WorldWideScience

Sample records for automatic vending machine

  1. Point card compatible automatic vending machine for canned drink; Point card taio kan jido hanbaiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    A point card compatible automatic vending machine for canned drinks is developed, which provides drink manufacturers with a powerful tool to acquire selling sites and attract consumers. Since the machine is equipped with a device to handle point cards, regular customers have increased and sales have picked up. A point card issuing device is also installed, and the new machine issues a point card whenever a customer wants. The drink manufacturers are evaluating high of the vending machine because it will contribute to the diffusion of the point card system and because a sales promotion campaign may be conducted through the vending machine for instance by exchanging a fully marked card with a giveaway on the spot. In the future, a bill validator (paper money identifier) will be integrated even with small size machines for the diffusion of point card compatible machines. (translated by NEDO)

  2. The microbiological quality of pasteurized milk sold by automatic vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, A S; Tsiota, S; Pexara, A; Govaris, A

    2016-06-01

    The microbiological quality of pasteurized milk samples (n = 39) collected during 13 weekly intervals from three automatic vending machines (AVM) in Greece was investigated. Microbiological counts (total aerobic (TAC), total psychrotrophic (TPC), Enterobacteriaceae (EC), and psychrotrophic aerobic bacterial spore counts (PABSC)) were obtained at the time of sampling and at the end of shelf-life (3 days) after storage of the samples at 4 or 8°C. TAC were found to be below the 10(7 ) CFU ml(-1) limit of pasteurized milk spoilage both during sampling as well as when milk samples were stored at either storage temperature for 3 days. Enterobacteriaceae populations were below 1 CFU ml(-1) in 69·2% of the samples tested at the time of sampling, whereas the remaining samples contained low numbers, typically less than 10 CFU ml(-1) . All samples tested negative for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes. Analogous microbiological data were also obtained by sampling and testing prepackaged, retail samples of pasteurized milk from two dairy companies in Greece (n = 26). From a microbiological standpoint, the data indicate that the AVM milk samples meet the quality standards of pasteurized milk. However, the prepackaged, retail milk samples yielded better results in terms of TAC, TPC and EC, compared to the AVM samples at the end of shelf-life. Recently, Greek dairy farmers organized in cooperatives launched the sale of pasteurized milk via AVM and this study reports on the microbiological quality of this product. The data show that AVM milk is sold at proper refrigeration temperatures and meets the quality standards of pasteurized milk throughout the manufacturer's specified shelf-life. However, based on the microbiological indicators tested, the keeping quality of the tested prepackaged, retail samples of pasteurized milk at the end of shelf-life upon storage under suboptimal refrigeration temperature (8°C) was better. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  3. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a type...

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Vending Machines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines that are...

  5. Drinking water quality concerns and water vending machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSwane, D.Z.; Oleckno, W.A.; Eils, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Drinking water quality is a vital public health concern to consumers and regulators alike. This article describes some of the current microbiological, chemical, and radiological concerns about drinking water and the evolution of water vending machines. Also addressed are the typical treatment processes used in water vending machines and their effectiveness, as well as a brief examination of a certification program sponsored by the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA), which provides a uniform standard for the design and construction of food and beverage vending machines. For some consumers, the water dispensed from vending machines is an attractive alternative to residential tap water which may be objectionable for aesthetic or other reasons

  6. 20 CFR 368.3 - Vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vending machines. 368.3 Section 368.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE SALES TO MINORS § 368.3 Vending machines. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines is...

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Vending Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines that are effective as of March 1, 2013. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at

  8. Present status and prospects for vending machines; Jido hanbaiki no genjo to tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Y. [Fuji Denki Reiki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ota, T.; Iwamoto, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-10

    The number of automatic vending and service machines installed in Japan at the end of 1998 is about 5.5 million. The number of units per head exceeds that of USA, a pioneer in vending machines. They are now playing an indispensable role in daily living. Recent needs of vending machines have increased in social requests or problems, such as (1) strengthening of crime prevention, (2) consideration of global ecology and (3) prevention of minors from using alcoholic drinks vending machines. This paper describes the current state of marketing and future prospects for vending machines. (author)

  9. Design Guidelines for Coffee Vending Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Schneidermeier, Tim; Burghardt, Manuel; Wolff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Walk-up-and-use-systems such as vending and self-service machines request special attention concerning an easy to use and self-explanatory user interface. In this paper we present a set of design guidelines for coffee vending machines based on the results of an expert-based usability evaluation of thirteen different models.

  10. Vending machine assessment methodology. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Melissa A; Horacek, Tanya M

    2015-07-01

    The nutritional quality of food and beverage products sold in vending machines has been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of an obesogenic food environment. How comprehensive, reliable, and valid are the current assessment tools for vending machines to support or refute these claims? A systematic review was conducted to summarize, compare, and evaluate the current methodologies and available tools for vending machine assessment. A total of 24 relevant research studies published between 1981 and 2013 met inclusion criteria for this review. The methodological variables reviewed in this study include assessment tool type, study location, machine accessibility, product availability, healthfulness criteria, portion size, price, product promotion, and quality of scientific practice. There were wide variations in the depth of the assessment methodologies and product healthfulness criteria utilized among the reviewed studies. Of the reviewed studies, 39% evaluated machine accessibility, 91% evaluated product availability, 96% established healthfulness criteria, 70% evaluated portion size, 48% evaluated price, 52% evaluated product promotion, and 22% evaluated the quality of scientific practice. Of all reviewed articles, 87% reached conclusions that provided insight into the healthfulness of vended products and/or vending environment. Product healthfulness criteria and complexity for snack and beverage products was also found to be variable between the reviewed studies. These findings make it difficult to compare results between studies. A universal, valid, and reliable vending machine assessment tool that is comprehensive yet user-friendly is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mobile Vending - Benefit and limits of vending machines by using telemetry

    OpenAIRE

    Heinkele, Christian; Pousttchi, Key; Legler, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    The use of telemetry via wireless communication technique is able to support the process of operating vending machines. The advantages on appropriate kinds of vending machines can be achieved by using a demand-driven instead of a trigger-driven provisioning as well as a trouble-shooting in real time. The availability of reliable telemetrically collected real time data enhance the analysis and optimization of the supply in vending machines and the profitability of vending machine places, too. ...

  12. Condom vending machines stir controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This article reports on the public debate on whether condoms should be made publicly available on the streets, in neighborhoods, and in schools, which could trigger discussions about sex in China. Condom vending machines have been installed in China since August 1999, and most regard the installations as a symbol of China's openness and progress, as well as an improvement in livelihood. However, some have objected to the public display and sale of condoms. Some teachers see it as damaging the reputation of the schools. Others suggest that they represent greater tolerance for premarital sex among youths, and a professor of sexual ethics stated that, while breaking the sex taboo is evidence of progress, condoms are a special type of commodity which should not be made available anywhere. In addition to the public debate concerning condoms, the banning of commercials featuring a condom-shaped cartoon character overcoming AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases touched off a debate between reproductive health advocates and government regulators. Reports indicate that the commercial was banned because it contravened the Advertisement Law, which provides that no sex product advertisement be aired or printed in the media. However, Zhang Konglai contended that condoms are not sex products but merely a means for preventing pregnancy and diseases and should be promoted actively. Moreover, Qui Renzong described the government's ban as a mistake and called on them to revise the law.

  13. Bacteriological quality of drinks from vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, P. R.; Burge, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    A survey on the bacteriological quality of both drinking water and flavoured drinks from coin-operated vending machines is reported. Forty-four per cent of 25 drinking water samples examined contained coliforms and 84% had viable counts of greater than 1000 organisms ml at 30 degrees C. Thirty-one flavoured drinks were examined; 6% contained coliforms and 39% had total counts greater than 1000 organisms ml. It is suggested that the D.H.S.S. code of practice on coin-operated vending machines is not being followed. It is also suggested that drinking water alone should not be dispensed from such machines. PMID:3794325

  14. A Usability Study of the Automatic Ticket Vending Machines for the Middle-aged and Elderly Patrons: The Case of the Taipei Mass Rapid Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsin Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the usability problems for the middle-aged and elderly users of the automatic ticket vending machines of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit System. Thirty two middle-aged and elderly users (16 men and 16 females were observed in their actual uses of the machines, and 9 of them (6 men and 3 women were interviewed afterwards. The results show that, first, most senior users observed in this study made mistakes at the first step of touching the screen that initiates the ticket buying process. Second, the feedback and voice guidance design need further improvement to facilitate the senior users’ operation of the machines. Based on the findings, this study recommends that: (1 the operation instruction may be improved by enhancing the color contrast and graphics complementing of caption and voice guidance; (2 the transaction interface should be simplified, avoiding using button symbol to show information, and the visual instruction should be supplemented with voice instructions; (3 operation feedback should be strengthened and in line with previous use experience. [Article content in Chinese

  15. Spread of `Eco-vendor`, an energy-saving type automatic vending machine for beverages with a peak cut function; Shoenegata seiryo inryoyo jido hanbaiki (peak cut kino tsuki) `eko benda` no fukyu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    `Eco-vendor`, an energy-saving type automatic vending machine for beverages with a peak cut function has been developed in 1995 through cooperation by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Coca-Cola Japan, and Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. It can cut 90 percent of the power consumption during 13:00 to 16:00 on weekdays in summer, and can save 10 to 15 percent of annual power consumption. Since the heat insulation performance has been improved to keep beverages at the set temperature during the peak cut operation, the energy-saving effect for cold products in summer and for hot products in winter has been enhanced. For the manufacturing of `Eco-vendor`, Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has offered its technical know-how to five manufacturers of automatic vending machine for beverages without compensation, and each manufacturer has accepted the offer. Electric power companies of Japan have cooperated to pay incident of 10,000 yen per an `Eco-vendor` to the manufacturers. Japan`s automatic vending machine industries and nationwide beverage industries have positively cooperated. Consequently, Tokyo Electric Power Company has successfully spread 2,600 machines up to the end of fiscal 1995, and aims at the spread of 16,000 machines in fiscal 1996. 2 figs.

  16. A Mixed Message: The School Vending Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Margaret Murray

    1982-01-01

    Dental disease, especially tooth decay, is reaching epidemic proportions among children of school age. Since sugar is a major cause of tooth decay and since many confections are sold in schools, it is recommended that schools remove confections and other nonnutritional food items from vending machines, fund-raising activities, and food services.…

  17. Vending Machine Policies and Practices in Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmill, Erin; Cotugna, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Overweight has reached alarming proportions among America's youth. Although the cause of the rise in overweight rates in children and adolescents is certainly the result of the interaction of a variety of factors, the presence of vending machines in schools is one issue that has recently come to the forefront. Many states have passed or proposed…

  18. 27 CFR 46.209 - Articles in vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.209 Articles in vending machines. There is no exemption for articles in vending machines. They are subject to the floor stocks tax and must be... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles in vending...

  19. 34 CFR 395.8 - Distribution and use of income from vending machines on Federal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution and use of income from vending machines on... use of income from vending machines on Federal property. (a) Vending machine income from vending... the basis of each prior year's operation, except that vending machine income shall not accrue to any...

  20. Marketing and vending machine; Marketing to jido hanbaiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onzo, N. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-10

    Vending machines in Japan have made original progress and have developed into big business. Annual sales by vending machines are 6 trillion 700 billion yen, which exceeds 6 trillion 100 billion yen sales by convenience stores. Research on vending machines may have advanced on the technical side but almost none on the marketing. In a vending machine that made an appearance in 1980 with the feature of a lottery, the winning probability was approximately one in fifty. In addition to a simple vending function, these machines have a promotion function. Some other machines have an electrical display of a commercial for products inside the machine for the purpose of attracting attention of passersby. This is an advertising function of the machines. In other words, one vending machine is capable of various marketing functions. This precisely means the subjects are numerous in the marketing research on vending machines. In contrast to the present century in which technical innovations have been made for vending machines, the coming 21st century may turn out to be the one in which marketing innovations are the mainstream for them. (NEDO)

  1. Healthier vending machines in workplaces: both possible and effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorton, Delvina; Carter, Julie; Cvjetan, Branko; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2010-03-19

    To develop healthier vending guidelines and assess their effect on the nutrient content and sales of snack products sold through hospital vending machines, and on staff satisfaction. Nutrition guidelines for healthier vending machine products were developed and implemented in 14 snack vending machines at two hospital sites in Auckland, New Zealand. The guidelines comprised threshold criteria for energy, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium content of vended foods. Sales data were collected prior to introduction of the guidelines (March-May 2007), and again post-introduction (March-May 2008). A food composition database was used to assess impact of the intervention on nutrient content of purchases. A staff survey was also conducted pre- and post-intervention to assess acceptability. Pre-intervention, 16% of staff used vending machines once a week or more, with little change post-intervention (15%). The guidelines resulted in a substantial reduction in the amount of energy (-24%), total fat (-32%), saturated fat (-41%), and total sugars (-30%) per 100 g product sold. Sales volumes were not affected, and the proportion of staff satisfied with vending machine products increased. Implementation of nutrition guidelines in hospital vending machines led to substantial improvements in nutrient content of vending products sold. Wider implementation of these guidelines is recommended.

  2. Parental attitudes towards soft drink vending machines in high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel-Paterson, Maia; French, Simone A; Story, Mary

    2004-10-01

    Soft drink vending machines are available in 98% of US high schools. However, few data are available about parents' opinions regarding the availability of soft drink vending machines in schools. Six focus groups with 33 parents at three suburban high schools were conducted to describe the perspectives of parents regarding soft drink vending machines in their children's high school. Parents viewed the issue of soft drink vending machines as a matter of their children's personal choice more than as an issue of a healthful school environment. However, parents were unaware of many important details about the soft drink vending machines in their children's school, such as the number and location of machines, hours of operation, types of beverages available, or whether the school had contracts with soft drink companies. Parents need more information about the number of soft drink vending machines at their children's school, the beverages available, the revenue generated by soft drink vending machine sales, and the terms of any contracts between the school and soft drink companies.

  3. Development of a microbial population within a hot-drinks vending machine and the microbial load of vended hot chocolate drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A; Short, K; Saltmarsh, M; Fielding, L; Peters, A

    2007-09-01

    In order to understand the development of the microbial population within a hot-drinks vending machine a new machine was placed in a staff area of a university campus vending only hot chocolate. The machine was cleaned weekly using a detergent based protocol. Samples from the mixing bowl, dispense area, and drink were taken over a 19-wk period and enumerated using plate count agar. Bacillus cereus was identified using biochemical methods. Vended drinks were sampled at 0, 3, 6, and 9 min after vending; the hot chocolate powder was also sampled. Over the 1st 8 wk, a significant increase in the microbial load of the machine components was observed. By the end of the study, levels within the vended drink had also increased significantly. Inactivation of the automatic flush over a subsequent 5-wk period led to a statistically but not operationally significant increase in the microbial load of the dispense area and vended drink. The simple weekly clean had a significant impact on the microbial load of the machine components and the vended drink. This study demonstrated that a weekly, detergent-based cleaning protocol was sufficient to maintain the microbial population of the mixing bowl and dispense point in a quasi-steady state below 3.5 log CFU/cm2 ensuring that the microbial load of the vended drinks was maintained below 3.4 log CFU/mL. The microbial load of the drinks showed no significant changes over 9 min after vending, suggesting only spores are present in the final product.

  4. [Hygienic assessment of student's nutrition through vending machines (fast food)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelin, A O; Pavlova, D V; Babalyan, A V

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of a research work on studying the nutrition of students through vending machines (fast food), taking into account consumer priorities of students of medical University, the features and possible consequences of their use by students. The object of study was assortment of products sold through vending machines on the territory of the First Saint-Petersburg Medical University. Net calories, content of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load were determined for each product. Information about the use of vending machines was obtained by questionnaires of students 2 and 4 courses of medical and dental faculties by standardized interview method. As was found, most sold through vending machines products has a high energy value, mainly due to refined carbohydrates, and was characterized by medium and high glycemic load. They have got low protein content. Most of the students (87.3%) take some products from the vending machines, mainly because of lack of time for canteen and buffets visiting. Only 4.2% students like assortment of vending machines. More than 50% students have got gastrointestinal complaints. Statistically significant relationship between time of study at the University and morbidity of gastrointestinal tract, as well as the number of students needing medical diet nutrition was found. The students who need the medical diet use fast food significantly more often (46.6% who need the medical diet and 37.7% who don't need it).

  5. Vending Machines: A Narrative Review of Factors Influencing Items Purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Sophia V; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-10-01

    Vending machines are a ubiquitous part of our food environments. Unfortunately, items found in vending machines tend to be processed foods and beverages high in salt, sugar, and/or fat. The purpose of this review is to describe intervention and case studies designed to promote healthier vending purchases by consumers and identify which manipulations are most effective. All studies analyzed were intervention or case studies that manipulated vending machines and analyzed sales or revenue data. This literature review is limited to studies conducted in the United States within the past 2 decades (ie, 1994 to 2015), regardless of study population or setting. Ten articles met these criteria based on a search conducted using PubMed. Study manipulations included price changes, increase in healthier items, changes to the advertisements wrapped around vending machines, and promotional signs such as a stoplight system to indicate healthfulness of items and to remind consumers to make healthy choices. Overall, seven studies had manipulations that resulted in statistically significant positive changes in purchasing behavior. Two studies used manipulations that did not influence consumer behavior, and one study was equivocal. Although there was no intervention pattern that ensured changes in purchasing, price reductions were most effective overall. Revenue from vending sales did not change substantially regardless of intervention, which will be important to foster initiation and sustainability of healthier vending. Future research should identify price changes that would balance healthier choices and revenue as well as better marketing to promote purchase of healthier items. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hygienic and other aspects of raw milk vending machines

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL, Radovan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate opportunities of raw milk sales. The questionnaire was submitted to respondents, which assessed the direct sale of milk, consumption, awareness about milk quality connecting with the sales of raw milk using a vending machines.

  7. Availability of Vending Machines and School Stores in California Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse-Egbuonye, Nafissatou; Liles, Sandy; Schmitz, Katharine E.; Kassem, Nada; Irvin, Veronica L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study examined the availability of foods sold in vending machines and school stores in United States public and private schools, and associations of availability with students' food purchases and consumption. Methods: Descriptive analyses, chi-square tests, and Spearman product-moment correlations were conducted on data collected…

  8. Availability of Vending Machines and School Stores in California Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse-Egbuonye, Nafissatou; Liles, Sandy; Schmitz, Katharine E; Kassem, Nada; Irvin, Veronica L; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the availability of foods sold in vending machines and school stores in United States public and private schools, and associations of availability with students' food purchases and consumption. Descriptive analyses, chi-square tests, and Spearman product-moment correlations were conducted on data collected from 521 students aged 8 to 15 years recruited from orthodontic offices in California. Vending machines were more common in private schools than in public schools, whereas school stores were common in both private and public schools. The food items most commonly available in both vending machines and school stores in all schools were predominately foods of minimal nutritional value (FMNV). Participant report of availability of food items in vending machines and/or school stores was significantly correlated with (1) participant purchase of each item from those sources, except for energy drinks, milk, fruits, and vegetables; and (2) participants' friends' consumption of items at lunch, for 2 categories of FMNV (candy, cookies, or cake; soda or sports drinks). Despite the Child Nutrition and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Reauthorization Act of 2004, FMNV were still available in schools, and may be contributing to unhealthy dietary choices and ultimately to health risks. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  9. 31 CFR 12.3 - Sale of tobacco products in vending machines prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RESTRICTION OF SALE AND DISTRIBUTION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS § 12.3 Sale of tobacco products in vending machines prohibited. The sale of tobacco products in vending machines located in or around any Federal building under... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of tobacco products in vending...

  10. Determining the Feasibility of Milk Vending Machines to Improve Calcium Intake Among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Monnat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium intake declines from late adolescence to young adulthood, in part, due to decreases in accessibility to milk and dairy products. While milk vending has shown demonstrated success in secondary schools, no studies have examined whether milk vending improves calcium intake among college students. We hypothesized that milk and calcium intake would be higher among college students given access to milk vending in their dormitory (milk vending consumers compared to those lacking access in their dormitory (non-milk vending consumers. Milk vending machines were installed in two dormitories, and two dormitories having non-milk beverage vending served as comparison sites. Students completed a calcium intake questionnaire at the point of milk (n = 73 or non-milk (n = 79 beverage vending purchases. Mean total calcium intake was higher in milk vending consumers (1245 + 543 mg/d compared to non-milk vending consumers (1042 + 447 mg/d (p = 0.01. Adjusting for gender and milk vending consumer status, there was a positive association between past month milk vending purchases and daily calcium intake from milk (p < 0.001. Fifty-seven students without in-dormitory access to milk vending reported an interest in milk vending if made available. Milk vending may serve as a novel approach for improving calcium intake in college students.

  11. Sales of healthy snacks and beverages following the implementation of healthy vending standards in City of Philadelphia vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharis, Meagan L; Colby, Lisa; Wagner, Amanda; Mallya, Giridhar

    2018-02-01

    We examined outcomes following the implementation of employer-wide vending standards, designed to increase healthy snack and beverage options, on the proportion of healthy v. less healthy sales, sales volume and revenue for snack and beverage vending machines. A single-arm evaluation of a policy utilizing monthly sales volume and revenue data provided by the contracted vendor during baseline, machine conversion and post-conversion time periods. Study time periods are full calendar years unless otherwise noted. Property owned or leased by the City of Philadelphia, USA. Approximately 250 vending machines over a 4-year period (2010-2013). At post-conversion, the proportion of sales attributable to healthy items was 40 % for snacks and 46 % for beverages. Healthy snack sales were 323 % higher (38·4 to 162·5 items sold per machine per month) and total snack sales were 17 % lower (486·8 to 402·1 items sold per machine per month). Healthy beverage sales were 33 % higher (68·2 to 90·6 items sold per machine per month) and there was no significant change in total beverage sales (213·2 to 209·6 items sold per machine per month). Revenue was 11 % lower for snacks ($US 468·30 to $US 415·70 per machine per month) and 21 % lower for beverages ($US 344·00 to $US 270·70 per machine per month). Sales of healthy vending items were significantly higher following the implementation of employer-wide vending standards for snack and beverage vending machines. Entities receiving revenue-based commission payments from vending machines should employ strategies to minimize potential revenue losses.

  12. Impact of Healthy Vending Machine Options in a Large Community Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivois-Shah, Ravi; Gonzalez, Juan R; Khandekar, Shashank P; Howerter, Amy L; O'Connor, Patrick A; Edwards, Barbara A

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether increasing the proportion of healthier options in vending machines decreases the amount of calories, fat, sugar, and sodium vended, while maintaining total sales revenue. This study evaluated the impact of altering nutritious options to vending machines throughout the Banner Health organization by comparing vended items' sales and nutrition information over 6 months compared to the same 6 months of the previous year. Twenty-three locations including corporate and patient-care centers. Changing vending machine composition toward more nutritious options. Comparisons of monthly aggregates of sales, units vended, calories, fat, sodium, and sugar vended by site. A pre-post analysis using paired t tests comparing 6 months before implementation to the equivalent 6 months postimplementation. Significant average monthly decreases were seen for calories (16.7%, P = .002), fat (27.4%, P ≤ .0001), sodium (25.9%, P ≤ .0001), and sugar (11.8%, P = .045) vended from 2014 to 2015. Changes in revenue and units vended did not change from 2014 to 2015 ( P = .58 and P = .45, respectively). Increasing the proportion of healthier options in vending machines from 20% to 80% significantly lowered the amount of calories, sodium, fat, and sugar vended, while not reducing units vended or having a negative financial impact.

  13. Cup-mixing type cup vending machines; Cup mixing shiki cup jido hanbaiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, S.; Nagasaki, T.; Hori, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    This paper introduces the newly developed cup-mixing type cup vending machines. In the vending machines, the powder material for each beverage is stored, and the powder material delivered to a cup is carried to the cooking block by the carrier mechanism and cooked and mixed using a propeller mixer after hot and cold water are put. These vending machines meet the needs to the diversified and quality taste. The ejection port of products was also improved, and the door was designed to be higher in grade. The main block of structure is described next. The cup carrier mechanism consists of X, Y, and Z axes, and a hand. The cup is positioned by the control of a stepping motor. The number of propeller rotations in the propeller mechanism can be set to nine levels. The mixing position can also be set freely. In the temporary material reservation mechanism, the stored material is temporarily reserved until a cup is carried. The ejection port door of a cup is opened or closed automatically. The control block that drives the cup carrier mechanism is connected with the host unit by serial communication. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Acquisition, Maintenance and Generalization of Vending Machine Purchasing Skills by Moderately Handicapped Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietupski, John; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Four elementary age moderately disabled students were taught to use a picture-prompt prosthetic to make vending machine purchases. All students reached criterion on the vending machine use task, demonstrated partial generalization to untrained machines, and three Ss exhibited maintenance as much as six weeks beyond the termination of instruction.…

  15. 76 FR 37291 - Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    .... FDA-2011-F-0171] Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines; Correction... certain articles of food sold from vending machines. The document published with several errors including... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Y. Reese, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-820), Food...

  16. Impact of the HEALTHY Study on Vending Machine Offerings in Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartstein, Jill; Cullen, Karen W.; Virus, Amy; El Ghormli, Laure; Volpe, Stella L.; Staten, Myrlene A.; Bridgman, Jessica C.; Stadler, Diane D.; Gillis, Bonnie; McCormick, Sarah B.; Mobley, Connie C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study is to report the impact of the three-year middle school-based HEALTHY study on intervention school vending machine offerings. There were two goals for the vending machines: serve only dessert/snack foods with 200 kilocalories or less per single serving package, and eliminate 100% fruit juice and…

  17. School Vending Machine Purchasing Behavior: Results from the 2005 YouthStyles Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Olivia M.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Moser, Richard P.; Rutten, Lila J. Finney; Agurs-Collins, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods are often available in school vending machines. Providing youth with access to school vending machines, and thus competitive foods, is of concern, considering the continued high prevalence of childhood obesity: competitive foods tend to be energy dense and nutrient poor and can contribute to increased energy intake in…

  18. Simulation and Community-Based Instruction of Vending Machines with Time Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, Diane M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study evaluated the use of simulated instruction on vending machine use as an adjunct to community-based instruction with two moderately retarded children. Results showed concurrent acquisition of the vending machine skills across trained and untrained sites. (Author/DB)

  19. Impact of the HEALTHY study on vending machine offerings in middle schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study is to report the impact of the three-year middle school-based HEALTHY study on intervention school vending machine offerings. There were two goals for the vending machines: serve only dessert/snack foods with 200 kilocalories or less per single serving package, and eliminat...

