WorldWideScience

Sample records for automobile driver examination

  1. DAARIA: Driver Assistance by Augmented Reality for Intelligent Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    George, Paul; Thouvenin, Indira; Fremont, Vincent; Cherfaoui, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    International audience Taking into account the drivers' state is a major challenge for designing new advanced driver assistance systems. In this paper we present a driver assistance system strongly coupled to the user. DAARIA 1 stands for Driver Assistance by Augmented Reality for Intelligent Automobile. It is an augmented reality interface powered by several sensors. The detection has two goals: one is the position of obstacles and the quantification of the danger represented by them. The...

  2. Keep the driver in control: Automating automobiles of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Automated automobiles will be on our roads within the next decade but the role of the driver has not yet been formerly recognised or designed. Rather, the driver is often left in a passive monitoring role until they are required to reclaim control from the vehicle. This research aimed to test the idea of driver-initiated automation, in which the automation offers decision support that can be either accepted or ignored. The test case examined a combination of lateral and longitudinal control in addition to an auto-overtake system. Despite putting the driver in control of the automated systems by enabling them to accept or ignore behavioural suggestions (e.g. overtake), there were still issues associated with increased workload and decreased trust. These issues are likely to have arisen due to the way in which the automated system has been designed. Recommendations for improvements in systems design have been made which are likely to improve trust and make the role of the driver more transparent concerning their authority over the automated system. PMID:26141907

  3. Differences between pickup truck and automobile driver-owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C L; Winn, D G; Agran, P F

    1999-01-01

    This study compares pickup truck driver-owners and drivers who owned only automobiles with respect to demographic factors, conditions of use, risk-taking driving behavior, prior driving history and attitudes towards motor vehicle laws. A telephone survey conducted in Riverside County, CA determined that 36% of the households had a pickup truck. Pickup truck owners were primarily male, aged 30-39 years, married, reported lower restraint use and more risky driving behaviors, and had more traffic citations. Differences in behaviors and attitudes were largely a function of age and gender. There is a need to design appropriate occupant safety interventions for those most likely to own pickup trucks. PMID:10084620

  4. Psychological performance of accident-prone automobile drivers in China: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H Q; Araki, S; Wu, X K; Zhang, Y W; Yokoyama, K

    1991-03-01

    To evaluate the role of neurobehavioural factors in the aetiology of recurrent automobile accidents, we administered the Revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and choice and simple reaction time tests to 31 accident-prone automobile drivers. These drivers who had caused three or more traffic accidents during the years 1980-1984, were selected from records of 2723 traffic accidents registered by Hefei Traffic Police Department during the years 1980-1984. The same tests were administered to an equal number of sex- and age-matched control drivers who had no reported involvement in automobile accidents. None of the subjects had suffered from any neuropsychiatric illness or head injury. Comparisons between the two groups indicated that for accident-prone drivers scores on picture completion and block design subtests of the WAIS-R were significantly lowered (p less than 0.05); scores for neurosis extrovert behaviour and psychosis (EPQ) were significantly higher (p less than 0.05); and the number of errors in the choice reaction time test was significantly higher (p less than 0.01). It is suggested that accident-prone drivers have lower psychological performance, poorer judgement and a higher tendency than safe drivers to be neurotic, extrovert and psychotic. PMID:2066226

  5. [Medical aspects and driving history of drivers with higher class automobile driver's licenses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, F

    1982-02-01

    In the medical part of our paper we have shown the chauffeurs are a high-risk group with respect to hypertension, lumbar pain, and overweight. The analysis of drivers' offenses, yearly kilometers driven and years of driving in the three groups of taxi, lorry and coach drivers shows that coach chauffeurs have significantly better driving records. PMID:6461985

  6. Physiological investigation of automobile driver's activation index using simulated monotonous driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, T; Yamakoshi, K; Tanaka, S; Nogawa, M; Kusakabe, M; Kusumi, M; Tanida, K

    2004-01-01

    Monotonous automobile operation in our daily life may cause the lowering of what might be termed an activation state of the human body, resulting in an increased risk of an accident. We therefore propose to create a more suitable environment in-car so as to allow active operation of the vehicle, hopefully thus avoiding potentially dangerous situations during driving. In order to develop such an activation method as a final goal, we have firstly focused on the acquisition of physiological variables, including cardiovascular parameters, during presentation to the driver of a monotonous screen image, simulating autonomous travel of constant-speed on a motorway. Subsequently, we investigated the derivation of a driver's activation index. During the screen image presentation, a momentary electrical stimulation of about 1 second duration was involuntarily applied to a subject's shoulder to obtain a physiological response. We have successfully monitored various physiological variables during the image presentation, and results suggest that a peculiar pattern in the beat-by-beat change of blood pressure in response to the involuntary stimulus may be an appropriate, and feasible, index relevant to activation state. PMID:17270774

  7. Analysis on the R-R interval time series of automobile long distance drivers; Kosoku doro no chojikan soko ni yoru R-R kankakuji keiretsu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyoshi, M.; Takata, K. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [Nagoya Municipal Women`s College, Nagoya (Japan); Yoshioka, T.; Watanabe, Y. [Toyota National College of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    Analyses were performed on change in living body information as time elapses while driving a car, the differences between automobile drivers and fellow passengers, and between automobile drivers and motorcycle drivers. A comparison on body temperatures in automobile drivers and motorcycle drivers shows sharper changes in the motorcycle drivers. Motorcycles, being different from automobiles, put the drivers exposed to atmosphere during driving, applying larger living body load. Adrenalin increases its concentration when a human is under mental load, so does noradrenalin when under physical load. Both of adrenalin and noradrenalin showed an increasing trend in the afternoon as compared with in the morning. From the comparison with the normal daily life, fellow passengers have also large mental living body load, who were found to have concentration change of nearly two times or more than that in normal conditions. A subject who rode in a car in the first experiment and drove a motorcycle in the second experiment was discovered to have his right hand grasping power decreased remarkably after the second experiment. Fatigue factors unique to motorcycle driving are thought the engine vibration, the hot air, the need of taking balance of the motorcycle attitudes, and stress from noise. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Driver state examination-Treading new paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Edmund; Getzmann, Stephan; Karthaus, Melanie

    2016-06-01

    A large proportion of crashes in road driving can be attributed to driver fatigue. Several types of fatigue are discussed, comprising sleep-related fatigue, active task-related fatigue (as a consequence of workload in demanding driving situations) as well as passive task-related fatigue (as related to monotonous driving situations). The present study investigated actual states of fatigue in a monotonous driving situation, using EEG measures and a long-lasting driving simulation experiment, in which drivers had to keep the vehicle on track by compensating crosswind of different strength. Performance data and electrophysiological correlates of mental fatigue (EEG Alpha and Theta power, Inter Trial Coherence (ITC), and auditory event-related potentials to short sound stimuli) were analyzed. Driving errors and driving lane variability increased with time on task and with increasing crosswind. The posterior Alpha and Theta power also increased with time on task, but decreased with stronger crosswind. The P3a to sound stimuli decreased with time on task when the crosswind was weak, but remained stable when the crosswind was strong. The analysis of ITC revealed less frontal Alpha and Theta band synchronization with time on task, but no effect of crosswind. The results suggest that Alpha power in monotonous driving situations reflects boredom or attentional withdrawal due to monotony rather than the decline of processing abilities as a consequence of high mental effort. A more valid indicator of declining mental resources with increasing time on task seems to be provided by brain oscillatory synchronization measures and event-related activity. PMID:26986022

  9. A comparative study among the three wheeler automobile drivers on pulmonary function tests in adult males of Gulbarga city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshan Afroz, Salgar Veeresh B, Sugoor Manjushree, Swati I Amrutha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of our country has led to rapid urbanization and there is increasing use of automobiles that is aggravating environmental pollution. Occupational exposure to automobile exhaustand industrial smokes has been shown to affect functioning of different systems of the body. The present study was taken up to assess the Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT in auto rickshaw drivers of Gulbargacity. Methods: Fifty non –smoker male auto drivers in the age group of 20–50 years for more than 5 years of auto driving experience formed the study group. Age and sex matched individuals not exposed to auto rickshaw driving [administrative staff] formed the control group. Pulmonary function parametersFVC, FEV1, FEV1%, PEFR, PIFR, FEF25-75, FEF50 and MVV were assessed using a computerized Spiro meter during their working hours and were statistically analyzed. Results: There was a highly significant decrease in FVC and FEV1 in the study group compared to control group. The decrease in FEV1%, PIFR, FEF25-75 and FEF50 were statistically significant but the decrease in PEFR and MVV were statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion: Our findings point towards the adverse effects of vehicle exhaust on lung functions, mainly on lower airways with restrictive pattern of disease.

  10. Local Environmental States as Drivers of Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility: An Inter-Province Comparison of Automobile Manufacturers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Grey, Andrew / AC

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores the possibility of a relationship between the environmental states of two provinces in China and the levels of environmental corporate social responsibility (CSR) within the local automobile manufactures. The paper postulates several hypotheses in order to explore the relationship between the state of the local environment and apparent local environmental CSR while simultaneously examining industrial pollution abatement trends in both provinces. The investigation fi...

  11. Driver/passenger discrimination for the interaction with the dual-view touch screen integrated to the automobile centre console

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Enrico; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2012-03-01

    In an attempt to further develop and evaluate the optical recognition systems for distinguishing between driver and frontseat passenger during their interactions with dual-view touch screen integrated to the automobile centre console, this work focuses on the enhancement of both image processing algorithms and experimental environment. In addition to the motion based forearm and hand segmentation and the texture based arm direction analysis, the adaptive boosting classifiers with Haar-like features have been engaged for the learning of driver's and passenger's hand patterns. The user discrimination system was completely reproduced in a laboratory, including passenger compartment with genuine dashboard, touch screen, camera and near-infrared lamps, so that different illumination conditions could be modeled. The new acquisition system allows automatic and unambiguous registration of all touch screen interactions and their synchronization with the video stream. This results in credible evaluation of the image processing routines. The adjustment of the camera position and the active infrared illumination made it possible to reduce the recognition error rates and to achieve superior discrimination performance compared to previous works.

  12. Estimation of exposed radiation dose in radiography of the chest. Mainly on the dose at health examination on automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure doses in radiography and photofluorography of the chest at health examination on automobiles were estimated and compared with those using other hospital equipments. The tube voltage, effective energy and half value layer under ordinary conditions for radiography and fluorography were measured by KYOKKO model 100 X-ray analyzer and output pulse shape was confirmed by the fluorometer (TOREKEY-1001 C). The dose at the body surface was measured by the ionization chambers (VICTOREEN RADCON 500 and 30-330) which had been equipped in the WAC chest phantom (JIS Z 4915, Kyoto Kagaku). Nine automobiles of 3 facilities were used, of which X-ray generating apparatuses of either condenser or inverter type were manufactured by Hitachi (5 machines), Toshiba (1) and Shimadzu (3). The examined apparatuses not for the automobile were Toshiba-20 and Hitachi SIRIUS-100 portable ones and Hitachi DH-1520 TM high-voltage one. The effective energy was found dependent on the tube voltage (100-130 kV) and X-ray generating system (35.1-54.37 keV in the condenser type and 41.1-43.9 keV in the inverter type). Pulse shape analysis revealed that the pulse height and area under the pulse height-time curve were larger in the inverter system. The mean doses in photofluorography and radiography on automobiles were 0.525 and 0.297 mGy, respectively. The mean dose of 0.61 mGy in radiography at home with the portable apparatus was the highest even when compared with that of 0.525 mGy for fluorography on the automobile. Thus, the inverter system on the car can guarantee the level of 0.4 mGy defined by IAEA guideline (Safety series No. 115, 1996). (K.H.)

  13. Services as Experience Goods: An Empirical Examination of Consumer Learning in Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Israel

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical work on experience goods sets out three empirical questions. How accurate is information at initial purchase? How rapidly do consumers learn from product experiences? And how much impact does learning have on purchase decisions? I answer these questions for the case of automobile insurance, using a panel of 18,595 consumers from one firm. My principal findings are: patterns of consumer departures following claims point to learning; consumers enter the firm overly optimistic about ...

  14. Price Variability in Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph A. Fields; Emilio C. Venezian; David Jou

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the causes of variation in automobile insurance prices are examined within a small and homogenous state. The central hypothesis of interest is the relation between the price of automobile insurance and the quality of the product. The findings here indicate that the market is one which contains substantial frictions, making the search for automobile insurance products a worthwhile activity for consumers.

  15. Are Drivers' Comparative Risk Judgments about spending Realistic?

    OpenAIRE

    Delhomme, P.; Verlhiac, Jf; Martha, C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined how these drivers assess their risk of sanctions and their risk of causing an automobile crash because of speeding in comparison to the estimated risks of other drivers, and how realistic their comparative risk judgments are. We measured the relationship between the drivers' comparative risk judgments, self-reported speeding, and driving-related sensation-seeking. We hypothesized that they would think they have less risk of sanctions and of causing a car accident than others, and ...

  16. Visual modification of the road environment. EU-project Guarding Automobile Drivers through Guidance Education and Technology GADGET, Deliverable D2, Contract No. RO-97-SC.2235.

    OpenAIRE

    Sagberg, F. Hakkert, A.S. Larsen, L. Leden, L. Schmotzer, C. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    2003-01-01

    The report is a review and discussion of research regarding effects of the road environment on driver behaviour. The discussion relates to theories and facts regarding driver information needs, limitations of the human visual system, information processing, driver expectations, mental load, and risk compensation. Measures to influence driver behaviour are discussed under the following headings: 1) road geometry and intersection design, 2) road markings and traffic signs, 3) driver behaviour a...

  17. Examining the effects of an eco-driving message on driver distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzikhah, Hossein; King, Mark; Rakotonirainy, Andry

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of an eco-driving message on driver distraction. Two in-vehicle distracter tasks were compared with an eco-driving task and a baseline task in an advanced driving simulator. N=22 subjects were asked to perform an eco-driving, CD changing, and a navigation task while engaged in critical manoeuvres during which they were expected to respond to a peripheral detection task (PDT) with total duration of 3.5h. The study involved two sessions over two consecutive days. The results show that drivers' mental workloads are significantly higher during navigation and CD changing tasks in comparison to the two other scenarios. However, eco-driving mental workload is still marginally significant (p∼.05) across different manoeuvres. Similarly, event detection tasks show that drivers miss significantly more events in the navigation and CD changing scenarios in comparison to both the baseline and eco-driving scenario. Analysis of the practice effect shows that drivers' baseline scenario and navigation scenario exhibit significantly less demand on the second day. Drivers also can detect significantly more events on the second day for all scenarios. The authors conclude that even reading a simple message while driving could potentially lead to missing an important event, especially when executing critical manoeuvres. However, there is some evidence of a practice effect which suggests that future research should focus on performance with habitual rather than novel tasks. It is recommended that sending text as an eco-driving message analogous to the study circumstances should not be delivered to drivers on-line when vehicle is in motion. PMID:22910188

  18. Visual modification of the road environment. EU-project Guarding Automobile Drivers through Guidance Education and Technology GADGET, Deliverable D2, Contract No. RO-97-SC.2235.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagberg, F. Hakkert, A.S. Larsen, L. Leden, L. Schmotzer, C. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    2003-01-01

    The report is a review and discussion of research regarding effects of the road environment on driver behaviour. The discussion relates to theories and facts regarding driver information needs, limitations of the human visual system, information processing, driver expectations, mental load, and risk

  19. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health...

  20. Determinants of automobile loan default and prepayment

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Agarwal; Ambrose, Brent W.; Souphala Chomsisengphet

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine whether a borrower’s choice of automobile reveals information about future loan performance. They find that loans on most luxury automobiles have a higher probability of prepayment, while loans on most economy automobiles have a lower probability of default, even when holding traditional risk factors, such as income and credit score, constant.

  1. Nonpolluting automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoolboom, G.J.; Szabados, B. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-11-01

    The advantages/disadvantages of energy storage devices, which can provide nonpolluting automobile systems are discussed. Four types of storage devices are identified: electrochemical (batteries); hydrogen; electromechanical (flywheels); and molten salt heat storage. A high-speed flywheel with a small permanent magnet motor/generator has more advantages than any of the other systems and might become a real competitor to the internal combustion engine. A flywheel/motor/generator system for automobiles now becomes practical, because of the technological advances in materials, bearings and solid state control circuits. The motor of choice is the squirrel cage induction motor, specially designed for automobile applications. The preferred controller for the induction motor is a forced commutated cycloconverter, which transforms a variable voltage/variable frequency source into a controlled variable-voltage/variable-frequency supply. A modulation strategy of the cycloconverter elements is selected to maintain a unity input displacement factor (power factor) under all conditions of loads voltages and frequencies. The system is similar to that of the existing automobile, if only one motor is used: master controller-controller-motor-gears (fixed)-differential-wheels. In the case of two motors, the mechanical differential is replaced by an electric one: master controller-controller-motor-gears (fixed)-wheel. A four-wheel drive vehicle is obtained when four motors with their own controllers are used. 24 refs.

  2. Analysis of trace elements in ceramic prints on automobile glasses for forensic examination using high-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study revealed that high-energy SRXRF (synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) utilizing 75.5 keV X-rays of SPring-8 is a powerful technique for trace elemental analysis of ceramic prints on automotive glasses for forensic examination. Fragments of 99 ceramic prints were collected from automobiles of various manufacturers, types and model years. Their major heavy element-components were found to be either Pb or Bi. Because of recent environment protection movement for lead-free material, there was a tendency of the shift of material from the Pb Type to the Bi Type with years of the production. A utilization of 75.5 keV X-rays as excitation source allowed us to detect trace heavy-elements, such as Sb, La, Ce, Hf and W, as well as relatively light-elements, such as V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr and Mo, in samples using K series of XRF emission lines. XRF intensities of these elements normalized by those of the major heavy-elements (Pb or Bi) became characteristic finger prints, showing the identity of each sample with a size of less than 0.5x0.5 mm2. The mean relative standard deviations of the normalized XRF intensities measured for the three fragments of each sample were less than 9.3%. These results show that the ceramic prints on automobile glasses contain rich elemental information for discrimination, and therefore the materials can be important evidence for practical forensic examinations. (author)

  3. Subdivision driver of automobile dash board stepping motor%步进电机式汽车仪表机芯的细分驱动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍丙永; 陈永煌

    2012-01-01

    方案基于51单片机,通过驱动芯片ULN2003A,以软件模拟PWM的方法实现对步进电机式汽车仪表机芯的细分驱动,从而使步进电机式汽车仪表机芯的细分能在常见的51单片机上得以实现.方案详细介绍了电路的组成、工作原理及编程思想.%The project based on 51 MCU applied ULN2003A to subdivision drive dashboard stepping mo- tor,employing software simulation of PWM. The subdivision driver of dashboard stepping motor can be accomplished on the common 51 MCU. The project introduces in detail the frame work of circuits,work- ing principle and its programming.

  4. [Acceleration injuries of the cervical spine in seat-belted automobile drivers. Determination of the trauma mechanism and severity of injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M; Otte, D; Blauth, M

    1999-05-01

    The analysis of 1,176 whiplash-type neck distortions was sought from a total of 3,838 restrained car driver incident reports. The percentage of these injuries increased from less than 10% in 1985 to over 30% in 1997. These occurred mostly with head-on or with multiple collisions, and only in 15% with pure rear-end collisions. In 23.2%, delta v amounted 10 km/h or less, which corresponds to a very minor crash. The average delta v was the highest in the cases of head-on collisions. Letters were sent to the injured to find out about the duration and type of complaints caused by a cervical spine injury. Of the 138 patients who returned the questionnaires, 121 (88%) indicated that they had or were still suffering from their symptoms. Percentage of various complaints were as follows: pain (74%), tension (6%) and stiffness (5%) in the head (27%), neck (55%) and shoulder (8%). The duration of the complaints was longest after multiple collisions and when the onset of complaints was later than 24 hours after trauma. Women and elderly persons predominated slightly in the group with longer duration of complaints. A correlation between the severity of the accompanying injuries and duration of complaints occurred. Also, with this retrospective study there was considerable difficulties in the lack of adequate follow-up for these patients with less severe injuries. In order to better evaluate this problem, prospective studies are necessary which include documentation of diagnosis, treatment protocols, duration and type of complaints. PMID:10394600

  5. Trends in chassis and automobile electronics components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackenberg, Ulrich [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The rapidly-growing importance of electronics in automobile construction is in part determined by the debate on sustainability and the clear trend towards electric power trains. Another factor, however, is the decisive impact of electronics on the further development of components, e.g. for chassis. Apart from environmental protection, key motivators for component development include comfort, safety, infotainment and driver assistance. (orig.)

  6. Examination of drivers' cell phone use behavior at intersections by using naturalistic driving data

    OpenAIRE

    H. Xiong; Bao, S.; Kato, K.; SAYER, J

    2014-01-01

    Many driving simulator studies have shown that cell phone use while driving greatly degraded driving performance. In terms of safety analysis, many factors including drivers, vehicles, and driving situations need to be considered. Controlled or simulated studies cannot always account for the full effects of these factors, especially situational factors such as road condition, traffic density, and weather and lighting conditions. Naturalistic driving by its nature provides a natural and realis...

  7. Distracted Driving in Elderly and Middle-Aged Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsey R Thompson; Johnson, Amy M.; Emerson, Jamie L.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Boer, Erwin R.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Automobile driving is a safety-critical real-world example of multitasking. A variety of roadway and in-vehicle distracter tasks create information processing loads that compete for the neural resources needed to drive safely. Drivers with mind and brain aging may be particularly susceptible to distraction due to waning cognitive resources and control over attention. This study examined distracted driving performance in an instrumented vehicle (IV) in 86 elderly (mean = 72.5 years, SD = 5.0 y...

  8. Voice control in automobiles; Sprachbedienung im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, D.; Sitter, W. [Siemens VDO Automotive AG (Germany). Div. Infotainment Solutions; Kaemmerer, B. [Siemens Corporate Technology (Germany). Fachzentrum Professional Speech Processing

    2006-06-15

    Voice control simplifies handling the growing number of assistance, communication and convenience systems in automobiles. Siemens VDO Automotive have used the company's comprehensive know-how in the field of voice and communications machines from other sectors - particularly the telecommunications sector - to develop a voice control system for automobiles. It is distinguished by its intelligent architecture with high performance and extremely user-friendly features. (orig.)

  9. The automobile share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Out of a conversion of 120 billions metric tons of fossil carbon per year 1 billion are traffic related. But this amount is growing steadily. The global automobile density is about 10 automobiles per capita. It grows with 1.7% per year, as fast as the population. The number of automobiles doubles in 25 years. In all groups of developed countries the automobile density increased from 5 to 50 automobiles per capita in less than 50 years so far. Where is the fuel for the 1 billion automobiles of the year 2030 or 2050? Can one reduce this number or what chances does one have to reduce the adverse consequences? Whatever the number of motor vehicles will be, man will have the chance to reduce fuel consumption and therefore CO2-emission together with other emissions considerably

  10. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  11. Telematics Strategy for Automobile Insurers : Whitepaper

    OpenAIRE

    Paefgen, Johannes; Fleisch, Elgar; Staake, Thorsten; Ackermann, Lukas; Best, Jonas; Egli, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    This whitepaper investigates the business implications telematics services and Pay-as-you-drive (PAYD) insurance in particular, from the perspective of automobile insurance providers. Specifically, it discusses - the PROFITABILITY and competitive dynamics of PAYD insurance, - a simplified BUSINESS CASE for a new market entrant with a PAYD product, - the present STRUCTURE OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETS for insurance telematics services, - DRIVERS AND BARRIERS for the focus markets Swit...

  12. Stirling engines for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beremand, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The results of recent and ongoing automobile Stirling engine development efforts are reviewed and technology status and requirements are identified. Key technology needs include those for low cost, high temperature (1300 - 1500 F) metal alloys for heater heads, and reliable long-life, low-leakage shaft seals. Various fuel economy projections for Stirling powered automobiles are reviewed and assessed.

  13. Critical Drivers for Safety Culture: Examining Department of Energy and U.S. Army Operational Experiences - 12382

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluating operational incidents can provide a window into the drivers most critical to establishing and maintaining a strong safety culture, thereby minimizing the potential project risk associated with safety incidents. By examining U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) versus U.S. Army drivers in terms of regulatory and contract requirements, programs implemented to address the requirements, and example case studies of operational events, a view of the elements most critical to making a positive influence on safety culture is presented. Four case studies are used in this evaluation; two from DOE and two from U.S. Army experiences. Although the standards guiding operations at these facilities are different, there are many similarities in the level of hazards, as well as the causes and the potential consequences of the events presented. Two of the incidents examined, one from a DOE operation and the other from a U.S. Army facility, resulted in workers receiving chemical burns. The remaining two incidents are similar in that significant conduct of operations failures occurred resulting in high-level radioactive waste (in the case of the DOE facility) or chemical agent (in the case of the Army facility) being transferred outside of engineering controls. A review of the investigation reports for all four events indicates the primary causes to be failures in work planning leading to ineffective hazard evaluation and control, lack of procedure adherence, and most importantly, lack of management oversight to effectively reinforce expectations for safe work planning and execution. DOE and Army safety programs are similar, and although there are some differences in contractual requirements, the expectations for safe performance are essentially the same. This analysis concludes that instilling a positive safety culture comes down to management leadership and engagement to (1) cultivate an environment that values a questioning attitude and (2) continually reinforce expectations

  14. Automobile technology of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking ahead to the year 2000, this fascinating publication takes an in-depth look at new technology which will impact the passenger car of tomorrow. New developments in the areas of performance, reliability, comfort, fuel economy, safety, and environmental compatibility are examined. In this book the authors offer analysis on subjects such as the impact of legislation, the acceptance of ABS, and features of the future dashboard. Offering insight to readers with both technical and general interest in automobiles

  15. “Separation -A Better Tomorrow-Economy” A Study of Marketing Strategies On Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Ekta Chakravarty

    2013-01-01

    Automobile is one of the largest industries in global market. Being the leader in product and process technologies in the manufacturing sector, it has been recognized as one of the drivers of economic growth. During the last decade, well directed efforts have been made to provide a new look to the automobile policy for realizing the sector's full potential for the economy. Aggressive marketing by the auto finance companies have also played a significant role in boosting automobile demand, esp...

  16. Solar Energy Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    HE Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  17. Ergonomic and usability analysis on a sample of automobile dashboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Raíssa; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This is a research study based on an analysis which sets out to identify and pinpoint ergonomic and usability problems found in a sample of automobile dashboards. The sample consisted of three dashboards, of three different makes and characterized as being a popular model, an average model and a luxury model. The examination was conducted by observation, with the aid of photography, notes and open interview, questionnaires and performing tasks with users, the bases of which are on the principles laid down by methodologies. From this it was possible to point to the existence of problems such as: complaints about the layout, lighting, colors, available area, difficult access to points of interaction, such as buttons, and the difficult nomenclature of dials. Later, the findings and recommendations presented show the need for a further, deeper study, using more accurate tools, a larger sample of users, and an anthropometric study focused on the dashboard, since reading and understanding it have to be done quickly and accurately, and that more attention be given to the study of automobile dashboards, particularly in the most popular vehicles in order to maintain the standards of usability, and drivers' comfort and safety. PMID:22316929

  18. Interaction between cars and their drivers in twenty years time

    OpenAIRE

    Pijoan i Forcada, Meritxell

    2009-01-01

    Today, the word automobile means much more than what used to mean some years ago. Nowadays, cars have more values than just offering the possibility of travelling from the point X until the point Y. Automobiles have an added value of safety, comfort, aesthetics and, why not, socialization. Cars are highly technologically complex. Despite the built-in driver information systems permits the drivers get as much information as they want, the drivers have to select the most suitable information...

  19. The automobile in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Lone, Stewart; Madeley, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Lone: The 1920s saw the emergence in Kansai of modern industrial urban living with the development of the underground, air services; wireless telephones, super express trains etc. Automobiles dominated major streets from the early 1920s in the new Age of Speed. Using Kyoto city as an example, the article covers automobile advertising, procedures for taxis, buses and cars and traffic safety and regulation. Madeley: Nissan Motor Company had a longer connection with the British industry than any...

  20. Effect of Air Velocity on Thermal Comfort in an Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özgün Korukçu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of air velocity on thermal comfort during heating period in an automobile cabin with experiments. In the evaluation of comfort in automobiles, in general temperature, humidity, air velocity and radiant temperature measurements are taken. In the study, ambient temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature and mean skin temperature of the driver inside the automobile cabin during heating for different vent air mass flow rates were measured in a parked car. Subjective survey was performed during the experiments to the driver. The results for different vent air mass flow rate values were compared with answers taken from the subject and discussed.

  1. Examining signs of driver sleepiness, usage of sleepiness countermeasures and the associations with sleepy driving behaviours and individual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher N; Armstrong, Kerry A; Radun, Igor

    2015-12-01

    The impairing effect from sleepiness is a major contributor to road crashes. The ability of a sleepy driver to perceive their level of sleepiness is an important consideration for road safety as well as the type of sleepiness countermeasure used by drivers as some sleepiness countermeasures are more effective than others. The aims of the current study were to determine the extent that the signs of driver sleepiness were associated with sleepy driving behaviours, as well as determining which individual factors (demographic, work, driving, and sleep-related factors) were associated with using a roadside or in-vehicle sleepiness countermeasure. A sample of 1518 Australian drivers from the Australian State of New South Wales and the neighbouring Australian Capital Territory took part in the study. The participants' experiences with the signs of sleepiness were reasonably extensive. A number of the early signs of sleepiness (e.g., yawning, frequent eye blinks) were related with continuing to drive while sleepy, with the more advanced signs of sleepiness (e.g., difficulty keeping eyes open, dreamlike state of consciousness) associated with having a sleep-related close call. The individual factors associated with using a roadside sleepiness countermeasure included age (being older), education (tertiary level), difficulties getting to sleep, not continuing to drive while sleepy, and having experienced many signs of sleepiness. The results suggest that these participants have a reasonable awareness and experience with the signs of driver sleepiness. Factors related to previous experiences with sleepiness were associated with implementing a roadside countermeasure. Nonetheless, the high proportions of drivers performing sleepy driving behaviours suggest that concerted efforts are needed with road safety campaigns regarding the dangers of driving while sleepy. PMID:26364140

  2. Adaptive Cruise Control and Driver Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Johan

    2001-01-01

    Many vehicle manufacturers have lately introduced advance driver support in some of their automobiles. One of those new features is Adaptive Cruise Control DACCE, which extends the conventional cruise control system to control of relative speed and distance to other vehicles. In order to design an ACC controller it is suitable to have a model of driver behavior. The approach in the thesis is to use system identification methodology to obtain dynamic models of driver behavior useful for ACC ap...

  3. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    OpenAIRE

    Ozomata David AHMED

    2011-01-01

    Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, openi...

  4. Evaluating the Economic Impacts of Technological Innovation in the Automobile Industry: The Input-Output Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shibusawa, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Takafumi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the economic impacts of technological innovation, such as electric and hybrid vehicles, in the automobile industry in Japan are examined. The automobile industry has to develop environmentally friendly vehicles in the face of the global warming issue and the exhaustion problem of petroleum. The conventional automobiles with gasoline and diesel oil don’t meet the demands of present age. The new generation automobiles will become popular for coming several decades. The indust...

  5. Mechanisms of injury in automobile crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelke, D F

    1972-02-01

    The only way to determine the causes of injury in automobile collisions is through examination of data collected in detailed investigation of crashes. Such data were gathered from a ten-year study of collisions that caused injury to the occupants of the cars. In a comparison of injuries in the newer model automobiles-vehicles equipped with the safety features-with those in older model cars not equipped with the present-day occupant protection devices, significant reduction in injury severity was noted. PMID:5059662

  6. Northeast:Automobile Feast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janet

    2008-01-01

    @@ The northeast has a lot of firsts in the history of China's industrial development,including the first automobile factory-FAW.Due to the system problem and many other complicated factors,quite a number of the northeastern industry enterprises are out of date during the China's economic transition period.

  7. On the automobile lightweight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; Yi Hongliang; Lu Hongzhou; Wan Xinming

    2012-01-01

    The significance, description parameters, evaluation method, implement way and design for lightweight of au- tomobile are comprehensively reviewed. The relationship among the performances of auto parts & components, the prop- erties of materials and application of advanced technologies is also elaborated. According to recently related progress of lightweight and authors' research and developing work, lightweight of automobile is comprehensively and systematically overviewed.

  8. Adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长生

    2008-01-01

    The adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface was analyzed and the formula about it was derived.Some suggestions about highway construction,driving safety of the drivers and the judgment of the traffic accidents were presented.The results show that the adhesion coefficient is a function with the extreme value.If there is atmospheric pressure in the tire,the load of the vehicle and the degree of the coarse on the road surface is not selected properly,it will reach the least and affect the safety of the running automobile.

  9. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  10. The automobile after tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    This talk discusses the technical options available for automobiles within the next 5 to 10 years. With the objective to reduce consumption and pollution, several alternative approaches are presented and analyzed using simplified but realistic calculations. Main emphasis is laid on CO{sub 2} emission of the complete energy transformation path from the primary energy carrier to the energy dissipated in test cycles. It is shown that no single optimal solution exist but that a trade-off between consumption, pollution and cost must be made for each specific situation. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Code Recognition Device for Automobile, a Panacea for Automobiles Theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozomata David AHMED

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Code Recognition Device is a security device for automobiles. It responds only to the right sequence of codes that are keyed from the key pad. This closes the electrical circuitry of the automobile and enables it to start. If a wrong key is touched, it resets the device which disengages the electrical circuit of the automobile from the power supply. The device works properly on closing all the doors of the automobile, otherwise it cannot start. Also, once the automobile is in operation, opening of any door will disengage the device and the engine will stop. To restart the engine, the doors must be closed and the codes rendered sequentially-in this case the codes are 1974.

  12. Automobile Club CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club CERN

    2010-01-01

     L’Assemblée Générale Ordinaire de «L’Automobile Club du CERN» s’est tenue le mercredi 12 janvier 2010. Le Président, J. Pierlot, souhaite la bienvenue aux membres présents, annonce l’agenda et résume les activités et événements du club pour l’année 2009. Le Club compte environ 600 membres, une petite diminution par rapport aux précédentes années dû surtout aux départs anticipés à la retraite. La cotisation reste inchangée : 50 CHF. Notre trésorier, E. Squadrani, présente de façon détaillée la situation du compte d’exploitation pour 2009 ainsi que le bilan de l’Automobile Club. Les comptes sont équilibrés, la situation de la trés...

  13. [Medicolegal and compensation scientific approach to automobile accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Haruo

    2002-09-01

    Multiple injuries are frequently observed over the whole body of traffic victims in medico-legal autopsy cases. The assessment of a traffic casualty must include not only the victim but also the vehicle and the circumstances of the accident. Only consideration of all available data permits a better assessment of the mechanism of the crash and causation of injuries. J. M. Thevenet drove the first car carried from France to Japan on February 6, 1898. On October 28th, 1905, the first death by a road traffic accident occurred in Osaka. We performed a retrospective analysis of 279 traffic fatalities examined by medico-legal autopsy in Niigata that occurred over a twenty-two-year period from 1980 to 2001. All persons who had an ICD-10 code were grouped by 153 pedestrians, 43 pedal cyclists, 20 motorcycle riders, 45 car occupants, 11 occupants of pick-up trucks or vans, 4 occupants of heavy transport vehicles and 3 others. The average of ISS (injury scale score) is 40.7 in pedestrians, 26.7 in pedal cyclists, 32.4 in motorcycle riders, 25.1 in car occupants, 16.5 in occupants of pick-up trucks or vans, 24.0 in heavy transport vehicles and 69.0 in others. Rib fractures were observed in 170 cases (60.9%) and the frequency of other injuries was shown in Table 2. Criminal Punishment for drivers involved in 261 traffic accidents amounted to 35 sentences of imprisonment (13.4%), 46 suspension of execution of sentence (17.6%) and 60 sentence of fine (23.0%). Forty prone pedestrians run over by cars showed high ethanol levels in their blood. It was necessary to identify the driver of a vehicle in twelve car accidents and simulation with a computer is very useful. The average of ISS was 34.0 in ten drivers and 22.0 in fourteen fellow passengers. Four sudden natural deaths of drivers at the wheel, eight cases of death immediately after and from one day to five months after road traffic accidents, nine suicides and one intentional accident are excluded from traffic death. Both a

  14. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  15. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  16. "Electronic Procurement networks and Parts Transaction Systems: A Case of the Automobile Industry"(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Je-Wheon Oh; Takahiro Fujimoto

    2001-01-01

    Inter-firm information systems in the automobile industry have evolved from firm-specific networks to industrial standard networks and further to internet. This paper examines how electronic parts procurement systems in the automobile industry affected its patterns of inter-firm transactions through empirical studies on information networks, transaction systems, and architectural characteristics of automobile parts. We argue that choice of a certain parts transaction system tends to affect ch...

