study of the Translation of Automobile Trademark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘硕

    2014-01-01

    Name is an interesting thing, almost everything has its name. Nowadays along with the rising of consumption levels in China, the brand name of the car becomes an important topic. And the translation of the name of the automobile is the primary task for establishing the global image of the brand. In this paper, I summarize the translation methods for automobile trademarks and point out the importance of the translation of automobile’s trademarks. In addition, this paper explores the trend in the trans-lation of automobile names in China.

  10. Modified A{sup ++}-standard refrigerator with 30% reduction of energy consumption. Higher efficiency by compressor modification - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, M.; Stahl, S.; Ganz, J.

    2010-06-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how a modified refrigerator can be given a higher efficiency by modifying the compressor. The modified refrigerator was fitted with a variable-speed compressor. This compressor could be run at much lower speeds so that it was in operation for up to 90% of the time. It was shown that less electricity was consumed the more the compressor ran. The report discusses the aims of the work and presents details on the standard refrigerator used for the tests. The compressor normally used and the variable-speed compressor used in the test are described. Systems for temperature control and data acquisition during the tests are described. The results obtained are examined and the influence of various factors is discussed.

  11. Analysis for the Dynamic Characteristic of the Automobile Transmission Gearbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujin Yu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Automobile transmission gearbox, as one of the major components, which will inevitably bring about the vibration and noise of automobile vehicle. The objective of this study to reduce the noise and vibration of automobile transmission by structural optimization of the gearbox in order to better control its functional operation and improve its performance. For this purpose, based on the working characteristics of the gearbox, modal analysis of automobile transmission gearbox is formulated using 3D graphics software Pro/E together with Finite Element Method. In addition, the modal test of gearbox is conducted also. Through comparing model analysis results to test results, test results verify the correctness of the finite element analysis results, thus provide the theoretic basis to analyze its dynamic characteristics of the gearbox structure as well as its improvement to reduce vibration and noise.

  12. Weight Penalty Incurred in Thermoelectric Recovery of Automobile Exhaust Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, D. M.; Smith, J.; Thomas, G.; Min, G.

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric recovery of automobile waste exhaust heat has been identified as having potential for reducing fuel consumption and environmentally unfriendly emissions. Around 35% of combustion energy is discharged as heat through the exhaust system, at temperatures which depend upon the engine's operation and range from 800°C to 900°C at the outlet port to less than 50°C at the tail-pipe. Beneficial reduction in fuel consumption of 5% to 10% is widely quoted in the literature. However, comparison between claims is difficult due to nonuniformity of driving conditions. In this paper the available waste exhaust heat energy produced by a 1.5 L family car when undergoing the new European drive cycle was measured and the potential thermoelectric output estimated. The work required to power the vehicle through the drive cycle was also determined and used to evaluate key parameters. This enabled an estimate to be made of the engine efficiency and additional work required by the engine to meet the load of a thermoelectric generating system. It is concluded that incorporating a thermoelectric generator would attract a penalty of around 12 W/kg. Employing thermoelectric modules fabricated from low-density material such as magnesium silicide would considerably reduce the generator weight penalty.

  13. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-10-01

    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  14. Strength Check Analysis for Gear Shaft of Automobile Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Yongxiang Li; Weiqiang Xia; Liwen Nan; Youjia Zhao; Fujin Yu

    2013-01-01

    As the main drive components of the automobile transmission, the performance of gear shaft plays an important role on transmission performance. Aiming at the existing problems of the traditional strength check method of gear shaft, the objective of this study is to take a five-speed transmission as an example, to accomplish the strength analysis of gear shaft of the automobile transmission based on the MASTA software. Furthermore, the simulation modeling of the transmission is built completel...

  15. Leveraging Open Standard Interfaces in Providing Efficient Discovery, Retrieval, and Information of NASA-Sponsored Observations and Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M.; Alameh, N.; Bambacus, M.

    2006-05-01

    The Applied Sciences Program at NASA focuses on extending the results of NASA's Earth-Sun system science research beyond the science and research communities to contribute to national priority applications with societal benefits. By employing a systems engineering approach, supporting interoperable data discovery and access, and developing partnerships with federal agencies and national organizations, the Applied Sciences Program facilitates the transition from research to operations in national applications. In particular, the Applied Sciences Program identifies twelve national applications, listed at http://science.hq.nasa.gov/earth-sun/applications/, which can be best served by the results of NASA aerospace research and development of science and technologies. The ability to use and integrate NASA data and science results into these national applications results in enhanced decision support and significant socio-economic benefits for each of the applications. This paper focuses on leveraging the power of interoperability and specifically open standard interfaces in providing efficient discovery, retrieval, and integration of NASA's science research results. Interoperability (the ability to access multiple, heterogeneous geoprocessing environments, either local or remote by means of open and standard software interfaces) can significantly increase the value of NASA-related data by increasing the opportunities to discover, access and integrate that data in the twelve identified national applications (particularly in non-traditional settings). Furthermore, access to data, observations, and analytical models from diverse sources can facilitate interdisciplinary and exploratory research and analysis. To streamline this process, the NASA GeoSciences Interoperability Office (GIO) is developing the NASA Earth-Sun System Gateway (ESG) to enable access to remote geospatial data, imagery, models, and visualizations through open, standard web protocols. The gateway (online

  16. High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-09-01

    Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20-30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects.

  17. Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.

  18. (1) H-NMR with Multivariate Analysis for Automobile Lubricant Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Siwon; Yoon, Dahye; Lee, Dong-Kye; Yoon, Changshin; Kim, Suhkmann

    2017-02-23

    Identification of suspected automobile-related lubricants could provide valuable information in forensic cases. We examined that automobile lubricants might exhibit the chemometric characteristics to their individual usages. To compare the degree of clustering in the plots, we co-plotted general industrial oils that were highly dissimilar with automobile lubricants in additive compositions. (1) H-NMR spectroscopy was used with multivariate statistics as a tool for grouping, clustering, and identification of automobile lubricants in laboratory conditions. We analyzed automobile lubricants including automobile engine oils, automobile transmission oils, automobile gear oils, and motorcycle oils. In contrast to the general industrial oils, automobile lubricants showed relatively high tendencies of clustering to their usages. Our pilot study demonstrated that the comparison of known and questioned samples to their usages might be possible in forensic fields.

  19. Dynamic Analysis of Condenser Assembly of Automobile Air Conditioning System Using CAE Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.; Singh, D.; Saini, J. S.

    2013-04-01

    With the automotive air-conditioning industry aiming at higher levels of quality, cost effectiveness and a short time to market, the need for simulation is at an all time high. In the present work, the use of dynamics analysis is proposed in the simulation of the automobile air conditioning condenser assembly for the vibration loads. The condenser assembly has been analyzed using the standard testing conditions. The results revealed that the components of condenser assembly may fail due to resonance in dynamic analysis. Thereafter, the condenser assembly was optimized, resulting in a 2 % reduction in mass.

  20. Health risk assessment of exposures to a high molecular weight plasticizer present in automobile interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Angela L; Liong, Monty; Plotkin, Kevin; Rickabaugh, Keith P; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2017-01-01

    This study provides an exposure and risk assessment of diundecyl phthalate (DUP), a high molecular weight phthalate plasticizer present in automobile interiors. Total daily intake of DUP was calculated from DUP measured in wipe samples from vehicle seats from six automobiles. Four of the vehicles exhibited atypical visible surface residue on the seats. Two vehicles with no visible surface residue were sampled as a comparison. DUP was the predominant organic compound identified in each of the wipes from all seats. A risk assessment of DUP via oral, dermal, and inhalation routes resulting from contact with automobile seats was conducted. The mean, standard deviation, and maximum DUP concentrations on the seats with visible surface residue were 6983 ± 7823 μg/100 cm(2) and 38300 μg/100 cm(2), respectively. The mean and 95th percentile of the mean for daily cumulative dose of DUP for all exposure routes for the seats with no visible surface residue ranged from 7 × 10(-4) to 4 × 10(-3) mg/kg-day and from 8 × 10(-4) to 5 × 10(-3) mg/kg-day, respectively. For seats with visible surface residue, cumulative doses ranged from 2 × 10(-3) to 2 × 10(-2) mg/kg-day and from 4 × 10(-3) to 2 × 10(-2) mg/kg-day, respectively. The estimated daily intake (contact or absorbed dose) of DUP from automobile seats were far lower than the NOAELs reported in and derived from animal studies, and are well below the reported Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Derived No Effect Levels (DNELs) for the general population. Based on this analysis, using virtually any benchmark for evaluating safety, exposure to DUP via automobile seat covers did not pose a measureable increased health-risk in any population under any reasonably plausible exposure scenario.

  1. Considerations regarding tax optimization in implanted multinational enterprises through external growth for the automobile industry in Central Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitu Antonie Renata

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The business strategy of multinational enterprises (MNEs from the automobile industry implanted in Central-Eastern European (CEE countries (Poland, Czech Republic and Romania is an offensive one, global from operational perspective. Mainly it aims the extension of market share through horizontal growth, generally external type single-domain (Mergers and Acquisitions and internal type (Greenfield investments in a lower degree. These enterprises put in practice also a defending strategy for the owned market shares through increasing the efficiency of the production network at global level. This paper aims to present the less evident aspects of tax optimization of the applied business strategy by implemented MNEs in the automobile industry in CEE, and in this context, the necessity to establish transfer prices in accordance with the OECD recommendations, as an obligation assessed by the tax legislations of the considered countries, but also from the necessity of efficient run of these enterprises.

  2. Revision of the standards in the application of high efficiency induction motors; Revision de la normatividad en la aplicacionon de motores, de induccion, de eficiencia alta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acoltzi Acoltzi, Higinio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this work the elements contained in the national and international standards to obtain the benefits in the application of high efficiency electrical motors are presented. A table of associated normal and minimum efficiency is presented, and one with values of nominal efficiency at full load for totally enclosed motors of standard efficiency, for opened motors of standard efficiency and high efficiency. Graphs are given where the comparison of nominal efficiencies is shown for AC induction motors to closed and opened poles. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan los elementos contenidos en las normas nacionales e internacionales para conseguir los beneficios en la aplicacion de motores electricos de eficiencia alta. Se muestra una tabla de eficiencia normal y minima asociados, y una con valores de eficiencia nominal a plena carga para motores cerrados de eficiencia estandar, para motores abiertos de eficiencia estandar y de eficiencia alta. Se da graficas donde se muestra la comparacion de eficiencias nominales, para motores de CA de induccion, a polos cerrados y a polos abiertos.

  3. EnergyPlus Analysis Capabilities for Use in California Building Energy Efficiency Standards Development and Compliance Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Buhl, Fred; Haves, Philip

    2008-03-28

    California has been using DOE-2 as the main building energy analysis tool in the development of building energy efficiency standards (Title 24) and the code compliance calculations. However, DOE-2.1E is a mature program that is no longer supported by LBNL on contract to the USDOE, or by any other public or private entity. With no more significant updates in the modeling capabilities of DOE-2.1E during recent years, DOE-2.1E lacks the ability to model, with the necessary accuracy, a number of building technologies that have the potential to reduce significantly the energy consumption of buildings in California. DOE-2's legacy software code makes it difficult and time consuming to add new or enhance existing modeling features in DOE-2. Therefore the USDOE proposed to develop a new tool, EnergyPlus, which is intended to replace DOE-2 as the next generation building simulation tool. EnergyPlus inherited most of the useful features from DOE-2 and BLAST, and more significantly added new modeling capabilities far beyond DOE-2, BLAST, and other simulations tools currently available. With California's net zero energy goals for new residential buildings in 2020 and for new commercial buildings in 2030, California needs to evaluate and promote currently available best practice and emerging technologies to significantly reduce energy use of buildings for space cooling and heating, ventilating, refrigerating, lighting, and water heating. The California Energy Commission (CEC) needs to adopt a new building energy simulation program for developing and maintaining future versions of Title 24. Therefore, EnergyPlus became a good candidate to CEC for its use in developing and complying with future Title 24 upgrades. In 2004, the Pacific Gas and Electric Company contracted with ArchitecturalEnergy Corporation (AEC), Taylor Engineering, and GARD Analytics to evaluate EnergyPlus in its ability to model those energy efficiency measures specified in both the residential and

  4. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Automobile Exhaust by Means of High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    1979-01-01

    A chromatographic method has been developed and applied to the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter in automobile exhaust, in petrols, and in crankcase oils. The PAHs were purified from other organic compounds by thin-layer chromatography, separated by high-performance...... liquid chromatography, and measured by means of on-line fluorescence detection. The identities of the PAHs were verified by comparing the emission spectra obtained by a stop-flow technique with those of standard PAHs...

  5. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2010-06-01

    Since the late 1970s, energy labeling programs and mandatory energy performance standards have been used in many different countries to improve the efficiency levels of major residential and commercial equipment. As more countries and regions launch programs covering a greater range of products that are traded worldwide, greater attention has been given to harmonizing the specific efficiency criteria in these programs and the test methods for measurements. For example, an international compact fluorescent light (CFL) harmonization initiative was launched in 2006 to focus on collaboration between Australia, China, Europe and North America. Given the long history of standards and labeling programs, most major energy-consuming residential appliances and commercial equipment are already covered under minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and/or energy labels. For these products, such as clothes washers and CFLs, harmonization may still be possible when national MEPS or labeling thresholds are revised. Greater opportunity for harmonization exists in newer energy-consuming products that are not commonly regulated but are under consideration for new standards and labeling programs. This may include commercial products such as water dispensers and vending machines, which are only covered by MEPS or energy labels in a few countries or regions. As China continues to expand its appliance standards and labeling programs and revise existing standards and labels, it is important to learn from recent international experiences with efficiency criteria and test procedures for the same products. Specifically, various types of standards and labeling programs already exist in North America, Europe and throughout Asia for products in China's 2010 standards and labeling programs, namely clothes washers, water dispensers, vending machines and CFLs. This report thus examines similarities and critical differences in energy efficiency values, test procedure specifications and

  6. Electricity and heat supply of a settlement at different standards of energy efficiency; Strom- und Waermeversorgung einer Siedlung bei unterschiedlichen Energieeffizienz-Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuberth, Jens; Tschetschorke, Katja

    2013-07-15

    The underlying study analyses the ecologic impact and the economic efficiency of several conventional and innovative heat supply systems to provide a quarter heat for space and water heating and electricity for residential and commercial application and for street lighting. Retrofits of buildings change the ratio of demands for electricity and heat. The demand for heat decreases more than the demand for electricity, and the share of distribution losses in heat grids rises. The question is if it is still economically efficient to build or extend local and long-distance district heating networks. Demands for final and primary energy, greenhouse gas emissions and costs (for operation, energy consumption and investments) of the different systems are compared and rated both in charts and tables. A sensitivity analysis includes increasing energy purchasing costs and assesses the possible economic efficiency of the supply systems in future. Another sensitivity analysis estimates how the climate impact of the supply systems for heat and electricity changes if electricity generation becomes less harmful for climate. Additionally, costs for environmental damage - so-called external costs - are internalised in the analysis of economic efficiency. In an overall rating ecologic and economically efficient systems are recommended.

  7. Prospective Evaluation of the Energy and CO2 Emissions Impact of China’s 2010 – 2013 Efficiency Standards for Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. China Energy Group; Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. China Energy Group; Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area. China Energy Group; McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). International Energy Studies Group

    2016-07-01

    Since China introduced its first mandatory minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for eight major household products in 1989, its MEPS program has expanded significantly to cover nearly 60 residential, industrial and commercial products. In June of 2012, the pace of standards development for new and revised standards was further accelerated with the launch of the national “100 Energy Efficiency Standards.” Initiatives. An unprecedented 21 MEPS were adopted by China from 2012 to 2013, compared to only 7 MEPS adopted from 2010 to 2011. The Chinese MEPS program now covers 15 products in the residential sector, 15 types of commercial and office equipment, 14 types of industrial equipment and 13 lighting products, making it one of the most comprehensive MEPS program in the world. This study provides an updated prospective evaluation of the potential energy and CO2 impact of 23 of the 28 MEPS adopted by China from 2010 to 2013. This study updates a previous analysis (Zhou et al. 2011) by quantifying the additional potential energy and CO2 reductions from the newest standards that have been adopted since 2010. The most recent actual and projected sales, usage, and efficiency data were collected for 14 product categories covered under 23 MEPS adopted between 2010 and 2013. Three scenarios are then used to quantify the energy and CO2 reduction potential of the one-time implementation of these 23 MEPS, including a baseline counterfactual scenario, the actual MEPS scenario and a best available technologies efficiency scenario. The setting of the baseline efficiency is crucial to determining the savings potential of the new and revised MEPS and international best available technology efficiency levels, as it reflects the market average in the absence of MEPS. For this study, the average baseline is based on either the reported 2010 market-average efficiency if sales-weighted efficiency data is available for new product MEPS and

  8. Key Human Factors of Vehicle Interior Occupant Packaging in SAE Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yi; HU Ping; JIN Chun-ning; WU Xiao-jun

    2007-01-01

    Fourteen SAE standards related to accommodation and occupant packaging for vehicle interior are studied.The influencing factors,key reference accommodation points and major design dimensions and their relationships of occupant packaging and ergonomics during the vehicle interior layout design and development are analyzed.Prototypes are presented to verify the results and how to achieve the packaging is shown.Automobile designers can achieve significant practical guidance for human safety,efficiency accommodation and occupant packaging of all passengers during the vehicle design process.

  9. Application of solar flat plate collector in automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawge, P. [Peenya Alloys Pvt. Ltd., Parvati, Pune (India)

    2004-07-01

    In any industry, heating, cooling and compressed air the costliest part, which affects the production cost of any product. There are three types of indirect heat requirement or the requirement of heat can be divided in the three main categories. (1) low temp. 40 - 60 Deg. (2) Medium temp. 80 - 150 deg. (3) High Temp applications - above 150. Solar Flat Collectors have been proven for the use of solar energy for medium temp. application in hotels, boiler feed water preheating, dairy for pasteurization and some other indirect heating applications. There is another neglected area of application of Solar Flat Plate collector is heat treatment for powder coating plants where heat requirement is bet 50 Deg C - 70 Deg C. In any automobile industry the aesthetic or look of the vehicle place a very important role as far as the sale is concern (after the mechanical performance). The aesthetic means the body and colour of the vehicle. To get a long lasting good quality color, the powder coating procedure plays a major role. Before powder coating there is requirement of different chemical treatment for the removal of rust, grease and other cleaning of the specific sheet metal body parts. The time duration and chemical composition is depends on the selection of body material. A proven method of a chemical treatment is seven / eight tank process. The common system of heating chemicals is by way of electrical heaters, by diesel or other fuel fired boilers. This increases the cost of heat treatment process due the high cost of electricity (for industries rate of electricity is 1.5 to 2 times than the domestic rate) or oils. This can be replaced by Solar water heating system which can efficiently generate the temp of liquid upto 85 Deg C. (orig.)

  10. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  11. Estimate of Cost-Effective Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies Energy Savings, Environmental and Financial Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bojda, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study analyzes the financial impacts on consumers of minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances that could be implemented in 13 major economies around the world. We use the Bottom-Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), to analyze various appliance efficiency target levels to estimate the net present value (NPV) of policies designed to provide maximum energy savings while not penalizing consumers financially. These policies constitute what we call the “cost-effective potential” (CEP) scenario. The CEP scenario is designed to answer the question: How high can we raise the efficiency bar in mandatory programs while still saving consumers money?

  12. Automobile air-conditioning its energy and environmental impact; La climatisation automobile impact energetique et environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.; Gagnepain, L.

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maxi-mum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the inter-national climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-condition ng (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential ed ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. All of these studies and additional data are presented in greater detail in the document,-'Automobile Air-conditioning' (ADEME reference no. 4985). (author)

  13. Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)

  14. Electric co-heating in the ASHRAE standard method of test for thermal distribution efficiency: Test results on two New York State homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.W.; Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    Electric co-heating tests on two single-family homes with forced-air heating systems were carried out in March 1995. The goal of these tests was to evaluate procedures being considered for incorporation in a Standard Method of Test for thermal distribution system efficiency now being developed by ASHRAE. Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork, piping, or other means used to transport heat or cooling effect from the building equipment that produces this thermal energy to the spaces in which it is used. Furthering the project goal, the first objective of the tests was to evaluate electric co-heating as a means of measuring system efficiency. The second objective was to investigate procedures for obtaining the distribution efficiency, using system efficiency as a base. Distribution efficiencies of 0.63 and 0.70 were obtained for the two houses.

  15. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  16. Adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长生

    2008-01-01

    The adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface was analyzed and the formula about it was derived.Some suggestions about highway construction,driving safety of the drivers and the judgment of the traffic accidents were presented.The results show that the adhesion coefficient is a function with the extreme value.If there is atmospheric pressure in the tire,the load of the vehicle and the degree of the coarse on the road surface is not selected properly,it will reach the least and affect the safety of the running automobile.

  17. Fuel taxes, motor vehicle emission standards and patents related to the fuel-efficiency and emissions of motor vehicles. Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebergh, H. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency MNP, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2010-01-21

    Contribution to the project on Taxation, Innovation and the Environment of OECD's Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts. It studies the impacts of motor vehicle fuel taxes and mandatory fuel efficiency standards on relevant car-related innovation activity in selected car-producing countries.

  18. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or...

  19. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by...

  20. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-86 Section 600.311-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of city and the range of highway...

  1. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-08 Section 600.311-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of combined fuel economy values...

  2. 76 FR 61779 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive... refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0067.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Automobile or..., servicepersons and their survivors complete VA Form 21-4502 to apply for automobile or other conveyance...

  3. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  4. 76 FR 31467 - Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... CFR Part 259 Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles AGENCY: Federal Trade... Advertising for New Automobiles (``Fuel Economy Guide'' or ``Guide'') pending completion of ongoing review by... prevent deceptive fuel economy advertising for new automobiles and to facilitate the use of fuel...

  5. Three-dimensional aerodynamic simulations of two-box automobile using kappa-epsilon turbulence model with quick scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Kenji; Kuriyama, Toshihiko

    1993-09-01

    A new computational method that can be actually useful for an initial designing phase of automobile development has being developed. Standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model and QUICK (Quadratic Upwind Interpolation for Convective Kinematics) of the third-order-upwind scheme were used. A commercial CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code, BFC (Boundary Fitted Coordinate) /SCRYU is applied. With this method, the reattachment point of backward-facing step flow is improved even in a rough calculational grid. When it was applied to 3-D (three dimensional) two-box automobile, it is able to improve the error of C(sub D) from 27 percent to 2 percent. The CPU (Central Processing Unit) time was within 20 hours by CRAY Y-MP (1 CPU), and the total analysis time was shortened from three weeks to five days.

  6. Punching of lateral holes on automobile hub%汽车轮毂斜孔的冲制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓慧; 吴向红

    2001-01-01

    介绍了汽车轮毂侧孔成形新方法的工作原理、模具结构及典型零件设计。该成形方法较传统的生产工艺有效率高、精度高等优点,并大大提高了零件动平衡能力,稳定了产品合格率。%The work principle, die structure and typical part design of the new forming method of lateral holes on automobile hub have been introduced. This new method has higher efficiency and precision than the traditional technology with stability of eligibility of product and has improved the dynamic balance ability and quality of automobile hub significantly.

  7. Research of Dynamic Material Handling in an Automobile General Assembly Line Based on Real-time Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Nan; LI Shi-qi; WANG Jun-feng; ZHANG Zhen-li

    2012-01-01

    The status of material delivery of an automobile general assembly line is analyzed, and the technique to achieve the real-time tracking of assembly status information is proposed based on RFID( Radio Frequency Identification). Thus the consumption of line-side buffer is obtained dynamically, then the type and quantity of needed material are fed back to the subsystem of material handling; the algorithm for determining the best time departure time of delivery driver based on minimizing of total time penalty function is proposed. This approach makes the material amount of a single delivery trip maximized and improves the efficiency of delivery drivers significantly in the case of does not affect the assembly line normal throughput. Additionally, although this dynamic material handling method is developed for the automobile assembly plant, it should be pointed out that this method is also applicable to other mixed model assembly plants such as electronics, semiconductor and aerospace industry.

  8. Models about Energy Consumption and Using Cost of Three Different Types of Automobiles%三种类型汽车的能耗和使用成本的建模研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 陈茁

    2012-01-01

    本文对电动,传统,混合动力三种类型汽车的能耗和使用成本问题进行了建模、求解及分析.首先定义了电动汽车的能量利用率ηE。根据能量守恒将所有电量转换成汽油消耗量,而传统车型则直接反映到汽油的消耗上,混合动力汽车则综合电动汽车和传统汽车的能耗模型,从而统一能耗水平评价标准.这样,我们就得到了三种不同类型车的能耗模型再进行模型求解以此来分析比较三种类型车哪一种节能效果好.对电动汽车来说,使用成本主要包括驾驶维护成本、报废处理成本,而对传统汽车来说,使用成本主要包括驾驶维护成本、报废处理成本、环境成本和其他成本,混合动力汽车则结合二者使用成本.因此,根据不同车型使用成本类型建立相应的数学模型,按照建立的公式,可以得到电动汽车的使用成本LCC1、传统汽车的使用成本LCC2和混合动力汽车的使用成本LCC3,从而进行模型求解.%This paper establishes mathematical models to solve and analyze the problems about energy consumption and the using cost of three different types of automobiles, the electric vehicles, the traditional automobiles and the hy- brid electric vehicles. Firstly, it defines ηE as the energy efficiency of the electric vehicles, and then transforms the e- lectric quantity into the consumption of the gasoline according to the law of conservation of energy. The energy con- sumption of traditional automobiles reflects on the consumption of gasoline directly. The hybrid vehicles combine the two models, thus the paper unifies the energy consumption level evaluation standard. In this way, the paper gets the three types of automobiles energy consumption models, by solving these models, it can analyze and compare which type of automobile is the best one in saving energy. For the electric vehicles, the using cost mainly consists of driving

  9. Vehicles motors and environment; Moteurs automobiles et environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionnet, F.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the problem of the pollutants emission by the motors of automobiles. The european regulations lead the automotive industry to develop research programs to decrease the emission level more and more difficult to raise. He discusses the new catalysts, the diesel engines, the direct injection and the natural gas fuels. (A.L.B.)

  10. Magnetic properties and heavy metal contents of automobile emission particulates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sheng-gao; BAI Shi-qiang; CAI Jing-bo; XU Chuang

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of the magnetic properties and total contents of Cu, Cd, Pb and Fe in 30 automobile emission particulate samples indicated the presence of magnetic particles in them. The values of frequency dependent susceptibility (χfd)showed the absence of superparamagnetic (SP) grains in the samples. The IRM20 mT (isothermal remanent magnetization at 20 mT)being linearly proportional to SIRM (saturation isothermal remanent magnetization) (R2=0.901), suggested that ferrimagnetic minerals were responsible for the magnetic properties of automobile emission particulates. The average contents of Cu, Cd, Pb and Fe in automobile emission particulates were 95.83, 22.14, 30.58 and 34727.31 mg/kg, respectively. Significant positive correlations exist between the magnetic parameters and the contents of Pb, Cu and Fe. The magnetic parameters of automobile emission particulates reflecting concentration of magnetic particles increased linearly with increase of Pb and Cu content, showed that the magnetic measurement could be used as a preliminary index for detection of Pb and Cu pollution.

  11. Hysteretic Current Controlled Zvs Dc/Dc Converter For Automobile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cernat, M.; Scortarul, P.; Tanase, A.