  20. Syringe vending machines for injection drug users: an experiment in Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadia, Y; Feroni, I; Perrin, V; Vlahov, D; Moatti, J P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the usefulness of vending machines in providing injection drug users with access to sterile syringes in Marseille, France. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires were offered to 485 injection drug users obtaining syringes from 32 pharmacies, 4 needle exchange programs, and 3 vending machines. RESULTS: Of the 343 respondents (response rate = 70.7%), 21.3% used the vending machines as their primary source of syringes. Primary users of vending machines were more likely than primary users of other sources to be younger than 30 years, to report no history of drug maintenance treatment, and to report no sharing of needles or injection paraphernalia. CONCLUSIONS: Vending machines may be an appropriate strategy for providing access to syringes for younger injection drug users, who have typically avoided needle exchange programs and pharmacies. PMID:10589315

  1. Impact of Total Vending Machine Restrictions on US Young Adult Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian C.; Kadowaki, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In an analysis of smoking using a longitudinal sample of US young adults, we extend research on tobacco vending machine restrictions beyond its prior focus on minors by examining the influence of total vending machine restrictions, which apply to adult-only facilities and represents the only remaining vending machine exemption since the enactment of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. We identify whether the passage of a restriction influences an individual’s smoking on repeated observations, and if the propensity is lower among those who live in locations with a restriction. Methods: Combining a repository of US tobacco policies at all geographic levels with the nationally-representative geocoded National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and Census data, we use multilevel logistic regression to examine the impact of total vending machine restrictions on any past 30-day smoking and past 30-day smoking of one pack per day among young adults (ages 19–31), while accounting for other tobacco control policy, community, and individual covariates. Results: We find that total vending machine restrictions decrease any recent smoking (OR = 0.451; p vending machine restrictions on smoking a pack daily. Conclusions: Total vending machine restrictions appear to be an effective, yet highly underutilized, means of tobacco control. Implications: Past scientific inquiries examining vending machine restrictions have focused upon minor access, adolescent perceptions of availability, and subsequent smoking. The potential for total vending machine restrictions, which extend to adult-only facilities, to influence patterns of smoking among those of legal age, remains significant. Those who are subject to total vending machine restrictions for longer periods are less likely to have recently smoked, but individuals do not change their smoking behavior in response to the passage of a restriction. These restrictions do not affect heavy smokers. Such

  2. Healthier snacks in school vending machines: a pilot project in four Ontario high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Christine; Mandich, Gillian; He, Meizi

    2010-01-01

    The Healthy Vending Machine Pilot Project (HVMPP) was a public health initiative intended to create a healthier school nutrition environment by making healthier snacks available in vending machines, while maintaining a profit margin. The HVMPP was evaluated using quantitative and qualitative measures. Vending machines were stocked with healthier choices and conventional vending products at a 50:50 ratio. The HVMPP was implemented from February to May 2007 in four Ontario secondary schools in Middlesex-London, Elgin, and Oxford counties. Product sales were tracked, and focus groups were conducted to obtain students' opinions about healthy eating and vending choices. "Healthier choice" sales ranged from 14% to 17%. In all schools, vending revenues declined from 0.7% to 66%. A majority of participants had substantial knowledge of healthy eating and were in favour of healthier choices in vending machines; however, price, value, and taste were barriers that led them to purchase these products rarely. Students preferred to have "real" healthy snacks, such as yogurt, fruit, and vegetables, available in schools. Replacing 50% of vending stock with healthier snacks resulted in a decline in vending revenues. Future health programs in schools need to provide "real" healthy snacks, such as low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables.

  3. `Indoor` series vending machines; `Indoor` series jido hanbaiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensui, T.; Kida, A. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Okumura, H. [Fuji Denki Reiki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    This paper introduces three series of vending machines that were designed to match the interior of an office building. The three series are vending machines for cups, paper packs, cans, and tobacco. Among the three series, `Interior` series has a symmetric design that was coated in a grain pattern. The inside of the `Interior` series is coated by laser satin to ensure a sense of superior quality and a refined style. The push-button used for product selection is hot-stamped on the plastic surface to ensure the hair-line luster. `Interior Phase II` series has a bay window design with a sense of superior quality and lightness. The inside of the `Interior Phase II` series is coated by laser satin. `Interior 21` series is integrated with the wall except the sales operation panel. The upper and lower dress panels can be detached and attached. The door lock is a wire-type structure with high operativity. The operation block is coated by titanium color. The dimensions of three series are standardized. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Study of Acrylamide Level in Food from Vending Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haouet, Naceur; Pistolese, Simona; Branciari, Raffaella; Ranucci, David; Altissimi, Maria Serena

    2016-09-20

    Acrylamide is a by-product of the Maillard reaction and is potentially carcinogenic to humans. It is found in a number of foods with higher concentrations in carbohydrate-rich foods and moderate levels of protein-rich foods such as meat, fish and seafood. Acrylamide levels in food distributed in vending machines placed in public areas of the city of Perugia were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples included five different categories, depending on the characteristics of the products: i) potato chips; ii) salted bakery products; iii) biscuits and wafers; iv) sweet bakery products; v) sandwiches. A high variability in acrylamide level among different foods and within the same category was detected. Potato chips showed the highest amount of acrylamide (1781±637 μg/kg) followed by salted bakery products (211 ±245 μg/kg), biscuits and wafers (184±254 μg/kg), sweet bakery products (100±72 μg/kg) and sandwiches (42±10 μg/kg). In the potato chips and sandwiches categories, all of the samples revealed the presence of acrylamide, while different prevalence was registered in the other foods considered. The data of this study highlight the presence of acrylamide in different foods sold in vending machines and this data could be useful to understand the contribution of this type of consumption to human exposure to this compound.

  5. Study of acrylamide level in food from vending machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naceur Haouet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a by-product of the Maillard reaction and is potentially carcinogenic to humans. It is found in a number of foods with higher concentrations in carbohydrate-rich foods and moderate levels of protein-rich foods such as meat, fish and seafood. Acrylamide levels in food distributed in vending machines placed in public areas of the city of Perugia were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Samples included five different categories, depending on the characteristics of the products: i potato chips; ii salted bakery products; iii biscuits and wafers; iv sweet bakery products; v sandwiches. A high variability in acrylamide level among different foods and within the same category was detected. Potato chips showed the highest amount of acrylamide (1781±637 μg/kg followed by salted bakery products (211±245 μg/kg, biscuits and wafers (184±254 μg/kg, sweet bakery products (100±72 μg/kg and sandwiches (42±10 μg/kg. In the potato chips and sandwiches categories, all of the samples revealed the presence of acrylamide, while different prevalence was registered in the other foods considered. The data of this study highlight the presence of acrylamide in different foods sold in vending machines and this data could be useful to understand the contribution of this type of consumption to human exposure to this compound.

  6. Pricing and availability intervention in vending machines at four bus garages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A; Hannan, Peter J; Harnack, Lisa J; Mitchell, Nathan R; Toomey, Traci L; Gerlach, Anne

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of lowering prices and increasing availability on sales of healthy foods and beverages from 33 vending machines in 4 bus garages as part of a multicomponent worksite obesity prevention intervention. Availability of healthy items was increased to 50% and prices were lowered at least 10% in the vending machines in two metropolitan bus garages for an 18-month period. Two control garages offered vending choices at usual availability and prices. Sales data were collected monthly from each of the vending machines at the four garages. Increases in availability to 50% and price reductions of an average of 31% resulted in 10% to 42% higher sales of the healthy items. Employees were mostly price responsive for snack purchases. Greater availability and lower prices on targeted food and beverage items from vending machines was associated with greater purchases of these items over an 18-month period. Efforts to promote healthful food purchases in worksite settings should incorporate these two strategies.

  7. Electronic vending machines for dispensing rapid HIV self-testing kits: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Klausner, Jeffrey; Fynn, Risa; Bolan, Robert

    2014-02-01

    This short report evaluates the feasibility of using electronic vending machines for dispensing oral, fluid, rapid HIV self-testing kits in Los Angeles County. Feasibility criteria that needed to be addressed were defined as: (1) ability to find a manufacturer who would allow dispensing of HIV testing kits and could fit them to the dimensions of a vending machine, (2) ability to identify and address potential initial obstacles, trade-offs in choosing a machine location, and (3) ability to gain community approval for implementing this approach in a community setting. To address these issues, we contracted a vending machine company who could supply a customized, Internet-enabled machine that could dispense HIV kits and partnered with a local health center available to host the machine onsite and provide counseling to participants, if needed. Vending machines appear to be feasible technologies that can be used to distribute HIV testing kits.

  8. Food labeling; calorie labeling of articles of food in vending machines. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    To implement the vending machine food labeling provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is establishing requirements for providing calorie declarations for food sold from certain vending machines. This final rule will ensure that calorie information is available for certain food sold from a vending machine that does not permit a prospective purchaser to examine the Nutrition Facts Panel before purchasing the article, or does not otherwise provide visible nutrition information at the point of purchase. The declaration of accurate and clear calorie information for food sold from vending machines will make calorie information available to consumers in a direct and accessible manner to enable consumers to make informed and healthful dietary choices. This final rule applies to certain food from vending machines operated by a person engaged in the business of owning or operating 20 or more vending machines. Vending machine operators not subject to the rules may elect to be subject to the Federal requirements by registering with FDA.

  9. Health-promoting vending machines: evaluation of a pediatric hospital intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulst, Andraea; Barnett, Tracie A; Déry, Véronique; Côté, Geneviève; Colin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Taking advantage of a natural experiment made possible by the placement of health-promoting vending machines (HPVMs), we evaluated the impact of the intervention on consumers' attitudes toward and practices with vending machines in a pediatric hospital. Vending machines offering healthy snacks, meals, and beverages were developed to replace four vending machines offering the usual high-energy, low-nutrition fare. A pre- and post-intervention evaluation design was used; data were collected through exit surveys and six-week follow-up telephone surveys among potential vending machine users before (n=293) and after (n=226) placement of HPVMs. Chi-2 statistics were used to compare pre- and post-intervention participants' responses. More than 90% of pre- and post-intervention participants were satisfied with their purchase. Post-intervention participants were more likely to state that nutritional content and appropriateness of portion size were elements that influenced their purchase. Overall, post-intervention participants were more likely than pre-intervention participants to perceive as healthy the options offered by the hospital vending machines. Thirty-three percent of post-intervention participants recalled two or more sources of information integrated in the HPVM concept. No differences were found between pre- and post-intervention participants' readiness to adopt healthy diets. While the HPVM project had challenges as well as strengths, vending machines offering healthy snacks are feasible in hospital settings.

  10. Does providing nutrition information at vending machines reduce calories per item sold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Deirdre A; Schulz, Mark R; Wyrick, David L; Bibeau, Daniel L; Gupta, Sat N

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, the United States (US) enacted a restaurant menu labeling law. The law also applied to vending machine companies selling food. Research suggested that providing nutrition information on menus in restaurants might reduce the number of calories purchased. We tested the effect of providing nutrition information and 'healthy' designations to consumers where vending machines were located in college residence halls. We conducted our study at one university in Southeast US (October-November 2012). We randomly assigned 18 vending machines locations (residence halls) to an intervention or control group. For the intervention we posted nutrition information, interpretive signage, and sent a promotional email to residents of the hall. For the control group we did nothing. We tracked sales over 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after we introduced the intervention. Our intervention did not change what the residents bought. We recommend additional research about providing nutrition information where vending machines are located, including testing formats used to present information.

  11. 10 CFR 431.292 - Definitions concerning refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Basic model means, with respect to refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines, all units... beverages and dispenses the bottled or canned beverages on payment. V means the refrigerated volume (ft3) of...

  12. Consumer support for healthy food and drink vending machines in public places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrad, Amy M; Louie, Jimmy Chun-Yu; Milosavljevic, Marianna; Kelly, Bridget; Flood, Victoria M

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility of introducing vending machines for healthier food into public places, and to examine the effectiveness of two front-of-pack labelling systems in the vending machine context. A survey was conducted with 120 students from a university and 120 employees, patients and visitors of a hospital in regional NSW, Australia. Questions explored vending machine use, attitudes towards healthier snack products and price, and the performance of front-of-pack labelling formats for vending machine products. Most participants viewed the current range of snacks and drinks as "too unhealthy" (snacks 87.5%; drinks 56.7%). Nuts and muesli bars were the most liked healthier vending machine snack. Higher proportions of participants were able to identify the healthier snack in three of the five product comparisons when products were accompanied with any type of front-of-pack label (all pvending machines. Front-of-pack label formats on vending machines may assist consumers to identify healthier products. Public settings, such as universities and hospitals, should support consumers to make healthy dietary choices by improving food environments. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. EVALUATION WITH INADEQUATE DATA: THE IMPACT OF THE FRENCH VENDING MACHINE BAN

    OpenAIRE

    Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Shankar, Bhavani

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the effects of the 2005 ban on vending machines in French schools using the 1998 and 2006 INCA nutrition surveys. These surveys contain no information on the presence of vending machines in schools attended by respondents, but the adoption of a Difference-in-Difference design, and a Regression Discontinuity Design enable us to obtain indirect estimates of the policy impact. Results are consistent and suggest that the measure has had a small but significant impact on teenager nutri...

  14. Foods Sold in School Vending Machines are Associated with Overall Student Dietary Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Alisha J.; Nansel, Tonja R.; Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between foods sold in school vending machines and students’ dietary behaviors. Methods The 2005-2006 US Health Behavior in School Aged Children (HBSC) survey was administered to 6th to 10th graders and school administrators. Students’ dietary intake was estimated with a brief food frequency measure. Administrators completed questions about foods sold in vending machines. For each food intake behavior, a multilevel regression analysis modeled students (level 1) nested within schools (level 2), with the corresponding food sold in vending machines as the main predictor. Control variables included gender, grade, family affluence and school poverty. Analyses were conducted separately for 6th to 8th and 9th to 10th grades. Results Eighty-three percent of schools (152 schools, 5,930 students) had vending machines which primarily sold foods of minimal nutritional values (soft drinks, chips and sweets). In younger grades, availability of fruits/vegetables and chocolate/sweets was positively related to the corresponding food intake, with vending machine content and school poverty explaining 70.6% of between-school variation in fruit/vegetable consumption, and 71.7% in sweets consumption. In older grades, there was no significant effect of foods available in vending machines on reported consumption of those foods. Conclusions Vending machines are widely available in US public schools. In younger grades, school vending machines were related to students’ diets positively or negatively, depending on what was sold in them. Schools are in a powerful position to influence children’s diets; therefore attention to foods sold in them is necessary in order to try to improve children’s diets. PMID:21185519

  15. Food sold in school vending machines is associated with overall student dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Alisha J; Nansel, Tonja R; Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J

    2011-01-01

    To examine the association between food sold in school vending machines and the dietary behaviors of students. The 2005-2006 U.S. Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey was administered to 6th to 10th graders and school administrators. Dietary intake in students was estimated with a brief food frequency measure. School administrators completed questions regarding food sold in vending machines. For each food intake behavior, a multilevel regression analysis modeled students (level 1) nested within schools (level 2), with the corresponding food sold in vending machines as the main predictor. Control variables included gender, grade, family affluence, and school poverty index. Analyses were conducted separately for 6th to 8th and 9th-10th grades. In all, 83% of the schools (152 schools; 5,930 students) had vending machines that primarily sold food of minimal nutritional values (soft drinks, chips, and sweets). In younger grades, availability of fruit and/or vegetables and chocolate and/or sweets was positively related to the corresponding food intake, with vending machine content and school poverty index providing an explanation for 70.6% of between-school variation in fruit and/or vegetable consumption and 71.7% in sweets consumption. Among the older grades, there was no significant effect of food available in vending machines on reported consumption of those food. Vending machines are widely available in public schools in the United States. In younger grades, school vending machines were either positively or negatively related to the diets of the students, depending on what was sold in them. Schools are in a powerful position to influence the diets of children; therefore, attention to the food sold at school is necessary to try to improve their diets. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Locking devices on cigarette vending machines: evaluation of a city ordinance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, J L; Hourigan, M E; Kelder, S

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Policymakers, researchers, and citizens are beginning to recognize the need to limit minors' access to tobacco by restricting the sale of cigarettes through vending machines. One policy alternative that has been proposed by the tobacco industry is a requirement that vending machines be fitted with electronic locking devices. This study evaluates such a policy as enacted in St. Paul, Minn. METHODS. A random sample of vending machine locations was selected for cigarette purchase attempts conducted before implementation and at 3 and 12 months postimplementation. RESULTS. The rate of noncompliance by merchants was 34% after 3 months and 30% after 1 year. The effect of the law was to reduce the ability of a minor to purchase cigarettes from locations originally selling cigarettes through vending machines from 86% at baseline to 36% at 3 months. The purchase rate at these locations rose to 48% at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS. Our results suggest that cigarette vending machine locking devices may not be as effective as vending machine bans and require additional enforcement to ensure compliance with the law. PMID:1503160

  17. The effects of a nutrition education intervention on vending machine sales on a university campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary V; Flint, Matthew; Fuqua, James

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of a nutrition information intervention on the vending machine purchases on a college campus. Five high-use vending machines were selected for the intervention, which was conducted in the fall of 2011. Baseline sales data were collected in the 5 machines prior to the intervention. At the time of the intervention, color-coded stickers were placed near each item selection to identify less healthy (red), moderately healthy (yellow), and more healthy (green) snack items. Sales data were collected during the 2-week intervention. Purchases of red- and yellow-stickered foods were reduced in most of the machines; moreover, sales of the green-stickered items increased in all of the machines. The increased purchases of healthier snack options demonstrate encouraging patterns that support more nutritious and healthy alternatives in vending machines.

  18. The effects of single instance, multiple instance, and general case training on generalized vending machine use by moderately and severely handicapped students.

    OpenAIRE

    Sprague, J R; Horner, R H

    1984-01-01

    This report provides an experimental analysis of generalized vending machine use by six moderately or severely retarded high school students. Dependent variables were training trials to criterion and performance on 10 nontrained "generalization" vending machines. A multiple-baseline design across subjects was used to compare three strategies for teaching generalized vending machine use. Training occurred with (a) a single vending machine, (b) three similar machines, or (c) three machines that...

  19. School vending machine purchasing behavior: results from the 2005 YouthStyles survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Olivia M; Yaroch, Amy L; Moser, Richard P; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Agurs-Collins, Tanya

    2010-05-01

    Competitive foods are often available in school vending machines. Providing youth with access to school vending machines, and thus competitive foods, is of concern, considering the continued high prevalence of childhood obesity: competitive foods tend to be energy dense and nutrient poor and can contribute to increased energy intake in children and adolescents. To evaluate the relationship between school vending machine purchasing behavior and school vending machine access and individual-level dietary characteristics, we used population-level YouthStyles 2005 survey data to compare nutrition-related policy and behavioral characteristics by the number of weekly vending machine purchases made by public school children and adolescents (N = 869). Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using age- and race/ethnicity-adjusted logistic regression models that were weighted on age and sex of child, annual household income, head of household age, and race/ethnicity of the adult in study. Data were collected in 2005 and analyzed in 2008. Compared to participants who did not purchase from a vending machine, participants who purchased >or=3 days/week were more likely to (1) have unrestricted access to a school vending machine (OR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.13-2.59); (2) consume regular soda and chocolate candy >or=1 time/day (OR = 3.21; 95% CI = 1.87-5.51 and OR = 2.71; 95% CI = 1.34-5.46, respectively); and (3) purchase pizza or fried foods from a school cafeteria >or=1 day/week (OR = 5.05; 95% CI = 3.10-8.22). Future studies are needed to establish the contribution that the school-nutrition environment makes on overall youth dietary intake behavior, paying special attention to health disparities between whites and nonwhites.

  20. [Card-based age control mechanisms at tobacco vending machines. Effect and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S; Meyer, C; Löber, S; Röhrig, S; Solle, D

    2010-02-01

    Until recently, 700,000 tobacco vending machines provided uncontrolled access to cigarettes for children and adolescents in Germany. On January 1, 2007, a card-based electronic locking device was attached to all tobacco vending machines to prevent the purchase of cigarettes by children and adolescents under 16. Starting in 2009, only persons older than 18 are able to buy cigarettes from tobacco vending machines. The aim of the present investigation (SToP Study: "Sources of Tobacco for Pupils" Study) was to assess changes in the number of tobacco vending machines after the introduction of these new technical devices (supplier's reaction). In addition, the ways smoking adolescents make purchases were assessed (consumer's reaction). We registered and mapped the total number of tobacco points of sale (tobacco POS) before and after the introduction of the card-based electronic locking device in two selected districts of the city of Cologne. Furthermore, pupils from local schools (response rate: 83%) were asked about their tobacco consumption and ways of purchase using a questionnaire. Results indicated that in the area investigated the total number of tobacco POSs decreased from 315 in 2005 to 277 in 2007. The rates of decrease were 48% for outdoor vending machines and 8% for indoor vending machines. Adolescents reported circumventing the card-based electronic locking devices (e.g., by using cards from older friends) and using other tobacco POSs (especially newspaper kiosks) or relying on their social network (mainly friends). The decreasing number of tobacco vending machines has not had a significant impact on cigarette acquisition by adolescent smokers as they tend to circumvent the newly introduced security measures.

  1. Drinking Water Quality of Water Vending Machines in Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N. H.; Yusop, H. M.

    2016-07-01

    An increased in demand from the consumer due to their perceptions on tap water quality is identified as one of the major factor on why they are mentally prepared to pay for the price of the better quality drinking water. The thought that filtered water quality including that are commercially available in the market such as mineral and bottled drinking water and from the drinking water vending machine makes they highly confident on the level of hygiene, safety and the mineral content of this type of drinking water. This study was investigated the vended water quality from the drinking water vending machine in eight locations in Parit Raja are in terms of pH, total dissolve solids (TDS), turbidity, mineral content (chromium, arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel), total organic carbon (TOC), pH, total colony-forming units (CFU) and total coliform. All experiments were conducted in one month duration in triplicate samples for each sampling event. The results indicated the TDS and all heavy metals in eight vended water machines in Parit Raja area were found to be below the Food Act 1983, Regulation 360C (Standard for Packaged Drinking Water and Vended water, 2012) and Malaysian Drinking Water Quality, Ministry of Health 1983. No coliform was presence in any of the vended water samples. pH was found to be slightly excess the limit provided while turbidity was found to be 45 to 95 times more higher than 0.1 NTU as required by the Malaysian Food Act Regulation. The data obtained in this study would suggest the important of routine maintenance and inspection of vended water provider in order to maintain a good quality, hygienic and safety level of vended water.

  2. Students' perspectives on promoting healthful food choices from campus vending machines: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Habiba I; Jarrar, Amjad H; Abo-El-Enen, Mostafa; Al Shamsi, Mariam; Al Ashqar, Huda

    2015-05-28

    Increasing the healthfulness of campus food environments is an important step in promoting healthful food choices among college students. This study explored university students' suggestions on promoting healthful food choices from campus vending machines. It also examined factors influencing students' food choices from vending machines. Peer-led semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 43 undergraduate students (33 females and 10 males) recruited from students enrolled in an introductory nutrition course in a large national university in the United Arab Emirates. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded to generate themes using N-Vivo software. Accessibility, peer influence, and busy schedules were the main factors influencing students' food choices from campus vending machines. Participants expressed the need to improve the nutritional quality of the food items sold in the campus vending machines. Recommendations for students' nutrition educational activities included placing nutrition tips on or beside the vending machines and using active learning methods, such as competitions on nutrition knowledge. The results of this study have useful applications in improving the campus food environment and nutrition education opportunities at the university to assist students in making healthful food choices.

  3. Developing Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Function Using a Vending Machine Metaphor Applet

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Allison; Lovett, Jennifer; Edgington, Cyndi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the use of a Vending Machine applet as a cognitive root for the development of preservice teachers understanding of function. The applet was designed to purposefully problematize common misconceptions associated with the algebraic nature of typical function machines. Findings indicated affordances and…

  4. Pricing and Availability Intervention in Vending Machines at Four Bus Garages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Peter J; Harnack, Lisa J; Mitchell, Nathan R; Toomey, Traci L; Gerlach, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of lowering prices and increasing availability on sales of healthy foods and beverages from 33 vending machines in four bus garages as part of a multi-component worksite obesity prevention intervention. Methods Availability of healthy items was increased to 50% and prices were lowered at least 10% in the vending machines in two metropolitan bus garages for an 18-month period. Two control garages offered vending choices at usual availability and prices. Sales data were collected monthly from each of the vending machines at the four garages. Results Increases in availability to 50% and price reductions of an average of 31% resulted in 10-42% higher sales of the healthy items. Employees were most price-responsive for snack purchases. Conclusions Greater availability and lower prices on targeted food and beverage items from vending machines was associated with greater purchases of these items over an eighteen-month period. Efforts to promote healthful food purchases in worksite settings should incorporate these two strategies. PMID:20061884

  5. Promoting the purchase of low-calorie foods from school vending machines: A cluster-randomized controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Eeuwijk, J.; Kesten, N.M.C. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Buijs, G.; Bassa-Dafesh, Z.; Snel, J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vending machines account for food sales and revenue in schools. We examined 3 strategies for promoting the sale of lower-calorie food products from vending machines in high schools in the Netherlands. METHODS: A school-based randomized controlled trial was conducted in 13 experimental

  6. Promoting the Purchase of Low-Calorie Foods from School Vending Machines: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, Paul L.; Eeuwijk, Jennifer; van Kesteren, Nicole M.C.; Dusseldorp, Elise; Buijs, Goof; Bassa-Dafesh, Zeina; Snel, Jeltje

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vending machines account for food sales and revenue in schools. We examined 3 strategies for promoting the sale of lower-calorie food products from vending machines in high schools in the Netherlands. Methods: A school-based randomized controlled trial was conducted in 13 experimental schools and 15 control schools. Three strategies…

  7. A heuristic for the inventory management of smart vending machine systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Byung Park

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a heuristic for the inventory management of smart vending machine systems with product substitution under the replenishment point, order-up-to level policy and to evaluate its performance.Design/methodology/approach: The heuristic is developed on the basis of the decoupled approach. An integer linear mathematical model is built to determine the number of product storage compartments and replenishment threshold for each smart vending machine in the system and the Clarke and Wright’s savings algorithm is applied to route vehicles for inventory replenishments of smart vending machines that share the same delivery days. Computational experiments are conducted on several small-size test problems to compare the proposed heuristic with the integrated optimization mathematical model with respect to system profit. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on a medium-size test problem to evaluate the effect of the customer service level on system profit using a computer simulation.Findings: The results show that the proposed heuristic yielded pretty good solutions with 5.7% error rate on average compared to the optimal solutions. The proposed heuristic took about 3 CPU minutes on average in the test problems being consisted of 10 five-product smart vending machines. It was confirmed that the system profit is significantly affected by the customer service level.Originality/value: The inventory management of smart vending machine systems is newly treated. Product substitutions are explicitly considered in the model. The proposed heuristic is effective as well as efficient. It can be easily modified for application to various retail vending settings under a vendor-managed inventory scheme with POS system.