  17. Chery Automobile: Chinese Firms catching up

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Yang, Sheng Yun

    2015-01-01

    textabstractChery Automobile Co., Ltd. is one of the few private automobile companies in China. Compared to state automobile companies, it lacks adequate resources and state support; compared to joint-venture brands, it cannot leverage popular and profitable international models. Despite these obstacles, Chery has developed dramatically over the last decade, becoming the top automobile exporter among all automobile companies in China. Strategic alliances served as the foundation of its amazin...

  18. The Linguistic Features of English Automobile Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐

    2014-01-01

    Household cars are largely demanded today, stimulating the economic development throughout the automobile industry. To enlarge market, all automobile producers pay great efforts to advertisements which result in a large quantity of automobile advertisements. Due to the rare analysis on the linguistic features of automobile advertisements, this essay makes a specific study on this. Analysis will be done through the perspectives of the lexical level, the syntactic level and the rhetoric level. Hence, valid references could be offered to future automobile advertisers.

  19. Automobile Driving and Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Novaco, Raymond W.

    1991-01-01

    Automobile driving and aggressive behavior have had an extensive association. Themes of dominance and territoriality have long been part of automobile driving, which has also involved flagrant assaultive actions. Recent episodes of roadway violence in metropolitan areas have raised community concern about aggressive behavior in driving, although common beliefs about why such violence occurs can be seen as pseudoexplanations. Various themes in the psychology of aggression are presented as they...

  20. Multisensor Data Fusion Strategies for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ghahroudi, Mahdi Rezaei; Sabzevari, Reza

    2009-01-01

    As the cars play an important and wide spreading role in transportation systems of all countries, the chance of having accident is also greatly increased. A number of cars, automobiles, bicycles and also pedestrians may involve in such accidents which sometimes cause miserable disasters. This fact attracts increasing numbers of researchers to work on driver assistance systems to be installed on modern automobiles. Such systems involve lots of considerations ranging from technical to cultural ...

  1. Using Social Judgment Theory method to examine how experienced occupational therapy driver assessors use information to make fitness-to-drive recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Unsworth, C.; Harries, P; Davies, M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction - As people with a range of disabilities strive to increase their community mobility, occupational therapy driver assessors are increasingly required to make complex recommendations regarding fitness-to-drive. However, very little is known about how therapists use information to make decisions. The aim of this study was to model how experienced occupational therapy driver assessors weight and combine information when making fitness-to-drive recommendations and establish their lev...

  2. Head-up and head-down displays integration in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Agudelo, J. David

    2014-06-01

    In automotive industry, the dashboard has been ergonomically developed in order to keep the driver focused on the horizon while driving, but the possibility to access external electronic devices constraints the driver to turn away his face, generating dangerous situations in spite of the short periods of time. Therefore, this work explores the integration of Head-Up Displays and Head-Down Displays in automobiles, proposing configurations that give to drivers the facility to driving focused. In this way, some of the main ergonomic comments about those configurations are proposed; and also, some technical comments regarding the implemented arrangements are given.

  3. The Automobiles as Indoors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul Acar Vaizoglu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review we aimed to attract attention to toxic chemicals in cars and their effect on health. People spend most of their times in indoors such as houses, workplaces, malls, sport centers, train, transportation vehicles (train, plane, cars. In US, citizens spend nearly 100 minutes in cars per day. There are safety problems in cars except than seatbelt and airbag. Some of these are seats, furnishing, cushions for arm and head, floor covering, accessories and plastic parts. In a study conducted in Japan, more than 160 volatile organic compounds (VOC had been determined in new cars and a three years old car. Some of the pollutants are formaldehyde, toluen, xylene, ethylbenzene and styrene. Also Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, which may be degradated by sunshine in hot seasons are measured within the outomobiles. There is a big gap of studies about the pollutants in cars and researches have to be conducted. Manufacturers should use nonhazardous material or less toxic chemicals to reduce exposure of VOCs, PBDEs and phthalates. Drivers can reduce the these chemicals by using solar reflectors and avoiding to park under sunlight. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 665-672

  4. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  5. 49 CFR 176.90 - Private automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private automobiles. 176.90 Section 176.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... § 176.90 Private automobiles. A private automobile which is carrying any Class 1 (explosive)...

  6. Exposure to emissions from gasoline within automobile cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasoline is emitted from automobiles as uncombusted fuel and via evaporation. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) from gasoline are at higher levels in roadway air than in the surrounding ambient atmosphere and penetrate into automobile cabins, thereby exposing commuters to higher levels than they would experience in other microenvironments. Measurements of VOC concentrations and carbon monoxide were made within automobiles during idling, while driving on a suburban route in New Jersey, and on a commute to New York City. Concentrations of VOC from gasoline were determined to be elevated above the ambient background levels in all microenvironments while VOC without a gasoline source were not. The variability of VOC concentrations with location within the automobile was determined to be smaller than inter-day variability during idling studies. VOC and carbon monoxide levels within the automobile cabin differed among the different routes examined. The levels were related to traffic density and were inversely related to driving speed and wind speed. Overall, daily VOC exposure for gasoline-derived compounds during winter commuting in New Jersey was estimated to range between 5 and 20% and constituted between 15 and 40% of an individual's daily exposure based on comparison to urban and suburban settings, respectively. VOC exposure during commuting in Southern California was estimated to range between 15 and 60%

  7. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM AUTOMOBILE INTERIORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of six subcompact automobiles for the emission of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and other organics into the passenger compartment. Evaluated were a Ford Pinto, AMC Gremlin, GMC Vega, GMC Chevette, NMC Datsun 710, and VW Rabbit. VCM was qua...

  8. Making cars smarter: The growing role of electronics in automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas H. Klier; James M. Rubenstein

    2011-01-01

    Electronics make up nearly 40% of the content of today’s average new automobile, and their share will continue to grow. On June 2, 2011, as part of the eighteenth annual Automotive Outlook Symposium (AOS), the Chicago Fed hosted a panel of experts at its Detroit Branch to examine the current and future roles of electronics in motor vehicles.

  9. Stress testing German banks in a downturn in the automobile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Düllmann, Klaus; Erdelmeier, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we stress-test credit portfolios of 28 German banks based on a Mertontype multi-factor credit risk model. The ad-hoc stress scenario is an economic downturn in the automobile industry that constitutes an exceptional but plausible event suggested by historical data. Rather than on a particular stress forecast, the focus of the paper is on the main drivers of the stress impact on banks' credit portfolios. Although the percentage of loans in the automobile sector is relatively low ...

  10. Supplier Relationship in Product Development: A Survey of the Chinese Automobile Industry during the Growth Period, 2005-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Jooyoung Kwak; Hyunjoo Min; Peishan Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study compares supplier relationship by multinational assemblers in China vis-à-vis the Chinese assemblers in the stage of product development. We surveyed seven automobile firms (four international joint ventures and three Chinese firms) during 2005-2007, when the Chinese automobile industry began to rear up. Based on the survey, we examined the roles of suppliers, which is one of the critical dimensions in product development of the automobile industry. Our findings suggest that, durin...

  11. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jing; Qu, Weina; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes. PMID:26765225

  12. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  13. The automobile and environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocci, G.

    1979-10-01

    Actions taken by Expert's Group WP 29 of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe concerning the protection of the environment from automobile pollution are reported. Regulation 15, adopted by the group, establishes tests and sets limits for the amounts of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides emitted from internal combustion engine automobile exhaust and crankcases under urban and idling conditions. Regulation 29 specifies limits to the same pollutants emitted from diesel engines, to be determined by measurements of the opacity of exhaust fumes during constant engine operation and acceleration. Regulations limiting pollutant emissions from motorcycles and mopeds have also been established, and, while adherence to these regulations has already reduced vehicle emissions, research is continuing on stricter controls, fuel conservation, test standardization for the United States and Japan, and analysis sampling methods.

  14. Gaming concepts and incentives to change driver behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    McCall, Roderick; Koenig, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel concept that deals specifically with changing driver behaviour in order to reduce traffic congestion. The project I-GEAR (incentives and gaming environments for automobile routing) aims to understand the motivations that drivers have while undertaking the daily commute and then to provide them with a range of incentives to change their behaviour. A key focus within the project is on ways in which the problem could potentially be solved without recourse to an e...

  15. REAL TIME DROWSY DRIVER DETECTION USING HAARCASCADE SAMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Suryaprasad J; Sandesh D, Saraswathi V; Swathi D; Manjunath S

    2013-01-01

    With the growth in population, the occurrence of automobile accidents has also seen an increase. A detailed analysis shows that, around half million accidents occur in a year , in India alone. Further , around 60% of these accidents are caused due to driver fatigue. Driver fatigue affects the driving ability in the following 3 areas, a) It impairs coordination, b) It causes longer reaction times, and, c)It impairs judgment. Through this paper, we provide a real time monitoring ...

  16. PROSPECTS OF AUTOMOBILE TIRE RECYCLING

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Gusev; V. S. Demyanova

    2012-01-01

    Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize aut...

  17. Prelaunch Forecasting of New Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Glen L.; John R. Hauser; John H. Roberts

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a prelaunch model and measurement system to the marketing planning of a new automobile. The analysis addresses active search by consumers, dealer visits, word-of-mouth communication, magazine reviews, and production constraints---issues that are important in understanding consumer response to durable goods. We address these issues with a detailed consumer flow model which monitors and projects key consumer transitions in response to marketing actions. A test-vs...

  18. The dynamics of automobile expenditures

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, Adam

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for light motor vehicles. Consumers solve an optimal stopping problem in deciding if they want a new automobile and when in the model year to purchase it. This dynamic approach allows for determining how the mix of consumers evolves over the model year and for measuring consumers' substitution patterns across products and time. I find that temporal substitution is significant, driving consumers' entry into and exit from the market. Through counterfactuals, ...

  19. Electric automobil - wishes and reality

    OpenAIRE

    Duchoň, Bedřich; Opava, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    The demands on cars energy resources are given by the following items: power, speed, acceleration, operation range. All these factors are under balance: future wishes and contemporary reality. The proposal is dedicated to the analysis of demands related to the electric automobiles. As a hopefulness solution of these transport means can be seen for city transport (forwarding, shopping, postal services etc). The technical and economic approaches are discussed, too.

  20. Hybrid Voltage Regulator for Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sei-Ichi Denda; Tadashi Takahashi; Akihiro Sawamura

    1981-01-01

    In the course of the development of hybrid voltage regulators for automobile use, increasing the reverse blocking voltage with decreasing of saturation voltage for output power darlington transistors, the capability of monolithic IC chip against surge pulses generated in cars, and an improvement of the pattern design of thick film in order to withstand temperature cycling, have been important subjects. Power darlingtons have more than 150 V of reverse voltage as well as large secondary breakd...

  1. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  2. Environmental implications of the automobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are over 12 million automobiles in Canada, each travelling over 16,000 km annually. The value of motor vehicles and parts produced in Canada accounts for over 6% of the gross domestic product, and vehicle-related sales account for the largest proportion of Canadian retail activity. The environmental issues related to the high impact of the automobile on Canadian life are discussed. In the manufacture of motor vehicles, over 2 billion kg of metal are used a year; although much of this comes from recycled materials, some depletion of nonrenewable resources is required. It is also estimated that 66-105 GJ of energy are needed to produce a motor vehicle, equivalent to as much as 20% of all the energy consumed during the vehicle's lifetime. Environmental impacts result from this use of resources and energy, including land disturbances and air pollution. Land use impacts are also those related to appropriation of urban and rural land for roadway and service uses, plus pollution of adjoining lands by road runoff. In 1990, the transportation sector used 29% of end-use energy, of which retail gasoline sales for motor vehicles accounted for 54%. Environmental impacts from oil refining, fuel combustion, and waste disposal are described, and programs to mitigate these impacts are outlined. Significant reductions in automobile emissions have already occurred from the increased use of emission control devices, improved fuel efficiency, and stricter standards. Further improvements are possible via such means as better manufacturing procedures, increased recycling of automobile components, better inspection and maintenance, and use of alternative fuels and alternate transportation modes. 35 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Older Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Divisions Staff Visitor Information Contact Us FAQs Stay Connected Home » Older Drivers Heath and Aging Older ... She’s noticed a few new dents on her car and doesn’t know how they got there. ...

  4. Older Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be more older drivers on the road. A Complex Task Click for more information Driving is a ... common for people to have declines in visual, thinking, or physical abilities as they get older. As ...

  5. Automobile - environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The way balances have been drawn up by business companies until now, they can be regarded as an attempt to develop an instrument for environmental management within the company that makes it possible to examine the ecological effects of the manufactured products during their life cycle. The strong points of such ecobalances can be put to use in the following areas in the future: Information on products and processes obtained through an analysis of the weakest points of the production process can be used for puposes of environmental management. With the aid of such examinations for weak points it then becomes possible to optimise products or processes. Comparative studies extending over years permit an assessment of corporate measures for environment protection and process adjustment. Moreover, ecobalances can serve as a guide for the selection of component concepts. The advantage of a balance related to the whole life cycle lies above all in the fact that the piecemeal studies on energy consumption and waste accumulation by stage can now be replaced by an integral, comprehensive registration of data and processes. (orig./UA)

  6. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  7. The Automobile Buyer Behaviour: Emotional or Rational?

    OpenAIRE

    Economist Phd. Candidate CRUCERU Gheorghe; Assistant Professor Phd. Candidate MICUDA Dan

    2010-01-01

    The automobile buyer’s behaviour is a specific one and the knowledge and understanding of the motivations is important for the automobile manufacturers and distributors. Automobile buyers are the beneficiaries of complex high technology products, which have a long-term use. The paper is focused on understanding the mechanisms that underlie the buying process, the buyers’ expectations and needs, as essential elements for producers and distributors. When these mechanisms are controlled, the com...

  8. Automobile Fuel Economy: What is it Worth?

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Santosh; Espey, Molly

    2004-01-01

    The marginal value of increased automobile fuel economy is estimated using a hedonic model of 2001 model year automobiles sold in the United States. This value is then compared to the average expected lifetime fuel savings attributable to increased fuel economy. Results indicate that automobile buyers fully internalize fuel cost savings attributable to improved fuel economy at low discount rates, and may partially internalize other perceived benefits of improved fuel economy such as reduction...

  9. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (...

  10. The construction of a Danish automobile culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation.......The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation....

  11. The Emergence of the Chinese Automobile Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Baker; Markus Hyvonen

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese automobile sector has experienced rapid growth over the past decade, with China recently becoming the world’s largest producer of automobiles. Given the steel-intensive nature of automobile production, the expansion of China’s automobile sector has seen it become an important end-user of steel. With the number of cars in China still very low relative to its large population, car sales are likely to remain at a high level for the foreseeable future; accordingly, Chinese car mak...

  12. Support by Warning or by Action : Which is Appropriate under Mismatches between Driver Intent and Traffic Conditions?

    OpenAIRE

    Inagaki, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Makoto; NAGAI, Yoshitomo

    2007-01-01

    This paper tries to answer the following question: What type of support should be given to an automobile driver when it is determined, via some method to monitor the driver's behavior and the traffic environment, that the driver's intent may not be appropriate to a traffic condition? With a medium fidelity, moving-base driving simulator, three conditions were compared: (a) Warning type support in which an auditory warning is given to the driver to enhance his/her situation recognition, (b) ac...

  13. Examining Atmospheric and Ecological Drivers of Wildfires, Modeling Wildfire Occurrence in the Southwest United States, and Using Atmospheric Sounding Observations to Verify National Weather Service Spot Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauslar, Nicholas J.

    This dissertation is comprised of three different papers that all pertain to wildland fire applications. The first paper performs a verification analysis on mixing height, transport winds, and Haines Index from National Weather Service spot forecasts across the United States. The final two papers, which are closely related, examine atmospheric and ecological drivers of wildfire for the Southwest Area (SWA) (Arizona, New Mexico, west Texas, and Oklahoma panhandle) to better equip operational fire meteorologists and managers to make informed decisions on wildfire potential in this region. The verification analysis here utilizes NWS spot forecasts of mixing height, transport winds and Haines Index from 2009-2013 issued for a location within 50 km of an upper sounding location and valid for the day of the fire event. Mixing height was calculated from the 0000 UTC sounding via the Stull, Holzworth, and Richardson methods. Transport wind speeds were determined by averaging the wind speed through the boundary layer as determined by the three mixing height methods from the 0000 UTC sounding. Haines Index was calculated at low, mid, and high elevation based on the elevation of the sounding and spot forecast locations. Mixing height forecasts exhibited large mean absolute errors and biased towards over forecasting. Forecasts of transport wind speeds and Haines Index outperformed mixing height forecasts with smaller errors relative to their respective means. The rainfall and lightning associated with the North American Monsoon (NAM) can vary greatly intra- and inter-annually and has a large impact on wildfire activity across the SWA by igniting or suppressing wildfires. NAM onset thresholds and subsequent dates are determined for the SWA and each Predictive Service Area (PSA), which are sub-regions used by operational fire meteorologists to predict wildfire potential within the SWA, April through September from 1995-2013. Various wildfire activity thresholds using the number

  14. Approaches of truck drivers and non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Eldror, Ehud; Shahar, Amit

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the reported approaches of truck drivers to those of non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behaviors. One hundred and sixty-seven adult males, including 70 non-truck drivers, completed the questionnaires voluntarily. The truck drivers were employees of a concrete manufacturing company working at various company plants throughout Israel. Seventy were professional mixer truckers and 27 were tip-truckers. The participants completed the Reckless Driving Self-Report Scale based on Taubman Ben-Ari et al. [Taubman Ben-Ari, O., Florian, V., Mikulincer, M., 1999. The impact of mortality salience on reckless driving: a test of terror management mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76, 35-45], adapted for truck drivers for this study. It was expected that non-professional, as compared to professional (truck) drivers, would be more permissive regarding reckless driving, since driving risks are less prominent in their daily driving experience. An ANOVA performed on mean reckless-driving scores yielded significant results. The post hoc Schéffe test indicated significantly higher reckless-driving scores for automobile drivers as compared to both mixer-truck driver scores and tip-truck driver scores. In addition, the reckless-driving scores for mixer-truck drivers were significantly higher than the tip-truck driver scores. We discuss various explanations for the findings and consider possible implications for training strategies in organizations as well as for media campaigns focused on mutual safe road use of truck drivers and private vehicle drivers. PMID:19540960

  15. The effects of focused attention training on the duration of novice drivers' glances inside the vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, A K; Divekar, G; Masserang, K; Romoser, M; Zafian, T; Blomberg, R D; Thomas, F D; Reagan, I; Knodler, M; Pollatsek, A; Fisher, D L

    2011-10-01

    Several studies have documented that the failure of drivers to attend to the forward roadway for a period lasting longer than 2-3 s is a major cause of highway crashes. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated that novice drivers are more likely to glance away from the roadway than the experienced drivers for extended periods when attempting to do a task inside the vehicle. The present study examines the efficacy of a PC-based training programme (FOrward Concentration and Attention Learning, FOCAL) designed to teach novice drivers not to glance away forthese extended periods of time. A FOCAL-trained group was compared with a placebo-trained group in an on-road test, and the FOCAL-trained group made significantly fewer glances away from the roadway that were more than 2 s than the placebo-trained group. Other measures indicated an advantage for the FOCAL-trained group as well. Statement of relevance: Distracted driving is increasingly a problem, as cell phones, navigation systems, and other in-vehicle devices are introduced into the cabin of the automobile. A training programme is described that has beentested on the open road and can reduce the behaviours that lead to crashes caused by the distracted driving. PMID:21973003

  16. Cars Gone Wild: The Major Contributor to Unintended Acceleration in Automobiles is Pedal Error

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Richard A.; Young, Douglas E.

    2010-01-01

    “Unintended-acceleration” automobile accidents typically begin when the driver first enters the car, starts the engine, and intends to press his/her right foot on the brake while shifting from Park to a drive gear (Drive or Reverse). The driver reports an unintended (uncommanded) full-throttle acceleration, coupled with a loss of braking, until the episode ends in a crash. Pedal misapplications – where the right foot contacts the accelerator instead of the brake that was intended – have been ...

  17. Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Le groupe Volkswagen, 1er constructeur européen, a récemment annoncé vouloir défier le leader mondial Toyota. Dans ce contexte, les conclusions du suivi scientifique des profondes réformes de l’organisation du travail chez VW tombent à point nommé. Le programme Auto 5000 adopté par les partenaires sociaux en juin 2006 pourrait être la réplique allemande à ce « toyotisme » sur lequel Toyota a construit sa nouvelle compétitivité. (ib)

  18. PROSPECTS OF AUTOMOBILE TIRE RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Gusev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The legislative system of legal handling of waste in the Russian Fed-eration is focused on governing the handling waste as an environment pollutant. There is almost no legal regulations for handling waste as secondary material resources. Therefore, there is a pressing need to describe directions to be taken in the recycling of automobile tires.Results and conclusions. The system of legal regulations for handling wastes has been analyzed. A growing need to utilize automobile tires has been indicated. Physical and mechanical indicators have been established and the residual durability of metal cord as a product of tire processing has been evaluated. The comparative analysis with an industrial fiber has been carried out. The most technological and economic directions to be taken in the recycling of rubber scraps in order to do-mestically manufacture tile and of metal cord to manufacture fiber-concrete of various types are suggested for a “floating floor” structure.

  19. Your Automobile Dollar, [Revised.] Money Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Law, Jean L., Ed.

    This booklet on automobile purchasing and maintenance, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook discusses buying, maintaining, and operating cars. Section 1 discusses managing automobile dollars. Topics include…

  20. Determinants of EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) Adoption and Integration in the US and Japanese Automobile Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Kurokawa; Seiji Manabe

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of EDI adoption and integration in the US and Japanese automobile suppliers. The paper constructs several hypotheses based on the transaction-cost and resource- dependence approaches, and tests these hypotheses by using data from the automobile suppliers. Our study shows: (1) the resource-dependence approach seemed more effective in explaining EDI adoption, while the transaction-cost approach seemed more effective in explaining EDI integration; (2) the transac...

  1. Examination of Abiotic Drivers and Their Influence on Spartina alterniflora Biomass over a Twenty-Eight Year Period Using Landsat 5 TM Satellite Imagery of the Central Georgia Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. R. O’Donnell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of abiotic drivers on inter-annual and phenological patterns of aboveground biomass for Marsh Cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, on the Central Georgia Coast. The linkages between drivers and plant response via soil edaphic factors are captured in our graphical conceptual model. We used geospatial techniques to scale up in situ measurements of aboveground S. alterniflora biomass to landscape level estimates using 294 Landsat 5 TM scenes acquired between 1984 and 2011. For each scene we extracted data from the same 63 sampling polygons, containing 1222 pixels covering about 1.1 million m2. Using univariate and multiple regression tests, we compared Landsat derived biomass estimates for three S. alterniflora size classes against a suite of abiotic drivers. River discharge, total precipitation, minimum temperature, and mean sea level had positive relationships with and best explained biomass for all dates. Additional results, using seasonally binned data, indicated biomass was responsive to changing combinations of variables across the seasons. Our 28-year analysis revealed aboveground biomass declines of 33%, 35%, and 39% for S. alterniflora tall, medium, and short size classes, respectively. This decline correlated with drought frequency and severity trends and coincided with marsh die-backs events and increased snail herbivory in the second half of the study period.

  2. Study of automobile exhaust particles by spectromicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper,automobile exhaust particles of Gol and Santana 3000 were studied by spectro microscopy. The STXM results show that the single particulate is sized at 500 nm, with the mass distribution reducing towards the center. The N 1s NEXAFS spectra of automobile exhaust particles have similar structure with those of nitrates, which can be deduced as the main chemical species of nitrogen in automobile exhaust particles. There are minor amounts of ammonium and organic nitrogen compounds in automobile exhaust particles. A single Gol automobile exhaust particle was stack scanned in the energy range of 396-416 eV. By principal component analysis and cluster analysis, it can be deduced that there are main three chemical species of nitrogen. The particle surface consists of mainly nitrates, the inside consists of mainly ammonium and organic nitrogen compounds, and the middle layer is an inter gradation consisting of mainly nitrates and organic nitrogen compounds. (authors)

  3. Profit and Concentration in Commercial Automobile Insurance Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Vickie L. Bajtelsmit; Raja Bouzouita

    1998-01-01

    Pricing of commercial insurance has generally been thought to be more competitive than that of personal insurance. For this reason, there has been little academic interest in the impact of market structure on insurer profitability for these lines, despite findings of such a relationship in other lines. This study examines whether such a relationship exists for commercial automobile insurance and finds that states with higher levels of concentration have higher average profit margins. This is ...

  4. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic perspecti

  5. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, R.

    2013-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic perspecti

  6. Energy and economic evaluation of policies for accelerated investment in efficient automobiles. [Jack Faucett Automobile Sector Forecasting Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Walter; Carhart, Steven C.; McGranahan, Gordon; Mulherkar, Shirish S.

    1978-08-01

    This report examines the effect of an energy-conservation policy that imposes excise taxes on cars having low fuel efficiency, coupled with a rebate on cars having high fuel efficiency. Two oil price cases are considered. The Jack Faucett Automobile Sector Forecasting Model is used to measure direct effects. The Brookhaven National Laboratory-University of Illinois Input-Output/Linear Programming model is used for economy-wide effects and impact on employment.

  7. Current problems and solutions of driver improvement in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Nagatsuka, Yasuhiro; 長塚, 康弘

    2001-01-01

    Considering the recent increasing tendency of traffic accidents in Japan, it seems urgently necessary for us to "improve drivers' behavior" by driver training for future accident reduction. In order to clarify what should be instructed in the training for safe driving, a driver training system was examined. It was pointed out that both beginner drivers and the licensed drivers were not yet adequately trained to be useful as safe drivers in considering especially the situations that beginner d...

  8. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Pop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  9. Driver face recognition as a security and safety feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Volker; Giefing, Gerd-Juergen; Mai, Rudolf; Weisser, Hubert

    1995-09-01

    We present a driver face recognition system for comfortable access control and individual settings of automobiles. The primary goals are the prevention of car thefts and heavy accidents caused by unauthorized use (joy-riders), as well as the increase of safety through optimal settings, e.g. of the mirrors and the seat position. The person sitting on the driver's seat is observed automatically by a small video camera in the dashboard. All he has to do is to behave cooperatively, i.e. to look into the camera. A classification system validates his access. Only after a positive identification, the car can be used and the driver-specific environment (e.g. seat position, mirrors, etc.) may be set up to ensure the driver's comfort and safety. The driver identification system has been integrated in a Volkswagen research car. Recognition results are presented.

  10. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  11. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  12. The rolling and skidding of automobile tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, D.

    1994-09-01

    This article deals in simple terms with the rolling and skidding of automobile tyres. It shows that skid resistance on slippery road surfaces may be significantly increased by using tyre treads of high hysteresis loss.

  13. Information searches by consumers of miniature automobiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dao-ping; LIU Wei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the information search behaviors of Chinese consumers of miniature automobiles. First, we identified the main sources where consumers acquire or seek information about miniature automobiles and discussed their extent of information search. Then, based on logistic regression and optimal scaling regression of statistics, we studied the influences of characteristics of consumers of miniature automobiles on the extent of information search and on Internet usage. The results indicate that consumers often utilize four sources to obtain information about miniature automobiles. The dominant information source for consumers is their friends/family, followed by dealers, newspapers, and TV. Age, occupation, education and income significantly affect the extent of information search, but gender and city of residence do not have significant impacts. Age, city of residence, occupation, education and income produce significant influences on Internet usage. Gender has an insignificant influence on whether a consumer uses the Internet to search for information.

  14. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  15. CHOICE OF STRATEGY DIVERSIFICATION ON AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Bilichenko, V.; Tsymbal, S.

    2005-01-01

    The block diagram which with use of imitating modelling will allow to choose optimum strategy diversification the enterprises of automobile transport is developed, having received the maximal profit at the minimal expenses.

  16. The Honey Trap:The democratization of leisure through automobilism

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Michael F. Wagner: The Honey Trap –The democratization of leisure through automobilismThe automobile has achieved a central position in modern everyday life as an essential artefact to mobility. This raises the question how automobiles have been mediated for mass consumption? The central thesis in the article is that the culture of Danish automobilism was constructed around and appropriated through leisure activities conducted primarily by the automobile consumer’s organisation Touring Club d...

  17. China's Automobile:Walk into Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The press conference and flag presentation ceremony of the 6th China Auto International fAlgeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour was held on November 3,2008 at China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT),Beijing.An international exhibition automobile team,which is composed of China's independent brands and represents the independent research,development and manufacturing level of Chinese automobile industry,is ready to set out for Africa.

  18. Competition in the IndianAutomobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Gagandeep

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT “Following India's growing openness, the arrival of new and existing models, easy availability of finance at relatively low rate of interest and price discounts offered by the dealers and manufacturers all have stirred the demand for vehicles and a strong growth of the Indian automobile industry”. The main focus of my dissertation will be the Indian automobile industry due to its rich diversity and ever-changing patterns. The Research Question which I would follow would be t...

  19. “Separation -A Better Tomorrow-Economy” A Study of Marketing Strategies On Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Chakravarty

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Automobile is one of the largest industries in global market. Being the leader in product and process technologies in the manufacturing sector, it has been recognized as one of the drivers of economic growth. During the last decade, well directed efforts have been made to provide a new look to the automobile policy for realizing the sector's full potential for the economy. Aggressive marketing by the auto finance companies have also played a significant role in boosting automobile demand, especially from the population in the middle income group. This study is been conducted to know the different strategic implementation done for the sale increase in automobile company. The study is been scoped to north eastern region comprising of Jorhat, Sibsagar, Kolkata, Dharmanagar, Agartala, Silchar, Shillong, Umsnai and Guwahati City for Hero Moto Corp and Bajaj. The data followed with primary as well as secondary means. The researcher seeks for the betterment of sales of these bikes and also initiates recommendation related to marketing strategies to help increase their sales.

  20. 77 HHz radar for automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Lyashuk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern requirements to safety and comfort of drivers and passengers of a car cause continuous development of corresponding technical facilities. Technologies that provide implementation of these requirements are on the first place for the developers of cars. One of the most important requirement is an analysis of road situation, where various sensors are used. One of them is radar. Principle of action, basic parameters and application of radar RS-200 is considered in this article. Radar is used in modern cars of brand Mersedes Benz and works on frequency 77 HHz. It uses the LFM (linear frequency modulation with the programmatic setting of resolution for distance.

  1. Motivational drivers of behavioral online brand engagement in content consumption context : examining brand commitment and trust in online content as moderators

    OpenAIRE

    Hepola, Janne

    2015-01-01

    The Internet has become increasingly important for companies in recent years. However, online environment possesses many challenges for both managers and researchers. Moreover, it is not until recently engagement concept has begun to emerge in the marketing literature. However, it is known that engagement has a strong influence on many favorable customer outcomes. Thus, engagement is a fruitful research topic in online environment. The purpose of this explanatory study is to examine behaviora...

  2. REAL TIME DROWSY DRIVER DETECTION USING HAARCASCADE SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Suryaprasad J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With the growth in population, the occurrence of automobile accidents has also seen an increase. A detailed analysis shows that, around half million accidents occur in a year , in India alone. Further , around 60% of these accidents are caused due to driver fatigue. Driver fatigue affects the driving ability in the following 3 areas, a It impairs coordination, b It causes longer reaction times, and, cIt impairs judgment. Through this paper, we provide a real time monitoring system using image processing, face/eye detection techniques. Further, to ensure real-time computation, Haarcascade samples are used to differentiate between an eye blink and drowsy/fatigue detection.

  3. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska; Jadwiga Siedlecka; Elżbieta Gadzicka; Agata Szyjkowska; Marta Dania; Piotr Viebig; Marcin Kosobudzki; Alicja Bortkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years). Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before...

  4. Characterizing the Effects of Driver Variability on Real-World Vehicle Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Holmén, Britt; Niemeier, Debbie

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies on real-world automobile emissions measurements have not adequately addressed the question of whether driving style affects emission levels. In this study, we hypothesized that given the same experimental conditions and a random selection of drivers, the variability associated with individual driving styles (e.g. intensity or duration of acceleration events) would produce statistically significant differences in measured emissions. To test this driver variability hypothesis, we...

  5. Renewing Marketing Strategy in Kenyan Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliokuusi, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies how to renew existing marketing strategies for case company; in so doing, the thesis fulfills its main objective. Company X, a market leader in the Kenyan automobile sector and has various well-known brands under their corporate umbrella. The automobile industry in Kenya has faced some hardship with steady decline in sales in the last couple of years and Mercedes-Benz as a brand suffered under the circumstances. One major cause of the drop in sales is due to the influx of ...

  6. Modeling of Electromagnetic Damper for Automobile Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Suda, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Hirofumi; Kondo, Takuhiro

    In this paper, the modeling of the electromagnetic damper (EMD) for automobile suspension is presented and the validation of the model is demonstrated by comparing the numerical results with the experimental results obtained using shaker tests. EMD is used as an active suspension and controlled to have output force calculated from velocities of sprung and unsprung masses. The formulation of EMD system for active suspensions is first developed, and the validation of the EMD model is demonstrated by experiments of the EMD for automobile suspensions. The validity of the formulation of the EMD developed in this investigation is shown for the frequency responses as well as energy balance for its active use.

  7. Automobile Exhaust Pollution and Purification Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    As we all know, the automobile gas exhaust pollution has become more and more severe at recent years. It influences both to the human beings health and to quality of environment. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what are the main components of the exhaust gases, and give a basic and effective way to solve the problem. In this thesis, first the danger of exhaust pollution and its components will be presented. Then the writer will give the general mechanism of automobile exhaust ...

  8. WAYS AND PERSPECTIVES OF TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT ON AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Bilichenko, V.; Smyrnov, E.

    2005-01-01

    Modern conditions of enterprise on automobile transport are analyzed. Technical development of enterprise on automobile transport as one of the ways of increasing competitive abilities and there profits is considered.

  9. Corneal abrasion and alkali burn secondary to automobile air bag inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Scarlett, Angela; Gee, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A 59‐year‐old woman self presented to the emergency department with a painful right eye following a motor vehicle accident. She had reduced visual acuity and the eye had an alkaline pH with complete corneal uptake of fluorescein. Diagnosis of corneal abrasion and alkali burn to her right eye secondary to inflation of a driver's automobile airbag was made. The eye was irrigated with normal saline. Such injuries, although rare, can easily be identified within the emergency department by the his...

  10. A STUDY ON ASYNCHRONOUS SERIAL COMMUNICATON BETWEEN COMPONENTS IN AUTOMOBILES

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, Yaşar Güneri

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACTIn connection with the developments in the automobile sector, the number of in-automobile components, the amount of cable used for providing in-automobile communication between these components and costs are increased gradually. In this study, a method is presented in which asynchronous serial connection is used for decreasing the initial and maintenance costs by means of decreasing the amount of cables used in middle and lower class automobiles. The electronic circuits required to es...

  11. The Strategic Transformation of Automobile Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Som Techakanjanakit; Meifang Huang

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, the global automobile industry is developing difficultly because of the influence from the financial crisis. In contrast, China's automobile production and sales are still having a blowout type growth, and jumped into the world's largest automobile production and sales market. At the same time, Chinese automobile companies continue to deepen and join with international brand cooperation; independent research and development of the independent brand production, and their...

  12. Research on automobile culture and entertainment industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li Qing-song; Tang Lan; Cai Yun

    2012-01-01

    Rapid development of the automotive Industry and culture Industry is promoted the rapid rise of automobile industry of the culture and entertainment. With the further development of the automobile industry and people's living standards, automobile industry of the culture and entertainment in the proportion of China's economy is more and more important, but theoretical research in this area is nearly blank. With previous researches, automobile industry of the culture and entertainment in China...

  13. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  14. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding...