    2007-01-01

    A novel bi-directional dc-dc converter with ZVS and interleaving for dual voltage systems in automobiles is presented. A variable frequency extended band hysteretic current control method is proposed. In comparison with classical fixed frequency current control PWM, the reverse polarity peak curr...

  12. Classification of Surface Quality of Automobile Lamp—Reflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁旭军; 贺莉清; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces an installation for quickly classifying automobile's metal reflectors based on their roughness.The measuring principle and the mechanical structure are presented.Schematics of circuits and experimental results are given.Elimination and reduction of the effect of background lights or different bulbs on the measuring results are also described in detail.

  13. BEGA-a biaxial excitation Generator for automobiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scridon, S.; Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results for a biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA), which has a three-phase stator and a salient-pole excited heteropolar rotor with multiple flux barriers filled with low-cost permanent magnets (PMs). For this new generator, the low...

  14. Six changes with the new Regulations on Automobile Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> On Aug 16, 2004, the People’s Bank of China and China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) jointly issued the new version of the Regulations on Automobile Loans. Due to be put into implementation on Oct 1, the new Regulations change radically compared with the previous version in terms of creditors, possible borrowers, rate of down payments, loan periods, etc.

  15. Expediency substantiation of company’s product policy changes for ensuring the competitiveness of automobile enterprises products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Yurynets

    2014-03-01

    vehicle (technical equipment and providing usage of the mathematical models of changes in the competitiveness of automobile enterprises. The algorithm of analysis and evaluation of qualitative characteristics of the analyzed products was developed; versions of management actions based on the results of the analysis were identified and a graphical interpretation and mathematical algorithm to enable the rationale for product policy changes of the enterprises were presented. During the study, a number of uncertainties, that provides creating of the analysis algorithm, which would allow proving the potential management actions and minimizing the risks of their implementation were figured out. First is lack of developed sequence analysis of automobile enterprises in a competitive environment. Second is lack of methods qualitative evaluation component (technical equipment car due to the modern trend of competition between the different car classes. Third is lack of mathematical tools assessing changes in the competitiveness of automobile enterprises. Conclusions and directions of further researches. This study need for further investigation of new trends of competition cars of different classes, but in the same price range, need to develop efficient methods of price analysis and the need to develop a strategic internal competitiveness of domestic products in the enterprise, rather than small- or large assembly of foreign cars at the junction Ukrainian enterprises.

  16. Divorce your car: ending the love affair with the automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvord, K.

    2000-07-01

    This book is a guide for people wishing to liberate themselves from their addiction to cars and the automobile culture. It is a repository of examples and actions that individuals and communities can take to reduce dependence on the automobile. The range of possibilities run from using cars less to not owning one at all. The book provides a humorous yet clear-headed approach to a greener world and maps out the road to how people can live happily ever after by breaking free of 'auto-cracy', without insisting on people in car-dependent countries quit their automotive addiction instantly. Nevertheless, it clearly articulates the connection between automobiles, their arteries (i.e. highways) and effluents (i.e. greenhouse gases and particulate emissions), and the increasing number and severity of natural disasters between the urban renewal and freeway construction that, in the author's view, helped ignite the riots in Watts, Newark and Detroit. The disastrous societal and geophysical effects of the automobile are demonstrated in great abundance, and the mountain of evidence of the systematic abuse of the planet that the book provides is a stunning refutation of the notion that technology is neutral. The automobile is accused of being not only the linchpin of Western and primarily American industrialism and resource extraction, it is also accused of being the chief suspect in a century-long theft of time, conviviality and beauty. How to bring about a change in people's love affair with their cars is difficult to comprehend but this author has a multitude of useful suggestions which seem to suggest that it is possible. There is a list of 104 'selected references' and an extensive list of 'other resources'.

  17. Colon cancer incidence among modelmakers and patternmakers in the automobile manufacturing industry. A continuing dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, G M; Belle, S H; Burrows, R W

    1985-08-01

    Modelmakers and patternmakers in an automobile manufacturing corporation located in the Detroit metropolitan area expressed concern about cancer incidence in their work group. In particular, previous studies among woodworking patternmakers and modelmakers employed in the automobile manufacturing industry found excesses in the incidence of cancers of the colon and rectum. To determine cancer incidence among the study corporation's woodworkers, a computerized record linkage study was performed. Cancer incidence data from the Michigan Cancer Foundation Division of Epidemiology's Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System (MDCSS) were linked with corporate records for their woodworkers. In this group of 316 workers, ten cancers were found, four of which were colon cancers. A standard morbidity ratio analysis revealed a statistically significant excess of colon cancer in the woodworkers, compared with a general population group matched for race, gender and age (SMR = 487.0, p less than .01). These results are consistent with observations made in previous studies. The question raised by these findings is whether an occupational exposure contributes to this excess occurrence of colon cancers or whether these groups share some other common attributes, such as dietary habits.

  18. Current status of photoprotection by window glass, automobile glass, window films, and sunglasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutawa, Fahad; Vandal, Robert; Wang, Steven Q; Lim, Henry W

    2013-04-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has known adverse effects on the skin and eyes. Practitioners are becoming more aware of the importance of outdoor photoprotection. However, little attention is directed to the exposure of the skin and eyes to UVR through the window glass or sunglasses. The amount of ultraviolet transmission through glass depends mainly on the type of the glass. All types of commercial and automobile glass block the majority of ultraviolet-B; however, the degree of ultraviolet-A transmission depends on the type of glass. Laminated glass offers better UVA protection than tempered glass; new safety regulations for automobiles may result in increased use of laminated glass for side windows. Window films can be applied to glass to increase UVR protection. Sunglasses need to be compliant with one of the national standards; a wraparound style or side shields offer the best protection. Increased understanding by practitioners on the transmission of UVR through glass, window films, and sunglasses would allow them to better educate the public and to better manage photosensitive patients.

  19. Competence: sciences, clean engines: the automobile safety; Competences: sciences, moteurs propres: le salut de l'automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiret, M.

    2004-05-01

    In the framework of the greenhouse gases emission reduction in the automobile sector, this paper presents the possible technological innovations for the engines: an optimization prior to the combustion hopeful the electronic of the injections, the consumption decrease and the electromagnetic valves. (A.L.B.)

  20. An Innovative Approach to Enhancing the Sustainable Development of Japanese Automobile Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese automobile industry has been hit sharply by the economic downturn of recent decades. The rise in costs and decline in sales have led to serious problems in the auto industry. In order to address these issues, most companies engage in downsizing and redesigning production operations. It is crucial to investigate the time wasted by replacing assembly boards occurring in manufacturing lines. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide an integrated approach, Teoriya Resheniya Izobreatatelskih Zadatch (TRIZ, to providing efficient solutions for the automobile industry. The first step of this methodology is to detail the technical problems using the Function and Attribute Analysis (FAA model. Secondly, a contradiction matrix and the inventive principle were applied to find the solutions. In this study, an auto part supplier named Sumi-Hanel located in Hanoi, Vietnam, was taken as a case study; the empirical results showed that waste time had been reduced to 67%, nearly 8400 square meters was saved, and a 20% cost reduction was achieved by reusing old frames. The research proves that the combination of TRIZ and lean manufacturing successfully increases production performance and reduces waste due to technological advancements.

  1. Mind the gap; The vicious circle of measuring automobile fuel use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Figueroa, M.J.; Price, L. (Strategic Air Command, Offutt AFB, NE (United States). Aircraft Engineering Div.); Espey, M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Economics)

    1993-12-01

    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data of gasoline, diesel and other fuels used for automobiles. Significant uncertainties exist in values of both the number of automobiles in use and the distance each is driven, which together yield total automobile use. We present our own calculations for total automobile fuel use for a variety of OECD countries. We comment briefly on the impact of these gaps on econometric estimates of the price and income elasticities of automobile fuel use. (author)

  2. Hopes in the Crisis——Chinese Automobile Market in the World Auto manufacturing Industry Shuffle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shurong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Global automobile markets shuffle against the economic crisis The economic crisis spread rapidly around the world,making automobile industry one of the victims who are shocked hardest,leading to an industrial shuffle in global automobile industry.USA,EU and Japan,the traditional top three leading countries in global automobile industry,could not have their lucks to escape from the crisis.The weak global automobile market forces these transnational auto companies to be more cautious about the future than ever.As reflected in the latest performance reports,though governments took measures to maintain the market,the sharp decline in global automobile sales volume continued in the first quarter.Automobile market bottomed out in the second quarter.US auto industrywas affected the most,with two out of the top three manufacturers getting bankrupt and regrouped.

  3. The automobile of the future: engine technologies and automotive fuels developed by IFP; l'automobile du futur: les technologies moteurs et carburants developpes par l'IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O.; Pinchon, Ph.

    2004-07-01

    In front of the challenges of climate change and depletion of petroleum reserves, in front of the continuous strengthening of pollution regulations applied to automobile (Euro IV and V) and the advances of R and D, several ways of research can be explored to answer the mobility needs of the coming decades. The IFP takes stock of these topics in this press kit which comprises 11 documents: the synthesis of O. Appert and P. Pinchon's talk about 'the cleaner and multi-energies automobile of the future', the slides of this presentation, the future evolutions of automobiles motorizations, the long-term evolutions of engines/fuels (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel fuel in the USA (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), bio-fuels in Europe (brief for the Panorama 2004 colloquium), diesel pollution abatement: efficient results from the IFP's diesel combustion process 'NADI'(TM), the presentation of the IFP scientific meeting of September 22-23, 2004 'which fuels for low CO{sub 2} engines?', the strategic positioning of IFP in the world energy and environmental context, the brochures 'IFP engines and fuels: a competitive advantage' and 'innovating for a sustainable development in the domain of energy'. (J.S.)

  4. Polímeros e a indústria automobilística Polymers and the automobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Hemais

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Gradativamente, devido a razões econômicas e tecnológicas, nos últimos trinta anos, os plásticos passaram a ocupar um lugar de destaque como um dos materiais mais utilizados pela indústria automobilística. Este trabalho tem por objetivo identificar a intensidade do uso de polímeros pela indústria automobilística brasileira. Inicialmente é apresentada uma classificação dos polímeros, de acordo com suas características técnicas e econômicas. Em seguida, é feita uma breve explanação sobre a indústria de polímeros no Brasil, bem como sobre a indústria automobilística, com seu grande potencial de atrair inovações tecnológicas. São apresentados, também, os principais polímeros com aplicação no automóvel. Por último, é discutida a questão da inovação tecnológica na indústria brasileira de polímeros, tendo como fator catalisador a indústria automobilística.Gradually, owing to economic and technological reasons, in the last thirty years, plastics have gained an increasing presence in automobiles. This paper examines the use of plastics in the Brazilian car industry. First, polymers are classified according to their technical and economic characteristics. The paper then reports briefly on the Brazilian polymer industry, as well as on the auto industry, focusing on its great potential for attracting technological innovations. The main applications for plastics in cars are also outlined. Finally, the paper discusses the question of technological innovation in the Brazilian polymer industry, with the auto industry as a catalyst.

  5. Energy Efficiency Appliance Standards: Where do we stand, how far can we go and how do we get there? An analysis across several economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies.; McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies.; Kalavase, Puneeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies.; Fan, Allison Hua [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies.; Dreyfus, Gabrielle [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies.

    2013-05-01

    This paper analyses several potential savings scenarios for minimum energy performance standard (MEPS) and comparable programs for governments participating i n the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative, of the Clean Energy Ministerial, which represent over 60% of primary energy consumption in the world. We compare projected energy savings from the main end uses in the residential sector using three energy efficiency scenarios: (1) recent achievements, (2) cost-effective saving potential, and (3) energy efficiency technical potential. The recent achievement scenario (1) evaluates the future impact of MEPS enacted or under development between 2010 and 2012. The cost-effective potential scenario (2) identifies the maximum potential for energy efficiency that results in net benefits to the consumer. The best available technology scenario (3) re presents the full potential of energy efficiency considering best available technologies as candidates for MEPS and incentive programs. We use the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in collaboration with the Collaborative Labelling and Appliances Standards Program (CLASP), to provide a consistent methodology to com pare the different scenarios. This paper focuses on the main end uses in the residential sector. The comparison of the three scenarios for each economy provides possible opportunities for scaling up current policies or implementing additional policies. This comparison across economies reveals country best practices as well as end uses that present the greatest additional potential savings. The paper describes areas where methodologies and additional policy instruments can increase penetration of energy efficient technologies. First , we summarize the barriers and provide remedial policy tools/best practices, such as techno-economic analysis, in response to each barriers that prevent economies from capturing the full cost

  6. Simulation approach to define sustainable balance between automobile traffic and bus rapid transit (BRT) in urban corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddique, A.J.; Khan, A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2007-07-01

    One of the key challenges facing Central Business Districts (CBD) of medium size urban areas in North America is how to minimize the dependence on automobiles while providing efficient transit service. Underground facilities, exclusive bus/rail corridor or elevated roadways may not be practical due to high cost, aesthetics, noise and adverse land use effects. Because of its compatibility with land use and infrastructure, bus rapid transit (BRT) is receiving more attention. Existing roadway infrastructure, when used as a shared facility, may support rapid transit service besides providing a sustainable level of automobile traffic. A microscopic simulation approach is required in order to assess design changes and throughput levels of shared corridors. The purpose of this paper was to advance the concept of a sustainable balance between public transit and automobile traffic in the CBD, and demonstrate the role of microsimulation as a tool to analyze policies and designs. Limitations of the existing planning methodology were explained and a description of how microscopic simulation approach could be used to overcome methodological gaps was presented. In addition, selected results of a research study conducted using microscopic simulation approach for BRT corridors in Ottawa were shown. It was concluded that BRT operations under favourable conditions in downtown corridors can potentially serve over 28,000 passengers per hour and that removing on-street parking from bus transit corridor expedites bus movement. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  7. 基于当前节能标准公共建筑空调综合能效比分析%Based on the Current Efficiency Standards of Public Building Air Conditioning Comprehensive Efficiency Ratio Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官玲俊; 谢泽渊; 江向阳

    2013-01-01

    Based on the national the currently executing public building energy efficiency standards , analysis and evaluation of the current energy -saving standard for central air conditioning system comprehensive Energy Efficiency ratio applicable scope , through the two practical engineering projects , evaluate comprehensive Energy Efficiency ra-tio of the temperature humidity independent control air conditioning system.Through the calculation analysis , this paper concludes that the current national standards for public buildings central air conditioning system minimum EER constraint value is 2.67 W/W, In this paper is beneficial for evaluation EER of new buildings air conditioning sys -tem and existing building air conditioning system energy saving operation provides a reliable technical data support .%基于国家当前执行的公共建筑节能标准,评价分析了当前节能标准对于中央空调系统综合能效比适用范围,通过计算分析得出:现行国家标准对于公共建筑中央空调系统最低能效比约束值为2.67 W/W,本文对于评价新建筑建筑空调系统能效比和既有建筑空调系统节能运营提供了可靠的技术数据支撑。

  8. Barriers to implement green supply chain management in automobile industry using interpretive structural modeling technique: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Luthra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM has received growing attention in the last few years. Most of the automobile industries are setting up their own manufacturing plants in competitive Indian market. Due to public awareness, economic, environmental or legislative reasons, the requirement of GSCM has increased.  In this context, this study aims to develop a structural model of the barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry.Design/methodology/approach: We have identified various barriers and contextual relationships among the identified barriers. Classification of barriers has been carried out based upon dependence and driving power with the help of MICMAC analysis. In addition to this, a structural model of barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry has also been put forward using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM technique. Findings: Eleven numbers of relevant barriers have been identified from literature and subsequent discussions with experts from academia and industry. Out of which, five numbers of barriers have been identified as dependent variables; three number of barriers have been identified as the driver variables and three number of barriers have been identified as the linkage variables. No barrier has been identified as autonomous variable. Four barriers have been identified as top level barriers and one bottom level barrier. Removal of these barriers has also been discussed.Research limitations/implications: A hypothetical model of these barriers has been developed based upon experts’ opinions. The conclusions so drawn may be further modified to apply in real situation problem. Practical implications: Clear understanding of these barriers will help organizations to prioritize better and manage their resources in an efficient and effective way.Originality/value: Through this paper we contribute to identify the barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry and to prioritize them

  9. I/O Standard Based Thermal/Energy Efficient Green Communication For Wi-Fi Protected Access on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Tanesh; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Das, Teerath

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed how does life and reliability of an integrated circuit is affected when it is operated in different regions under different temperatures. We have taken Fibonacci generator as our target circuit and LVCMOS as I/O standards. WPA and WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access) key can b...

  10. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers including draft environmental assessment, regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-12) and by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-357), and by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486), provides energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products` covered by the Act, and authorizes the Secretary of Energy to prescribe amended or new energy standards for each type (or class) of covered product. The assessment of the proposed standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers presented in this document is designed to evaluate their economic impacts according to the criteria in the Act. It includes an engineering analysis of the cost and performance of design options to improve the efficiency of the products; forecasts of the number and average efficiency of products sold, the amount of energy the products will consume, and their prices and operating expenses; a determination of change in investment, revenues, and costs to manufacturers of the products; a calculation of the costs and benefits to consumers, electric utilities, and the nation as a whole; and an assessment of the environmental impacts of the proposed standards.

  11. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel economy standards. 531.5 Section 531.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel economy standards. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each manufacturer of...

  12. Study on the Fuzzy COntrol Strategy of Automobile with CVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuJianjun; QINDatong; 等

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the dynamic characteristics of automobile with a CVT system, a bond graph analysis model of continuously variable transmission is established.On the base of the simulation state space equations that are established with bond graph theory,a fuzzy control strategy with an expert system of starting process has been introduced.Considering uncertain system parameters and exterior resistance disturbing,the effect of the profile of membership function and the defuzzification algorthm on the capacity of the fuzzy controller has been studied.The result of simulation proves that the proposed fuzzy controller is effective and feasible,Such controller has been employed in the actual control and has proved practicable.The study lays a foundation for design of the fuzzy controller for automobile with a CVT system.

  13. AN FE ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED SUBGRADE UNDER AUTOMOBILE LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shuwang; ZHANG Xinqiang; LIU Run

    2004-01-01

    An FE analysis procedure was presented to predict the behavior of soil-geogrid interaction under automobile loading. The dynamic interactions between the transverse bars, the longitudinal ribs and the soil were simulated by a system consisting of nonlinear springs, dashpots and masses, to study the deformation properties of the reinforced soil. The equivalent stiffness and damping ratios could be determined with the shaking table. The dynamic responses of a reinforced subgrade were analyzed with the 3D finite element approach. This approach is programmed and applied to analyze the soil-geogrid interaction under dynamic loading. The comparative analysis of the response of the reinforced subgrade and that of the subgrade without reinforcement shows that the geogrid placed at the bottom of the base layer may effectively reduce the accumulative plastic deformation due to the cyclic automobile loading.

  14. The Inherited Traditional Culture of Automobile Molding DNA Design Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of automobile modeling DNA is the core that makes enterprises establish a good and unique brand image to win on market. This paper described the definition and meaning of production DNA, also discussed the composition of production DNA and researched the design ideas of production DNA from both macro and micro aspects. Finally, it recommended would research the traditional culture into the past, present and future of three periods, explored the idea of traditional culture that the automobile modeling DNA inherited under these three periods and analyzed with the red flag car as an example. This research provided a guideline to help automotive corporations to implement brand strategies, and helped to design autos with Chinese elements, sense of the times and fashion trends and can perform the modern mental outlook of Chinese people.

  15. Automobile ride quality experiments correlated to iso-weighted criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, A. J.; Young, R. K.; Smith, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    As part of an overall study to evaluate the usefulness of ride quality criteria for the design of improved ground transportation systems an experiment was conducted involving subjective and objective measurement of ride vibrations found in an automobile riding over roadways of various roughness. Correlation of the results led to some very significant relationships between passenger rating and ride accelerations. The latter were collapsed using a frequency-weighted root mean square measure of the random vibration. The results suggest the form of a design criterion giving the relationship between ride vibration and acceptable automobile ride quality. Further the ride criterion is expressed in terms that relate to rides with which most people are familiar. The design of the experiment, the ride vibration data acquisition, the concept of frequency weighting and the correlations found between subjective and objective measurements are presented.

  16. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  17. Efficiency of an inexpensive liquid-based cytology performed by cytocentrifugations: a comparative study using the histology as reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbar Christian

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although liquid-based cytology (LBC is now recommended for cervical cancer screening, it requires expensive automated devices and materials. To evaluate the efficiency of inexpensive LBC methods relying on an inexpensive fixative liquid, Easyfix®, we compared the results obtained by the liquid-based cytology (LBC diagnoses performed by cytocentrifugations (Papspin® and Turbitec® with those obtained by histology. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficiency of the fixative liquid, Easyfix®, to preserve HPV DNA in the collected samples. Method 266 LBC were compared with 174 colposcopies and 91 Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP. Among the LBC, 51 were performed using the Papspin® system and 215 were performed using the Turbitec® system. To control the quality of the preservation liquid, Easyfix®, we correlated the results of HCII assays with those of HPV PCR. Results For Papspin® and Turbitec® systems, the sensitivities were respectively 82.6% (95% CI: 61.2–95.0%, p Conclusion LBC performed by cytocentrifugations are inexpensive, reduce inadequate smears, show excellent efficiency and allow HPV detection by molecular biology.

  18. Research Into Automobile Movement on a Curve Under Winter Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kemzūraitė

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the movement of the car on the curve on the slippery and snowy road surface with asphalted ruts. The paper reviews literature related to lateral and longitudinal vehicle acceleration and dynamics of vehicle movement. The experimental facts of vehicle lateral acceleration are given in graphical charts. The article also describes the acceleration values and stability of the automobile depending on the speed in the curve. The findings are given based on the results.Article in Lithuanian

  19. 130 Modeling of the automobile suspension by the functional model

    OpenAIRE

    桐山, 啓; 角田, 鎭男; 長松, 昭男; 御法川, 学; 岩原, 光男; Kiriyama, Akira; Sumida, Shizuo; Nagamatsu, Akio; Minorikawa, Gaku; Iwahara, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    Modeling for an action simulation is performed focusing on the suspension system of a car using the modeling technique called the functional model that had been developed by one of the authors. Simulation analysis of the suspension system of a car was performed in the three dimensional field. It was shown that the method based on the modeling concept of functional model can express the general dynamic characteristic of the automobile suspension.

  20. Automobile shredder residue: some recycling, resource recovery and disposal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, M. [National Research Council of Canada, Inst. for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Obsolete automobiles are the most recycled high-volume consumer product, with a recovery rate of between 75 and 80 per cent by weight. Ferrous scrap metal from old automobiles in North America amounts to about 10 million tons per year. However, each ton of steel that is recovered, produces about 300 kg of automobile shredder residue (ASR), comprised of plastics, rubber, glass, foam, and textiles, contaminated by oil and other fluids. All combined, this represents about 0.3 million tons of waste materials from the 22 shredders in Canada. This amount is likely to increase as the amount of steel in automobiles decreases due to downsizing and weight reduction, emphasizing the need for new resource recovery and application techniques to deal with the ASR problem. This paper describes a number of new initiatives primarily in two areas: separation technologies, ranging from selective disassembly to physical/mechanical/chemical separation processes, and pyrolysis techniques for the recovery of valuable hydrocarbon resources contained in the plastics in the ASR. Recycling of the material into high performance composite materials, such as additives to concrete for increased tensile strength, shrinkage and crack resistance, without adverse effect on other properties such as durability and workability, also received attention. Energy recovery options and engineered landfilling wherein ASR is used as a landfill day cover material, are some other techniques that show considerable promise. In landfill applications the high absorption capacity of ASR for heavy metals such as lead, its high compressibility, erosion resistance, and good traction make it a highly desirable choice for use as day cover material. 25 refs.

  1. MANAGEMENT TOOLS USED IN THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Beuren, Ilse Maria; Universidade Regional de Blumenau - FURB; Guth, Sérgio Cavagnoli; Universidade Regional de Blumenau - FURB

    2010-01-01

    The durability of business strategies is diminishing at the same rate as the rhythm of environmental changes is increasing, which implies the necessity for uninterrupted transformations and processes of restructuring within organizations. From this perspective, this work’s objective is to demonstrate the management tools that were, are or will be used in those automobile industries established in Brazil. To this purpose, an empirical descriptive study, in the form of a survey, was conducted e...

  2. Coatings Manufacturing Technology for China's Automobile Industry Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China's automobile industry is experiencing continued phenomenal growth with the first 11 months of 2003 seeing an output of over 4 million units.This has lead to a huge growth in the consumption of automotive coatings with a 30% growth expected in 2004,reaching 200,000 tons-compared to a 7% average growth for the coatings industry as a whole.Output is predieted to reach 300,000 tons by 2010!

  3. Translation of Automobile Brands from the Perspective of Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘竹林; 王俊

    2013-01-01

    With the steady growth of the Chinese economy, more and more countries are focusing on China. A great number of brands are entering the Chinese market and auto brand is one of them. Brand translation plays an important role for success of opening international market. This paper applies the Skopos theory to automobile brand translation, so as to provide a new angle to translation practice.

  4. Public health, autonomous automobiles, and the rush to market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ben

    2017-01-23

    The USA has the worst motor vehicle safety problem among high-income countries and is pressing forward with the development of autonomous automobiles to address it. Government guidance and regulation, still inadequate, will be critical to the safety of the public. The analysis of this public health problem in the USA reveals the key factors that will determine the benefits and risks of autonomous vehicles around the world.

  5. Chang Jiang and Her "Automobiles and China" Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ANCHORWOMAN Chang Jiang of China Central Television (CCTV) enjoys popularity for her Automobiles and China program, which she writes and hosts. The program which started in 1994 aroused a comparatively strong response in the society because of its serious and deep thought about this absorbing topic. It took her twenty months to finish this program. Hundreds of people were interviewed and five notebooks were filled with reference materials. The script was revised seven times.

  6. Power Efficient Design of DisplayPort (7.0) Using Low-voltage differential signaling IO Standard Via UltraScale Field Programming Gate Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Bhagwan; Abdullah, M.F.L.; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2017-01-01

    Port (7.0) need be reduced. In this paper, a power efficient design for DisplayPort (7.0) is proposed using LVDS IO Standard. The proposed design is tested for different frequencies; 500 MHz, 700 MHz, 1.0 GHz, and 1.6 GHz. The design is implemented using vhdl in UltraScale FPGA. It is determined...... the designed vhdl based design of DisplayPort (7.0) can reduced 92% using LVDS IO Standard for all frequencies; 500 MHz, 700 MHz, 1.0 GHz, and 1.6 GHz, compared to vhdl based design of DisplayPort (7.0) without using IO Standard. The proposed design of vhdl based design of DisplayPort (7.0) using LVDS IO...... Standard offers no power consumption for DisplayPort (7.0) in standby mode. The vhdl based design of DisplayPort (7.0) using LVDS IO Standard will be helpful to process the high resolution video at low power consumption...