  8. Breaking Habits: The Effect of The French Vending Machine Ban on School Snacking and Sugar Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Shankar, Bhavani

    2018-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of the 2005 vending machine ban in French secondary schools on nutrient intakes and on the frequency of morning snacking at school. Using data before and after the ban, and exploiting the discontinuity associated with the age-dependent exposure to the ban, we specify a difference-in-differences regression…

  9. Factors That Influence the Selling of Milk Through Milk Vending Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Doležalová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the current situation in the sale of milk through vending machines in the context of the previous period of the decline in milk consumption, the transition of the Czech Republic towards the market economy, the transformation of agriculture, the entry into the EU and the concentration in the milk market and to define the basic motivational factors and barriers of the development of this distribution path. Technical problems with sales, intent to diversify milk selling and aiming the high profitability of the sale are the reasons for operating vending machines that are correlated with the share of this selling channel on producers’ total sales of milk. Vending machines are inhibited by misinformation from state authorities; other problems are weak support by media and low consumer awareness. The expectations of the operators concerning the development of the situation of the milk vending machines are rather optimistic: 36% of them expect an increase in sales, 48% expect the stagnation and only 16% expect the decrease.

  10. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? No. Section 636 of Public Law 104-52 prohibits the sale of tobacco products in vending...

  11. Evaluation of Community-Based Policy, Systems, and Environment Interventions Targeting the Vending Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kristen M; Garney, Whitney R; Primm, Kristin M; McLeroy, Kenneth R

    The American Heart Association conducted policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) focused interventions to increase healthy vending in 8 communities. PSE interventions were assessed using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey Vending Assessment to see changes in the food environment. Baseline and follow-up assessments were conducted with 3 settings and a total of 19 machines. PSE changes resulted in increased availability of healthy options and decreased unhealthy options. Implementation of PSE interventions targeting the food environment can be an effective method of providing increased access to healthy foods and beverages with the goal of increasing consumption to decrease chronic diseases.

  12. Council-supported condom vending machines: are they acceptable to rural communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomnay, Jane E; Hatch, Beth

    2013-11-01

    Twenty-four hour access to condoms for young people living in rural Victoria is problematic for many reasons, including the fact that condom vending machines are often located in venues and places they cannot access. We partnered with three rural councils to install condom vending machines in locations that provided improved access to condoms for local young people. Councils regularly checked the machines, refilled the condoms and retrieved the money. They also managed the maintenance of the machine and provided monthly data. In total, 1153 condoms were purchased over 12 months, with 924 (80%) obtained from male toilets and 69% (801 out of 1153) purchased in the second half of the study. Revenue of $2626.10 (AUD) was generated and no negative feedback from residents was received by any council nor was there any negative reporting by local media. Vandalism, tampering or damage occurred at all sites; however, only two significant episodes of damage required a machine to be sent away for repairs. Condom vending machines installed in rural towns in north-east Victoria are accessible to young people after business hours, are cost-effective for councils and have not generated any complaints from residents. The machines have not suffered unrepairable damage and were used more frequently as the study progressed.

  13. Are products sold in university vending machines nutritionally poor? A food environment audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Amanda; Hebden, Lana; Roy, Rajshri; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    (i) To audit the nutritional composition, promotion and cost of products available from vending machines available to young adults; and (ii) to examine the relationship between product availability and sales. A cross-sectional analysis of snacks and beverages available and purchased at a large urban university was conducted between March and September 2014. Sales were electronically tracked for nine months. A total of 61 vending machines were identified; 95% (n = 864) of the available snacks and 49% of beverages (n = 455) were less-healthy items. The mean (SD) nutrient value of snacks sold was: energy 1173 kJ (437.5), saturated fat 5.36 g (3.6), sodium 251 mg (219), fibre 1.56 g (1.29) and energy density 20.16 kJ/g (2.34) per portion vended. There was a strong correlation between the availability of food and beverages and purchases (R 2 = 0.98, P Vending machines market and sell less-healthy food and beverages to university students. Efforts to improve the nutritional quality are indicated and afford an opportunity to improve the diet quality of young adults, a group at risk of obesity. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  14. Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi-Mejia, A M; Longacre, M R; Skatrud-Mickelson, M; Li, Z; Purvis, L A; Titus, L J; Beach, M L; Dalton, M A

    2013-05-01

    The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location - urban, town or rural - and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Cross-sectional observational study. Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P = 0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. School vending machine use and fast-food restaurant use are associated with sugar-sweetened beverage intake in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecha, Jean L; Finkelstein, Daniel; Troped, Philip J; Fragala, Maren; Peterson, Karen E

    2006-10-01

    To examine associations between use of school vending machines and fast-food restaurants and youth intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. A cross-sectional observational study. From a group randomized obesity intervention, we analyzed baseline data from 1,474 students in 10 Massachusetts middle schools with vending machines that sold soda and/or other sweetened drinks. Daily sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (regular soda, fruit drinks, and iced tea), purchases from school vending machines, and visits to fast-food restaurants in the preceding 7 days were estimated by self-report. Chi(2) and nonparametric tests were performed on unadjusted data; multivariable models adjusted for sex, grade, body mass index, and race/ethnicity, and accounted for clustering within schools. Among 646 students who reported using school vending machines, 456 (71%) reported purchasing sugar-sweetened beverages. Overall, 977 students (66%) reported eating at a fast-food restaurant. Sugar-sweetened beverage intakes averaged 1.2 servings per day. In adjusted models, relative to no vending machine purchases, servings per day increased by 0.21 for one to three purchases per week (P=0.0057), and 0.71 with four or more purchases (Pvending machines, more report buying sugar-sweetened beverages than any other product category examined. Both school vending machine and fast-food restaurant use are associated with overall sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Reduction in added dietary sugars may be attainable by reducing use of these sources or changing product availability.

  16. Vending Machines of Food and Beverages and Nutritional Profile of their Products at Schools in Madrid, Spain, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Parada, Doris Xiomara; Ángeles Moya, María; José Bosqued, María; López, Lázaro; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel

    2016-06-09

    Policies restricting access to sugary drinks and unhealthy foods in the school environment are associated with healthier consumption patterns. In 2010, Spain approved a Consensus Document regarding Food at Schools with nutritional criteria to improve the nutritional profile of foods and drinks served at schools. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of food and drink vending machines at secondary schools in Madrid, the products offered at them and their nutritional profile. Cross-sectional study of a random sample of 330 secondary schools in Madrid in 2014-2015. The characteristics of the schools and the existence of vending machines were recorded through the internet and by telephone interview. The products offered in a representative sample of 6 vending machines were identified by in situ inspection, and its nutritional composition was taken from its labeling. Finally, the nutritional profile of each product was analyzed with the United Kingdom profile model, which classifies products as healthy and less healthy. The prevalence of vending machines was 17.3%. Among the products offered, 80.5% were less healthy food and drinks (high in energy, fat or sugar and poor in nutrients) and 10.5% were healthy products. Vending machines are common at secondary schools in Madrid. Most products are vending machines are still less healthy.

  17. The effect of social demographic factors, snack consumption and vending machine use on oral health of children living in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliderou, M; Reeves, S; Noble, C

    2006-10-07

    To investigate the effect of socio-economic status, sugar, snack consumption and vending machine use on the prevalence and severity of caries (DMF) in children. An observational study was carried out in a dental practice in inner city London. Sixty children were asked to complete a questionnaire and a three day food and drink diary. After a dental examination the number of decayed (D), missing (M) or filled (F) teeth provided a DMF score. Anova and Pearsons correlations were used to analyse the data statistically. Children from social groups I and II consumed significantly less (P vending machine less often than children from other social groups. Children from Social groups I, II and III had significantly lower DMF scores. The average DMF from social group I children was 0.5 +/- 0.6, whilst group IV children had the greatest incidence and a DMF of 4.6 +/- 0.8. Significant correlations were identified between DMF and sugar, confectionery and crisp consumption and vending machine use, and a negative correlation between DMF and vegetable consumption. Socio-economic status and access to vending machines were found to have a significant effect on sugar intakes, foods choices, and dental health. The removal of vending machines from schools or at least installing 'healthy' vending machines is recommended. Health promotion programmes that account for social groups and snacking habits that are cost effective are required.

  18. Public Smoking Bans, Youth Access Laws, and Cigarette Sales at Vending Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Kvasnicka, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco control policies have proliferated in many countries in recent years, in particular youth access laws and public smoking bans. The effectiveness of youth access laws is still disputed, however, as are the costs of public smoking bans to the hospitality industry. Using a unique data set on cigarette sales at more than 100k vending machines that provides first objective evidence on the outgoing and customer behavior of smokers, we study both outcome dimensions by investigating several r...

  19. Antibiotic Residues in Milk from Three Popular Kenyan Milk Vending Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosgey, Amos; Shitandi, Anakalo; Marion, Jason W

    2018-05-01

    Milk vending machines (MVMs) are growing in popularity in Kenya and worldwide. Milk vending machines dispense varying quantities of locally sourced, pasteurized milk. The Kenya Dairy Board has a regulatory framework, but surveillance is weak because of several factors. Milk vending machines' milk is not routinely screened for antibiotics, thereby increasing potential for antibiotic misuse. To investigate, a total of 80 milk samples from four commercial providers ( N = 25), street vendors ( N = 21), and three MVMs ( N = 34) were collected and screened in Eldoret, Kenya. Antibiotic residue surveillance occurred during December 2016 and January 2017 using Idexx SNAP ® tests for tetracyclines, sulfamethazine, beta-lactams, and gentamicin. Overall, 24% of MVM samples and 24% of street vendor samples were presumably positive for at least one antibiotic. No commercial samples were positive. Research into cost-effective screening methods and increased monitoring by food safety agencies are needed to uphold hazard analysis and critical control point for improving antibiotic stewardship throughout the Kenyan private dairy industry.

  20. How State Taxes and Policies Targeting Soda Consumption Modify the Association between School Vending Machines and Student Dietary Behaviors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Vuillaume, Renee; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors. Methods: Data on school vending machine access and student diet we...

  1. State sales tax rates for soft drinks and snacks sold through grocery stores and vending machines, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eidson, Shelby S; Bates, Hannalori; Kowalczyk, Shelly; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2008-07-01

    Junk food consumption is associated with rising obesity rates in the United States. While a "junk food" specific tax is a potential public health intervention, a majority of states already impose sales taxes on certain junk food and soft drinks. This study reviews the state sales tax variance for soft drinks and selected snack products sold through grocery stores and vending machines as of January 2007. Sales taxes vary by state, intended retail location (grocery store vs. vending machine), and product. Vended snacks and soft drinks are taxed at a higher rate than grocery items and other food products, generally, indicative of a "disfavored" tax status attributed to vended items. Soft drinks, candy, and gum are taxed at higher rates than are other items examined. Similar tax schemes in other countries and the potential implications of these findings relative to the relationship between price and consumption are discussed.

  2. Automatic welding machine for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Takaichi; Iizuka, Tomio; Ito, Yoshitoshi; Takami, Katsumi.

    1978-01-01

    A remotely controlled automatic special welding machine for piping was developed. This machine is utilized for long distance pipe lines, chemical plants, thermal power generating plants and nuclear power plants effectively from the viewpoint of good quality control, reduction of labor and good controllability. The function of this welding machine is to inspect the shape and dimensions of edge preparation before welding work by the sense of touch, to detect the temperature of melt pool, inspect the bead form by the sense of touch, and check the welding state by ITV during welding work, and to grind the bead surface and inspect the weld metal by ultrasonic test automatically after welding work. The construction of this welding system, the main specification of the apparatus, the welding procedure in detail, the electrical source of this welding machine, the cooling system, the structure and handling of guide ring, the central control system and the operating characteristics are explained. The working procedure and the effect by using this welding machine, and the application to nuclear power plants and the other industrial field are outlined. The HIDIC 08 is used as the controlling computer. This welding machine is useful for welding SUS piping as well as carbon steel piping. (Nakai, Y.)

  3. Implementation of electronic locking devices for adolescents at German tobacco vending machines: intended and unintended changes of supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S; Meyer, C; Yamamoto, S; Solle, D

    2009-08-01

    Starting from 1 January 2007, electronic locking devices based on proof-of-age (via electronic cash cards or a European driving licence) were installed in approximately 500,000 vending machines across Germany to restrict the purchase of cigarettes to those over the age of 16. To examine changes in the number of tobacco vending machines before and after the introduction of these new measures. The total number of commercial tobacco sources in 2 selected districts (70,000 inhabitants) in Cologne were recorded and mapped. This major German city was the ideal setting for this study as investigators were able to use existing sociogeographical data from the area. A complete inventory was compiled in autumn 2005 and 2007. A total of 780 students aged 12 to 15 were also interviewed in the study areas. The main outcome measures were quantities and locations of commercial tobacco sources. Between 2005 and 2007 the total number of tobacco sources decreased from 315 to 277 within the study area. Although the most obvious reduction was detected in the number of outdoor vending machines (-48%), the number of indoor vending machines also decreased by 8%. Adolescents changed from vending machines to other sources for cigarettes, particularly kiosks or friends (+31% points usage rate, pvending machines decreased, this has not had a significant impact on cigarette acquisition by underage smokers as they were able to circumvent this new security measure in several different ways.

  4. A public school district's vending machine policy and changes over a 4-year period: implementation of a national wellness policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han-Markey, T L; Wang, L; Schlotterbeck, S; Jackson, E A; Gurm, R; Leidal, A; Eagle, K

    2012-04-01

    The school environment has been the focus of many health initiatives over the years as a means to address the childhood obesity crisis. The availability of low-nutrient, high-calorie foods and beverages to students via vending machines further exacerbates the issue of childhood obesity. However, a healthy overhaul of vending machines may also affect revenue on which schools have come to depend. This article describes the experience of one school district in changing the school environment, and the resulting impact on food and beverage vending machines. Observational study in Ann Arbor public schools. The contents and locations of vending machines were identified in 2003 and surveyed repeatedly in 2007. Overall revenues were also documented during this time period. Changes were observed in the contents of both food and beverage vending machines. Revenue in the form of commissions to the contracted companies and the school district decreased. Local and national wellness policy changes may have financial ramifications for school districts. In order to facilitate and sustain school environment change, all stakeholders, including teachers, administrators, students and healthcare providers, should collaborate and communicate on policy implementation, recognizing that change can have negative financial consequences as well as positive, healthier outcomes. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adherence to nutritional recommendations in vending machines at secondary schools in Madrid (Spain), 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Parada, Doris Xiomara; Jácome-González, María Luisa; Moya-Geromini, María Ángeles; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel

    2017-07-13

    To describe the nutritional content of products offered in food and drink vending machines at secondary schools in the Madrid Autonomous Community (Spain), and to evaluate these items' adherence to the nutritional recommendations of the National Health System Consensus Document on School Food. Cross-sectional study of a sample of 330 secondary schools in Madrid across the period 2014-2015. Secondary school vending machines were identified by telephone interview. The products offered in a representative sample of six machines were identified by inspection in situ, and their nutritional composition was obtained from the labelling. A total of 94.5% of the 55 products on offer failed to comply with at least one nutritional criterion of the Consensus Document on School Food. The recommendation relating to sugar content registered the highest level of non-compliance, with 52.7% of products, followed by the recommendations relating to energy (47.3%) and fats (45.5%). The mean number of unmet criteria was 2.2, with this figure being higher in foods than in drinks (2.8 versus 1; p <0.01). Almost all the products on display in secondary school vending machines in Madrid were in breach of the Consensus Document on School Food, mainly due to an excess of calories, sugars and fats. Compulsory nutritional criteria and a procedure for monitoring adherence should be established, specifying those responsible for performing this task and the corrective measures to be applied in the event of non-compliance. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Four-year monitoring of foodborne pathogens in raw milk sold by vending machines in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Serraino, Andrea; Peli, Angelo; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Bilei, Stefano; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Fustini, Mattia; Mion, Renzo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Rosmini, Roberto; Rugna, Gianluca; Tamba, Marco; Tonucci, Franco; Bolzoni, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    Prevalence data were collected from official microbiological records monitoring four selected foodborne pathogens (Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter jejuni) in raw milk sold by self-service vending machines in seven Italian regions (60,907 samples from 1,239 vending machines) from 2008 to 2011. Data from samples analyzed by both culture-based and real-time PCR methods were collected in one region. One hundred raw milk consumers in four regions were interviewed while purchasing raw milk from vending machines. One hundred seventy-eight of 60,907 samples were positive for one of the four foodborne pathogens investigated: 18 samples were positive for Salmonella, 83 for L. monocytogenes, 24 for E. coli O157:H7, and 53 for C. jejuni in the seven regions investigated. No significant differences in prevalence were found among regions, but a significant increase in C. jejuni prevalence was observed over the years of the study. A comparison of the two analysis methods revealed that real-time PCR was 2.71 to 9.40 times more sensitive than the culture-based method. Data on consumer habits revealed that some behaviors may enhance the risk of infection linked to raw milk consumption: 37% of consumers did not boil milk before consumption, 93% never used an insulated bag to transport raw milk home, and raw milk was consumed by children younger than 5 years of age. These results emphasize that end-product controls alone are not sufficient to guarantee an adequate level of consumer protection. The beta distribution of positive samples in this study and the data on raw milk consumer habits will be useful for the development of a national quantitative risk assessment of Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157, and C. jejuni infection associated with raw milk consumption.

  7. Raw milk from vending machines: Effects of boiling, microwave treatment, and refrigeration on microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremonte, Patrizio; Tipaldi, Luca; Succi, Mariantonietta; Pannella, Gianfranco; Falasca, Luisa; Capilongo, Valeria; Coppola, Raffaele; Sorrentino, Elena

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, the sale of raw milk from vending machines has been allowed since 2004. Boiling treatment before its use is mandatory for the consumer, because the raw milk could be an important source of foodborne pathogens. This study fits into this context with the aim to evaluate the microbiological quality of 30 raw milk samples periodically collected (March 2013 to July 2013) from 3 vending machines located in Molise, a region of southern Italy. Milk samples were stored for 72 h at 4 °C and then subjected to different treatments, such as boiling and microwaving, to simulate domestic handling. The results show that all the raw milk samples examined immediately after their collection were affected by high microbial loads, with values very close to or even greater than those acceptable by Italian law. The microbial populations increased during refrigeration, reaching after 72 h values of about 8.0 log cfu/mL for Pseudomonas spp., 6.5 log cfu/mL for yeasts, and up to 4.0 log cfu/mL for Enterobacteriaceae. Boiling treatment, applied after 72 h to refrigerated milk samples, caused complete decontamination, but negatively affected the nutritional quality of the milk, as demonstrated by a drastic reduction of whey proteins. The microwave treatment at 900 W for 75 s produced microbiological decontamination similar to that of boiling, preserving the content in whey proteins of milk. The microbiological characteristics of raw milk observed in this study fully justify the obligation to boil the raw milk from vending machines before consumption. However, this study also showed that domestic boiling causes a drastic reduction in the nutritional value of milk. Microwave treatment could represent a good alternative to boiling, on the condition that the process variables are standardized for safe domestic application. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reproducibility of ad libitum energy intake with the use of a computerized vending machine system123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votruba, Susanne B; Franks, Paul W; Krakoff, Jonathan; Salbe, Arline D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Accurate assessment of energy intake is difficult but critical for the evaluation of eating behavior and intervention effects. Consequently, methods to assess ad libitum energy intake under controlled conditions have been developed. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of ad libitum energy intake with the use of a computerized vending machine system. Design: Twelve individuals (mean ± SD: 36 ± 8 y old; 41 ± 8% body fat) consumed a weight-maintaining diet for 3 d; subsequently, they self-selected all food with the use of a computerized vending machine system for an additional 3 d. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from the actual weight of foods consumed and expressed as a percentage of weight-maintenance energy needs (%WMEN). Subjects repeated the study multiple times during 2 y. The within-person reproducibility of energy intake was determined through the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between visits. Results: Daily energy intake for all subjects was 5020 ± 1753 kcal during visit 1 and 4855 ± 1615 kcal during visit 2. There were no significant associations between energy intake and body weight, body mass index, or percentage body fat while subjects used the vending machines, which indicates that intake was not driven by body size or need. Despite overconsumption (%WMEN = 181 ± 57%), the reproducibility of intake between visits, whether expressed as daily energy intake (ICC = 0.90), %WMEN (ICC = 0.86), weight of food consumed (ICC = 0.87), or fat intake (g/d; ICC = 0.87), was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Although ad libitum energy intake exceeded %WMEN, the within-person reliability of this intake across multiple visits was high, which makes this a reproducible method for the measurement of ad libitum intake in subjects who reside in a research unit. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00342732. PMID:19923376

  9. Basic and Special Criteria for the Evaluation of Manually Activated and/or Coin Activated Vending Machines for Foods and/or Beverages. Revised February 1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Appraisal of various types of manually activated and/or coin activated vending machines is discussed in this standard. The following are included--(1) introduction and definitions and discussion of various types of food and beverage vending machines, (2) general provisions including minimum requirements, alternate materials, and a classification…

  10. Taxing soft drinks and restricting access to vending machines to curb child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David; Tefft, Nathan

    2010-05-01

    One of the largest drivers of the current obesity epidemic is thought to be excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Some have proposed vending machine restrictions and taxing soft drinks to curb children's consumption of soft drinks; to a large extent, these policies have not been evaluated empirically. We examine these policies using two nationally representative data sets and find no evidence that, as currently practiced, either is effective at reducing children's weight. We conclude by outlining changes that may increase their effectiveness, such as implementing comprehensive restrictions on access to soft drinks in schools and imposing higher tax rates than are currently in place in many jurisdictions.

  11. Nutritional value of foods sold in vending machines in a UK University: Formative, cross-sectional research to inform an environmental intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanla; Papadaki, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    Vending machine use has been associated with low dietary quality among children but there is limited evidence on its role in food habits of University students. We aimed to examine the nutritional value of foods sold in vending machines in a UK University and conduct formative research to investigate differences in food intake and body weight by vending machine use among 137 University students. The nutrient content of snacks and beverages available at nine campus vending machines was assessed by direct observation in May 2014. Participants (mean age 22.5 years; 54% males) subsequently completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess vending machine behaviours and food intake. Self-reported weight and height were collected. Vending machine snacks were generally high in sugar, fat and saturated fat, whereas most beverages were high in sugar. Seventy three participants (53.3%) used vending machines more than once per week and 82.2% (n 60) of vending machine users used them to snack between meals. Vending machine accessibility was positively correlated with vending machine use (r = 0.209, P = 0.015). Vending machine users, compared to non-users, reported a significantly higher weekly consumption of savoury snacks (5.2 vs. 2.8, P = 0.014), fruit juice (6.5 vs. 4.3, P = 0.035), soft drinks (5.1 vs. 1.9, P = 0.006), meat products (8.3 vs. 5.6, P = 0.029) and microwave meals (2.0 vs. 1.3, P = 0.020). No between-group differences were found in body weight. Most foods available from vending machines in this UK University were of low nutritional quality. In this sample of University students, vending machine users displayed several unfavourable dietary behaviours, compared to non-users. Findings can be used to inform the development of an environmental intervention that will focus on vending machines to improve dietary behaviours in University students in the UK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Promoting the purchase of low-calorie foods from school vending machines: a cluster-randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, Paul L; Eeuwijk, Jennifer; Van Kesteren, Nicole M C; Dusseldorp, Elise; Buijs, Goof; Bassa-Dafesh, Zeina; Snel, Jeltje

    2012-03-01

    Vending machines account for food sales and revenue in schools. We examined 3 strategies for promoting the sale of lower-calorie food products from vending machines in high schools in the Netherlands. A school-based randomized controlled trial was conducted in 13 experimental schools and 15 control schools. Three strategies were tested within each experimental school: increasing the availability of lower-calorie products in vending machines, labeling products, and reducing the price of lower-calorie products. The experimental schools introduced the strategies in 3 consecutive phases, with phase 3 incorporating all 3 strategies. The control schools remained the same. The sales volumes from the vending machines were registered. Products were grouped into (1) extra foods containing empty calories, for example, candies and potato chips, (2) nutrient-rich basic foods, and (3) beverages. They were also divided into favorable, moderately unfavorable, and unfavorable products. Total sales volumes for experimental and control schools did not differ significantly for the extra and beverage products. Proportionally, the higher availability of lower-calorie extra products in the experimental schools led to higher sales of moderately unfavorable extra products than in the control schools, and to higher sales of favorable extra products in experimental schools where students have to stay during breaks. Together, availability, labeling, and price reduction raised the proportional sales of favorable beverages. Results indicate that when the availability of lower-calorie foods is increased and is also combined with labeling and reduced prices, students make healthier choices without buying more or fewer products from school vending machines. Changes to school vending machines help to create a healthy school environment. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  13. Evaluating the Potential Health and Revenue Outcomes of a 100% Healthy Vending Machine Nutrition Policy at a Large Agency in Los Angeles County, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasekaran, Ranjana N; Robles, Brenda; Dewey, George; Kuo, Tony

    Healthy vending machine policies are viewed as a promising strategy for combating the growing obesity epidemic in the United States. Few studies have evaluated the short- and intermediate-term outcomes of healthy vending policies, especially for interventions that require 100% healthy products to be stocked. To evaluate the potential impact of a 100% healthy vending machine nutrition policy. The vendor's quarterly revenue, product sales records, and nutritional information data from 359 unique vending machines were used to conduct a baseline and follow-up policy analysis. County of Los Angeles facilities, 2013-2015. Vending machines in facilities located across Los Angeles County. A healthy vending machine policy executed in 2013 that required 100% of all products sold in contracted machines meet specified nutrition standards. Policy adherence; average number of calories, sugar, and sodium in food products sold; revenue change. Policy adherence increased for snacks and beverages sold by the vending machines by 89% and 98%, respectively. Average snack and beverage revenues decreased by 37% and 34%, respectively, during the sampled period. Although a 100% healthy vending policy represents a promising strategy for encouraging purchases of healthier foods, steps should be taken to counteract potential revenue changes when planning its implementation.