  15. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  16. Trends in occurrence of drugs of abuse in blood and urine of arrested drivers and drug traffickers in the border region of Aachen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiwy-Bochat, K H; Bogusz, M; Vega, J A; Althoff, H

    1995-01-21

    The region of Aachen is located in a triangle on the German, Dutch and Belgian borders and is heavily exposed to drug traffic, due to the differences in national drug policies. The analysis of toxicological casework in the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Aachen was undertaken for the period 1987-1993, i.e. 6 years before and 1 year after the partial suspension of the border control due to the Maastricht Treaty; 2653 cases were registered, among them 988 automobile drivers. The profile of the casework has changed after the opening of the border: up to 1992 most cases were obtained from the customs. In 1993 the prevalence of police samples was noticed. In the population of drivers, blood samples were only taken in 30% of all the cases. In other cases, concerning mainly motorized drug smugglers, only urine samples or seized drugs have been sent for examination. The urine samples in this group were mostly drug-positive. Drug-smuggling drivers appeared to be a risk-generating group for road traffic safety. The analyses of blood and urine samples revealed multiple drug use in most of the cases. Since 1992, a steep increase in the frequency of cocaine-positive blood samples among drivers was noticed. The results of the study indicate that the abolition of the border control affected the road traffic safety in the region of Aachen. PMID:7875616

  17. Cognitive characteristics of older Japanese drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilowati Indri H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some causes of accidents among older drivers are: not paying attention to traffic signals; missing stop lines; and having to deal with and misjudging emergency situations. These causes of accidents reveal problems with attention and cognition. Such incidents are also related to driver perception and stress-coping mechanisms. It is important to examine the relation of stress reactions to attention and cognition as a factor influencing the causes of accidents commonly involving older drivers. Finding Subjects were 10 young drivers (23.3 ± 3.33 years and 25 older drivers divided into two groups (older1 [60 to 65 years] and older2 [> 65 years]. This study revealed the correlation within driver stress inventory and driver coping questionnaires parameters was observed only in older drivers. They also needed a longer response time for Trail Making Test A and B. The factors affected the attention and cognition of older drivers by age but not driving experience itself, and coping parameters such as emotion focus, reappraisal, and avoidance were not included as stress inventory parameters. Being prone to fatigue was less for younger drivers than older drivers. Because they have shorter distances, shorter drive times, and no need for expressways, older drivers also had a significantly lower risk of thrill-seeking behaviour and more patience. Conclusion The intervention addressing their attention skills, aggressive feelings, and emotion focus should be considered. The technological improvements in cars will make older drivers feel safer and make driving easier which might lower the attention paid to the road, and regular driving training might be needed to assess and enhance their safety.

  18. IFE Power Plant design principles. Drivers. Solid state laser drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of solid state laser drivers for an inertial confinement thermonuclear fusion power plant is discussed. In particular, the feasibility of laser diode pumped solid state laser drivers from both the technical and economic points of view is briefly reviewed. Conceptual design studies showed that they can, in principle, satisfy the design requirements. However, development of new solid state materials with long fluorescence lifetimes and good thermal characteristics is a key issue for laser diode pumped solid state lasers. With the advent of laser diode pumping many materials which were abandoned in the past can presently be reconsidered as viable candidates. It is also concluded that it is important to examine the technical requirements for solid state lasers in relation to target performance criteria. The progress of laser diode pumped lasers in industrial applications should also be closely watched to provide additional information on the economic feasibility of this type of driver. 15 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Plant maintenance management practices in automobile industries: a retrospective and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Pophaley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper endeavors to present a classification, review and analysis of the literature on Plant Maintenance Management Practices (PMMP employed in Automobile Industries. There is a considerable amount of published research available concerning plant maintenance during the last few decades. Similarly many research articles are available which focuses on various aspects of automobile industries. However, very few studies focus on critical examination of maintenance practices in Automobile Industries in particular. Hence considering the slump in automobile industries in the recent times, a wide-ranging and focused review is attempted here and only those researches have been examined which mainly concentrates on this core aspect. Thus one of the objectives of this literature review is to investigate the present state of Plant Maintenance Management Practices, based on studies conducted in different countries and published in a variety of journals over the past two decades. An examination of 55 pertinent research studies have shown that the publications can be grouped in two categories namely Conceptual and Empirical Research. An analysis of these research articles published between 1990 and 2008, revealed that current maintenance practices ranges from conventional to the latest techniques for optimizing maintenance function like TPM, RCM and Proactive Maintenance. These studies focused more on maintenance problem solving and the main difficulties are reported along with probable solutions. Another goal of the paper is to analyze the articles by year and type of journal they were published in, to determine the trends in maintenance management studies and recommend future direction for research.

  20. Heavy ion driver technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major differences between fusion drivers and traditional accelerators include the following. The final beam current needed (/approximately/20 kA in a short pulse) is very much larger for a driver; such beams are dominated by repulsive space-charge effects since, even at 10 GeV, the ions are non-relativistic (v/c = 0.3). Also, the optical quality of the beams (called emittance by accelerator people) must be extremely good to ensure a suitably small focal spot at the pellet. Two schemes, one with a rf linac and storage rings, the other with a single-pass current-amplifying induction linac, are under study, the latter exclusively in the US. The induction linac approach lends itself to an examination in a sequence of scaled-down laboratory experiments since the most difficulties are expected to occur at the low energy end. Experiments and simulation have centered on a study of the transverse and longitudinal control of space-charge-dominated beams which are best described in terms of a non-neutral plasma rather than the traditional single-particle dynamics picture. An understanding of the high-current instability limits is required for arriving at a safe driver design. The final on-target beam current is so high that it must be carried in 16 separate focusing channels leading into the combustion chamber. While the energy deposition of the ions is expected to be entirely classical, there is a wealth of plasma physics phenomena to be explored (by theory and simulation) in the final propagation of these beams through the low-density gas in the chamber and in the environment of the hot target; it is important that none of these could result in a significant portion of the beam missing the focal spot. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  1. Social Sustainability Issues and Older Adults’ Dependence on Automobiles in Low-Density Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Nakanishi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An implicit assumption underlying government strategies to achieve a more sustainable urban transportation system is that all automobile users will be encouraged or persuaded to use more “green” transportation: public transportation, walking and cycling. Little consideration has been given as to how sustainable transportation policies and programmess might impact on different age groups in society, including those retired or semi-retired, despite the fact that an unprecedented number of older drivers will be on the highways in the next few decades. There is limited literature on the contextual factors behind their continued reliance on automobiles, their actual driving behavior (e.g., route choice and time of day to drive framed within the context of social sustainability. This paper introduces the elements of transportation and social sustainability then conducts a comprehensive international literature review focusing on older drivers, their travel choices and associated social sustainability issues. It describes a case study, low-density city and presents empirical evidence, from two surveys conducted in Canberra, Australia. The paper concludes with future research directions that address these issues associated with sustainable transportation.

  2. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  3. Measurement of driver calibration and the impact of feedback on drivers' estimates of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Shannon C; Horrey, William J; Liang, Yulan

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies focused on driver calibration show that drivers are often miscalibrated, either over confident or under confident, and the magnitude of this miscalibration changes under different conditions. Previous work has demonstrated behavioral and performance benefits of feedback, yet these studies have not explicitly examined the issue of calibration. The objective of this study was to examine driver calibration, i.e., the degree to which drivers are accurately aware of their performance, and determine whether feedback alters driver calibration. Twenty-four drivers completed a series of driving tasks (pace clocks, traffic light, speed maintenance, and traffic cones) on a test track. Drivers drove three different blocks around the test track: (1) baseline block, where no participants received feedback; (2) feedback block, where half of the participants received performance feedback while the other half received no feedback; (3) a no feedback block, where no participants received feedback. Results indicated that across two different calibration measures, drivers were sufficiently calibrated to the pace clocks, traffic light, and traffic cone tasks. Drivers were not accurately aware of their performance regarding speed maintenance, though receiving feedback on this task improved calibration. Proper and accurate measurements of driver calibration are needed before designing performance feedback to improve calibration as these feedback systems may not always yield the intended results. PMID:26771893

  4. The influence of ambient light on the driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Karsten D.; Lemmer, Uli

    2008-04-01

    Increasingly, cars are fitted with interior ambient lighting which is switched on while driving. This special kind of interior light emphasizes the interior design of the car, it makes a car look special and gives the buyers a new option to personalize their automobiles. But how does ambient interior light influence the driver? We conducted a series of over 50 tests to study the influence of interior ambient light on contrast perception under different illumination levels, colors and positions of the illuminated areas. Our tests show that in many cases the ambient lighting can improve the visual contrast for seeing objects in the headlamp beam. But the test persons mentioned that the tested brightness looked too bright and that they felt glared. The measured values instead proved that no disability glare exists. Therefore, provided that the drivers can adjust the intensity of the ambient light to avoid glare, the ambient light has no negative effect on the drivers' contrast perception.

  5. Hybridní pohon automobilů

    OpenAIRE

    Tvrdý, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Obsahem této bakalářské práce je přehled možných hybridních pohonů automobilů a jejich praktické využití. Je zaměřena na hlavní výhody a nevýhody hybridního pohonu a zabývá se dopadem takto vybavených automobilů na životní prostředí, především na produkci skleníkových plynů. Také uvádí pohled na hybridy z finančního hlediska. This bachelor thesis deals with an overview of all possible hybrid vehicle propulsion systems and their practical usage. It is focused on the main advantages and disa...

  6. Amarok Pikap: interactive percussion playing automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Artut, Selçuk Hüseyin; Artut, Selcuk Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Alternative interfaces that imitate the audio-structure of authentic musical instruments are often equipped with sound generation techniques that feature physical attributes similar to those of the instruments they imitate. Amarok Pikap project utilizes an interactive system on the surface of an automobile that is specially modified with the implementation of various electronic sensors attached to its bodywork. Sur-faces that will be struck to produce sounds in percussive instrument modeling ...

  7. Estimation of Claim Numbers in Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Arató, Miklós; Martinek, László

    2012-01-01

    The use of bonus-malus systems in compulsory liability automobile insurance is a worldwide applied method for premium pricing. If certain assumptions hold, like the conditional Poisson distribution of the policyholders claim number, then an interesting task is to evaluate the so called claims frequency of the individuals. Here we introduce 3 techniques, two is based on the bonus-malus class, and the third based on claims history. The article is devoted to choose the method, which fits to the ...

  8. THE COST OF INACCURATE AUTOMOBILE MILEAGE INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sexauer, Benjamin; Roe, Terry L.; Kinsey, Jean D.

    1981-01-01

    The model in this paper integrates the possibility of misinformation into consumer utility theory. If the utility realized from a good differs from the utility anticipated at time of purchase, shifts in demand would occur, and thus changes in consumer surplus. These changes provide a measure of the cost of misinformation or value of improved information. The empirical analysis yields estimates of the private and social cost of inaccuracies in automobile buyers; pre-purchase mileage estimates....

  9. Statistical machine translation for automobile marketing texts

    OpenAIRE

    Läubli, Samuel; Fishel, Mark; Weibel, Manuela; Volk, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We describe a project on introducing an in-house statistical machine translation system for marketing texts from the automobile industry with the final aim of replacing manual translation with post-editing, based on the translation system. The focus of the paper is the suitability of such texts for SMT; we present experiments in domain adaptation and decompounding that improve the baseline translation systems, the results of which are evaluated using automatic metrics as well as manual evalua...

  10. New type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type air (automobile) gamma spectroscopic system for identification and measuring of contamination with natural and artificial gamma isotopes is described. developed. Its main principle is a maximal use of the energy resolution of NaJ(Tl) detectors. The system consists of a spectrometer working simultaneously with a set of 1-16 scintillator blocks and a registration/ data processing unit. The operational mode, optimal performance and control subsystem are described

  11. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  12. Truck Safety. Information on Driver Training. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    The General Accounting Office examined the types of training available for tractor-trailer drivers, focusing on the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) efforts to establish minimum federal standards for training tractor-trailer drivers, the driver training curriculum offered by various private and public schools, and the trucking industry's…

  13. Driver Behavior and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patricia

    School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…

  14. Older Emergency Department Drivers: Patterns, Behaviors, and Willingness to Enroll in a Safe Driver Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiffler, Kirk A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our objective was to assess the reported driving patterns of older emergency department (ED drivers and the factors that might lead them to enroll in a safe driving program.Methods: We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of ED patients 65-years-old and up regarding their driving patterns, behaviors and willingness to enroll in a safe driving program.Results: We surveyed 138 patients. Most (73% reported driving within the last year, and 88% of these believe they could not manage without driving. Eleven percent of ED older drivers have been in a motor vehicle crash (MVC in the past year (95% CI 6-20%, compared to 2.5% of all seniors. Our survey findings suggest that 88% of older ED drivers avoid at least some high-risk driving situations and 65% are unwilling to enroll in a safe driver program unless it lowers their automobile insurance rates. At the same time, most older ED drivers underestimate their risk of being involved in (75% or dying from (74% a MVC.Conclusion: Overall, there are a significant number of older people for whom driving remains a vital yet risky daily function. Most of these drivers have little interest in information regarding safe driving programs while in the ED. Those willing to learn about such programs would prefer to take home the information regarding the program rather than have any staff member discuss it while in the ED. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:51-55.

  15. Corrosion protection and finishing of automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    finishing of automobiles is an important aspect. There have been considerable reductions of weight in automobiles by the use of composites components replacing heavy metallic components. Fenders previously based on metal have been replaced with plastic and painted with the same colour shade as of the metallic body, this has eps for proper adhesion of the paints on the plastic fender to avoid chipping off the paint form it. This paper discusses the necessary processes required for finishing of an automobile along with the corrosion protection measures. Automobiles contains a variety of engineering materials, engine main body fuel tanks connecting rods heat radiators and other mechanical parts are made from different types of engineering alloys having varying chemical compositions. Other parts like dashboard, front panel and other are made from composites. The main body made from cold roll ed steel having various contours 'c' it due to the different designs is the potential site for corrosion attack, The main body is exposed to the hostile environment through out its life period. An automobile is given a particular finish with a view to counter the hostile environments as they are not limited for plying in a limiting conditions and are taken to different weather conditions in one day thus facing severe stresses and strain. Thus it is essential that an automobile before rolling 'out of the assembly line should properly corrosion resistant and aesthetically pleasant also. Finishing for automobiles being very specialized, the main requirement being maximum durability with minimum numbers of coats baked, at the fastest possible schedule. High gloss and range of good eye catching colours being important to increase sales appeal. In the near past the car finishes were based on alkyd-amino resins baking materials and force drying lacquers, which have excellent appearance originally and maintain it on aging. The finishing system for the synthetic baking type may consist of

  16. Value Creation in Collaborative Supply Chain Network in Automobile Industry in Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataraj S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Abstract Purpose : This paper aims to determine the key factors that influence the value based supply chain in the collaborative network of Automotive sector in India and the extent of information sharing in a B2B set up and its implication on business decisions in the Automobile sector. The paper makes an attempt to examine the value creation in the supply chain network of e-commerce based automobile companies. The predominant factors that influence the Collaborative practices of Automobile Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs in Karnataka and their dealership network in the background of e-commerce is thoroughly examined. Design/methodology/approach : In the paper, the systemic and logical analysis of value creation expert research made over the past several years is used and statistical analysis(Exploratory Factor Analysis has been conducted based on the survey results of perceptions of the dealers assimilated through online survey. Findings : Major empirical findings based on automobile companies’ data analysis vide Exploratory factor analysis allow stating that adoption of e-based collaborative arrangements and information sharing based on trust and long term alliance between partners enhances the value creation and results in the improvement in Supply chain management. It thus results in: Savings in cost, Timely decisions based on superior information, Better and positive relationships with Manufacturer-Suppliers and Dealers, Superior and strong collaboration, Integrated customer service and Enhancement of ultimate consumer value. Originality value: This paper has thoroughly examined the Collaborative network of the e-commerce based automobile co’s. and empirical findings suggest that the entire supply chain network has reaped the benefits of technology adoption and its impact on business results is tangible which could be evidenced in positive outcomes like improvement in Manufacturer-Supplier-Dealer co-ordination and

  17. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    Drawing upon extant alliance literature, this article substantiates the argument that we need to look beyond mere structural and formative aspects of cooperation in order to fully understand the performance antecedents of public-private partnerships. Currently, scholarly work on operational...... processes and behavioural dimensions is practically non-existent. This article tries to remedy the current gap in the literature by reviewing research findings on interfirm collaboration (alliances). On that basis a conceptual framework for analyzing partnership processes is developed. Finally, the...... antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion is that...

  18. Automobile technology in a CO{sub 2}-constrained world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S.; Barreto Gomez, L.; Dietrich, Ph. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schafer, A.; Jacoby, H.D. [MIT, Cambridge (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This study identifies the environmental conditions under which less CO{sub 2}-emitting and more expensive automobile technology might enter the North American transportation sector. For that purpose, different exogenous CO{sub 2}-reduction targets are imposed and the resulting market shares of hypothetical future automobile technologies calculated. The criteria for the selection of different types of automobiles/fuels is the minimisation of discounted, cumulative transport sector costs over the scenario time horizon. (author) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  19. Globalization of the Automobile Industry ; Traditional Locations under Pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Spatz, Julius; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Even though the automobile industry is technologically advanced, the increasing integration of low-income countries into the global division of labor has put competitive pressure on traditional automobile producing countries. New end-producers emerged in Asia, Latin America as well as Southern and Central Europe. In addition, the automobile industries of Germany, Japan and the United States engaged in outsourcing of relatively labor intensive segments of the value chain, especially on a regio...

  20. GREEN MANUFACTURING IN AUTOMOBILE INDUST RY TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY AS WELL A S ENVIRNOMENTAL COND ITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Sayeed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the green manufacturing is implemented in the automobile industry. The green manufacturing in very effective in the automobile industry. In this paper the green manufacturing is used by the sustainable design to improve the efficiency as well as environmental condition. With regard to the environment, the major environmental concerns in the 21st century are: atmospheric pollution (and its consequences for hu man health, global warming and ozone layer depletion, scarcity of freshwater, raw material and land availability. All these environmental impacts have a great impact on how companies manage their business, and therefore, they are also a driver to innovati on. For instance, the availability of land can create a pressure on the prices for land disposal, which “forces” organizations to innovate in order to reduce the waste from their production sites.

  1. Driver's adaptive glance behavior to in-vehicle information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yiyun; Boyle, Linda Ng

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the adaptive behavior of drivers as they engage with in-vehicle devices over time and in varying driving situations. Behavioral adaptation has been shown to occur among drivers after prolonged use of in-vehicle devices, but few studies have examined drivers' risk levels across different driving demands. A multi-day simulator study was conducted with 28 young drivers (under 30 years old) as they engaged in different text entry and reading tasks while driving in two different traffic conditions. Cluster analysis was used to categorize drivers based on their risk levels and random coefficient models were used to assess changes in drivers' eye glance behavior. Glance duration significantly increased over time while drivers were performing text entry tasks but not for text reading tasks. High-risk drivers had longer maximum eyes-off-road when performing long text entry tasks compared to low-risk drivers, and this difference increased over time. The traffic condition also had a significant impact on drivers' glance behavior. This study suggests that drivers may exhibit negative behavioral adaptation as they become more comfortable with using in-vehicle technologies over time. Results of this paper may provide guidance for the design of in-vehicle devices that adapt based on the context of the situation. It also demonstrates that random coefficient models can be used to obtain better estimations of driver behavior when there are large individual differences. PMID:26406538

  2. SLIDING MODE CONTROL FOR ACTIVE AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear control methods are presented based on theory of sliding mode control (SMC) or variable structure control (VSC) for application to active automobile suspensions. Requirements of reducing manufacturing cost and energy consumption of the active suspension system may be satisfiedby reasonable design of the sliding surface and hydraulic servo system. Emphasis is placed on the study of the discrete sliding mode control method (DSMC) applicable for a new sort of speed on-off solenoid valves of anti-dust capability and low price. Robustness and effectiveness of the feedback linearized controller in typical road conditions are demonstrated by numerical results fora quarter-car suspension model.

  3. WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY

    OpenAIRE

    SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA; SUMIT KUMAR JHA,; DR S.N. SINGH,

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V) automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant curren...

  4. WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant current to the battery.

  5. 76 FR 44402 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...' eligibility for automobile adaptation equipment or other conveyance allowance. DATES: Written comments and... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Automobile or...

  6. National Driver Register (NDR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Information regarding individuals who have had their driver licenses revoked, suspended or otherwise denied for cause, or who have been convicted of certain traffic...

  7. Tarantula: Killing driver bugs before they hatch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles; Urunuela, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Linux operating system is undergoing continual evolution. Evolution in the kernel and generic driver modules often triggers the need for corresponding evolutions in specific device drivers. Such collateral evolutions are tedious, because of the large number of device drivers, and error......-prone, because of the complexity of the code modifications involved. We propose an automatic tool, Tarantula, to aid in this process. In this paper, we examine some recent evolutions in Linux and the collateral evolutions they trigger, and assess the corresponding requirements on Tarantula....

  8. Alternativní pohony automobilů

    OpenAIRE

    Filip, Vojtěch

    2016-01-01

    Náplní této bakalářské práce je analýza aktuálně používaných alternativních pohonů automobilů, jejich srovnání se současnými zážehovými a vznětovými spalovacími motory. Seznámení s technickým řešením jednotlivých pohonů a jejich kategorizace do několika základních skupin, podle charakteristických klíčových rysů. Dále obsahuje bližší seznámení s nejdůležitějšími komponenty automobilů, vyžívajících tyto alternativní pohony a současně jejich přednostmi ale také nedostatky, které nyní brzdí rozší...

  9. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Kryvokon, A.; Bondarenko, A.

    2012-01-01

    Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  10. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kryvokon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  11. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  12. The Impact of Price Controls on Mandatory Automobile Insurance Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Jason

    2006-01-01

    This is a theoretical paper that models a mandatory automobile insurance market using a partial equilibrium concept where automobile insurance is one good and a composite good represents all others. Price controls, heterogeneous service, administrative, and adjusting costs, as well as capital reserves and capital costs are all included in this simple model.

  13. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into..., Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 CFR 571.3. (ii) Minicompact cars. Interior volume index less than 85... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles....

  14. Wireless and wearable EEG system for evaluating driver vigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Chuang, Chun-Hsiang; Huang, Chih-Sheng; Tsai, Shu-Fang; Lu, Shao-Wei; Chen, Yen-Hsuan; Ko, Li-Wei

    2014-04-01

    Brain activity associated with attention sustained on the task of safe driving has received considerable attention recently in many neurophysiological studies. Those investigations have also accurately estimated shifts in drivers' levels of arousal, fatigue, and vigilance, as evidenced by variations in their task performance, by evaluating electroencephalographic (EEG) changes. However, monitoring the neurophysiological activities of automobile drivers poses a major measurement challenge when using a laboratory-oriented biosensor technology. This work presents a novel dry EEG sensor based mobile wireless EEG system (referred to herein as Mindo) to monitor in real time a driver's vigilance status in order to link the fluctuation of driving performance with changes in brain activities. The proposed Mindo system incorporates the use of a wireless and wearable EEG device to record EEG signals from hairy regions of the driver conveniently. Additionally, the proposed system can process EEG recordings and translate them into the vigilance level. The study compares the system performance between different regression models. Moreover, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for online analysis. A case study involving 15 study participants assigned a 90 min sustained-attention driving task in an immersive virtual driving environment demonstrates the reliability of the proposed system. Consistent with previous studies, power spectral analysis results confirm that the EEG activities correlate well with the variations in vigilance. Furthermore, the proposed system demonstrated the feasibility of predicting the driver's vigilance in real time. PMID:24860041

  15. An Economic Model of Australian Passenger Automobile Demand: A segmented Markets Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper estimates a set of equations explaining the demand for passenger automobiles in Australia for small, medium and luxury size vehicles for the period 1973(1) through 1982(4). These equations are useful because they enable the examinations of hypotheses concerned with changing demand compositions. Model results support the hypothesis that small cars gained in popularity over the period as a second car, while the demand for medium size vehicles fell because of the poor relative fuel ef...

  16. How Does Outsourcing Affect Performance Dynamics? Evidence from the Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Novak; Scott Stern

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of vertical integration on the dynamics of performance over the automobile product development lifecycle. Building on recent work in organizational economics and strategy, we evaluate the relationship between vertical integration and different performance margins. Outsourcing facilitates access to cutting-edge technology and the use of high-powered performance contracts. Vertical integration allows firms to adapt to unforeseen contingencies and customer feedback...

  17. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regarding tort liability. In addition, the provisions of 28 CFR part 43 (Department of Justice regulations... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of...

  18. CONDITIONS OF DRIVER"S WORK AND REST

    OpenAIRE

    N Galkina

    2005-01-01

    Driver"s efficiency, his ability to perform physical and mental work connected with driving skillfully maintain specified speed and overcome fatigue are naturally changing during the working day. To research driver"s efficient work under various road conditions, it is necessary to predict the change of driver"s efficiency phases under different ratios and absolute values of physical activity and data traffic.

  19. 17. Aachen colloquium automobile and engine technology. Proceedings; 17. Aachener Kolloquium Fahrzeug- und Motorentechnik. Kolloquiumsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The Proceedings of the '17th Aachener Colloquium - Automobile and Engine Tecnology', held 6. - 8.October 2008 in Aachen/Germany, contains effectively 104 papers. These contributions deal with the following main subjects:new diesel engines I and II; hybrids I and II; CAE-methods; friction estimation by sensor fusion; ADAS for increased traffic safety I and II; new spark ignition engines I-III; exhausat aftertreatment diesel engines; FVV-project reports; integrated chassis control systems; driver assistance in commercial vehicles; si engines with alternative fuels; engine acoustics; steering systems I and II; detection traffic environment for ADAS; combustion concepts EGR and VVT; engine mechanics; development of safe vehicle systems; supercharging - downsizing; emission concepts diesel engines I and II; automotive strategy concepts; suspension systems; vehicle development; integrated safety;chasis systems. (org.)

  20. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N

    1987-10-01

    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates. PMID:3675807

  1. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  2. Analytical description of the modern steam automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity of operating conditions upon performance of the modern steam automobile is discussed. The word modern has been used in the title to indicate that emphasis is upon miles per gallon rather than theoretical thermal efficiency. This has been accomplished by combining classical power analysis with the ideal Pressure-Volume diagram. Several parameters are derived which characterize performance capability of the modern steam car. The report illustrates that performance is dictated by the characteristics of the working medium, and the supply temperature. Performance is nearly independent of pressures above 800 psia. Analysis techniques were developed specifically for reciprocating steam engines suitable for automotive application. Specific performance charts have been constructed on the basis of water as a working medium. The conclusions and data interpretation are therefore limited within this scope.

  3. THE OLDER ADULT DRIVER WITH COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT: “It's a Very Frustrating Life”

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, David B.; Ott, Brian R.

    2010-01-01

    Although automobiles remain the transportation of choice for older adults, late life cognitive impairment and dementia often impair the ability to drive safely. There is, however, no commonly utilized method of assessing dementia severity in relation to driving, no consensus on the assessment of older drivers with cognitive impairment, and no gold standard for determining driving fitness. Yet, clinicians are called upon by patients, their families, other health professionals, and often the De...

  4. The challenges of automobile-dependent urban transport strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental aims of sustainable urban development and the pro-automobile oriented economic development are on a collision course. It is obvious that automobile-dependent urban development is under heavy/powerful influence of the automobile lobby (automobile and oil industries, along with construction. In this domain famous land-use-transportation studies (or ‘grand transportation studies’ are, unfortunately, still prevailing - a vicious circle of self-fulfilling prophecy of congestion, road building, sprawl, congestion and more road building. Until recently, it was commonly thought that investment in public transport was not economically sustainable and that focusing on the development of the automobile industry and financing the construction of roadways stimulated economic growth. In this paper we clearly show that automobile industry is now overcapitalized, less profitable than many other industries (and may become even less profitable in the future, that transport market is characterized with huge distortions (more than a third of motor-vehicle use can be explained by underpriced driving, while new road investment does not have a major impact on economic growth (especially in a region with an already well-developed infrastructure, and that pro-automobile transport strategy inexorably incurs harmful global, regional and local ecological consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  5. Consumer preferences for automobile energy-efficiency grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, increases in energy prices have made energy conservation and efficiency improvements even more essential than in the past. However, consumers experience difficulty in obtaining reliable information regarding energy efficiency, so that many countries have implemented regulations to enforce energy-efficiency grade labeling. In this study, consumer preferences regarding energy efficiency grades are analyzed by the mixed logit and MDCEV model based on the revealed preference data of past automobile purchases. Findings show that consumers rationally apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. This study discusses political implications of energy efficiency policies as they might impact consumer behaviors of automobile purchase and usage. - Highlights: ► We model discrete choice model to evaluate energy-efficiency grade regulation. ► Consumers apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. ► However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. ► The policies for efficient automobile usage are discussed.

  6. Aberrant Behaviors and Road Accidents among Iranian Truck Drivers, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available structural dimensions of which as well as technologic failures such as road quality, and tech-nical faults of automobiles, need to be assessed in detail. Iran has the first order in the world for deadly road accidents. This study was designed to assess the association between aberrant behaviors of truck drivers and the incidence of road accidents in Yazd, center of Iran, in 2010.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 truck drivers in Yazd. We used 3 questionnaires, including one for demographic data, Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ, and one for drivers' self-evaluation of the of their driving.Results: Five types of the behavior had the highest frequency: Misjudge speed of oncoming vehicle when overtaking.; Deliberately disregard the speed limits late at night or very early in the morning.; Ignore 'give way' signs, and narrowly avoid colliding with traffic having right of way.; Stuck behind a slow-moving vehicle on a two-lane highway, you are driven by frustration to try to overtake in risky circumstances.; Drive with only 'half-an-eye' on the road while looking at a map, changing a cassette or radio channel, etc. The more the driver's driv-ing was influenced by emotional and mental states the more deliberate violations and slips.Conclusion: Among truck drivers, safety has not developed sufficiently, and because of the dangers of road accidents both for the drivers and other people and its economic losses, the importance of the presenting some solutions is completely obvious.

  7. The Swiss automobile industry - Situation, structure, trends, challenges and chances; Automobilindustrie Schweiz. Branchenanalyse 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, A.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic takes a look at the situation of the Swiss automobile industry in 2008. The results of the study are presented and include figures on the automobile industry, its history, structure, turn-over, employment and its position from the international point of view. Research and development in the sector, investments and challenges faced are discussed. The products and services offered are looked at and the relevant strategies examined. The sector's competitive environment and possibilities for growth are looked at and the advantages offered by strategic partnerships and geographical location are noted. Finally, interviews with important actors in the business are presented.

  8. A mathematic model of thermoelectric module with applications on waste heat recovery from automobile engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over two-thirds energy of fuel consumed by an automobile is discharged to the surroundings as waste heat. The fuel usage can be more efficient if thermoelectric generators (TEG) are used to convert heat energy into electricity. In this study, a thermoelectric module composed of thermoelectric generators and a cooling system is developed to improve the efficiency of an IC engine. Two potential positions on an automobile are chosen to apply this module, e.g. exhaust pipe and radiator to examine the feasibility. To predict the behaviors of this module, a one dimensional thermal resistance model is also build, and the results are verified with experiments. The maximum power produced from the module is 51.13 mWcm-2 at 290 oC temperature difference. The model results show that, TE module presents better performance on the exhaust pipe than on the radiator.

  9. Comparison of material structures and scratch strength of thin films of glass mirrors and automobile windscreens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several types of European and Asian automobile windscreens coated with single and multilayer fixing fluxes and silver thin films were studied, and their material structures and their scratch properties were compared with glass mirrors' by the authors. The realized laboratory tests had shown very strong influences of cracks and bubbles in the microstructures of fixing thin film layers and silver coatings on scratch resistance, acoustic emission and micro-hardness of the coatings both on glass mirrors and automobile windscreens. To examine the material structure of flux thin film layers and silver coatings scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used. The scratch resistance, acoustic emission, nucleation and propagation of cracks were studied by an optical digital mechanical scratch tester

  10. An expert system for detecting automobile insurance fraud using social network analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Šubelj, Lovro; Bajec, Marko; 10.1016/j.eswa.2010.07.143

    2011-01-01

    The article proposes an expert system for detection, and subsequent investigation, of groups of collaborating automobile insurance fraudsters. The system is described and examined in great detail, several technical difficulties in detecting fraud are also considered, for it to be applicable in practice. Opposed to many other approaches, the system uses networks for representation of data. Networks are the most natural representation of such a relational domain, allowing formulation and analysis of complex relations between entities. Fraudulent entities are found by employing a novel assessment algorithm, \\textit{Iterative Assessment Algorithm} (\\textit{IAA}), also presented in the article. Besides intrinsic attributes of entities, the algorithm explores also the relations between entities. The prototype was evaluated and rigorously analyzed on real world data. Results show that automobile insurance fraud can be efficiently detected with the proposed system and that appropriate data representation is vital.

  11. A Study of the Translation of Automobile Trademark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘硕

    2014-01-01

    Name is an interesting thing, almost everything has its name. Nowadays along with the rising of consumption levels in China, the brand name of the car becomes an important topic. And the translation of the name of the automobile is the primary task for establishing the global image of the brand. In this paper, I summarize the translation methods for automobile trademarks and point out the importance of the translation of automobile’s trademarks. In addition, this paper explores the trend in the trans-lation of automobile names in China.

  12. Standardization Boosts the Development ofCHANGAN AUTOMOBILE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades,CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE has been sticking to its core value of "technology innovation and consistent care" and dedicating to lead the automobile culture by technology innovation.Till now,it has a complete product range of micro vehicles,passenger cars,buses,trucks,SUV,MPV,etc.,and engineplatforms ranging from 0.8L to 2.5L.CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE brand output ranked 13th in the world and first in China in 2009.Its brand value reached 30.515 billion RMB in 2011,among most valuable brands in China.

  13. NEW SYSTEM, NEW DRIVERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL ELJAIEK

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study seated out as objective to locate the discourses that the users of Transmilenio use to contribute to theconstruction of the identity of the system´s driver, considering that such discourses give account of the work identitiesconstructed from the practice of the driver. The work was made with written texts and oral stories (telephoneinterviews of users of the Transmilenio system, which used the Call Center of the organization in the lapse of oneweek, in order to inform about the drivers´ performance. The technique of Discourse Analysis was used to identify thediscourses of the users, which were then used to analyze the political implications that they have in the construction ofa part of the identity of the drivers.

  14. Oilfield driver training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the initiatives in setting up an oilfield driver training program were highlighted. The objectives of the general oilfield driver improvement (GODI) course which is offered to truckers in the oil and gas industry is to help reduce accidents and injuries by teaching drivers professional driving attitudes, off-highway driving skills, regulatory requirements, inspection and maintenance procedures, other driving-related skills, and hauling and towing procedures. The topics covered at an oilfield haulers course (OHC) include: (1) moving equipment, (2) winching, (3) crane and truck mounted crane operation, (4) securing loads, and (5) rig moves. GODI and OHC have become industry standards since July 1996. GODI and OHC are now prerequisites for drivers of vehicles greater than 4500 kg GVW going to oilfield locations

  15. General oilfield driver improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general oilfield driver improvement (GODI) course was discussed. The course is offered to truckers in the oil and gas industry to help reduce accidents and injuries. Oilfield trucking is one of the most accident and injury prone sectors in the Alberta economy. This paper presented Heck's Trucking company's experience in sending its employees on the course. Drivers were taught (1) the National safety code requirements, (2) Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance requirements, (3) occupational health and safety concerns, (4) vehicle dimension and GVW restrictions, (5) hours of service regulations, (6) log book and pre-trip inspection requirements, (7) workplace hazardous material information, and (8) transportation of dangerous goods. Overall, the course was judged to provide excellent training before sending drivers into the field. The employee, the customer, and the company, all stand to benefit from having rigorous and uniform standards for all drivers in the oil and gas industry

  16. Drunk Driver Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Systems Technology, Inc. developed a technique to study/measure behavioral changes brought on by long term isolation is now being used in a system for determining whether a driver is too drunk to drive. Device is intended to discourage intoxicated drivers from taking to the road by advising them they are in no condition to operate a vehicle. System is being tested experimentally in California.

  17. Driver Distraction and Driver Inattention: Definitions, Mechanisms, Effects, and Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, M.; Hallett, C

    2011-01-01

    The term 5driver distraction‟ is widely discussed and studied, implying that people understand what it means; but this is not necessarily so. In this chapter, the authors attempt to provide the reader with a general overview of the term "driver distraction": what it means; how it relates to other forms of driver inattention; types of driver distraction; sources of driver distraction; factors that moderate the effects of distraction on driving; the interference that can derive from distr...

  18. Towards Driver's State Recognition on Real Driving Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    George Rigas; Yorgos Goletsis; Panagiota Bougia; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I.

    2011-01-01

    In this work a methodology for detecting drivers' stress and fatigue and predicting driving performance is presented. The proposed methodology exploits a set of features obtained from three different sources: (i) physiological signals from the driver (ECG, EDA, and respiration), (ii) video recordings from the driver's face, and (iii) environmental information. The extracted features are examined in terms of their contribution to the classification of the states under investigation. The most s...