  7. Strength Check Analysis for Gear Shaft of Automobile Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As the main drive components of the automobile transmission, the performance of gear shaft plays an important role on transmission performance. Aiming at the existing problems of the traditional strength check method of gear shaft, the objective of this study is to take a five-speed transmission as an example, to accomplish the strength analysis of gear shaft of the automobile transmission based on the MASTA software. Furthermore, the simulation modeling of the transmission is built completely to simulate the actual load conditions and complete the process of analysis for the gear shaft. Analytical results show that all gear shafts can fully meet the strength requirements, in addition to the input shaft which has any further improvements. Hence, it is indicated that a new design concept is put forward, that is, using specialized software MASTA for transmission modeling and simulation analysis can heavily improve the design level of the gear shaft, provide the theoretic basis to analyze the dynamic characteristics of gear shaft as well. Finally, it can provide references for the development and application of gear shaft of the automobile transmission.

  8. STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE IN THE BRAZILIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Carneiro Lima

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE. The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors, and the adoption of its strategic positioning in exploring two automobile market niches: in the B2B market, vehicles adapted to specific operational functions; and in the B2C, off-road vehicles with a strong appeal to consumers’ life styles. This case study allowed us to visualize the challenging path of a genuinely Brazilian small company in a sector dominated by large multinational groups, besides demonstrating decision-related dilemmas and aspects related to managerial creativity.Key-words: Automobile industry. Case study. Strategic entrepreneurship. Discovery theory. Strategic positioning.

  9. Vibrational Analysis and Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Composite Material for Automobile Leaf Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prabhakaran

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The composites have found extensive application in various fields. The aim of this work is to analyze the mechanical properties and damping effect of the laminates of the composites. The vibration in the composite material that to be used in the application of automobiles for the purpose of leaf spring has to be reduced. So the damping capacity of the composites was found out. Also the tensile and impact properties were studied using existing ASTM standard testing procedures and the results are reported. Based on the experimental study, it is observed that the tensile and impact strength are similar to that of steel. After studying the tensile strength, impact strength, damping capacity and water absorption of the composite, it is useful in suggesting the different types of composites, may be hybrid or may be with uni-directional fiber or with some other fibers, so that the required mechanical properties is achieved.

  10. Research on World Automobile Lamps and Lighting Technology%世界汽车灯具及灯光技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞培锋

    2012-01-01

    文章是国内外汽车灯具的技术分析和总结。文章首先简介了汽车灯具的分类及基本结构;其次细述了如何依照国标对灯具进行配光性能检测和各类环境试验;最后揭示了世界汽车灯具的未来发展趋势。是汽车灯具行业的纲领性技术文件,是目前世界主要车灯技术的集大成者,对从事汽车灯光的工作人员具有重要指导作用.%This article is a technology analysis and summary of domestic and foreign automobile lamps. Firstly, the paper introduces the classification and basic structure of automobile lamps; secondly, how to carry out the photometric characteristics tests and the environmental tests is described in detail in accordance with national standards for lamps; finally, it reveals the developing trend of worhl automobile lamps in future. This article is a progranunatic technical document for automobile lamps industry, and it is a synthesizer of major world automotive lighting technology. It plays an important role in guiding the staff engaged in automotive lighting.

  11. Research and application of online measurement system of tire tread profile in automobile tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengyao; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Xuejiao

    2017-01-01

    To improve the measuring efficiency of width and thickness of tire tread in the process of automobile tire production, the actual condition for the tire production process is analyzed, and a fast online measurement system based on moving tire tread of tire specifications is established in this paper. The coordinate data of tire tread profile is acquired by 3D laser sensor, and we use C# language for programming which is an object-oriented programming language to complete the development of client program. The system with laser sensor can provide real-time display of tire tread profile and the data to require in the process of tire production. Experimental results demonstrate that the measuring precision of the system is <= 1mm, it can meet the measurement requirements of the production process, and the system has the characteristics of convenient installation and testing, system stable operation.

  12. 汽车整车性能检测系统的设计%Design of Detection System for Automobile Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高红红; 劳奇成; 卢春霞

    2011-01-01

    为了保证汽车安全行驶和减少环境污染,需要对汽车的操纵稳定性、行驶平稳性和环保性等进行检测.该检测系统以工业计算机和插入式数据采集控制板为核心,利用网络及通信技术等实现了汽车整车性能的流水线式检测.正常情况下,可以供至少三辆车同时在线检测,且检测过程不需要辅助人员(驾驶员除外),从而减少了人为误差,提高了检测效率.%The drive stability, ride stationarity, arid environmental conservation of automobile are necessary to be tested to ensure safe traffic and reduce environmental pollution of automobiles. The industrial computer, plug-in data acquisition and control boards are the core of the detection system, and the network and communication technology are used to realize pipeline the automobiles. Normally, at least three automobiles can be tested simultaneously, and the assistant personnel (except the driver) are not needed in the test process, thus the artificial errors are reduced and the detection efficiency is improved.

  13. Financial Statement as a Veritable Source of Strategic Information in Automobile and Tyre Industries in Nigeria (R T Briscoe Nigeria Plc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Josiah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is derives from the concern of the users of financial statements in ability to understand, interpret and appreciate the importance of information provided in the statement as a basis for decision making and policy formulation. Due to this reason, they cannot make the best use of the information provided. This is exactly what led to this research study. This study was carried out to provide an insight into accounting information provided in the financial statements which is capable of satisfying the interest of all those who have dealings with R. T. Briscoe Nig. Plc in whatever capacity and it also tries to throw light on how to make use of accounting ratio in the evaluation of the performance automobile and tyre industries. The study also carried out an evaluation of the performance of the Automobile and tyre industries in a more relative term using accounting ratios as indicators. A thorough investigation was conducted into the efficiency performance in key areas such as liquidity, profitability, activity, and leverage ratios. The ratios computed were analyzed. After the analysis was made, the findings showed that the performance of the Automobile and tyre industries in the key areas mentioned above are well above average and that it compared favourably over the years for which the ratios were computed. The researcher however wish to stress the need for the Automobile and tyre industries to sustain, consolidate and improve on some of its profitability ratios and improving its liquidity ratio.

  14. The ''passivhaus'' standard: from energy efficiency to 'green' building; Le standard ''passivhaus'': de la performance energetique a la construction ''verte''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-10-01

    The German voluntary standard 'Passivhaus' (passive house) leads to buildings with practically no energy consumption. The first residential buildings of this type were built in 1998 and the first tertiary buildings in 2000. Such a passive house must fulfill 5 efficiency criteria: annual space heating needs {<=} 15 kWh/m{sup 2}, U{sub v} envelope coefficient lower than 0.15 W/(m{sup 2}.K), U{sub v} of openings lower than 0.8 W/(m{sup 2}.K), airtightness {<=} 0.6 volume/hour, and total energy needs (space heating, hot water, ventilation, lighting and domestic uses) measured at the meter lower than 42 kWh/m{sup 2}.year. This article makes a status of the effective efficiency of existing passive buildings both in the residential and tertiary sectors and presents some possible ways of improvement. (J.S.)

  15. Des automobiles et des hommes : les débuts de l'Automobile Club Dauphinois (1899-1904)

    OpenAIRE

    Arriola, Élodie

    2008-01-01

    Publication partielle du vol. 1 (22 p. sur 143).; Dès son invention, l'automobile passionne les hommes. Son introduction dans la société est le résultat de l'action de quelques hommes, des passionnés de modernité qui voient en ce nouveau moyen de transport une façon d'affirmer la suprématie de l'homme sur la machine et le temps. En Isère, ces hommes s'organisent autour de l'Automobile Club Dauphinois (ACD), dès la fin du XIXe siècle. L'aventure de l'ACD est remarquable. Cette association uniq...

  16. Studies for the elaboration of standards of energy efficiency in constructions; Estudios para la elaboracion de normas de eficiencia energetica en edificaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Niembro, Gaudencio; Heard, Christopher [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Hernandez Pensado, Fernando [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The obtaining of the first drafts of standard of energy efficiency implicate diverse research work previous to its elaboration, which include the justification and the analysis of the reason of the variables to consider, the corresponding cost-benefit study that gives viability to the standard and a procedure of calculation for its fulfillment. The present paper relates the diverse aspects that were analyzed for the justification, the revision and the obtaining of the first drafts of the first standards of energy efficiency in nonresidential constructions that are hoped to be implemented in Mexico. [Spanish] La obtencion de los anteproyectos de norma de eficiencia energetica implica diversos trabajos de investigacion previos a su elaboracion, los cuales incluyen la justificacion y el analisis del porque de las variables a considerar, el estudio costo- beneficio correspondiente, que da viabilidad a la norma y un procedimiento de calculo para su cumplimiento. El presente trabajo relata los diversos aspectos que se analizaron para la justificacion, la revision y la obtencion de los anteproyectos de las primeras normas de eficiencia energetica en edificaciones no residenciales que se esperan implantar en Mexico.

  17. 41 CFR 301-10.310 - What will I be reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead... automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead? (a) Reimbursement based on Government costs—Unless you are committed to using a Government automobile as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  18. Standardization method for measurement of hydroxyurea by Ultra High Efficiency Liquid Chromatography in plasma of patients with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcielle Bruna Dias Elias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell anemia (SCA is a recessively inherited disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, chronic inflammation, and acute episodes of hemolysis. Hydroxyurea (HU is widely used to increase the levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF. The objective of this study was to standardize and validate a method for the quantification of HU in human plasma by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC in order to determine the plasma HU levels in adult patients with SCA who had been treated with HU. We used an analytical reverse phase column (Nucleosil C18 with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/water (16.7/83.3. The retention times of HU, urea, and methylurea were 6.7, 7.7, and 11.4 min, respectively. All parameters of the validation process were defined. To determine the precision and accuracy of quality controls, HU in plasma was used at concentrations of 100, 740, and 1600 µM, with methylurea as the internal standard. Linearity was assessed in the range of 50-1600 µM HU in plasma, obtaining a correlation coefficient of 0.99. The method was accurate and precise and can be used for the quantitative determination of HU for therapeutic monitoring of patients with SCA treated with HU.

  19. Evaluation of heavy metals in hazardous automobile shredder residue thermal residue and immobilization with novel nano-size calcium dispersed reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Hyeon; Truc, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to synthesize and apply a nano-size calcium dispersed reagent as an immobilization material for heavy metal-contaminated automobile shredder residues (ASR) dust/thermal residues in dry condition. Simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 dispersion mixture immobilized 95-100% of heavy metals in ASR dust/thermal residues (including bottom ash, cavity ash, boiler and bag filter ash). The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The morphology and elemental composition of the nanometallic Ca/CaO-treated ASR residue were characterized by field emission scanning election microscopy combined with electron dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS). The results indicated that the amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR thermal residue surface decreased and the Ca/PO4 mass percent increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis indicated that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on ASR residue included Ca/PO4- associated crystalline complexes, and that immobile Ca/PO4 salts remarkably inhibited the desorption of heavy metals from ASR residues. These results support the potential use of nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 as a simple, suitable and highly efficient material for the gentle immobilization of heavy metals in hazardous ASR thermal residue in dry condition.

  20. The PROMIS Physical Function item bank was calibrated to a standardized metric and shown to improve measurement efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Matthias; Bjørner, Jakob; Gandek, Barbara;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document the development and psychometric evaluation of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) item bank and static instruments. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The items were evaluated using qualitative and quantitative methods. A total...... of 16,065 adults answered item subsets (n>2,200/item) on the Internet, with oversampling of the chronically ill. Classical test and item response theory methods were used to evaluate 149 PROMIS PF items plus 10 Short Form-36 and 20 Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index items. A graded...... response model was used to estimate item parameters, which were normed to a mean of 50 (standard deviation [SD]=10) in a US general population sample. RESULTS: The final bank consists of 124 PROMIS items covering upper, central, and lower extremity functions and instrumental activities of daily living...

  1. Assessment of Lateral Driving Stability of Automobiles Passing by the Pylon Zone under Cross Wind

    OpenAIRE

    Dalei Wang; Airong Chen

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the reason of lateral instability of automobile passing by the pylon zone of cablesupported bridge under cross wind, a new evaluation method of lateral driving stability of automobile considering alternative cross wind is established based on multi-objective driving stability criteria and subjective assessment. Typical driving control process and dynamic response of automobile passing by the pylon zone is given by numerical simulation based on steering wheel fixed-control ...

  2. Effect of automobile operating condition on the subjective equivalence of steering wheel vibration and sound

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    For the manufacturers of automobiles, automobile components and fuels, subjective equivalence relationships between vibration and sound can be used as a reference against which to plot the results from simulations or tests of specific operational conditions. The research described here was performed to define curves of subjective equivalence between steering wheel rotational vibration and sound using stimuli from different automobile operating conditions. The steering wheel acceleration stimu...

  3. [Timely diagnosis and efficient early-rehabilitation for schizophrenic disorders in the community -- perspectives of a new standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amering, Michaela

    2006-02-01

    Schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are severe mental illnesses with diverse courses of illness and often severe long-term disabilities. The sooner therapeutic and rehabilitative measures are taken the better the prognostic outlook is. Wrong but persistent stereotypes of incurability and dangerousness associated with schizophrenia pose severe obstacles to timely diagnosis and interventions and must be overcome. Today various efficient methods in therapy and rehabilitation are available. Evidence-based interventions are best delivered by multi-professional teams in the community. A person-centred approach combines biological, psychological, and social treatments in an integrated model including the social network and the individual goals of patients and their families. Concepts and results of international research efforts regarding state-of-the-art management of schizophrenia are presented and discussed.

  4. 管理规范化提高综合管理效率%To Improve the Efficiency of the Integrated Management by Management Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞霞

    2013-01-01

    综合管理纷繁芜杂,规范化管理可以变无序为有序、变杂乱为系统、变零散为整体.理顺综合业务,制定健全的制度,规范管理流程,形成有效的企业文化是我们提高工作效率、争取卓越绩效的重要途径.%Comprehensive management is disorderly and unsystematic, and the standardized management can change the disorder into the order, change the messy into the systematic, and change the fragmented into the whole. To rationalize the integrated services, develop a sound system, standardize the management process, and form an effective corporate culture is the important way to improve work efficiency and strive for performance excellence.

  5. Two-Dimensional Cutting (TDC) Vitrectome: In Vitro Flow Assessment and Prospective Clinical Study Evaluating Core Vitrectomy Efficiency versus Standard Vitrectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, Mitrofanis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate comparative aspiration flow performance and also vitrectomy operating time efficiency using a double-cutting open port vitreous cutting system incorporated in a two-dimensional cutting (TDC, DORC International) vitrectome design versus standard vitreous cutter. Methods. In vitro investigations compared aspiration flow rates in artificial vitreous humor at varying cutter speeds and vacuum levels using a TDC vitrectome and a standard vitrectome across different aspiration pump systems. A prospective single-centre clinical study evaluated duration of core vitrectomy in 80 patients with macular pucker undergoing 25-gauge or 27-gauge vitrectomy using either a TDC vitrectome at 16,000 cuts per minute (cpm) or standard single-cut vitrectome, combined with a Valve Timing intelligence (VTi) pump system (EVA, DORC International). Results. Aspiration flow rates remained constant independent of TDC vitrectome cut rate, while flow rates decreased linearly at higher cutter speeds using a classic single-blade vitrectome. Mean duration of core vitrectomy surgeries using a TDC vitreous cutter system was significantly (p < 0.001) shorter than the mean duration of core vitrectomy procedures using a single-cut vitrectome of the same diameter (reduction range, 34%-50%). Conclusion. Vitrectomy surgery performed using a TDC vitrectome was faster than core vitrectomy utilizing a standard single-action vitrectome at similar cut speeds.

  6. Two-Dimensional Cutting (TDC Vitrectome: In Vitro Flow Assessment and Prospective Clinical Study Evaluating Core Vitrectomy Efficiency versus Standard Vitrectome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrofanis Pavlidis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate comparative aspiration flow performance and also vitrectomy operating time efficiency using a double-cutting open port vitreous cutting system incorporated in a two-dimensional cutting (TDC, DORC International vitrectome design versus standard vitreous cutter. Methods. In vitro investigations compared aspiration flow rates in artificial vitreous humor at varying cutter speeds and vacuum levels using a TDC vitrectome and a standard vitrectome across different aspiration pump systems. A prospective single-centre clinical study evaluated duration of core vitrectomy in 80 patients with macular pucker undergoing 25-gauge or 27-gauge vitrectomy using either a TDC vitrectome at 16,000 cuts per minute (cpm or standard single-cut vitrectome, combined with a Valve Timing intelligence (VTi pump system (EVA, DORC International. Results. Aspiration flow rates remained constant independent of TDC vitrectome cut rate, while flow rates decreased linearly at higher cutter speeds using a classic single-blade vitrectome. Mean duration of core vitrectomy surgeries using a TDC vitreous cutter system was significantly (p<0.001 shorter than the mean duration of core vitrectomy procedures using a single-cut vitrectome of the same diameter (reduction range, 34%–50%. Conclusion. Vitrectomy surgery performed using a TDC vitrectome was faster than core vitrectomy utilizing a standard single-action vitrectome at similar cut speeds.

  7. High oil price compel automobile to 'slim',Light metal castings enjoy great popularity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The fuel consumption of automobiles has a close relationship with their weight, and due to short supply and high prices of energy sources, numerous automakers are trying every means to make the automobile "slim" (or less heavy).According to available data, every 100-kg reduction in automobile weight will result in a 0.3-liter gasoline saving for every hundred kilometers of driving. Therefore, automobile parts with light weight, thin wall, excellent dimensional accuracy and high strength and toughness become the development trend.

  8. Divided Combustion Chamber Gasoline Engines - A Review for Emissions and Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascunana, Jose L.

    1974-01-01

    Describes characteristic designs of the engine. Data for fuel economy and emission are presented. Data show that automobiles equipped with one of the engines described have passed the 1975 Federal Emissions Standards. (SLH)

  9. New Gasoline Standard in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Chinese government will reduce sulfur levels of lead-free gasoline to 150 parts per million (ppm) in the revised gas standard for the purpose to help improve air quality. The revised lead-free gas standard, to be announced by the end of this year, will drive gas with sulfur levels of 500 ppm out of market on Dec. 31,2009, said Li Xinmin, deputy director of the pollution control department of the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), at a recent symposium on automobile pollution control. The new standard would meet the Euro-Ⅲ emission norm, which constrained sulfur levels to 150 ppm maximum.

  10. Energy Efficiency of the IEEE 802.15.4 Standard in Dense Wireless Microsensor Networks: Modeling and Improvement Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Bougard, Bruno; Daly, Denis C; Chandrakasan, Anantha; Dehaene, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Wireless microsensor networks, which have been the topic of intensive research in recent years, are now emerging in industrial applications. An important milestone in this transition has been the release of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard that specifies interoperable wireless physical and medium access control layers targeted to sensor node radios. In this paper, we evaluate the potential of an 802.15.4 radio for use in an ultra low power sensor node operating in a dense network. Starting from measurements carried out on the off-the-shelf radio, effective radio activation and link adaptation policies are derived. It is shown that, in a typical sensor network scenario, the average power per node can be reduced down to 211m mm mW. Next, the energy consumption breakdown between the different phases of a packet transmission is presented, indicating which part of the transceiver architecture can most effectively be optimized in order to further reduce the radio power, enabling self-powered wireless microsensor networks...

  11. The Time Series Data Server (TSDS) for Standards-Compliant, Convenient, and Efficient Access to Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, D. M.; Weigel, R. S.; Wilson, A.; Ware Dewolfe, A.

    2009-12-01

    Data analysis in the physical sciences is often plagued by the difficulty in acquiring the desired data. A great deal of work has been done in the area of metadata and data discovery, however, many such discoveries simply provide links that lead directly to a data file. Often these files are impractically large, containing more time samples or variables than desired, and are slow to access. Once these files are downloaded, format issues further complicate using the data. Some data servers have begun to address these problems by improving data virtualization and ease of use. However, these services often don't scale to large datasets. Also, the generic nature of the data models used by these servers, while providing greater flexibility, may complicate setting up such a service for data providers and limit sufficient semantics that would otherwise simplify use for clients, machine or human. The Time Series Data Server (TSDS) aims to address these problems within the limited, yet common, domain of time series data. With the simplifying assumption that all data products served are a function of time, the server can optimize for data access based on time subsets, a common use case. The server also supports requests for specific variables, which can be of type scalar, structure, or sequence. It also supports data types with higher level semantics, such as "spectrum." The TSDS is implemented using Java Servlet technology and can be dropped into any servlet container and customized for a data provider's needs. The interface is based on OPeNDAP (http://opendap.org) and conforms to the Data Acces Protocol (DAP) 2.0, a NASA standard (ESDS-RFC-004), which defines a simple HTTP request and response paradigm. Thus a TSDS server instance is a compliant OPeNDAP server that can be accessed by any OPeNDAP client or directly via RESTful web service requests. The TSDS reads the data that it serves into a common data model via the NetCDF Markup Language (NcML, http

  12. National turnaround time survey: professional consensus standards for optimal performance and thresholds considered to compromise efficient and effective clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, Derek J; Auld, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background Turnaround time can be defined as the time from receipt of a sample by the laboratory to the validation of the result. The Royal College of Pathologists recommends that a number of performance indicators for turnaround time should be agreed with stakeholders. The difficulty is in arriving at a goal which has some evidence base to support it other than what may simply be currently achievable technically. This survey sought to establish a professional consensus on the goals and meaning of targets for laboratory turnaround time. Methods A questionnaire was circulated by the National Audit Committee to 173 lead consultants for biochemistry in the UK. The survey asked each participant to state their current target turnaround time for core investigations in a broad group of clinical settings. Each participant was also asked to provide a professional opinion on what turnaround time would pose an unacceptable risk to patient safety for each departmental category. A super majority (2/3) was selected as the threshold for consensus. Results The overall response rate was 58% ( n = 100) with a range of 49-72% across the individual Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine regions. The consensus optimal turnaround time for the emergency department was 2 h considered unacceptable. The times for general practice and outpatient department were 48 h and for Wards 12 h, respectively. Conclusions We consider that the figures provide a useful benchmark of current opinion, but clearly more empirical standards will have to develop alongside other aspects of healthcare delivery.

  13. Recommended Changes to Specifications for Demand Controlled Ventilation in California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Faulkner, David

    2010-04-08

    In demand-controlled ventilation (DCV), rates of outdoor air ventilation are automatically modulated as occupant density varies. The objective is to keep ventilation rates at or above design specifications and code requirements and also to save energy by avoiding excessive ventilation rates. DCV is most often used in spaces with highly variable and sometime dense occupancy. In almost all cases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sensors installed in buildings provide the signal to the ventilation rate control system. People produce and exhale CO{sub 2} as a consequence of their normal metabolic processes; thus, the concentrations of CO{sub 2} inside occupied buildings are higher than the concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the outdoor air. The magnitude of the indoor-outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration difference decreases as the building's ventilation rate per person increases. The difference between the indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} concentration is also a proxy for the indoor concentrations of other occupant-generated bioeffluents, such as body odors. Reviews of the research literature on DCV indicate a significant potential for energy savings, particularly in buildings or spaces with a high and variable occupancy. Based on modeling, cooling energy savings from applications of DCV are as high as 20%. With support from the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has performed research on the performance of CO{sub 2} sensing technologies and optical people counters for DCV. In addition, modeling was performed to evaluate the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of using DCV in general office spaces within the range of California climates. The above-described research has implications for the specifications pertaining to DCV in section 121 of the California Title 24 Standard. Consequently, this document suggests possible changes in these specifications based on the research findings. The suggested

  14. 40 CFR 86.1818-12 - Greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... means a motor vehicle that is a passenger automobile as that term is defined in 49 CFR 523.4. (2) Light truck means a motor vehicle that is a non-passenger automobile as that term is defined in 49 CFR 523.5... Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1818-12 Greenhouse gas emission standards for...

  15. Individualized solutions to environmental problems: a case of automobile pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urmetzer, P.; Blake, D. E.; Guppy, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Air pollution associated with motor vehicle use is one of the prime indicators of the tension between consumerism and the environment. The use of private automobiles seems so convenient, whereas the alternatives are off-putting enough to make significant changes in personal transportation behaviour well-nigh impossible. At the same time, combating the air pollution associated with extensive use of cars has become one of the major policy objectives for cities around the world. Available policy alternatives can be divided into two categories: (1) incentives, such as improved public transportation, and (2) disincentives, such as environmental tax on gasoline. This paper attempt to directly assess links between these two alternatives, associated attitudes towards them, the level of public support for command and control (i.e. regulatory) policy approaches as well as for economic incentive/disincentive policies. Answers are sought and findings discussed relative to the link between opinions about the environment and support for different types of environmental policies, the usefulness of a rational choice perspective in explaining support for environmental policy alternatives, the role that partisan political attachments play in support of environmental policy approaches, and the roles played by environmental activism, knowledge, and action in shaping support for environmental policy alternatives. Overall results indicate that while most people living in urban environments support the ideas of environmental protection and would be willing to incur costs to confront the problem, exposure to air pollution plays an inconsequential (actually nearly non-existent) role in support of automobile-related environmental problems. Automobile users act like 'free-riders' i.e. they tend to support policies that socialize the cost of solutions rather than policies that attempt to pass the cost of pollution directly on to individual car owners. A sample of the responses to

  16. Providing Consumers with Web-Based Information on the Environmental Effects of Automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saulsbury, J.W.

    2003-08-25

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provide consumers with web-based information on the environmental effects of automobiles so that individuals can make informed choices about the vehicles they use or may purchase. DOE and EPA maintain a web site (www.fueleconomy.gov) that provides users with information about fuel economy [as well as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution emissions] for the cars and trucks they use or may consider purchasing. EPA also maintains a separate web site (www.epa.gov/greenvehicles) that offers similar information, with the focus on air pollution emissions rather than fuel economy. The American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) (www.greenercars.com) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) (www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/ccbg/ccbg.htm) also maintain web sites that provide consumers with information on the environmental effects of automobiles. Through the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE has supported some initial qualitative research with people who are interested in purchasing a new or used vehicle and whose actions identify them as at least somewhat concerned about the environment. The purpose of this research was to explore and understand how these people respond to the different ratings and measurements of environmental effects provided by the four web sites. The goal of the research is to optimize the communication of information provided on the DOE/EPA web site (www.fueleconomy.gov). Working with a private marketing research firm (The Looking Glass Group of Knoxville, Tennessee), NTRC staff initiated this research by meeting with two focus groups in Knoxville on February 27, 2001. To obtain information for comparison, staff from the NTRC and the Looking Glass Group also met with two focus groups in Los Angeles, California, on August 13, 2001.

  17. A Review of Voiture Minimum. Le Corbusier and the Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schnoor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Here is a full-on celebration of cars and someone’s addiction to cars. In its midst drives Le Corbusier. The book, Voiture Minimum. Le Corbusier and the Automobile (Cambridge, Mass. and London: MIT Press, 2011, has recently been published by Spanish architect and academic Antonio Amado. What a curious book. It is something between a detective story circling around determining the date of a single drawing (1928 or 1936 and, simultaneously, it is “Everything you always wanted to know about Le Corbusier and cars but were afraid to ask”.

  18. CUSTOMER IMPORTANCE RATING OF SERVICE QUALITY DIMENSIONS FOR AUTOMOBILE SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATYENDRA SHARMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Customers are the center of an organization’s universe: they define quality. They expect performance, reliability, responsiveness, competitive prices, on-time delivery, service, clear and correct transaction processing and more. Customer satisfaction/Service quality management has become a strategic imperative for most firms. In the present circumstances, it is vital to measure customer perceptions and how well the company delivers on the critical factors/dimensions of the business. The main objective of this paper is to be acquainted with customer importance rating of service quality dimensions or Voice of Customers for an Automobile service centre. A questionnaire has been used for the purpose.