  14. Listeria Spp. and Listeria Monocytogenes Contamination in Ready-To-Eat Sandwiches Collected from Vending Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Francesca; Spanu, Carlo; Deidda, Silvia; Mura, Erica; Casti, Daniele; Pala, Carlo; Lamon, Sonia; Spanu, Vincenzo; Ibba, Michela; Marrocu, Elena; Scarano, Christian; Piana, Andrea; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2016-04-19

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) food is characterised by a long shelf-life at refrigerated temperature and can be consumed as such, without any treatment. The aim of the work was to evaluate the presence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in RTEs collected from refrigerated vending machines placed in hospital environment and accessible to the hospitalised patients. In 4 different sampling, 55 RTEs were collected from vending machines of six hospitals located in different areas of Sardinia region. All the samples were characterised by similar manufacturing process, such as the use of modified atmosphere packaging and belonged to 5 different producers. Listeria spp. was not countable using the enumeration method in all of the analysed samples. Using the detection method, Listeria spp. was recovered from 9 sandwich samples. Interestingly, 3 of these samples (5.5%) made by the manufacturer, were positive for L. monocytogenes contamination. The risk related to the L. monocytogenes presence in RTEs proportionally increases when food is introduced in susceptible environments , such as hospitals and consumed by susceptible people . Although the RTEs analysed showed values that complied with the European microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, the availability of these products in a susceptible environment should be carefully checked. Therefore, in order to limit the possible exposition to L. monocytogenes , more information on the risk related to RTE consumption should be provided to the hospitalised patients.

  15. Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes contamination in ready-to-eat sandwiches collected from vending machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cossu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ready-to-eat (RTE food is characterised by a long shelf-life at refrigerated temperature and can be consumed as such, without any treatment. The aim of the work was to evaluate the presence of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in RTEs collected from refrigerated vending machines placed in hospital environment and accessible to the hospitalised patients. In 4 different sampling, 55 RTEs were collected from vending machines of six hospitals located in different areas of Sardinia region. All the samples were characterised by similar manufacturing process, such as the use of modified atmosphere packaging and belonged to 5 different producers. Listeria spp. was not countable using the enumeration method in all of the analysed samples. Using the detection method, Listeria spp. was recovered from 9 sandwich samples. Interestingly, 3 of these samples (5.5% made by the manufacturer, were positive for L. monocytogenes contamination. The risk related to the L. monocytogenes presence in RTEs proportionally increases when food is introduced in susceptible environments, such as hospitals and consumed by susceptible people. Although the RTEs analysed showed values that complied with the European microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, the availability of these products in a susceptible environment should be carefully checked. Therefore, in order to limit the possible exposition to L. monocytogenes, more information on the risk related to RTE consumption should be provided to the hospitalised patients.

  16. Examining the Association Between School Vending Machines and Children's Body Mass Index by Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Jeffrey K; Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between vending machine availability in schools and body mass index (BMI) among subgroups of children based on gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status classifications. First-difference multivariate regressions were estimated using longitudinal fifth- and eighth-grade data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. The specifications were disaggregated by gender, race/ethnicity, and family socioeconomic status classifications. Vending machine availability had a positive association (P < .10) with BMI among Hispanic male children and low-income Hispanic children. Living in an urban location (P < .05) and hours watching television (P < .05) were also positively associated with BMI for these subgroups. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program enrollment was negatively associated with BMI for low-income Hispanic students (P < .05). These findings were not statistically significant when using Bonferroni adjusted critical values. The results suggest that the school food environment could reinforce health disparities that exist for Hispanic male children and low-income Hispanic children. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. New series of cup combination vending machines; Cup combination jido hanbaiki no shin series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, K.; Hamamoto, K. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development, Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    This paper introduces the cup combination vending machines developed as new series. The point of development is to improve the taste of regular coffee, stabilize the taste of a beverage, design a bright door, improve the sanitary condition, and simplify the operativity. To improve the taste of coffee, coffee beans are ground using a mill in the vending machine and extracted at 95{degree}C by the brewer mechanism based on a forced drip system. A heater is provided in the pipe arrangement so as to keep the temperature of hot water that is an important factor for determining the taste. The taste of a powder beverage is stabilized by a uniform reduction function for first-in first-out that holds the freshness of materials and a high-precision discharge function that reduces the dispersion in discharge. Materials can be uniformly reduced by rotating the pin disk in the mixing part at the top of a canister. The taste of a syrup beverage is stabilized by a new-type carbonator that dissolves CO2 in cold water at a high dissolution rate and high retention rate and an ice quantitative unit that reduces the dispersion in ice discharge. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Derailing healthy choices: an audit of vending machines at train stations in NSW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Flood, Victoria M; Bicego, Cecilia; Yeatman, Heather

    2012-04-01

    Train stations provide opportunities for food purchases and many consumers are exposed to these venues daily, on their commute to and from work. This study aimed to describe the food environment that commuters are exposed to at train stations in NSW. One hundred train stations were randomly sampled from the Greater Sydney Metropolitan region, representing a range of demographic areas. A purpose-designed instrument was developed to collect information on the availability, promotion and cost of food and beverages in vending machines. Items were classified as high/low in energy according to NSW school canteen criteria. Of the 206 vending machines identified, 84% of slots were stocked with high-energy food and beverages. The most frequently available items were chips and extruded snacks (33%), sugar-sweetened soft drinks (18%), chocolate (12%) and confectionery (10%). High energy foods were consistently cheaper than lower-energy alternatives. Transport sites may cumulatively contribute to excess energy consumption as the items offered are energy dense. Interventions are required to improve train commuters' access to healthy food and beverages.

  19. Associations between the perceived presence of vending machines and food and beverage logos in schools and adolescents' diet and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Storey, Kate E; Raine, Kim D; Spence, John C; Forbes, Laura E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; McCargar, Linda J

    2011-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity among youth has elicited calls for schools to become more active in promoting healthy weight. The present study examined associations between various aspects of school food environments (specifically the availability of snack- and beverage-vending machines and the presence of snack and beverage logos) and students' weight status, as well as potential influences of indices of diet and food behaviours. A cross-sectional, self-administered web-based survey. A series of multinomial logistic regressions with generalized estimating equations (GEE) were constructed to examine associations between school environment variables (i.e. the reported presence of beverage- and snack-vending machines and logos) and self-reported weight- and diet-related behaviours. Secondary schools in Alberta, Canada. A total of 4936 students from grades 7 to 10. The presence of beverage-vending machines in schools was associated with the weight status of students. The presence of snack-vending machines and logos was associated with students' frequency of consuming vended goods. The presence of snack-vending machines and logos was associated with the frequency of salty snack consumption. The reported presence of snack- and beverage-vending machines and logos in schools is related to some indices of weight status, diet and meal behaviours but not to others. The present study supported the general hypothesis that the presence of vending machines in schools may affect students' weight through increased consumption of vended goods, but notes that the frequency of 'junk' food consumption does not seem to be related to the presence of vending machines, perhaps reflecting the ubiquity of these foods in the daily lives of students.

  20. A systematic literature review of nutrition interventions in vending machines that encourage consumers to make healthier choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, A; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2015-12-01

    Internationally, vending machines are scrutinized for selling energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and beverages, and the contribution to overconsumption and subsequent risk of obesity. The aim of this review is to determine the efficacy of nutrition interventions in vending machine in eliciting behaviour change to improve diet quality or weight status of consumers. Electronic databases Cochrane, EMBASE, CINAHL, Science Direct and PubMed were searched from inception. (i) populations that have access to vending machines; (ii) nutrition interventions; (iii) measured outcomes of behaviour change (e.g. sales data, dietary intake or weight change); and (iv) experimental trials where controls were not exposed to the intervention. Risk of bias was assessed independently by two researchers, and higher quality research formed the basis of this qualitative review. Twelve articles from 136 searched were included for synthesis. Intervention settings included schools, universities and workplaces. Reducing price or increasing the availability increased sales of healthier choices. The results of point-of-purchase nutrition information interventions were heterogeneous and when measured changes to purchases were small. This review offers evidence that pricing and availability strategies are effective at improving the nutritional quality foods and beverages purchased from vending machines. Evidence on how these interventions alter consumer's overall diet or body mass index is needed. © 2015 World Obesity.

  1. Associations between Parental Limits, School Vending Machine Purchases, and Soft Drink Consumption among Kentucky Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickelson, Jen; Roseman, Mary G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between parental limits on soft drinks and purchasing soft drinks from school vending machines and consuming soft drinks among middle school students. Design: Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the middle school Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Setting: Eight public middle schools in central Kentucky.…

  2. Determining the Feasibility of Milk Vending Machines to Improve Calcium Intake Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Laura E. Monnat; Angela M. Rose; Julie A. Kennel; Christopher H. Holloman; Gail L. Kaye; Carolyn W. Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Calcium intake declines from late adolescence to young adulthood, in part, due to decreases in accessibility to milk and dairy products. While milk vending has shown demonstrated success in secondary schools, no studies have examined whether milk vending improves calcium intake among college students. We hypothesized that milk and calcium intake would be higher among college students given access to milk vending in their dormitory (milk vending consumers) compared to those lacking access in...

  3. Microbiological evaluation of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines from the Army barracks of Brigata Meccanizzata Aosta located in Messina

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Beninati; Daniele Muscolino; Antonio Panebianco; Alessandro Giuffrida; Filippo Giarratana; Attilio Longo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines (VMs). The study was carried out on 203 samples from 15 VMs located in 5 Army barracks in Messina. The samples included: water used for preparation of beverages, swab of water tank, swab of blender machine, chocolate powder, milk powder, cappuccino and chocolate drink (29 samples for each types). All samples were examined for total bacterial count (TBC), coliforms, Escherich...

  4. Food Environment in Secondary Schools: À La Carte, Vending Machines, and Food Policies and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A.; Story, Mary; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Gerlach, Anne Faricy

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study described the food environment in 20 Minnesota secondary schools. Methods. Data were collected on school food policies and the availability and nutritional content of foods in school à la carte (ALC) areas and vending machines (VMs). Results. Approximately 36% and 35% of foods in ALC areas and in VMs, respectively, met the lower-fat criterion (≤ 5.5 fat grams/serving). The chips/crackers category constituted the largest share of ALC foods (11.5%). The median number of VMs per school was 12 (4 soft drink, 2 snack, 5 other). Few school food policies were reported. Conclusions. The availability of healthful foods and beverages in schools as well as school food policies that foster healthful food choices among students needs greater attention. PMID:12835203

  5. Introducing systems change in the schools: the case of school luncheons and vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Redmond, Ladonna; Kouba, Joanne; Hellwig, Maureen; Davis, Rochelle; Martinez, Louise I; Jones, Lara

    2007-06-01

    A major public health crisis facing America's society is the increase in child and youth obesity, which has seen a fourfold increase in the last four decades. Major concerns include what children eat for school lunch and what other foods are available in schools. This paper illustrates efforts towards systems change in the luncheon program and food vending machines in the Chicago Public Schools. We discuss the different factors that lead to such changes using the framework of the social ecological model and the soft systems methodology, and we analyze how the resulting innovation was implemented and evaluated. First, we present a theoretical perspective to explain factors that influence children's eating patterns from a systems approach. Second, we discuss the antecedent factors that lead to systems change. Finally, we examine challenges to systems change, such as resistance to change, different stakeholder priorities, lack of resources, institutional bureaucracy, and unrealistic funder expectations.

  6. New series of paper pack vending machines; Paper pack jido hanbaiki no shin series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, M. [Fuji Denki Reiki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Umino, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    This paper presents series of paper pack vending machines. These machines may be broadly classified into those of cold drinks and of hot and cold drinks depending on the storage temperature of products. The former is the machine for cooling dairy products at 10{degree}C with a combined stacking by direct-stacked racks and chain-multiracks. The latter is provided with divided storing chambers with each chamber selectively cooled or heated. Products in the hot chamber are canned coffee and the like set at 55{degree}C. The temperature control is performed by a microcomputer. The chain-multiracks are provided with advantages such as capability of handling various kinds of container shapes, storing drinks and foods vertically, replacing products by the change of a shelf attachment with one operation, and storing one liter packs by setting pair columns. The direct-stacked racks are provided with advantages such as versatility of handling various kinds of containers and miniaturization of the mechanism other than the storage part. The installation space was reduced by devising the opening and closing of the door. The control part is capable of setting temperatures differently for cans and paper packs. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. The impact of the availability of school vending machines on eating behavior during lunch: the Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Sappenfield, William M; Huang, Youjie; Sherry, Bettylou; Bensyl, Diana M

    2010-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health concern and is associated with substantial morbidities. Access to less-healthy foods might facilitate dietary behaviors that contribute to obesity. However, less-healthy foods are usually available in school vending machines. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of students buying snacks or beverages from school vending machines instead of buying school lunch and predictors of this behavior. Analyses were based on the 2003 Florida Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey using a representative sample of 4,322 students in grades six through eight in 73 Florida public middle schools. Analyses included χ2 tests and logistic regression. The outcome measure was buying a snack or beverage from vending machines 2 or more days during the previous 5 days instead of buying lunch. The survey response rate was 72%. Eighteen percent of respondents reported purchasing a snack or beverage from a vending machine 2 or more days during the previous 5 school days instead of buying school lunch. Although healthier options were available, the most commonly purchased vending machine items were chips, pretzels/crackers, candy bars, soda, and sport drinks. More students chose snacks or beverages instead of lunch in schools where beverage vending machines were also available than did students in schools where beverage vending machines were unavailable: 19% and 7%, respectively (P≤0.05). The strongest risk factor for buying snacks or beverages from vending machines instead of buying school lunch was availability of beverage vending machines in schools (adjusted odds ratio=3.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.2 to 5.7). Other statistically significant risk factors were smoking, non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, Hispanic ethnicity, and older age. Although healthier choices were available, the most common choices were the less-healthy foods. Schools should consider developing policies to reduce the availability of less-healthy choices

  8. Acceptability of using electronic vending machines to deliver oral rapid HIV self-testing kits: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean D Young

    Full Text Available Rates of unrecognized HIV infection are significantly higher among Latino and Black men who have sex with men (MSM. Policy makers have proposed that HIV self-testing kits and new methods for delivering self-testing could improve testing uptake among minority MSM. This study sought to conduct qualitative assessments with MSM of color to determine the acceptability of using electronic vending machines to dispense HIV self-testing kits.African American and Latino MSM were recruited using a participant pool from an existing HIV prevention trial on Facebook. If participants expressed interest in using a vending machine to receive an HIV self-testing kit, they were emailed a 4-digit personal identification number (PIN code to retrieve the test from the machine. We followed up with those who had tested to assess their willingness to participate in an interview about their experience.Twelve kits were dispensed and 8 interviews were conducted. In general, participants expressed that the vending machine was an acceptable HIV test delivery method due to its novelty and convenience.Acceptability of this delivery model for HIV testing kits was closely associated with three main factors: credibility, confidentiality, and convenience. Future research is needed to address issues, such as user-induced errors and costs, before scaling up the dispensing method.

  9. Acceptability of using electronic vending machines to deliver oral rapid HIV self-testing kits: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Daniels, Joseph; Chiu, ChingChe J; Bolan, Robert K; Flynn, Risa P; Kwok, Justin; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    Rates of unrecognized HIV infection are significantly higher among Latino and Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Policy makers have proposed that HIV self-testing kits and new methods for delivering self-testing could improve testing uptake among minority MSM. This study sought to conduct qualitative assessments with MSM of color to determine the acceptability of using electronic vending machines to dispense HIV self-testing kits. African American and Latino MSM were recruited using a participant pool from an existing HIV prevention trial on Facebook. If participants expressed interest in using a vending machine to receive an HIV self-testing kit, they were emailed a 4-digit personal identification number (PIN) code to retrieve the test from the machine. We followed up with those who had tested to assess their willingness to participate in an interview about their experience. Twelve kits were dispensed and 8 interviews were conducted. In general, participants expressed that the vending machine was an acceptable HIV test delivery method due to its novelty and convenience. Acceptability of this delivery model for HIV testing kits was closely associated with three main factors: credibility, confidentiality, and convenience. Future research is needed to address issues, such as user-induced errors and costs, before scaling up the dispensing method.

  10. Sweet and salty. An assessment of the snacks and beverages sold in vending machines on US post-secondary institution campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Johnson, Michelle; Quick, Virginia M; Walsh, Jennifer; Greene, Geoffrey W; Hoerr, Sharon; Colby, Sarah M; Kattelmann, Kendra K; Phillips, Beatrice W; Kidd, Tandalayo; Horacek, Tanya M

    2012-06-01

    This study assessed the nutritional quality of snacks and beverages sold in vending machines. The contents of snack and beverage vending machines in 78 buildings on 11 US post-secondary education campuses were surveyed. Of the 2607 snack machine slots surveyed, the most common snacks vended were salty snacks (e.g., chips, pretzels) and sweets (i.e., candy and candy bars). The 1650 beverage machine slots assessed contained twice as many sugar-sweetened beverages as non-calorie-containing beverages. Only two institutions sold both milk and 100% juice in vending machines. The portion of snacks and beverages sold averaged more than 200 cal. Neither snacks nor beverages were nutrient dense. The majority of snacks were low in fiber and high in calories and fat and almost half were high in sugar. Most beverages were high in calories and sugar. This study's findings suggest that vending machines provide limited healthful choices. Findings from benchmark assessments of components of the food environment, like the vending options reported here, can provide valuable input to campus administrators, health services, food service, and students who want to establish campus policies to promote healthful eating. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RAW MILK AT VENDING MACHINES: EVALUATION OF E. SAKAZAKII, COXIELLA BURNETII AND M. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN PIEDMONT EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gallina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Italian consumers changed their food habits in the last period; the increase of raw milk consuming is also related to the high number of self service vending machines that have been authorized, particularly in Northern Italy. According to national rules on raw milk hygienic conditions, the most important bacteria are checked by Veterinary Services; the aim of this study was to investigate some emerging or re-emerging hazards in raw milk at vending machines. For this reason 100 raw milk samples were collected and analyzed in order to detect E. sakazakii, Coxiella burnetii and M. avium subsp paratuberculosis. One milk sample resulted to be positive with PCR method for E. sakazakii (no cultural confirmation was possible; 49% of samples resulted posivite for the presence of Coxiella burnetii specific DNA, and 5% of milk samples came out positive to the presence of M. paratuberuclosis antibodies with ELISA methods.

  12. The habitual meal and snacking patterns of university students in two countries and their use of vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, D; Hankey, C R

    2010-02-01

    Dietary patterns and food choices in western and northern European countries can differ from those in countries that surround the Mediterranean basin. However, irregular meal patterns and the consumption of high-energy snacks tend to become common in most countries and their association with the prevalence of obesity has been examined in many studies. The first aim of the present study was to describe the habitual meal and snack intakes, including the use of vending machines, for two groups of first-year university students in two countries of different cultural backgrounds. The second aim was to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and snacking for these two groups. One hundred and sixty first-year undergraduate university students from two defined universities in Greece (n = 80) and Scotland (n = 80) volunteered to complete a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ comprised 16 questions assessing their meal and snacking habits. Self-assessed height and weight data were collected. The majority of the 160 students reported a BMI in the healthy range (vending machines (P vending machines and the consumption of crisps and low fat yogurts were related to BMI (P < 0.05) for both groups. University students living in different countries report similar dietary patterns but differ in their snacking habits. No relationships were found between BMI and snacking. There is a need to carry out research to further our understanding of this relationship.

  13. Compliance with school nutrition policies in Ontario and Alberta: An assessment of secondary school vending machine data from the COMPASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, Michelle M; Harrington, Daniel W; Butler, Alexandra; Patte, Karen; Godin, Katelyn; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-04-20

    We investigated the extent to which a sample of Ontario and Alberta secondary schools are being compliant with their respective provincial nutrition policies, in terms of the food and beverages sold in vending machines. This observational study used objective data on drinks and snacks from vending machines, collected over three years of the COMPASS study (2012/2013-2014/2015 school years). Drink (e.g., sugar-containing carbonated/non-carbonated soft drinks, sports drinks, etc.) and snack (e.g., chips, crackers, etc.) data were coded by number of units available, price, and location of vending machine(s) in the school. Univariate and bivariate analyses were undertaken using R version 3.2.3. In order to assess policy compliancy over time, nutritional information of products in vending machines was compared to nutrition standards set out in P/PM 150 in Ontario, and those set out in the Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (2012) in Alberta. Results reveal a decline over time in the proportion of schools selling sugar-containing carbonated soft drinks (9% in 2012/2013 vs. 3% in 2014/2015), crackers (26% vs. 17%) and cake products (12% vs. 5%) in vending machines, and inconsistent changes in the proportion selling chips (53%, 67% and 65% over the three school years). Conversely, results highlight increases in the proportion of vending machines selling chocolate bars (7% vs. 13%) and cookies (21% vs. 40%) between the 2012/2013 and 2014/2015 school years. Nutritional standard policies were not adhered to in the majority of schools with respect to vending machines. There is a need for investment in formal monitoring and evaluation of school policies, and the provision of information and tools to support nutrition policy implementation.

  14. Reliability of the hospital nutrition environment scan for cafeterias, vending machines, and gift shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Courtney P; Sallis, James F; Swartz, Michael D; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Peskin, Melissa F

    2013-08-01

    According to ecological models, the physical environment plays a major role in determining individual health behaviors. As such, researchers have started targeting the consumer nutrition environment of large-scale foodservice operations when implementing obesity-prevention programs. In 2010, the American Hospital Association released a call-to-action encouraging health care facilities to join in this movement and improve their facilities' consumer nutrition environments. The Hospital Nutrition Environment Scan (HNES) for Cafeterias, Vending Machines, and Gift Shops was developed in 2011, and the present study evaluated the inter-rater reliability of this instrument. Two trained raters visited 39 hospitals in southern California and completed the HNES. Percent agreement, kappa statistics, and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated. Percent agreement between raters ranged from 74.4% to 100% and kappa statistics ranged from 0.458 to 1.0. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the overall nutrition composite scores was 0.961. Given these results, the HNES demonstrated acceptable reliability metrics and can now be disseminated to assess the current state of hospital consumer nutrition environments. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An (un)healthy poster: When environmental cues affect consumers' food choices at vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckli, Sabrina; Stämpfli, Aline E; Messner, Claude; Brunner, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Environmental cues can affect food decisions. There is growing evidence that environmental cues influence how much one consumes. This article demonstrates that environmental cues can similarly impact the healthiness of consumers' food choices. Two field studies examined this effect with consumers of vending machine foods who were exposed to different posters. In field study 1, consumers with a health-evoking nature poster compared to a pleasure-evoking fun fair poster or no poster in their visual sight were more likely to opt for healthy snacks. Consumers were also more likely to buy healthy snacks when primed by an activity poster than when exposed to the fun fair poster. In field study 2, this consumer pattern recurred with a poster of skinny Giacometti sculptures. Overall, the results extend the mainly laboratory-based evidence by demonstrating the health-relevant impact of environmental cues on food decisions in the field. Results are discussed in light of priming literature emphasizing the relevance of preexisting associations, mental concepts and goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Are school vending machines loaded with calories and fat: an assessment of 106 middle and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Keryn E; Lytle, Leslie A; Samuelson, Anne C; Farbakhsh, Kian; Kubik, Martha Y; Patnode, Carrie D

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which vending offerings in 106 schools in the St. Paul-Minneapolis, Minnesota metropolitan area, met criteria for types of beverages, fat, and calories based on selected criteria offered by the Institute of Medicine. Schools where youth participants were attending for the 2006-2007 school year were identified and invited to participate in the study (n = 143); 81% of schools (n = 116) agreed to participate. Of the 116 schools, 106 had vending machines. Across schools with vending machines (n = 106), 5085 food and 8442 beverage items were offered. Overall, only 18% of beverage items met criteria for calories and type of beverage; significantly more items in public schools met the criteria as compared to private schools (19% vs 12%; p schools as compared to middle schools (18% vs 22%; p schools (22% vs 18%; p = .01), while high schools (22%) and middle schools (21%) were similar. A very small proportion of foods (schools are doing a slightly better job of providing healthy foods as compared to private schools. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  17. The evaluation of a trial of syringe vending machines in Canberra, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, David

    2009-07-01

    Syringe vending machines (SVMs) have been trialled in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, as an intervention aiming to increase the availability of sterile injecting equipment for use by IDUs. This study evaluated the 12-month trial. A utilisation-focused evaluation model, with both formative and summative components, was employed. Four SVMs were installed, each dispensing packs containing four 1 mL syringes and associated injecting paraphernalia. The trial participants were the clients of the SVMs and other key informants. The core measurements used were the number of syringes dispensed in Canberra by SVMs and other outlets, SVM clients' demographics and experiences of and attitudes towards SVMs, perceived impacts of SVMs on needle sharing, unsafe disposal of used syringes in the vicinity of SVMs, and community and stakeholder attitudes. The trial was implemented successfully, with no adverse consequences identified. The SVMs appear to be serving both the usual clients of the other outlets for sterile injecting equipment (community pharmacies and the Needle Syringe Program outlets) and others who are reluctant to use such outlets or find them inconvenient. The out-of-business-hours provision of syringes through the SVMs was particularly welcomed by both SVM clients and other stakeholders. The continuing operation of the initial four SVMs is widely supported, and additional machines are requested by clients and others. Owing to the success of the trial in terms of feasibility and outcomes for both IDUs and for the broader community, it is desirable that providing sterile injecting equipment through SVMs continues and be expanded as an integral component of harm reduction strategies.