  19. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus g

  20. Fuzzy analytic network process based multi criteria decision making methodology for a family automobile purchasing decision

    OpenAIRE

    Yesim Yayla, A.; Yildiz, A

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, in parallel with the advancing technology, automobiles that have substantially advanced technological properties are being manufactured. Intended uses of the automobiles have been changing in our days in contrast to 1960s when automobiles were only used for transportation. Consumers, in our day and age, expect profoundly different properties from an automobile. In this context, more than one criterion become effective on making decision on purchasing an automobile that has the requi...

  1. Mobility and safety issues in drivers with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David B; O'Neill, Desmond

    2015-10-01

    Although automobiles remain the mobility method of choice for older adults, late-life cognitive impairment and progressive dementia will eventually impair the ability to meet transport needs of many. There is, however, no commonly utilized method of assessing dementia severity in relation to driving, no consensus on the specific types of assessments that should be applied to older drivers with cognitive impairment, and no gold standard for determining driving fitness or approaching loss of mobility and subsequent counseling. Yet, clinicians are often called upon by patients, their families, health professionals, and driver licensing authorities to assess their patients' fitness-to-drive and to make recommendations about driving privileges. We summarize the literature on dementia and driving, discuss evidenced-based assessments of fitness-to-drive, and outline the important ethical and legal concerns. We address the role of physician assessment, referral to neuropsychology, functional screens, dementia severity tools, driving evaluation clinics, and driver licensing authority referrals that may assist clinicians with an evaluation. Finally, we discuss mobility counseling (e.g. exploration of transportation alternatives) since health professionals need to address this important issue for older adults who lose the ability to drive. The application of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach to the older driver with cognitive impairment will have the best opportunity to enhance our patients' social connectedness and quality of life, while meeting their psychological and medical needs and maintaining personal and public safety. PMID:26111454

  2. Supply Chain Management Practices of Indian Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    B. S. Sahay; Vikram Sharma; G. D. Sardana

    2011-01-01

    The automobile industry is a major contributor to India’s economy. The Indian automobile manufacturers face stiff international competition in the wake of all major US and European car manufacturers entering the Indian market. In the contemporary scenario, supply chain management practices can be adopted to improve operational efficiency and profits. This paper presents the current status of Indian automotive supply chains. For this, data was collected by conducting a nationwide survey. The...

  3. Measures of Technical Efficiency in Two Sectors: Banks and Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Rapacciuolo Ciro

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate technical efficiency in the automobile and the banking industry, using balance sheet data on businesses in the two sectors: the world leading automobile producers and the top-20 Italian banking groups. The measurement of inefficiency, a strand of literature started by Farrell (1957), is conducted by means of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is one of the existing approaches in this field; Fare, Grosskopf e Lovell (1994) prepared the ground for th...

  4. Evolution of organizational structure and strategy of the automobile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, S.H.; Wibbelink, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a historically oriented study of the automobile industry. It sets out to understand why have the structure and strategy of the dominant companies in the automobile industry changed in the way they have done. Our findings suggest three factors at work, namely the knowledge of car production and of customers, the capability of the technological system, and the business environment. The knowledge system represents the level of know-how and the availability of information. In a sens...

  5. Computer Model for Automobile Climate Control System Simulation and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Oker

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A software to simulate the dynamic operation of climate control system for a generic automobile has been developed. The transient nature of passenger cabin temperature and relative humidity are predicted using the principles of thermodynamics. Analysis include detailed simulations of every component of the automobile air conditioning network. The methodology is validated by comparing the simulation results with the experimental results.

  6. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira; Andy Petroianu; Dafne Maria Villar Gonçalves; Gisele Araújo Pereira; Luiz Ronaldo Alberti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the regio...

  7. Effectiveness evaluation of simulative workshops for newly licensed drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Eldror, Ehud

    2014-02-01

    The current study set to examine the effects of simulator use in driving instruction on newly licensed drivers, comparing the road safety knowledge and reported intended behavior, as well as the actual driving performance of new drivers. Participants consisted of 280 newly licensed driver, of which 140 whose drivers license training included additional simulator-based lessons, and 140 drivers whose training precluded simulator-based lessons. All drivers answered questionnaires pertaining to their intended safe driving behaviors (according to Ajzen's (2000) theory of planned behavior), and to their traffic safety knowledge. Of the initial sample, 40 drivers received actual driving performance evaluation by an expert driving instructor, as well as by in-vehicle data recorders (IVDRs). We assumed that safer drivers report safer driving intentions, demonstrate greater traffic safety knowledge, evaluated as safer drivers by the driving instructor, and display lower and stable driving parameters on the IVDRs. We hypothesized that theoretical driving studies combined with practical training on simulators will elevate the safety level of novices driving. Hierarchical regression analyses on driving intentions indicated that drivers who did not receive simulator-based lessons demonstrated safer driving intentions compared to drivers who received simulator-based lessons. This pattern possibly indicating the drivers who received simulator-based lessons felt more confident in their driving abilities compared to drivers who did not receive simulated training. No significant difference was found in traffic safety knowledge, or in the evaluation of the expert driving instructor. IDVR data comparisons indicated drivers who received simulator-based lessons braked more often and were less prone to headway events, suggesting a more responsive driving style. These findings do not point to any significant advantage or disadvantage of the current simulator-based driving training over

  8. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus group discussion, and in-car tests. The main characteristics of Chinese driver behavior have been identified. A new method is developed for a simulation model calibration based on the study results.

  9. Vibro-acoustics of automobile engines; Vibro-acoustique des moteurs d'automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclere, Q.; Laulagnet, B.; Guyader, J.L. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Polac, L. [Renault DM, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France)

    2006-04-15

    This article treats of the vibro-acoustics of automobile engines. A presentation of the phenomena leading to noise emission is performed: internal sources, dynamical behaviour of the structure, acoustic radiation of the external engine envelope. The complexness of engines leads to multiple noise sources which are described, analyzed and quantified. The technical solutions for their abatement are presented. The following points are successively described: dynamical behaviour of the engine-propulsion system, acoustic radiation, inertia stresses, combustion noise, common rail diesel injection system noise, piston slap, distribution drive noise, turbo-charger whistle, gearbox noise. (J.S.)

  10. Death and injury from automobile collisions: an overlooked epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jason L; Watchko, Aileen Y; Segui-Gomez, Maria

    2011-05-01

    Automobile collisions are a major source of injury, death, and disability worldwide. Roadway injuries are affected by societal and cultural influences as much as any other health-related event, but have historically received relatively little attention from the medical anthropology community. The development of safety intervention strategies is affected by notions of responsibility for preventive care, including a balance between regulation, technology, and personal choice. This balance may be affected by perceptions of the risks associated with roadway use, potentially related to notions of individual control and the portrayal of collisions in the popular media and lexicon. Prevention efforts are also affected by the definition of injury as a disease-a biological phenomenon requiring research and intervention efforts from the medical and public health communities. Injury prevention priorities and strategies also differ across cultures and locales, dependent in part on economic constraints, native mobility practices, and the quality and expediency of post-trauma care. Progressing injury prevention worldwide requires multidisciplinary action, including an examination of these various cultural and societal influences. We believe that future efforts will benefit from the expertise and analysis of the medical anthropology community. PMID:21590580

  11. Improving drivers' knowledge of road rules using digital games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Tay, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Although a proficient knowledge of the road rules is important to safe driving, many drivers do not retain the knowledge acquired after they have obtained their licenses. Hence, more innovative and appealing methods are needed to improve drivers' knowledge of the road rules. This study examines the effect of game based learning on drivers' knowledge acquisition and retention. We find that playing an entertaining game that is designed to impart knowledge of the road rules not only improves players' knowledge but also helps them retain such knowledge. Hence, learning by gaming appears to be a promising learning approach for driver education. PMID:24384385

  12. Making performance plants from branch plants? In situ restructuring in the automobile industry in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, A

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a critical examination is made of the alleged change in the branch-plant economy. It is claimed that a new type of branch plant is emerging, with more progressive implications for local economic development. This argument is reviewed with reference to in situ restructuring in existing brownfield plants in the automobile industry. Empirical evidence is examined from 'Motor Co.' and 'Car Co.' (pseudonyms) in Riverside, across several dimensions of change: role and autonomy; labour...

  13. 75 FR 32983 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... exemption (72 FR 36748). The complete docket of the NAAA request, including public comments, can be examined... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption AGENCY... not obtained an HM endorsement for their commercial driver's license (CDL) as required by...

  14. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few years, several laser systems have been considered as possible laser fusion drivers. Recently, there has been an increasing effort to evaluate these systems in terms of a reactor driver application. The specifications for such a system have become firmer and generally more restrictive. Several of the promising candidates such as the group VI laser, the metal vapor excimers and some solid state lasers can be eliminated on the basis of inefficiency. New solid state systems may impact the long range development of a fusion driver. Of the short wavelength gas lasers, the KrF laser used in conjunction with Raman compression and pulse stacking techniques is the most promising approach. Efficiencies approaching 10% may be possible with this system. While technically feasible, these approaches are complex and costly and are unsatisfying in an aethetic sense. A search for new lasers with more compelling features is still needed

  15. Driving environment in Iran increases blood pressure even in healthy taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Navadeh Khodadadi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Nowadays, driving is an unseparated part of our new modern lifestyle; and we are exposed to this environment all the days for several hours whether as drivers or as riders. Many reports indicated that Iran is on the top rank of automobile-related morbidity and mortality among developed and even many developing countries that can be due to dangerous driving habits in Iran. We designed this study to find out if environment of driving have clinically important effects on blood pressure (BP and how strong is the effect. We also examined if there were any predictors for the BP rises in driving time.
    • METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 31 healthy male taxi drivers were included through a multistage proportional sampling method in winter and spring 2007. They were referred to the clinic of hypertension in Shafa Hospital, Kerman. A trained nurse measured the BPs. She also did set up the Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor (ABPM on the drivers’ left arms for BP recording every 30 minutes during the day. Based on the diurnal recorded BPs, the subjects were allocated into normotensive and hypertensive (systolic BP > 135 or diastolic BP > 85mmHg groups. The difference among the clinic BPs and the driving BPs was examined by t-test in Stata version 8, followed by a multivariate analysis for exploring the main predictors for BP rises in driving time.
    • RESULTS: Both mean systolic and mean diastolic BPs were significantly increased from 116.85 (SE 2.28 and 74.44 (SE 2.22 mmHg in clinic to 138.64 (SE 2.77 and 95.70 (SE 2.55 mmHg during driving, respectively (P = 0.0001. Pulse pressure remained constant (P = 0.87. The difference between clinic's and driving time measurements was higher in hypertensive group. Those with higher systolic blood pressures in clinic had more frequent and higher BP rises in driving time (P = 0.02.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Driving

    • Driver at the wheel?

      OpenAIRE

      Taede Tillema, Jaco Berveling, George Gelauff, Jan van der Waard, Lucas Harms en Harry Derriks

      2015-01-01

      Self-driving cars can change our society radically. Whether that happens depends on how much the car can actually do itself, but also on what the consumer wants. Will cars become a luxury second home or does a car driver remain a necessity? Also the sharing-economy has an impact. If many people will share self-driving vehicles and rides, this may change the traffic and transport system fundamentally.These are some of the conclusions of the report 'Driver at the wheel - Self-driving vehicles a...

    • Really Scary Drivers

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      马莲花

      2005-01-01

      A new wave of "road killers", or new drivers, on Beijing's streets has prompted traffic authorities to do something to make driving tests more difficult. This year, the move has targeted new drivers to keep them from posing a threat, the Beijing Traffic Management Bureau says. The new test has been adopted citywide and the average pass rate is down to 50 per cent from a previous 80 per cent, at the city's 22 test centers, said Jiang Jing, a bureau press officer. The test now has six mandatory items chosen r...

    • DROWSY DRIVER DETECTION SYSTEM

      OpenAIRE

      Mrs. Smita Jawale; Ms. Pragati Malvadia; Ms. Ashwini Meena

      2016-01-01

      A Drowsy Driver Detection System is an Image processing based system. This system is developed using a non-intrusive machine vision based concepts. In this system, there is a camera that will be continuously monitoring the driver’s face to detect fatigue. In case the driver is detected as fatigue, the system issues an alarm. This system detects drowsiness by checking the amount of time the eyes are closed. The first five consecutive frames of the camera is checked, if the eyes are found...

    • Young novice drivers.

      OpenAIRE

      2013-01-01

      In The Netherlands, young novice drivers (18-24 years of age) show a crash rate that is five times higher than that of experienced drivers (30-59 years of age). The rate of young males is even seven times as high. The main reasons are lack of driving experience and hazardous behaviour typical of adolescents and young adults. Road safety effects may be achieved among this group by introducing a 'graduated driving licence'. The 2toDrive experiment that enables adolescents to pass their driving ...

    • Optimizing the Universal Robots ROS driver

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Andersen, Thomas Timm

      In this report I will examine both the current and the possible performance of one of the most popular robotics platforms in research, the Universal Robot manipulator. I will solely focus on the ROS based approaches and show how the current driver can be improved. I will look at performance...

  1. Mind the Gap: The Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; author), L. Schipper (main; Price, L.;

    1993-01-01

    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data of...... gasoline, diesel and other fuels used for automobiles. We note that significant uncertainties exist in values of both the number of automobiles in use and the distance each is driven, which together yield total automobile use. We present our own calculations for total automobile fuel use for a variety of...

  2. Inertial confinement fusion driver enhancements: Final focusing systems and compact heavy-ion driver designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Required elements of an inertial confinement fusion power plant are modeled and discussed. A detailed analysis of two critical elements of candidate drivers is done, and new component designs are proposed to increase the credibility and feasibility of each driver system. An analysis of neutron damage to the final elements of a laser focusing system is presented, and multilayer -- dielectric mirrors are shown to have damage lifetimes which axe too short to be useful in a commercial power plant. A new final-focusing system using grazing incidence metal mirrors to protect sensitive laser optics is designed and shown to be effective in extending the lifetime of the final focusing system. The reflectivities and damage limits of grazing incidence metal mirrors are examined in detail, and the required mirror sizes are shown to be compatible with the beam sizes and illumination geometries currently envisioned for laser drivers. A detailed design and analysis is also done for compact arrays of superconducting magnetic quadrupoles, which are needed in a multi-beam heavy-ion driver. The new array model is developed in more detail than some previous conceptual designs and models arrays which are more compact than arrays scaled from existing single -- quadrupole designs. The improved integrated model for compact arrays is used to compare the effects of various quadrupole array design choices on the size and cost of a heavy-ion driver. Array design choices which significantly affect the cost of a heavy-ion driver include the choice of superconducting material and the thickness of the collar used to support the winding stresses. The effect of these array design choices on driver size and cost is examined and the array model is used to estimate driver cost savings and performance improvements attainable with aggressive quadrupole array designs with high-performance superconductors

  3. Visual Problems of New Malaysian Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Haliza, AM; Md Muziman Syah, MMS; Norliza, MF

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of poor visual acuity, colour blindness and visual field defect of new Malaysian drivers. Methods: A total of 3717 new drivers (50.2% males and 49.8% females) age 19±6 years, voluntarily participated in this study. Standard optometric apparatus such as LogMAR Charts, Ishihara plates and HandHeld Bernell Perimeter were used and standard procedures were applied. Results: The visual examination showed 6.7% (n=250) of subjects a...

  4. Development of automobile tyre lateral runout measurement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xie; Ye, Lingjian; Yao, Guanghui; Wang, Di; Zhi, Xiongfei

    2013-10-01

    Automobile tyre lateral runout is one of the important indexes to measure the quality of the tyre, it will affect the safety of the automobile in moving. This paper introduces a sensor for automobile tyre lateral runout measurement. The variation of the automobile tyre lateral runout causes the change of guide rod probe displacement and deforms of the cantilever beam which connects with the guide bar. The deformation of the cantilever beam leads to the change of the resistance value of strain gauge which is pasted on the cantilever beam. Through measuring circuit, the resistance value of the strain gauge is converted into output voltage that has a certain relationship with automobile tyre lateral runout. Then, the voltage signal is transformed by A/D convertor and send to SCM to process and display the value of runout. Meanwhile, SCM output control signal to control the actuator and adjust the equipment running status in real time so as to ensure the tyre lateral runout is within the allowed range.

  5. Commercial Truck Driver Health and Safety: Exploring Distracted Driving Performance and Self-Reported Driving Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Heaton, Karen; Welburn, Sharon C; McManus, Benjamin; Griffin, Russell; Fine, Philip R

    2016-08-01

    Reducing distracters detrimental to commercial truck driving is a critical component of improving the safety performance of commercial drivers, and makes the highways safer for all drivers. This study used a driving simulator to examine effects of cell phone, texting, and email distractions as well as self-reported driver optimism bias on the driving performance of commercial truck drivers. Results revealed that more visually demanding tasks were related to poorer driving performance. However, the cell phone task resulted in less off-the-road eye glances. Drivers reporting being "very skilled" displayed poorer driving performance than those reporting being "skilled." Onboard communication devices provide a practical, yet visually and manually demanding, solution for connecting drivers and dispatchers. Trucking company policies should minimize interaction between dispatchers and drivers when the truck is in motion. Training facilities should integrate driving simulators into the instruction of commercial drivers, targeting over-confident drivers. PMID:26809775

  6. Improving Driver Performance. A Curriculum for Licensed Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highway Users Federation for Safety and Mobility, Washington, DC.

    Curriculum material presented in this manual is for use in the development of an instructional program for drivers who either want or need to improve their driving performance. Three principal units are included: man and highway transportation, driver performance, and factors influencing driver behavior. Each unit is further divided into episodes…

  7. Driver at the wheel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taede Tillema, Jaco Berveling, George Gelauff, Jan van der Waard, Lucas Harms en Harry Derriks

    2015-01-01

    Self-driving cars can change our society radically. Whether that happens depends on how much the car can actually do itself, but also on what the consumer wants. Will cars become a luxury second home or does a car driver remain a necessity? Also the sharing-economy has an impact. If many people will

  8. Drivers 65 Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Powerful In Driving Restrictions: Study - Nature World News Pokemon Go and distracted driving | WWLP.com - wwlp.com The ... for earlier curfew for teen drivers - WGRZ.com Pokémon GO continues to raise distracted driving worries - Wisconsin Radio ...

  9. Space Age Driver Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Walter W.

    1970-01-01

    Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…

  10. Computer vision for driver assistance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handmann, Uwe; Kalinke, Thomas; Tzomakas, Christos; Werner, Martin; von Seelen, Werner

    1998-07-01

    Systems for automated image analysis are useful for a variety of tasks and their importance is still increasing due to technological advances and an increase of social acceptance. Especially in the field of driver assistance systems the progress in science has reached a level of high performance. Fully or partly autonomously guided vehicles, particularly for road-based traffic, pose high demands on the development of reliable algorithms due to the conditions imposed by natural environments. At the Institut fur Neuroinformatik, methods for analyzing driving relevant scenes by computer vision are developed in cooperation with several partners from the automobile industry. We introduce a system which extracts the important information from an image taken by a CCD camera installed at the rear view mirror in a car. The approach consists of a sequential and a parallel sensor and information processing. Three main tasks namely the initial segmentation (object detection), the object tracking and the object classification are realized by integration in the sequential branch and by fusion in the parallel branch. The main gain of this approach is given by the integrative coupling of different algorithms providing partly redundant information.

  11. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  12. Automobile air-conditioning its energy and environmental impact; La climatisation automobile impact energetique et environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.; Gagnepain, L.

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maxi-mum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the inter-national climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-condition ng (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential ed ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. All of these studies and additional data are presented in greater detail in the document,-'Automobile Air-conditioning' (ADEME reference no. 4985). (author)

  13. Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.

  14. Tools and Equipment Modeling for Automobile Interactive Assembling Operating Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dianliang; Zhu, Hongmin

    2010-05-01

    Tools and equipment play an important role in the simulation of virtual assembly, especially in the assembly process simulation and plan. Because of variety in function and complexity in structure and manipulation, the simulation of tools and equipments remains to be a challenge for interactive assembly operation. Based on analysis of details and characteristics of interactive operations for automobile assembly, the functional requirement for tools and equipments of automobile assembly is given. Then, a unified modeling method for information expression and function realization of general tools and equipments is represented, and the handling methods of manual, semi-automatic, automatic tools and equipments are discussed. Finally, the application in assembly simulation of rear suspension and front suspension of Roewe 750 automobile is given. The result shows that the modeling and handling methods are applicable in the interactive simulation of various tools and equipments, and can also be used for supporting assembly process planning in virtual environment.

  15. Drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report on the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting held at Osaka, Japan, 15-19 April, 1991, contains (1) an overview of the meeting, (2) a technical summary of the meeting, including short discussions on requirements of the driver, candidate drivers, national programme of driver development, and (3) topical summaries of the sessions (solid state lasers, gas lasers, reactor design and new concepts)

  16. Measuring and Ranking Value Drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Akalu

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAnalysis of the strength of value drivers is crucial to understand their influence in the process of free cash flow generation. The paper addresses the issue of value driver measurement and ranking. The research reveals that, value drivers have similar pattern across industries. Furtherm

  17. Study on driving control behavior for lane change maneuver. Analysis of expert driver using neural network system; Shasen henkoji no driver sosa tokusei. Neural network system ni yoru jukuren driver no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Z.; Okayama, T.; Katayama, T. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan); Kageyama, I. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In order to study driver steering control behavior for vehicle, a driver model for single-lane change maneuver is constructed by a neural network system concerned with the man-machine-environment system. And, using sensitivity analysis, it is found that the model represent the driver control behavior, and the relation between the driver control behavior and vehicle responses. The sensitivity analysis is also examined by applying to the 2nd order predictive driver model. The validity of the sensitivity analysis is confirmed. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  19. Atmospheric pollution coming from automobiles and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air pollution coming from automobile is responsible of different diseases in respiratory or cardiovascular system. epidemiological studies in professional or general media give information in term of public health. If the role of air pollution from automobile at short terms is well established, for effects at long term (such cancers or chronic diseases of respiratory system) the measurement or estimation of the exposure is not sufficient for the moment and makes the epidemiology unable to quantify effects. In spite of these lacks, it is important to reduce the risk for the most fragile people. (N.C.)

  20. Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)

  1. International Older Driver Consensus Conference on Assessment, Remediation and Counseling for Transportation Alternatives: Summary and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Burton W.; McCarthy, Dennis P.; Marsiske, Michael; Shechtman, Orit; Classen, Sherrilene; Justiss, Michael; Mann, William C.

    2005-01-01

    On December 1 and 2, 2003, 63 international experts on older driver issues met to examine three critical issues related to the safe mobility of older drivers. Conference participants addressed standards and protocols for screening and evaluating the skills of older drivers. For drivers judged to lack the necessary skills to drive safely, participants addressed methods of remediation that could enable older persons with limited cognitive or physical abilities to continue to drive. For those pe...

  2. How Dangerous Are Drinking Drivers?

    OpenAIRE

    Levitt, Steven D.; Jack Porter

    2001-01-01

    We present a methodology for measuring the risks posed by drinking drivers that relies solely on readily available data on fatal crashes. The key to our identification strategy is a hidden richness inherent in two-car crashes. Drivers with alcohol in their blood are seven times more likely to cause a fatal crash; legally drunk drivers pose a risk 13 times greater than sober drivers. The externality per mile driven by a drunk driver is at least 30 cents. At current enforcement rates the punish...

  3. An Inquiry into the Role of Interfirm Relationships in Recent Organizational Change Initiatives in Japanese Automobile Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, Daniel Arturo

    2003-01-01

    Faced with the difficult challenge of large-scale organizational change, many firms in Japan are struggling. To better understand the change process, this paper examines the long history in the automobile industry of interfirm relationships facilitating (i.e., assisting the occurrence of) organizational change. Two case studies undertaken in this paper suggest that some recent interfirm relationships have gone beyond facilitating to catalyzing (i.e., speeding the occurrence of) organizational...

  4. Estimation of torsional strength for spring steel 60SiCrV7 designed on spring suspension in automobile vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work was determining the Kirchoff's modulus G for 11.7 [mm] rods made of industrial spring steel grade 60SiCrV7. These rods are designed on spring suspension in automobile vehicles. Additionally the material studies were performed in order to determining of hardness and metallographic structure of examined steel. The obtained result of G value enables to increase the accuracy of numerical strength calculations for constructed spring. (author)

  5. Occupant injury protection in automobile collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, G A; Peters, B J

    1999-12-01

    Modern technology has produced automotive vehicles that have become both a luxury and a necessity in modern civilization. They have become highly useful, even more varied in form and function, and capable of high speeds on crowded roadways. One unfortunate consequence is the high frequency of accidents and the greater severity of injuries when collisions do occur. In response, modern technology has produced a variety of safety and health features, devices and designs intended for better occupant protection on in high speed vehicles. Injury reduction has become a prime design objective, but there are residual risks, which, as technology evolves, require effective communication to those risk. There can be little risk avoidance behavior without awareness of the hazards and effective communication to the vehicle occupant, as to what could and should be done for self-protection. For example, one out of three drivers apparently fails to understand the function of head restraints, few understand the 'safe zone' posture required for air bags and many believe safety features should be adjusted only for comfort. Some of the current residual injury producing problems in occupant systems are specifically described here in order to illustrate what is needed in terms of both design remedies and health promotion activities. PMID:10673849

  6. Simulators in driver training.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In 2010, about 150 driving simulators were being used for the basic driver training in the Netherlands. According to theories about how people learn, simulator training has both advantages and disadvantages. In order to be able to learn something from a simulator, its technical quality must be adequate. The quality of the simulator lessons is also important, as is the way in which these lessons are embedded in the total learning path. In the Netherlands simulators are mainly used for teaching...

  7. Operational cost drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Arthur L.; Dickinson, William J.

    1988-01-01

    To be economically viable, the operations cost of launch vehicles must be reduced by an order of magnitude as compared to the Space Transportation System (STS). A summary of propulsion-related operations cost drivers derived from a two-year study of Shuttle ground operations is presented. Examples are given of the inordinate time and cost of launch operations caused by propulsion systems designs that did not adequately consider impacts on prelaunching processing. Typical of these cost drivers are those caused by central hydraulic systems, storable propellants, gimballed engines, multiple propellants, He and N2 systems and purges, hard starts, high maintenance turbopumps, accessibility problems, and most significantly, the use of multiple, nonintegrated RCS, OMS, and main propulsion systems. Recovery and refurbishment of SRBs have resulted in expensive crash and salvage operations. Vehicle system designers are encouraged to be acutely aware of these cost drivers and to incorporate solutions (beginning with the design concepts) to avoid business as usual and costs as usual.

  8. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-86 Section 600.311-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of city and the range of highway...

  9. 76 FR 61779 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive... refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0067.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Automobile or..., servicepersons and their survivors complete VA Form 21-4502 to apply for automobile or other conveyance...

  10. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  11. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by...

  12. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified? Passenger automobiles are classified in the following table: Sedan class Station wagon class...

  13. 41 CFR 109-38.104 - Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles and light trucks. 109-38.104 Section 109-38.104 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Vehicles § 109-38.104 Fuel efficient passenger automobiles and light trucks. (a) (b) All requests to purchase passenger automobiles larger than class IA, IB, or II (small, subcompact, or compact) shall...

  14. Development of amorphous wire type MI sensors for automobile use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkura, Yoshinobu

    2002-08-01

    Amorphous wire type MI sensors have a high sensitivity compared to thin film MI sensors, but there have been reliability problems in developing an amorphous wire type MI sensor for automobile application because of the wide range of operating temperatures. It was difficult to achieve sufficient soldering strength between the amorphous wire and the electrode of the MI chip. In addition, stress is induced in the amorphous wire during soldering thus lowering the temperature stability characteristics. Therefore, we developed a new method for soldering the amorphous wire and a new method for assembly of the MI chip. Together with the redesign of the electronic circuit, these developments have yielded an MI sensor suitable for automobile application. This MI sensor has a sensitivity of 250 mV/Oe, has stable temperature characteristics between -40°C and 85°C and easily passed the thermal shock test, the most stringent durability test for automobile electronic parts. Two different types of products are under development; one is a standard type whose output is linear to the external magnetic field, and the other is a switch type whose output is ON or OFF relative to a threshold magnetic field. Future applications include an ABS sensor, an electronic compass, an automatic tracking system for automobiles and so on.

  15. A Review of the Fatigue Analysis of an Automobile Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadav Chetan S., Panchal Khushbu C., Patel Fajalhusen*

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an effort is made to review theinvestigations that have been made on the differentfatigue analysis techniques of automobile frames. Anumber of analytical and experimental techniquesare available for the fatigue analysis of theautomobile frames. Determination of the differentanalysis around different condition in anautomobile frames has been reported in literature.

  16. The Japanese Automobile Worker: A Microcosm of Japan's Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderabeck, Elizabeth A.

    A teaching unit on the Japanese automobile worker was developed from a compilation of on-site interviews with Japanese company managers and production line employees, and official publications of the Japanese car industry. The unit is designed to present a balanced picture of Japan's economic success and labor relations and to develop global…

  17. ASE Program Certification Standards for Automobile Technician Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation, Herndon, VA.

    This document presents and explains the development and application of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) program certification standards that were developed to improve the quality of secondary- and postsecondary-level automobile technician training by implementing a certification program that certifies programs in…

  18. Hysteretic Current Controlled Zvs Dc/Dc Converter For Automobile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cernat, M.; Scortarul, P.; Tanase, A.;

    2007-01-01

    A novel bi-directional dc-dc converter with ZVS and interleaving for dual voltage systems in automobiles is presented. A variable frequency extended band hysteretic current control method is proposed. In comparison with classical fixed frequency current control PWM, the reverse polarity peak...

  19. Technology Demonstration of General Black box Standard for Automobiles (GBSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available GBSA is an upcoming proposal towards Automobile industry and to the federal governing bodies around the world. Here we are intent to create a disciplinary system to save city sons from accident death and to abolish insurance piracy. The proposal is actually developed from the loss of mankind in society but pulled by technology and humanity facts..

  20. New Technology and Human Resource Development in the Automobile Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This document contains five case studies of plants within large enterprises in the automobile industry (Ford, Toyota, Volkswagen, Renault, and Volvo), plus reports of each company's views on human resource development, new technology, and changes in work organization and skill formation. The document is composed of five narrative sections,…

  1. Development of amorphous wire type MI sensors for automobile use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous wire type MI sensors have a high sensitivity compared to thin film MI sensors, but there have been reliability problems in developing an amorphous wire type MI sensor for automobile application because of the wide range of operating temperatures. It was difficult to achieve sufficient soldering strength between the amorphous wire and the electrode of the MI chip. In addition, stress is induced in the amorphous wire during soldering thus lowering the temperature stability characteristics. Therefore, we developed a new method for soldering the amorphous wire and a new method for assembly of the MI chip. Together with the redesign of the electronic circuit, these developments have yielded an MI sensor suitable for automobile application. This MI sensor has a sensitivity of 250 mV/Oe, has stable temperature characteristics between -40 deg. C and 85 deg. C and easily passed the thermal shock test, the most stringent durability test for automobile electronic parts. Two different types of products are under development; one is a standard type whose output is linear to the external magnetic field, and the other is a switch type whose output is ON or OFF relative to a threshold magnetic field. Future applications include an ABS sensor, an electronic compass, an automatic tracking system for automobiles and so on

  2. BEGA-a biaxial excitation Generator for automobiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scridon, S.; Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, L.;

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results for a biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA), which has a three-phase stator and a salient-pole excited heteropolar rotor with multiple flux barriers filled with low-cost permanent magnets (PMs). For this new generator, the low-vo...

  3. Classification of Surface Quality of Automobile Lamp—Reflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁旭军; 贺莉清; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces an installation for quickly classifying automobile's metal reflectors based on their roughness.The measuring principle and the mechanical structure are presented.Schematics of circuits and experimental results are given.Elimination and reduction of the effect of background lights or different bulbs on the measuring results are also described in detail.

  4. Computer Simulation to Detect the Blind Spots in Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem (moh'd Said Hatamleh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During driving Changing lanes can be very hazardous on a busy highway. There is region called "blind spot" which is a problem for every car driver since its not covered by the drivers mirrors. Relying solely on the mirrors while changing lane can lead to a collision with another vehicle. This paper focuses on this situation by ensuring that the blind spots of the vehicle are clear prior to the driver attempt to change lanes. This computer simulation incorporates the need for detection and warning of objects present within the blind spot on either side of the vehicle to the driver along with distance measurement of the object relative to the vehicle, incase the driver decides to change lanes. This simulation is constructed using the theory of embedded systems and will alert the driver if there is another car on the blind area.

  5. Integrated Modeling for Safe Transportation - Driver modeling and driver experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Martin; Colonius, Hans; Hungar, Hardi; Köster, Frank; Langner, Michael; Lüdtke, Andreas; Möbus, Claus; Peinke, Joachim; Puch, Stefan; Schiessl, Carola; Steenken, Rieke; Weber, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The project IMoST addresses the problem of capturing the behavior of a car driver in an executable model enabling design-time predictions of the interplay between driver, assistance system and car in realistic traffic scenarios. To this end, a generic cognitive model is instantiated and extended based on data gathered in targeted simulator experiments. The considered example scenario covers the entering of an expressway, with possible support for the driver in the form of an intelligent assis...

  6. Competence: sciences, clean engines: the automobile safety; Competences: sciences, moteurs propres: le salut de l'automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiret, M.

    2004-05-01

    In the framework of the greenhouse gases emission reduction in the automobile sector, this paper presents the possible technological innovations for the engines: an optimization prior to the combustion hopeful the electronic of the injections, the consumption decrease and the electromagnetic valves. (A.L.B.)

  7. Cars gone wild: the major contributor to unintended acceleration in automobiles is pedal error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A.Schmidt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available “Unintended-acceleration” automobile accidents typically begin when the driver first enters the car, starts the engine, and intends to press his/her right foot on the brake while shifting from Park to a drive gear (Drive or Reverse. The driver reports an unintended (uncommanded full-throttle acceleration, coupled with a loss of braking, until the episode ends in a crash. Pedal misapplications--where the right foot contacts the accelerator instead of the brake that was intended--have been linked to these accidents (Schmidt, 1989, 1993 which, in the 1980s, were thought to occur only at the start of a driving cycle (and/or with the car in Park. But, in 1997, we identified over 200 pedal errors as the cause of accidents reported in the North Carolina database; these crashes occurred during the driving cycle (Schmidt et al., 1997, and/or with the vehicle in a gear other than Park. Our present work provides a more thorough analysis of these North Carolina Police Accident Reports from 1979 to 1995. The vast majority of pedal misapplications (over 92% (a occurred during the driving cycle, (b were generally in “unhurried” conditions, and (c were categorically separate from those events referred to as unintended-acceleration episodes at start-up. These ideas are explanatory for the recent (2009-2010 surge of unintended-acceleration reports, perhaps even suggesting that all of these crashes are caused by pedal errors, and that none of them are based on some vehicle defect(s.

  8. The Role of Technical Innovation and Sustainability on Energy Consumption: A Case Study on the Taiwanese Automobile Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wu Chou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global warming and climate change is one of the most critical challenges of the 21st century. The greenhouse effect caused by technological development and industrial pollution has accelerated the speed of global warming. The continuous improvement in automobile energy consumption is one of the most effective ways to reduce global warming. A comparative analysis is proposed to examine the various automobiles that utilize technological innovation to improve their energy consumption. Their contribution to CO2 emissions is then investigated. This study focuses on technical innovation and output power of a conventional engine. The results indicate that innovative engines (such as the Ford turbo petrol/diesel engine, the EcoBoost/TDCi have improved energy consumption and reduce CO2 emissions. In addition, the Toyota hybrid vehicles have also improved energy consumption and reduced greenhouse gases emissions.

  9. Hopes in the Crisis——Chinese Automobile Market in the World Auto manufacturing Industry Shuffle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shurong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Global automobile markets shuffle against the economic crisis The economic crisis spread rapidly around the world,making automobile industry one of the victims who are shocked hardest,leading to an industrial shuffle in global automobile industry.USA,EU and Japan,the traditional top three leading countries in global automobile industry,could not have their lucks to escape from the crisis.The weak global automobile market forces these transnational auto companies to be more cautious about the future than ever.As reflected in the latest performance reports,though governments took measures to maintain the market,the sharp decline in global automobile sales volume continued in the first quarter.Automobile market bottomed out in the second quarter.US auto industrywas affected the most,with two out of the top three manufacturers getting bankrupt and regrouped.

  10. Sexual behavior among truck drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Kumar Singh; Hari Shankar Joshi

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, ...