  19. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2008-12-09

    This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  20. Automobile Transmission Shift Control Based on MMAS and BP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxue Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The neural network control model of automobile automatic transmission has been developed, which make the optimum shift decision based on the vehicle velocity, the vehicle acceleration and the throttle opening. The MAX-MIN ant syste (MMAS is introduced to train the neural network weights and thresholds. The basic theory and steps of MMAS algorithm are given, and applied in the automatic transmission shift control. Experimental results show that the automatic transmission shift control system based on MMAS, comparing to the system based on ACO-BP, has better capability of gear recognition, and can make shift decision promptly and effectively.

  1. Community Essay: Sustainable approach to automobile society in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fujimoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the difference between electric vehicles (EVs in society and an EV society? “EVs in society” means simply the replacement of gasoline-powered cars with EVs without taking into consideration pervasive social issues. By contrast, an “EV society” is a concept whereby EVs are more fundamentally woven into the fabric of society with the aim of solving a range of social problems, while at the same time questioning the meaning of what an automobile “is” and “can be.” It is this “game-changing” principle of integration that drives our research.

  2. ABOUT CERTIFICATION IN THE AUTOMOBILE FIELD (in Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor NORDIN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The transport industry development in the Russian Federation makes urgent the problem of transportation security, rendering qualitative services in the goods (passengers transportation field, checkup and repairing motor transport vehicle and etc. Certification is the basic mechanism the work of which should be directed not only at the conformity of service assessment at automobile transport to the specified requirements but also be a regulator of preventing negative developments due to implementing services quality and security improvement. Particularities and stages of conformity assessment are considered in the article also it is offered to differentiate transportation services in levels according to the value of their complex quality level.

  3. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Todoroki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  4. Measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L.B.; Cobas Flores, E.; McMichael, F.C.; Hendrickson, C.T.; Horvath, A.; Joshi, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    In the paper the following topics are discussed: - the need for public education and involvement in the decision process, - the difficulty of defining sustainability, - the occasional difference between the goals of sustainability and environmental quality, - the need for life cycle analysis to analyze the sustainability and environmental quality implications of a product, process, or material. The importance of environmental input-output analysis is stressed. This new tool can provide the life cycle information cheaply, quickly, and with much less uncertainty. Examples are presented for making an automobile, a seat out of plastic or aluminium, and an electric vehicle. (author) 4 tabs., refs.

  5. Photorealistic ray tracing to visualize automobile side mirror reflective scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hocheol; Kim, Kyuman; Lee, Gang; Lee, Sungkoo; Kim, Jingu

    2014-10-20

    We describe an interactive visualization procedure for determining the optimal surface of a special automobile side mirror, thereby removing the blind spot, without the need for feedback from the error-prone manufacturing process. If the horizontally progressive curvature distributions are set to the semi-mathematical expression for a free-form surface, the surface point set can then be derived through numerical integration. This is then converted to a NURBS surface while retaining the surface curvature. Then, reflective scenes from the driving environment can be virtually realized using photorealistic ray tracing, in order to evaluate how these reflected images would appear to drivers.

  6. Present conditions and perspectives of the standardization of the energy efficiency in Mexico; Actualidad y perspectivas del programa de normalizacion de la eficiencia energetica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu Pulido, Henry Anli; Sanchez Ramos, Itha [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The first energy efficiency standards of compulsory type were implemented in some states of the U.S. and in 1990 this country`s Federal government adopted them, since then, they have spread all over the world. This paper describes that under the frame of the National Program for Energy Modernization (1900-1994) and the National Development Program (1995-2000) of Mexico were considered as a priority the rational use of the energy, the conservation of the energy resources and the environmental protection. It is particularly mentioned, the standardization program of energy efficiency that has been developed that includes the limiting specification of the energy consumption or equipment efficiency, an essay method to determine the energy performance and the description of the label that will inform the users of the equipment energy performance [Espanol] Las primeras normas de eficiencia energetica de tipo obligatorio se implantaron en algunos estados de Estados Unidos y en 1990 las adopto el gobierno federal de ese pais, a partir de entonces se han difundido por todo el mundo. En el presente trabajo se describe que en el marco del Programa Nacional de Modernizacion Energetica (1900-1994) y del Plan Nacional de Desarrollo (1995-2000) de Mexico, se consideran como prioridad el uso racional de energia, la conservacion de recursos energeticos y la proteccion al medio ambiente. Se menciona particularmente, el programa de normalizacion de eficiencia energetica que se ha desarrollado incluye la especificacion del limite de consumo energetico o eficiencia del equipo, un metodo de ensayo para determinar el rendimiento energetico y la descripcion de la etiqueta que informara a los usuarios sobre el comportamiento energetico del equipo

  7. 40 CFR 60.392 - Standards for volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.392 Standards for volatile organic compounds... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for volatile organic compounds 60.392 Section 60.392 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  8. Improved efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material Diesel Particulate Matter (SRM 2975) using accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Silvia; Ahmed, Trifa; Bergvall, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2011-12-01

    The efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with molecular masses of 252, 276, 278, 300, and 302 Da from standard reference material diesel particulate matter (SRM 2975) has been investigated using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with dichloromethane, toluene, methanol, and mixtures of toluene and methanol. Extraction of SRM 2975 using toluene/methanol (9:1, v/v) at maximum instrumental settings (200 °C, 20.7 MPa, and five extraction cycles) with 30-min extraction times resulted in the following elevations of the measured concentration when compared with the certified and reference concentrations reported by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): benzo[b]fluoranthene, 46%; benzo[k]fluoranthene, 137%; benzo[e]pyrene, 103%; benzo[a]pyrene, 1,570%; perylene, 37%; indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, 41%; benzo[ghi]perylene, 163%; and coronene, 361%. The concentrations of the following PAHs were comparable to the reference values assigned by NIST: indeno[1,2,3-cd]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, and picene. The measured concentration of dibenzo[a,e]-pyrene was lower than the information value reported by the NIST. The measured concentrations of other highly carcinogenic PAHs (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene) in SRM 2975 are also reported. Comparison of measurements using the optimized ASE method and using similar conditions to those applied by the NIST for the assignment of PAH concentrations in SRM 2975 indicated that the higher values obtained in the present study were associated with more complete extraction of PAHs from the diesel particulate material. Re-extraction of the particulate samples demonstrated that the deuterated internal standards were more readily recovered than the native PAHs, which may explain the lower values reported by the NIST. The analytical results obtained in the study demonstrated that the efficient extraction of PAHs from SRM 2975 is a critical requirement for the

  9. Designing Logistic Information Platform to Fostering Development Trend in China Automobile Manufacturing Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yue

    2009-01-01

    The logistics resource in China's automobile group can't be optimized and allocated because of the "information island" problem in the group's logistics information platform in the whole group. In addition, it is the development trend of China's automobile group LIN to build a logistics e - market in the range of the group.

  10. 25 CFR 11.419 - Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles. 11... OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.419 Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she operates another person's...

  11. 75 FR 80350 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... date for the final rule published on November 29, 2010 at 75 FR 72965 remains November 29, 2010. The...-AJ09 Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile Mileage Reimbursement When Government Owned Automobiles Are Authorized; Miscellaneous...

  12. 77 FR 63917 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Certain Measures Affecting the Automobile and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (``SCM Agreement''). In addition, it appears that China has failed to... Measures for the Administration of National Export Bases of Automobiles and Parts and Components (for Trial... Administration of National Export Bases of Automobiles and Parts and Components (Revised Draft); MOFCOM,...

  13. 29 CFR 785.40 - When private automobile is used in travel away from home community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When private automobile is used in travel away from home community. 785.40 Section 785.40 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... WORKED Application of Principles Traveltime § 785.40 When private automobile is used in travel away...

  14. 32 CFR 552.73 - Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. 552.73 Section 552.73 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Military Reservations § 552.73 Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. Policies sold...

  15. Application of high-strength steel sheets for automobiles in Japan; Utilisation des aciers a haute resistance dans l'industrie automobile au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M.; Ohashi, H. [Nippon Steel Corporation (United Kingdom)

    2001-10-01

    In Japan, automobile and steel engineers are working together for automotive body weight reduction. They are focusing on weight reduction from the point of view of both body structure and material. In order to meet the increasingly severe requirements for weight reduction, aiming at the limitation of the fuel consumption, an expansion in the range of application of HSS is vital. To realize further reduction, joint research by steelmakers and automobile manufacturers will become increasingly important. (authors)

  16. Automobile shredded residue valorisation by hydrometallurgical metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Giuseppe; Moscardini, Emanuela; Furlani, Giuliana; Pagnanelli, Francesca; Toro, Luigi

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this work was developing a hydrometallurgical process to recover metals from automobile shredded residue (or car fluff). Automobile shredded residue (ASR) was characterised by particle size distribution, total metal content and metal speciation in order to guide the choice of target metals and the operating conditions of leaching. Characterisation results showed that Fe is the most abundant metal in the waste, while Zn was the second abundant metal in the fraction with diameter lower than 500 μm. Sequential extractions denoted that Zn was easily extractable by weak acid attack, while Fe and Al required a strong acid attack to be removed. In order to recover zinc from leaching tests were operated using acetic acid, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide at different concentrations. Sulphuric acid determined the highest zinc extraction yield, while acetic acid determined the highest zinc extractive selectivity. Sodium hydroxide promoted an intermediate situation between sulphuric and acetic acid. Zn recovery by electro winning using acetic leach liquor determined 95% of Zn electro deposition yield in 1h, while using sulphuric leach liquor 40% yield in 1h and 50% yield in 2h were obtained. Simulation results showed that the sulphuric leaching process was more attractive than acetic leaching process.

  17. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  18. ASSES SMENT OF PREVALENCE OF HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG AUTOMOBILE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep P.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global automotive repair and maintenance service industries are expected to be worth almost $306 billion by 2015. The automotive service sectors currently are having employees an estimated 787 , 77702 and increasing at rate of 12% per annum. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: ( 1 To assess the prevalence morbidities among automobile workers (2 To increase the awareness about safety (PPE at work place (3 To motivate about social security schemes coverage. MATERIAL & METHODS: A cross - sectional study was carried out in the territory area of IMSR M edical C ollage of Satara districts. The total no of 117 participants were included for the study. A pretested , predesigned Prof o rma was used to collect the Information’s under supervisi on & analyzed & interpreted with help of percentages & chi square test. RESULT: About 32.76% were only having less than 10 years of service. 68.41% of subjects have dropped their study before high school. Only 25.74% have their own garage , along with 29.25 % of subjects were having specialized training. PPE was available with 29.25% of subjects. Stress , Muscle/bony pain & dyspepsia along with bowl disorders were significant morbidities observed. CONCLUSION: P revalence of morbidities is significant in this st udy & need more medical attention towards automobile workers.

  19. BODY PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OF AUTOMOBILE DRIVING HUMAN MACHINE CONTACT INTERFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Juan; HONG Jun; ZHANG E; LIANG Jian; LU Bingheng

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the fatigue and comfort issues of human-machine contact Interface in automobile driving and based on physiological and anatomical principle, the physiological and biochemical process of muscles and nerves in the formation and development of fatigue is analyzed systematically. The fatigue-causing physiological characteristic Indexes are mapped to biomechanical Indexes like muscle stress-strain, the compression deformation of Wood vessels and nerves etc.from the perspective of formation mechanism. The geometrical model of skeleton and parenchyma is established by applying CT-scanned body data and MRI images. The general rule of comfort body pressure distribution is acquired through the analysis of anatomical structure of buttocks and femoral region. The comprehensive lest platform for sitting comfort of 3D adjustable contact Interface is constructed. The lest of body pressure distribution of human-machine contact interface and its comparison with subjective evaluation indicates that the biomechanical Indexes of automobile driving human-machine contact interface and body pressure distribution rule studied can effectively evaluate the fatigue and comfort issues of human-machine contact interface and provide theoretical basis for the optimal design of human-machine contact interface.

  20. Delegating to the automobile: experimenting with automotive restraints in the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, Jameson M

    2015-04-01

    This article explores the attempts in the United States in the 1970s to implement a new paradigm for automobile safety-crashworthiness, the idea that automobile passengers should be protected in the event of a crash. A large number of strategies were proposed, including air bags, seatbelt modifications, mandatory belt-use laws, and ignition interlocks. Many of these did not initially come to fruition, but they did give the automobile safety community a chance to experiment with different ways of distributing responsibilities between automobile occupants, automobile manufacturers, and, to a lesser extent, government agencies. These experiments helped pave the way for the successful implementation of a number of new strategies in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s.

  1. 29 CFR 779.371 - Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments may qualify for exemption under section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments... OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Automobile, Truck, Farm Implement, Trailer, and Aircraft Sales and Services § 779.371 Some automobile, truck, and farm...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2301 - Federal compliance date for automobile and light-duty truck coating. Texas Air Control Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal compliance date for automobile... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2301 Federal compliance date for automobile and..., automobile and light-duty truck coating operations were to have complied with final control limits of §...

  3. 77 FR 29922 - Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry, Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... CFR Part 20 Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry, Request... FTC's ``Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry.'' DATES... used parts (e.g., engines and transmissions). The Commission first addressed the used automobile...

  4. 19 CFR 123.51 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States. (a) General... samples by automobile through Canada to another place in the United States without displaying the...

  5. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. (a) General... sealed samples in his automobile without further sealing in the United States, upon compliance with...

  6. 41 CFR 301-10.220 - What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? 301-10.220 Section 301-10.220 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Government Vehicle Government Automobiles § 301-10.220 What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? You must...

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59 Protection of Environment... Automobile Refinish Coatings Pt. 59, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59—Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings Coating category Grams VOC per liter...

  8. Standardization, provisions of rules and cost-efficiency in the transmitted-heat industry; Normung, Regelsetzung und Wirtschaftlichkeit in der Fernwaermebranche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, H. [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke e.V. (VDEW), Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Arbeitsgemeinschaft Fernwaerme e.V.

    2002-07-01

    The attainment of the potentials offered by a deregulated market is significantly facilitated by a minimum of technical rules. Minimum requirements must be defined and extrapolated at the various standardization and regulation levels under user guidance to an adequate depth and under the consensus of the industry. The use of these 'specifications' serves as the basis for cost-efficient standardization, creates clearly defined conditions for competition, assists in avoiding organizational errors and ensures that independent technical competence is retained in the industry. Last, but not least, a body of technical rules and codes provides the basis for well-founded basic and further training with the objective of preserving the necessary specialist expertise. (orig.) [German] Die Realisierung der Chancen die ein liberalisierter Markt bietet, wird durch ein Mindestmass an technischen Regeln erheblich erleichtert. Mindestanforderungen muessen in den unterschiedlichen Normungs- und Regelungsebenen in einer adaequaten Tiefe - im Konsens der Branche - definiert und anwendergesteuert fortgeschrieben werden. Die Anwendung dieser 'Vorgaben' dient als Grundlage kostenguenstiger Standardisierungen, schafft transparente Wettbewerbsbedingungen, ermoeglicht die Realisierung einer sicheren und dennoch wirtschaftlichen Versorgung dient zur Vermeidung von Organisationsverschulden und gewaehrleistet, dass die technische Selbstverwaltung in der Branche erhalten bleibt. Last not least bildet ein technisches Regelwerk die Basis fuer eine fundierte Aus- und Weiterbildung zum Erhalt des notwendigen Branchen-Know-hows. (orig.)

  9. Stacking illumination of a confocal reflector light emitting diode automobile headlamp with an asymmetric triangular prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Zhou, Jia-Hao; Zhou, Yang

    2017-02-01

    A confocal reflector lamp with an asymmetric triangular prism was designed for a stacking illumination of a light emitting diode (LED) automobile headlamp fitting ECE R112 asymmetrical regulation. The optical system includes three 1st elliptic reflectors, three 2nd parabolic reflectors, and one asymmetric triangular prism. Three elliptic and parabolic reflectors were assembled with three confocal reflector modules; two modules projected the cut-off line of a 0° angle, and the other module projected the cut-off line of a 15° angle using of an asymmetric triangular prism. The ray tracing, optical simulation, and mockup experiment results exhibited that the illumination distribution met the regulation of ECE R112 class B, and the ideal efficiency could reach 96.8% in theory. The tolerance analysis showed the efficiency remained above 98% under the error values of ±0.2  mm of the position of the LED light source, and the y direction of the up-down movement was more sensitive than the x and z directions. The measurement results of the mockup sample safety factor were all larger than 1.15 and supported the regulation of the ECE R112 Class B.

  10. Development and environment of new electric automobile, `Ecovehicle`; Shingata denki jidosha eko vehicle kaihatsu to kankyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, H. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    This paper introduces history of the development of an electric automobile, `Ecovehicle`. It is provided with a high overall energy efficiency compared with an engine vehicle. The Ecovihicle is 1.2m in width, 3.3m in length, 2 seating capacities and 910kg in overall weight with serially connected 56 batteries of each 4V, 40Ah and having the total weight of 269kg. Its travel distance per charging is 130km at a speed of 80 k.p.h. This vehicle is capable of running with an energy of approximately one third as much as that of a light car. In addition, the vehicle is provided with polycrystal solar batteries placed on 0.6m{sup 2} area on the roof and spoiler generating 60W maximum. Assuming the annual duration of sunshine is 1,800 hours, charging is possible for 63kWh annually. Assuming the charging efficiency is 83%, charging is possible about seven times, which is an equivalent of travelling about 1,000km annually. The characteristics for example are the employment of brushless DC motor, use of energy saving switching element IGBT in order to realize a low level of loss in the inverter, in-wheel motor system, and storage of storage batteries in a hollow aluminum frame installed under the floor. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Development of a 100 nmol mol(-1) propane-in-air SRM for automobile-exhaust testing for new low-emission requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoderick, George C

    2007-04-01

    New US federal low-level automobile emission requirements, for example zero-level-emission vehicle (ZLEV), for hydrocarbons and other species, have resulted in the need by manufacturers for new certified reference materials. The new emission requirement for hydrocarbons requires the use, by automobile manufacturing testing facilities, of a 100 nmol mol(-1) propane in air gas standard. Emission-measurement instruments are required, by federal law, to be calibrated with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable reference materials. Because a NIST standard reference material (SRM) containing 100 nmol mol(-1) propane was not available, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Automobile Industry/Government Emissions Research Consortium (AIGER) requested that NIST develop such an SRM. A cylinder lot of 30 gas mixtures containing 100 nmol mol(-1) propane in air was prepared in 6-L aluminium gas cylinders by a specialty gas company and delivered to the Gas Metrology Group at NIST. Another mixture, contained in a 30-L aluminium cylinder and included in the lot, was used as a lot standard (LS). Using gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection all 30 samples were compared to the LS to obtain the average of six peak-area ratios to the LS for each sample with standard deviations of standard deviation of 0.15% of the average for all 30 samples. NIST developed its first set of five propane in air primary gravimetric standards covering a concentration range 91 to 103 nmol mol(-1) with relative uncertainties of 0.15%. This new suite of propane gravimetric standards was used to analyze and assign a concentration value to the SRM LS. On the basis of these data each SRM sample was individually certified, furnishing the desired relative expanded uncertainty of +/-0.5%. Because automobile companies use total hydrocarbons to make their measurements, it was also vital to assign a methane concentration to the SRM samples. Some of the SRM samples

  12. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  13. Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results.

  14. Mechanical behavior of plastic materials for automobile cockpit module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Changsu.; Park, Hyunsung.; Jo, Jinho.

    2013-12-01

    Engineering plastics are used in instrument panels, interior trims, and other vehicle applications, and the thermo-mechanical behaviors of plastic materials are strongly influenced by many environmental factors such as temperature, sunlight, and rain. As the material properties change, the mechanical parts create unexpected noise. In this study, the dynamic mechanical property changes of plastics used in automobiles are measured to investigate the effect of temperature. Visco-elastic properties such as the glass transition temperature and storage modulus and loss factors under temperature and frequency sweeps were measured. The data results were compared with the original ones before aging to analyze the behavioral changes. It was found that as the temperature increased, the storage modulus decreased and the loss factor increased slightly.

  15. ALGORITHM OF PRETREATMENT ON AUTOMOBILE BODY POINT CLOUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; ZHOU Yu; DU Farong; QU Weiwei; XIONG Yonghua

    2007-01-01

    As point cloud of one whole vehicle body has the traits of large geometric dimension, huge data and rigorous reverse precision, one pretreatment algorithm on automobile body point cloud is put forward. The basic idea of the registration algorithm based on the skeleton points is to construct the skeleton points of the whole vehicle model and the mark points of the separate point cloud, to search the mapped relationship between skeleton points and mark points using congruence triangle method and to match the whole vehicle point cloud using the improved iterative closed point (ICP) algorithm. The data reduction algorithm, based on average square root of distance, condenses data by three steps, Computing datasets' average square root of distance in sampling cube grid, sorting order according to the value computed from the first step, choosing sampling percentage. The accuracy of the two algorithms above is proved by a registration and reduction example of whole vehicle point cloud of a certain light truck.

  16. Catalytically and noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust: biological effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, G.P. (Univ. of Cincinnati); Lewkowski, J.P.; Hastings, L.; Malanchuk, M.

    1977-12-01

    Chronic exposure to catalytically treated or noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust significantly depressed the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) of rats. Exposure to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ alone or CO at comparable levels did not alter the SLA. Exposure to noncatalytically treated exhaust resulted in significant reductions in growth rate and food and water intake. However, these effects were not evident in the exposure to catalytically treated exhaust or in the control H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and CO exposures. Blood acid-base analyses indicated that exposure to either catalytically treated exhaust or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ elicits a metabolic alkalosis, while exposure to CO alone results in a metabolic acidosis. All acid-base parameters were within the normal range several weeks after the termination of exposure.

  17. PRIORITY DISPATCH SCHEDULING IN AN AUTOMOBILE REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE WORKSHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOYEJO OYEBOLA T.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research work applied a simulation model in determining the optimal number of artisans to employ to carry out routine checks on vehicles on a waiting line. The waiting line under consideration is that of an automobile repair and maintenance workshop in South- Western Nigeria. The data collection was based on arrival pattern of vehicles and service pattern of artisans in the maintenance workshop. A discrete distribution was assumed for both the inter–arrival and service time patterns. An optimal number of 7 servers serving one queue were obtained as against 4 servers and 1 queue in the system in use. There was also a savings in cost of N2.45 Million per month when compared to the system in use. The results of this research work will be significant and important for decision making.

  18. Dynamic modelling of household automobile transactions within a microsimulation framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadian, A.

    2002-07-01

    This thesis presents a newly developed dynamic model of household automobile transactions within an integrated land-use transportation and environment (ILUTE) modeling system framework. It is a market-based decision-making tool for use by individuals who have to choose between adding new vehicles to a fleet, disposing of vehicles, trading one of the vehicles of a fleet, or do-nothing. Different approaches were used within the model, including an artificial neural network, hedonic price, regression, and vehicle class and vintage choices. The model can also predict the complex activity of individuals' behaviour to become active in the market. An estimation approach was used to incorporate the vehicle type choice model into the main dynamic transaction choice model.

  19. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  20. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

    2013-03-01

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48-100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20-30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals.

  1. Biomonitoring of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in automobile varnishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslitz, Stephan; Meier, Swetlana; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger Martin; Brüning, Thomas; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones are important organic solvents for varnishes in industry. This study investigates exposure to N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP) in varnishing of hard plastic components in an automobile plant. Two specific biomarkers of exposure, 5-hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI), were analyzed in urine samples of 14 workers. For this purpose, pre-shift, post-shift and next day pre-shift urine samples were collected midweek. Twelve workers performed regular work tasks (loading, wiping and packing), whereas two workers performed special work tasks including cleaning the sprayer system with organic solvents containing N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones. Spot urine samples of nine non-exposed persons of the same plant served as controls. Median post-shift urinary levels of workers with regular work tasks (5-HNEP: 0.15 mg/L; 2-HESI: 0.19 mg/L) were ∼5-fold higher compared to the controls (0.03 mg/L each). Continuously increasing metabolite levels, from pre-shift via post-shift to pre-shift samples of the following day, were observed in particular for the two workers with the special working tasks. Maximum levels were 31.01 mg/L (5-HNEP) and 8.45 mg/L (2-HESI). No clear trend was evident for workers with regular working tasks. In summary, we were able to show that workers can be exposed to NEP during varnishing tasks in the automobile industry.

  2. Applying visual attention theory to transportation safety research and design: evaluation of alternative automobile rear lighting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Scott E; Gugerty, Leo

    2014-06-01

    This field experiment takes a novel approach in applying methodologies and theories of visual search to the subject of conspicuity in automobile rear lighting. Traditional rear lighting research has not used the visual search paradigm in experimental design. It is our claim that the visual search design uniquely uncovers visual attention processes operating when drivers search the visual field that current designs fail to capture. This experiment is a validation and extension of previous simulator research on this same topic and demonstrates that detection of red automobile brake lamps will be improved if tail lamps are another color (in this test, amber) rather than the currently mandated red. Results indicate that when drivers miss brake lamp onset in low ambient light, RT and error are reduced in detecting the presence and absence of red brake lamps with multiple lead vehicles when tail lamps are not red compared to current rear lighting which mandates red tail lamps. This performance improvement is attributed to efficient visual processing that automatically segregates tail (amber) and brake (red) lamp colors into distractors and targets respectively.

  3. Edge determination algorithm of game road for intelligent automobile based on plane array CCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-kun; WANG Fu-bin; PAN Xiao-di; LIU Jie; HUANG Chang-fa

    2009-01-01

    The contribution factor of automobile movement stability on the structure feature of seek road intelligent automobile chassis was analyzed. The kinematic model of linear two-degree freedom for intelligent automobile was established. The noise influence to the image of game road on the image rebuilding of different acquisition data of game road was analyzed. The threshold for image division was determined by the statistical analysis to grey histogram of game road image. This method indicates its adaption to CCD image of low distinguish ability.

  4. Photocatalytic degradation properties of V-doped TiO2 to automobile exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Shen, Dongya; Xu, Tao; Jiang, Ruiling

    2017-05-15

    To improve the photocatalytic degradation properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) used as raw materials for purifying automobile exhaust (AE), the vanadium (V)-doped TiO2 samples were prepared. The photocatalytic degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO2 to each component in AE were evaluated under ultraviolet (UV) and visible light irradiation, respectively. Results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of V-doped TiO2 to AE was higher than that of pure TiO2, and the optimal V dopant content of TiO2 was 1.0% under UV light irradiation. The degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO2 to NOx and HC were higher than those to CO2 and CO in AE because of the reversible reaction between CO2 and CO. In addition, it was found that the photocatalytic degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO2 to each component in AE were also increased under visible light irradiation. The V-doped TiO2 also showed higher degradation efficiencies to NOx and HC than those to CO2 and CO under visible light irradiation. The V doped TiO2 presented higher photocatalytic activity to CO2 than that to CO, but the reversible reaction between CO and CO2 was not found under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic reactions of pure and V-doped TiO2 samples to each component in AE followed the first order kinetic pathway under the two light irradiations. It is concluded that the V doping is a feasible method to improve the photocatalytic degradation properties of TiO2 to AE for air purification, developing a sustainable environmental purification technology based on TiO2 materials.