  18. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    The availability of systems capable of producing fairly accurate translations has increased the popularity of machine translation (MT). The translation industry is steadily incorporating MT in their workflows engaging the human translator to post-edit the raw MT output in order to comply with a s...

  19. Multiple access to sterile syringes for injection drug users: vending machines, needle exchange programs and legal pharmacy sales in Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moatti, J P; Vlahov, D; Feroni, I; Perrin, V; Obadia, Y

    2001-03-01

    In Marseille, southeastern France, HIV prevention programs for injection drug users (IDUs) simultaneously include access to sterile syringes through needle exchange programs (NEPs), legal pharmacy sales and, since 1996, vending machines that mechanically exchange new syringes for used ones. The purpose of this study was to compare the characteristics of IDUs according to the site where they last obtained new syringes. During 3 days in September 1997, all IDUs who obtained syringes from 32 pharmacies, four NEPs and three vending machines were offered the opportunity to complete a self-administered questionnaire on demographics, drug use characteristics and program utilization. Of 485 individuals approached, the number who completed the questionnaire was 141 in pharmacies, 114 in NEPs and 88 at vending machines (response rate = 70.7%). Compared to NEP users, vending machine users were younger and less likely to be enrolled in a methadone program or to report being HIV infected, but more likely to misuse buprenorphine. They also had lower financial resources and were less likely to be heroin injectors than both pharmacy and NEP users. Our results suggest that vending machines attract a very different group of IDUs than NEPs, and that both programs are useful adjuncts to legal pharmacy sales for covering the needs of IDUs for sterile syringes in a single city. Assessment of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of combining such programs for the prevention of HIV and other infectious diseases among IDUs requires further comparative research. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Improvement of automatic fish feeder machine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui Wei, How; Salleh, S. M.; Ezree, Abdullah Mohd; Zaman, I.; Hatta, M. H.; Zain, B. A. Md; Mahzan, S.; Rahman, M. N. A.; Mahmud, W. A. W.

    2017-10-01

    Nation Plan of action for management of fishing is target to achieve an efficient, equitable and transparent management of fishing capacity in marine capture fisheries by 2018. However, several factors influence the fishery production and efficiency of marine system such as automatic fish feeder machine could be taken in consideration. Two latest fish feeder machines have been chosen as the reference for this study. Based on the observation, it has found that the both machine was made with heavy structure, low water and temperature resistance materials. This research’s objective is to develop the automatic feeder machine to increase the efficiency of fish feeding. The experiment has conducted to testing the new design of machine. The new machine with maximum storage of 5 kg and functioning with two DC motors. This machine able to distribute 500 grams of pellets within 90 seconds and longest distance of 4.7 meter. The higher speed could reduce time needed and increase the distance as well. The minimum speed range for both motor is 110 and 120 with same full speed range of 255.

  1. The Association between the Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage in School Vending Machines and Its Consumption among Adolescents in California: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy over to what degree banning sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) sales at schools could decrease the SSB intake. This paper uses the adolescent sample of 2005 California Health Interview Survey to estimate the association between the availability of SSB from school vending machines and the amount of SSB consumption. Propensity score stratification and kernel-based propensity score matching are used to address the selection bias issue in cross-sectional data. Propensity score stratification shows that adolescents who had access to SSB through their school vending machines consumed 0.170 more drinks of SSB than those who did not (P vending machines and the actual SSB consumption, while future studies are needed to explore changes in other beverages after SSB becomes less available. PMID:20976298

  2. The association between the availability of sugar-sweetened beverage in school vending machines and its consumption among adolescents in California: a propensity score matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy over to what degree banning sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) sales at schools could decrease the SSB intake. This paper uses the adolescent sample of 2005 California Health Interview Survey to estimate the association between the availability of SSB from school vending machines and the amount of SSB consumption. Propensity score stratification and kernel-based propensity score matching are used to address the selection bias issue in cross-sectional data. Propensity score stratification shows that adolescents who had access to SSB through their school vending machines consumed 0.170 more drinks of SSB than those who did not (P vending machines and the actual SSB consumption, while future studies are needed to explore changes in other beverages after SSB becomes less available.

  3. Support vector machine for automatic pain recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monwar, Md Maruf; Rezaei, Siamak

    2009-02-01

    Facial expressions are a key index of emotion and the interpretation of such expressions of emotion is critical to everyday social functioning. In this paper, we present an efficient video analysis technique for recognition of a specific expression, pain, from human faces. We employ an automatic face detector which detects face from the stored video frame using skin color modeling technique. For pain recognition, location and shape features of the detected faces are computed. These features are then used as inputs to a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. We compare the results with neural network based and eigenimage based automatic pain recognition systems. The experiment results indicate that using support vector machine as classifier can certainly improve the performance of automatic pain recognition system.

  4. Evaluation of compliance with the self-regulation agreement of the food and drink vending machine sector in primary schools in Madrid, Spain, in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo-Bordonada, Miguel A; Martínez-Huedo, María A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate compliance with the self-regulation agreement of the food and drink vending machine sector in primary schools in Madrid, Spain. Cross-sectional study of the prevalence of vending machines in 558 primary schools in 2008. Using the directory of all registered primary schools in Madrid, we identified the presence of machines by telephone interviews and evaluated compliance with the agreement by visiting the schools and assessing accessibility, type of publicity, the products offered and knowledge of the agreement. The prevalence of schools with vending machines was 5.8%. None of the schools reported knowledge of the agreement or of its nutritional guidelines, and most machines were accessible to primary school pupils (79.3%) and packed with high-calorie, low-nutrient-dense foods (58.6%). Compliance with the self-regulation agreement of the vending machines sector was low. Stricter regulation should receive priority in the battle against the obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. [Occurrence and typing of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from raw cow's milk collected on farms and from vending machines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbícová, T; Karpísková, R

    2012-04-01

    Evaluation of the incidence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes in samples of raw cow's milk collected on farms (bulk tank milk samples) and from vending machines. Detection of L. monocytogenes and enumeration were carried out according to EN/ISO 11290--1, 2. Strains were characterised by serotyping and macrorestriction analysis using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The presence of L. monocytogenes was detected in 3,2 % (11/346) of bulk tank milk samples and 1,8 % (4/219) samples of raw cow's milk from vending machines. Findings of L. monocytogenes in raw milk were sporadic. Only on one farm strains of L. monocytogenes were detected repeatedly. Thirteen strains of L. monocytogenes belonged to serotype 1/2a, two strains to serotype 1/2b and one to serotype 4b. Macrorestriction analysis revealed considerable heterogeinity of profiles, with nine different pulsotypes being detected. Pulsotype 711 was the most frequent. This pulsotype was found on three different farms. The incidence of L. monocytogenes in raw cow's milk is relatively low in the Czech Republic. The results confirmed that some clones of L. monocytogenes from raw milk are identical with food and human strains.

  6. Fully automatic CNC machining production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jeng-Dao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Customized manufacturing is increasing years by years. The consumption habits change has been cause the shorter of product life cycle. Therefore, many countries view industry 4.0 as a target to achieve more efficient and more flexible automated production. To develop an automatic loading and unloading CNC machining system via vision inspection is the first step in industrial upgrading. CNC controller is adopted as the main controller to command to the robot, conveyor, and other equipment in this study. Moreover, machine vision systems are used to detect position of material on the conveyor and the edge of the machining material. In addition, Open CNC and SCADA software will be utilized to make real-time monitor, remote system of control, alarm email notification, and parameters collection. Furthermore, RFID has been added to employee classification and management. The machine handshaking has been successfully proposed to achieve automatic vision detect, edge tracing measurement, machining and system parameters collection for data analysis to accomplish industrial automation system integration with real-time monitor.

  7. RAW MILK IN AUTOMATIC SALE MACHINES: MONITORING PLAN IN PIEDEMONT REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gallina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Raw milk at vending machine is surging in popularity amongst consumers of Northern Italy; indeed in Piedmont Region there are more than 100 vending machines. In June 2008 Piedmont Region set out a specific monitoring plan to check the milk quality. From June to December 2008, 113 raw milk samples were collected at vending machines. Samples were analysed for Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., coagulase positive staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and Campylobacter. Moreover, 100 samples were analysed for the quantification of aflatoxin M1. 26 samples have been resulted Not Conform for the hygienic criteria and 1 exceeded the aflatoxin M1 limit.

  8. Gram staining with an automatic machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felek, S; Arslan, A

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a new Gram-staining machine controlled by a micro-controller and to investigate the quality of slides that were stained in the machine. The machine was designed and produced by the authors. It uses standard 220 V AC. Staining, washing, and drying periods are controlled by a timer built in the micro-controller. A software was made that contains a certain algorithm and time intervals for the staining mode. One-hundred and forty smears were prepared from Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria sp., blood culture, trypticase soy broth, direct pus and sputum smears for comparison studies. Half of the slides in each group were stained with the machine, the other half by hand and then examined by four different microbiologists. Machine-stained slides had a higher clarity and less debris than the hand-stained slides (p stained slides, some Gram-positive organisms showed poor Gram-positive staining features (p Gram staining with the automatic machine increases the staining quality and helps to decrease the work load in a busy diagnostic laboratory.

  9. Spatio-temporal outbreaks of campylobacteriosis and the role of fresh-milk vending machines in the Czech Republic: A methodological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Lukáš; Pászto, Vít

    2017-11-08

    Inspired by local outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in the Czech Republic in 2010 linked to the debate about alleged health risks of the raw milk consumption, a detailed study was carried out. Firstly, scanning was utilised to identify spatio-temporal clusters of the disease from 2008 to 2012. Then a spatial method (geographical profiling originally developed for criminology) served as assessment in selecting fresh-milk vending machines that could have contributed to some of the local campylobacteriosis outbreaks. Even though an area of increased relative risk of the disease was identified in the affected city of České Budějovice during January and February 2010, geoprofiling did not identify any vending machines in the area as the potential source. However, possible sources in some nearby cities were suggested. Overall, 14 high-rate clusters including the localisation of 9% of the vending machines installed in the Czech Republic were found in the period 2008-2012. Although the vending machines are subject to strict hygiene standards and regular testing, a potential link between a small number of them and the spatial distribution of campylobacteriosis has been detected in the Czech Republic. This should be taken into account in public health research of the disease.

  10. Spatio-temporal outbreaks of campylobacteriosis and the role of fresh-milk vending machines in the Czech Republic: A methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Marek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by local outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in the Czech Republic in 2010 linked to the debate about alleged health risks of the raw milk consumption, a detailed study was carried out. Firstly, scanning was utilised to identify spatio-temporal clusters of the disease from 2008 to 2012. Then a spatial method (geographical profiling originally developed for criminology served as assessment in selecting fresh-milk vending machines that could have contributed to some of the local campylobacteriosis outbreaks. Even though an area of increased relative risk of the disease was identified in the affected city of České Budějovice during January and February 2010, geoprofiling did not identify any vending machines in the area as the potential source. However, possible sources in some nearby cities were suggested. Overall, 14 high-rate clusters including the localisation of 9% of the vending machines installed in the Czech Republic were found in the period 2008-2012. Although the vending machines are subject to strict hygiene standards and regular testing, a potential link between a small number of them and the spatial distribution of campylobacteriosis has been detected in the Czech Republic. This should be taken into account in public health research of the disease.

  11. HYGIENIC AND HEALTH QUALITY OF HOT BEVERAGES DISTRIBUTED BY VENDING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Vallone

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The food and beverage vending had in the last 40 years a great development in Italy. From the hygienic and health point of view, the quality of the products distributed by Vending is essentially related to three factors: the quality of raw materials, the quality of tap water and the good working order together with the good cleanliness and hygienic status of equipments. In this work we wanted to test these features. We evaluated microbiological and fungal quality of raw materials (powders, of distributed hot beverages and the used equipments. Despite contamination levels shown by the results of this study, the temperature of the boiler is sufficient to make a significant reduction of bacterial and fungal loads. To obtain satisfactory results on the quality of delivered hot beverages is necessary to apply correct maintenance and cleaning/sanitation procedures of equipments, as well as an appropriate selection of suppliers.

  12. USE OF SMARTPHONE’S POSSIBILITIES IN CONSTRUCTION OF LOGISTICS SYSTEM OF VENDING MACHINES

    OpenAIRE

    STANIS£AW BRZEZIÑSKI; PIOTR STEFAÑCZYK

    2013-01-01

    Article presents a case study of logistics system implementation based on smartphone’s possibilities. Authors indicate new opportunities, those modern mobile technologies and equipment offer in construction of cheap and integrated logistics systems. Case study shows usage of a smartphone in the system of a vending enterprise’s logistics as an example of integrated and cheap logistics systems and settlements build on revolution of the mobile communication (which is crating by smartphones and t...

  13. How state taxes and policies targeting soda consumption modify the association between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Vuillaume, Renee; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors. Data on school vending machine access and student diet were obtained as part of the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS) and linked to state-level data on soda taxes, restaurant taxes, and state laws governing the sale of soda in schools. Regression models were used to: 1) estimate associations between vending machine access and soda consumption, fast food consumption, and lunch source, and 2) determine if associations were modified by state soda taxes, restaurant taxes, laws banning in-school soda sales, or student characteristics (race/ethnicity, sex, home food access, weight loss behaviors.). Contrary to the hypothesis, students tended to consume 0.53 fewer servings of soda/week (95% CI: -1.17, 0.11) and consume fast food on 0.24 fewer days/week (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05) if they had in-school access to vending machines. They were also less likely to consume soda daily (23.9% vs. 27.9%, average difference  =  -4.02, 95% CI: -7.28, -0.76). However, these inverse associations were observed primarily among states with lower soda and restaurant tax rates (relative to general food tax rates) and states that did not ban in-school soda sales. Associations did not vary by any student characteristics except for weight loss behaviors. Isolated changes to the school food environment may have unintended consequences unless policymakers incorporate other initiatives designed to discourage overall soda consumption.

  14. How state taxes and policies targeting soda consumption modify the association between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Taber

    Full Text Available Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors.Data on school vending machine access and student diet were obtained as part of the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS and linked to state-level data on soda taxes, restaurant taxes, and state laws governing the sale of soda in schools. Regression models were used to: 1 estimate associations between vending machine access and soda consumption, fast food consumption, and lunch source, and 2 determine if associations were modified by state soda taxes, restaurant taxes, laws banning in-school soda sales, or student characteristics (race/ethnicity, sex, home food access, weight loss behaviors..Contrary to the hypothesis, students tended to consume 0.53 fewer servings of soda/week (95% CI: -1.17, 0.11 and consume fast food on 0.24 fewer days/week (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05 if they had in-school access to vending machines. They were also less likely to consume soda daily (23.9% vs. 27.9%, average difference  =  -4.02, 95% CI: -7.28, -0.76. However, these inverse associations were observed primarily among states with lower soda and restaurant tax rates (relative to general food tax rates and states that did not ban in-school soda sales. Associations did not vary by any student characteristics except for weight loss behaviors.Isolated changes to the school food environment may have unintended consequences unless policymakers incorporate other initiatives designed to discourage overall soda consumption.

  15. What happens after the implementation of electronic locking devices for adolescents at cigarette vending machines? A natural longitudinal experiment from 2005 to 2009 in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sven; Gruber, Johannes; Yamamoto, Shelby; Weidmann, Christian

    2011-08-01

    As of January 01, 2007, electronic locking devices based on proof of age (electronic cash cards or European driving licenses) were installed on 500,000 cigarette vending machines across Germany to restrict the purchase of cigarettes to those over the age of 16 years. In 2009, the age limit was raised to 18 years. The aim of this study was to compare the number of cigarette vending machines and other commercial sources before and after the enactment of the new law and to examine the association between commercial cigarette sources and area socioeconomic status (SES). We recorded and mapped using Geographical Information System software the total number of commercial cigarette sources in 4 selected districts in the major German city of Cologne. The city was the ideal setting for this study as we were able to use existing sociogeographical data from this area. We compiled a complete inventory of commercial cigarette sources in autumn 2005 and 2009. An interim inventory was also completed in 2007. Between 2005 and 2009, the total number of cigarette sources decreased from 369 to 325 within the study area. Although the most obvious reduction was detected in the number of outdoor vending machines (-44%), the number of indoor vending machines also decreased by 5%. In 2005 as well as in 2009, we found significantly fewer commercial cigarette sources in districts with above-average SES than in districts with below-average SES. Although the number of overall cigarette vending machines decreased, the disparity in distribution of cigarette sources between socially advantaged and disadvantaged areas increased.

  16. How State Taxes and Policies Targeting Soda Consumption Modify the Association between School Vending Machines and Student Dietary Behaviors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Vuillaume, Renee; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors. Methods Data on school vending machine access and student diet were obtained as part of the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS) and linked to state-level data on soda taxes, restaurant taxes, and state laws governing the sale of soda in schools. Regression models were used to: 1) estimate associations between vending machine access and soda consumption, fast food consumption, and lunch source, and 2) determine if associations were modified by state soda taxes, restaurant taxes, laws banning in-school soda sales, or student characteristics (race/ethnicity, sex, home food access, weight loss behaviors.) Results Contrary to the hypothesis, students tended to consume 0.53 fewer servings of soda/week (95% CI: -1.17, 0.11) and consume fast food on 0.24 fewer days/week (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05) if they had in-school access to vending machines. They were also less likely to consume soda daily (23.9% vs. 27.9%, average difference = -4.02, 95% CI: -7.28, -0.76). However, these inverse associations were observed primarily among states with lower soda and restaurant tax rates (relative to general food tax rates) and states that did not ban in-school soda sales. Associations did not vary by any student characteristics except for weight loss behaviors. Conclusion Isolated changes to the school food environment may have unintended consequences unless policymakers incorporate other initiatives designed to discourage overall soda consumption. PMID:25083906

  17. [Limits of self regulation of the private food sector: the case of removing of vending machines from schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Claude; Baudier, François

    2007-01-01

    Conflicts of interest between the food industry and public decision makers have increasingly multiplied over the last few years, especially within the context of implementing the French National Nutrition Programme. This paper describes the rhetoric and the strategies developed by the private sector in order to counter the law's implementation and enforcement based on a concrete example, namely, the removal of vending machines from schools. After having evoked possibilities of developing new partnerships as suggested by national and international health authorities, it reaffirms the right and the duty of the State to regulate within the framework of a health promotion policy, an approach which integrates the necessary open democratic public debate between the different sectors.

  18. The effectiveness and safety of syringe vending machines as a component of needle syringe programmes in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mofizul; Wodak, Alex; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2008-12-01

    Syringe vending machines (SVMs) have been introduced in Europe and Australasia as part of the effort to increase the availability of sterile needles and syringes to injecting drug users (IDUs). This qualitative review of 14 published and grey literature studies examines whether community-based SVMs as a component of a comprehensive needle syringe programme (NSP) assist to reduce the spread of HIV and other blood-borne viruses amongst IDUs. The available evidence suggests that SVMs increase access to sterile injecting equipment, reduce needle and syringe sharing, and are likely to be cost efficient. SVMs also complement other modes of NSP delivery as they are used by IDUs who are less likely to attend staffed NSPs or pharmacies. If installed and properly maintained in a well-chosen location and with the local community well prepared, SVMs can enhance the temporal and geographical availability of sterile injecting equipment.

  19. Analysis and Assessment of Environmental Load of Vending Machines by a LCA Method, and Eco-Improvement Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yukio; Sadamichi, Yucho; Maruyama, Naoki; Kato, Seizo

    These days the environmental impact due to vending machines'(VM) diffusion has greatly been discussed. This paper describes the numerical evaluation of the environmental impact by using the LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) scheme and then proposes eco-improvements' strategy toward environmentally conscious products(ECP). A new objective and universal consolidated method for the LCA-evaluation, so-called LCA-NETS(Numerical Eco-load Standardization ) developed by the authors is applied to the present issue. As a result, the environmental loads at the 5years' operation and the material procurement stages are found to dominate others over the life cycle. Further eco-improvement is realized by following the order of the LCA-NETS magnitude; namely, energy saving, materials reducing, parts' re-using, and replacing with low environmental load material. Above all, parts' re-using is specially recommendable for significant reduction of the environmental loads toward ECP.

  20. State but not District Nutrition Policies Are Associated with Less Junk Food in Vending Machines and School Stores in US Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUBIK, MARTHA Y.; WALL, MELANIE; SHEN, LIJUAN; NANNEY, MARILYN S.; NELSON, TOBEN F.; LASKA, MELISSA N.; STORY, MARY

    2012-01-01

    Background Policy that targets the school food environment has been advanced as one way to increase the availability of healthy food at schools and healthy food choice by students. Although both state- and district-level policy initiatives have focused on school nutrition standards, it remains to be seen whether these policies translate into healthy food practices at the school level, where student behavior will be impacted. Objective To examine whether state- and district-level nutrition policies addressing junk food in school vending machines and school stores were associated with less junk food in school vending machines and school stores. Junk food was defined as foods and beverages with low nutrient density that provide calories primarily through fats and added sugars. Design A cross-sectional study design was used to assess self-report data collected by computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail questionnaires from state-, district-, and school-level respondents participating in the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006. The School Health Policies and Programs Study, administered every 6 years since 1994 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is considered the largest, most comprehensive assessment of school health policies and programs in the United States. Subjects/setting A nationally representative sample (n = 563) of public elementary, middle, and high schools was studied. Statistical analysis Logistic regression adjusted for school characteristics, sampling weights, and clustering was used to analyze data. Policies were assessed for strength (required, recommended, neither required nor recommended prohibiting junk food) and whether strength was similar for school vending machines and school stores. Results School vending machines and school stores were more prevalent in high schools (93%) than middle (84%) and elementary (30%) schools. For state policies, elementary schools that required prohibiting junk food

  1. State but not district nutrition policies are associated with less junk food in vending machines and school stores in US public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y; Wall, Melanie; Shen, Lijuan; Nanney, Marilyn S; Nelson, Toben F; Laska, Melissa N; Story, Mary

    2010-07-01

    Policy that targets the school food environment has been advanced as one way to increase the availability of healthy food at schools and healthy food choice by students. Although both state- and district-level policy initiatives have focused on school nutrition standards, it remains to be seen whether these policies translate into healthy food practices at the school level, where student behavior will be impacted. To examine whether state- and district-level nutrition policies addressing junk food in school vending machines and school stores were associated with less junk food in school vending machines and school stores. Junk food was defined as foods and beverages with low nutrient density that provide calories primarily through fats and added sugars. A cross-sectional study design was used to assess self-report data collected by computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail questionnaires from state-, district-, and school-level respondents participating in the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006. The School Health Policies and Programs Study, administered every 6 years since 1994 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is considered the largest, most comprehensive assessment of school health policies and programs in the United States. A nationally representative sample (n=563) of public elementary, middle, and high schools was studied. Logistic regression adjusted for school characteristics, sampling weights, and clustering was used to analyze data. Policies were assessed for strength (required, recommended, neither required nor recommended prohibiting junk food) and whether strength was similar for school vending machines and school stores. School vending machines and school stores were more prevalent in high schools (93%) than middle (84%) and elementary (30%) schools. For state policies, elementary schools that required prohibiting junk food in school vending machines and school stores offered less junk food than

  2. Mobile Vending - Nutzen und Grenzen des Telemetrieeinsatzes bei Warenautomaten

    OpenAIRE

    Heinkele, Christian; Pousttchi, Key; Legler, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    The use of telemetry via wireless communication technique is able to support the process of operating vending machines. The advantages on appropriate kinds of vending machines can be achieved by using a demand-driven instead of a trigger-driven provisioning as well as a trouble-shooting in real time. The availability of reliable telemetrically collected real time data enhance the analysis and optimization of the supply in vending machines and the profitability of vending machine places, too. ...

  3. An investigation of the usability of sound recognition for source separation of packaging wastes in reverse vending machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucu, M Kemal; Kaplan, Özgür; Büyük, Osman; Güllü, M Kemal

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigate the usability of sound recognition for source separation of packaging wastes in reverse vending machines (RVMs). For this purpose, an experimental setup equipped with a sound recording mechanism was prepared. Packaging waste sounds generated by three physical impacts such as free falling, pneumatic hitting and hydraulic crushing were separately recorded using two different microphones. To classify the waste types and sizes based on sound features of the wastes, a support vector machine (SVM) and a hidden Markov model (HMM) based sound classification systems were developed. In the basic experimental setup in which only free falling impact type was considered, SVM and HMM systems provided 100% classification accuracy for both microphones. In the expanded experimental setup which includes all three impact types, material type classification accuracies were 96.5% for dynamic microphone and 97.7% for condenser microphone. When both the material type and the size of the wastes were classified, the accuracy was 88.6% for the microphones. The modeling studies indicated that hydraulic crushing impact type recordings were very noisy for an effective sound recognition application. In the detailed analysis of the recognition errors, it was observed that most of the errors occurred in the hitting impact type. According to the experimental results, it can be said that the proposed novel approach for the separation of packaging wastes could provide a high classification performance for RVMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An investigation of the association between vending machine confectionery purchase frequency by schoolchildren in the UK and other dietary and lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, Susan A; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2003-08-01

    Availability of confectionery from vending machines in secondary schools provides a convenient point of purchase. There is concern that this may lead to 'over-indulgence' and hence an increase in susceptibility to obesity and poor 'dietary quality'. The study objective was to investigate the association between the frequency of consumption of confectionery purchased from vending machines and other sources and related lifestyle factors in adolescent boys and girls. A secondary school-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 504 subjects were investigated (age range 12-15 years), from three schools in southern and northern England. Using a lifestyle questionnaire, frequency of confectionery consumption (CC) from all sources (AS) and vending machines (VM) was recorded for a typical school week. Subjects were categorised into non-consumers, low, medium and high consumers using the following criteria: none, 0 times per week; low, 1-5 times per week; medium, 6-9 times per week; high, 10 times per week or greater. No differences were found in the frequency of CC from AS or VM between those who consumed breakfast and lunch and those who did not. No differences were found in the frequency of fruit and vegetable intake in high VM CC vs. none VM CC groups, or in any of the VM CC groups. Confectionery consumption from AS (but not VM) was found to be higher in subjects who were physically active on the journey to school (Ppurchased from vending machines and 'poor' dietary practice or 'undesirable' lifestyle habits. Findings for total confectionery consumption showed some interesting trends, but the results were not consistent, either for a negative or positive effect.