  11. Factors Influencing Drivers' Speeding Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Wallén Warner, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Every year many people all over the world are killed and severely injured in road traffic accidents. Even though driving too fast is a behaviour well known to contribute to both the number and the outcome of these accidents, drivers are still speeding. The general aim of this thesis, and its five empirical studies, is therefore to further the knowledge about drivers speeding behaviour by using the theory of planned behaviour and the model underpinning the driver behaviour questionnaire as fra...

  12. Cost Drivers. Evolution and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary COKINS

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to capture the evolution of applying cost drivers in calculating costs since their initial occurrence until the present times. There are different conceptual approaches of cost drivers, and new insights from applying cost modeling techniques from the Activity-Based Costing method (ABC. The article looks at the typology, criteria for selection of cost drivers and their benefits. The cost allocation method is also presented with specific steps corresponding to the ABC calculation method. In the end, the authors conclusions on the benefits of cost drivers are presented.

  13. Characteristics of Older Drivers Who Self-Limit Their Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Braitman, Keli A.; McCartt, Anne T

    2008-01-01

    Driver age, gender, medical conditions, and impairments in memory, vision, and physical functioning as predictors of self-limited driving were examined among a sample of 2,650 drivers 65 and older from Kentucky (n=1,337), Connecticut (n=828), and Rhode Island (n=485). Drivers were recruited while renewing their driver’s licenses and were interviewed by telephone about their current driving patterns (e.g., whether they self-limit their driving and, if so, how), functional abilities related to ...

  14. Testing a structural model of young driver willingness to uptake Smartphone Driver Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervick, Aoife A; Hogan, Michael J; O'Hora, Denis; Sarma, Kiran M

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in the potential value of using phone applications that can monitor driver behaviour (Smartphone Driver Support Systems, 'SDSSs') in mitigating risky driving by young people. However, their value in this regard will only be realised if young people are willing to use this technology. This paper reports the findings of a study in which a novel structural model of willingness to use SDSSs was tested. Grounded in the driver monitoring and Technology Acceptance (TA) research literature, the model incorporates the perceived risks and gains associated with potential SDSS usage and additional social cognitive factors, including perceived usability and social influences. A total of 333 smartphone users, aged 18-24, with full Irish driving licenses completed an online questionnaire examining willingness or Behavioural Intention (BI) to uptake a SDSS. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation modelling indicated that perceived gains and social influence factors had significant direct effects on BI. Perceived risks and social influence also had significant indirect effects on BI, as mediated by perceived gains. Overall, this model accounted for 72.5% of the variance in willingness to uptake SDSSs. Multi-group structural models highlighted invariance of effects across gender, high and low risk drivers, and those likely or unlikely to adopt novel phone app technologies. These findings have implications for our understanding of the willingness of young drivers to adopt and use SDSSs, and highlight potential factors that could be targeted in behavioural change interventions seeking to improve usage rates. PMID:26277411

  15. Fast SCR Thyratron Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an improvement project on the linear accelerator at SLAC, it was necessary to replace the original thyratron trigger generator, which consisted of two chassis, two vacuum tubes, and a small thyratron. All solid-state, fast rise, and high voltage thyratron drivers, therefore, have been developed and built for the 244 klystron modulators. The rack mounted, single chassis driver employs a unique way to control and generate pulses through the use of an asymmetric SCR, a PFN, a fast pulse transformer, and a saturable reactor. The resulting output pulse is 2 kV peak into 50 (Omega) load with pulse duration of 1.5 μs FWHM at 180 Hz. The pulse risetime is less than 40 ns with less than 1 ns jitter. Various techniques are used to protect the SCR from being damaged by high voltage and current transients due to thyratron breakdowns. The end-of-line clipper (EOLC) detection circuit is also integrated into this chassis to interrupt the modulator triggering in the event a high percentage of line reflections occurred

  16. Driver behaviour at roadworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves. PMID:26154200

  17. Role of Multinational Corporations in Automobile Industries: A Comparative Study Between India and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Babu Kumaran

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Role of Multinational Corporations ( MNC’s in developing countries is not new in the arena of International business and global macroeconomics. One of the most significant economic developments of recent decades is the economic LPG process (Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation is reflected in the rapid growth in international trade and the surge in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. This process is to a large extent driven by new investments from multinational corporations. A rapidly growing share of MNC’s in India and Mexico in last decade was evident in various sector and in particular to automobile sector. Multinational Corporations are seeking to exploit the vast but also precarious market potentials in these emerging economies. Simultaneously, India and Mexico are increasingly embarking on economic development strategies aimed at attracting MNC’s Foreign Direct Investment as a means to access technology, capital, organizational and marketing know how, etc. This study does comparative analyses on the performance of automobile sector in India and Mexico, mainly in passenger car and Utility vehicles sector. It examines the impact and the role of MNC’s in these economies since 1990’s, with derived empirical quantitative and qualitative data analysis that would illustrate and reinforce some of the contemporary status.

  18. Anti-Rolling Suspension for an Automobile by Coupled Electromagnetic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ryuzo; Suda, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Kimihiko

    Nowadays, various suspension control technologies have been developed such as active suspensions, semi-active suspensions and active stabilizers. As an alternative to a hydraulic actuator for suspension, electromagnetic devices have been developed. Electromagnetic devices are attracting much interest due to their high responsiveness, controllability, energy saving performance, and so on. Besides these advantages, electromagnetic devices can be connected to each other very easily. Therefore, the authors focus on this characteristic of the electromagnetic device and propose two methods to use coupled electromagnetic devices as an anti-rolling control device as well as vertical shock absorbers. The automobile experiences anti-rolling effects, such as roll damping and roll stabilization, without affecting the bouncing motion. Through basic experiments with two motors and control circuits, the performance of the proposed system is examined. The results indicate the coupled electromagnetic devices can be operated as a variable roll damper or a roll stabilizer. Numerical simulations of the turning automobile are carried out, and the results indicate the proposed system is effective.

  19. Influence of catalyst deactivation on N2O emissions from automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though estimates of the total N2O emitted by automobiles differ widely, automobiles are believed to be a significant source of non-agricultural anthropogenic N2O emissions. At the Third Conference of the Parties (COP-3) UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, held in Kyoto in 1997, N2O was designated as a greenhouse gas whose release into the atmosphere must be reduced. This action increased the need for more accurate estimates of automotive N2O emissions. The wide variation in estimates may be attributed to differences in emission test modes, types of catalysts, and levels of catalyst deactivation involved in the tests. In this study, we examined the influence of automotive catalyst deactivation on N2O emissions from the perspective of catalyst temperature frequency distribution. Using a model gas and deactivated three-way catalysts (TWCs), we applied the exhaust emission test modes of various countries. The results indicate that the factor behind the increase of N2O emissions following catalyst deactivation is not growth in N2O generation, but a decline in the N2O decomposition capability of the catalyst. It was also found that the effect of catalyst deactivation differs according to the catalyst composition and the emission test mode.(author)

  20. DRIVERS OF MOTIAVTION AND ITS IMPACT ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    SHAHZAD KHAN; SAQIB SHAHZAD

    2012-01-01

    This research examines the relationship of teacher’s drivers for motivation and dependency of productivity on motivation. This research is a comparative study of public and private universities teachers in Peshawar region Research analyzed the drivers of motivation of teachers in both sectors and on basis of their motivation how productivity is influenced. Most of the research emphasize that there are certain factors responsible for productivity. But before productivity it is important to cre...

  1. Design of MEMS accelerometer based acceleration measurement system for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K. Arun; Mathivanan, N.

    2012-10-01

    Design of an acceleration measurement system using a MEMS accelerometer to measure acceleration of automobiles in all the three axes is presented. Electronic stability control and anti-lock breaking systems in automobiles use the acceleration measurements to offer safety in driving. The system uses an ARM microcontroller to quantize the outputs of accelerometer and save the measurement data on a microSD card. A LabVIEW program has been developed to analyze the longitudinal acceleration measurement data and test the measurement system. Random noises generated and added with measurement data during measurement are filtered by a Kalman filter implemented in LabVIEW. Longitudinal velocity of the vehicle is computed from the measurement data and displayed on a graphical chart. Typical measurement of velocity of a vehicle at different accelerations and decelerations is presented.

  2. The Inherited Traditional Culture of Automobile Molding DNA Design Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of automobile modeling DNA is the core that makes enterprises establish a good and unique brand image to win on market. This paper described the definition and meaning of production DNA, also discussed the composition of production DNA and researched the design ideas of production DNA from both macro and micro aspects. Finally, it recommended would research the traditional culture into the past, present and future of three periods, explored the idea of traditional culture that the automobile modeling DNA inherited under these three periods and analyzed with the red flag car as an example. This research provided a guideline to help automotive corporations to implement brand strategies, and helped to design autos with Chinese elements, sense of the times and fashion trends and can perform the modern mental outlook of Chinese people.

  3. AN FE ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED SUBGRADE UNDER AUTOMOBILE LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shuwang; ZHANG Xinqiang; LIU Run

    2004-01-01

    An FE analysis procedure was presented to predict the behavior of soil-geogrid interaction under automobile loading. The dynamic interactions between the transverse bars, the longitudinal ribs and the soil were simulated by a system consisting of nonlinear springs, dashpots and masses, to study the deformation properties of the reinforced soil. The equivalent stiffness and damping ratios could be determined with the shaking table. The dynamic responses of a reinforced subgrade were analyzed with the 3D finite element approach. This approach is programmed and applied to analyze the soil-geogrid interaction under dynamic loading. The comparative analysis of the response of the reinforced subgrade and that of the subgrade without reinforcement shows that the geogrid placed at the bottom of the base layer may effectively reduce the accumulative plastic deformation due to the cyclic automobile loading.

  4. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  5. Study on the Fuzzy COntrol Strategy of Automobile with CVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuJianjun; QINDatong; 等

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the dynamic characteristics of automobile with a CVT system, a bond graph analysis model of continuously variable transmission is established.On the base of the simulation state space equations that are established with bond graph theory,a fuzzy control strategy with an expert system of starting process has been introduced.Considering uncertain system parameters and exterior resistance disturbing,the effect of the profile of membership function and the defuzzification algorthm on the capacity of the fuzzy controller has been studied.The result of simulation proves that the proposed fuzzy controller is effective and feasible,Such controller has been employed in the actual control and has proved practicable.The study lays a foundation for design of the fuzzy controller for automobile with a CVT system.

  6. Automobile ride quality experiments correlated to iso-weighted criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, A. J.; Young, R. K.; Smith, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    As part of an overall study to evaluate the usefulness of ride quality criteria for the design of improved ground transportation systems an experiment was conducted involving subjective and objective measurement of ride vibrations found in an automobile riding over roadways of various roughness. Correlation of the results led to some very significant relationships between passenger rating and ride accelerations. The latter were collapsed using a frequency-weighted root mean square measure of the random vibration. The results suggest the form of a design criterion giving the relationship between ride vibration and acceptable automobile ride quality. Further the ride criterion is expressed in terms that relate to rides with which most people are familiar. The design of the experiment, the ride vibration data acquisition, the concept of frequency weighting and the correlations found between subjective and objective measurements are presented.

  7. Impact of mandating a driving lesson for older drivers at license renewal in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji; Inada, Haruhiko

    2015-02-01

    In Japan, a driving lesson consisting of a lecture, a driver aptitude test, on-road driving assessment and a discussion session was added to the driving license renewal procedure for drivers aged 75 years or older in 1998 and for drivers aged 70 years or older in 2002. We investigated whether these additions contributed to a reduction in at-fault motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) by examining the trend of the at-fault MVC rates per licensed driver and the rate ratios of the older drivers relative to those aged 65-69 years for the years 1986-2011. All data were derived from nationwide traffic statistics. If the introduction of the lesson was effective in reducing at-fault MVCs of older drivers, the rate ratio should have declined, given that the lesson targeted only the older drivers. We found this was not the case, i.e., there was no declining trend in the at-fault MVC rate ratios of both drivers aged 75 years or older and drivers aged 70 years or older, relative to drivers aged 65-69 years, after the driving lesson at license renewal became mandatory for these older drivers. Therefore, the mandatory lesson for the older drivers at license renewal needs to be reconsidered. PMID:25460091

  8. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Yunsong Xu; Shen Yin; Jinyong Yu; Hamid Reza Karimi

    2014-01-01

    The traditional mechanical instrument lacks the ability to satisfy the market with characters of favorable compatibility, easy upgrading, and fashion. Thus the design of a TFT-LCD (thin film transistor-liquid crystal display) based automobile instrument is carried out. With a 7-inch TFT-LCD and the 32-bit microcontroller MB91F599, the instrument could process various information generated by other electronic control units (ECUs) of a vehicle and display valuable driving parameters on the 7-in...

  9. A New Method for Estimation of Automobile Fuel Adulteration

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Anil; Sharma, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of increasing urban air pollution due to fast increasing number of auto mobiles and adulteration of automobile fuel has been pointed out in the context of developing countries. For prevention of the adulteration, the monitoring of fuel quality at the distribution point is essential. For the detection/estimation of the commonly used adulterants (i.e. diesel in petrol and kerosene in diesel), a number of possible methods have been reviewed. As such there is no standard method/equipm...

  10. Digital Laser Welding System for Automobile Side Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hong-Seok; Choi, Hung-Won

    2010-01-01

    The laser as economical and flexible tool has established a solid ground in industrial manufacturing area. Specially at welding BIW (Body In White) in automobile industry, the importance of it has been increased due to the technological characteristics such as high process speed, slim seam and good capability of automation and so on. For application of laser welding technique, welding principle and influential factors were investigated based on the analysis of laser welding processes. With th...

  11. A Flowchart Approach to Malaysia's Automobile Industry Cluster Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchiki, Akifumi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a flowchart approach to investigate Malaysia's automobile cluster policy. We investigate whether the industrial cluster policy has been successful or not, suggest policy prescriptions, and propose a way to prioritize policy measures. Our flowchart approach leads to the following three policy prescriptions: (1) Malaysian firms should establish sites for exporting compact cars with automatic transmissions; (2) actors in the public, semi-public and private sector should w...

  12. Life Cycle Assessment Practices: Benchmarking Selected European Automobile Manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Chanaron, Jean-Jacques

    2007-01-01

    With the rise of environmental concerns in the general public, re-appropriated by influential politicians, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has become a widely used set of tools for the management of all impacts on environment by industrial products. LCA is carried out at the very early stages of product research, development and design. This is particularly true in the automobile industry where vehicle manufacturers Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are launching several new or re-vamped mo...

  13. Automobile Fuel Economy Standards: Impacts, Efficiency, and Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Soren; Parry, Ian; James M. Sallee; FISCHER, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses fuel economy regulations in the United States and other countries. We first describe how these programs affect the automobile market, including their impacts on fuel use and other dimensions of the vehicle fleet. We then review different methodologies for assessing the costs of fuel economy regulations and discuss what the results of these methodologies imply for policy. Following that, we compare the welfare effects of fuel economy regulations to those of fuel taxes and ...

  14. STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE IN THE BRAZILIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso Carneiro Lima; Edison Fernandes Polo; Fátima Regina Ney Matos

    2010-01-01

    This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE). The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors...

  15. "Uniqueness seeking and demand estimation in the German automobile industry"

    OpenAIRE

    Guerzoni, Marco; Soellner, René

    2009-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the determinants of demand in the German automobile industry. Our primary goal is to refine the existing literature on that topic by exploring the impact of uniqueness seeking behaviour of individuals on the demand schedule. Using a dataset on the segment of compact cars in the German market, we show that consumers have an intrinsic need for uniqueness seeking, and the degree a product satisfies this need is to be considered as an additional product characteris...

  16. Translation of Automobile Brands from the Perspective of Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘竹林; 王俊

    2013-01-01

    With the steady growth of the Chinese economy, more and more countries are focusing on China. A great number of brands are entering the Chinese market and auto brand is one of them. Brand translation plays an important role for success of opening international market. This paper applies the Skopos theory to automobile brand translation, so as to provide a new angle to translation practice.

  17. Teamwork in the Automobile Industry - an Anglo-German Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Niels-Erik Wergin

    2004-01-01

    Teamwork in the automotive industry varies significantly from plant to plant. This article compares teamwork in four automobile plants in Germany and Britain, and addresses two questions: (1) Do different models of teamwork fit into a bi-polar model of teamwork, being either innovative or structural conservative? (2) Do current models of teamwork signify a development towards post-fordism, or are they merely part of a neo-fordist rationalisation of production? The following answers are sugges...

  18. Promoting automobile safety belt use by young children.

    OpenAIRE

    Sowers-Hoag, K M; Thyer, B A; Bailey, J S

    1987-01-01

    A program using behavioral practice, assertiveness training, and social and contrived reinforcers was developed to establish and maintain automobile safety belt use by young children. Sixteen children (ages 4.8 to 7 years) who never used their safety belts during a 5-day preexperimental observation period were randomly assigned to two groups of eight each. A multiple baseline design across groups was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the training program. During the 8-day baseline period ...

  19. Loyalty marketing in automobile dealerships : case: car dealer X

    OpenAIRE

    Hyyryläinen, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study how customer loyalty is taken into account in automobile dealerships, what loyalty marketing means are used to improve customer loyalty, and what potential new loyalty marketing means can be implemented. The thesis is commissioned by Car dealer X. In the theoretical part, areas covered are customership and loyalty marketing. Customership includes customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, customer value and customer retention. Loyalty marketing contain...

  20. Market Analysis of RFID Systems in Indian Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mariappan, Ramachandran

    2010-01-01

    RFID is an emerging hot technology in tracking and tracing physical objects. The market for RFID ranges from technological artefacts like tags and reader infrastructure to software solutions and supply chain services. One of the key business sectors that have seen the initial benefits of RFID applications is the Automobile sector through improvements in local processes related to better production control and increased handling efficiency. In recent years, there has been a palpable shift in t...

  1. Hybrid GPS-GSM Localization of Automobile Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad A. Al-Khedher

    2012-01-01

    An integrated GPS-GSM system is proposed to track vehicles using Google Earth application. The remote module has a GPS mounted on the moving vehicle to identify its current position, and to be transferred by GSM with other parameters acquired by the automobile's data port as an SMS to a recipient station. The received GPS coordinates are filtered using a Kalman filter to enhance the accuracy of measured position. After data processing, Google Earth application is used to view the current loca...

  2. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    OpenAIRE

    H.P. Khairnar; V.M. Phalle; S. S. Mantha

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained hav...

  3. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF; NOOR AZMI HASHIM

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study ...

  4. Determinants of Expenditure in Automobile Maintenance: Some Evidence from Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Bitros, George C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper derives a model of maintenance expenditures from an analytical framework in which maintenance, utilization and service life are appropriately integrated and estimates it with the help of automobile data from Greece. On the theoretical plain it is shown that the model allows endogenously for most of the variables that have been identified in the relevant literature as important determinants of maintenance expenditures. Also the model yields sharp sign predictions for the included va...

  5. The older adult driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, D B

    2000-01-01

    More adults aged 65 and older will be driving in the next few decades. Many older drivers are safe behind the wheel and do not need intensive testing for license renewal. Others, however, have physiologic or cognitive impairments that can affect their mobility and driving safety. When an older patient's driving competency is questioned, a comprehensive, step-by-step assessment is recommended. Many diseases that impair driving ability can be detected and treated effectively by family physicians. Physicians should take an active role in assessing and reducing the risk for injury in a motor vehicle and, when possible, prevent or delay driving cessation in their patients. Referral to other health care professionals, such as an occupational or physical therapist, may be helpful for evaluation and treatment. When an older patient is no longer permitted or able to drive, the physician should counsel the patient about using alternative methods of transportation. PMID:10643955

  6. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd3+: Glass and CO2, have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  7. STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE IN THE BRAZILIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Carneiro Lima

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE. The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors, and the adoption of its strategic positioning in exploring two automobile market niches: in the B2B market, vehicles adapted to specific operational functions; and in the B2C, off-road vehicles with a strong appeal to consumers’ life styles. This case study allowed us to visualize the challenging path of a genuinely Brazilian small company in a sector dominated by large multinational groups, besides demonstrating decision-related dilemmas and aspects related to managerial creativity.Key-words: Automobile industry. Case study. Strategic entrepreneurship. Discovery theory. Strategic positioning.

  8. Identifying driver mutations in sequenced cancer genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raphael, Benjamin J; Dobson, Jason R; Oesper, Layla;

    2014-01-01

    protein sequence or structure. Finally, we review techniques to identify recurrent combinations of somatic mutations, including approaches that examine mutations in known pathways or protein-interaction networks, as well as de novo approaches that identify combinations of mutations according to......-throughput DNA sequencing data, particularly for tumor samples that comprise heterogeneous populations of cells. Next, we review computational approaches that aim to predict driver mutations according to their frequency of occurrence in a cohort of samples, or according to their predicted functional impact on......, and random mutations. Here, we review computational approaches to identify somatic mutations in cancer genome sequences and to distinguish the driver mutations that are responsible for cancer from random, passenger mutations. First, we describe approaches to detect somatic mutations from high...

  9. A qualitative exploration of self-regulation behaviors among older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donorfio, Laura K M; Mohyde, Maureen; Coughlin, Joseph; D'Ambrosio, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    While much of the research on aging and driving has focused on sensory and motor changes, little is known about older drivers and the actual self-regulation adjustments they employ to continue driving safely. This research looks at how older drivers have made changes to driving patterns and behaviors that have allowed them to continue to drive without compromising their perceived safety, independence, and quality of life. Nine focus groups were held with older men and women aged 58 to 89 years. Some of the major themes that emerged were the following: older adults are very aware of age-related changes to driving; they perceive that self-regulation behaviors change with age; and they view transportation alternatives as limited or nonexistent. Policy implications include developing functional transit programs for older adults and car manufacturer training workshops to educate older adults on the safety features of newly purchased automobiles. PMID:19024031

  10. Driver style and driver skills – clustering drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ and...

  11. Heavy-ion driver design and scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parametric models for scaling heavy-ion driver designs are described. Scaling of target performance and driver cost is done for driver parameters including driver energy, number of beams, type of superconductor used in focusing magnets, maximum magnetic field allowed at the superconducting windings, linear quadrupole array packing fraction mass, and ion charge state. The cumulative accelerator voltage and beam currents are determined from the Maschke limits on beam current for each choice of driver energy and post-acceleration pulse duration. The heavy-ion driver is optimized over the large available driver parameter space. Parametric studies and the choice of a base driver model are described in a companion paper

  12. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis

  13. 41 CFR 301-10.310 - What will I be reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead... automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead? (a) Reimbursement based on Government costs—Unless you are committed to using a Government automobile as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  14. Bioavailability of platinum emitted from automobile exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artelt, S; Kock, H; Nachtigall, D; Heinrich, U

    1998-08-01

    A model substance was used which is similar in respect to platinum content of exhaust particles emitted from a three-way-catalytic converter equipped engine. The bioavailability of platinum from such exhaust particles and the kind of platinum species formed in vivo were assessed. An in vitro solubility test showed a solubility of approximately 10 percent of platinum content of the model substance in physiological sodium chloride solution. Two short-term animal studies (8 days) were performed. In all examined rat tissues and body fluids platinum could be detected. In addition, the contribution of the overall bioavailability caused by swallowing a certain amount of the intratracheally applied platinum was evaluated by oral application. It was very low. An analytical method was developed to determine platinum species. Synthetic samples (matrix with a platinum standard solution) were analysed. In rat bronchoalveolar lavage spiked with a platinum standard solution only low molecular complexed platinum was found whereas in rat blood plasma all platinum was bound to proteins. In ongoing studies, the model substance is being tested in a three month rat inhalation study. PMID:9820662

  15. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs shoul...

  16. The influence of globalisation on automobile manufacturers in South Africa / Kalanther Ishaq

    OpenAIRE

    Ishaq, Kanther

    2003-01-01

    The South African automobile manufacturing industry has grown since 1920 from an import and assembly industry to an import-substitute industry. From the inception, the automobile manufacturing industry developed under the careful monitoring of the Government to obtain the objectives of the economy of the country. Until 1960, all automobile manufacturers imported completely knocked down sets from abroad to assemble vehicles. These excessive imports drained the South African fore...

  17. The Relationship Between Cash Flow And Capital Expenditure: Evidence From German Automobile Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Saffarizadeh, Navid

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study investigates the long run equilibrium relationship between cash flow and capital expenditure in German automobile sector as one of the leaders of the automobile industry in the world. Johansen co-integration test confirmed the relationship between cash flow and capital expenditure in the long run. Cash flow has significant and inelastic impact on capital expenditure (-0.963). Error correction model reveals that capital expenditure in German automobile sector conver...

  18. The effects of automobile production and local government expenditure on poverty in alabama

    OpenAIRE

    Sooriyakumar Krishnapillai; Henry Kinnucan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of automobile production on the poverty rate of Alabama's counties. The findings suggest that automobile production in Alabama significantly reduces the poverty rate in all counties. The impact of automobile production on poverty reduction in distressed black belt counties is greater than in other counties. The local government expenditure is not very effective in reducing the poverty. This implies that industrial development may be more effective in reducing pov...

  19. Folk Quantification of Transportation Energy: An initial investigation of perceptions of automobile energy use

    OpenAIRE

    Silvis, Julia; Leighty, Wayne; Karner, Alex

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we seek to document what, if any, divergences exist between how experts and ‘lay’ people conceptualize the energy used in automobiles, motivated by previously-documented divergences in the home energy sector. From a total of 15 interviews with 19 individuals, we identify several common ways ‘lay’ people think about automobile energy use, and draw a number of conclusions relevant to the development of transportation energy policy. In our informants’ minds, automobiles us...

  20. Prevalence of alcohol and drug use in injured British Columbia drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubacher, Jeffrey R; Chan, Herbert; Martz, Walter; Schreiber, William; Asbridge, Mark; Eppler, Jeffrey; Lund, Adam; Macdonald, Scott; Drummer, Olaf; Purssell, Roy; Andolfatto, Gary; Mann, Robert; Brant, Rollin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Determine the prevalence of drug use in injured drivers and identify associated demographic factors and crash characteristics. Design Prospective cross-sectional study. Setting Seven trauma centres in British Columbia, Canada (2010–2012). Participants Automobile drivers who had blood obtained within 6 h of a crash. Main outcome measures We analysed blood for cannabis, alcohol and other impairing drugs using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LCMS). Results 1097 drivers met inclusion criteria. 60% were aged 20–50 years, 63.2% were male and 29.0% were admitted to hospital. We found alcohol in 17.8% (15.6% to 20.1%) of drivers. Cannabis was the second most common recreational drug: cannabis metabolites were present in 12.6% (10.7% to 14.7%) of drivers and we detected Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-9-THC) in 7.3% (5.9% to 9.0%), indicating recent use. Males and drivers aged under 30 years were most likely to use cannabis. We detected cocaine in 2.8% (2.0% to 4.0%) of drivers and amphetamines in 1.2% (0.7% to 2.0%). We also found medications including benzodiazepines (4.0% (2.9% to 5.3%)), antidepressants (6.5% (5.2% to 8.1%)) and diphenhydramine (4.7% (3.5% to 6.2%)). Drivers aged over 50 years and those requiring hospital admission were most likely to have used medications. Overall, 40.1% (37.2% to 43.0%) of drivers tested positive for alcohol or at least one impairing drug and 12.7% (10.7% to 14.7%) tested positive for more than one substance. Conclusions Alcohol, cannabis and a broad range of other impairing drugs are commonly detected in injured drivers. Alcohol is well known to cause crashes, but further research is needed to determine the impact of other drug use, including drug–alcohol and drug–drug combinations, on crash risk. In particular, more work is needed to understand the role of medications in causing crashes to guide driver education programmes and improve public safety. PMID:26966054

  1. Insect-vision inspired collision warning vision processor for automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Liñán-Cembrano, G.; Carranza-González, L.; Rind, Claire; Zarandy, A.; Soininen, Martti; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Ángel

    2008-01-01

    Vision is expected to play important roles for car safety enhancement. Imaging systems can be used to enlarging the vision field of the driver. For instance capturing and displaying views of hidden areas around the car which the driver can analyze for safer decision-making. Vision systems go a step further. They can autonomously analyze the visual information, identify dangerous situations and prompt the delivery of warning signals. For instance in case of road lane departure, if an overtakin...

  2. Real-time driver drowsiness feedback improves driver alertness and self-reported driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidman, Eugene; Chadunow, Carolyn; Johnson, Kayla; Reece, John

    2015-08-01

    Driver drowsiness has been implicated as a major causal factor in road accidents. Tools that allow remote monitoring and management of driver fatigue are used in the mining and road transport industries. Increasing drivers' own awareness of their drowsiness levels using such tools may also reduce risk of accidents. The study examined the effects of real-time blink-velocity-derived drowsiness feedback on driver performance and levels of alertness in a military setting. A sample of 15 Army Reserve personnel (1 female) aged 21-59 (M=41.3, SD=11.1) volunteered to being monitored by an infra-red oculography-based Optalert Alertness Monitoring System (OAMS) while they performed their regular driving tasks, including on-duty tasks and commuting to and from duty, for a continuous period of 4-8 weeks. For approximately half that period, blink-velocity-derived Johns Drowsiness Scale (JDS) scores were fed back to the driver in a counterbalanced repeated-measures design, resulting in a total of 419 driving periods under "feedback" and 385 periods under "no-feedback" condition. Overall, the provision of real-time feedback resulted in reduced drowsiness (lower JDS scores) and improved alertness and driving performance ratings. The effect was small and varied across the 24-h circadian cycle but it remained robust after controlling for time of day and driving task duration. Both the number of JDS peaks counted for each trip and their duration declined in the presence of drowsiness feedback, indicating a dynamic pattern that is consistent with a genuine, entropy-reducing feedback mechanism (as distinct from random re-alerting) behind the observed effect. Its mechanisms and practical utility have yet to be fully explored. Direct examination of the alternative, random re-alerting explanation of this feedback effect is an important step for future research. PMID:25932964

  3. Personality predictors of driver vengeance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christine M; Wiesenthal, David L; Roseborough, James E W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify personality and individual difference measures related to driver vengeance, as measured by the Driver Vengeance Questionnaire (DVQ; Wiesenthal, Hennessy, & Gibson, 2000). There were 170 undergraduate students who completed paper-and-pencil questionnaires including the DVQ and measures of narcissism, impulsivity, and trait driver stress. A hierarchical linear regressidn predicting DVQ score revealed that being male (β = .25), narcissism (β = .19), and trait driver stress (β = .41) were significantly associated with vengeance. Impulsivity was significant in the third block of the regression but was not a significant predictor of vengeance in the final block. Interactions between gender and the individual difference measures were not significant. The final model accounted for 34% of the variance. Implications of the results and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25774420

  4. Biodiversity: Interacting global change drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settele, Josef; Wiemers, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Climate change impacts on species do not occur in isolation. Now research on drought-sensitive British butterflies uses citizen science to attribute the drivers of population changes and shows landscape management to be a key part of the solution.

  5. Laser dazzling impacts on car driver performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinvall, Ove; Sandberg, Stig; Hörberg, Ulf; Persson, Rolf; Berglund, Folke; Karslsson, Kjell; Öhgren, Johan; Yu, Zhaohua; Söderberg, Per

    2013-10-01

    A growing problem for the Police and Security Forces has been to prevent potentially hostile individuals to pass a checkpoint, without using lethatl violence. Therefore the question has been if there is a laser or any other strong light source that could be used as a warning and dazzling device, without lethal or long term effects. To investigate the possibilities a field trial has been performed at a motor-racing track. A green CW laser with an irradiance on the eye of maximum 0.5 MPE, as defined by ICNIRP [1] and the ANZI standard [2], was used as a dazzle source. Ten drivers have been driving with dipped headlights through a course of three lines with orange cones. In every line there has been only one gate wide enough to pass without hitting the cones. The time through the course, the choice of gates and the number of cones hit have been measured. For every second trial drive through the track, the driver was exposed to the laser dazzler. The background illuminances ranged from a thousand lux in daylight to about ten millilux in darkness. The protective effect of the sun-visor of the car was investigated. The drives visual system was carefully examined before and after experimental driving and a few weeks after the experimental driving to verify that no pathological effects, that could potentially be induced by the laser exposure, pre-existed or occurred after the laser exposure. An analysis of variance for a within subjects design has been used for evaluation. It was found that green laser light can have an obvious warning effect in daylight. Dazzling does reduce the drivers ability to make judgments and manouver the car in twilight and darkness. A sun-visor can reduce the glare and give the driver an improved control, but that perception can be unjustified. No damage to the visual system was observed.

  6. Individualized solutions to environmental problems: a case of automobile pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urmetzer, P.; Blake, D. E.; Guppy, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Air pollution associated with motor vehicle use is one of the prime indicators of the tension between consumerism and the environment. The use of private automobiles seems so convenient, whereas the alternatives are off-putting enough to make significant changes in personal transportation behaviour well-nigh impossible. At the same time, combating the air pollution associated with extensive use of cars has become one of the major policy objectives for cities around the world. Available policy alternatives can be divided into two categories: (1) incentives, such as improved public transportation, and (2) disincentives, such as environmental tax on gasoline. This paper attempt to directly assess links between these two alternatives, associated attitudes towards them, the level of public support for command and control (i.e. regulatory) policy approaches as well as for economic incentive/disincentive policies. Answers are sought and findings discussed relative to the link between opinions about the environment and support for different types of environmental policies, the usefulness of a rational choice perspective in explaining support for environmental policy alternatives, the role that partisan political attachments play in support of environmental policy approaches, and the roles played by environmental activism, knowledge, and action in shaping support for environmental policy alternatives. Overall results indicate that while most people living in urban environments support the ideas of environmental protection and would be willing to incur costs to confront the problem, exposure to air pollution plays an inconsequential (actually nearly non-existent) role in support of automobile-related environmental problems. Automobile users act like 'free-riders' i.e. they tend to support policies that socialize the cost of solutions rather than policies that attempt to pass the cost of pollution directly on to individual car owners. A sample of the responses to

  7. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver’s license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. Results: of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11 years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%. Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver’s license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver’s license for at least one year. Conclusion: among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  8. Peer influence on speeding behaviour among male drivers aged 18 and 28

    OpenAIRE

    Møller, Mette; HAUSTEIN, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive research, preventive efforts and general improvements in road safety levels, the accident risk of young male drivers remains increased. Based on a standardized survey of a random sample of 2,018 male drivers at the age of 18 and 28, this study looked into attitudes and behaviours related to traffic violations of male drivers. More specifically, the role of peer influence on speeding was examined in both age groups. In regression analyses it could be shown that the descriptiv...

  9. Common Traffic Violations of Bus Drivers in Urban China: An Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Qiqi Wang; , Wei Zhang; Rendong Yang; Yuanxiu Huang; Lin Zhang; Peishan Ning; Xunjie Cheng; Schwebel, David C; Guoqing Hu; Hongyan Yao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report common traffic violations in bus drivers and the factors that influence those violations in urban China. Methods We conducted an observational study to record three types of traffic violations among bus drivers in Changsha City, China: illegal stopping at bus stations, violating traffic light signals, and distracted driving. The behaviors of bus drivers on 32 routes (20% of bus routes in the city) were observed. A two-level Poisson regression examined factors that predicte...

  10. The influence of occupational stress on lipid status of road traffic professional vehicle drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanović Violeta; Jovanović Jovica; Jovanović Milan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Professional stress can damage all organs and systems of exposed workers. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of occupational stress on lipid state of exposed professional drivers in road traffic. Material and methods. The atherogenic risk in vehicle drivers professionally exposed to stress was assessed by measuring total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol. The examination included a group of 200 vehicle drivers professionally exposed t...

  11. What Use Patterns Were Observed for PEV Drivers at Publicly Accessible AC Level 2 EVSE Sites?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The EV Project deployed over 4,000 ACL2 EVSE for drivers to charge their plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) when away-from-home. The vast majority of these EVSE stations were installed to be available to all PEV drivers at publicly accessible locations. Some were also deployed for use at workplaces and fleets. This paper examines only the use patterns of PEV drivers using the EVSE intended to be publicly accessible.