  5. Effects of Automobile Emissions on Air Pollution in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ryan; Singh, Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    Currently, about more than 253,000,000 automobiles and trucks, some are new, old, gas and electric, ply on the roads in the United States of America. Around the world, human activities and energy demand are the main sources for the air pollution and ozone depletion, causing dense haze, fog and smog especially during winter season in the country like China and India and also observed in different parts of the world. In recent years, automakers have been pushed by new governmental regulations and global expectations to create more fuel-efficient vehicles that burn less fossil fuels and create fewer harmful emissions. Automakers are exploring alternative fuel options such as hydrogen, natural gas, hybrids, and completely electric vehicles. Since the Nissan Leaf's introduction in 2010, fully electric vehicles have become widely produced and just fewer than 400,000 fully electric cars have been sold in the United States. Taking the influx of more fuel-efficient and alternative energy vehicles in the market into account, we have analyzed satellite and ground observed atmospheric pollution and greenhouse gases during 2009-2014 in the United States of America. Our results show that the increasing population of hybrid and fuel efficient vehicles have cut down the atmospheric pollution and greenhouse emissions in US in general, whereas in California the pollution level has increased as a result frequency of fog and haze events are seen during winter season. We will present a comparison of atmospheric pollution over US and California State in view of the increasing hybrid and fuel efficient vehicles.

  6. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  7. Comparison of standards to determine the efficiency of three-phase induction motors; Comparacion de normas para determinar la eficiencia de motores de induccion trifasicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renier, B and others [IEEE, (United States)

    2001-09-01

    The Mexican industry often acquires from different countries, complete systems of production or auxiliaries, most of them impelled by squirrel cage electric motors, whose efficiency stated by the manufacturer is calculated by applying regional or local standards. For this reason, for the accomplishment of an energy balance -one of the first steps to follow is to determine the saving potential of a plant- it is important to know how the mentioned motor saving potentials were evaluated. It is worthwhile to indicate that an incorrect estimation could get to modify the economics of the applied measures. [Spanish] La industria mexicana a menudo adquiere de distintos paises, sistemas completos de produccion o auxiliares, la mayor parte de los cuales estan impulsados por motores electricos tipo aula de ardilla cuya eficiencia declarada por el fabricante se calcula aplicando normas regionales o locales. Por tal motivo, para la realizacion de un balance de energia -uno de los primeros pasos a seguir para determinar los potenciales de ahorro de una planta- resulta importante conocer como fueron evaluadas los mencionados motores. Cabe senalar que una estimacion incorrecta pudiera llegar a modificar la rentabilidad de la medida aplicada.

  8. Supplementary analysis of impacts of alternative approaches for the Certification/Enforcement Program for consumer-product energy-efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-04

    Vitro Laboratories Task 2 Report developed and qualitatively evaluated 4 alternative approaches for a DOE program for the certification and enforcement of consumer-product energy efficiency standards. This Task 5 report provides supplemental resource impact analyses of the four (a minimal governmental intervention approach, a strong certification control approach, a strong enforcement audit approach, and a mixed certification/enforcement approach) approaches. This analysis derives quantitative estimates of the impacts of these alternative approaches in terms of the five key decision variables defined in Task 2 (DOE staffing requirements, DOE program costs, test costs, indirect costs, and level of compliance). Definitions and assumptions of the resource-impact analyses of the four alternative certification and enforcement approaches are described for furnaces and boilers, water heaters, refrigerators and refrigerator/freezers, kitchen ranges and ovens (gas only), central air conditioners, and freezers. The next 5 chapters are dedicated to discussions of the five key decision variables. Results of the comparative evaluation are presented in the final chapter.

  9. Use of powered electric vehicles in automobile fleets. Help elements for decision; Utilisation de vehicules electriques dans les flottes automobiles. Elements d`aide a la decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    One of the primary causes of degradation in the quality of urban life is automobile transportation. The introduction of electric vehicles within automobile fleets can help mitigate some of the associated impacts. This guide has assembled a set of technical tools vital to all fleet managers, whether they be with public-sector agencies or companies, who are involved in vehicle-purchasing decisions. It deals with the specific issues related to the use, maintenance and acquisition of electric vehicles. Besides those elements intended to convince both decision-makers and users alike, the automobile fleet manager will find herein, as a conclusion, some examples of comparative economic assessments. These serve to highlight the opportunities available for using electric vehicles in a wide variety of situations. (authors) 18 refs.

  10. DETECTION RELEVANCY OF SOME FACTORS INFLUENCING ON AIR POLLUTION FROM AUTOMOBILE AND ROAD COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radkevich, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence between the pavement evenness and the emissions of air pollutants from automobile – road sector is detected. It is proposed to take the pavement evenness for the assessment criterion of greenhouse and other gases emissions.

  11. DETECTION RELEVANCY OF SOME FACTORS INFLUENCING ON AIR POLLUTION FROM AUTOMOBILE AND ROAD COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    Radkevich, M.

    2013-01-01

    The dependence between the pavement evenness and the emissions of air pollutants from automobile – road sector is detected. It is proposed to take the pavement evenness for the assessment criterion of greenhouse and other gases emissions.

  12. Main factors influencing the fall of sales in the Russian automobile market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya A. Kurilova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the negative factors affecting the development of the Russian automobile market. Methods systemic approach generalization and comparison of results method of induction. The findings are based on the research results and observations obtained with the comparativehistorical dialecticalsynthetic and abstractlogical methods. Results basing on data of the International organization of motor vehicle manufacturers OICA the rate of vehicles overproduction worldwide was determined the analysis of motorization index in various countries allowed to form the forecast for the development of automotive fleet in Russia basing on the analysis of macroeconomic data the main factors influencing the development of the Russian automobile market were determined. Scientific novelty the regularities of dynamics of development of the global and Russian automobile markets were revealed. The factors influencing the Russian car market were identified. Practical significance the Russian car manufacturers can use information about the development of the global and Russian automobile markets to create plans for their activities. nbsp

  13. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  14. THE EFFECT OF SOLAR RADIATION ON AUTOMOBILE ENVIRONMENT THROUGH NATURAL CONVECTION AND MIXED CONVECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. FAISAL KADER

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the effect of solar radiation on automobiles has been studied by both experimentally and numerically. The numerical solution is done by an operation friendly and fast CFD code – SC/Tetra with a full scale model of a SM3 car and turbulence is modeled by the standard k-ε equation. Numerical analysis of the three-dimensional model predicts a detailed description of fluid flow and temperature distribution in the passenger compartment during both the natural convection due to the incoming solar radiation and mixed convection due to the flow from defrost nozzle and radiation. It can be seen that solar radiation is an important parameter to raise the compartment temperature above the ambient temperature during summer. During natural convection, the rate of heat transfer is fast at the initial period. In the mixed convection analyses, it is found that the temperature drops down to a comfortable range almost linearly at the initial stage. Experimental investigations are performed to determine the temperature contour on the windshield and the local temperature at a particular point for further validation of the numerical results.

  15. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR – REFERENCE ELEMENT FOR MARKET TRENDS OF AUTOMOBILE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta ISAC

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to form an overview of the current situation of the car market in Romania and based on this to highlight trends and directions towards which this important branch of manufacturing industry seen through the eyes of consumers. The consumer always seeks to compare the performance of the product, with certain standards and they have required to inform themselves and to reflect upon purchasing the product. In order to ensure business success and minimize the risk, entrepreneurs must pay major attention to defining and knowledge of the market or markets they want to act, as well as the segment of consumers that their it proposes to conquer the products and services offered. To a better analyze of the consumer behaviour we implemented a model based on a questionnaire that allows us to detect the main objectives: Identifying the attributes of an ideal car; Establishing the importance of these attributes for current and potential customers; The Dacia brand in comparison to major competing brands; Determining the factors influencing the choice of consumer. The reason I chose the automobile market is the fact that manufacturing (which includes engineering sector, whose part is the construction industry of cars is the main component industry in Romania, covering about 80% of the volume of activity in which are covered about 1.5 million people.

  16. Fungal contamination of stored automobile-fuels in a tropical environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos E.Rodríguez-Rodríguez; Evelyn Rodríguez; Rigoberto Blanco; Ivannia Cordero; Daniel Segura

    2010-01-01

    Because of the lack of reports,the base levels of microbial contamination on stored fuels are unknown in tropical regions and it is unclear whether these levels have some influence on fuel quality parameters.Therefore,fungal quality in automobile fuels stored across Costa Rican territory was evaluated during two years according to the standard ASTM D6974-04.For a total of 96 samples,counts and identification of molds and yeasts were performed on regular gas,premium gas and diesel taken from the bottom and superior part of the container tanks.The highest contamination was found on the bottom of the tanks,where an aqueous phase was usually identified,showing populations over the ones present in the hydrocarbon itself (up to 108 CFU/L).Diesel was the most contaminated fuel (up to 107 CFU/L);however,an alteration on the physicochemical parameters was not observed in any kind of fuel.Seventy-five mold strains were isolated,Penicillium sp.being the most common genus (45.8% of the samples),and ten yeast strains,from the genera Candida sp.and Rhodotorula sp.Four of the yeasts were able to grow on diesel as the sole carbon source,at concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 25%.Increasing the frequency of tank cleaning,adding antimicrobial agents and monitoring microbial populations are recommended strategies to improve microbial quality of stored fuels.

  17. Influence of particulate trap oxidizers on emission of mutagenic compounds by diesel automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, R E; Devillez, G; Smith, L R

    1989-06-01

    Diesel exhaust particles are known to contain mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals. The aim of this study was to determine whether, and to what extent, catalytic particulate trap oxidizers on light-duty diesel engines may reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic chemicals into the environment. Exhaust particles were collected from Mercedes Benz and Volkswagen diesel automobiles, equipped with or without the manufacturer's exhaust traps, while running on a chassis dynamometer under specified load conditions. Exhaust particles were collected from a dilution tunnel onto 20" X 20" Teflon-coated fiberglass filters. Mutagenesis tests of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of the particles were conducted using the Ames Salmonella bacterial test system. The mutation rate was calculated in terms of histidine revertants per mile of travel during a set of standard test cycles. With both vehicles the traps produced an 87-92% reduction in the total amount of particulate material collected by the filters. There was no significant change in the specific mutagenic activity (revertants per microgram of DCM particle extract) with or without the traps. These studies support the notion that installation of exhaust traps which reduce particulate emission on diesel-powered vehicles will also reduce the emission of particle-associated mutagenic and carcinogenic materials into the environment.

  18. Performance of Multilevel Contact Oxidation in the Treatment of Wastewater from Automobile Painting Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tong; Zhu, Yufang; Fienko, Udo; Yuanhua, Xie; Kuo, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    A multilevel contact oxidation system was applied in a pilot-scale experiment to treat the automobile painting wastewater, which had poor biodegradability and contained high concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The wastewater used for this experiment study was the actual painting wastewater which had been pre-treated by the physic-chemical process, and its Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5)/COD was less than 0.1,COD concentration was 800∼1500mg/L. The results showed that the multilevel contact oxidation system could efficiently degrade the COD of the painting wastewater. When the experimental system kept stable operation, the total removal rate of COD and suspended solid (SS) were 84% and 82.5% respectively with the Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) of 8 hours. Meanwhile, this system had a strong ability to resist the impact of COD concentration change. The COD concentration of final treated wastewater was less than 500 mg/L, which could reach the factory discharge requirement for the paint shop. Besides, this system with simple structure was able to reduce the excess sludge production greatly, which would reduce much cost for the treatment of painting wastewater.

  19. THE ISSUES OF THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY FORMATION OF AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY COMPANIES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Simkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose this study of is to consider the problems to ensure the efficiency of of automobile industry enterprise, to identify measures and areas of improvement and optimization of freight trucking companies and to prove the methods and ways to optimize cargo transportation process, which will give the opportunity to influence the technical level of the new technology and production as a whole. Methods: Monitoring and researching problems ensure, trucking companies, classification and description of components improve the management and optimization of transportation that will enable to transport enterprises to influence the design of the transportation process efficiency, reduce transportation costs and production as a whole. Correlation-regression analysis of the effectiveness determining rational route of vehicles that can improve the technical and operational performance of the rolling stock, increase productivity and reduce the cost of cars of cargo. Results: identified areas to ensure the efficiency of transportation companies automotive industry through the development and adoption of decisions on optimization of freight trucking companies through the development of rational route of vehicle design proposals from warehouse management (number vehicle fleet, improvement of dispatching service and optimization of organizational structure . Discussion: identifying areas of improvement of transport enterprises automotive industry due to the need to increase the volume of freight traffic, increase usage of rolling stock, saving material and energy resources, reduce labor costs. Decision-making to improve the management and optimization of freight is an important topic for future research, which will create an opportunity for the company to influence the technical level of the new technology and production as a whole.

  20. Research on Integrated Casting and Forging Process of Aluminum Automobile Wheel

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qi; Cao, Miao; ZHANG, DAWEI; Zhang, Shuai; Sun, Jue

    2014-01-01

    Integrated casting and forging process (ICFP) is a new manufacturing method combining the advantages of both casting and forging. Aluminum structure parts, such as aluminum alloy automobile wheel, with complex shape and excellent mechanical properties can be produced by this process. The effects of different process parameters on the ICFP of the automobile wheel were simulated by Forge software. Microstructure of forging region and the nonforging region were studied by experiment. The results...

  1. Self-Healing Concept for Damaged Composite Structure of Automobile Bonnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hyunbum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a structural design and analysis on automobile bonnet using natural flax fiber composite is performed. Through the structural analyses using commercial FEM software, it is confirmed that the designed automobile bonnet using natural composite is acceptable for structural safety. And also, the damage is a critical problem in composites during their service in structural applications. Therefore, study on self-healing concept of bonnet structure was performed.

  2. The Feasibility Study of the Waste Heat Air—Conditioning System for Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-pingLin; Xiu-ganYuan; 等

    1994-01-01

    In this paper,the feasibility of application of a solid-absorption system using ammonia and chlorides as working pair to automobile air-conditioning system is investigated.This system has the advantages of minimum environmental problem and utilizing waste heat from the automobile engine as thermal energy input.Analyses show that the main problem associated with the application of solid-absorption system is the size of the reactors.Techniques to solve this problem are discussed.

  3. Studies on pyrolysis and gasification of automobile shredder residue in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Feijian; Chen, Ming

    2014-10-01

    With increasing automobile ownerships in China, the number of end-of-life vehicles has also rapidly increased. However, the automobile shredder residue generated during the dismantling of end-of-life vehicles in China is not treated properly and has caused great resource waste and environmental problems. In this work, automobile shredder residue from a domestic end-of-life vehicles dismantling company was comprehensively studied through element analysis, combustion heat experiment, proximate analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The feasibility of using pyrolysis combined with gasification to treat and recycle automobile shredder residue was investigated. The produced gas, oil, and residue yield was measured and the correlation between their yield and the experimental temperature and ratio of air to automobile shredder residue feed was studied. It is found that when ratio of air and experimental temperature are 1.5 mol kg(-1) and 900 °C, respectively, the heat energy of the gas produced per kilogram treated automobile shredder residue reaches a maximum value of 11.28 MJ. The characteristics of pyrolysis oil and solid residue were studied. The solid residue takes up 4.65%~5.57% of the original end-of-life vehicles weight. This greatly helps to reach the target of a 95% recycling rate.

  4. Study on Integration of Automobile Logistics Resources in Supply Chain Environment%供应链环境下的整车物流资源整合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵欣

    2014-01-01

    供应链竞争环境下,整车物流自营为主的物流模式导致单向载货运输、重复建设仓储、无法快速响应消费者需求变化等实际问题屡屡发生。针对这些问题,提出通过战略联盟、构建整车物流综合运输体系、搭建整车物流信息平台等方式进行资源整合,以降低整车物流成本,提高服务效率和质量,进而快速响应顾客需求,最终提升整车物流企业的核心竞争力。%In this paper, in view of the problems in the self-operation dominated automobile logistics modes under supply chain competition, we proposed a series of measures to integrate the automobile logistics resources to reduce the cost of automobile logistics, improve service efficiency and quality, facilitate rapid response to customer demand and ultimately improve the core competitivity of the automobile logistics enterprises.

  5. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Khairnar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the similar obtained from virtual Matlab/Simulink models for drum and disc brakes. The results evidenced that friction radius predominantly affects brake pressure and thus the friction coefficient, also the increase in contact force resulted with decrease in friction coefficient both for drum and disc brakes. Further it has been found that disc brakes exhibit gradual decrease of friction coefficient due to the equitable distribution of braking effort while drum brake presents sudden variations in friction coefficient. It can be revealed that frictional behaviour of disc brake is more consistent than drum brake.

  6. Automobile Shredder Residues in Italy: characterization and valorization opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, S; Ruffino, B; Zanetti, M C

    2012-08-01

    At the moment Automobile Shredder Residue (ASR) is usually landfilled worldwide, but European draft Directive 2000/53/CE forces the development of alternative solutions, stating the 95%-wt recovery of an End of Life Vehicle (ELV) weight to be fulfilled by 2015. This work describes two industrial tests, each involving 250-300 t of ELVs, in which different pre-shredding operations were performed. The produced ASR materials underwent an extended characterization and some post-shredding processes, consisting of dimensional, magnetic, electrostatic and densimetric separation phases, were tested on laboratory scale, having as main purpose the enhancement of ASR recovery/recycling and the minimization of the landfilled fraction. The gathered results show that accurate depollution and dismantling operations are mandatory to obtain a high quality ASR material which may be recycled/recovered and partially landfilled according to the actual European Union regulations, with particular concern for Lower Heating Value (LHV), heavy metals content and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) as critical parameters. Moreover post-shredding technical solutions foreseeing minimum economic and engineering efforts, therefore realizable in common European ELVs shredding plants, may lead to multi-purposed (material recovery and thermal valorization) opportunities for ASR reuse/recovery.

  7. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study will be useful to both managers in the auto industry as well as policy makers. It will help managers in the auto industry to gain a better understanding of consumer intentions and identify the factors which influence them. Policy makers in Pakistan’s auto sector would benefit from the insights of this study when developing the long overdue Auto Policy. Analysis of the data collected has revealed that the three key factors identified from studies in other Asian countries are also relevant for Pakistani auto consumers.

  8. Keep the driver in control: Automating automobiles of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Automated automobiles will be on our roads within the next decade but the role of the driver has not yet been formerly recognised or designed. Rather, the driver is often left in a passive monitoring role until they are required to reclaim control from the vehicle. This research aimed to test the idea of driver-initiated automation, in which the automation offers decision support that can be either accepted or ignored. The test case examined a combination of lateral and longitudinal control in addition to an auto-overtake system. Despite putting the driver in control of the automated systems by enabling them to accept or ignore behavioural suggestions (e.g. overtake), there were still issues associated with increased workload and decreased trust. These issues are likely to have arisen due to the way in which the automated system has been designed. Recommendations for improvements in systems design have been made which are likely to improve trust and make the role of the driver more transparent concerning their authority over the automated system.

  9. (Auto-)mobile data acquisition and measurement data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneuer, E.; Schwartze, S. [Werum Datenverarbeitungssysteme GmbH, Lueneburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This lecture introduces a concept of measurement technology with video integration for commercial vehicles. We would like to present DAVIS-CAR, a system for mobile data acquisition. It enables the simultaneous evaluation of video data and test data and consists of mobile as well as of stationary components in a client/server architecture. The product DAVIS-CAR is suitable not only for testing entire vehicles but for external suppliers developing vehicle components or for analysing a person's driving performance. Even for completely stationary systems DAVIS-CAR provides advantages in situations when video data are recorded to get additional information on tests. The mobile server collects the data of the driving car. The storage of these data can be triggered either manually or by events derived from signal states. The stationary system is capable of administering the measurement data and the associated Meta information from several mobile systems at the same time and of providing this information to the connected clients. The ASAM-ODS interface facilitates the integration of DAVIS-CAR in environments typically found in the automobile industry. The overall architecture also enables the integration of data provided by other measurement systems. (orig.)

  10. Synthesis of a Novel High Solid Coating Used in Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Lu; CHEN Hua-lin; LIANG Shou-tian; LIU Bai-ling

    2004-01-01

    High solid coating is one of the most important environmental friendly coatings, and has been obtained great attention since 70s' last century. For there are high volatile organic compounds(VOCs) in the conventional coatings, which cause both a serious pollution and consume of a plentiful of natural resource, such as petroleum. The development and production of high solid coatings is pressing target for all the countries, especially for China due to our heavy population and short of resources. Based on the requirement, a novel coating with high solid content has been developed in our lab. The solid content of the resin is 80%, compared to the 55% of conversional resin. This coating is characterized by its unique molecular architecture, it is a kind of hyper-branched polymer with uniform distribution of the reactive groups along the molecular backbone, which can react with other chemicals to form a cross-linking structure at high temperature.The coating has a lower viscosity and lower Tg corresponding to its branched structure( scheme 1).This coating has been applied in the automobile finishing. The experimental results indicated that the developed coating presented high performance properties in fastness, mar resistance, and hardness, it also reduced the baking temperature, resulting in a energy saving.

  11. Critical factors in fatal collisions of adult cyclists with automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíl, Michal; Bílová, Martina; Müller, Ivo

    2010-11-01

    This article evaluates, by means of multivariate regression, critical factors influencing the collisions of motor vehicles with adult (over 17 years) cyclists that result in fatal injury of cyclists. The analysis is based on the database of the Traffic Police of Czech Republic from the time period 1995-2007. The results suggest that the most consequential categories of factors under study are: inappropriate driving speed of automobile; the head-on crash; and night-time traffic in places without streetlights. The cyclists' faults are of most serious consequence on crossroads when cyclists deny the right of way. Males are more likely to suffer a fatal injury due to a collision with a car than females. The most vulnerable age group are cyclists above 65 years. A fatal injury of a cyclist is more often driver's fault than cyclist's (598 vs. 370). In order to reduce the fatal risk, it is recommended to separate the road traffic of motor vehicles from bicyclists in critical road-sections; or, at least, to reduce speed limits there.

  12. Automobile, construction and entertainment business sector influences on sedentary lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Diana C; de Sá, Thiago H; Monteiro, Carlos A; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2016-08-25

    Sedentary lifestyles contribute to premature death and health inequalities. Researchers have studied personal and community-level determinants of inactivity but few have analyzed corporate influences. To reframe the public health debate on inactivity and open new doors for public sector intervention, we conducted a scoping review of evidence from several disciplines to describe how the business and political practices of the automobile, construction, and entertainment sectors have encouraged sedentary lifestyles. In the last 50 years, these industries have found it profitable to produce motor vehicles, housing, and entertainment, which intentionally or unintentionally discourage physical activity. Ceding primary authority for policy decisions in these sectors to the market-based economy has enabled the growth of powerful lobbies that encourage and maintain sedentary lifestyles. To counteract these influences, public health and civil society need to confront more upstream economic and social determinants of sedentary lifestyles. Building on evidence from efforts to change harmful tobacco, alcohol and food industry practices, we propose the creation of research and policy agendas that contribute to public health practice that can modify corporate practices that contribute to physical, social and political environments that discourage physical activity.

  13. OFF-ROAD CAPABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF MAZ-AUTOMOBILE HAVING AGRICULTURAL MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Bobrovnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains requirements to parameters of an automobile being designed with axle arrangement 6x4 and technically permissible mass of 25 tons with its all year round operation in agricultural industry with the purpose to ensure in-time load transportation and technological cycle in crop production of the agricultural complex in accordance with time schedule of the executed mechanized works. The future automobile should also have a power takeoff device.The paper presents operation chart flowsheets for cultivation of main crops on mineral and peat soils with indication of automobile motion modes and type of transported loads. Specific properties of peat-bog soils are given in the paper. The paper considers off-road capability of mobile machines when they are moving on soils with low bearing capacity. The paper indicates field applications of automobiles with limited and high off-road capability. Description of wheel interaction with bearing surface area, values of soil resistivity after multiple automobile passages have been given in the paper.The paper specifies values of rolling resistance coefficient and adhesion coefficient of the automobile undercarriage systems in spring and autumn for wheeled and crawler units. Schemes of the automobile front axle drives (electric, hydraulic, mechanical and their characteristics have been analyzed in the paper. An elastic flexible drive with separation of flow power has been proposed for reduction of dynamic loads in a power transmission drive. The paper describes a drive system of auto-analogue steering wheels with hydraulic hydrostatic drive which is located within a front wheel hub that ensure additional thrust. Recommendations for MAZ-automobile modernization with axle arrangement 6x4 have been given with the purpose to improve its off- road capability.Metallic anti-skid chain, segment and small link, track and crawler chains, wideners have obtained a wide application for improvement of automobile

  14. Substance flow analysis and environmental releases of PBDEs in life cycle of automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghyun; Jang, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2017-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants, have been widely used in many applications in industry such as automobiles, textiles, and electronics. This study focused on a quantitative substance flow analysis (SFA) of PBDEs in automobiles in order to identify their flow by life cycle and treatment pathways of PBDEs-containing materials in end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea. In addition, this study has estimated environmental releases of PBDEs in automobiles by life cycle in Korea. During this study, PBDEs were analyzed for the samples collected from several ELVs treatment facilities using X-ray fluorescence and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. The system boundary for SFA of PBDEs ranged from manufacturing/trade to disposal stage of automobiles by life cycle. Based on the result of the SFA, it was found that the amount of PBDEs in automobiles were the highest in use stage (7748ton/year), followed by production stage (1743ton/year) in 2014. In disposal stage, automobile shredded residues (ASR) and seat fabrics were the main components with relatively high levels of PBDEs in ELVs. The major treatment methods of such components included incineration (84%), energy recovery (9%), and landfilling (6%). This research indicates that PBDEs were emitted the highest amount from interior components during the use stage of automobiles, followed by recycling processes such as dismantling and shredding. This study suggests that PBDEs in ASR and seat fabrics should be properly managed to prevent the widespread dispersion in the environment.