  5. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1990-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  6. The Association between the Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage in School Vending Machines and Its Consumption among Adolescents in California: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Shi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy over to what degree banning sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB sales at schools could decrease the SSB intake. This paper uses the adolescent sample of 2005 California Health Interview Survey to estimate the association between the availability of SSB from school vending machines and the amount of SSB consumption. Propensity score stratification and kernel-based propensity score matching are used to address the selection bias issue in cross-sectional data. Propensity score stratification shows that adolescents who had access to SSB through their school vending machines consumed 0.170 more drinks of SSB than those who did not (<.05. Kernel-based propensity score matching shows the SSB consumption difference to be 0.158 on the prior day (<.05. This paper strengthens the evidence for the association between SSB availability via school vending machines and the actual SSB consumption, while future studies are needed to explore changes in other beverages after SSB becomes less available.

  7. Profits, Commercial Food Supplier Involvement, and School Vending Machine Snack Food Availability: Implications for Implementing the New Competitive Foods Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2013-2014 school year involved preparation for implementing the new US Department of Agriculture (USDA) competitive foods nutrition standards. An awareness of associations between commercial supplier involvement, food vending practices, and food vending item availability may assist schools in preparing for the new standards.…

  8. FRICTION - WELDING MACHINE AUTOMATIC CONTROL CIRCUIT DESIGN AND APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan ATEŞ; Ramazan BAYINDIR

    2003-01-01

    In this work, automatic controllability of a laboratory-sized friction-welding machine has been investigated. The laboratory-sized friction-welding machine was composed of motor, brake, rotary and constant samples late pliers, and hydraulic unit. In automatic method, welding parameters such as friction time, friction pressure, forge time and forge pressure can be applied sensitively using time relays and contactors. At the end of the experimental study it's observed that automatic control sys...

  9. CONTRIBUTION TO THE DEBATE ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF RAW MILK FROM VENDING MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Šnelcer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Microbiological quality or raw milk from vending maschine was analyzed in this work. Despite the pathogenic bacteria may be present in raw milk, the analyses and evaluations were focused to bacterial indicators only. Refer to total bacterial counts, the criterion ≤ 100,000 cfu/ml met 12 from 15 samples (80% and all samples complied with the supplementary criterion of 5×104 cfu/ml for psychrotrophs. Numbers of coagulase-positive staphylococci ranged closely around the average value 2.9×102 cfu/ml. Average numbers of coliforms and E. coli in raw milk were found 4.34 ± 0.42 and 3.25 ± 0.83 log CFU/ml, respectively. These values significantly exceeded even the limits applicable in the past. On the basis of unchanged numbers of these bacteria in milk after 24 h at 6 °C, we assume that the high numbers of coliforms and E. coli present in milk are the result of fecal contamination and not growth. As E. coli is an indicator of faecal contamination of raw milk comprising the possible presence of Salmonella sp. Campylobacter sp. and other pathogens, microbiological survey suggested appropriate preventive measures that should be applied in terms of risk management.doi:10.5219/98

  10. Microbiological evaluation of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines from the Army barracks of Brigata Meccanizzata Aosta located in Messina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Beninati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of hot beverages dispensed by vending machines (VMs. The study was carried out on 203 samples from 15 VMs located in 5 Army barracks in Messina. The samples included: water used for preparation of beverages, swab of water tank, swab of blender machine, chocolate powder, milk powder, cappuccino and chocolate drink (29 samples for each types. All samples were examined for total bacterial count (TBC, coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostri - dium perfringens, Aeromonas spp., Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. For the water samples the colony count (CC at 22°C and at 37°C was made. The average values of CC at 22°C and at 37°C were of 10.86x10²±8.72x10² CFU/mL and of 21.72x10²±16.44x10² CFU/mL, respectively. P. aeruginosa, coliform bacteria, S. aureus, E. coli and molds were detected from water. The TBC ranged from 176 CFU/g (±275.2 for chocolate powder to 294.8±69.4 CFU/g for milk powder. S. aureus and molds were isolated from milk powder, while coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus were observed in chocolate powder. The average TBC for hot beverages ranged from 34.32x10³±97.77x10³ CFU/mL for cappuccino to 36.59x10³±10.47x104 CFU/mL for chocolate drink. Coliforms, E. coli, enterococci and molds were detected from cappuccino, while enterococci and molds were observed in chocolate drink. The microbiological characteristics of the water and powders, hygiene, and the periodic cleaning of machines, influenced the microbiological quality of the hot beverages dispensed by VMs.

  11. Development of a High-Performance Fin-and-Tube Heat Exchanger with Vortex Generators for a Vending Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Masamichi; Saito, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Sadanari; Murata, Akira

    The effect of delta-wing-vortex generators (combination of a delta wing and a delta winglet pair) on the heat transfer performance of fin-and-tube heat exchangers for vending machines has been investegated. Flow visualizations, numerical simulations and heat transfer experiments were conducted to find an optimum geometrical shape and arrangement of the vortex generators. Maximum heat transfer enhancement was achieved by the combination of (a) the delta wing with the apex angle of 86 degrees and (b) the delta winglet pair with the inline angle of 45 degrees. In relatively low Reynolds number range, about 40 % increase in heat transfer coefficient was attained with the above mentioned combination of the vortex generators compared to the ordinary heat exchangers with plain fins. It was revealed that the heat transfer enhancement was attributed to (1) the longitudinal vortexes generated by the delta wing and (2) the reduction of wake area behind the tube. It was also found that an increase in the apex angle of the delta wing brought about heat transfer enhancement, and the scale as well as the streggth of the induced longitudinal vortices played an important role in the heat transfer performance.

  12. Campus-based snack food vending consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Michelle L; Klein, Elizabeth G; Kaye, Gail

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the purchases of university vending machine clientele and to understand what consumers purchase, purchase motivations, and purchase frequency after implementation of a vending policy designed to promote access to healthier snack options. Cross-sectional data collection from consumers at 8 campus vending machines purposefully selected from a list of highest-grossing machines. Vending machines were stocked with 28.5% green (choose most often), 43% yellow (occasionally), and 28.5% red (least often) food items. Consumers were predominately students (86%) and persons aged 18-24 years (71%). Red vending choices were overwhelmingly selected over healthier vending options (59%). Vended snack food selections were most influenced by hunger (42%) and convenience (41%). Most consumers (51%) frequented vending machines at least 1 time per week. Despite decreased access to less healthful red snack food choices, consumers chose these snacks more frequently than healthier options in campus vending machines. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Discrete Model Reference Adaptive Control System for Automatic Profiling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic profiling machine is a movement system that has a high degree of parameter variation and high frequency of transient process, and it requires an accurate control in time. In this paper, the discrete model reference adaptive control system of automatic profiling machine is discussed. Firstly, the model of automatic profiling machine is presented according to the parameters of DC motor. Then the design of the discrete model reference adaptive control is proposed, and the control rules are proven. The results of simulation show that adaptive control system has favorable dynamic performances.

  14. Snacks, beverages, vending machines, and school stores: a comparison of alternative and regular schools in Minnesota, 2002 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y; Davey, Cynthia; MacLehose, Richard F; Coombes, Brandon; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2015-01-01

    In US secondary schools, vending machines and school stores are a common source of low-nutrient, energy-dense snacks and beverages, including sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat salty snacks, and candy. However, little is known about the prevalence of these food practices in alternative schools, which are educational settings for students at risk of academic failure due to truancy, school expulsion, and behavior problems. Nationwide, more than 5,000 alternative schools enroll about one-half million students who are disproportionately minority and low-income youth. Principal survey data from a cross-sectional sample of alternative (n=104) and regular (n=339) schools collected biennially from 2002-2008 as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Minnesota School Health Profiles were used to assess and compare food practice prevalence over time. Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate prevalence, adjusting for school demographics. Over time, food practice prevalence decreased significantly for both alternative and regular schools, although declines were mostly modest. However, the decrease in high-fat, salty snacks was significantly less for alternative than regular schools (-22.9% vs -42.2%; Pvending machines and school stores in alternative schools than regular schools, which may contribute to increased snacking behavior among students and extra consumption of salt, fat, and sugar. Study findings support the need to include alternative schools in future efforts that aim to reform the school food environment. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Design of Control System for Kiwifruit Automatic Grading Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjian Zuo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The kiwifruit automatic grading machine is an important machine for postharvest processing of kiwifruit, and the control system ensures that the machine realizes intelligence. The control system for the kiwifruit automatic grading machine designed in this paper comprises a host computer and a slave microcontroller. The host computer provides a visual grading interface for the machine with a LabVIEW software, the slave microcontroller adopts an STC89C52 microcontroller as its core, and C language is used to write programs for controlling a position sensor module, push-pull type electromagnets, motor driving modules and a power supply for controlling the operation of the machine as well as the rise or descend of grading baffle plates. The ideal control effect is obtained through test, and the intelligent operation of the machine is realized.

  16. Control System Design for Automatic Cavity Tuning Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carcagno, R.; Khabiboulline, T.; Kotelnikov, S.; Makulski, A.; Nehring, R.; Nogiec, J.; Ross, M.; Schappert, W.; /Fermilab; Goessel, A.; Iversen, J.; Klinke, D.; /DESY

    2009-05-01

    A series of four automatic tuning machines for 9-cell TESLA-type cavities are being developed and fabricated in a collaborative effort among DESY, FNAL, and KEK. These machines are intended to support high-throughput cavity fabrication for construction of large SRF-based accelerator projects. Two of these machines will be delivered to cavity vendors for the tuning of XFEL cavities. The control system for these machines must support a high level of automation adequate for industrial use by non-experts operators. This paper describes the control system hardware and software design for these machines.

  17. Control System Design for Automatic Cavity Tuning Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.; Khabiboulline, T.; Kotelnikov, S.; Makulski, A.; Nehring, R.; Nogiec, J.; Ross, M.; Schappert, W.; Goessel, A.; Iversen, J.; Klinke, D.

    2009-01-01

    A series of four automatic tuning machines for 9-cell TESLA-type cavities are being developed and fabricated in a collaborative effort among DESY, FNAL, and KEK. These machines are intended to support high-throughput cavity fabrication for construction of large SRF-based accelerator projects. Two of these machines will be delivered to cavity vendors for the tuning of XFEL cavities. The control system for these machines must support a high level of automation adequate for industrial use by non-experts operators. This paper describes the control system hardware and software design for these machines.

  18. FRICTION - WELDING MACHINE AUTOMATIC CONTROL CIRCUIT DESIGN AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan ATEŞ

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, automatic controllability of a laboratory-sized friction-welding machine has been investigated. The laboratory-sized friction-welding machine was composed of motor, brake, rotary and constant samples late pliers, and hydraulic unit. In automatic method, welding parameters such as friction time, friction pressure, forge time and forge pressure can be applied sensitively using time relays and contactors. At the end of the experimental study it's observed that automatic control system has been worked successfully.

  19. A consideration of the operation of automatic production machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Toshiro; Sugimoto, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    At worksites, various automatic production machines are in use to release workers from muscular labor or labor in the detrimental environment. On the other hand, a large number of industrial accidents have been caused by automatic production machines. In view of this, this paper considers the operation of automatic production machines from the viewpoint of accident prevention, and points out two types of machine operation - operation for which quick performance is required (operation that is not permitted to be delayed) - and operation for which composed performance is required (operation that is not permitted to be performed in haste). These operations are distinguished by operation buttons of suitable colors and shapes. This paper shows that these characteristics are evaluated as "asymmetric on the time-axis". Here, in order for workers to accept the risk of automatic production machines, it is preconditioned in general that harm should be sufficiently small or avoidance of harm is easy. In this connection, this paper shows the possibility of facilitating the acceptance of the risk of automatic production machines by enhancing the asymmetric on the time-axis.

  20. Automatic turbot fish cutting using machine vision

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Rodríguez, Fernando; Barral Martínez, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the design of an automated machine to cut turbot fish specimens. Machine vision is a key part of this project as it is used to compute a cutting curve for specimen’s head. This task is impossible to be carried out by mechanical means. Machine vision is used to detect head boundary and a robot is used to cut the head. Afterwards mechanical systems are used to slice fish to get an easy presentation for end consumer (as fish fillets than can be easily marketed ...

  1. Consumer Nutrition Environments of Hospitals: An Exploratory Analysis Using the Hospital Nutrition Environment Scan for Cafeterias, Vending Machines, and Gift Shops, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallis, James F.; Swartz, Michael D.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Peskin, Melissa F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hospitals are the primary worksite of over 5 million adults in the United States, and millions of meals are procured and consumed in this setting. Because many worksite nutrition initiatives use an ecological framework to improve the dietary habits of employees, the nutrition values of foods served in hospitals is receiving attention. Methods This study used the Hospital Nutrition Environment Scan for Cafeterias, Vending Machines, and Gift Shops to quantitatively describe the consumer nutrition environments of 39 hospitals in Southern California. Data were collected by visiting each facility once from February 2012 through May 2012. Results On average, hospitals achieved only 29%, 33%, and less than 1% of the total possible points for their cafeteria, vending machines, and gift shops sections, respectively; overall, hospitals scored 25% of the total possible points. Large facility size and contracted food service operations were associated with some healthy practices in hospital cafeterias, but we found no association between these variables and the sectional or overall nutrition composite scores. Conclusion The average consumer nutrition environment of hospitals in this sample was minimally conducive to healthful eating. Nutrition-related interventions are warranted in hospital settings. PMID:23823699

  2. Consumer nutrition environments of hospitals: an exploratory analysis using the Hospital Nutrition Environment Scan for Cafeterias, Vending Machines, and Gift Shops, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Courtney P; Sallis, James F; Swartz, Michael D; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Peskin, Melissa F

    2013-07-03

    Hospitals are the primary worksite of over 5 million adults in the United States, and millions of meals are procured and consumed in this setting. Because many worksite nutrition initiatives use an ecological framework to improve the dietary habits of employees, the nutrition values of foods served in hospitals is receiving attention. This study used the Hospital Nutrition Environment Scan for Cafeterias, Vending Machines, and Gift Shops to quantitatively describe the consumer nutrition environments of 39 hospitals in Southern California. Data were collected by visiting each facility once from February 2012 through May 2012. On average, hospitals achieved only 29%, 33%, and less than 1% of the total possible points for their cafeteria, vending machines, and gift shops sections, respectively; overall, hospitals scored 25% of the total possible points. Large facility size and contracted food service operations were associated with some healthy practices in hospital cafeterias, but we found no association between these variables and the sectional or overall nutrition composite scores. The average consumer nutrition environment of hospitals in this sample was minimally conducive to healthful eating. Nutrition-related interventions are warranted in hospital settings.

  3. Are School Vending Machines Loaded with Calories and Fat: An Assessment of 106 Middle and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Samuelson, Anne C.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Kubik, Martha Y.; Patnode, Carrie D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which vending offerings in 106 schools in the St. Paul-Minneapolis, Minnesota metropolitan area, met criteria for types of beverages, fat, and calories based on selected criteria offered by the Institute of Medicine. Methods: Schools where youth participants were attending for the…

  4. Vending Assessment and Program Implementation in Four Iowa Worksites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehoj, Catherine J; Nothwehr, Faryle; Shipley, Kala; Voss, Carol

    2015-11-01

    The worksite food environment, including vending options, has been explored as an important contributor to dietary decisions made every day. The current study describes the vending environment, and efforts to change it, in four Iowa worksites using a series of case studies. Data were gathered by local coordinators as part of the Iowa Community Transformation Grant project. Data were collected from three sources. First, the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending was used to assess healthy vending options in worksite machines before and after the intervention. Second, employee vending behavior was evaluated with a pre-, post-intervention survey. Items assessed attitudes and behaviors regarding vending, plus awareness and reaction to intervention activities. Third, program coordinators documented vending machine intervention strategies used, such as social marketing materials and product labels. The Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending documented that the majority of vending options did not meet criteria for healthfulness. The vending survey found that employees were generally satisfied with the healthier items offered. Some differences were noted over time at the four worksites related to employee behavior and attitudes concerning healthy options. There were also differences in intervention implementation and the extent of changes made by vending companies. Overall, findings demonstrate that a large percentage of employees are constrained in their ability to access healthy foods due to limited worksite vending options. There also remain challenges to making changes in this environment. Findings have implications for public health practitioners to consider when designing healthy vending interventions in worksites. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  5. Automatic Anthropometric System Development Using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long The Nguyen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The contactless automatic anthropometric system is proposed for the reconstruction of the 3D-model of the human body using the conventional smartphone. Our approach involves three main steps. The first step is the extraction of 12 anthropological features. Then we determine the most important features. Finally, we employ these features to build the 3D model of the human body and classify them according to gender and the commonly used sizes. 

  6. Design of electric control system for automatic vegetable bundling machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan

    2017-06-01

    A design can meet the requirements of automatic bale food structure and has the advantages of simple circuit, and the volume is easy to enhance the electric control system of machine carrying bunch of dishes and low cost. The bundle of vegetable machine should meet the sensor to detect and control, in order to meet the control requirements; binding force can be adjusted by the button to achieve; strapping speed also can be adjusted, by the keys to set; sensors and mechanical line connection, convenient operation; can be directly connected with the plug, the 220V power supply can be connected to a power source; if, can work, by the transmission signal sensor, MCU to control the motor, drive and control procedures for small motor. The working principle of LED control circuit and temperature control circuit is described. The design of electric control system of automatic dish machine.

  7. Students' beliefs and behaviour regarding low-calorie beverages, sweets or snacks: are they affected by lessons on healthy food and by changes to school vending machines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, Paul L; van Kesteren, Nicole M C; Buijs, Goof; Snel, Jeltje; Dusseldorp, Elise

    2015-06-01

    To study the effects of school lessons about healthy food on adolescents' self-reported beliefs and behaviour regarding the purchase and consumption of soft drinks, water and extra foods, including sweets and snacks. The lessons were combined with the introduction of lower-calorie foods, food labelling and price reductions in school vending machines. A cluster-randomized controlled design was used to allocate schools to an experimental group (i.e. lessons and changes to school vending machines) and a control group (i.e. 'care as usual'). Questionnaires were used pre-test and post-test to assess students' self-reported purchase of extra products and their knowledge and beliefs regarding the consumption of low-calorie products. Secondary schools in the Netherlands. Twelve schools participated in the experimental group (303 students) and fourteen in the control group (311 students). The students' mean age was 13.6 years, 71.5% were of native Dutch origin and mean BMI was 18.9 kg/m(2). At post-test, the experimental group knew significantly more about healthy food than the control group. Fewer students in the experimental group (43%) than in the control group (56%) reported bringing soft drinks from home. There was no significant effect on attitude, social norm, perceived behavioural control and intention regarding the consumption of low-calorie extra products. The intervention had limited effects on students' knowledge and self-reported behaviour, and no effect on their beliefs regarding low-calorie beverages, sweets or snacks. We recommend a combined educational and environmental intervention of longer duration and engaging parents. More research into the effects of such interventions is needed.

  8. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2010-06-01

    Since the late 1970s, energy labeling programs and mandatory energy performance standards have been used in many different countries to improve the efficiency levels of major residential and commercial equipment. As more countries and regions launch programs covering a greater range of products that are traded worldwide, greater attention has been given to harmonizing the specific efficiency criteria in these programs and the test methods for measurements. For example, an international compact fluorescent light (CFL) harmonization initiative was launched in 2006 to focus on collaboration between Australia, China, Europe and North America. Given the long history of standards and labeling programs, most major energy-consuming residential appliances and commercial equipment are already covered under minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and/or energy labels. For these products, such as clothes washers and CFLs, harmonization may still be possible when national MEPS or labeling thresholds are revised. Greater opportunity for harmonization exists in newer energy-consuming products that are not commonly regulated but are under consideration for new standards and labeling programs. This may include commercial products such as water dispensers and vending machines, which are only covered by MEPS or energy labels in a few countries or regions. As China continues to expand its appliance standards and labeling programs and revise existing standards and labels, it is important to learn from recent international experiences with efficiency criteria and test procedures for the same products. Specifically, various types of standards and labeling programs already exist in North America, Europe and throughout Asia for products in China's 2010 standards and labeling programs, namely clothes washers, water dispensers, vending machines and CFLs. This report thus examines similarities and critical differences in energy efficiency values, test procedure specifications and

  9. Design and Fabrication of Automatic Glass Cutting Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, T. R.; Kadadevaramath, R. S.; Nagaraj, P. M.; Madhusudhan, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with the design and fabrication of the automatic glass or mirror cutting machine. In order to increase the accuracy of cut and production rate; and decrease the production time and accidents caused due to manual cutting of mirror or glass, this project aims at development of an automatic machine which uses a programmable logic controller (PLC) for controlling the movement of the conveyer and also to control the pneumatic circuit. In this machine, the work of the operator is to load and unload the mirror. The cutter used in this machine is carbide wheel with its cutting edge ground to a V-shaped profile. The PLC controls the pneumatic cylinder and intern actuates the cutter along the glass, a fracture layer is formed causing a mark to be formed below the fracture layer and a crack to be formed below the rib mark. The machine elements are designed using CATIA V5R20 and pneumatic circuit are designed using FESTO FLUID SIM software.

  10. Automatic Modulation Recognition by Support Vector Machines Using Wavelet Kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, X Z; Yang, J; Luo, F L; Chen, J Y; Zhong, X P [College of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China)

    2006-10-15

    Automatic modulation identification plays a significant role in electronic warfare, electronic surveillance systems and electronic counter measure. The task of modulation recognition of communication signals is to determine the modulation type and signal parameters. In fact, automatic modulation identification can be range to an application of pattern recognition in communication field. The support vector machines (SVM) is a new universal learning machine which is widely used in the fields of pattern recognition, regression estimation and probability density. In this paper, a new method using wavelet kernel function was proposed, which maps the input vector xi into a high dimensional feature space F. In this feature space F, we can construct the optimal hyperplane that realizes the maximal margin in this space. That is to say, we can use SVM to classify the communication signals into two groups, namely analogue modulated signals and digitally modulated signals. In addition, computer simulation results are given at last, which show good performance of the method.

  11. Automatic Modulation Recognition by Support Vector Machines Using Wavelet Kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X Z; Yang, J; Luo, F L; Chen, J Y; Zhong, X P

    2006-01-01

    Automatic modulation identification plays a significant role in electronic warfare, electronic surveillance systems and electronic counter measure. The task of modulation recognition of communication signals is to determine the modulation type and signal parameters. In fact, automatic modulation identification can be range to an application of pattern recognition in communication field. The support vector machines (SVM) is a new universal learning machine which is widely used in the fields of pattern recognition, regression estimation and probability density. In this paper, a new method using wavelet kernel function was proposed, which maps the input vector xi into a high dimensional feature space F. In this feature space F, we can construct the optimal hyperplane that realizes the maximal margin in this space. That is to say, we can use SVM to classify the communication signals into two groups, namely analogue modulated signals and digitally modulated signals. In addition, computer simulation results are given at last, which show good performance of the method

  12. An automatic taxonomy of galaxy morphology using unsupervised machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Alex; Geach, James E.; Sun, Yi; Davey, Neil

    2018-01-01

    We present an unsupervised machine learning technique that automatically segments and labels galaxies in astronomical imaging surveys using only pixel data. Distinct from previous unsupervised machine learning approaches used in astronomy we use no pre-selection or pre-filtering of target galaxy type to identify galaxies that are similar. We demonstrate the technique on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Frontier Fields. By training the algorithm using galaxies from one field (Abell 2744) and applying the result to another (MACS 0416.1-2403), we show how the algorithm can cleanly separate early and late type galaxies without any form of pre-directed training for what an 'early' or 'late' type galaxy is. We then apply the technique to the HST Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) fields, creating a catalogue of approximately 60 000 classifications. We show how the automatic classification groups galaxies of similar morphological (and photometric) type and make the classifications public via a catalogue, a visual catalogue and galaxy similarity search. We compare the CANDELS machine-based classifications to human-classifications from the Galaxy Zoo: CANDELS project. Although there is not a direct mapping between Galaxy Zoo and our hierarchical labelling, we demonstrate a good level of concordance between human and machine classifications. Finally, we show how the technique can be used to identify rarer objects and present lensed galaxy candidates from the CANDELS imaging.

  13. Automatic Task Classification via Support Vector Machine and Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungsik Shin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic task classification is a core part of personal assistant systems that are widely used in mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Even though many industry leaders are providing their own personal assistant services, their proprietary internals and implementations are not well known to the public. In this work, we show through real implementation and evaluation that automatic task classification can be implemented for mobile devices by using the support vector machine algorithm and crowdsourcing. To train our task classifier, we collected our training data set via crowdsourcing using the Amazon Mechanical Turk platform. Our classifier can classify a short English sentence into one of the thirty-two predefined tasks that are frequently requested while using personal mobile devices. Evaluation results show high prediction accuracy of our classifier ranging from 82% to 99%. By using large amount of crowdsourced data, we also illustrate the relationship between training data size and the prediction accuracy of our task classifier.