  12. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  13. How do drivers overtake cyclists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozza, Marco; Schindler, Ron; Bianchi-Piccinini, Giulio; Karlsson, Johan

    2016-03-01

    In Europe, the number of road crashes is steadily decreasing every year. However, the incidence of bicycle crashes is not declining as fast as that of car crashes. In Sweden, cyclists are the most frequently injured road users. Collisions between bicycles and motorized vehicles are of particular concern because the high speed and large mass of motorized vehicles create a high risk of serious injury to cyclists. In Sweden's urban areas, bicycle lanes keep bicycles separated from motorized vehicles, but on rural roads bicycle lanes are often absent, requiring drivers to interact with cyclists-usually by overtaking them. During this maneuver, drivers regulate speed and lateral position, negotiating with potential oncoming traffic to stay within their comfort zones while approaching and passing cyclists. In this study an instrumented bicycle recorded 145 overtaking maneuvers performed by car and truck drivers on public rural roads in Sweden. The bicycle was equipped with a LIDAR and two cameras to assess how drivers approached and circumvented the bicycle. The collected data allowed us to identify four overtaking phases and quantify the corresponding driver comfort zones. The presence of an oncoming vehicle was the factor that most influenced the maneuver, whereas neither vehicle speed, lane width, shoulder width nor posted speed limit significantly affected the driver comfort zone or the overtaking dynamics. PMID:26717348

  14. Measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L.B.; Cobas Flores, E.; McMichael, F.C.; Hendrickson, C.T.; Horvath, A.; Joshi, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    In the paper the following topics are discussed: - the need for public education and involvement in the decision process, - the difficulty of defining sustainability, - the occasional difference between the goals of sustainability and environmental quality, - the need for life cycle analysis to analyze the sustainability and environmental quality implications of a product, process, or material. The importance of environmental input-output analysis is stressed. This new tool can provide the life cycle information cheaply, quickly, and with much less uncertainty. Examples are presented for making an automobile, a seat out of plastic or aluminium, and an electric vehicle. (author) 4 tabs., refs.

  15. SCHEDULING OF MECHANICS IN AUTOMOBILE REPAIR SHOPS USING ANN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SHIVASANKARAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling problems are NP – Hard combinatorial optimization problems, since many algorithms have been developed which offers new promising insights for solving resource allocation problems. Considering the problems faced in automobile repair shops, who sets the customer due dates of the car based on processing time, jobs already waiting for processing and mechanic available time. Also the workload of the mechanic should be balanced and minimize the make-span of the work. So this paper is concerned with determination of optimal allocation of repair jobs to the mechanic using Artificial Neural Network and hence to determine the minimum Total cost and make span of repair.

  16. Relations de travail dans l’industrie automobile colombienne

    OpenAIRE

    Valero, Edgar Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Les secteurs d'assemblages d'automobiles et de fabrication de pièces de rechange en Colombie décrivent les pressions exercées par l'environnement compétitif international sur l'efficience et la qualité. Ces pressions ont entraîné l'adoption de nouvelles formes d'organisation du travail et le changement quasi général des politiques du personnel durant les quinze dernières années. Un ensemble de transformations significatives des relations de travail dans cette branche de l'industrie est...

  17. WHO KILLED SAAB AUTOMOBILE?:Obituary of an Automotive Icon

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Nick; Holweg, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Saab Automobile AB was declared bankrupt on December 19, 2011. This marked the end of 62 years of car production for the iconic brand, which during its final years was beset with financial problems and changes of ownership. More than 3,700 workers lost their jobs when the Trollhättan factory finally closed its doors after producing a total of 4.5 million Saab vehicles over the years. But what was the root cause for the company’s demise? Was it preventable? And who was to blame? The failure o...

  18. Automated Sequencing and Subassembly Detection in Automobile Body Assembly Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The choice of the sequence in which parts or subass em blies are put together in the mechanical assembly of a product can drastical ly affect the efficiency of the assembly process. Unlike metal cutting operation s where computer aided system have been available for some 15 to 25 years to hel p manufacturing engineers in generating cutting sequences and NC programs, the m ajority of assembly planning tasks in automobile body design is still manually p erformed by assembly designers according to their pa...

  19. CUSTOMER IMPORTANCE RATING OF SERVICE QUALITY DIMENSIONS FOR AUTOMOBILE SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATYENDRA SHARMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Customers are the center of an organization’s universe: they define quality. They expect performance, reliability, responsiveness, competitive prices, on-time delivery, service, clear and correct transaction processing and more. Customer satisfaction/Service quality management has become a strategic imperative for most firms. In the present circumstances, it is vital to measure customer perceptions and how well the company delivers on the critical factors/dimensions of the business. The main objective of this paper is to be acquainted with customer importance rating of service quality dimensions or Voice of Customers for an Automobile service centre. A questionnaire has been used for the purpose.

  20. Preparation of composite aluminum automobile radiator by inversion casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The inversion casting technics of producing three-ply Al-Mn/Al-Si composite strap used in automobile radiator was studied. The physical processes of inversion casting, including the flux-supporting reacting and volatilizing at high temperature, the melting and solidification when the elements of solid and liquid fresh alloys meet with each other, the mutual diffusion of elements in solid and liquid, the crystallization and forming of metallurgical combination and the following rolling process, were analyzed. At the same time, the composite mechanism of this technique was also discussed.

  1. Community Essay: Sustainable approach to automobile society in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fujimoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the difference between electric vehicles (EVs in society and an EV society? “EVs in society” means simply the replacement of gasoline-powered cars with EVs without taking into consideration pervasive social issues. By contrast, an “EV society” is a concept whereby EVs are more fundamentally woven into the fabric of society with the aim of solving a range of social problems, while at the same time questioning the meaning of what an automobile “is” and “can be.” It is this “game-changing” principle of integration that drives our research.

  2. The impact of distractions on young adult drivers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Fried, Ronna

    2010-05-01

    Young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk for being involved in automobile crashes. Although driving simulators have been used to identify and understand underlying behaviors, prior research has focused largely on single-task, non-distracted driving. However, in-vehicle infotainment and communications systems often vie for a driver's attention, potentially increasing the risk of collision. This paper explores the impact of secondary tasks on individuals with and without ADHD, a medical condition known to affect the regulation of attention. Data are drawn from a validated driving simulation representing periods before, during, and after participation in a secondary cognitive task. A hands-free phone task was employed in a high stimulus, urban setting and a working memory task during low stimulus, highway driving. Drivers with ADHD had more difficulty on the telephone task, yet did not show an increased decrement in driving performance greater than control participants. In contrast, participants with ADHD showed a larger decline in driving performance than controls during a secondary task in a low demand setting. The results suggest that the interaction of the nature of the driving context and the secondary task has a significant influence on how drivers with ADHD allocate attention and, in-turn, on the relative impact on driving performance. Drivers with ADHD appear particularly susceptible to distraction during periods of low stimulus driving. PMID:20380911

  3. Efficient information processing of driver. Untensha joho shori no koritsuka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, K. (Mitsubishi Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    In this article, in order to pursue the optimatization of the man-machine-environment system on the basis of human character with the objective of securing safety while an automobile is in use, efficient driver'{prime}s information processing is chozen for study, examples of driver'{prime}s information processing models based on the physiological mechanism, etc., the concept of efficient information processing by these models and its concrete application examples are explained, and the future themes are also commented. First, the already established confirmation through experiments is pointed out that the reduction of accidents by 60-90% can be achieved by shortening the reaction time of a driver by one second, and such driver'{prime}s information processing as perception, recognition and judgement of his brain is deemed an important issue. Improvement of efficiency of the information processing is promoted by a physiological study on the information processing module on the basis of brain functions, and as its concrete examples, reduction of stress while turning and improvement of efficiency off adjustment of driving position are explained, then the issues in the future are touched upon. 6 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  4. An updated estimation of the stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of automobile CO emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunogai, Urumu; Hachisu, Yosuke; Komatsu, Daisuke D.; Nakagawa, Fumiko; Gamo, Toshitaka; Akiyama, Ken-ichi

    We estimate up-to-date values of the average isotopic compositions of CO emitted from automobiles. In the estimation, we determined the isotopic compositions of CO in tail pipe exhaust for four gasoline automobiles and two diesel automobiles under varying conditions of both idling and running. While the dependence on the automobile manufacturer is little, each automobile equipped with functional catalytic converter exhibits a large temporal δ13C and δ18O variation. They tend to show 13C and 18O enrichment in accordance with the reduction of CO in exhaust, suggesting that the functional catalytic converter in engines enhances the δ13C and δ18O values of CO from tail pipes through a kinetic isotope effect during CO destruction. Assuming that automobiles run a modeled driving cycle, we estimated the average δ13C and δ18O of CO to be -23.8±0.8‰ PDB and +25.3±1.0‰ SMOW, respectively, for recent gasoline automobiles, and -19.5±0.7‰ PDB and +15.1±1.0‰ SMOW, respectively, for recent diesel automobiles. While the δ13C and δ18O values of recent gasoline automobiles coincide well with the isotopic compositions of source CO in present trunk road atmosphere estimated in this study, those are +4-+6‰ ( δ13C) and +1-+3‰ ( δ18O) higher than those reported previously and also those emitted from old, non-catalyst automobiles determined in this study. Recent improvements in functional catalytic converters have enhanced and will enhance the δ13C and δ18O values of CO from automobiles.

  5. Perceptions and attitudes of car owners on innovative automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To abate the detrimental effects of transport a transition is foreseen from the conventional fossil cars to energy-sustainable cars. A successful transition requires a major behavioral change of car consumers who need to make choices about new options for transport with uncertain costs and benefits compared to their current car. This paper examines consumers' perceptions about innovative cars and considerations for buying or not buying innovative cars (hybrid, electric, plug-in electric, hydrogen, flexifuel). In this study an on-line questionnaire on attitudes, interests and social norms regarding innovative cars was conducted among 339 Dutch respondents who recently bought a new car. To obtain in-depth understanding of the answers, a follow-up study was conducted consisting of two focus groups with a sample of survey participants. These focus groups respectively concentrated on respondents' perceptions of innovative cars, and on the personality traits of the 'typical' innovative car driver. The results of the survey shows that the attitude towards innovative cars are strongly influenced by affective aspects (such as comfort and pleasant) and to a (much) smaller extent by environmental considerations. The results of the focus groups confirm these findings. According to the participants the price of the car is decisive whereby environmental concerns play no role. The design and image of the car are important. In addition, it appears that the familiarity with (and thus the knowledge about) the innovative cars is still very limited (with the exception of the hybrid car). This point of view stresses the importance of the way in which innovative cars are positioned thereby affecting the image (social norms) people will have regarding these cars.

  6. Designing Fatigue Warning Systems: The perspective of professional drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Peng, Qijia; Li, Musen; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Professional drivers have been characterized as experiencing heavy fatigue resulting from long driving time in their daily work. This study aimed to explore the potential demand of Fatigue Warning Systems (FWSs) among professional drivers as a means of reducing the danger of fatigue driving and to examine their opinions regarding the design of FWSs. Six focus groups with 35 participants and a questionnaire survey with 600 respondents were conducted among Chinese truck and taxi drivers to collect qualitative and quantitative data concerning the current situation of fatigue driving and opinions regarding the design of FWSs. The results revealed that both truck and taxi drivers had a positive attitude toward FWSs, and they hoped this system could not only monitor and warn them regarding their fatigue but also somewhat relieve their fatigue before they could stop and rest. As for warning signals, participants preferred auditory warnings, as opposed to visual, vibrotactile or electric stimuli. Interestingly, it was proposed that verbal warnings involving the information regarding consequences of fatigue driving or the wishes of drivers' family members would be more effective. Additionally, different warning patterns, including graded, single and continuous warnings, were discussed in the focus group. Finally, the participants proposed many other suggestions, as well as their concerns regarding FWSs, which will provide valuable information for companies who wish to develop FWSs for professional drivers. PMID:26482894

  7. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  8. SYNTHESIS OF AUTOMOBILE IGNITION SYSTEM USING OZONIZED FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pilipenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical model for electronic control system of the angular ignition timing (AIT in the (ICE, which is running on ozonized fuel. An algorithm for  ignition system control of internal combustion engine using ozonized fuel has been developed in the paper. A structure of the dynamic ignition system while using a control unit for supplying  ozone into fuel with a purpose to improve automobile ecological and economical indices adapted to operational conditions. Application of the given system allows to ensure minimum reduction of operational petrol consumption and concentration of incomplete combustion products due to optimum ozone dosage into the fuel.  The paper proposes a controlled automobile ignition system as a sequential scheme which has a great number of discrete inputs and outputs and many discrete internal  states. The scheme establishes a functional dependence between input and output states. The paper provides an assessment of ecological indices according to massive emissions of carbon monoxide СО, hydrocarbon СпНт and nitric oxide NOx .  The analysis of  investigations results has been carried out in the paper.

  9. BODY PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OF AUTOMOBILE DRIVING HUMAN MACHINE CONTACT INTERFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Juan; HONG Jun; ZHANG E; LIANG Jian; LU Bingheng

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the fatigue and comfort issues of human-machine contact Interface in automobile driving and based on physiological and anatomical principle, the physiological and biochemical process of muscles and nerves in the formation and development of fatigue is analyzed systematically. The fatigue-causing physiological characteristic Indexes are mapped to biomechanical Indexes like muscle stress-strain, the compression deformation of Wood vessels and nerves etc.from the perspective of formation mechanism. The geometrical model of skeleton and parenchyma is established by applying CT-scanned body data and MRI images. The general rule of comfort body pressure distribution is acquired through the analysis of anatomical structure of buttocks and femoral region. The comprehensive lest platform for sitting comfort of 3D adjustable contact Interface is constructed. The lest of body pressure distribution of human-machine contact interface and its comparison with subjective evaluation indicates that the biomechanical Indexes of automobile driving human-machine contact interface and body pressure distribution rule studied can effectively evaluate the fatigue and comfort issues of human-machine contact interface and provide theoretical basis for the optimal design of human-machine contact interface.

  10. Designing Logistic Information Platform to Fostering Development Trend in China Automobile Manufacturing Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yue

    2009-01-01

    The logistics resource in China's automobile group can't be optimized and allocated because of the "information island" problem in the group's logistics information platform in the whole group. In addition, it is the development trend of China's automobile group LIN to build a logistics e - market in the range of the group.

  11. La Securite des Enfants vs. la Circulation - Auto. (Children's Safety vs. Automobile Traffic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    This report, the sixteenth in a series of twenty reports undertaken by the Children's Environments Advisory Service for the 1979 International Year of the Child, analyzes the difficulties of designing automobile traffic patterns for areas in which children reside. Automobile traffic and play patterns in 21 multiple-housing projects in the…

  12. A Tractor or an Automobile? A 1920s Farm Family Faces a Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Joel P.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a lesson plan in which students role play a 1920s farm family deciding whether to buy an automobile or a tractor. Other students act as automobile and tractor sales groups. Explains how the lesson illuminates relationships between technological advance and social history. Includes handouts identifying benefits of purchasing cars or…

  13. 75 FR 80350 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... date for the final rule published on November 29, 2010 at 75 FR 72965 remains November 29, 2010. The...-AJ09 Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile Mileage Reimbursement When Government Owned Automobiles Are Authorized; Miscellaneous...

  14. Automobile industry and Japan’s strategy for the global environment

    OpenAIRE

    Şerban Georgescu

    2007-01-01

    Japan’s automobile industry evolution for the last five years was a succes story, based on long-term strategy and strong innovative development. This article makes a review of the automobile industry’s main trends and challenges for the Japanese manufacturers.

  15. 29 CFR 785.40 - When private automobile is used in travel away from home community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When private automobile is used in travel away from home community. 785.40 Section 785.40 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... WORKED Application of Principles Traveltime § 785.40 When private automobile is used in travel away...

  16. 32 CFR 552.73 - Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. 552.73 Section 552.73 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Military Reservations § 552.73 Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. Policies sold...

  17. 25 CFR 11.419 - Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles. 11... OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.419 Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she operates another person's...

  18. Clinical symptoms of sleep apnea syndrome and automobile accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, P O; Carenfelt, C; Diderichsen, Finn;

    1990-01-01

    careful driving or not, the rate of car accidents over a 5-year period was investigated. A questionnaire was addressed to 140 patients with and 142 controls without symptoms associated to SAS. Seventy-three of the patients had a complete triad of SAS-associated symptoms. Fifty-two percent of these...... patients reported habitual sleep spells at the wheel, as opposed to less than one percent by the controls. The ratio of drivers being involved in one or more combined-car accident was similar for patients and control drivers, but for single-car accidents the ratio was about 7 times higher for patients with...... a complete triad of symptoms of SAS compared to controls (p less than 0.001). When corrected for mileage driven, the total number of single-car accidents was almost 12 times higher among patients with sleep spells whilst driving, compared to controls (p less than 0.001). It is concluded that drivers...

  19. Sexual behavior among truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Kumar Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6% drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8% were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8% who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW, 146 (83.9% used a condom. 38 (12.8% visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways.

  20. Driver perceptions of the safety implications of quiet electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocron, Peter; Krems, Josef F

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on the safety implications of quiet electric vehicles (EVs) has mostly focused on pedestrians' acoustic perception of EVs, and suggests that EVs are more difficult for pedestrians to hear and, therefore, compromise traffic safety. The two German field studies presented here examine the experiences of 70 drivers with low noise emissions of EVs and the drivers' long-term evaluation of the issue. Participants were surveyed via interviews and questionnaires before driving an EV for the first time, after 3 months of driving, and in the first study, again after 6 months. Based on participants' reports, a catalogue of safety-relevant incidents was composed in Study 1. The catalogue revealed that low noise-related critical incidents only rarely occur, and mostly take place in low-speed environments. The degree of hazard related to these incidents was rated as low to medium. In Study 1, driver concern for vulnerable road users as a result of low noise diminished with increasing driving experience, while perceived comfort due to this feature increased. These results were replicated in Study 2. In the second study, it was additionally examined, if drivers adjust their perceived risk of harming other road users over time. Results show that the affective assessment of risk also decreased with increased driving experience. Based on individual experience, drivers adjust their evaluation of noise-related hazards, suggesting that dangers associated with low noise emissions might be less significant than previously expected. PMID:23727553

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59 Protection of Environment... Automobile Refinish Coatings Pt. 59, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59—Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings Coating category Grams VOC per liter...

  2. 41 CFR 301-10.220 - What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? 301-10.220 Section 301-10.220 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Government Vehicle Government Automobiles § 301-10.220 What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? You must...

  3. 29 CFR 779.371 - Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments may qualify for exemption under section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments... OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Automobile, Truck, Farm Implement, Trailer, and Aircraft Sales and Services § 779.371 Some automobile, truck, and farm...

  4. The drivers of plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristine Engemann

    moredistinct. Climate change, forest fires, and forest loss were identified as the most important drivers of forest alpha and beta diversity change over time. In Paper VI we utilize a new concept in community ecology, dark diversity, to quantify the effect of present and historical environmental factors...... with environmental data on climate, soil, topography, and disturbance to identify the drivers of macroecological plant diversity patterns. Unless otherwise stated, the botanical data used in the papers come from the Botanical Information and Ecology Network. Paper I describes how we compiled a new plant growth form...... assess existing theory linking spatial dominance patterns of plant functional groups to natural and anthropogenic environmental drivers. We found that the functional groups had distinct geographical patterns across the New World strongly linked to climate. Anthropogenic disturbance was also important...

  5. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  6. UWB dual burst transmit driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Zumstein, James M.; Vigars, Mark L.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2012-04-17

    A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

  7. SUE SIA Radon Moscow: radwaste transport by automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience of radioactive waste (RW) transportation by the motor transport of Radon Moscow Enterprise is considered. Transportation of RW is carried out on special vehicles with the use of the corresponding transport overpacks. Questions of the organization of transportations and their safety are considered. Importance of special preparation of drivers to RW transportation is noted

  8. Judging Thieves of Attention: Commentary on "Assessing Cognitive Distraction in the Automobile," by Strayer, Turrill, Cooper, Coleman, Medeiros-Ward, and Biondi (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Peter A; Sawyer, Ben D

    2015-12-01

    The laudable effort by Strayer and his colleagues to derive a systematic method to assess forms of cognitive distraction in the automobile is beset by the problem of nonstationary in driver response capacity. At the level of the overall goal of driving, this problem conflates actual on-road behavior; characterized by underspecified task satisficing, with our own understandable, scientifically inspired aspiration for measuring deterministic performance optimization. Measures of response conceived under this latter imperative are, at best, only shadowy reflections of the actual phenomenological experience involved in real-world vehicle control. Whether we, as a research community, can resolve this issue remains uncertain. However, we believe we can mount a positive attack on what is arguably another equally important dimension of the collision problem. PMID:26534852

  9. On an efficient and effective intelligent transportation system (ITS) safety and traffic efficiency application with corresponding driver behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekedebe, Nnanna; Yu, Wei; Lu, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Driver distraction could result in safety compromises attributable to distractions from in-vehicle equipment usage [1]. The effective design of driver-vehicle interfaces (DVIs) and other human-machine interfaces (HMIs) together with their usability, and accessibility while driving become important [2]. Driving distractions can be classified as: visual distractions (any activity that takes your eyes away from the road), cognitive distraction (any activity that takes your mind away from the course of driving), and manual distractions (any activity that takes your hands away from the steering wheel [2]). Besides, multitasking during driving is a distractive activity that can increase the risks of vehicular accidents. To study the driver's behaviors on the safety of transportation system, using an in-vehicle driver notification application, we examined the effects of increasing driver distraction levels on the evaluation metrics of traffic efficiency and safety by using two types of driver models: young drivers (ages 16-25 years) and middle-age drivers (ages 30-45 years). Our evaluation data demonstrates that as a drivers distraction level is increased, less heed is given to change route directives from the in-vehicle on-board unit (OBU) using textual, visual, audio, and haptic notifications. Interestingly, middle-age drivers proved more effective/resilient in mitigating the negative effects of driver distraction over young drivers [2].

  10. Efficient controller area network data compression for automobile applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-jing WU; Jin-Gyun CHUNG

    2015-01-01

    Controller area networks (CANs) have been designed for multiplexing communication between electronic control units (ECUs) in vehicles and many high-level industrial control applications. When a CAN bus is overloaded by a large number of ECUs connected to it, both the waiting time and the error probability of the data transmission are increased. Thus, it is desirable to reduce the CAN frame length, since the duration of data transmission is proportional to the frame length. In this paper, we present a CAN message compression method to reduce the CAN frame length. Experimental results indicate that CAN transmission data can be compressed by up to 81.06%with the proposed method. By using an embedded test board, we show that 64-bit engine management system (EMS) CAN data compression can be performed within 0.16 ms;consequently, the proposed algorithm can be successfully used in automobile applications.

  11. Introduction. L’automobile, objet d’étude pluridisciplinaire

    OpenAIRE

    Garçon, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    « Révolutionnaire… ! » Cet adjectif, Citroën en fit un slogan publicitaire, il y a quelques années, pour imposer auprès de sa clientèle sa voiture dernière-née. Le constructeur résumait ainsi tout à la fois ce qui faisait la spécificité de la marque et d’une manière générale, ce qui fait la spécificité de l’objet. Et si le modèle, en tant que tel, n’a pas vraiment défrayé la chronique automobile, du moins, par la grâce du jeu publicitaire s’inséra-t-il dans la lignée des voitures innovantes –...

  12. ALGORITHM OF PRETREATMENT ON AUTOMOBILE BODY POINT CLOUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; ZHOU Yu; DU Farong; QU Weiwei; XIONG Yonghua

    2007-01-01

    As point cloud of one whole vehicle body has the traits of large geometric dimension, huge data and rigorous reverse precision, one pretreatment algorithm on automobile body point cloud is put forward. The basic idea of the registration algorithm based on the skeleton points is to construct the skeleton points of the whole vehicle model and the mark points of the separate point cloud, to search the mapped relationship between skeleton points and mark points using congruence triangle method and to match the whole vehicle point cloud using the improved iterative closed point (ICP) algorithm. The data reduction algorithm, based on average square root of distance, condenses data by three steps, Computing datasets' average square root of distance in sampling cube grid, sorting order according to the value computed from the first step, choosing sampling percentage. The accuracy of the two algorithms above is proved by a registration and reduction example of whole vehicle point cloud of a certain light truck.

  13. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Vicianová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the corporate social responsibility should be seen not only in theory, but mainlyat the level of business practice. Companies that apply the concept of corporate socialresponsibility are aware not only of social and environmental benefits, but also theeconomic benefits that this approach brings. Assumptions of social responsibility are tomaximize the market value of the business provided that companies respect the laws andresponsibilities of owners, managers and employees. Benefits of the corporate socialresponsibility are not only companies and their stakeholders, but also society. This factinspires many large enterprises to start up a socially responsible business. The paper dealswith the corporate social responsibility concept and its implementation in the car industryin Slovak republic. The aim of the article is basically on the theories of corporate socialresponsibility to identify the level of application of this concept in automobile industry inSlovakia.

  14. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  15. The drivers to adopt renewable energy among residential users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Zahari Abdul; Elinda, Esa

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to examine the drivers to adopt renewable energy (RE) among residential users in Malaysia. Based on the theoretical framework of a consumer’s decision making process, an empirical study of the adoption of RE was conducted. A total of 501 residential users were used in this study. This study proved that perceived utility of new technology, perceived utility of new service, and perceived benefit of new technology are the drivers to adopt RE among residential users. These factors are knowing crucial to RE suppliers and producers because it will generates more demand from the residential users and the percentage of energy mix from RE sources can be increase.

  16. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  17. Heading Control System for a Multi-body Vehicle with a Virtual Test Driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POSTALCIOGLU OZGEN, S.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes a Heading Control (HC system for a multi-body vehicle. HC system helps reducing the required torque from the driver and improves the lane keeping efficiency. HC system is important for safety and driver comfort in traffic. The controller performance is examined on a virtual test drive platform. The optimal control theory is applied to HC system and examined on a curved path and under a side wind disturbance. Different assistance levels are applied to see the characteristics of the controller with different virtual test drivers. The results are analyzed based on three performance indices; lane keeping performance (LKP index, assist torque performance (ATP index and driver torque performance (DTP index. As seen from the results while using HC system the lateral displacement decreases as the lane keeping performance increases and the driver torque performance decreases as the assist torque performance increases.

  18. KfR amplifier optimization for IFE driver system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive, electricity to photons on target, model for the efficiency of a large e-beam pumped, angularly multiplexed KrF amplifier system is presented in this paper. The model is used to systematically and quantitatively examine the influence of the major parameters influencing system efficiency. Conclusions are drawn about optimum amplifier parameters for a power plant driver. Three important aspects of the driver system design for an IFE power plant are: high operating efficiency, low operating costs, and low capital cost. In this paper, the authors have focused on the overall driver system operating efficiency, and its optimization in the context of technology which must have the potential for long life, so it may have low operating costs, and the potential for low capital cost when produced in the quantity necessary for a full scale power plant

  19. Factors that dissuade young drivers from committing traffic violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félonneau, Marie-Line; Aigrot, Florence; Causse, Elsa

    2009-04-01

    During a period of overinvolvement of young drivers in road accidents and an increasing number of police checks, this study was done to identify factors dissuading individuals from committing traffic violations in this segment of the population. The model used examines the perceptions of accident risk and risk of getting a ticket. A special questionnaire was designed to investigate the following subscales: Driving Offences Declared, Perceived Danger, Perceived Police Check, and Perceived Impunity. The sample tested included 514 young adults (324 men, 187 women). Analysis showed committing traffic violations was inhibited mainly by fear of danger. Sex and mileage covered influenced violations: women had a lower Driving Offences Declared score than men, and high-mileage drivers declared committing more violations than low-mileage drivers. Further, those who had ever been ticketed and who had been involved in an accident had higher scores for Driving Offences Declared. PMID:19610479

  20. Drivers and Interpretations of Doctoral Education Today: National Comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Lesley; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard; Castano, Liliana Del Pilar Gallego;

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, doctoral education has undergone a sea change with several global trends increasingly apparent. Drivers of change include massification and professionalization of doctoral education and the introduction of quality assurance systems. The impact of these drivers, and the forms...... that they take, however, are dependent on doctoral education within a given national context. This paper is frontline in that it contributes to the literature on doctoral education by examining the ways in which these global trends and drivers are being taken up in policies and practices by various...... countries. We do so by comparing recent changes in each of the following countries: Canada, Colombia, Denmark, Finland, the UK, and the USA. Each country case is based on national education policies, policy reports on doctoral education (e.g., OECD and EU policy texts), and related materials. We use the...

  1. Towards Driver's State Recognition on Real Driving Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Rigas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a methodology for detecting drivers' stress and fatigue and predicting driving performance is presented. The proposed methodology exploits a set of features obtained from three different sources: (i physiological signals from the driver (ECG, EDA, and respiration, (ii video recordings from the driver's face, and (iii environmental information. The extracted features are examined in terms of their contribution to the classification of the states under investigation. The most significant indicators are selected and used for classification using various classifiers. The approach has been validated on an annotated dataset collected during real-world driving. The results obtained from the combination of physiological signals, video features, and driving environment parameters indicate high classification accuracy (88% using three fatigue scales and 86% using two stress scales. A series of experiments on a simulation environment confirms the association of fatigue states with driving performance.

  2. Driver ASICs for Advanced Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the SBIR program is to develop a new Application Specified Integrated Circuit (ASIC) driver to be used in driver electronics of a deformable...

  3. Talking, Texting Teen Drivers Take Deadly Toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159138.html Talking, Texting Teen Drivers Take Deadly Toll Distractions played role in ... too many cases -- killing people in crashes involving teen drivers, a new report shows. A full 60 ...

  4. Talking, Texting Teen Drivers Take Deadly Toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159138.html Talking, Texting Teen Drivers Take Deadly Toll Distractions played role in ... too many cases -- killing people in crashes involving teen drivers, a new report shows. A full 60 ...

  5. Analyzing Vehicle Fuel Saving Opportunities through Intelligent Driver Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Earleywine, M.; Sparks, W.

    2012-06-01

    Driving style changes, e.g., improving driver efficiency and motivating driver behavior changes, could deliver significant petroleum savings. This project examines eliminating stop-and-go driving and unnecessary idling, and also adjusting acceleration rates and cruising speeds to ideal levels to quantify fuel savings. Such extreme adjustments can result in dramatic fuel savings of over 30%, but would in reality only be achievable through automated control of vehicles and traffic flow. In real-world driving, efficient driving behaviors could reduce fuel use by 20% on aggressively driven cycles and by 5-10% on more moderately driven trips. A literature survey was conducted of driver behavior influences, and pertinent factors from on-road experiments with different driving styles were observed. This effort highlighted important driver influences such as surrounding vehicle behavior, anxiety over trying to get somewhere quickly, and the power/torque available from the vehicle. Existing feedback approaches often deliver efficiency information and instruction. Three recommendations for maximizing fuel savings from potential drive cycle improvement are: (1) leveraging applications with enhanced incentives, (2) using an approach that is easy and widely deployable to motivate drivers, and (3) utilizing connected vehicle and automation technologies to achieve large and widespread efficiency improvements.

  6. Neurological symptoms and syndromes in municipal transport drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Sińczuk-Walczak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The way the municipal transport drivers perform their job contributes to varied burdens linked with the body posture at work, stress, shift work, vibration, noise and exposure to chemical agents. The aim of the study was to assess the condition of the nervous system (NS in municipal transport drivers. Material and Methods: The study covered 42 men, aged 43.4 years (standard deviation (SD: 8.3, employed as bus drivers in the municipal transport enterprise. The duration of employment was 11.8 years on average (SD: 8.6. The condition of the nervous system was assessed on the basis of clinical neurological examinations. Results: Chronic lumbosacral syndrome was found in 54.8% of the subjects. A significant relationship between the incidence of lumbosacral syndrome and the duration of employment (p = 0.032 was observed; significantly higher in drivers employed for 11–15 years (90.9% in comparison to the remaining groups. Nervous system functional disorders were niejedcharacterized by the increased emotional irritability (47.6%, sleep disorders manifested by excessive sleepiness (33.3% or insomnia (28.6% and headaches (3%, mostly tension headaches. Excessive daytime sleepiness was significantly age-dependent (p = 0.038. Conclusions: The evidenced NS disorders indicate the need to undertake preventive measures tailored for the occupational group of bus drivers. Med Pr 2015;66(3:333–341

  7. Hierarchical functional model for automobile development; Jidosha kaihatsu no tame no kaisogata kino model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, S. [U-shin Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nagamatsu, M.; Maruyama, K. [Hokkaido Institute of Technology, Sapporo (Japan); Hiramatsu, S. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A new approach on modeling is put forward in order to compose the virtual prototype which is indispensable for fully computer integrated concurrent development of automobile product. A basic concept of the hierarchical functional model is proposed as the concrete form of this new modeling technology. This model is used mainly for explaining and simulating functions and efficiencies of both the parts and the total product of automobile. All engineers who engage themselves in design and development of automobile can collaborate with one another using this model. Some application examples are shown, and usefulness of this model is demonstrated. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  8. High energy X-ray CT system using a linear accelerator for automobile parts inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high energy X-ray CT system (maximum photon energy: 0.95 MeV) has been developed for industrial use. This system employs a linear accelerator as an X-ray source. It is able to image the cross section of automobile parts and can be applied to a solidification analysis study of the cylinder head in an automobile. This paper describes the features of the system and application results which can be related to solidification analysis of the cylinder head when fabricated from an aluminum casting. Some cross-sectional images are also presented as evidence for nondestructive inspection of automobile parts. (orig.)

  9. Modeling driver intention and behavior at roundabouts

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Min; Käthner, David; Jipp, Meike

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on modelling driver intention and behaviour at roundabouts in order to provide information on whether or not a driver intends to leave the roundabout when approaching an exit of a roundabout. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems’ effective work depends on adequate driving intention recognition and behaviour prediction, so if the driver intention and behaviour at roundabouts can be modelled and predicted, the roundabout safety and efficiency can be significantly improved. As ...

  10. Strategic Drivers of Location Decisions for Information-Age Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Martha A. O’Mara

    1999-01-01

    The location decision-making process of forty companies with high quality "information-age" jobs is examined. A typology of location decisions is presented based on the magnitude of the relocation and the impact on the workforce. The strategic business drivers of the location decisions are identified and examined. Overall, economic development incentives are less important than the "ease of living" and labor market support found in the community. High quality infrastructure is critical. Futur...

  11. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn;

    2007-01-01

    -haul truck drivers and bus drivers had higher SHR for intervertebral disc disorders (SHR: 133, 95% CI: 114-155/SHR: 141, 95% CI: 129-154, respectively) than other truck drivers (SHR: 109, 95% CI: 102-116). The SHR for carpal tunnel syndrome was high among long-haul drivers (SHR: 163, 95% CI: 101-249) and for...

  12. La place de l’automobile dans le développement des stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Smith

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Dès le début du XXe siècle, les stations de la côte normande deviennent une destination privilégiée pour des automobilistes parisiens. L’article prend l’exemple de Deauville, « capitale balnéaire de l’automobile » relancée à la Belle époque par Eugène Cornuché, pour examiner l’impact du nouveau moyen de transport sur l’urbanisme et sur l’architecture de la station. Il s’attache également à cerner le rôle joué à Deauville par les grands constructeurs de l’entre-deux-guerres, en particulier André Citroën.From the beginning of the twentieth century, the seaside resorts of the Normandy coast became a favourite destination for Parisian owners of motor cars. The article looks at the example of Deauville, described as the “seaside capital of the motor car”, and examines the impact of the new means of locomotion on the resort’s planning and architecture. It also draws attention to the part played by some of France’s major manufacturers — André Citroën in particular — in the development and reputation of Deauville between the two wars.

  13. Unified theory of parametric excitations in magnetized plasma produced by the action of nonmonochromatic driver pump. I Modulated driver pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V.

    1983-07-01

    A theory is developed for parametric excitations in a magnetized plasma by the action of a driver pump with time-varying amplitude and phase, using the assumption of amplitude modulation in the form of rectangular pulse train and phase modulation in a sinusoidal form as an example. Both nonresonant interaction and resonant interaction are investigated, and the excitations of upper-hybrid, lower-hybrid, and oblique Langmuir waves coupled to ion-acoustic waves are examined. The threshold values and parametric growth rates obtained in these cases are compared with the case of a monochromatic driver pump. In addition, a theory of parametric interaction of n driver pumps with magnetized plasmas is derived using the Vlasov-Poisson formalism. The interaction when the plasma appears to be transparent to all driver pumps is investigated. It is determined that in this case a variety of parametric instabilities exist which are absent in a single driver pump-plasma interaction. The nonresonant and resonant interactions in the case of excitation of electron and ion-Bernstein modes are studied. The relevance of these results are considered for laser and microwave-plasma interactions, as well as for electromagnetic wave-ionospheric plasma interaction and laboratory plasma experiments.