  15. Optimal design considering structural efficiency of compressed natural gas fuel storage vessels for automobiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myung-Chang KANG; Hyung Woo LEE; Chul KIM

    2011-01-01

    The shape and thickness of the dome were investigated with the aim of optimizing the type Ⅱ CNG storage vessels by using a finite element analysis technique. The thickness of the liners and reinforcing materials was optimized based on the requirement of the cylinder and dome parts. In addition, the shape of the dome, which is most suitable for type Ⅱ CNG storage vessels, was proposed by a process of review and analysis of various existing shapes, and the minimum thickness was established in this sequence: metal liners, composite materials and dome parts. Therefore, the new proposed shape products give a mass reduction of 4.8 kg(5. 1%)

  16. 基于喷油脉宽测试法的汽车油耗智能测试技术%Automobile fuel consumption intelligent testing technology based on fuel injection pulse-width test method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付百学; 胡胜海

    2014-01-01

    injections is detected by the single-chip microcomputer, the fuel injection pulse width is obtained, and the relationship between the quality of engine fuel consumption and the injection pulse width is determined. According to EFI controller principles, we determined the testing method for automobile fuel consumption. Based on fuel consumption testing principles, we built a mathematical model of an automobile fuel-consumption testing system, and corrected the mathematical model in standard conditions. According to the function requirements of the fuel-consumption testing system, we determined the single chip microcomputer model and modules function of automobile fuel consumption test controlling system, and designed the injection pulse signal acquisition system and the main program for the automobile fuel-consumption test system. We structured the trial system on a testing prototype using the automotive fuel consumption prototype and the automotive dynamometer test bench. Through analyzing and processing the trial data, the testing precision of the automobile fuel consumption prototype is up to 0.46%. Engine speed has an important impact on injector characteristics parameters, and it will influence automobile fuel consumption testing accuracy. Injector characteristics parameters under different engine speed conditions were amended using a linear regression method that will further improve automobile fuel-consumption testing accuracy. The research will provide the reference to develop high-precision, intelligent automobile fuel-consumption test equipment.%针对汽车油耗测试存在的问题,采用单片机控制技术,通过直接测试喷油器喷油脉宽测试汽车油耗,研制汽车油耗智能测试仪器。根据汽车发动机喷油器喷油控制原理,确定汽车油耗测试方法。基于油耗测试原理构建汽车油耗测试系统的数学计算模型,并在标准状态下对该数学模型进行修正。根据油耗测试系统的功能要求

  17. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Shukla; C L Jackson; K Scott

    2003-02-01

    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of $ca$. 50 kW supplemented with short bursts up to 80 kW will suffice in most driving requirements. The energy demand depends greatly on driving characteristics but under normal usage is expected to be 200 Wh/km. The advantages and disadvantages of candidate fuel-cell systems and various fuels are considered together with the issue of whether the fuel should be converted directly in the fuel cell or should be reformed to hydrogen onboard the vehicle. For fuel cell vehicles to compete successfully with conventional internal-combustion engine vehicles, it appears that direct conversion fuel cells using probably hydrogen, but possibly methanol, are the only realistic contenders for road transportation applications. Among the available fuel cell technologies, polymer–electrolyte fuel cells directly fueled with hydrogen appear to be the best option for powering fuel cell vehicles as there is every prospect that these will exceed the performance of the internal-combustion engine vehicles but for their first cost. A target cost of $ 50/kW would be mandatory to make polymer–electrolyte fuel cells competitive with the internal combustion engines and can only be achieved with design changes that would substantially reduce the quantity of materials used. At present, prominent car manufacturers are deploying important research and development efforts to develop fuel cell vehicles and are projecting to start production by 2005.

  18. Automobile air-conditioning. Its energy and environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maximum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the international climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-conditioning (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment-recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential-led ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. (author)

  19. Automobile materials competition: energy implications of fiber-reinforced plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings-Saxton, J.

    1981-10-01

    The embodied energy, structural weight, and transportation energy (fuel requirement) characteristics of steel, fiber-reinforced plastics, and aluminum were assessed to determine the overall energy savings of materials substitution in automobiles. In body panels, a 1.0-lb steel component with an associated 0.5 lb in secondary weight is structurally equivalent to a 0.6-lb fiber-reinforced plastic component with 0.3 lb in associated secondary weight or a 0.5-lb aluminum component with 0.25 lb of secondary weight. (Secondary weight refers to the combined weight of the vehicle's support structure, engine, braking system, and drive train, all of which can be reduced in response to a decrease in total vehicle weight.) The life cycle transportation energy requirements of structurally equivalent body panels (including their associated secondary weights) are 174.4 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 104.6 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 87.2 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. The embodied energy requirements are 37.2 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 22.1 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 87.1 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. These results can be combined to yield total energy requirements of 211.6 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 126.7 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 174.3 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. Fiber-reinforced plastics offer the greatest improvements over steel in both embodied and total energy requirements. Aluminum achieves the greatest savings in transportation energy.

  20. Pyrolysis and gasification-melting of automobile shredder residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Seon Ah; Kim, Woo Hyun; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tae Jin; Kwak, Yeon Ho; Seo, Yong Chil

    2013-10-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea has commonly been disposed of in landfills. Due to the growing number of scrapped cars and the decreasing availability of landfill space, effective technology for reducing ASR is needed. However ASR is a complex mixture, and finding an appropriate treatment is not easy on account of the harmful compounds in ASR. Therefore, research continues to seek an effective treatment technology. However most studies have thus far been performed in the laboratory, whereas few commercial and pilot studies have been performed. This paper studies the pyrolysis and gasification-melting of ASR. The pyrolyis characteristics have been analyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), a Lindberg furnace, and a fixed-bed pyrolyzer to study the fundamental characteristics of ASR thermal conversion. As a pilot study, shaft-type gasification-melting was performed. High-temperature gasification-melting was performed in a 5000 kg/day pilot system. The gas yield and syngas (H2 and CO) concentration increase when the reaction temperature increases. Gas with a high calorific value of more than 16,800 kJ/m3 was produced in the pyrolyzer. From the gasification-melting process, syngas of CO (30-40%) and H2(10-15%) was produced, with 5% CH4 produced as well. Slag generation was 17% of the initial ASR, with 5.8% metal content and 4% fly ash. The concentration of CO decreases, whereas the H2, CO2, and CH4 concentrations increase with an increase in the equivalence ratio (ER). The emission levels of dioxin and air pollution compounds except nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were shown to satisfy Korean regulations.

  1. 从生态翻译学视角探究汽车品牌翻译%On Translation of Automobile Brand Name from the Perspective of Eco-translatology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧

    2014-01-01

    汽车品牌作为汽车企业的代表,在汽车企业文化传递及汽车产品销售中扮演着重要的角色。随着中国经济的迅猛发展和人们生活水平的不断提高,人们对汽车的需求也在持续升温。该文从生态翻译学的视角出发,运用“多维”转换的翻译方法对汽车品牌的翻译进行实例分析,借此希望能为汽车品牌的翻译研究添砖加瓦,为以后的汽车品牌的翻译实践提供一定的借鉴与启示。%Automobile brand name, as the representative of the automobile enterprises, plays an important role in the transmission of auto enterprise culture and in automobile products sales. With the rapid development of China ’s economy and the continuous improvement of people’s living standard, people’s demand for cars continues to heat up. From the perspective of Eco-translatol⁃ogy, this paper analyzes automobile brand name translation with examples from multi-dimensional transformation translation method, hoping to contribute to studies on automobile brand name translation and to provide reference and enlightenment for fu⁃ture translation practices.

  2. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  3. Summary of semi-initiative and initiative control automobile engine vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Qu, Zhou

    2009-07-01

    Engine vibration accounts for around 55% of automobile vibration, separating the engine vibration from transmitting to automobile to the utmost extent is significant for improving NVH performance. Semi-initiative and initiative control of engine vibration is one of the hot spots of technical research in domestic and foreign automobile industry, especially luxury automobiles which adopt this technology to improve amenity and competitiveness. This article refers to a large amount of domestic and foreign related materials, fully introduces the research status of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension of engine vibration suspension and many kinds of structural style, and provides control policy and method of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension system. Compare and analyze the structural style of semi-initiative and initiative control and merits and demerits of current structures of semi-initiative and initiative control of mechanic electrorheological, magnetorheological, electromagnetic actuator, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostriction material, pneumatic actuator etc. Models of power assembly mounting system was classified.Calculation example indicated that reasonable selection of engine mounting system parameters is useful to reduce engine vibration transmission and to increase ride comfort. Finally we brought forward semi-initiative and initiative suspension which might be applied for automobiles, and which has a promising future.

  4. Evaluation of heavy metals in hazardous automobile shredder residue thermal residue and immobilization with novel nano-size calcium dispersed reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chi-Hyeon; Truc, Nguyen Thi Thanh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byeong-Kyu, E-mail: bklee@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Mitoma, Yoshiharu [Department of Environmental Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, 562 Nanatsuka-Cho Shobara City, Hiroshima 727-0023 (Japan); Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy, E-mail: srireddys@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Ulsan, Daehak-ro 93, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of possible mechanisms determining the heavy metals immobilization efficiencyof ASR dust/thermal residues after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4}. - Highlights: • Nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} for heavy metals immobilization in ASR residue. • Heavy metals immobilization in dry condition attained about 95–100%. • Remaining heavy metals were lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit. • The amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR dust surface decreased. • Nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} has a promising potential for heavy metal remediation. - Abstract: This study was conducted to synthesize and apply a nano-size calcium dispersed reagent as an immobilization material for heavy metal-contaminated automobile shredder residues (ASR) dust/thermal residues in dry condition. Simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} dispersion mixture immobilized 95–100% of heavy metals in ASR dust/thermal residues (including bottom ash, cavity ash, boiler and bag filter ash). The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The morphology and elemental composition of the nanometallic Ca/CaO-treated ASR residue were characterized by field emission scanning election microscopy combined with electron dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS). The results indicated that the amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR thermal residue surface decreased and the Ca/PO{sub 4} mass percent increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis indicated that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on ASR residue included Ca/PO{sub 4}− associated crystalline complexes, and that immobile Ca/PO{sub 4} salts remarkably inhibited the desorption of heavy metals from ASR residues. These results support the potential use of nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO{sub 4} as a simple, suitable and

  5. Separation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from automobile shredder residue (ASR) by froth flotation with ozonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)]. E-mail: srireddys@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Kurose, Keisuke [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Okuda, Tetsuji [Environmental Research and Management Center, Hiroshima University, 1-5-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8513 (Japan); Nishijima, Wataru [Environmental Research and Management Center, Hiroshima University, 1-5-3 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8513 (Japan); Okada, Mitsumasa [Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

    2007-08-25

    The purpose of this study is to develop froth flotation to separate polyvinyl chloride (PVC) from automobile shredder residue (ASR) plastic mixtures of variable composition. Some polymers in ASR polymer mixtures have similar density and hydrophobicity with PVC and thus selective flotation of PVC from ASR polymer mixtures cannot be achieved. The present study focused on the surface modification of PVC with ozonation, and then the modified PVC can be separated from other polymers by the following froth flotation. The results of this study indicate that the selective recovery of PVC from real ASR polyethylene tetra pethelate (PET), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), polybutyl methacralate (PBMA), ethyl acrylate (EA), polycarbonate (PC) and rubber mixtures can be accomplished in a three-step process involving a gravity separation, ozonation and froth flotation. The rubber was removed from other heavy ASR (PVC, PET, PMMA, PBMA, EA and PC) polymers by froth flotation without mixing. It was found that ozonation process produced the desired difference in contact angle required (from 89.5 to 73.0{sup o}) for separation of PVC from other heavy ASR polymers, whereas the contact angles of other polymers was slightly decreased. The most of the load ASR, i.e. about 72.4% is floated away and 27.6% was settled down. The highest component 96.7% of PVC was recovered in the settled fraction. As a result of this research effort, the surface modification of PVC with ozonation can be efficiently useful to separate the PVC from other similar density ASR mixed polymers.

  6. Heart rate and core temperature responses of elite pit crews during automobile races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, David P; Bowen, Robert S; Lightfoot, J Timothy

    2011-08-01

    There is limited information regarding the physiological and psychological demands of the racing environment, and the subsequent effect on the performance of pit crew athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heart rates (HRs) and core body temperatures (CTs) of pit crew athletes in the race environment. The HR and CT of pit crew athletes (n = 7) and control subjects were measured during 6 National Association for Stock Car Automobile Racing Sprint Cup races using ingestible sensors (HQ Inc, Palmetto, FL, USA). The HR and CT were measured before each race, at 15-minute intervals during the race, and upon completion of each pit stop. Compared to the control subject at each race, the pit crew athletes had significantly (p = 0.014) lower core temperatures (CTs). The pit crew athletes displayed higher HRs on the asphalt tracks than on concrete tracks (p = 0.011), and HR responses of the crew members were significantly (p = 0.012) different between pit crew positions, with the tire changers and jackman exhibiting higher HRs than the tire carriers. Unexpectedly, the CTs of the pit crew athletes were not elevated in the race environment, despite high ambient temperatures and the extensive fire-protection equipment (e.g., helmet, suit, gloves) each pit crew athlete wore. The lack of CT change is possibly the result of the increased HR more efficiently shunting blood to the skin and dissipating heat as a consequence of the athletes' extensive training regimen and ensuing heat acclimation. Additionally, it is possible that psychological stress unique to several of the tracks provided an additive effect resulting in increased heart rates.

  7. Comparison of energy-storage devices for use in future automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, L.G.

    1981-06-20

    The Transportation System Research Program of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a study over a four year period to determine which energy-storage devices and their associated propulsion systems are likely to be capable of providing credible alternatives to current type automotive propulsion systems between now and the year 2000. It was found that a complete spectrum of automotive performance levels can be achieved by energy storage automobiles during this time period. These range from automobiles with general-purpose performance equivalent to internal combustion engine (ICE) performance to performance suitable for vehicles with specific missions. These automobiles will likely be more expensive to purchase than their ICE counterparts. Large scale introduction of such vehicles can be constrained not only by the development of energy storage technology, but also by the abailability of the required manufacturing capability and service infrastructure.

  8. Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.,Ltd.—China’s Heavy Truck Giant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.,Ltd. (formerly Shaanxi Automobile Manufacturing Plant) was originally a weak enterprise. Relying on the reorganization of assets,the introduction of the"Double Best"project and opportunities for development,it has entered the fast track of development by es- tablishing a brand image and implementing a forward-looking strategy.In 1990,Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.Ltd.was a loss- making enterprise with an annual sales of 100 million yuan ($14.1 million).In 2007,its sales income surpassed 10 billion yuan ($1.4 billion),and it was not only listed among China’s top 500 companies,but also ranked 37th among the top 500 machinery companies of China and came first in Shaanxi Province

  9. Assessment of Lateral Driving Stability of Automobiles Passing by the Pylon Zone under Cross Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalei Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the reason of lateral instability of automobile passing by the pylon zone of cablesupported bridge under cross wind, a new evaluation method of lateral driving stability of automobile considering alternative cross wind is established based on multi-objective driving stability criteria and subjective assessment. Typical driving control process and dynamic response of automobile passing by the pylon zone is given by numerical simulation based on steering wheel fixed-control model and straight driving ideal-driver model. Finally, taking a medium-size commercial bus as an example, the reason of its lateral instability is interpreted and the influence of cross wind speed and driving speed on its lateral driving stability is shown by parameter study.

  10. Effects of automobile steering characteristics on driver vehicle system dynamics in regulation tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Klein, R.

    1975-01-01

    A regulation task which subjected the automobile to a random gust disturbance which is countered by driver control action is used to study the effects of various automobile steering characteristics on the driver/vehicle system. The experiments used a variable stability automobile specially configured to permit insertion of the simulated gust disturbance and the measurement of the driver/vehicle system characteristics. Driver/vehicle system dynamics were measured and interpreted as an effective open loop system describing function. Objective measures of system bandwidth, stability, and time delays were deduced and compared. These objective measures were supplemented by driver ratings. A tentative optimum range of vehicle dynamics for the directional regulation task was established.

  11. Computer simulations and experimental study on crash box of automobile in low speed collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjie; Ding, Lin; Yan, Shengyuan; Yang, Yongsheng

    2008-11-01

    Based on the problems of energy-absorbing components in the automobile low speed collision process, according to crash box frontal crash test in low speed as the example, the simulation analysis of crash box impact process was carried out by Hyper Mesh and LS-DYNA. Each parameter on the influence modeling was analyzed by mathematics analytical solution and test comparison, which guaranteed that the model was accurate. Combination of experiment and simulation result had determined the weakness part of crash box structure crashworthiness aspect, and improvement method of crash box crashworthiness was discussed. Through numerical simulation of the impact process of automobile crash box, the obtained analysis result was used to optimize the design of crash box. It was helpful to improve the vehicles structure and decrease the collision accident loss at most. And it was also provided a useful method for the further research on the automobile collision.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 600 - Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (Applicable to 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule (Applicable to 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles) I Appendix I to Part 600 Protection of Environment... to 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles) SEC MPH SEC MPH SEC MPH SEC MPH SEC MPH SEC MPH SEC MPH...

  13. A new experimental procedure for determination of photoelectric efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector used for nuclear medicine liquid waste monitoring with traceability to a reference standard radionuclide calibrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccatelli, A; Campanella, F; Ciofetta, G; Marracino, F M; Cannatà, V

    2010-02-01

    To determine photopeak efficiency for (99m)Tc of the NaI(Tl) detector used for liquid waste monitoring at the Nuclear Medicine Unit of IRCCS Paediatric Hospital Bambino Gesù in Rome, a specific experimental procedure, with traceability to primary standards, was developed. Working with the Italian National Institute for Occupational Prevention and Safety, two different calibration source geometries were employed and the detector response dependence on geometry was investigated. The large percentage difference (almost 40%) between the two efficiency values obtained showed that geometrical effects cannot be neglected.

  14. Chinese automobile industry: opportunities and business; El sector automovilistico Chino: oportunidades y negocios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhang, Y.

    2010-07-01

    The emergence of Chinese economy and its rapid recovery from global crisis have sustained a high rate of growth in Chinese automobile market. The article analyzes the industrial evolution of this particular market from the perspective of automobile manufacturers. Two concrete proposals have been suggested to explore these business opportunities exposed in the analyzed industry: investment in China to take advantage of market growth and hence gaining global competitive advantages, and being strategic partner of Chinese enterprises in European and global market. Strategic alternatives for both proposals have been discussed with suggestions and conclusions followed. (Author) 11 refs.

  15. The 'Overly-Broad' Selden Patent, Henry Ford and Development in the Early US Automobile Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D

    A current policy concern is that the alleged uncertainty over the enforceability of “overly-broad” patents of “dubious validity” may retard innovation. We take the Selden patent on the automobile as a classic of this type of patent. We review the evidence of commercial development during its term...... not support the broad construction of those claims. Ford’s and the Ford Motor Co.’s confidence in their understanding was powerfully illustrated by their Company’s public offer to indemnify purchasers of Ford automobiles against the threatened suits for infringement under the Selden patent. This and other...

  16. Contribution of Road Grade to the Energy Use of Modern Automobiles Across Large Datasets of Real-World Drive Cycles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the real-world power demand of modern automobiles is of critical importance to engineers using modeling and simulation to inform the intelligent design of increasingly efficient powertrains. Increased use of global positioning system (GPS) devices has made large scale data collection of vehicle speed (and associated power demand) a reality. While the availability of real-world GPS data has improved the industry's understanding of in-use vehicle power demand, relatively little attention has been paid to the incremental power requirements imposed by road grade. This analysis quantifies the incremental efficiency impacts of real-world road grade by appending high fidelity elevation profiles to GPS speed traces and performing a large simulation study. Employing a large real-world dataset from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Transportation Secure Data Center, vehicle powertrain simulations are performed with and without road grade under five vehicle models. Aggregate results of this study suggest that road grade could be responsible for 1% to 3% of fuel use in light-duty automobiles.

  17. 汽车零部件再制造坯料清洁工艺研究%Study on cleaning technology for automobile parts remanufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱明宇; 刘诗巍; 陈铭

    2011-01-01

    在废旧汽车零部件再制造过程中,清洁是极其重要的一道工序.传统的清洁方法成本高、效率低、劳动强度大,容易造成环境污染,不适应再制造的需要.针对再制造过程中新研发的5种机械式环保清洁设备从清洁效果、清洁效率与能耗、清洁成本三个方面进行了试验分析,形成了一套优化的清洁工艺流程,对汽车零部件再制造清洁实践具有重要的指导意义.%Cleaning is a very important process in remanufacturing of waste automobile parts. Traditional cleaning methods are not available for remanufacturing because of high cost ,low efficiency, heavy labor intensity and pollution of environment. Five new environmental and mechanical cleaning equipment which suit for remanufacturing are analyzed from cleaning effect, efficiency and energy consumption, cost through experiment in it, and a set of optimal process flow for cleaning is formed, which has important directive significance to the cleaning of waste automobile parts for remanufacturing.

  18. Application of thermoelectric generator for automobile. Application of thermoelectric generation technology using Seebeck effect; Jidosha haikinetsu hatsuden. Seebeck soshi wo mochiita netsuden hatsuden gijutsu no oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, K.; Kobayashi, M.; Kushibiki, K.; Furuya, K. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Study was made on energy saving by waste heat power generation for automobiles. In a waste heat generation system for automobiles, exhaust gas is converted into electric energy by a thermoelectric generator through an exhaust pipe and catalyst, and supplied to a battery or electric devices through a voltage control system. The thermoelectric generator is composed of a generating module using a Seebeck element, a heat sink and a radiator. Although an Si-Ge system Peltier element is poor in generation efficiency, it is rich in high-temperature reliability, durability and safety. However, the maximum generation efficiency of the system is as low as 5% in a normal temperature region of exhaust gas around 500degC, and further improvement of its performance is essential. For the thermoelectric module, junction of thermoelectric material and electrodes is one of the issues. Because of high- temperature use, superior solder capable of resisting the peak temperature of the system, and diffusion pressure welding and plasma flame coating techniques are necessary. At present, fuel saving of nearly 5% is possible. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  19. 41 CFR 301-10.453 - What is my liability for unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds? 301-10.453 Section 301-10.453 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Special Conveyances Rental Automobiles § 301-10.453 What is my liability for unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds?...

  20. Effects of Regional Automobile Maintenance Level on Automobile Marketing%区域汽车维修水平对汽车营销的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琳; 李剑

    2011-01-01

    Taking Shangluo as an example,automobile market and maintenance level in small town were investigated,and the relationship between automobile maintenance and marketing was studied.The results indicated that maintenance level was the key factor in the after service of automobile,which plays an important role in sales promotion.Several ways of enhancing maintenance level are proposed and the market would be expanded by meeting the consumers' after service demands.%以小型城镇商洛为例,实证考察汽车市场和维修水平,研究维修与营销之间的关系。研究发现,在竞争激烈的市场环境里,汽车维修水平是售后服务过程中的关键因素,对促进营销具有重要作用。最后找到几种提高维修水平的途径,通过满足消费者的售后服务需求寻求扩大市场。

  1. 中国废旧汽车逆向物流研究%The Study of Waste Automobile Reverse Logistics in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晗兵

    2011-01-01

    实施汽车逆向物流,不仅能使物流企业提高服务水平和运营效率,也能重新获得报废汽车及其零部件的使用价值,更是节约资源、保 护环境、实施可持续发展的重要措施.文章在分析了国内外废旧汽车逆向物流发展现状的基础上,指出我国废旧汽车逆向物流发展的制约因素 与不足,提出加快发展中国废旧汽车逆向物流的对策,为我国汽车逆向物流向着环保、经济方向健康发展提供理论支持.%Implementation of the auto reverse logistics, not only makes the logistics enterprises improve service levels and operational efficiency, also can regain the use value of scrap motor vehicles and parts, and is an important measure for resource conservation, environmental protection, and sustainable development. Based on the analysis of domestic and foreign reverses logistics development status of waste automobile, the article points out the restraining factors of development of reverse logistics of waste automobile in China. It also presents the countermeasure for dealing with accelerating our development of reverse logistics of waste automobile, and offers theoretical support for environmental protection and economic development of our own reverse logistics.

  2. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL; Papar, Riyaz [Hudson Technologies; Wright, Dr. Anthony [ALW Consulting

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  3. Procedure for the standardized measure of the detective quantum efficiency in digital mammography; Procedimiento para la medida estandarizada de la Eficiencia Cuantica de Deteccion en un mamografo digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Martin, G.; Garcia Castano, P.; Bermudez Luna, R.; Fernandez Bedoya, V.; Espana Lopez, M. L.; Miquelez Alonso, S.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a simple guide for determining the DQE, according to the CEI, in those having mammography flat panel detectors, and highlight the main difficulties that may be in the process of the standardized measurement.

  4. Modification of the standard enzymatic protocol to a cost-efficient format for mixed-linkage (1¿3, 1¿4)-¿-D-glucan measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The current enzymatic assay approach (AACC Method 32-23) for the measurement of mixed-linkage B-glucan in small grains was modified to a cost-efficient and high throughput format without compromising the accuracy of the results. Ten barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes used in the study re...

  5. Assesing advertising efficiency : does the internet play a role?

    OpenAIRE

    Pergelova, Albena; Prior Jiménez, Diego; Rialp Criado, Josep

    2009-01-01

    This research focuses on a major concern for marketers addressing the claims of inefficiency of the spending on advertising. We examine whether the Internet can help increase overall advertising efficiency. Using a sample from the Spanish automobile industry, we combine a nonparametric method - Data Envelopment Analysis - with recent important insights from statistics and econometrics studies, and we find that online advertising improves the efficiency levels and this effect is more pronounce...

  6. Correlations in between EAWS and OCRA Index concerning the repetitive loads of the upper limbs in automobile manufacturing industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavatelli, Ivan; Schaub, Karlheinz; Caragnano, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Upper limbs repetitive tasks are one of the main sources of risk for the workers of the manufacturing industries and the standards ISO 11228-3 and EN 1005-5 addressed this issue since 2007. EAWS (European Assembly Worksheet) is a 1st level ergonomic risk assessment method and it provides in its 4th section a score to measure the load level for the upper limbs based on a traffic light scheme. According to the relevant ISO/CEN standards, the OCRA Index is the preferred system to refer to in the evaluation of the biomechanical stress of hand-harm-shoulder system. This correlation study is based on a 45 workstations sample coming from the automobile manufacturing industry. According to the results, EAWS4 shows an excellent correlation with OCRA index (Spearman's rho correlation index 0.95). Being EAWS based on biometric statistical data distribution, its typical application is the process design phase, but adopting a conservative approach in the interpretation of EAWS4 score for risk mapping purposes, it provides an equivalent "reaction" pattern (countermeasures to be taken in the production phase) with respect of OCRA Index with an Odds Ratio ranging from 0.89 (OR-matched) to 1.00 (OR-conservative).

  7. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT–polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.A.; Van de Wiel, H.J.; Groen, W.A.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2011-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  8. Direct strain energy harvesting in automobile tires using piezoelectric PZT-polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Wiel, H.J. van de; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2012-01-01

    Direct piezoelectric strain energy harvesting can be used to power wireless autonomous sensors in environments where low frequency, high strains are present, such as in automobile tires during operation. However, these high strains place stringent demands on the materials with respect to mechanical

  9. Aging Workforce Management in the Automobile Industry : Defining the Concept and its Constituting Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streb, Christoph; Voelpel, Sven; Leibold, Marius

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study on the automobile industry aimed at developing a concept of aging workforce management by identifying and constructing its constituting elements. Through an in-depth research investigation, it answers the question of how the challenge of an

  10. Interior Noise Prediction of the Automobile Based on Hybrid FE-SEA Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Chen

    2011-01-01

    created using hybrid FE-SEA method. The modal density was calculated using analytical method and finite element method; the damping loss factors of the structural and acoustic cavity subsystems were also calculated with analytical method; the coupling loss factors between structure and structure, structure and acoustic cavity were both calculated. Four different kinds of excitations including road excitations, engine mount excitations, sound radiation excitations of the engine, and wind excitations are exerted on the body of automobile when the automobile is running on the road. All the excitations were calculated using virtual prototype technology, computational fluid dynamics (CFD, and experiments realized in the design and development stage. The interior noise of the automobile was predicted and verified at speed of 120 km/h. The predicted and tested overall SPLs of the interior noise were 73.79 and 74.44 dB(A respectively. The comparison results also show that the prediction precision is satisfied, and the effectiveness and reliability of the hybrid FE-SEA model of the automobile is verified.