  14. Human campylobacteriosis related to the consumption of raw milk sold by vending machines in Italy: Quantitative risk assessment based on official controls over four years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Losio, Marina Nadia; Bilei, Stefano; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Mioni, Renzo; Peli, Angelo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Tonucci, Franco; Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (RA) model was developed to describe the risk of campylobacteriosis linked to consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. Exposure assessment was based on the official microbiological records of raw milk samples from vending machines monitored by the regional Veterinary Authorities from 2008 to 2011, microbial growth during storage, destruction experiments, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, consumption preference and age of consumers. The differential risk considered milk handled under regulation conditions (4°C throughout all phases) and the worst time-temperature field handling conditions detected. Two separate RA models were developed, one for the consumption of boiled milk and the other for the consumption of raw milk, and two different dose-response (D-R) relationships were considered. The RA model predicted no human campylobacteriosis cases per year either in the best (4°C) storage conditions or in the case of thermal abuse in case of boiling raw milk, whereas in case of raw milk consumption the annual estimated campylobacteriosis cases depend on the dose-response relationships used in the model (D-R I or D-R II), the milk time-temperature storage conditions, consumer behaviour and age of consumers, namely young (with two cut-off values of ≤5 or ≤6 years old for the sensitive population) versus adult consumers. The annual estimated cases for young consumers using D-R II for the sensitive population (≤5 years old) ranged between 1013.7/100,000 population and 8110.3/100,000 population and for adult consumers using D-R I between 79.4/100,000 population and 333.1/100,000 population. Quantification of the risks associated with raw milk consumption is necessary from a public health perspective and the proposed RA model represents a useful and flexible tool to perform future RAs based on local consumer habits to support decision-making on safety policies. Further educational programmes for raw milk

  15. Healthier choices in an Australian health service: a pre-post audit of an intervention to improve the nutritional value of foods and drinks in vending machines and food outlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Colin; Pond, Nicole; Davies, Lynda; Francis, Jeryl Lynn; Campbell, Elizabeth; Wiggers, John

    2013-11-25

    Vending machines and shops located within health care facilities are a source of food and drinks for staff, visitors and outpatients and they have the potential to promote healthy food and drink choices. This paper describes perceptions of parents and managers of health-service located food outlets towards the availability and labelling of healthier food options and the food and drinks offered for sale in health care facilities in Australia. It also describes the impact of an intervention to improve availability and labelling of healthier foods and drinks for sale. Parents (n = 168) and food outlet managers (n = 17) were surveyed. Food and drinks for sale in health-service operated food outlets (n = 5) and vending machines (n = 90) in health care facilities in the Hunter New England region of NSW were audited pre (2007) and post (2010/11) the introduction of policy and associated support to increase the availability of healthier choices. A traffic light system was used to classify foods from least (red) to most healthy choices (green). Almost all (95%) parents and most (65%) food outlet managers thought food outlets on health service sites should have signs clearly showing healthy choices. Parents (90%) also thought all food outlets on health service sites should provide mostly healthy items compared to 47% of managers. The proportion of healthier beverage slots in vending machines increased from 29% to 51% at follow-up and the proportion of machines that labelled healthier drinks increased from 0 to 26%. No outlets labelled healthier items at baseline compared to 4 out of 5 after the intervention. No changes were observed in the availability or labelling of healthier food in vending machines or the availability of healthier food or drinks in food outlets. Baseline availability and labelling of healthier food and beverage choices for sale in health care facilities was poor in spite of the support of parents and outlet managers for such initiatives. The intervention

  16. A tape-controlled remote automatic diameter measurement machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennison, W.; Salmon, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The machine is designed for the automatic measurement of fuel pins after irradiation in the fast reactors and is a modified version of a machine which has been in use for several years. These modifications consist of mechanical improvements and solid state control circuitry but the design criteria are unchanged. Irradiated fuel pins with diameters up to 0.875 in. are measured at fixed axial positions and angular intervals. Axial stepping of either 1 cm or 1 in. with a standard deviation of 5 x 10 -4 in. and angular rotation by multiples of 18 0 with a non-cumulative error of 1 0 can be selected. Data on axial position to 0.1 in. or 0.1 cm and fuel element diameter to 5 x 10 -5 in. are both punched and printed out for computer evaluation. The standard deviation of a single measurement on cylindrical specimens with an eccentricity of up to at least 0.1 in. should be no worse than 1 x 10 -4 in. No operator attention is required after the pin is positioned in the machine and 40 sets of 10 diameter readings at 36 0 intervals can be performed in an hour. Switches can be set between 1 and 99 to terminate an examination when power is switched off with the machine in its rest position. (author)

  17. Design and construction of automatic sorting station with machine vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar D. Velasco-Delgado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design, construction and testing of an automatic product sorting system in belt conveyor with machine vision that integrates Free and Open Source Software technology and Allen Bradley commercial equipment. Requirements are defined to determine features such as: mechanics of manufacturing station, an app of product sorting with machine vision and for automation system. For the app of machine vision a library is used for optical digital image processing Open CV, for the mechanical design of the manufacturing station is used the CAD tool Solid Edge and for the design and implementation of automation ISA standards are used along with an automation engineering project methodology integrating a PLC, an inverter, a Panel View and a DeviceNet Network. Performance tests are shown by classifying bottles and PVC pieces in four established types, the behavior of the integrated system is checked so as the efficiency of the same. The processing time on machine vision is 0.290 s on average for a piece of PVC, a capacity of 206 accessories per minute, for bottles was obtained a processing time of 0.267 s, a capacity of 224 bottles per minute. A maximum mechanical performance is obtained with 32 products per minute (1920 products/hour with the conveyor to 22 cm/s and 40 cm of distance between products obtaining an average error of 0.8%.

  18. Automatic Generation of Machine Emulators: Efficient Synthesis of Robust Virtual Machines for Legacy Software Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, Michael; Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian

    2006-01-01

    As older mainframe architectures become obsolete, the corresponding le- gacy software is increasingly executed via platform emulators running on top of more modern commodity hardware. These emulators are virtual machines that often include a combination of interpreters and just-in-time compilers....... Implementing interpreters and compilers for each combination of emulated and target platform independently of each other is a redundant and error-prone task. We describe an alternative approach that automatically synthesizes specialized virtual-machine interpreters and just-in-time compilers, which...... then execute on top of an existing software portability platform such as Java. The result is a considerably reduced implementation effort....

  19. Exploring stakeholder perceptions of acceptability and feasibility of needle exchange programmes, syringe vending machines and safer injection facilities in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Morgan M; Mantsios, Andrea; Lozada, Remedios; Case, Patricia; Pollini, Robin A; Alvelais, Jorge; Latkin, Carl A; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2009-07-01

    Injection drug use is a growing public health crisis along the U.S.-Mexican border and rising rates of blood-borne infections highlight the pressing need for harm reduction interventions. We explored the acceptability and feasibility of such interventions in Tijuana, a city adjacent to San Diego, California. Using in-depth qualitative interviews conducted from August 2006-March 2007 with 40 key stakeholders - pharmacists, legal professionals, health officials, religious officials, drug treatment providers, and law enforcement personnel - we explored the acceptability and feasibility of interventions to reduce drug-related harm in Tijuana, Mexico. Interviews were taped with consent, transcribed verbatim, and translated. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes which included barriers, structural limitations, and suggestions for implementation. Topics included acceptance and feasibility of needle exchange programmes (NEPs), syringe vending machines, and safer injection facilities (SIFs), structural barriers and suggestions for implementation. Of these interventions, NEPs were deemed the most acceptable (75%); however, only half believed these could be feasibly implemented, citing barriers involving religion, police, and lack of political will, public awareness, and funding. Increasing HIV infection rates among injection drug users in Tijuana have prompted interest in public health responses. Our results may assist policy strategists in implementing social-structural interventions that will help create enabling environments that facilitate the scale-up and implementation of harm reduction in Tijuana.

  20. Analysis of satisfaction of final consumers: a study in a company of Vending Machines sector in the city of Santa Maria – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Nunes Piveta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are inserted in a globalized competitive environment that suffers transformations and constantly advances. Given this scenario, the Alpha company, which sells coffee vending machines and supplies, adopted as a strategy to approach their final consumers. In this way, the overall objective of this study was to identify and assess the degree of satisfaction of the consumers of Alpha company with respect to the products and drinks and digital marketing in social media. The search can be classified as descriptive as to the nature with quantitative approach through the implementation of a research tool with a sample of 120 consumers of Alpha company at the points of sale. The survey results indicated that, in general, the satisfaction of consumers for products Alpha is great, except when it comes to price and quantity of sugar. Still, it was observed that the scope of the actions of Alpha digital marketing is low, being evidenced by means of low degrees of satisfaction justified by lack of consumer knowledge. Finally, opportunities and suggestions for improvement were presented.

  1. Automatic tea service machine with instantaneous cooling unit; Shunkan reikyaku kiko tosai jido kyuchaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T.; Nishiyama, A. [Fuji Denki Reiki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-10

    The market of automatic tea service machines demands sanitation, reduction in time required for pouring tea, feeding the material, cleaning the inside of the machine, the maintenance and service of the machine, and excellent design. To meet these demands, Fuji Electric has changed the former configuration and components for functions and has developed a new series of instantaneous automatic tea service machines based on a new concept. This paper outlines the advantages of the instantaneous cooling tank and improvements in handling. (author)

  2. The application of automatic chemiluminescence machine in rapid immune detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Aizhen; Li Xuanwei; Chen Binhong; Li Zhenqian; Chen Zhaoxuan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To provide high-quality, rapid and dependable result for clinical practice, and give satisfactory service to patients of different economical status by supplementation with other labeling immune examination. With an innovative attitude, we carried out efficient technical reform on ACS180 automatic chemiluminescence machine, making it possible for patients to complete the whole process including examination, check-out, diagnosis and getting drugs. The reported will be issued within an hour, thus a rapid immune detection service was established in out-patients department. Methods: 1. ACS-180 automatic chemiluminescence machine is used based on the principle of chemiluminescence immune methods. 2. The reagents are provided by Ciba-Comig Company of USA, composed of anti acridinium ester antibody of liquid phase and particulate antigen of solid phase wrapped in magnetic powder. 3. Calibration and quality control: high and low concentration are set for each calibration fluid with attached standard curve. Product for quality controlling includes three concentration of low, moderate and high. Results: 1. rapid machine detection for sample: serum is replaced with plasma coagulated by heparin, and comparison among series of methods using serum or plasma suggest no significant difference exists. 2. The problem about fasting detection: chemiluminescence machine measure optical density directly, with the results hardly being influenced by turbidity. But attention should be paid to the treatment of lipid turbid samples. 3. Other innovations: (1) direct placement of sample tube on machine: a cushion is placed on sample plate to transfer sample to machine directly after centrifugation, saving time and reducing the accident in sample transference. (2) for HCG quantification in blood and urine, 'gold criteria' is used firstly in screening to determine approximately the dilution range, with an advantage of saving time and reagent as well as accuracy. (3) we design a

  3. Automatic pellet density checking machine using vision technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Suman; Raju, Y.S.; Raj Kumar, J.V.; Sairam, S.; Sheela; Hemantha Rao, G.V.S.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium di-oxide powder prepared through chemical process is converted to green pellets through the powder metallurgy route of precompaction and final compaction operations. These green pellets are kept in a molybdenum boat, which consists of a molybdenum base and a shroud. The boats are passed through the high temperature sintering furnaces to achieve required density of pellets. At present MIL standard 105 E is followed for measuring density of sintered pellets in the boat. As per AQL 2.5 of MIL standard, five pellets are collected from each boat, which contains approximately 800 nos of pellets. The densities of these collected pellets are measured. If anyone pellet density is less than the required value, the entire boat of pellets are rejected and sent back for dissolution for further processing. An Automatic Pellet Density Checking Machine (APDCM) was developed to salvage the acceptable density pellets from the rejected boat of pellets

  4. 41 CFR 102-74.55 - Are vending facilities authorized under the Randolph-Sheppard Act operated by permit or contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vending facilities (including vending machines) on Federal property. ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are vending facilities....55 Are vending facilities authorized under the Randolph-Sheppard Act operated by permit or contract...

  5. Machine learning for the automatic detection of anomalous events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wendy D.

    In this dissertation, we describe our research contributions for a novel approach to the application of machine learning for the automatic detection of anomalous events. We work in two different domains to ensure a robust data-driven workflow that could be generalized for monitoring other systems. Specifically, in our first domain, we begin with the identification of internal erosion events in earth dams and levees (EDLs) using geophysical data collected from sensors located on the surface of the levee. As EDLs across the globe reach the end of their design lives, effectively monitoring their structural integrity is of critical importance. The second domain of interest is related to mobile telecommunications, where we investigate a system for automatically detecting non-commercial base station routers (BSRs) operating in protected frequency space. The presence of non-commercial BSRs can disrupt the connectivity of end users, cause service issues for the commercial providers, and introduce significant security concerns. We provide our motivation, experimentation, and results from investigating a generalized novel data-driven workflow using several machine learning techniques. In Chapter 2, we present results from our performance study that uses popular unsupervised clustering algorithms to gain insights to our real-world problems, and evaluate our results using internal and external validation techniques. Using EDL passive seismic data from an experimental laboratory earth embankment, results consistently show a clear separation of events from non-events in four of the five clustering algorithms applied. Chapter 3 uses a multivariate Gaussian machine learning model to identify anomalies in our experimental data sets. For the EDL work, we used experimental data from two different laboratory earth embankments. Additionally, we explore five wavelet transform methods for signal denoising. The best performance is achieved with the Haar wavelets. We achieve up to 97

  6. Automatic inspection of surface defects in die castings after machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Świłło

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A new camera based machine vision system for the automatic inspection of surface defects in aluminum die casting was developed by the authors. The problem of surface defects in aluminum die casting is widespread throughout the foundry industry and their detection is of paramount importance in maintaining product quality. The casting surfaces are the most highly loaded regions of materials and components. Mechanical and thermal loads as well as corrosion or irradiation attacks are directed primarily at the surface of the castings. Depending on part design and processing techniques, castings may develop surface discontinuities such as cracks or tears, inclusions due to chemical reactions or foreign material in the molten metal, and pores that greatly influence the material ability to withstand these loads. Surface defects may act as a stress concentrator initiating a fracture point. If a pressure is applied in this area, the casting can fracture. The human visual system is well adapted to perform in areas of variety and change; the visual inspection processes, on the other hand, require observing the same type of image repeatedly to detect anomalies. Slow, expensive, erratic inspection usually is the result. Computer based visual inspection provides a viable alternative to human inspectors. Developed by authors machine vision system uses an image processing algorithm based on modified Laplacian of Gaussian edge detection method to detect defects with different sizes and shapes. The defect inspection algorithm consists of three parameters. One is a parameter of defects sensitivity, the second parameter is a threshold level and the third parameter is to identify the detected defects size and shape. The machine vision system has been successfully tested for the different types of defects on the surface of castings.

  7. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Industrial Metrology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas T. Drayer; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1992-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  8. Beverages and snacks available in vending machines from a subset of Ontario secondary schools: Do offerings align with provincial nutrition standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orava, Taryn; Manske, Steve; Hanning, Rhona

    2016-12-27

    As part of an evaluation of Ontario's School Food and Beverage Policy (P/PM 150) in a populous Ontario region, this research aimed to: 1) identify, describe and categorize beverages and snacks available for purchase in secondary school vending machines according to P/PM 150 standards; and 2) compare the number and percentage of beverages and snacks within P/PM 150 categories (Sell Most, Sell Less, Not Permitted) from Time I (2012/2013) to Time II (2014). Representatives from consenting secondary schools assisted researchers in completing a Food Environmental Scan checklist in Times I and II. Sourced nutritional content information (calories, fats, sodium, sugars, ingredients and % daily values) was used to categorize products. The number and percentage of products in P/PM 150 categories were compared between Times by paired t-tests. Of 26 secondary schools participating in total, 19 participated in both Time periods and were included in the study. There were 75 beverages identified (59 Time I, 45 Time II), mostly water, juices and milk-based beverages; and 132 types of snacks (87 Time I, 103 Time II), mostly grain-based snacks, vegetable/fruit chips, and baked goods. A majority of schools offered one or more Not Permitted beverages (47% Time I, 58% Time II) or snacks (74% Time I, 53% Time II). Significantly more schools met P/PM 150 standards for snacks (p = 0.02) but not beverages in Time II. Full P/PM 150 compliance was achieved by few schools, indicating that schools, school boards, public health, and food services need to continue to collaborate to ensure nutrient-poor products are not sold to students in school settings.

  9. Automatic inspection of textured surfaces by support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbin, Sina; Bovik, Alan C.; Pérez, Eduardo; Nair, Dinesh

    2009-08-01

    Automatic inspection of manufactured products with natural looking textures is a challenging task. Products such as tiles, textile, leather, and lumber project image textures that cannot be modeled as periodic or otherwise regular; therefore, a stochastic modeling of local intensity distribution is required. An inspection system to replace human inspectors should be flexible in detecting flaws such as scratches, cracks, and stains occurring in various shapes and sizes that have never been seen before. A computer vision algorithm is proposed in this paper that extracts local statistical features from grey-level texture images decomposed with wavelet frames into subbands of various orientations and scales. The local features extracted are second order statistics derived from grey-level co-occurrence matrices. Subsequently, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained to learn a general description of normal texture from defect-free samples. This algorithm is implemented in LabVIEW and is capable of processing natural texture images in real-time.

  10. Pricing and Promotion Effects on Low-Fat Vending Snack Purchases: The CHIPS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Story, Mary; Breitlow, Kyle K.; Baxter, Judith S.; Hannan, Peter; Snyder, M. Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of pricing and promotion strategies on purchases of low-fat snacks from vending machines set up at secondary schools and worksites in Minnesota. Analysis of sales data indicated that reducing relative prices on low-fat snacks was very effective in promoting lower-fat snack purchases from vending machines in both settings. (SM)

  11. Interface unit and software of X-ray television automatic machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molodykh, V.A.; Yamanaev, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Description of the interface unit and specialized software of X-ray television automatic machine is presented. An algorithm for automatic defect survey, measuring of defect geometric parameters with a successive estimate of control quality in accordance with technical norms is proposed. Experimental investigation results on the quality of welded joints of steel tubes obtained using the above system are summarized

  12. Automatic reel controls filler wire in welding machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, A. V.

    1966-01-01

    Automatic reel on automatic welding equipment takes up slack in the reel-fed filler wire when welding operation is terminated. The reel maintains constant, adjustable tension on the wire during the welding operation and rewinds the wire from the wire feed unit when the welding is completed.

  13. Seasonal Variability of Thermophilic Campylobacter Spp. in Raw Milk Sold by Automatic Vending Machines in Lombardy Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertasi, Barbara; Losio, Marina Nadia; Daminelli, Paolo; Finazzi, Guido; Serraino, Andrea; Piva, Silvia; Giacometti, Federica; Massella, Elisa; Ostanello, Fabio

    2016-06-03

    In temperate climates, a seasonal trend was observed in the incidence of human campylobacteriosis cases, with peaks reported in spring and autumn in some countries, or in summer in others; a similar trend was observed in Campylobacter spp. dairy cattle faecal shedding, suggesting that cattle may play a role in the seasonal peak of human infection. The objectives of this study were to assess if a seasonal trend in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination of raw milk exists and to evaluate a possible relation between this and the increase of human campylobacteriosis incidence in summer months. The results showed a mean prevalence of 1.6% of milk samples positive for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. with a wide range (0.0-3.1%) in different months during the three years considered. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference (P<0.01) of the prevalence of positive samples for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. between warmer and cooler months (2.3 vs 0.6%). The evidence of a seasonal trend in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination of raw milk sold for direct consumption, with an increase of the prevalence in warmer months, may represent one of the possible links between seasonal trend in cattle faecal shedding and seasonal trend in human campylobacteriosis.

  14. Seasonal variability of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in raw milk sold by automatic vending machines in Lombardy Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bertasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In temperate climates, a seasonal trend was observed in the incidence of human campylobacteriosis cases, with peaks reported in spring and autumn in some countries, or in summer in others; a similar trend was observed in Campylobacter spp. dairy cattle faecal shedding, suggesting that cattle may play a role in the seasonal peak of human infection. The objectives of this study were to assess if a seasonal trend in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination of raw milk exists and to evaluate a possible relation between this and the increase of human campylobacteriosis incidence in summer months. The results showed a mean prevalence of 1.6% of milk samples positive for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. with a wide range (0.0-3.1% in different months during the three years considered. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference (PCampylobacter spp. between warmer and cooler months (2.3 vs 0.6%. The evidence of a seasonal trend in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination of raw milk sold for direct consumption, with an increase of the prevalence in warmer months, may represent one of the possible links between seasonal trend in cattle faecal shedding and seasonal trend in human campylobacteriosis.

  15. Evaluating automatically parallelized versions of the support vector machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codreanu, V.; Dröge, B.; Williams, D.; Yasar, B.; Yang, P.; Liu, B.; Dong, F.; Surinta, O.; Schomaker, L.R.B.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Wiering, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The support vector machine (SVM) is a supervised learning algorithm used for recognizing patterns in data. It is a very popular technique in machine learning and has been successfully used in applications such as image classification, protein classification, and handwriting recognition. However, the

  16. Evaluating automatically parallelized versions of the support vector machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codreanu, Valeriu; Droge, Bob; Williams, David; Yasar, Burhan; Yang, Fo; Liu, Baoquan; Dong, Feng; Surinta, Olarik; Schomaker, Lambertus; Roerdink, Jos; Wiering, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The support vector machine (SVM) is a supervised learning algorithm used for recognizing patterns in data. It is a very popular technique in machine learning and has been successfully used in applications such as image classification, protein classification, and handwriting recognition. However, the

  17. A comparison of the vending environment among three rural subtypes of secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Rebecca; Davey, Cynthia S; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further explore the rural school food environment. This study assessed trends in prevalence of vending machines and vending items within and between Minnesota schools located in 3 rural subtypes: town/rural fringe, town/rural distant, and remote rural. Generalized estimating equation models were employed to analyze data from the 2006 through 2012 School Health Profiles Principal's Surveys (Profiles). All 3 rural subtypes had a statistically significant decrease in the prevalence of low nutrient energy dense (LNED) vending items between 2006 and 2012, with the exception of sports drinks. However, different vending practices were observed between rural subtypes, with town/rural fringe schools providing more LNED vending options and experiencing less positive change over time compared to town/rural distant and remote rural schools. Differences in vending machine practices emerge when rural schools are subtyped.

  18. Automatic testing in the integration phase of mobile work machine (TINAT) - MASIT31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Multanen, P.; Hyvoenen, M. (Tampere University of Technology, Department of Intelligent Hydraulics and Automation, Tampere (Finland)); Ellman, A. (Tampere University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and Design, Tampere (Finland)); Rantala, S.; Alanen, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    Abstract The performance and reliability of mobile work machines are significantly affected by control systems of machines and their characteristics. Currently the testing of control systems and verification of their properties is often carried out just in the integration phase of controls and mechanical structure of machine. This is very time consuming, requires a lot of test personnel and is not extensive enough. In TINAT project a test concept will be developed for the testing of entire control systems of work machines without real the mechanical structures of the machines by utilizing modelling and real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The simulator system enables automatic generation of test scenarios and automatic analysis and reporting of test results. (orig.)

  19. Progressive sampling-based Bayesian optimization for efficient and automatic machine learning model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xueqiang; Luo, Gang

    2017-12-01

    Machine learning is broadly used for clinical data analysis. Before training a model, a machine learning algorithm must be selected. Also, the values of one or more model parameters termed hyper-parameters must be set. Selecting algorithms and hyper-parameter values requires advanced machine learning knowledge and many labor-intensive manual iterations. To lower the bar to machine learning, miscellaneous automatic selection methods for algorithms and/or hyper-parameter values have been proposed. Existing automatic selection methods are inefficient on large data sets. This poses a challenge for using machine learning in the clinical big data era. To address the challenge, this paper presents progressive sampling-based Bayesian optimization, an efficient and automatic selection method for both algorithms and hyper-parameter values. We report an implementation of the method. We show that compared to a state of the art automatic selection method, our method can significantly reduce search time, classification error rate, and standard deviation of error rate due to randomization. This is major progress towards enabling fast turnaround in identifying high-quality solutions required by many machine learning-based clinical data analysis tasks.

  20. Field handling conditions of raw milk sold in vending machines: experimental evaluation of the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato G. Zanoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The direct sale by farmers of raw milk for human consumption has been allowed in Italy since 2004. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of selected foodborne pathogens in raw milk sold in vending machines, in field handling conditions, and during shelf-life from production to consumption. Temperature of storage of raw milk in 33 farms authorized to produce and sell raw milk were investigated from farm to vending machine delivery, together with consumer habits in one province of the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. Failure to maintain appropriate low temperatures during shelf-life was recorded and 43% of consumers did not boil milk before consumption. Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni strains were inoculated into raw milk samples, and the best (4°C as established by law and worst temperature storage conditions detected (variable temperature were simulated. Boiling tests were performed for each pathogen considered at high and low levels of contamination. Results showed an increase in L. monocytogenes in milk stored at 4°C and at variable temperatures recorded in shelf-life monitoring, an increase in E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium at variable temperatures but not at 4°C, and a decrease in C. jejuni in all storage conditions. Boiling milk is effective in making it safe for consumers. This study provides evidence that appropriate handling of raw milk, maintaining low temperatures, together with consumer education concerning boiling raw milk before consumption are key factors in preventing foodborne infections linked to raw milk consumption, and helps assess the risk of foodborne infection linked to raw milk consumption.

  1. Paediatric HUS Cases Related to the Consumption of Raw Milk Sold by Vending Machines in Italy: Quantitative Risk Assessment Based on Escherichia coli O157 Official Controls over 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, F; Bonilauri, P; Piva, S; Scavia, G; Amatiste, S; Bianchi, D M; Losio, M N; Bilei, S; Cascone, G; Comin, D; Daminelli, P; Decastelli, L; Merialdi, G; Mioni, R; Peli, A; Petruzzelli, A; Tonucci, F; Liuzzo, G; Serraino, A

    2017-11-01

    A quantitative risk assessment (RA) was developed to estimate haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) cases in paediatric population associated with the consumption of raw milk sold in vending machines in Italy. The historical national evolution of raw milk consumption phenomenon since 2008, when consumer interest started to grow, and after 7 years of marketing adjustment, is outlined. Exposure assessment was based on the official Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) microbiological records of raw milk samples from vending machines monitored by the regional Veterinary Authorities from 2008 to 2014, microbial growth during storage, consumption frequency of raw milk, serving size, consumption preference and age of consumers. The differential risk considered milk handled under regulation conditions (4°C throughout all phases) and the worst time-temperature field handling conditions detected. In case of boiling milk before consumption, we assumed that the risk of HUS is fixed at zero. The model estimates clearly show that the public health significance of HUS cases due to raw milk STEC contamination depends on the current variability surrounding the risk profile of the food and the consumer behaviour has more impact than milk storage scenario. The estimated HUS cases predicted by our model are roughly in line with the effective STEC O157-associated HUS cases notified in Italy only when the proportion of consumers not boiling milk before consumption is assumed to be 1%. Raw milk consumption remains a source of E. coli O157:H7 for humans, but its overall relevance is likely to have subsided and significant caution should be exerted for temporal, geographical and consumers behaviour analysis. Health education programmes and regulatory actions are required to educate people, primarily children, on other STEC sources. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. An Automatic Decision-Making Mechanism for Virtual Machine Live Migration in Private Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tsung Kao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing number of computer hosts deployed in an enterprise, automatic management of electronic applications is inevitable. To provide diverse services, there will be increases in procurement, maintenance, and electricity costs. Virtualization technology is getting popular in cloud computing environment, which enables the efficient use of computing resources and reduces the operating cost. In this paper, we present an automatic mechanism to consolidate virtual servers and shut down the idle physical machines during the off-peak hours, while activating more machines at peak times. Through the monitoring of system resources, heavy system loads can be evenly distributed over physical machines to achieve load balancing. By integrating the feature of load balancing with virtual machine live migration, we successfully develop an automatic private cloud management system. Experimental results demonstrate that, during the off-peak hours, we can save power consumption of about 69 W by consolidating the idle virtual servers. And the load balancing implementation has shown that two machines with 80% and 40% CPU loads can be uniformly balanced to 60% each. And, through the use of preallocated virtual machine images, the proposed mechanism can be easily applied to a large amount of physical machines.