  14. Understanding investors' decisions to purchase innovative products : Drivers of adoption timing and range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Broekhuizen, T.L.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper integrates findings from marketing and finance literature to increase our understanding of consumers' decisions to purchase innovative investment products. Two different surveys administered to individual investors examine the psychological and sociological drivers of dispositional innova

  15. Temporal perspective on individual driver behavior using electronic records of undesirable events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicant, Oren; Bar-Gera, Hillel; Schechtman, Edna

    2014-09-01

    This paper explores In-Vehicle Data Recorders (IVDRs) information about the count of undesirable driving events (such as hard braking, lane changing, and sharp turning) of 148 individuals. The information was logged over three years and included time stamp information about the occurrence of undesirable driving events in each trip (N=573,238). The objective was to gain deeper understanding about the heterogeneity among drivers with respect to behavior change over time, the effect of trip duration and the distribution of events count. Our findings show that in some respects drivers are similar: for all drivers, the variance of the events count was larger than the mean, indicating that the negative binomial distribution is suitable to model the distribution of events count per trip. Most drivers (95%) had lower events rate during longer trips, suggesting that a 'simple' events rate index is problematic when comparing between those driving longer trips and drivers driving short trips. In addition, most drivers (87%) improved their driving behavior throughout the measurement period. However, there are important differences among drivers in terms of the frequency of behavior change and the trends in behavior over time. These findings demonstrate the need for personalized examination of individual drivers. Several tools for such personalized examination were developed and discussed in this study. PMID:24694900

  16. Use of powered electric vehicles in automobile fleets. Help elements for decision; Utilisation de vehicules electriques dans les flottes automobiles. Elements d`aide a la decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    One of the primary causes of degradation in the quality of urban life is automobile transportation. The introduction of electric vehicles within automobile fleets can help mitigate some of the associated impacts. This guide has assembled a set of technical tools vital to all fleet managers, whether they be with public-sector agencies or companies, who are involved in vehicle-purchasing decisions. It deals with the specific issues related to the use, maintenance and acquisition of electric vehicles. Besides those elements intended to convince both decision-makers and users alike, the automobile fleet manager will find herein, as a conclusion, some examples of comparative economic assessments. These serve to highlight the opportunities available for using electric vehicles in a wide variety of situations. (authors) 18 refs.

  17. The effect of male teenage passengers on male teenage drivers: findings from a driving simulator study

    OpenAIRE

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Divekar, Gautam; Mehranian, Hasmik; Fisher, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that teenage drivers are less attentive, more frequently exhibit risky driving behavior, and have a higher fatal crash risk in the presence of peers. The effects of direct peer pressure and conversation on young drivers have been examined. Little is known about the impact on driving performance of the presence of a non-interacting passenger and subtle modes of peer influence, such as perceived social norms. The goal of this study was to examine if teenagers would engage in ...

  18. Reconstruction of Automobile Destruction: An Example of the Interaction between Language and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Elizabeth F.; Palmer, John C.

    1974-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which subjects viewed films of automobile accidents and then answered questions about events occurring in the films. Wording of questions regarding speed influenced subjects' estimates of speed. (Author/RM)

  19. Globalization of the automobile industry in China. Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin

    2001-08-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policy making and transport management. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems and stronger emissions control would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. (author)

  20. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  1. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndel J. Bates

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  2. Visualization drivers for Geant4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beretvas, Andy; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    This document is on Geant4 visualization tools (drivers), evaluating pros and cons of each option, including recommendations on which tools to support at Fermilab for different applications. Four visualization drivers are evaluated. They are OpenGL, HepRep, DAWN and VRML. They all have good features, OpenGL provides graphic output without an intermediate file. HepRep provides menus to assist the user. DAWN provides high quality plots and even for large files produces output quickly. VRML uses the smallest disk space for intermediate files. Large experiments at Fermilab will want to write their own display. They should proceed to make this display graphics independent. Medium experiment will probably want to use HepRep because of it's menu support. Smaller scale experiments will want to use OpenGL in the spirit of having immediate response, good quality output and keeping things simple.

  3. The impacts of air-pollution motivated automobile consumption tax adjustments of China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Junji; Ju, Heng

    2011-01-01

    A concomitant of the rapid development of the automobile industry in China is the serious air pollution and carbon dioxide emission. There are various regulation instruments to reduce the air pollution from automobile sources. China government chooses a small-displacement oriented consumption tax as well as fuel tax to alleviate the worse air pollution. This paper evaluates the effects of both policy instruments on fuel consumption and social welfare. Our empirical results show that fuel tax ...

  4. Automobile air pollution: public health (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-Mar 80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-03-01

    The annotated bibliography deals with information on the human effects of the major components of automobile exhaust gases. These include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, and lead. Also included are data on platinum, palladium, and manganese salts, which are exhausts from air pollution control devices, specifically catalytic converters. Studies which do not identify the automobile as the source of these gases have been excluded. (This updated bibliography contains 75 abstracts, 5 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  5. Noise Reduction of Rectangular Cavity with Sandwich Polycarbonate Window Pane for Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Min Shen; Kazuteru Nagamura

    2013-01-01

    In the automobile industry, the use of Polycarbonate (PC) window pane is well developed. However, the sound insulation performance of automobile’s Polycarbonate composite pane is poor than traditional glass pane because of its high rate of stiffness to low weight. There is need to design polycarbonate window pane with superior acoustical insulating property for automobile consumer comfort. In this study, the innovative super thin sandwich structure (less th...

  6. A Cycle of Dependence: Automobiles, Accessibility, and the Evolution of the Transportation and Retail Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Handy, Susan

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores how the automobile has indirectly led to dramatic changes in patterns of accessibility to retail and service activity within metropolitan regions. The automo­ bile instigated a greater articulation of the hierarchy of transportation facilities, as reflected in a greater differentia­ tion between the local and the regional systems. At the same time, the automobile instigated a collapse in the retail hierarchy, by encouraging the growth of community and regional centers at t...

  7. Automobile Safety Inspections and Enforcing Norms: Case Study of Japan Using Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores, using panel data of Japan, whether automobile inspections help to reduce accidents. Two innovations introduced by this paper are the control of endogeneity by the 2sls fixed effects model and the taking into account of norm enforcement in order to control the omitted variable bias. We found through this estimation that automobile inspections and the enforcing of social norms play a critical role in reducing fatalities but not non-fatal accidents.

  8. Peugeot’s repositioning : how to change people’s engagement towards an automobile brand

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Francisco Quedas Rodrigues dos

    2015-01-01

    Peugeot, acting in the automobile sector, represents about 9,5% of the Portuguese passengers car market. This market is characterized by representing risky and planned acquisitions and usually with many influencers throughout the buying process in order to lower the risk to the buyer. In 2013, after the verified crisis in the automobile sector in terms of sales, the group was conducted to a new strategy – ‘Back In The Race’ – described by a repositioning of the already exist...

  9. Evaluation of failures in mechanical crankshafts of automobile based on expert opinion

    OpenAIRE

    B. Kareem

    2015-01-01

    In this study, mechanical crankshaft failures for automobiles are evaluated based on experts’ opinion. This was done using data obtained using techniques based on oral interviews and questionnaire administration on mechanical failure of crankshafts from the experts working in the areas of automobile maintenance and crankshafts reconditioning. The data collected were analyzed using statistical methods based on probability. With this technique, probability of failure for each category of automo...

  10. Non-Convex Costs and Capital Utilization: A Study of Production Scheduling at Automobile Assembly Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, George J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies how managers at automobile assembly plants organize production across time. Detailed data from eleven single-source automobile assembly plants display considerable cross-plant heterogeneity. At plants which make low- and medium-selling vehicles the capital stock often sits idle, production is more variable than sales, and week-long shutdowns are often used to vary output. In contrast, at plants which make high-selling vehicles, the capital stock rarely sits idle, production...

  11. The Feasibility Study of the Waste Heat Air—Conditioning System for Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-pingLin; Xiu-ganYuan; 等

    1994-01-01

    In this paper,the feasibility of application of a solid-absorption system using ammonia and chlorides as working pair to automobile air-conditioning system is investigated.This system has the advantages of minimum environmental problem and utilizing waste heat from the automobile engine as thermal energy input.Analyses show that the main problem associated with the application of solid-absorption system is the size of the reactors.Techniques to solve this problem are discussed.

  12. Exploring older driver crash trend: New Jersey case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanvi Trieu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Older drivers age 65 and above are known to experience greater risk on the roadway as well as increasing the risk to other roadway users. Within the next 20 years, their population is expected to increase from 41 million in 2011 to 70 million in 2030. To address this foreseeable change, the nation's recent Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21 act requires state and local governments to examine older drivers and pedestrian risks and implement countermeasures as appropriate. This research was conducted to assist agencies in strategising for future plans, programmes and initiatives to better address the problem presented. This was accomplished by performing a detailed engineering analysis on crash data of older drivers over a 10-year period (2003–2012 from the state of New Jersey to identify crash trends and characteristics. A major finding from this research was the increase in fatal crashes of older drivers as a function of age. Top-ranking collision types with other vehicles and non-vehicles were identified. Crashes as a function of seasonal change, climate and lighting conditions were also examined.

  13. Driver mutations of cancer epigenomes

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, David M.; Walsh, Logan A.; Chan, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations are associated with all aspects of cancer, from tumor initiation to cancer progression and metastasis. It is now well understood that both losses and gains of DNA methylation as well as altered chromatin organization contribute significantly to cancer-associated phenotypes. More recently, new sequencing technologies have allowed the identification of driver mutations in epigenetic regulators, providing a mechanistic link between the cancer epigenome and genetic alterati...

  14. Drivers and Limits for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Figueroa, Maria; Siren, Anu; Haustein, Sonja; Møller, Mette; Sigurdardottir, Sigrun B.; Christensen, Linda; Knudsen, Mette Aagaard; Rotger, Gabriel P.; Grunfelder, Julien; Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette; Madsen, Edith; Abate, Megersa Abera; Kveiborg, Ole

    This report summarizes key outcomes of the study ’Drivers and Limits’ that was supported for the period 2009-2013 by a research grant from the Danish Strategic Research Council. The project investigated - for the empirical context of Denmark - key driving forces behind transport growth, as well as...... the notion of limits to mobility, arising out of system interactions or set by external policy ambitions....

  15. Global desertification: Drivers and feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Bhattachan, Abinash; Davis, Kyle F.; Ravi, Sujith; Runyan, Christiane W.

    2013-01-01

    Desertification is a change in soil properties, vegetation or climate, which results in a persistent loss of ecosystem services that are fundamental to sustaining life. Desertification affects large dryland areas around the world and is a major cause of stress in human societies. Here we review recent research on the drivers, feedbacks, and impacts of desertification. A multidisciplinary approach to understanding the drivers and feedbacks of global desertification is motivated by our increasing need to improve global food production and to sustainably manage ecosystems in the context of climate change. Classic desertification theories look at this process as a transition between stable states in bistable ecosystem dynamics. Climate change (i.e., aridification) and land use dynamics are the major drivers of an ecosystem shift to a “desertified” (or “degraded”) state. This shift is typically sustained by positive feedbacks, which stabilize the system in the new state. Desertification feedbacks may involve land degradation processes (e.g., nutrient loss or salinization), changes in rainfall regime resulting from land-atmosphere interactions (e.g., precipitation recycling, dust emissions), or changes in plant community composition (e.g., shrub encroachment, decrease in vegetation cover). We analyze each of these feedback mechanisms and discuss their possible enhancement by interactions with socio-economic drivers. Large scale effects of desertification include the emigration of “environmental refugees” displaced from degraded areas, climatic changes, and the alteration of global biogeochemical cycles resulting from the emission and long-range transport of fine mineral dust. Recent research has identified some possible early warning signs of desertification, which can be used as indicators of resilience loss and imminent shift to desert-like conditions. We conclude with a brief discussion on some desertification control strategies implemented in different

  16. Operational Profiling of OS Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Sârbu, Constantin

    2009-01-01

    Operating Systems (OS's) constitute the operational core for computing devices. In order to facilitate their applicability to a variety of hardware platforms, OS's have evolved into complex componentized software entities whose key function is to provide applications access to the system resources. Fundamentally, the provided system services inherently depend on the stability of the underlying OS. Within the OS, the key components that dominate the cause of OS failures are the device drivers ...

  17. Drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on Drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion, held in Paris, November 14-18, 1994, more than 80 physicists came from 12 countries to present and discuss their research. This conference treated of programmatic and topical overviews, glass lasers, gas lasers, ion beams and pulsed power. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers in this volume. (TEC)

  18. Does Corruption Produce Unsafe Drivers?

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne Bertrand; Simeon Djankov; Rema Hanna; Sendhil Mullainathan

    2006-01-01

    We follow 822 applicants through the process of obtaining a driver%u2019s license in New Delhi, India. To understand how the bureaucracy responds to individual and social needs, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: bonus, lesson, and comparison groups. Participants in the bonus group were offered a financial reward if they could obtain their license fast; participants in the lesson group were offered free driving lessons. To gauge driving skills, we performed a surprise...

  19. Efficiency drivers in microfinance institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Meberg, Erlend; Krpo, Mirsad

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to identify drivers for efficiency in Micro Finance Institutions (MFIs) and determine their effect on the overall cost-efficiency of MFIs. The study used cross sectional data of 377 MFIs from 74 countries. Multivariate regression analysis was applied in order to find the results. Operational expense to portfolio, operational expense to assets and cost per credit client were used as efficiency measurements, 13 hypotheses were proposed and 17 variables were st...

  20. Are age-based licensing restrictions a meaningful way to enhance rural older driver safety? The need for exposure considerations in policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Trevor R; Hildebrand, Eric D

    2011-02-01

    The stated and revealed travel behavior of a sample of 60 rural drivers aged 54-92 years provided a basis to explore the potential effectiveness of two common driver's license restrictions aimed at older drivers: time of day and road class. The potential utility and impact of these restrictions have not been explored with revealed data for jurisdictions with a large population of rural older drivers where automobile dependence is high. Data were drawn from a multiday Global Positioning System-based travel diary survey of rural older drivers in New Brunswick, Canada. Revealed travel data showed that over 50 percent of the rural drivers in the sample did not drive after dark, and 40 percent drove less than 1 percent of their total surveyed kilometers on major highways, higher rates than from participant-stated responses. The proportion of participants taking night trips and traveling on major highways decreased with age. The majority of trips taken after dark by all participants had a rural destination. The average daily kilometers driven on major highways by men and women aged 75 years and older was nearly identical (1.79 km/day). These exposure considerations suggest that restricting night travel and major highway travel for the oldest rural drivers (75 years and older) may have limited utility given that the majority of participants did not drive in these situations, and for those who did, most of their trips were in rural areas where enforcement could be expected to be limited. A better approach may be to encourage increased self-regulation through training, age-friendly upgrades to transportation infrastructure to help rural older drivers stay driving safely as long as possible, and the development of appropriate rural alternatives to help a driver transition to nondriver. PMID:21259170

  1. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study will be useful to both managers in the auto industry as well as policy makers. It will help managers in the auto industry to gain a better understanding of consumer intentions and identify the factors which influence them. Policy makers in Pakistan’s auto sector would benefit from the insights of this study when developing the long overdue Auto Policy. Analysis of the data collected has revealed that the three key factors identified from studies in other Asian countries are also relevant for Pakistani auto consumers.

  2. Study of lead pollution from automobile emissions in Khartoum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerosol and soil samples were collected from places near the main roads in Khartoum area. The samples were analyzed by energy Dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique, to study the lead (Pb) concentration in air and soil near roadsides due to automobile emissions. The aim of the study was also to make a comparison with the results of previous measurements made in the same field (Ahmed, 1983) . Thee aerosol samples were taken from three sites in Khartoum area. Tuti island taken as a control area, central Khartoum as a commercial area and south of Khartoum as a residential area. Soil samples were taken from a place near Al Gurashi Park and another near Abu Hamama traffic junction in Khartoum area. The data obtained of (Pb) concentrations in the roadside air were statistically analyzed. Comparisons were made between the concentrations at the various times of the day and correlation were made with meteorological parameters. The (Pb) concentrations in the roadside soil were observed to be inversely proportional to the distance from the road and the depth from the layer of the earth. Finally, the results obtained are discussed and some recommendations are suggested. (Author)

  3. On the baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Business as usual' scenarios in long-term energy forecasts are crucial for scenario-based policy analyses. This article focuses on fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks, a long-disputed issue with serious implications for worldwide energy use and CO2 emissions. The current status in Europe is explained and future developments are analysed with the aid of historical data of the last three decades from the United States and Europe. As a result of this analysis, fuel economy values are proposed for use as assumptions in baseline energy/transport scenarios in the 15 'old' European Union Member States. Proposed values are given for new gasoline and diesel cars and for the years 2010, 2020 and 2030. The increasing discrepancy between vehicle fuel consumption measured under test conditions and that in the real world is also considered. One main conclusion is that the European Commission's voluntary agreement with the automobile industry should not be assumed to fully achieve its target under baseline conditions, nor should it be regarded as a major stimulus for autonomous vehicle efficiency improvements after 2010. A second conclusion is that three very recent studies enjoying authority across the EU tend to be overly optimistic as regards the technical progress for conventional and alternative vehicle propulsion technologies under 'business as usual' conditions

  4. Study of hydrogen-powered versus battery-powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, J.J. Jr.; Greayer, W.C.; Nichols, R.J.; Escher, W.J.D.

    1979-05-01

    A study conducted to compare the technological status and the resultant potential vehicle characteristics for hydrogen- and battery-powered automobiles that could be produced from 1985 to 2000 is documented in 3 volumes. The primary objectives of the study were: the assessments of applicable energy storage and propulsion technology for the two basic vehicle types (applied to four-passenger cars); a rigorous comparison of vehicle weight, size, and usefulness versus design range; and an investigation of the relative efficiencies of expending energy from various primary sources to power the subject vehicle. Another important objective, unique to hydrogen powered vehicles, was the assessment of the technology, logistics, and cost implications of a hydrogen production and delivery capability. This volume, Volume III, contains three major sections: the assessment of battery electric vehicle technology for energy storage and the drivetrain system; the technical and economic comparison of hydrogen- and battery-powered vehicles derived primarily from data in the previous vehicle technology assessments, with consideration of alternative energy sources; and a series of appendices that support the vehicle definitions and comparisons.

  5. On the baseline evolution of automobile fuel economy in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachariadis, Theodoros [Economics Research Centre, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)]. E-mail: zach@hol.gr

    2006-09-15

    'Business as usual' scenarios in long-term energy forecasts are crucial for scenario-based policy analyses. This article focuses on fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks, a long-disputed issue with serious implications for worldwide energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current status in Europe is explained and future developments are analysed with the aid of historical data of the last three decades from the United States and Europe. As a result of this analysis, fuel economy values are proposed for use as assumptions in baseline energy/transport scenarios in the 15 'old' European Union Member States. Proposed values are given for new gasoline and diesel cars and for the years 2010, 2020 and 2030. The increasing discrepancy between vehicle fuel consumption measured under test conditions and that in the real world is also considered. One main conclusion is that the European Commission's voluntary agreement with the automobile industry should not be assumed to fully achieve its target under baseline conditions, nor should it be regarded as a major stimulus for autonomous vehicle efficiency improvements after 2010. A second conclusion is that three very recent studies enjoying authority across the EU tend to be overly optimistic as regards the technical progress for conventional and alternative vehicle propulsion technologies under 'business as usual' conditions.

  6. (Auto-)mobile data acquisition and measurement data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneuer, E.; Schwartze, S. [Werum Datenverarbeitungssysteme GmbH, Lueneburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This lecture introduces a concept of measurement technology with video integration for commercial vehicles. We would like to present DAVIS-CAR, a system for mobile data acquisition. It enables the simultaneous evaluation of video data and test data and consists of mobile as well as of stationary components in a client/server architecture. The product DAVIS-CAR is suitable not only for testing entire vehicles but for external suppliers developing vehicle components or for analysing a person's driving performance. Even for completely stationary systems DAVIS-CAR provides advantages in situations when video data are recorded to get additional information on tests. The mobile server collects the data of the driving car. The storage of these data can be triggered either manually or by events derived from signal states. The stationary system is capable of administering the measurement data and the associated Meta information from several mobile systems at the same time and of providing this information to the connected clients. The ASAM-ODS interface facilitates the integration of DAVIS-CAR in environments typically found in the automobile industry. The overall architecture also enables the integration of data provided by other measurement systems. (orig.)

  7. Synthesis of a Novel High Solid Coating Used in Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Lu; CHEN Hua-lin; LIANG Shou-tian; LIU Bai-ling

    2004-01-01

    High solid coating is one of the most important environmental friendly coatings, and has been obtained great attention since 70s' last century. For there are high volatile organic compounds(VOCs) in the conventional coatings, which cause both a serious pollution and consume of a plentiful of natural resource, such as petroleum. The development and production of high solid coatings is pressing target for all the countries, especially for China due to our heavy population and short of resources. Based on the requirement, a novel coating with high solid content has been developed in our lab. The solid content of the resin is 80%, compared to the 55% of conversional resin. This coating is characterized by its unique molecular architecture, it is a kind of hyper-branched polymer with uniform distribution of the reactive groups along the molecular backbone, which can react with other chemicals to form a cross-linking structure at high temperature.The coating has a lower viscosity and lower Tg corresponding to its branched structure( scheme 1).This coating has been applied in the automobile finishing. The experimental results indicated that the developed coating presented high performance properties in fastness, mar resistance, and hardness, it also reduced the baking temperature, resulting in a energy saving.

  8. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-10-01

    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  9. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Khairnar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the similar obtained from virtual Matlab/Simulink models for drum and disc brakes. The results evidenced that friction radius predominantly affects brake pressure and thus the friction coefficient, also the increase in contact force resulted with decrease in friction coefficient both for drum and disc brakes. Further it has been found that disc brakes exhibit gradual decrease of friction coefficient due to the equitable distribution of braking effort while drum brake presents sudden variations in friction coefficient. It can be revealed that frictional behaviour of disc brake is more consistent than drum brake.

  10. Validity and reliability of the safe driving behavior measure in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Choi, Yoo-Im; Hong, So-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Driving is a vital component of recovery for stroke survivors facilitating restoration of their family roles and reintegration back into their communities and associations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) in community-dwelling self-drivers post-stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were sixty-seven community-dwelling self-drivers who had received a diagnosis of first stroke in the past twelve months. To investigate the validity and reliability of the SDBM, this study evaluated two sessions, held three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. Cronbach’s alpha and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC (2.1)] were used to evaluate statistically concurrent validity and reliability of the overall and three domain scores. Pearson’s correlations were used to quantify the bivariate associations among the three domains. [Results] The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the three domains of person-vehicle (0.989), person-environment (0.997), and person-vehicle-environment (0.968) of the SDBM indicated high internal consistency in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke, in addition to excellent rest-retest reliability. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM could be a reliable measure to evaluate automobile driving in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke. PMID:27313389

  11. Validity and reliability of the safe driving behavior measure in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Choi, Yoo-Im; Hong, So-Young

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] Driving is a vital component of recovery for stroke survivors facilitating restoration of their family roles and reintegration back into their communities and associations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) in community-dwelling self-drivers post-stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were sixty-seven community-dwelling self-drivers who had received a diagnosis of first stroke in the past twelve months. To investigate the validity and reliability of the SDBM, this study evaluated two sessions, held three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. Cronbach's alpha and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC (2.1)] were used to evaluate statistically concurrent validity and reliability of the overall and three domain scores. Pearson's correlations were used to quantify the bivariate associations among the three domains. [Results] The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the three domains of person-vehicle (0.989), person-environment (0.997), and person-vehicle-environment (0.968) of the SDBM indicated high internal consistency in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke, in addition to excellent rest-retest reliability. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM could be a reliable measure to evaluate automobile driving in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke. PMID:27313389

  12. Benzene and lead exposure assessment among occupational bus drivers in Bangkok traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHING TET LEONG; PREECHA LAORTANAKUL

    2004-01-01

    Four environmental and biological monitoring sites were strategically established to evaluate benzene and lead exposure assessment at various traffic zones of Bangkok Metropolitan Region(BMR). Biological measurement of 48 non air-conditioned, male bus drivers was carried to study the relationship between individual exposure levels and exposure biomarkers. The study group was further subdivided into four age groups( 16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 years old) to monitor the age-related exposure effects. A total of 12unexposed persons were deliberately chosen as the control group. Measurement of unmetobolized benzene in blood and analysis of urinary tt-Muconic acid urine and urinary creatinine are recommended as biomarkers of benzene exposure. Measurement of lead in blood and urine is also recommended for the biological monitoring of lead exposure.During the monitoring period, benzene and lead levels at Yaowarat Road was C6H6: 42.46 + 3.88 μg/m3 , Pb: 0.29 + 0.03 μg/m3 and decreased to C6 H6: 33.5 ± 1.35 μg/m3 , Pb: O. 13 + 0.01 μg/m3 at Phahonyothin Road. Significant difference was established between the nonsmoking exposed group and nonsmoking control group for blood benzene concentrations ( P < 0.001, two-tailed, Mann-Whiteney U test). Strong correlations were also found between trans-trans-Muconic acid concentrations in post shift samples and atmospheric benzene concentrations. Similarly, good correlation between all of biomarkers and lead level in air is established from automobile emissions.The analysis revealed that among the occupational population in the urban sites, the driver groups were found to have the highest risk of benzene and lead exposures derived from automobile emission.

  13. Benzene and lead exposure assessment among occupational bus drivers in Bangkok traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttamara, S; Leong, Shing Tet; Arayasiri, M

    2004-01-01

    Four environmental and biological monitoring sites were strategically established to evaluate benzene and lead exposure assessment at various traffic zones of Bangkok Metropolitan Region(BMR). Biological measurement of 48 non air-conditioned, male bus drivers was carried to study the relationship between individual exposure levels and exposure biomarkers. The study group was further subdivided into four age groups(16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 years old) to monitor the age-related exposure effects. A total of 12 unexposed persons were deliberately chosen as the control group. Measurement of unmetobolized benzene in blood and analysis of urinary tt-Muconic acid urine and urinary creatinine are recommended as biomarkers of benzene exposure. Measurement of lead in blood and urine is also recommended for the biological monitoring of lead exposure. During the monitoring period, benzene and lead levels at Yaowarat Road was C6H6: 42.46 +/- 3.88 microg/m3 , Pb: 0.29 +/- 0.03 microg/m3 and decreased to C6H6: 33.5 +/- 1.35 microg/m3, Pb: 0.13 +/- 0.01 microg/m3 at Phahonyothin Road. Significant difference was established between the nonsmoking exposed group and nonsmoking control group for blood benzene concentrations (P < 0.001, two-tailed, Mann-Whiteney U test). Strong correlations were also found between trans-trans-Muconic acid concentrations in post shift samples and atmospheric benzene concentrations. Similarly, good correlation between all of biomarkers and lead level in air is established from automobile emissions. The analysis revealed that among the occupational population in the urban sites, the driver groups were found to have the highest risk of benzene and lead exposures derived from automobile emission. PMID:14971454

  14. Suitability of Recycled Polyethylene/Palm Kernel Shell-Iron Filings Composite for Automobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Samotu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A recycling aimed research was carried out to produce a new composite material and proffer suggestion for the possible use of the newly developed composite material. The empty water sachet (commonly called pure water nylon in Nigeria, was used as a matrix, which was reinforced by carbonized palm kernel shell (CPKS particulate and iron fillings. The percentage composition of iron fillings was maintained at 5 wt%, while that of palm kernel shell ash was varied from 5 wt% - 20 wt% at an interval of 5 %. The composites were compounded and compressively moulded. Physical and mechanical properties of the composites were tested for alongside three conventional car bumper samples, and the results obtained shows that the composite material could be used to produce a car bumper among other parts of automobile like dashboard due to their impact strength and low density. Impact strength - density ratio for the materials gave prime information on the possible application of the developed material. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM was used to examine the distribution of the reinforcement within the matrix. After results analysis, materials with 5 wt% of CPKS and that with 10 wt% of CPKS were recommended for the car bumper production following their high impact strength - density ratio of 0.26 and 0.19 respectively, which are higher as compared to that of a conventional bumper material measured alongside the composite materials.

  15. Ear examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  16. OFF-ROAD CAPABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF MAZ-AUTOMOBILE HAVING AGRICULTURAL MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Bobrovnik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains requirements to parameters of an automobile being designed with axle arrangement 6x4 and technically permissible mass of 25 tons with its all year round operation in agricultural industry with the purpose to ensure in-time load transportation and technological cycle in crop production of the agricultural complex in accordance with time schedule of the executed mechanized works. The future automobile should also have a power takeoff device.The paper presents operation chart flowsheets for cultivation of main crops on mineral and peat soils with indication of automobile motion modes and type of transported loads. Specific properties of peat-bog soils are given in the paper. The paper considers off-road capability of mobile machines when they are moving on soils with low bearing capacity. The paper indicates field applications of automobiles with limited and high off-road capability. Description of wheel interaction with bearing surface area, values of soil resistivity after multiple automobile passages have been given in the paper.The paper specifies values of rolling resistance coefficient and adhesion coefficient of the automobile undercarriage systems in spring and autumn for wheeled and crawler units. Schemes of the automobile front axle drives (electric, hydraulic, mechanical and their characteristics have been analyzed in the paper. An elastic flexible drive with separation of flow power has been proposed for reduction of dynamic loads in a power transmission drive. The paper describes a drive system of auto-analogue steering wheels with hydraulic hydrostatic drive which is located within a front wheel hub that ensure additional thrust. Recommendations for MAZ-automobile modernization with axle arrangement 6x4 have been given with the purpose to improve its off- road capability.Metallic anti-skid chain, segment and small link, track and crawler chains, wideners have obtained a wide application for improvement of automobile

  17. How do passengers influence drivers' propensities for angry driving? Different effects of supervisors versus friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian-Yi; Xie, Xiaofei; Han, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Xiao-Qin

    2012-11-01

    A lot of researchers discussed the influence of passengers on drivers' behaviors without reaching a consistent conclusion. This study aimed to offer some new evidence concerning this issue. The study examined different effects of supervisors and friends as passengers on drivers' propensities for angry driving. In Study 1, drivers were asked to freely imagine a passenger either as their supervisor or friend. Results showed that compared with driving alone, drivers' propensities for angry driving increased when the passenger was a friend but decreased when the passenger was a supervisor. These findings were consistent with the generally accepted social norm. In Study 2, drivers read a description about either an aggressive supervisor or a cautious friend. Results showed that the effects of passengers on drivers' angry driving propensities were correspondingly reversed, indicating that a clearer behavior standard conveyed by a passenger had a stronger effect on drivers. Self-monitoring propensity showed a main effect on drivers' propensities for angry driving in a standard-free situation. And self-monitoring propensity moderated the effect of a passenger's role on angry driving propensities in a standard-set situation. Impression management processes were discussed with respect to these findings. PMID:23036422

  18. Application of micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the examination of paint samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zięba-Palus, J.

    1999-11-01

    The examination and identification of automobile paints is an important problem in road accidents investigations. Since the real sample available is very small, only sensitive microtechniques can be applied. The methods of optical microscopy and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (MK-FTIR) supported by scanning electron microscopy together with X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX) allow one to carry out the examination of each paint layer without any separation procedure. In this paper an attempt is made to discriminate between different automobile paints of the same colour by the use of these methods for criminalistic investigations.

  19. Evaluation of Driver-vehicle Matching using Neck Muscle Activity and Vehicle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Yoshiki; Umetsu, Daisuke; Ozaki, Shigeru

    Objective measurement of a car driver's feeling has been a subject of automobile researches. In the present study, we aimed at quantifying the matching between the physiological response of a driver and the vehicle motion. Assuming that the performance of a head stabilization mechanism, the vestibulo-collic reflex, affects driving feeling, we recorded the activity of neck muscles that help maintain the head position. Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) using active electrodes and a compact amplifier. Vehicle acceleration and gas pedal movement were recorded with small accelerometers. Subjects were required to perform straight-line acceleration. Four road cars with different characteristics were used. EMG signals were filtered, full-wave rectified and averaged across trials. Main results are summarized as follows. First, the EMG response of a driver's neck muscle depended not only on vehicle acceleration but on its time derivative, jerk. A quantitative analysis showed that, for the data obtained with the four cars, the EMG profile can be reproduced by a linear sum of acceleration and jerk. The correlation coefficient, an index of goodness of matching, ranged from ~0.8 to ~0.95. Second, our analysis indicated that the relationship between the muscle response and the vehicle motion can be characterized by two parameters: the optimal weight for the jerk term and the optimal time lag. The current study proposes a method for characterizing a physiological response of a driver to dynamic vehicle motion. It remains to be investigated whether these parameters are related to the driving feeling.

  20. Safety margins in the driver

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Rickard

    2001-01-01

    The primary aim of this thesis is to highlight the most important features of driving and to describe the models that have attempted to conceptualise these features. The discussion focuses on the concept of "safety margin." The concept is elaborated upon in an effort to enhance its usefulness as an empirical tool in traffic research. In this study, safety margin is defined as a threshold value that informs the driver when to undertake an action to minimise the risk of a car accident. Three se...

  1. Transcending as a driver of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Frederick

    2016-06-01

    This paper draws from three different bodies of research to discuss the hypothesis that age-appropriate experiences enhance brain and cognitive development throughout the life span. These age-appropriate experiences could be considered as the drivers of development at each age, including drivers to foster development beyond adult abstract thinking, as described in Piaget's formal operational stage. We explore how a nurturing caregiver is the driver in the first 2 years of life, how language learning is the driver from 3 to 10 years, and how problem solving is the driver in the teenage years. To develop beyond adult rational thinking, we suggest that the driver is transcending thought, which can result when practicing meditations in the automatic self-transcending category, such as Transcendental Meditation. PMID:27124274

  2. Battery electric vehicles - implications for the driver interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Isabel; Krems, Josef F

    2016-03-01

    The current study examines the human-machine interface of a battery electric vehicle (BEV) from a user-perspective, focussing on the evaluation of BEV-specific displays, the relevance of provided information and challenges for drivers due to the concept of electricity in a road vehicle. A sample of 40 users drove a BEV for 6 months. Data were gathered at three points of data collection. Participants perceived the BEV-specific displays as only moderately reliable and helpful for estimating the displayed parameters. This was even less the case after driving the BEV for 3 months. A taxonomy of user requirements was compiled revealing the need for improved and additional information, especially regarding energy consumption and efficiency. Drivers had difficulty understanding electrical units and the energy consumption of the BEV. On the background of general principles for display design, results provide implications how to display relevant information and how to facilitate drivers' understanding of energy consumption in BEVs. Practitioner Summary: Battery electric vehicle (BEV) displays need to incorporate new information. A taxonomy of user requirements was compiled revealing the need for improved and additional information in the BEV interface. Furthermore, drivers had trouble understanding electrical units and energy consumption; therefore, appropriate assistance is required. Design principles which are specifically important in the BEV context are discussed. PMID:26444273

  3. Good Old Gamers, Good Drivers: Results from a correlational experiment among older drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchada Vichitvanichphong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In many situations, driving is essential for senior citizens to maintain their independent lifestyle. A systematic literature review was conducted that summarized the age-related physical, visual and cognitive functional declines and their associated risk to driving. Based on these findings, we explored whether the skills required in playing Xbox Kinect video games were correlated with measures of driving performance among older drivers. Fifty-two participants, 65 years of age or older (Mean = 72; SD = 3.84; range 65 – 85 years; 29 males who have access to a car and drive frequently were invited to play Just dance, Table Tennis (ping pong, Bowling, and Dr Kawashima’s Brain Training Exercises on an Xbox Kinect 360. Participants also completed a 25-minute on-road driving task along a predetermined route to assess and identify critical driving errors using a similar instrument as that used by a driving license tester. Bivariate correlation examined the relationship between game scores and these objective driving skills. There was a significant correlation between the Xbox Kinect video games and on-road driving scores (r = 0.861, p <0.001, indicating that ‘good gamers are good drivers’. This was correlation was significant for the males (r = 0.864, p <0.001 as well as for the females (r = 0.878, p <0.001. We suggest that performance on Xbox games may be a suitable, cost-effective and less-risky indicator of on-road driving skills for older drivers, particularly in jurisdictions in which mandatory testing of older citizens has been introduced or is being considered as a requirement in the driver licensing process.

  4. NATURAL FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES FOR AUTOMOBILE ACCESSORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chandramohan

    2013-01-01

    Electron Microscope. The disclosure includes the process to make the composite and also the variety of products in automobile accessories.