  11. [Application of near infrared sensor to the technology of automobile transformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song-de; Han, Yun-xia; Zhu, Xiao-long; Yang, Jie-hui

    2005-07-01

    Using reflective near infrared sensor and voice record-reproducing assembly, the present article studies the voice anticollision-prompting device for backing an automobile. If there is a man or an object within a certain distance behind the backing automobile, part of the infrared signal will be reflected by the man or the object, and received by the photosensitive tube installed with a transmitting tube, and transformed to a similar frequency electric signal. The electric signal will be amplified, demodulated, and shaped by the circuit of module. After comparing and processing, the control signal will be output, which controls the work of voice record-reproducing assembly, and reminds the driver that there is a man or an object behind the backing automobile. With both the near infrared sensor and voice record-reproducing assembly being integrated, the distance-warning device has the advantages of low costs, simple wiring, strong anti-detonation ability, precise measuring, and working stability. It is suitable for being installed and used on the automobile.

  12. Projections of automobile ownership and use based on household lifestyle factors. [To year 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, D.P.

    1979-03-01

    This report projects to the year 2025 the total number of automobiles that would be owned by American households, (total ownership) and the total number of miles that these vehicles would be driven per day (total use) given certain assumptions about the future of U.S. society. These assumptions relate to demographic, economic, and geographical attrributes of U.S. society that are relevant to the automobile. The impacts of these assumptions were analyzed via a set of projection models which explicitly recognize the relationship between these particular attributes of society and the automobile. Part I presents an overivew of the research and Part II the results. The methodology used to generate the projections is discussed in some detail in Part III. In a base case projection the number of automobiles and average daily travel of Americans double by 2025 due to increases in populaion, headship rates (households per population), and incomes. economic variables account for about half of this increase as indicated by a no economic growth projection in which ownership and daily travel increase just over 40% and 50%, respectively. Other projections explore the effects of differing assumptions regarding rates of household formations, population growth, and income growth. Model projections suggest that changed work schedules and the re-emergence of cities as growth areas will have only slight impacts on future travel and vehicle ownership.

  13. Projections of automobile, light truck, and bus stocks and sales, to the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorr, R.; Millar, M.

    1979-11-01

    Future stocks and sales of automobiles, light trucks, and buses are projected in this document. Automobile projections are developed for fleet and non-fleet sectors. Total auto stock is projected as a function of the number of households and of personal income, with adjustment for present and anticipated shifts from automobiles to light trucks. Automobile stocks and sales are projected to increase steadily through the year 2000 with a slightly larger growth rate associated with fleet autos. Projections of light-truck stocks and sales are developed for personal, service/utility, agriculture, manufacturing, government, wholesale/retail, and other uses based on anticipated employment and output for each of the use sectors. Projections anticipate the largest growth area to be that of personal light trucks. Bus stocks and sales are projected as a function of user populations, existing fleet characteristics, and anticipated usage patterns. School, intercity, and transit buses are included in the study. School buses are projected to have the largest percentage of growth in this sector.

  14. Abnormal Noise Source Identification and Control for Automobile Transmission in the Neutral Idle Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the abnormal noise of a domestically-made automobile transmission in the neutral idle condition, seriously affecting the vehicle market competitiveness and the riding comfort ability for customers, the objective of this study to reduce the noise and vibration of the automobile transmission by accurately identifying the noise source of the transmission in the neutral idle condition. For this purpose, based on the working characteristics of the transmission, modal analysis of automobile transmission housing is formulated using 3D graphics software Pro/E together with Finite Element Method. In addition, the calculation of meshing frequency of gear pair is conducted also. Finally, through comparing model analysis results to the calculation results, it is indicated that the gear meshing impact noise of the third gear pair was identified as the noise resource of the automobile transmission in neutral idle condition, which will provide the theoretic basis to analyze its dynamic characteristics of the transmission as well as its improvement to reduce vibration and noise.

  15. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, D T [ed.

    1979-03-01

    A detailed design of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has been developed. The gravimetric and volumetric storage densities are competitive with electric battery storage systems. The TES/Stirling engine system meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle and can be packaged in compact-sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept developed in this study is also useful for a dual-mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short-duration trips (approx. 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried onboard the vehicle used for long-duration trips (as in current automobiles). The dual-mode approach permits an automobile with the convenience and flexibility of current automobiles while offering the potential of 50% savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States. Relative to the TES-only vehicle, the dual mode approach also reduces the TES cost significantly because of the much smaller TES capacity required.

  16. Separating Moral Hazard from Adverse Selection in Automobile Insurance : Longitudinal Evidence from France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dionne, G.; Michaud, P.C.; Dahchour, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses longitudinal data to perform tests of asymmetric information in the French automobile insurance market for the 1995-1997 period.This market is characterized by the presence of a regulated experience-rating scheme (bonusmalus).We demonstrate that the result of the test depends crucial

  17. 75 FR 72965 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... posted on the Internet at http://www.gsa.gov/ftr . This amendment also revises the reimbursement amount... (TDY) and choose to use their privately owned automobile (POA) instead; updates the definition of... periodically published in FTR Bulletins; updates the definition of ``official station''; clarifies what...

  18. The Relationship of Academic Courses to Skills Required of Automobile Repair Technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective was to show the important need of academic skills, specifically general education coursework, to the effectiveness of the technician's expertise in the field of automobile repair. Additionally, I emphasized that one of the keys to the quality of the technician's education is the method of instruction analyzed…

  19. Consumers' Perceived Quality, Perceived Value and Perceived Risk Towards Purchase Decision on Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As the level of competition keep on increasing in Malaysia automobile market, it is essential for every automobile producer companies to understand customer insight in order to further increase their share of wallet. Thus, they need to understand what factors might influence their customers’ decision in purchasing an automobile. Therefore, the objectives of this research is to study the relationships of perceived quality, perceived value and perceived risk that will affect on Malaysia consumer purchase decision towards cars. Approach: Survey using convenience sampling was done at Klang Valley to customers’ age between 23-65 years old and above. Questionnaires were distributed to 200 respondents at the sampling location. Results: All the 200 sets of data were reliable where Cronbach’s alpha is more than 0.6. Pearson correlation also showed the strength of the relationship between those variables and normality assumption was meet. Results from multiple regression analysis showed the positive association between the three factors mentioned previously with purchase decision. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results from this research provide a platform for Malaysia automobile makers to understand consumer behavior and how it affects their purchase decision. In order to ensure that the findings of sample are representative and conclusive, future research should be include with larger number of respondents.

  20. Employability and Technical Skill Required to Establish a Small Scale Automobile Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaitan, Olawale O.; Ikeh, Joshua O.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on identifying the employability and technical skills needed to establish small-scale automobile workshop in Nsukka Urban of Enugu State. Five purposes of the study were stated to guide the study. Five research questions were stated and answered in line with the purpose of the study. The population for the study is 1,500…

  1. The impact of fixed and variable cost on automobile demand: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2015-01-01

    and derive an expression for the full willingness to pay for characteristics that takes into account the impact on fixed as well as variable costs. We apply the model to the demand for automobiles using rich Danish register data. Estimation reveals considerable heterogeneity and a non-negligible contribution...

  2. The Relationship of Academic Courses to Skills Required of Automobile Repair Technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective was to show the important need of academic skills, specifically general education coursework, to the effectiveness of the technician's expertise in the field of automobile repair. Additionally, I emphasized that one of the keys to the quality of the technician's education is the method of instruction analyzed through…

  3. Automobile diesel exhaust particles induce lipid droplet formation in macrophages in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Jantzen, Kim; Gouveia, Ana Cecilia Damiao

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, which may be related to dysregulation of lipid metabolism and formation of macrophage foam cells. In this study, THP-1 derived macrophages were exposed to an automobile generated DEP (A...

  4. Mind the Gap: The Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; author), L. Schipper (main; Price, L.

    1993-01-01

    of OECD countries. We comment briefly on the impact of these gaps on econometric estimates of the price and income elasticities of automobile fuel use. We show that improper use of the circularity often leads to gross errors in estimating fuel intensity and other indicators of energy use for personal...

  5. Fault Diagnosis of Automobile Crane Power Steering System Aided by ICP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate an innovative application of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES on the fault diagnosis of automobile crane hydraulic power steering (HPS system. Contents of Fe, Cu and Al were examined by ICP-AES in the oil samples of HPS system for four different mileages of Puyuan QY50H. The mileages were 2000-9000 km, 11000-19000 km, 21000-28000 km and 32000-40000 km separately. Database of major mental contents in automobile crane HPS system of Puyuan QY50H with different mileage were calibrated. Results showed that, major mental contents were increased with the increasing of driving mileage and the normal contents laid between two trend lines. Through the determination of mental contents in HPS oil sample and further compared them with the values in their database, we could not only evaluate the wear condition of automobile crane HPS system, but also helped to diagnose the faults without dissembled the problematic vehicle. The results further indicated that, in time maintenance, high quality and low cost reparation could be realized by the application of ICP-AES technology on fault diagnosis of automobile crane power steering system.

  6. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  7. 汽车覆盖件模具切削物理数据库研究%Research on Physical Database of Automobile Panel Die Cutting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雪峰; 冯高成

    2016-01-01

    近年来我国汽车制造业的迅速发展,导致汽车覆盖件模具需求很大.目前,很多发达国家学者进行了金属切削数据库的开发和研究,然而我国针对于汽车覆盖件模具切削加工的先进切削数据库系统比较少.本文以汽车覆盖件模具切削为研究对象,通过研究模具加工中的基础切削问题与基本加工工艺,以服务的角度出发,采用大数据、云计算技术建立汽车用淬硬钢模具切削基础数据库云平台,挖掘机床性能、加工工艺、刀具选择与加工质量的基本关系,提供标准模具工艺查询、工艺参数优化、刀具优选等服务,为智能机床装备的使用提供基础数据支持.%In recent years,the rapid development of Chinese automobile manufacturing industry causes great needs of automobile cover die. At present,many developed country scholars have conducted the research and development of metal cutting database,however,there are less advanced die machining cutting database sys-tem for automobile panel die cutting in our country. Aiming at automobile panel die cutting,automotive hard-ened die steel cutting cloud database platform is established through the study of basic cutting problem and the basic processing technology of die processing by big data and cloud computing technology. According to the service starting,the basic relationship between the performance of the machine tool is studied,and machining process and tool selection with processing quality,services of standard die technology query and optimization of process parameters and tool selection are provided to offer basic data support for the use of intelligent machine tool equipment.

  8. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  9. CORRECTION OF ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION OF MICROCIRCULATION DISTURBANCE, BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS, STANDARDS OF EFFICIENCY, AUTONOMIC AND PSYCHO-EMOTIONAL STATUS IN YOUNG ATHLETES WITH APIFITOPRODUKTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of endothelium of microcirculation vessels, vegetative and psychoemotional status, lipid spectrum and physical efficiency in 43 young sportsmen are corrected with the aid of Tentorium api-phyto products (APP.The following tests were conducted: samples of reactive hyperemia and hyperventilation, ultrasound investigation of brachial artery, determination of performance efficiency, total cholesterin, triglycerides, cortisol, red cells, vegetative and psychoemotional status by the Spielberger’s test and SAN test, as well as biomicroscopy of sclera. To relief the psychophysical stress, improve the endothelium function and performance efficiency, the sportsmen received APP as a food additive.After the reception of APP, the lipid and cortisol levels decreased markedly, and the level of red cells increased. The aerobic capacity increased. The recovery time after exercise shortened. The vegetative stress level decreased significantly, and the psychoemotional status improved. The endothelium dysfunction removed.It is shown that APP is a new method of prophylaxis of sudden death in sport, in people with blood circulation pathology, creative professionals, and businessmen.

  10. Evaluation of nephrotoxic effect of lead exposure among automobile repairers in Nnewi Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubuo K. Amah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead toxicity is one of the most common occupational hazards that affect several organs of the body, kidney inclusive. Auto repairers are exposed to lead in petrol, radiator, leaded battery, lead soldering wire, and spray paints, thus this study was designed to evaluate lead-induced nephrotoxic effect among automobile repairers. Methods: A total of 80 male subjects within the age range of 20 and 65 years were recruited for this study. 50 subjects were occupationally exposed automobile repairers, of which 15 were electricians, 21 mechanics and 14 panel beaters/spray painters, whereas 30 were non-exposed students and staff from Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi campus. Blood sample was collected from these individuals and their blood lead levels were determined alongside creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate. Results: The results showed that the mean levels of blood lead is significantly higher in automobile repairers than in control group (P 0.05. The evaluation of the renal function markers show that, there were significant increases in the mean serum concentration of creatinine, urea, and uric acid in the study group compare to the control subjects (P 0.05. Conclusion: Findings from this study show that blood lead level is high among automobile repairers above CDC recommended level for adults. This high blood lead level among automobile repairers may be responsible for raised levels of renal markers which may eventually lead to their renal damage. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1107-1111

  11. Estimation of Up-Wash Distribution Around an Automobile by Three-Dimensional Smoke Wind Tunnel Test

    OpenAIRE

    Hozumi, Koki; 穂積, 弘毅

    1986-01-01

    In an aerodynamic experiment with a hang glider wing mounted on a running automobile, it is necessasry to correct the effects of the up-wash flow field induced by the automobile itself since they significantly deteriorate the measurement accuracy. Streamlines around an automobile model were observed in a three-dimensional smoke wind tunnel. The up-wash distribution was estimated from the shape of the streamlines. The measured up-wash distribution was found to be well approximated by that of a...

  12. 78 FR 77019 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AD08 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer... the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA or ``the Act'') (42 U.S.C. 6291-6309, as codified), which provides for an energy conservation program for consumer products other than automobiles, and...

  13. The Sport-Utility Vehicle: Debating Fuel-Economy Standards in Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a debate about national fuel-economy standards for sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) used as a foundation for exploring a public policy issue in the physical science classroom. The subject of automobile fuel economy benefits from a familiarity with thermodynamics, specifically heat engines, and is therefore applicable to a broad…

  14. 基于NX的汽车标准件库的研究与实现%Research and Realization of Automotive Standard-part Library based on NX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈诚

    2012-01-01

      Building the common parts library based on the CAD platform is very helpful to improving the efficiency and quality of the product design. The method of modeling based on NX NX2.0 platform is introduced. And the method and pro-cedure of developing automobile standard parts library with the secondary development are detailed.%  基于CAD平台建立常用的零部件库,有助于提高产品的设计效率和质量.文章介绍了零件模板的创建过程,详细说明了以NX2.0为平台,利用二次开发技术开发汽车标准件库的方法和步骤.

  15. 衡量高效课堂的主要标准%Talk to Measure Efficiently the Main Standard of Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜艳

    2014-01-01

    Efficiently the classroom points the teaching task that models to settle in the limited time comb,this will beg a teacher to with meticulous care design classroom teaching to stir up a student of shallow ability,make student from passive and negative study change is on his/her own initiative aggressive study,actively participate in classroom.%高效课堂指在有限的时间内完成指定的教学任务,这就要求教师精心设计课堂教学激发学生的潜能,使学生由被动、消极的学习转变为主动积极的学习,积极参与到课堂中来。

  16. Parc automobile et effet de serre. Agir sur le parc automobile pour réduire l’effet de serre

    OpenAIRE

    Cauret, Lionel; Crozet, Yves; Darbéra, Richard; Faudry, Daniel; Golovtchenko, Nicolas; MIRABEL François; Nicolas, Jean-Pierre; Simon, Benoît; Zélem, Marie-Christine

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Cette étude traite des conditions du renouvellement du parc automobile afin de mieux maîtriser l'impact sur l'effet de serre. Quels sont les critères d'achat et les conditions d'utilisation des véhicules ? Quelles politiques publiques peuvent orienter le choix des consommateurs et l'offre des constructeurs vers des véhicules moins polluants ? Divers instruments de politiques publiques sont analysés.

  17. 基于KPI的某汽车整车厂生产物流绩效评价体系的构建%Construction of Performance Evaluating System for Automobile Plant Based on KPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖燕; 周康渠; 贾秋红

    2012-01-01

    绩效考核作为汽车企业生产物流管理的一个重要手段,有着重要的导向作用,而汽车企业各阶层KPI指标的制定是一项复杂的系统工程.基于汽车整车厂以降低成本,提高效率为目标,提出绩效管理必须以顾客满意为导向、向社会提供产品和服务,并以此来为企业创造利润的关键绩效管理思想.主要从价值链的角度出发,根据“SMART”指导原则,通过SQDCME等KPI绩效指标对某汽车整车厂内部生产物流进行科学合理的评价与考核,从而有效提升企业的整体经营管理水平.%Performance evaluating is one of the important means for the production logistics management of automobile enterprises, and it has an important guiding rule.But the KPI indexes established at all levels is a complex systems engineering towards automobile enterprises.Because the target of automobile enterprises is to reduce cost and improve efficiency,the performance management must take customer satisfaction as the guidance and provide production and service, so the key performance management thinking is proposed here.From the view of value chain,according to the "SMART"guiding principle and the KPI performance index,such as SQDCME,the internal production logistics of some automobile enterprise are evaluated and appraised scientifically,which will promote the overall management effectively of enterprise.

  18. A Survey on Key Technologies for Carbon Fiber-reinforced Plastics with Applications to Automobile Lightening%面向汽车轻量化应用的碳纤维复合材料关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋燕利; 杨龙; 郭巍; 华林

    2016-01-01

    轻量化技术已成为汽车实现节能、减排的重要途径,碳纤维复合材料为汽车轻量化提供了重要材料基础。由于材料特性与制造工艺的特殊性与复杂性,采用碳纤维复合材料实现汽车轻量化时需要克服多项关键技术。结合汽车产品特点,从低成本碳纤维技术、材料-结构-性能一体化技术、高效成型技术、多材料连接技术、循环利用技术几个方面阐述了碳纤维复合材料在汽车轻量化应用中的关键技术,展望了未来汽车用碳纤维复合材料的发展趋势。%Lightweight has become an important way to achieve energy saving and emission reduction for auto-mobile and carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP)has provided a significant material foundation for automobile ligh-tening.Due to particularity and complexity of material properties and manufacturing processes,the application of CFRP to vehicle lightening still faces several crucial technological challenges.In this paper,the key technologies aimed at these issues,including low cost carbon fiber,structure-function integration,highly efficient molding,multi-mate-rial connection,and recycling,are analyzed and summarized combining with the automobile features.The future de-velopment prospect of CFRP for automobile application is also put forward.

  19. 快递服务国家标准执行中的法律效力与经济效率的博弈%Game of Legal Force and Economic Efficiency in Executing Express Service National Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高慧云

    2012-01-01

    指出了快递企业在内件验视、快件代收、收件人验收等问题上的矛盾,分析了执行国家标准与考虑经济效率之间的博弈问题,认为两者之间是长远统一的,提出了快递公司兼顾经济效率与法律效力的解决方案.%In this paper, we pointed out the problems experienced by express enterprises in the inspection, collection and acceptance of packages, analyzed the game between economic efficiency and the execution of national standards, and, holding that there existed long-term unification between the two, proposed solutions for express enterprises to take into account both legal force and economic efficiency.

  20. Discussion on Standards and Efficiency of Payment for Ecosystem Services in the Songhuaba Watershed%松华坝流域生态补偿标准和效率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云驹; 许建初; 潘剑君

    2011-01-01

    Determination of payment for ecosystem services (PES) standards and assessment of PES efficiency have received much attention and are key topics for implementation of PES, which often directly affect the fairness and effectiveness of PES. A case study was carried out to investigate PES mechanisms in the Songhuaba watershed, a vital part of Dianchi (the largest freshwater lake in Yunnan Province). The Songhuaba watershed is one of the major water sources for urban water supply in Kunming City, providing water for three million people living in the city and accounting for approximately half of the total water supply for Kunming. However, as society and economy develop and population increases, water eutrophication has become increasingly serious in the Songhuaba watershed. A marked degradation in water quality has threatened the safety of drinking water and thus influenced sustainable development of Kunming. In this study, different methods of calculating payment standards were analyzed and assessed using data from household questionnaire surveys. Furthermore, payment standards, ecosystem service functions, and efficiency of different PES practices in this watershed were examined. Results show that payment standards calculated using ecosystem service values (26 900Yuan/hm2) can be used as the upper limit in PES. Nevertheless, these standards calculated merely by opportunity cost were highly variable under the influence of market demanding and thus should be used with caution as a reference standard. On the other hand, data obtained through questionnaire investigations into the willingness of PES (12 800Yuan/hm2) could serve as a reliable reference for determination of standards for PES. A combination of these two methods could therefore be useful to make a better decision on determination of PES standards. Different PES practices have different efficiency. Amongst the proposed PES practices, adjustment of industry structure has the highest efficiency

  1. Who are our neighbours? personal automobile choice, climate change and ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, P.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Environment and Resource Studies

    2000-06-01

    This paper discussed the role that religious institutions have in delivering the message of personal responsibility in the matter of climate change. Private automobiles are large contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in North American, where choice and operation of the personal automobile is entirely within personal discretion. It appears that economic and enlightened self-interest arguments are inadequate to motivate behavioural changes that would reduce individual GHG emissions. The author suggested that we need to expand our understanding of neighbourhood to the globe and that since most North Americans admit to religious sentiment, the religious principle of love for neighbour should be a strong motivation for people to make changes in lifestyle such as choosing to drive smaller cars, to drive less and at lower speeds. 31 refs.

  2. Research on Integrated Casting and Forging Process of Aluminum Automobile Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrated casting and forging process (ICFP is a new manufacturing method combining the advantages of both casting and forging. Aluminum structure parts, such as aluminum alloy automobile wheel, with complex shape and excellent mechanical properties can be produced by this process. The effects of different process parameters on the ICFP of the automobile wheel were simulated by Forge software. Microstructure of forging region and the nonforging region were studied by experiment. The results show that die temperature, static pressure of the injection piston, forging speed, and material flow have significant influences on the process. Compared with nonforging region, the microstructure of forging region becomes finer, more uniform, and denser. Meanwhile, the casting defects can be removed and mechanical properties improved.

  3. Integration of Bass Enhancement and Active Noise Control System in Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of digital signal processing technologies, consumers are more concerned with the quality of multimedia entertainment in automobiles. In order to meet this demand, an audio enhancement system is needed to improve bass reproduction and cancel engine noise in the cabins. This paper presents an integrated active noise control system that is based on frequency-sampling filters to track and extract the bass information from the audio signal, and a multifrequency active noise equalizer to tune the low-frequency engine harmonics to enhance the bass reproduction. In the noise cancellation mode, a maximum of 3 dB bass enhancement can be achieved with significant noise suppression, while higher bass enhancement can be achieved in the bass enhance mode. The results show that the proposed system is effective for solving both the bass audio reproduction and the noise control problems in automobile cabins.

  4. The competitive strategies of the automobile construction enterprises: european experience and ukrainian realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhrimenko Oksana Onufriivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a comparative evaluation of the strategic doctrines of Ukraine and the EU. On the basis of the development of the automotive industry trends tracked achievement and identifies problem areas. Factors that have a positive and a negative impact on the performance of automobile construction companies have disclosed. Components of success automobile construction industry of the EU countries analyzed. The role of national regulators in the protection and development of car manufacturers is considered. The attention focuses on the imperfect strategic goals of the domestic automotive industry. Suggestions on current strategies of Ukrainian enterprises are provided. The expediency of creation strategic alliances between Ukrainian and European automotive companies in order to attract innovative technology and promotion of products on the international markets has substantiated.

  5. Gear Meshing Transmission Analysis of the Automobile Gearbox Based on the Software MASTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As the main drive components of the automobile manual gearbox, the effect of gear meshing plays an important role on transmission performance. Aiming at the existing problems of the traditional gear meshing analysis, the study take a five-speed gearbox as an example, based on the MASTA software, a professional CAE software for simulating and analyzing the gearbox, to accomplish the gear mesh analysis of the automobile gearbox. Further more, the simulation modeling of the gearbox is built to simulate the actual load conditions and complete the process of analysis for the gear. It is indicated that a new design concept is put forward, that is, using specialized software MASTA for transmission modeling and simulation analysis can heavily improve the design level of the gearbox, reduce the test times and shorten the period of research and development as well. Finally, it can provide references for the development and application of new transmission gear.

  6. Advice of the Italian CCTN on the health risk assessment relative to exposure to automobile emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camoni, I. [ed.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata; Mucci, N. [ed.] [ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy). Dip. di Medicina del Lavoro; Foa`, V. [ed.] [Milan Univ. (Italy). Clinica del lavoro Luigi Devoto

    1998-06-01

    The period 1990-1995 are reported, they concern the health impact of exposure to benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), resulting from automobile exhaust products, for Italian general and occupationally exposed populations. The first recommendation takes into consideration the possible long-term effects of the unleaded gasoline, recently introduced in Italy. The latter two recommendations concern the quantitative evaluation of the risk of leukaemia and of the risk of lung cancer from exposure to benzene and PAHs, resulting from automobile exhaust. [Italiano] Sono riportati i pareri espressi dalla Commissione Consultiva Tossicologica Nazionale (CCTN) nel periodo 1990-1995 riguardanti la valutazione del rischio cancerogeno per esposizione a sostanze contenute nelle emissioni autoveicolari. In particolare, viene stimato il rischio aggiuntivo di leucemia per esposizione a benzene e di cancro polmonare per esposizione a idrocarburi policiclici aromatici (IPA), sia per la popolazione generale che per quella professionalmente esposta.

  7. The Research of Scrapped Automobiles Recycling and Disassembling Industry Development Based on Auto Industry Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    linhua Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of China’s scrapped car is on an explosively growing trend, and the development of scrapped car recycling industry has a golden prospect. The current scrapped car recycling system is not perfect in our country, because related industries driven by market develop slowly, and there are some outstanding problems such as potential safety risks, environmental pollution and resource waste. The paper analyzes and studies the existing problems and countermeasures to investigate the development strategy of scrapped car recycling industry according to the whole automobile industry chain construction, technology and equipment conditions, policy guidance, etc. and at last explore the new industrial development pattern of serving automobile reverse design.

  8. Visible-infrared achromatic imaging by wavefront coding with wide-angle automobile camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Mitsuhiko; Sakita, Koichi; Shimano, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Takashi; Shibasaki, Susumu

    2016-09-01

    We perform an experiment of achromatic imaging with wavefront coding (WFC) using a wide-angle automobile lens. Our original annular phase mask for WFC was inserted to the lens, for which the difference between the focal positions at 400 nm and at 950 nm is 0.10 mm. We acquired images of objects using a WFC camera with this lens under the conditions of visible and infrared light. As a result, the effect of the removal of the chromatic aberration of the WFC system was successfully determined. Moreover, we fabricated a demonstration set assuming the use of a night vision camera in an automobile and showed the effect of the WFC system.

  9. The Swiss automobile industry - Situation, structure, trends, challenges and chances; Automobilindustrie Schweiz. Branchenanalyse 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, A.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic takes a look at the situation of the Swiss automobile industry in 2008. The results of the study are presented and include figures on the automobile industry, its history, structure, turn-over, employment and its position from the international point of view. Research and development in the sector, investments and challenges faced are discussed. The products and services offered are looked at and the relevant strategies examined. The sector's competitive environment and possibilities for growth are looked at and the advantages offered by strategic partnerships and geographical location are noted. Finally, interviews with important actors in the business are presented.

  10. Effect of cabin ventilation rate on ultrafine particle exposure inside automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbs, Luke D; de Dear, Richard J; Morawska, Lidia

    2010-05-01

    We alternately measured on-road and in-vehicle ultrafine (automobiles and ventilation settings, a positive linear relationship was found between outdoor air flow rate and I/O ratio, with the former accounting for a substantial proportion of variation in the latter (R(2) = 0.81). UFP concentrations recorded in-cabin during tunnel travel were significantly higher than those reported by comparable studies performed on open roadways. A simple mathematical model afforded the ability to predict tunnel trip average in-cabin UFP concentrations with good accuracy. Our data indicate that under certain conditions, in-cabin UFP exposures incurred during tunnel travel may contribute significantly to daily exposure. The UFP exposure of automobile occupants appears strongly related to their choice of ventilation setting and vehicle.

  11. Measurement of BSR noise of cockpit module materials for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, C.; Park, H.

    2016-04-01

    Today, the interior noise perceived by occupants is becoming an important factor driving design standards for the design of most of interior assemblies in an automotive vehicles. BSR(Buzz, Squeak and Rattle) is a major contributor towards the perceived noise of annoyance to vehicle occupants. One method of minimizing the possibility of squeak and rattle is by making use of the judicious selection of mating materials pairs. In this paper, the BSR test system was designed and built. Also described is a test instrument that has been developed for such material pair compatibility studies.

  12. Global Production Sharing and FDI-Trade Nexus: New Evidence from the Japanese Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Shuhei Nishitateno

    2012-01-01

    The growing importance of global production sharing makes the analysis of the nexus between outward foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade in intermediate goods ever more important. This study examines the substitution hypothesis that FDI by upstream firms replaces intermediate exports from home, using the case of the Japanese automobile industry. In analysing newly-constructed product-level data covering 37 products and 49 host countries over the period 1999 to 2008, this study finds a co...

  13. Consumer protection issues in energy: a guide for attorneys general. Insulation, solar, automobile device, home devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Harry I.; Hulse, William S.; Jones, Robert R.; Langer, Robert M.; Petrucelli, Paul J.; Schroeder, Robert J.

    1979-11-01

    The guide attempts to bring together two important and current issues: energy and consumer protection. Perhaps the most basic consumer-protection issue in the energy area is assuring adequate supplies at adequate prices. It is anticipated, though, that consumers will want to consider new ways to lower enegy consumption and cost, and will thus be susceptible to fraudulent energy claims. Information is prepared on insulation, solar, energy-saving devices for the home, and energy-saving devices for the automobile.

  14. Improving automobile insurance ratemaking using telematics : incorporating mileage and driver behaviour data

    OpenAIRE

    Ayuso, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    We show how data collected from a GPS device can be incorporated in motor insurance ratemaking. The calculation of premium rates based upon driver behaviour represents an opportunity for the insurance sector. Our approach is based on count data regression models for frequency, where exposure is driven by the distance travelled and additional parameters that capture characteristics of automobile usage and which may affect claiming behaviour. We propose implementing a classical frequency model ...

  15. Analysis of Laser Surface Hardened Layers of Automobile Engine Cylinder Liner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiu-bo; YU Gang; GUO Jian; SHANG Quan-yi; ZHANG Zhen-guo; GU Yi-jie

    2007-01-01

    Gray cast iron that is used for automobile engine cylinder liners was laser surface hardened using Nd∶YAG quasi-continuous and CO2 continuous wave laser, respectively. The macromorphology and microstructure of the laser surface hardened layers were investigated using an optical microscope. Geometric dimensions including depth and width and microhardness distribution of the hardened layers were also examined in order to evaluate the quality of the hardened layers.

  16. 汽车逆向物流网络规划%Automobile Reverse Logistics Network Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄莉

    2016-01-01

    With the development of social economy,all walks of life are path of informatization,automobile reverse logistics,to the road network development.One is with the integer linear programming to construct network hybrid model of automobile reverse logistics,secondly,the design of the automobile reverse logistics network optimization model of heuristic algorithm based on genetic algorithm,three is to validate the network algorithm is effective,and it is implemented by an example. In this paper,from the problems existing in the automobile reverse logistics based on hypothesis model analysis,in view of the enterprise reverse logistics network planning problem put forward constructive methods,in order to in the future the same study can play a reference role.%随着社会经济的发展,各行各业都走向信息化道路,汽车逆向物流也是如此,走向了网络发展之路。一是用整数线性规划构建汽车逆向物流的网络混合的模型,二是设计了汽车逆向物流网络优化模型的启发式算法—基于遗传算法,三是验证网络算法是否有效,这一点是通过算例来实现的。文中从汽车逆向物流存在的问题基础上进行假设模型分析,针对企业逆向物流网络规划问题提出建设性的方法,以期在今后的同等研究中能够起到借鉴作用。

  17. Leaking Methane from Natural Gas Vehicles: Implications for US Greenhouse Gas Reductions from the Automobile Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Victor, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    A model of the US automobile market is used to test the role that natural gas vehicles (NGVs) might play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Since natural gas (methane) emits less CO2 per unit of energy than petroleum products, NGVs are an obvious pathway to lower CO2 emissions. High and low demand scenarios are used to forecast the emissions from unrestricted growth and a modest program of conservation, respectively. Based on these scenarios, a reference scenario is developed that projects...

  18. [Environmental pollution by products of wear and tear automobile-road complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanchuk, A V

    2014-01-01

    North-West State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, 191015. There is supposed the method for the assessment of amounts of pollutants released into the environment during the operational wear of tyre treads, brake system of cars and the road pavement. There are presented results of chemical analysis of residues of combustion. The necessity of control of products of work wear of automobile-road complex has been substantiated.

  19. Consumer’s acceptance of new technology: A netnographic study on self-driving automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Pishchenko, Vitalina; Myriounis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    A problem of non-acceptance of new information technologies becomes a predominant obstacle that results in companies’ losses and represents an arena of avid debate for researchers. Hereof this netnographic study explores changes in the individual beliefs that contribute to new information system acceptance such as autopilot in the light of the Technology Acceptance model (TAM). The research takes place within three automobile communities related to Tesla Motors and uses content analysis for i...

  20. Quality initiatives: lean approach to improving performance and efficiency in a radiology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruskal, Jonathan B; Reedy, Allen; Pascal, Laurie; Rosen, Max P; Boiselle, Phillip M

    2012-01-01

    Many hospital radiology departments are adopting "lean" methods developed in automobile manufacturing to improve operational efficiency, eliminate waste, and optimize the value of their services. The lean approach, which emphasizes process analysis, has particular relevance to radiology departments, which depend on a smooth flow of patients and uninterrupted equipment function for efficient operation. However, the application of lean methods to isolated problems is not likely to improve overall efficiency or to produce a sustained improvement. Instead, the authors recommend a gradual but continuous and comprehensive "lean transformation" of work philosophy and workplace culture. Fundamental principles that must consistently be put into action to achieve such a transformation include equal involvement of and equal respect for all staff members, elimination of waste, standardization of work processes, improvement of flow in all processes, use of visual cues to communicate and inform, and use of specific tools to perform targeted data collection and analysis and to implement and guide change. Many categories of lean tools are available to facilitate these tasks: value stream mapping for visualizing the current state of a process and identifying activities that add no value; root cause analysis for determining the fundamental cause of a problem; team charters for planning, guiding, and communicating about change in a specific process; management dashboards for monitoring real-time developments; and a balanced scorecard for strategic oversight and planning in the areas of finance, customer service, internal operations, and staff development.

  1. Managing bottlenecks in manual automobile assembly systems using discrete event simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa, M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Batch model lines are quite handy when the demand for each product is moderate. However, they are characterised by high work-in-progress inventories, lost production time when changing over models, and reduced flexibility when it comes to altering production rates as product demand changes. On the other hand, mixed model lines can offer reduced work-in-progress inventory and increased flexibility. The object of this paper is to illustrate that a manual automobile assembling system can be optimised through managing bottlenecks by ensuring high workstation utilisation, reducing queue lengths before stations and reducing station downtime. A case study from the automobile industry is used for data collection. A model is developed through the use of simulation software. The model is then verified and validated before a detailed bottleneck analysis is conducted. An operational strategy is then proposed for optimal bottleneck management. Although the paper focuses on improving automobile assembly systems in batch mode, the methodology can also be applied in single model manual and automated production lines.

  2. An investigation of thermal comfort inside an automobile during the heating period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaynakli, Omer; Kilic, Muhsin [Uludag Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Bursa (Turkey)

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes a combined theoretical and experimental study of thermal comfort during the heating period inside an automobile. To investigate the effects of thermal conditions on the human physiology and thermal comfort during the heating period, temperature, humidity and air velocity were measured at a number of points inside the automobile, so thermal conditions were accurately determined. The human body was divided into 16 sedentary segments, and the change of temperature was observed both experimentally and theoretically. During transient conditions of the heating period, heat and mass transfer between the human body and the interior environment of an automobile were simulated by a computational model, and predictions were compared with the measured data. It is shown that there is a good agreement between the model predictions and experimental results. By means of the present model, the effects of the fast transient conditions of the heating period on the sensible and latent heat transfer from the body, body segments skin temperatures and thermal sensation were investigated in detail. (Author)

  3. Exposure to hazardous volatile pollutants back diffusing from automobile exhaust systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahmudur; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2012-11-30

    As back diffusion gases from automobiles are significant sources of in-vehicular pollution, we investigated eight automobiles, five for back diffusion (driving) measurements and three for reference conditions (non-driving). To characterize the back diffusion emission conditions, seven volatile organic compounds (VOC) and four carbonyl compounds (CCs) were measured along with dilution-to-threshold (D/T) ratio. The data obtained from back diffusion measurements were examined after having been divided into three subcategories: (i) driving and non-driving, (ii) with and without automobile upgrading (sealing the inner line), and (iii) differences in CO emission levels. Among the VOCs, the concentrations of toluene (T) was found to be the highest (range: 13.6-155 ppb), while benzene (0.19-1.47 ppb) was hardly distinguishable from its ambient levels. Other VOCs (xylene, trimethylbenzene, and styrene) were generally below <1 ppb. Unlike VOCs, the concentrations (ppb) of CCs were seen at fairly enhanced levels: 30.1-95 (formaldehyde), 34.6-87.2 (acetaldehyde), 4.56-34.7 (propionaldehyde), and 3.45-68.8 (butyraldehyde). The results of our study suggest that the back diffusion phenomenon, if occurring, can deteriorate in-vehicle air, especially with the most imminent health hazards from a compound such as formaldehyde in view of its exceedance pattern over common guidelines.

  4. Characterization of biological aerosol exposure risks from automobile air conditioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Mingzhen; Shen, Fangxia; Zou, Zhuanglei; Yao, Maosheng; Wu, Chang-yu

    2013-09-17

    Although use of automobile air conditioning (AC) was shown to reduce in-vehicle particle levels, the characterization of its microbial aerosol exposure risks is lacking. Here, both AC and engine filter dust samples were collected from 30 automobiles in four different geographical locations in China. Biological contents (bacteria, fungi, and endotoxin) were studied using culturing, high-throughput gene sequence, and Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) methods. In-vehicle viable bioaerosol concentrations were directly monitored using an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS) before and after use of AC for 5, 10, and 15 min. Regardless of locations, the vehicle AC filter dusts were found to be laden with high levels of bacteria (up to 26,150 CFU/mg), fungi (up to 1287 CFU/mg), and endotoxin (up to 5527 EU/mg). More than 400 unique bacterial species, including human opportunistic pathogens, were detected in the filter dusts. In addition, allergenic fungal species were also found abundant. Surprisingly, unexpected fluorescent peaks around 2.5 μm were observed during the first 5 min use of AC, which was attributed to the reaerosolization of those filter-borne microbial agents. The information obtained here can assist in minimizing or preventing the respiratory allergy or infection risk from the use of automobile AC system.

  5. Metal hydride work pair development and its application on automobile air conditioning systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Feng; CHEN Jiang-ping; ZHANG Wen-feng; CHEN Zhi-jiu

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at developing exhaust gas driving automobile air conditioning systems, a hydride pair LaNi4.61Mn0.26A10.13/La0.6Y0.4Ni4.8Mn0.2 was developed working at 393~473 K/293~323 K/263~273 K. Property tests showed that both alloys have flat plateau slopes and small hystereses; system theoretical coefficient of performance (COP) is 0.711. Based on this work pair, a function proving automobile metal hydride refrigeration system was constructed. The equivalent thermal conductivities of the activated reaction beds were merely 1.1~1.6 W/(m·K), which had not met practical requirement. Intermittent refrigeration cycles were achieved and the average cooling power was 84.6 W at 423 K/303 K/273 K with COP being 0.26. By altering cycling parameters, experiment data showed that cooling power and system COP increase with the growth of heat source temperature as well as pre-heating and regeneration time while decrease with heat sink temperature increment. This study confirms the feasibility of automobile metal hydride refrigeration systems, while heat transfer properties of reaction beds still need to be improved for better performance.

  6. 汽车主机厂自主品牌标准件标准体系建设%Standard System Construction of Independent Brands Standard Parts in Automotive OEMs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭抚顺

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the definition of automobile standard parts, standards of standard parts and their generating process at different levels, the relationship of standards between different levels, the purpose of standardization of automobile parts, the composition and features of standard parts product standards in automobile manufacturing enterprises, the significance of estabhshing independent brands standard parts system, the principle of estabhshment of enterprise standards, and how to build enterprise standard system of standard parts.%文章论述了汽车标准件的定义、标准件的各级标准及其产生过程,各级标准的关系、汽车零件标准化的目的、汽车生产企业标准件产品标准的构成和特点、企业建立自主品牌标准件体系的意义、建立企业标准体系的原则和如何建立企业的标准件的标准体系.

  7. Automobile sheet metal part production with incremental sheet forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DURGUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, effect of global warming is increasing drastically so it leads to increased interest on energy efficiency and sustainable production methods. As a result of adverse conditions, national and international project platforms, OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers, SMEs (Small and Mid-size Manufacturers perform many studies or improve existing methodologies in scope of advanced manufacturing techniques. In this study, advanced manufacturing and sustainable production method "Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISF" was used for sheet metal forming process. A vehicle fender was manufactured with or without die by using different toolpath strategies and die sets. At the end of the study, Results have been investigated under the influence of method and parameters used.Keywords: Template incremental sheet metal, Metal forming

  8. Hydrometallurgical recovery of heavy metals from low grade automobile shredder residue (ASR): An application of advanced Fenton process (AFP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2015-09-15

    To investigate the leaching and recovery of heavy metals from low-grade automobile shredder residue (ASR), the effects of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, leaching temperature and ASR particle size fractions on the heavy metal leaching rate were determined. The heavy metals were recovered by fractional precipitation and advanced Fenton process (AFP) at different pHs. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test was also performed in the residue remaining after heavy metal leaching to evaluate the potential toxicity of ASR. The heavy metal leaching efficiency was increased with increasing HNO3 and H2O2 concentrations, L/S ratio and temperature. The heavy metal leaching efficiencies were maximized in the lowest ASR size fraction at 303 K and L/S ratio of 100 mL/g. The kinetic study showed that the metal leaching was best represented by a second-order reaction model, with a value of R(2) > 0.99 for all selected heavy metals. The determined activation energy (kJ/mol) was 21.61, 17.10, 12.15, 34.50, 13.07 and 11.45 for Zn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr, respectively. In the final residue, the concentrations of Cd, Cr and Pb were under their threshold limits in all ASR size fractions. Hydrometallurgical metal recovery was greatly increased by AFP up to 99.96% for Zn, 99.97% for Fe, 95.62% for Ni, 99.62% for Pb, 94.11% for Cd and 96.79% for Cr. AFP is highly recommended for the recovery of leached metals from solution even at low concentrations.

  9. Hydrogen as fuel carrier in PEM fuelcell for automobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sk, Mudassir Ali; Venkateswara Rao, K.; Ramana Rao, Jagirdar V.

    2015-02-01

    The present work focuses the application of nanostructured materials for storing of hydrogen in different carbon materials by physisorption method. To market a hydrogen-fuel cell vehicle as competitively as the present internal combustion engine vehicles, there is a need for materials that can store a minimum of 6.5wt% of hydrogen. Carbon materials are being heavily investigated because of their promise to offer an economical solution to the challenge of safe storage of large hydrogen quantities. Hydrogen is important as a new source of energy for automotive applications. It is clear that the key challenge in developing this technology is hydrogen storage. Combustion of fossil fuels and their overuse is at present a serious concern as it is creates severe air pollution and global environmental problems; like global warming, acid rains, ozone depletion in stratosphere etc. This necessitated the search for possible alternative sources of energy. Though there are a number of primary energy sources available, such as thermonuclear energy, solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, geothermal energy etc, in contrast to the fossil fuels in most cases, these new primary energy sources cannot be used directly and thus they must be converted into fuels, that is to say, a new energy carrier is needed. Hydrogen fuel cells are two to three times more efficient than combustion engines. As they become more widely available, they will reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In a fuel cell, hydrogen and oxygen are combined in an electrochemical reaction that produces electricity and, as a byproduct, water.

  10. Solar-Powered Cooler and Heater for an Automobile Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    The apparatus would include a solar photovoltaic panel mounted on the roof and a panellike assembly mounted in a window opening. The window-mounted assembly would include a stack of thermoelectric devices sandwiched between two heat sinks. A fan would circulate interior air over one heat sink. Another fan would circulate exterior air over the other heat sink. The fans and the thermoelectric devices would be powered by the solar photovoltaic panel. By means of a double-pole, double-throw switch, the panel voltage fed to the thermoelectric stack would be set to the desired polarity: For cooling operation, the chosen polarity would be one in which the thermoelectric devices transport heat from the inside heat sink to the outside one; for heating operation, the opposite polarity would be chosen. Because thermoelectric devices are more efficient in heating than in cooling, this apparatus would be more effective as a heater than as a cooler. However, if the apparatus were to include means to circulate air between the outside and the inside without opening the windows, then its effectiveness as a cooler in a hot, sunny location would be increased.

  11. High performance LED lamps for the automobile: needs and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Wolfgang; Vieregge, Thomas; Rode, Martin

    2007-09-01

    Light emitting diodes have been an option in automotive lighting for more than 15 years now. The capacities and colours of LEDs available in the recent past were sufficient to realize interior lighting and rear signalling functions. In the meantime, series applications, such as position or daytime running lights, using white LEDs for signal functions in headlamps, are no longer a rarity. The next step - realizing main lighting functions for series applications - is imminent. LED will offer a multitude of styling options in rear and front lighting, as well as a light colour which differs considerably from that of the previous halogen and xenon headlamp systems. The further advantages of the LED compared with conventional light sources with regard to service life, power efficiency and package space requirements can thus only be sensibly exploited by means of suitable structural and connection techniques. Increasing complexity and installation conditions in an often rough environment are demanding challenge to realize the hardware of LED lamps. In this paper at first the requirements on LEDs and LED modules in automotive exterior lighting will be discussed. Furthermore the status of industrialization and modular concepts for signal lamps and full LED headlamps will be presented. The paper will finish with a discussion of new headlamp active lighting functions like maker light or glare free high beam, implemented in hybrid or with pure LED technology. In the subsequent headlamp integration, from about 2012, freely-addressable LED-Arrays will possibly enable these new types of lighting functions.

  12. The Vertical Limit Stability Analysis of Rigid Automobile%刚性汽车的纵向极限稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴心平; 汪元波; 杨宗田

    2011-01-01

    Based on mechanical analysis of rigid automobile,Get the rigid automobile vertically rollover conditions,Analysis of the vertical limit stability of automobile,Get the measures to improve automobile vertical stability.%通过对刚性汽车进行受力分析,得到了刚性汽车发生纵翻的条件,并对汽车的纵向极限稳定性进行了分析,指出了提高汽车纵向稳定性的措施。

  13. Anyuan Automobile:Moving Steadily Towards the Global Market An Interview with Su Liqian, General Manager of Wuxi Anyuan Automobile Co., Ltd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Wuxi Anyuan Automobile Co., Ltd, located in Wuxi,China's Jiangsu Province,receives investment from Wuxi Anyuan Industry Joint Stock Co., Ltd as an R&D (research and development)center and as a production base for the export of luxurious passenger buses.The company's facilities cover a large area of 90,000 square meters. During the first phase of construction, factory buildings with a floor area of 15,000 square meters were erected, enabling an annual production capacity of 1,500 buses, worth of RMB 0.5 billion. During the second phase, another 20,000 square meters were allocated for use as factory buildings, which brought the company's annual production capacity to 5,000 buses, worth of RMB 1.5 billion. Among the company's 1,200 employees, 196 are working as technical or managerial personnel.

  14. Fuel-Efficient Road Vehicle Non-Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The need to address global energy issues, i.e. energy security and climate change, is more urgent than ever. Road vehicles dominate global oil consumption and are one of the fastest growing energy end-uses. This paper studies policies and measures to improve on-road fuel efficiency of vehicles by focusing on energy efficiency of automobile components not generally considered in official fuel efficiency test, namely tyres, cooling technologies and lightings. In this paper, current policies and industry activities on these components are reviewed, fuel saving potential by the components analysed and possible policies to realise the potential recommended.

  15. System Desining of Automobile Enterprise's Technical Data Integration Based on Human Factor Evaluating Indexes%基于人因评价指标的整车企业技术数据集成系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毓; 易树平; 张力

    2011-01-01

    针对整车企业中技术数据集成效率不高的问题,提出了一种基于人因评价指标的技术数据集成系统架构,尝试性地设计了一套可利用信息技术进行收集的人因评价指标的技术数据集成系统.其中分析和评价结果将直接反馈回集成系统,达到系统持续优化,数据集成效率持续提高的目的.最后,以某整车企业技术数据系统集成前后的集成效率改善为例,验证了该方案的实用性.%According to the low efficiency of technical data integration in automobile enterprise,an integrated system architecture of technical data is proposed based on human factor evaluating indexes. A technical data integrated system collecting human factor evaluating indexes is developed tentatively with information technology. The system is optimized and the integration efficiency is improved continuously via feeding back the results of analysis and evaluating of human factor evaluating indexes to system directly. Finally, the practical applicability of the project is verified by the improvement of integration efficiency of an automobile enterprise after applying the integrated system.

  16. Measurements of major VOCs released into the closed cabin environment of different automobiles under various engine and ventilation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Szulejko, Jan E; Jo, Hyo-Jae; Lee, Min-Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann; Ma, Chang-Jin; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in automobile cabins were measured quantitatively to describe their emission characteristics in relation to various idling scenarios using three used automobiles (compact, intermediate sedan, and large sedan) under three different idling conditions ([1] cold engine off and ventilation off, [2] exterior air ventilation with idling warm engine, and [3] internal air recirculation with idling warm engine). The ambient air outside the vehicle was also analyzed as a reference. A total of 24 VOCs (with six functional groups) were selected as target compounds. Accordingly, the concentration of 24 VOC quantified as key target compounds averaged 4.58 ± 3.62 ppb (range: 0.05 (isobutyl alcohol) ∼ 38.2 ppb (formaldehyde)). Moreover, if their concentrations are compared between different automobile operational modes: the 'idling engine' levels (5.24 ± 4.07) was 1.3-5 times higher than the 'engine off' levels (4.09 ± 3.23) across all 3 automobile classes. In summary, automobile in-cabin VOC emissions are highly contingent on changes in engine and ventilation modes.

  17. Environmental Effects of Driving Automobiles in the University of Malaya Campus: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Y. Kong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of human population there has been an evident increase in per capita automobile use and ownership, significantly to a point that almost every urban university campus faces serious challenges from the heavy traffic movement as well as the associated parking shortages. Multiple factors, including lack of land for new parking lots, high cost of building parking structures and the desire to preserve the air quality and campus green spaces are leading many educational institutions towards a new vision based upon expanded transit access, better bicycle and pedestrian facilities and financial incentives for students and staff to drive less. (Toor and Havlick, 2004 This is in stark contrast to the traditional approach to campus transportation planning of the University of Malaya (UM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia that allows students, staff and visitors to drive in the campus. The objective of this study is to investigate the related issues and environmental impact of allowing automobile driving in the campus. Studies will also be done to analyse the relationship between university campus planning and traffic condition. Air quality and noise pollution data of 3 selected sites in the campus will be recorded. Subsequently, the air pollutant index and noise pollution level will be identified and data analyses will be done on the data samples. Simultaneously, a survey questionnaire will be conducted to gauge the student’s attitude and degree of awareness with air and noise pollution in the campus. This pilot study reveals that the increasing use of automobiles within the campus has a negative impact on local environment and the quality of life in campus

  18. Advanced welding technology of automobile body%先进的车身焊接技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广勇

    2013-01-01

    With the application of new material of galvanized steel and high strength steel and aluminum alloy in the body manufacturing, automobile body welding technology based on the power frequency of resistance welding and MAG welding doesn't meet the development trend "lightweight, safety, energy saving" of the body manufacturing.Advanced welding techniques such as MF resistance welding and laser penetration welding and laser filler wire welding and laser tailor-welded blanks and CMT welding technology and friction stir welding technology has been applied in automobile body manufacturing.This paper describes the working principle and technical characteristics of the above several advanced welding technology, and their application in automobile body manufacturing and economic benefits .There is some reference function to the body design and welding process.%随着镀锌钢板、高强度钢、铝合金等新材料在车身制造中的应用,以工频电阻焊为主,辅以MAG焊的车身焊接技术,逐步难以满足车身制造“轻量、安全、节能”的发展趋势.先进的焊接技术,例如中频电阻焊、激光钎焊、激光熔焊、激光拼焊板技术、CMT焊接技术、摩擦搅拌点焊技术等在车身制造中逐步得到应用.简述了几种先进焊接技术的工作原理和技术特点,及其在车身制造中的应用特点和经济效益.对车身设计和焊装工艺方案规划有一定的借鉴作用.

  19. Indirect blue light does not suppress nocturnal salivary melatonin in humans in an automobile setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchl, Alexander; Schindler, Carina; Eichhorn, Karsten; Kley, Franziska; Erren, Thomas C

    2009-09-01

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as being probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A). In this context, light exposure during the night plays a key role because it can suppress nocturnal melatonin levels when exposures exceed a certain threshold. Blue light around 464 nm is most effective in suppressing melatonin because of the spectral sensitivity of melanopsin, a recently discovered photopigment in retinal ganglion cells; the axons of these cells project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a circadian master clock in the brain. Due to advances in light technologies, normal tungsten light bulbs are being replaced by light-emitting diodes which produce quasi-monochromatic or white light. The objective of this study was to assess whether the light-melanopsin-melatonin axis might be affected in automobiles at night which employ the new generation diodes. To this end, we have tested in an experimental automobile setting whether indirect blue light (lambda(max) = 465 nm) at an intensity of 0.22 or 1.25 lx can suppress salivary melatonin levels in 12 male volunteers (age range 17-27 years) who served as their own controls. Daytime levels were low (2.7 +/- 0.5 pg/mL), and night-time levels without light exposure were high (14.5 +/- 1.1 pg/mL), as expected. Low-intensity light exposures had no significant effect on melatonin levels (0.22 lx: 17.2 +/- 2.8 pg/mL; P > 0.05; 1.25 lx: 12.6 +/- 2.0 pg/mL; P > 0.05). It is concluded that indirect blue light exposures in automobiles up to 1.25 lx do not cause unintentional chronodisruption via melatonin suppression.

  20. Impact of air conditioning system operation on increasing gases emissions from automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, S. M.; Coman, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the influence of air conditioning system operation on the increase of gases emissions from cars. The study focuses on urban operating regimes of the automobile, regimes when the engines have low loads or are operating at idling. Are presented graphically the variations of pollution emissions (CO, CO2, HC) depending of engine speed and the load on air conditioning system. Additionally are presented, injection duration, throttle position, the mechanical power required by the compressor of air conditioning system and the refrigerant pressure variation on the discharge path, according to the stage of charging of the air conditioning system.