  5. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Shukla; C L Jackson; K Scott

    2003-02-01

    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of $ca$. 50 kW supplemented with short bursts up to 80 kW will suffice in most driving requirements. The energy demand depends greatly on driving characteristics but under normal usage is expected to be 200 Wh/km. The advantages and disadvantages of candidate fuel-cell systems and various fuels are considered together with the issue of whether the fuel should be converted directly in the fuel cell or should be reformed to hydrogen onboard the vehicle. For fuel cell vehicles to compete successfully with conventional internal-combustion engine vehicles, it appears that direct conversion fuel cells using probably hydrogen, but possibly methanol, are the only realistic contenders for road transportation applications. Among the available fuel cell technologies, polymer–electrolyte fuel cells directly fueled with hydrogen appear to be the best option for powering fuel cell vehicles as there is every prospect that these will exceed the performance of the internal-combustion engine vehicles but for their first cost. A target cost of $ 50/kW would be mandatory to make polymer–electrolyte fuel cells competitive with the internal combustion engines and can only be achieved with design changes that would substantially reduce the quantity of materials used. At present, prominent car manufacturers are deploying important research and development efforts to develop fuel cell vehicles and are projecting to start production by 2005.

  6. Driver behavior at urban roads in China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, J.; van Zuylen, H.J.; Horst, E.

    2014-01-01

    Driver behavior in China shows remarkable differences from that in western countries. In this study, six focus groups were organized to investigate Chinese drivers’ attitudes, expectations, intended actions, their preferences, and habits in different situations in urban areas. The outcomes show that there are important opportunities to improve driver behavior, leading to safer and more efficient traffic. Driver behavior–related simulation models have been developed for traffic plan, evaluatio...

  7. Driver's Behavior Modeling Using Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Sehraneh Ghaemi; Sohrab Khanmohammadi; Mohammadali Tinati

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we propose a hierarchical fuzzy system for human in a driver-vehicle-environment system to model takeover by different drivers. The driver's behavior is affected by the environment. The climate, road and car conditions are included in fuzzy modeling. For obtaining fuzzy rules, experts' opinions are benefited by means of questionnaires on effects of parameters such as climate, road and car conditions on driving capabilities. Also the precision, age and driving individuality are ...

  8. Drivers of fixed and mobile broadband infrastructure adoption and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Hsin-yi Sandy; Bauer, Johannes M.

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of advanced information and communication services are increasingly dependent on the quality of the available connectivity. This paper examines the factors that influence the quality of fixed and mobile broadband access in OECD countries. Drawing on institutional economics, the study provides an integrated conceptual framework that allows analyzing the interaction of supply, demand, policy, and contextual factors. We explore the drivers of broadband access and quality and potenti...

  9. Generic Model Predictive Control Framework for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, M.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with a model predictive control framework for control design of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, where car-following tasks are under control. The framework is applied to design several autonomous and cooperative controllers and to examine the controller properties at the microscopic level and the resulting traffic flow characteristics at the macroscopic level. The results give new insights into impacts of ADAS on traffic flow characteristics.

  10. Driver's intention to use smartphone-car connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jieun; Kim, Junghwan; Nam, Changi; Kim, Seongcheol

    2013-01-01

    Car is now more than just a transportation method. Now a smartphone or a portable device can be easily connected to your car and this allows us to enjoy broader range of contents like music and navigation. This study aims to study investigate what leads drivers to use such car-connectivity services. Based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) as theoretical framework, this study examines the relationship between four derived constructs (facilitating condition, tech...

  11. User-Level Device Drivers: Achieved Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben Leslie; Gernot Heiser; Peter Chubb; Nicholas Fitzroy-Dale; Stefan G(o)tz; Charles Gray; Luke Macpherson; Daniel Potts; Yue-Ting Shen; Kevin Elphinstone

    2005-01-01

    Running device drivers as unprivileged user-level code, encapsulated into their own process, has often been proposed as a technique for increasing system robustness. However, in the past, systems based on user-level drivers have generally exhibited poor I/O performance. Consequently, user-level device drivers have never caught on to any significant degree. In this paper we demonstrate that it is possible to build systems which employ user-level device drivers, without significant performance degradation, even for high-bandwidth devices such as Gigabit Ethernet.

  12. Drivers of Productivity: a Case Study of the Australian Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Chancellor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Australian construction productivity has grown slowly since 1985 and remains arguably stagnant. The importance of this study is therefore to examine several factors through to be drivers of construction productivity and to understand possible avenues for improvement. The drivers tested are research and development, apprentices, wage growth, unionisation and safety regulation. Expenditure on research and development and the number of apprentices were found to be drivers of productivity growth in Victoria, New South Wales and Western Australia. These findings are important because collectively, these three states account for a majority of construction activity in Australia.

  13. Driving Simulator Performance in Novice Drivers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Executive Functions and Basic Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephany M.; Cox, Daniel J.; Kofler, Michael J.; Moncrief, Matthew A.; Johnson, Ronald J.; Lambert, Ann E.; Cain, Sarah A.; Reeve, Ronald E.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate poorer driving performance than their peers and are less likely to obtain a driver's license. This study aims to examine the relationship between driving performance and executive functioning for novice drivers, with and without ASD, using a driving…

  14. A prospective study of the development of hand eczema in an automobile manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, O

    1992-05-01

    We have not been able to find any prospective study of the risk of developing occupational dermatitis in the car manufacturing industry. To try to define individual predictive risk factors for the development of hand eczema and to determine the prevalence of hand eczema within 1 year in an automobile manufacturing industry, we investigated prospectively 1564 new employees during one year of employment. Only persons with previous atopic dermatitis or hand eczema were restricted to dry and clean workplaces. The employees were personally interviewed and examined before their employment. Written questionnaires were used at 3 and 12 months to obtain information on type of work, exposure, protection and hand dermatitis. All patients developing hand eczema were examined, patch tested and followed to determine the course and consequence of their eczema. The risk turned out to be only 4% on average, but significantly higher in females (6%). Certain sections within the factory such as wet work (canteen/kitchen and cleaning) and work in the paint shop with high exposure to organic solvents carried significantly higher risks. Heavy exposure to mineral oil, a known risk factor, was effectively counteracted by the extensive use of protective gloves to yield a lower than average prevalence in the press and body shop. Individual risk factors for the development of hand eczema were previous hand eczema, atopic dermatitis, but also wool intolerance and hay fever as isolated phenomena. Most cases of hand eczema were mild, of irritant contact type and only 1 employee developed an allergic contact dermatitis due to the working environment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1395598

  15. Experimental analysis of synchronization and dynamics in an automobile as a complex system

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cruz, C. A.; Jáuregui-Correa, J. C.; López-Cajún, C.; Sen, M.; Domínguez-González, A.

    2015-08-01

    A complex system is composed of many interacting elements, and its behavior, as a whole, can be quite different from that of the individual elements. An automobile is an example of a common mechanical system composed of a large number of individual elements. These elements are connected through soft and hard linkages that transmit motion to each other. This paper proposes a variety of analytical tools to study experimental data from complex systems using two elements of an automobile as an example. Accelerometer measurements were taken from two elements within an automobile: the door and the dashboard. Two types of data were collected: response to impact loading, and response to road excitation of the automobile driven at different speeds. The signals were processed via Fourier and wavelet transforms, cross-correlation coefficients, Hilbert transform, and Kuramoto order parameters. A new parameter, called the order-deficit parameter, is introduced. Considerable, but not complete, synchronization can be found between the accelerations measured at these two locations in the automobile, and the degree of synchronization is quantified using the order-deficit parameter.

  16. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  17. Summary of semi-initiative and initiative control automobile engine vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Qu, Zhou

    2009-07-01

    Engine vibration accounts for around 55% of automobile vibration, separating the engine vibration from transmitting to automobile to the utmost extent is significant for improving NVH performance. Semi-initiative and initiative control of engine vibration is one of the hot spots of technical research in domestic and foreign automobile industry, especially luxury automobiles which adopt this technology to improve amenity and competitiveness. This article refers to a large amount of domestic and foreign related materials, fully introduces the research status of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension of engine vibration suspension and many kinds of structural style, and provides control policy and method of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension system. Compare and analyze the structural style of semi-initiative and initiative control and merits and demerits of current structures of semi-initiative and initiative control of mechanic electrorheological, magnetorheological, electromagnetic actuator, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostriction material, pneumatic actuator etc. Models of power assembly mounting system was classified.Calculation example indicated that reasonable selection of engine mounting system parameters is useful to reduce engine vibration transmission and to increase ride comfort. Finally we brought forward semi-initiative and initiative suspension which might be applied for automobiles, and which has a promising future.

  18. Assessing the Residual Teen Crash Risk Factors after Graduated Drivers License Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Thor, Craig P.; Gabler, Hampton C.

    2010-01-01

    Graduated driving licensing laws are now in place in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. However, despite stricter supervised driving requirements, restrictions on the number of passengers, and earlier nighttime driving curfews, teen drivers continue to be at a higher crash risk than the adult driving population. The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS) dataset was examined to compare and contrast the primary crash factors for teen drivers (16–18 years. old) and...

  19. Excess heat supply collaborations within the district heating sector: Drivers and barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Päivärinne, Sofia; Hjelm, Olof; Gustafsson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This article combines the theoretical field of Industrial Symbiosis (IS) with a business model perspective to increase the knowledge about drivers and barriers behind the emergence of excess heat supply collaborations between district heating companies and industrial firms. The increased knowledge is gained by identifying and examining drivers and barriers associated with collaborative efforts to funnel excess heat produced by industrial firms into district heating grids in Sweden. An increas...

  20. The background factor of the driving compensation behavior among elderly drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Taishi, Nozomi; Usui, Shinnosuke

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine what factors lead to driving compensation behavior among elderly drivers, particularly focusing on the effect of self-reported driving performance, and to investigate the relationship between driving compensation behavior and traffic accidents or violations. After analyzing 237 elderly drivers, the results showed that whereas self-reported driving performances influenced driving compensation behaviors, the relationship between self-reported driving perf...

  1. Knowledge of Traffic Laws and Drivers Behavior on the Roads of Tripoli City, Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Hussin A.M. Yahia; Amiruddin Ismail

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the knowledge of traffic rules and laws among a sample of drivers from the city of Tripoli and their behavior with respect to the same. A random sample of 416 drivers was selected from various regions for Tripoli, namely: Tajura, Abo Saleem, City Centre and Janzour and administered a questionnaire that would elicit and record their knowledge and behavior regarding road rules and regulations. The study revealed that traffic accidents are most affected by and positiv...

  2. Restraint use and risky driving behaviors across drug types and drug and alcohol combinations for drivers involved in a fatal motor vehicle collision on U.S. roadways

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chang; Huang, Yanlan; Pressley, Joyce C.

    2016-01-01

    Background While driving impaired is a well-recognized risk factor for motor vehicle (MV) crash, recent trends in recreational drug use and abuse may pose increased threats to occupant safety. This study examines mechanisms through which drug and/or alcohol combinations contribute to fatal MV crash. Methods The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for 2008–2013 was used to examine drugs, alcohol, driver restraint use, driver violations/errors and other behaviors of drivers of passenger v...

  3. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran: analysis of driver-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moafian Ghasem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Road traffic accident (RTA and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran. This paper explores the as-sociation between driver-related factors and RTA in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20, 2010 to June 10, 2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department. We included 538 588 RTA records, which were classified to control for the main confounders: accident type, final cause of accident, time of accident and driver-related factors. Driver-related factors included sex, educational level, license type, type of injury, duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver’s error type. Results: A total of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male, sex ratio of almost 13:1 were involved in the RTAs. Among them 423 932 (78.71% were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74% had a diploma degree. Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811, 54.00%. The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59 (75 024, 13.93%. The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years’ of driving experience. Ne-glect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589, 64.17%. Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175, 25.66% and 129 352, 24.02%, respectively. We found significant association between type of acci-dent and sex, education, license type, time of accident, final cause of accident, driver’s error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P<0.001. Conclusion: Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures, which will change inappropriate be-havior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Automobile

  4. Ear examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  5. "The Use of Digital Technology and its Effect The Use of Digital Technology and its Effect on Product Development in the Automobile Parts Industry" (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Seunghwan Ku; Takahiro Fujimoto

    2000-01-01

    The subject of this paper is an empirical study about the impact and introduced period of 3D-CAD(three dimensional computer-aided design) on the product development process in the automobile parts industry in Japan. In particular, this study examines how 3D-CAD impacts product design review and production review, communication between assembler and supplier, and product development lead times. Our data is from 153 companies and was collected through a questionnaire survey of first-tier part s...

  6. Effect of Solvents on Microalbuminuria Among Automobile Painters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Shushtarizadeh

    2008-06-01

    SPSS 11.5.Results: Several studies showed that solvents cause renal disorder (tubular and glomerular, although glomerulonephritis is more prevalent. The mean age of the solvent group was 28.6 ±2.7 years and was 33.7 ±7 years in control group (p<0.05. The mean duration of solvent exposure was 4.8 ±1.5 years. Statistically meaningful differences were found between solvent and control groups for microalbuminuria, increased serum BUN and creatinine levels (p<0.05, although there was no significant correlation between these parameters and the duration of exposure (p>0.05.Conclusion: The results suggest that kidney dysfunction results from chronic occupational exposure to solvents at levels found in automobile painting rooms in Iran. We recommend increased monitoring of workers using solvents and increased review and enforcement of safety regulations regarding such use of solvents.

  7. Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.,Ltd.—China’s Heavy Truck Giant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.,Ltd. (formerly Shaanxi Automobile Manufacturing Plant) was originally a weak enterprise. Relying on the reorganization of assets,the introduction of the"Double Best"project and opportunities for development,it has entered the fast track of development by es- tablishing a brand image and implementing a forward-looking strategy.In 1990,Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.Ltd.was a loss- making enterprise with an annual sales of 100 million yuan ($14.1 million).In 2007,its sales income surpassed 10 billion yuan ($1.4 billion),and it was not only listed among China’s top 500 companies,but also ranked 37th among the top 500 machinery companies of China and came first in Shaanxi Province

  8. PC/104 Asyn drivers at Jefferson lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asyn Driver was applied for PC/104 IOC serial communication systems at Jefferson Lab. We chose the ines GPIB-PC/104-XL as the GPIB interface module and developed a low lever device driver that is compatible with the Asyn Driver. Instrument device support was created to provide access to the operating parameters of GPIB devices. A Low level device driver for the serial communication board Model 104-COM-8SM was also developed to run under Asyn Driver. This serial interface board contains eight independent ports and provides effective RS-485, RS-422 and RS-232 multipoint communication. StreamDevice protocols were applied for the serial communications. The Asyn Driver in PC/104 IOC applications provides a standard interface between the high level device support and hardware level device drivers. This makes it easy to develop the GPIB and serial communication applications for PC/104 IOCs. A number of applications have been written to use the PC/104 Asyn driver in our control system at Jefferson Lab. (authors)

  9. Developing Linux kernel space device driver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Wei; Wang Qinruo; Wu Naiyou

    2003-01-01

    This thesis introduces how to develop kernel level device drivers on Linux platform in detail. On the basis of comparing proc file system with dev file system, we choose PCI devices and USB devices as instances to introduce the method of writing device drivers for character devices by using these two file systems.

  10. Driver technology of inertial confinement fusion (ICE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author briefly describes high power laser technology for ICF drivers and estimates its present status, key technology and developing trend. In particular, a description of the laser driver key technical progress and near future program in CAEP are also presented

  11. Physics at an upgraded Fermilab proton driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    In 2004 the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future, primarily motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics. Over the last few months a physics study has developed the physics case for the Fermilab Proton Driver. The potential physics opportunities are discussed.

  12. Intelligent Speed Adaptation for involuntary drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Juhl, Jens; Berthelsen, Kasper Klitgaard; Lahrmann, Harry

    2012-01-01

    The Danish Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) trial ISA C included 26 commercial cars and 51 drivers a number of whom were involuntary. After a baseline period, ISA was activated for one year. The drivers should identify themselves with a personal key ID before driving. As well as being informative...

  13. A Real Time Intelligent Driver Fatigue Alarm System Based On Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Ratnakar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In automobiles advanced controllers are equipped to control all the data. In this work a new technology is considered as driver fatigue detection system. Developing intelligent system to prevent car accidents and can be very effective in minimizing accident death toll. One of the factors which play an important role in accidents is the human errors including driving fatigue. Relying on new smart techniques; this system detects the signs of fatigue and sleepiness in the face of the person at the time of driving by capturing the video sequences of the driver. Then, the frames are transformed from YUV space into RBG spaces. It is one of the inexpensive and unobtrusive method where face, eyes are detected and edge detection and histogram normalization are performed on the captured frames using MATLAB as a tool.The face area is separated from other parts with high accuracy in segmentation, low error rate and quick processing of input data distinguishes this system from similar ones

  14. Test-retest reliability of the safe driving behavior measure for community-dwelling elderly drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Han, Sang-Woo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) is a self-report measurement tools that assesses the safe-driving behaviors of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SDBM among community-dwelling elderly drivers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of sixty-one community-dwelling elderly were enrolled to investigate the reliability of the SDBM. The SDBM was assessed in two sessions that were conducted three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. That test-retest reliability of overall scores and three domain scores of the SDBM were statistically evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (2.1)]. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify bivariate associations among the three domains of the SDBM. [Results] The SDBM demonstrated excellent rest-retest reliability for community-dwelling elderly drivers. The Cronbach alpha coefficients of the three domains of person-vehicle (0.979), person-environment (0.944), and person-vehicle-environment (0.971) of the SDBM indicate high internal consistency. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM is a reliable measure for evaluating the safe- driving of automobiles by community-dwelling elderly, and is adequate for detecting changes in scores in clinical settings. PMID:27390401

  15. Hazard awareness of construction site dumper drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Jonathan; Harris, Don

    2012-01-01

    In UK's construction industry, site dumpers cause more serious accidents than in any other type of construction plant. Previous research has indicated that driver behaviour plays a pivotal role in the vast majority of these accidents. Using a mental models-based approach, 20 dumper drivers were interviewed with regard to the process by which several typical types of accident occurred. It was found that drivers were generally well-informed about the hazards of driving dumpers on a construction site. However, the findings also exposed some critical knowledge gaps, which could increase a driver's chances of an accident. Educational material relating to these knowledge deficiencies could easily be prepared and incorporated into revised construction information leaflets or driver training courses. PMID:22995134

  16. Driver alertness detection using Google Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuang-Yu; Huang, Chung-Lin

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent vehicle system (ITS) to monitor the driver driving behavior. Based on the first-person vision (FPV) technology (or Google glasses), our system can detect the vehicle exterior/interior scene from driver's viewpoint and estimate driver gazing direction. First, we use "bag of words" image classification approach by applying FAST and BRIEF feature descriptor in the dataset. Then, we use vocabulary dictionary to encode an input image as feature vectors. Finally, we apply SVM classifier to identify whether the input image is vehicle interior scene or not to monitor the driver driving attention. Second, we find the correspondence between the images of the Google glasses and the camera mounted on the wind shield of the vehicle to estimate the gazing direction of the driver. In the experiments, we illustrate the effectiveness of our system.

  17. Vision-based solutions for driver assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Nowosielski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review on vision-based solutions for driver assistance. These solutions support the driver to keep safe travel conditions. They use diverse sensing modalities for the recognition of the environment around the vehicle. Upon detection a critical safety situation they supply the driver with the warning. Four assistance systems have been addressed: TSR - Traffic Sign Recognition, CAV - Collision Avoidance, LDW - Lane Departure Warning, and driver fatigue detection. Their structure and some existing approaches are presented. Furthermore, a solution for lane detection and another one for a driver fatigue detection are proposed in the article. They are prepared as the combination of existing image processing algorithms with the aim of presentation the ease of own limited solution creation. For the real-world and diverse working scenarios they would require a great deal of improvements.

  18. Investigating driver injury severity patterns in rollover crashes using support vector machine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Guohui; Qian, Zhen; Tarefder, Rafiqul A; Tian, Zong

    2016-05-01

    Rollover crash is one of the major types of traffic crashes that induce fatal injuries. It is important to investigate the factors that affect rollover crashes and their influence on driver injury severity outcomes. This study employs support vector machine (SVM) models to investigate driver injury severity patterns in rollover crashes based on two-year crash data gathered in New Mexico. The impacts of various explanatory variables are examined in terms of crash and environmental information, vehicle features, and driver demographics and behavior characteristics. A classification and regression tree (CART) model is utilized to identify significant variables and SVM models with polynomial and Gaussian radius basis function (RBF) kernels are used for model performance evaluation. It is shown that the SVM models produce reasonable prediction performance and the polynomial kernel outperforms the Gaussian RBF kernel. Variable impact analysis reveals that factors including comfortable driving environment conditions, driver alcohol or drug involvement, seatbelt use, number of travel lanes, driver demographic features, maximum vehicle damages in crashes, crash time, and crash location are significantly associated with driver incapacitating injuries and fatalities. These findings provide insights for better understanding rollover crash causes and the impacts of various explanatory factors on driver injury severity patterns. PMID:26938584

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of automobile beam steels produced by EAF-CSP process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengzhi Zhao; Yonglin Kang; Hao Yu

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure, mechanical properties, and misorientation of automobile beam steels produced by EAF-CSP process were studied using optical microscopy (OM) and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). It is shown that the microstructure of strips is mainly polygonal ferrite, and the average grain size is about 5-8 μm. The electron back-scattered diffraction results show that grain boundaries in ferrite are basically high-angle grain boundaries without remarkable preferred orientation. Hot strips of automobile beam steels possess a good combination of strength and plasticity because of their fine microstructures and low quantity of impurities.

  20. AEE : un projet pour la conception des logiciels embarqués dans l'automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Simonot-Lion, Françoise

    2001-01-01

    AEE : " Architecture Electronique Embarquée " est un projet français, se terminant en décembre 2001, qui a regroupé les constructeurs automobiles, des équipementiers et des universitaires pour réfléchir sur les problèmes de la conception des logiciels embarqués dans les automobiles actuelles ou à venir. Un résultat essentiel de ces travaux est la proposition d'un langage de description d'architecture permettant de spécifier l'organisation des objets d'une architecture véhicule sous différents...

  1. Effect of a curved duct upstream on performance of small centrifugal compressors for automobile turbochargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Shigeta; Yamasaki, Nobuhiko; Yamagata, Akihiro

    2013-02-01

    Since the automobile turbochargers are installed in an engine compartment with limited space, the ducts upstream of the turbocharger compressor may be curved in a complex manner. In the present paper, the effect of a curved duct upstream on performance of small centrifugal compressors for automobile turbochargers is discussed. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a turbocharger compressor validated for the compressor model with the straight pipe applied to the compressor with the curved pipe are executed, and the deterioration of the performance for the curved pipe is confirmed. It is also found that the deterioration of compressor performance is caused by the interaction of the secondary flow and the impeller.

  2. Study on the visibility of an electroluminescent display for automobiles; Jidoshayo EL display no shininsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, N.; Harada, M.; Idogaki, T. [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This report explores the visibility of an Electroluminescent (EL) display for automotive use. Displays for automobiles are exposed to the direct rays of the sun and forced to operate in wide temperature range. Therefore, luminous flux density by the lighting on EL display panel and operating environment temperature must be considered for the visibility evaluation. Sensory evaluation on the visibility and physical measurements such as contrast, chromaticity difference in accordance with the viewing angle change indicate that the visibility of the EL display for automobiles is advantageous over other displays. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Optimization of a parity of brake forces of automobiles in view of a bias of road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In clause it is shown a method optimization of brake of forces in view of a bias road it is established, that in mountain conditions of loss of coupling weight of automobiles than 2-3 times concerning flat conditions therma are more. The degree of use of coupling weight in result use of a regulator of brake forces very much increases also efficiency of brake systems such a kind of automobiles is provided with definition of optimum factor of coupling at which value of loss of coupling weight is provided minimal

  4. Information Integration of CPFR in Automobile Parts Inbound Logistics Based on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Liu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With the improvement of supply chain management and development of information technology, the nature of business processes has changed from intra-enterprise to cross-enterprise. Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment (CPFR come into being in this case. This research aims to looks at the literature of CPFR and the Internet of Things, and then analyzes the information integration of CPFR in automobile parts inbound logistics. The CPFR reference model is designed to fit many scenarios and the paper focuses on the information integration of CPFR model in the scenario of automobile parts inbound logistics based on the environment of Internet of Things.

  5. Chinese automobile industry: opportunities and business; El sector automovilistico Chino: oportunidades y negocios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Zhang, Y.

    2010-07-01

    The emergence of Chinese economy and its rapid recovery from global crisis have sustained a high rate of growth in Chinese automobile market. The article analyzes the industrial evolution of this particular market from the perspective of automobile manufacturers. Two concrete proposals have been suggested to explore these business opportunities exposed in the analyzed industry: investment in China to take advantage of market growth and hence gaining global competitive advantages, and being strategic partner of Chinese enterprises in European and global market. Strategic alternatives for both proposals have been discussed with suggestions and conclusions followed. (Author) 11 refs.

  6. Erosive Wear Assessment of Sandstorm on the Strength Properties of Automobile Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Seun Samuel OWOEYE; Lamidi, Yinusa Daniel; Ajayi, Olusola Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the extent of sandstorms effect on automobile glass in the area mostly prone to sandstorms phenomena typical of the Northern part of Nigeria, sandblasting tests were conducted in laboratory on a laminated soda lime glass of 300mm x 300mm with standard automobile glass thickness of 4mm each and PVB film of 1mm. The sand particles were projected by sandblasting machine with an air flow speed of 54km/hr (15m/s) and the impact angle was fixed at 900 while the blasting duration ...

  7. The 'Overly-Broad' Selden Patent, Henry Ford and Development in the Early US Automobile Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D

    2016-01-01

    A current policy concern is that the alleged uncertainty over the enforceability of “overly-broad” patents of “dubious validity” may retard innovation. We take the Selden patent on the automobile as a classic of this type of patent. We review the evidence of commercial development during its term...... would not support the broad construction of those claims. Ford’s and the Ford Motor Co.’s confidence in their understanding was powerfully illustrated by their Company’s public offer to indemnify purchasers of Ford automobiles against the threatened suits for infringement under the Selden patent. This...

  8. Designing Carbon Taxation Schemes for Automobiles: A Simulation Exercise for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Adamou, Adamos; Clerides, Sofronis; Zachariadis, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Vehicle taxation based on CO2 emissions is increasingly being adopted worldwide in order to shift consumer purchases to low-carbon cars, yet little is known about the effectiveness and overall economic impact of these schemes. We focus on feebate schemes, which impose a fee on high-carbon vehicles and give a rebate to purchasers of low-carbon automobiles. We estimate a discrete choice model of demand for automobiles in Germany and simulate the impact of alternative feebate schemes on emission...

  9. Pain at the Pump: The Differential Effect of Gasoline Prices on New and Used Automobile Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Meghan R. Busse; Christopher R. Knittel; Florian Zettelmeyer

    2009-01-01

    The dramatic increase in gasoline prices from close to $1 in 1999 to $4 at their peak in 2008 made it much more expensive for consumers to operate an automobile. In this paper we investigate whether consumers have adjusted to gasoline price changes by altering what automobiles they purchase and what prices they pay. We investigate these effects in both new and used car markets. We find that a $1 increase in gasoline price changes the market shares of the most and least fuel-efficient quartile...

  10. Modeling aggressive driver behavior at unsignalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysi, Isam A; Abbany, Ali S

    2007-07-01

    The processing of vehicles at unsignalized intersections is a complex and highly interactive process, whereby each driver makes individual decisions about when, where, and how to complete the required maneuver, subject to his perceptions of distances, velocities, and own car's performance. Typically, the performance of priority-unsignalized intersections has been modeled with probabilistic approaches that consider the distribution of gaps in the major-traffic stream and their acceptance by the drivers of minor street vehicles based on the driver's "critical gap". This paper investigates the aggressive behavior of minor street vehicles at intersections that are priority-unsignalized but operate with little respect of control measures. The objective is to formulate a behavioral model that predicts the probability that a driver performs an aggressive maneuver as a function of a set of driver and traffic attributes. Parameters that were tested and modeled include driver characteristics (gender and age), car characteristics (performance and model year), and traffic attributes (number of rejected gaps, total waiting time at head of queue, and major-traffic speed). Binary probit models are developed and tested, based on a collected data set from an unsignalized intersection in the city of Beirut, to determine which of the studied variables are statistically significant in determining the aggressiveness of a specific driver. Primary conclusions reveal that age, car performance, and average speed on the major road are the major determinants of aggressive behavior. Another striking conclusion is that the total waiting time of the driver while waiting for an acceptable gap is of little significance in incurring the "forcing" behavior. The obtained model is incorporated in a simple simulation framework that reflects driver behavior and traffic stream interactions in estimating delay and conflict measures at unsignalized intersections. The simulation results were then compared

  11. Traffic accidents and drivers suspected for drug influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, L Q; Nielsen, L M; Nielsen, S L

    1990-04-01

    All records from the Danish Medicolegal Council concerning drivers suspected for drug influences were examined for the 5 year period 1981-1985. 461 records were included, 62 women and 399 men. In 250 cases drugs from more than one of ten groups had been taken thus making 786 combinations of drug/driving. The major drug group was benzodiazepines, accounting for 65% of all drug intake. Opioids also contributed substantially, found in 38% of the cases. A traffic accident had occurred in 180 (39%) of the records. Drivers who had been taking antidepressives were involved in an accident in 67%, significantly above the mean. For benzodiazepines, the corresponding percentage was 43%, while for opioids it was only 23%, significantly below the mean. This striking difference has been demonstrated in most of the studies concerning drugs in traffic. It may support the hypothesis that opioids do not necessarily make driving dangerous, as do antidepressives, barbiturates and especially benzodiazepines. PMID:2361649

  12. MUTATIONS OF AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE WORLD CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Alexandru RĂDUŢEANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global technical harmonization is considered a driver of international competitiveness of the European automotive industry, with improving global competitiveness of European industry and creating automotive jobs in terms of environmental protection and road safety. The global economic crisis, the European Union had to take some measures to protect the automotive sector, using the investment in innovative technologies to facilitate consumer credit, and financial incentives for people who choose to sell old car and buy a new one. Referring to the importance of the issues examined in Europe today, automotive industry become very substantial, competition is fierce and the pace of change is emphasized. Thus, we have presented in this paper the general characteristics of the motor car industry in Europe and how it was influenced by the global crisis, and then to review the evolution of this sector in Romania and how they are feeling the crisis.

  13. Applying a Self-Made Automobile Heterodyne Interferometer to Measure the Parameters of Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinn-Fwu Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-made automobile heterodyne interferometer with a closed control loop is presented. In addition, we will apply the self-made automobile heterodyne interferometer to measure the parameters of optically compensated twisted nematic liquid crystal (TN LC. It is worthy to be mentioned that the self-made automobile heterodyne interferometer has a compact size because all the optical components are installed in the mechanism of the system. Besides, the self-made automobile heterodyne interferometer has some much more merits, for example, automobile control, a simple setup, in real-time test, reliability, and so forth. Besides, it is very stable because of its common optical path insensitive to environmental disturbances. And its feasibility is demonstrated.

  14. Eye-Movement Analysis of Students' Active Examination Strategy and Its Transfer in Visuospatial Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kinam; Kim, Minsung; Shin, Jungyeop; Ryu, Jaemyong

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the role of task demand and its effects on transfer in geographic learning. Student performance was measured through eye-movement analysis in two related experiments. In Experiment 1, the participants were told that they would travel through an area depicted in photographs either driving an automobile or observing the…

  15. A modern diagnostic approach for automobile systems condition monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, M.; Shi, Z.; Ball, A.; Schmidt, K.

    2012-05-01

    An important topic in automotive research and development is the area of active and passive safety systems. In general, it is grouped in active safety systems to prevent accidents and passive systems to reduce the impact of a crash. An example for an active system is ABS while a seat belt tensioner represents the group of passive systems. Current developments in the automotive industry try to link active with passive system components to enable a complete event sequence, beginning with the warning of the driver about a critical situation till the automatic emergency call after an accident. The cross-linking has an impact on the current diagnostic approach, which is described in this paper. Therefore, this contribution introduces a new diagnostic approach for automotive mechatronic systems. The concept is based on monitoring the messages which are exchanged via the automotive communication systems, e.g. the CAN bus. According to the authors' assumption, the messages on the bus are changing between faultless and faulty vehicle condition. The transmitted messages of the sensors and control units are different depending on the condition of the car. First experiments are carried and in addition, the hardware design of a suitable diagnostic interface is presented. Finally, first results will be presented and discussed.

  16. A modern diagnostic approach for automobile systems condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important topic in automotive research and development is the area of active and passive safety systems. In general, it is grouped in active safety systems to prevent accidents and passive systems to reduce the impact of a crash. An example for an active system is ABS while a seat belt tensioner represents the group of passive systems. Current developments in the automotive industry try to link active with passive system components to enable a complete event sequence, beginning with the warning of the driver about a critical situation till the automatic emergency call after an accident. The cross-linking has an impact on the current diagnostic approach, which is described in this paper. Therefore, this contribution introduces a new diagnostic approach for automotive mechatronic systems. The concept is based on monitoring the messages which are exchanged via the automotive communication systems, e.g. the CAN bus. According to the authors' assumption, the messages on the bus are changing between faultless and faulty vehicle condition. The transmitted messages of the sensors and control units are different depending on the condition of the car. First experiments are carried and in addition, the hardware design of a suitable diagnostic interface is presented. Finally, first results will be presented and discussed.

  17. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Neglected Health Concern among Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Naseri Esfahani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder that may develop following a trauma. Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers experience many road traffic accidents during their working life; this may increase the probability for developing PTSD, which in turn may lead to increased human errors as well as decreased work efficiency.Objective: To examine the prevalence of PTSD and its associated factors among a group of Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 424 drivers who referred to participate in an annually training program were selected using a simple random sampling technique. They were requested to complete the Persian version of PCL-C and a data collection sheet about their occupational and demographic features.Results: 385 (90.8% of 424 studied drivers completed the study. 265 (68.8% of the drivers had first-grade driving license. The mean±SD on-the-job daily driving was 10.2±2.8 h. 74 of 385 (19.2%; 95% CI: 15.3%–23.2% met the PTSD criteria. Higher age and job experience as a professional driver, and having past history or past familial history of psychiatric disorders, were independent predictors of developing PTSD. The disease was more prevalent among drivers with first-grade driving license.Conclusion: The prevalence of PTSD among Iranian commercial motor vehicle drivers is higher than the figures reported elsewhere. Measures to diagnose of such drivers and to ensure optimum follow-up of victims before return to professional driving should be considered.

  18. Where do novice and experienced drivers direct their attention on approach to urban rail level crossings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristie L; Lenné, Michael G; Beanland, Vanessa; Salmon, Paul M; Stanton, Neville A

    2015-04-01

    Crashes at rail level crossings (RLXs) remain a persistent but ill-defined safety issue. In urban areas, RLXs are typically located in areas of high workload and visual clutter, such as busy shopping strips. Despite this, the impact of such environments on driver behaviour and compliance with RLX controls is not well understood. This study sought to examine where drivers direct their attention on approach to urban RLXs located in busy shopping strip areas, and whether this differs between novice and experienced drivers. Participants drove an instrumented vehicle around a pre-defined urban route containing several active (flashing light with boom barriers) RLXs. Drivers' visual scanning behaviour and cognitive processes were examined on approach to RLXs. The results suggest that RLXs were not a key focus of drivers' attention. Further, rather than actively scanning, participants were over-reliant on RLX warning signals and the behaviour of surrounding vehicles to alert them to the presence of both trains and RLXs. This study provides important insights into drivers' visual and cognitive behaviour on approach to urban RLXs located in areas of high visual demand. PMID:25661565

  19. 41 CFR 301-10.453 - What is my liability for unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds? 301-10.453 Section 301-10.453 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Special Conveyances Rental Automobiles § 301-10.453 What is my liability for unauthorized use of a rental automobile obtained with Government funds?...

  20. Twentieth century turnover of Mexican endemic avifaunas: Landscape change versus climate drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, A Townsend; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Cuervo-Robayo, Angela P; Berlanga, Humberto; Soberón, Jorge

    2015-05-01

    Numerous climate change effects on biodiversity have been anticipated and documented, including extinctions, range shifts, phenological shifts, and breakdown of interactions in ecological communities, yet the relative balance of different climate drivers and their relationships to other agents of global change (for example, land use and land-use change) remains relatively poorly understood. This study integrated historical and current biodiversity data on distributions of 115 Mexican endemic bird species to document areas of concentrated gains and losses of species in local communities, and then related those changes to climate and land-use drivers. Of all drivers examined, at this relatively coarse spatial resolution, only temperature change had significant impacts on avifaunal turnover; neither precipitation change nor human impact on landscapes had detectable effects. This study, conducted across species' geographic distributions, and covering all of Mexico, thanks to two large-scale biodiversity data sets, could discern relative importance of specific climatic drivers of biodiversity change. PMID:26601171