  3. A Development of Automatic Audit System for Written Informed Consent using Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hitomi; Takemura, Tadamasa; Asai, Takahiro; Okamoto, Kazuya; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Kuwata, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, most of all the university and advanced hospitals have implemented both electronic order entry systems and electronic charting. In addition, all medical records are subjected to inspector audit for quality assurance. The record of informed consent (IC) is very important as this provides evidence of consent from the patient or patient's family and health care provider. Therefore, we developed an automatic audit system for a hospital information system (HIS) that is able to evaluate IC automatically using machine learning.

  4. Automatic microseismic event picking via unsupervised machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangkang

    2018-01-01

    Effective and efficient arrival picking plays an important role in microseismic and earthquake data processing and imaging. Widely used short-term-average long-term-average ratio (STA/LTA) based arrival picking algorithms suffer from the sensitivity to moderate-to-strong random ambient noise. To make the state-of-the-art arrival picking approaches effective, microseismic data need to be first pre-processed, for example, removing sufficient amount of noise, and second analysed by arrival pickers. To conquer the noise issue in arrival picking for weak microseismic or earthquake event, I leverage the machine learning techniques to help recognizing seismic waveforms in microseismic or earthquake data. Because of the dependency of supervised machine learning algorithm on large volume of well-designed training data, I utilize an unsupervised machine learning algorithm to help cluster the time samples into two groups, that is, waveform points and non-waveform points. The fuzzy clustering algorithm has been demonstrated to be effective for such purpose. A group of synthetic, real microseismic and earthquake data sets with different levels of complexity show that the proposed method is much more robust than the state-of-the-art STA/LTA method in picking microseismic events, even in the case of moderately strong background noise.

  5. Automatic fuel charging machine for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neda, Toshikazu; Aoki, Shigeo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To enable smooth, safety and rapid refueling by automatically conducting a series of fuel exchange steps through the combination of calculations for fuel control and refueling works. Constitution: Processing operations are conducted based on various data from the memory unit of a computer that processes and stores various data inputted from a nuclear power plant, calculation systems stored in the memory unit of another computer, peripheral units such as typewriters and process input units. A refueling platform is operated by way of a platform control device and a platform driving device, and fuel exchange is conducted by the operation of a channel mounting and demounting device. (Yoshino, Y.)

  6. Novel Automatic Filter-Class Feature Selection for Machine Learning Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollsen, Morten Gill; Hallam, John; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    With the increased focus on application of Big Data in all sectors of society, the performance of machine learning becomes essential. Efficient machine learning depends on efficient feature selection algorithms. Filter feature selection algorithms are model-free and therefore very fast, but require...... model in the feature selection process. PCA is often used in machine learning litterature and can be considered the default feature selection method. RDESF outperformed PCA in both experiments in both prediction error and computational speed. RDESF is a new step into filter-based automatic feature...

  7. An Automatic Instruction-Level Parallelization of Machine Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINKOVIC, V.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Prevailing multicores and novel manycores have made a great challenge of modern day - parallelization of embedded software that is still written as sequential. In this paper, automatic code parallelization is considered, focusing on developing a parallelization tool at the binary level as well as on the validation of this approach. The novel instruction-level parallelization algorithm for assembly code which uses the register names after SSA to find independent blocks of code and then to schedule independent blocks using METIS to achieve good load balance is developed. The sequential consistency is verified and the validation is done by measuring the program execution time on the target architecture. Great speedup, taken as the performance measure in the validation process, and optimal load balancing are achieved for multicore RISC processors with 2 to 16 cores (e.g. MIPS, MicroBlaze, etc.. In particular, for 16 cores, the average speedup is 7.92x, while in some cases it reaches 14x. An approach to automatic parallelization provided by this paper is useful to researchers and developers in the area of parallelization as the basis for further optimizations, as the back-end of a compiler, or as the code parallelization tool for an embedded system.

  8. A Multiple Sensor Machine Vision System for Automatic Hardwood Feature Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Richard W. Conners; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbin

    1993-01-01

    A multiple sensor machine vision prototype is being developed to scan full size hardwood lumber at industrial speeds for automatically detecting features such as knots holes, wane, stain, splits, checks, and color. The prototype integrates a multiple sensor imaging system, a materials handling system, a computer system, and application software. The prototype provides...

  9. Automatic visual grading of grain products by machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosclard, Pierre; Larnier, Stanislas; Konik, Hubert; Herbulot, Ariane; Devy, Michel

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents two automatic methods for visual grading, deterministic and probabilistic, designed to solve the industrial problem of evaluation of seed lots from the characterization of a representative sample. The sample is thrown in bulk onto a tray placed in a chamber for acquiring color image in a controlled and reproducible manner. Two image-processing methods have been developed to separate and then characterize each seed present in the image. A shape learning is performed on isolated seeds. Collected information is used for the segmentation. The first approach adopted for the segmentation step is based on simple criteria such as regions, edges, and normals to the boundary. Marked point processes are used in the second approach, leading to tackling of the problem by a technique of energy minimization. In both approaches, an active contour with prior shape is performed to improve the results. A classification is done on shape or color descriptors to evaluate the quality of the sample.

  10. Automatic Detection of Retinal Exudates using a Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nualsawat HIRANSAKOLWONG

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Retinal exudates are among the preliminary signs of diabetic retinopathy, a major cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. Correct and efficient screening of exudates is very expensive in professional time and may cause human error. Nowadays, the digital retinal image is frequently used to follow-up and diagnoses eye diseases. Therefore, the retinal image is crucial and essential for experts to detect exudates. Unfortunately, it is a normal situation that retinal images in Thailand are poor quality images. In this paper, we present a series of experiments on feature selection and exudates classification using the support vector machine classifiers. The retinal images are segmented following key preprocessing steps, i.e., color normalization, contrast enhancement, noise removal and color space selection. On data sets of poor quality images, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy is 94.46%, 89.52% and 92.14%, respectively.

  11. Automatic fitting of Gaussian peaks using abductive machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, R. E.

    1998-02-01

    Analytical techniques have been used for many years for fitting Gaussian peaks in nuclear spectroscopy. However, the complexity of the approach warrants looking for machine-learning alternatives where intensive computations are required only once (during training), while actual analysis on individual spectra is greatly simplified and quickened. This should allow the use of simple portable systems for fast and automated analysis of large numbers of spectra, particularly in situations where accuracy may be traded for speed and simplicity. This paper proposes the use of abductive networks machine learning for this purpose. The Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIM) tool was used to build models for analyzing both single and double Gaussian peaks in the presence of noise depicting statistical uncertainties in collected spectra. AIM networks were synthesized by training on 1000 representative simulated spectra and evaluated on 500 new spectra. A classifier network determines the multiplicity of single/double peaks with an accuracy of 5.8%. With statistical uncertainties corresponding to a peak count of 100, average percentage absolute errors for the height, position, and width of single peaks are 4.9, 2.9, and 4.2%, respectively. For double peaks, these average errors are within 7.0, 3.1, and 5.9%, respectively. Models have been developed which account for the effect of a linear background on a single peak. Performance is compared with a neural network application and with an analytical curve-fitting routine, and the new technique is applied to actual data of an alpha spectrum.

  12. Automatic fitting of Gaussian peaks using abductive machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Analytical techniques have been used for many years for fitting Gaussian peaks in nuclear spectroscopy. However, the complexity of the approach warrants looking for machine-learning alternatives where intensive computations are required only once (during training), while actual analysis on individual spectra is greatly simplified and quickened. This should allow the use of simple portable systems for fast and automated analysis of large numbers of spectra, particularly in situations where accuracy may be traded for speed and simplicity. This paper proposes the use of abductive networks machine learning for this purpose. The Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIM) tool was used to build models for analyzing both single and double Gaussian peaks in the presence of noise depicting statistical uncertainties in collected spectra. AIM networks were synthesized by training on 1,000 representative simulated spectra and evaluated on 500 new spectra. A classifier network determines the multiplicity of single/double peaks with an accuracy of 98%. With statistical uncertainties corresponding to a peak count of 100, average percentage absolute errors for the height, position, and width of single peaks are 4.9, 2.9, and 4.2%, respectively. For double peaks, these average errors are within 7.0, 3.1, and 5.9%, respectively. Models have been developed which account for the effect of a linear background on a single peak. Performance is compared with a neural network application and with an analytical curve-fitting routine, and the new technique is applied to actual data of an alpha spectrum

  13. VENDED UM-JINGIR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Nazik E. M. Mustafa

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... 2. Khartoum State Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 303 Khartoum, Sudan ... Um-Jingir is a fermented indigenous Sudanese food product made mainly from ... street vended Um-Jingir might have negative effects on public health. Therefore ..... McLauchlin J, Little C and BC Hobbs Hobbs' food poisoning and food.

  14. Possibilities for Automatic Control of Hydro-Mechanical Transmission and Birotating Electric Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Mikhailov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents mathematical models and results of virtual investigations pertaining to the selected motion parameters of a mobile machine equipped with hydro mechanical and modernized transmissions. The machine has been tested in similar technological cycles and it has been equipped with a universal automatic control system. Changes in structure and type of power transmission have been obtained with the help of a control algorithm including an extra reversible electric machine which is switched in at some operational modes.Implementation of the proposed  concept makes it possible to obtain and check the improved C-code of the control system and enhance operational parameters of the transmission and machine efficiency, reduce slippage and tire wear while using braking energy for its later beneficial use which is usually considered as a consumable element.

  15. A modern automatic Carriage-Trolley Position Control System for Dhruva fuelling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Ankit; Hari Balakrishna; Narvekar, J.P.; Sanadhya, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    A fully automatic absolute encoder based position control system has been designed developed implemented and commissioned for the Dhruva Fuelling Machine A (FM/A). This supports both the coarse and fine positioning modes. Provision for fully manual positioning as a standby system has been retained. This system replaces the ageing peg counting based incremental positioner used briefly during the early period after the Dhruva FM/A was commissioned. The older system suffered from peg detection skipping problems; hence it was not being used. Only full manual positioning was being carried out. This paper describes the automatic Carriage Trolley Position Control System (CTPCS). (author)

  16. Automatically explaining machine learning prediction results: a demonstration on type 2 diabetes risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Predictive modeling is a key component of solutions to many healthcare problems. Among all predictive modeling approaches, machine learning methods often achieve the highest prediction accuracy, but suffer from a long-standing open problem precluding their widespread use in healthcare. Most machine learning models give no explanation for their prediction results, whereas interpretability is essential for a predictive model to be adopted in typical healthcare settings. This paper presents the first complete method for automatically explaining results for any machine learning predictive model without degrading accuracy. We did a computer coding implementation of the method. Using the electronic medical record data set from the Practice Fusion diabetes classification competition containing patient records from all 50 states in the United States, we demonstrated the method on predicting type 2 diabetes diagnosis within the next year. For the champion machine learning model of the competition, our method explained prediction results for 87.4 % of patients who were correctly predicted by the model to have type 2 diabetes diagnosis within the next year. Our demonstration showed the feasibility of automatically explaining results for any machine learning predictive model without degrading accuracy.

  17. The testing report of the development for the lithium grains and lithium rod automatic machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Zongkui; Kong Xianghong; Huang Yong

    2008-06-01

    With the development of lithium industry, the lithium grains and lithium rod, as additive or catalyzer, having a big comparatively acreage and a strong activated feature, have a broad application. The lithium grains and lithium rod belong to the kind of final machining materials. The principle of the lithium grains and lithium rod that how to take shape through the procedures of extrusion, cutting, anti-conglutination, threshing and so on are analysed, A sort of lithium grains and lithium rod automatic machine is developed. (authors)

  18. Integrating Automatic Speech Recognition and Machine Translation for Better Translation Outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi

    translations, combining machine translation with computer assisted translation has drawn attention in current research. This combines two prospects: the opportunity of ensuring high quality translation along with a significant performance gain. Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is another important area......, which caters important functionalities in language processing and natural language understanding tasks. In this work we integrate automatic speech recognition and machine translation in parallel. We aim to avoid manual typing of possible translations as dictating the translation would take less time...... to the n-best list rescoring, we also use word graphs with the expectation of arriving at a tighter integration of ASR and MT models. Integration methods include constraining ASR models using language and translation models of MT, and vice versa. We currently develop and experiment different methods...

  19. Component simulation in problems of calculated model formation of automatic machine mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telegin Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of the component simulation method application in the problems of the automation of the mechanical system model formation with the further possibility of their CAD-realization. The purpose of the investigations mentioned consists in the automation of the CAD-model formation of high-speed mechanisms in automatic machines and in the analysis of dynamic processes occurred in their units taking into account their elasto-inertial properties, power dissipation, gaps in kinematic pairs, friction forces, design and technological loads. As an example in the paper there are considered a formalization of stages in the computer model formation of the cutting mechanism in cold stamping automatic machine AV1818 and methods of for the computation of their parameters on the basis of its solid-state model.

  20. Component simulation in problems of calculated model formation of automatic machine mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Telegin Igor; Kozlov Alexander; Zhirkov Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the problems of the component simulation method application in the problems of the automation of the mechanical system model formation with the further possibility of their CAD-realization. The purpose of the investigations mentioned consists in the automation of the CAD-model formation of high-speed mechanisms in automatic machines and in the analysis of dynamic processes occurred in their units taking into account their elasto-inertial properties, power dissipation, gap...

  1. Analysis on machine tool systems using spindle vibration monitoring for automatic tool changer

    OpenAIRE

    Shang-Liang Chen; Yin-Ting Cheng; Chin-Fa Su

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the intelligent systems of technology have become one of the major items in the development of machine tools. One crucial technology is the machinery status monitoring function, which is required for abnormal warnings and the improvement of cutting efficiency. During processing, the mobility act of the spindle unit determines the most frequent and important part such as automatic tool changer. The vibration detection system includes the development of hardware and software, such as ...

  2. Automated Biometric Voice-Based Access Control in Automatic Teller Machine (ATM)

    OpenAIRE

    Yekini N.A.; Itegboje A.O.; Oyeyinka I.K.; Akinwole A.K.

    2012-01-01

    An automatic teller machine requires a user to pass an identity test before any transaction can be granted. The current method available for access control in ATM is based on smartcard. Efforts were made to conduct an interview with structured questions among the ATM users and the result proofed that a lot of problems was associated with ATM smartcard for access control. Among the problems are; it is very difficult to prevent another person from attaining and using a legitimate persons card, ...

  3. An Automatic Assembling System for Sealing Rings Based on Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyu Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to grab and place the sealing rings of battery lid quickly and accurately, an automatic assembling system for sealing rings based on machine vision is developed in this paper. The whole system is composed of the light sources, cameras, industrial control units, and a 4-degree-of-freedom industrial robot. Specifically, the sealing rings are recognized and located automatically with the machine vision module. Then industrial robot is controlled for grabbing the sealing rings dynamically under the joint work of multiple control units and visual feedback. Furthermore, the coordinates of the fast-moving battery lid are tracked by the machine vision module. Finally the sealing rings are placed on the sealing ports of battery lid accurately and automatically. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can grab the sealing rings and place them on the sealing port of the fast-moving battery lid successfully. More importantly, the proposed system can improve the efficiency of the battery production line obviously.

  4. Process acceptance and adjustment techniques for Swiss automatic screw machine parts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Product tolerance requirements for small, cylindrical, piece parts produced on swiss automatic screw machines have progressed to the reliability limits of inspection equipment. The miniature size, configuration, and tolerance requirements (plus or minus 0.0001 in.) (0.00254 mm) of these parts preclude the use of screening techniques to accept product or adjust processes during setup and production runs; therefore, existing means of product acceptance and process adjustment must be refined or new techniques must be developed. The purpose of this endeavor has been to determine benefits gained through the implementation of a process acceptance technique (PAT) to swiss automatic screw machine processes. PAT is a statistical approach developed for the purpose of accepting product and centering processes for parts produced by selected, controlled processes. Through this endeavor a determination has been made of the conditions under which PAT can benefit a controlled process and some specific types of screw machine processes upon which PAT could be applied. However, it was also determined that PAT, if used indiscriminately, may become a record keeping burden when applied to more than one dimension at a given machining operation

  5. Comparative Analysis of Automatic Exudate Detection between Machine Learning and Traditional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopharak, Akara; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Barman, Sarah; Williamson, Thomas

    To prevent blindness from diabetic retinopathy, periodic screening and early diagnosis are neccessary. Due to lack of expert ophthalmologists in rural area, automated early exudate (one of visible sign of diabetic retinopathy) detection could help to reduce the number of blindness in diabetic patients. Traditional automatic exudate detection methods are based on specific parameter configuration, while the machine learning approaches which seems more flexible may be computationally high cost. A comparative analysis of traditional and machine learning of exudates detection, namely, mathematical morphology, fuzzy c-means clustering, naive Bayesian classifier, Support Vector Machine and Nearest Neighbor classifier are presented. Detected exudates are validated with expert ophthalmologists' hand-drawn ground-truths. The sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy and time complexity of each method are also compared.

  6. Distributed Data Vending on Blockchain

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jiayu; Tang, Fengyi; Zhu, He; Nan, Ning; Zhou, Ziheng

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in blockchain technologies have provided exciting opportunities for decentralized applications. Specifically, blockchain-based smart contracts enable credible transactions without authorized third parties. The attractive properties of smart contracts facilitate distributed data vending, allowing for proprietary data to be securely exchanged on a blockchain. Distributed data vending can transform domains such as healthcare by encouraging data distribution from owners and enabli...

  7. A method for the automatic separation of the images of galaxies and stars from measurements made with the COSMOS machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGillivray, H.T.; Martin, R.; Pratt, N.M.; Reddish, V.C.; Seddon, H.; Alexander, L.W.G.; Walker, G.S.; Williams, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method has been developed which allows the computer to distinguish automatically between the images of galaxies and those of stars from measurements made with the COSMOS automatic plate-measuring machine at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh. Results have indicated that a 90 to 95 per cent separation between galaxies and stars is possible. (author)

  8. Automatic Detection of Acromegaly From Facial Photographs Using Machine Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangyi; Gong, Shun; Su, Lijuan; Howard, Newton; Kong, Yanguo

    2018-01-01

    Automatic early detection of acromegaly is theoretically possible from facial photographs, which can lessen the prevalence and increase the cure probability. In this study, several popular machine learning algorithms were used to train a retrospective development dataset consisting of 527 acromegaly patients and 596 normal subjects. We firstly used OpenCV to detect the face bounding rectangle box, and then cropped and resized it to the same pixel dimensions. From the detected faces, locations of facial landmarks which were the potential clinical indicators were extracted. Frontalization was then adopted to synthesize frontal facing views to improve the performance. Several popular machine learning methods including LM, KNN, SVM, RT, CNN, and EM were used to automatically identify acromegaly from the detected facial photographs, extracted facial landmarks, and synthesized frontal faces. The trained models were evaluated using a separate dataset, of which half were diagnosed as acromegaly by growth hormone suppression test. The best result of our proposed methods showed a PPV of 96%, a NPV of 95%, a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 96%. Artificial intelligence can automatically early detect acromegaly with a high sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. LARA. Localization of an automatized refueling machine by acoustical sounding in breeder reactors - implementation of artificial intelligence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhuillier, C.; Malvache, P.

    1987-01-01

    The automatic control of the machine which handles the nuclear subassemblies in fast neutron reactors requires autonomous perception and decision tools. An acoustical device allows the machine to position in the work area. Artificial intelligence techniques are implemented to interpret the data: pattern recognition, scene analysis. The localization process is managed by an expert system. 6 refs.; 8 figs

  10. Automatic SLEEP staging: From young aduslts to elderly patients using multi-class support vector machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul; Sorensen, Helge B. D.

    2013-01-01

    an automatic sleep stage detector, which can separate wakefulness, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep using only EEG and EOG. Most sleep events, which define the sleep stages, are reduced with age. This is addressed by focusing on the amplitude of the clinical EEG bands......Aging is a process that is inevitable, and makes our body vulnerable to age-related diseases. Age is the most consistent factor affecting the sleep structure. Therefore, new automatic sleep staging methods, to be used in both of young and elderly patients, are needed. This study proposes......, and not the affected sleep events. The age-related influences are then reduced by robust subject-specific scaling. The classification of the three sleep stages are achieved by a multi-class support vector machine using the one-versus-rest scheme. It was possible to obtain a high classification accuracy of 0...

  11. Transducer-actuator systems and methods for performing on-machine measurements and automatic part alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkman, William E.; Dow, Thomas A.; Garrard, Kenneth P.; Marston, Zachary

    2016-07-12

    Systems and methods for performing on-machine measurements and automatic part alignment, including: a measurement component operable for determining the position of a part on a machine; and an actuation component operable for adjusting the position of the part by contacting the part with a predetermined force responsive to the determined position of the part. The measurement component consists of a transducer. The actuation component consists of a linear actuator. Optionally, the measurement component and the actuation component consist of a single linear actuator operable for contacting the part with a first lighter force for determining the position of the part and with a second harder force for adjusting the position of the part. The actuation component is utilized in a substantially horizontal configuration and the effects of gravitational drop of the part are accounted for in the force applied and the timing of the contact.

  12. Connection of control circuits of machine for automatic measurement of radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorlicek, J.

    1984-01-01

    A windowless through-flow gas detector is used for measurement. The automatic machine is controlled by four flip-flops defining the following states: the dish replacement in the measuring space, washing, measurement, measured value print-out, and resetting. The first and second outputs of the first, second and third flip-flops are connected to six inputs of a block whose four outputs provide counter reset and stop-watch reset, washing, measurement, and print-out. Such machine control eliminates measurement errors by disabling sample measurement until air is removed from the measurement space, introduced on an unwashed dish or on several dishes passed under the detector. The elimination of this error is also guaranteed in manual operation. (M.D.)

  13. Automatic optical detection and classification of marine animals around MHK converters using machine vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunton, Steven [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2018-01-15

    Optical systems provide valuable information for evaluating interactions and associations between organisms and MHK energy converters and for capturing potentially rare encounters between marine organisms and MHK device. The deluge of optical data from cabled monitoring packages makes expert review time-consuming and expensive. We propose algorithms and a processing framework to automatically extract events of interest from underwater video. The open-source software framework consists of background subtraction, filtering, feature extraction and hierarchical classification algorithms. This principle classification pipeline was validated on real-world data collected with an experimental underwater monitoring package. An event detection rate of 100% was achieved using robust principal components analysis (RPCA), Fourier feature extraction and a support vector machine (SVM) binary classifier. The detected events were then further classified into more complex classes – algae | invertebrate | vertebrate, one species | multiple species of fish, and interest rank. Greater than 80% accuracy was achieved using a combination of machine learning techniques.

  14. Automatic Detection of P and S Phases by Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Ning, J.; Bao, T.

    2017-12-01

    Many methods in seismology rely on accurately picked phases. A well performed program on automatically phase picking will assure the application of these methods. Related researches before mostly focus on finding different characteristics between noise and phases, which are all not enough successful. We have developed a new method which mainly based on support vector machine to detect P and S phases. In it, we first input some waveform pieces into the support vector machine, then employ it to work out a hyper plane which can divide the space into two parts: respectively noise and phase. We further use the same method to find a hyper plane which can separate the phase space into P and S parts based on the three components' cross-correlation matrix. In order to further improve the ability of phase detection, we also employ array data. At last, we show that the overall effect of our method is robust by employing both synthetic and real data.

  15. Effects of promotional materials on vending sales of low-fat items in teachers' lounges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Amy; Cullen, Karen Weber

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the impact of an environmental intervention in the form of promotional materials and increased availability of low-fat items on vending machine sales. Ten vending machines were selected and randomly assigned to one of three conditions: control, or one of two experimental conditions. Vending machines in the two intervention conditions received three additional low-fat selections. Low-fat items were promoted at two levels: labels (intervention I), and labels plus signs (intervention II). The number of individual items sold and the total revenue generated was recorded weekly for each machine for 4 weeks. Use of promotional materials resulted in a small, but not significant, increase in the number of low-fat items sold, although machine sales were not significantly impacted by the change in product selection. Results of this study, although not statistically significant, suggest that environmental change may be a realistic means of positively influencing consumer behavior.

  16. Health Promotion and Healthier Products Increase Vending Purchases: A Randomized Factorial Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Sophia V; Kimmel, Lisa; Van Emmenes, Michael; Taherian, Rafi; Remer, Geraldine; Millman, Adam; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2017-07-01

    The current food environment has a high prevalence of nutrient-sparse foods and beverages, most starkly seen in vending machine offerings. There are currently few studies that explore different interventions that might lead to healthier vending machine purchases. To examine how healthier product availability, price reductions, and/or promotional signs affect sales and revenue of snack and beverage vending machines. A 2×2×2 factorial randomized controlled trial was conducted. Students, staff, and employees on a university campus. All co-located snack and beverage vending machines (n=56, 28 snack and 28 beverage) were randomized into one of eight conditions: availability of healthier products and/or 25% price reduction for healthier items and/or promotional signs on machines. Aggregate sales and revenue data for the 5-month study period (February to June 2015) were compared with data from the same months 1 year prior. Analyses were conducted July 2015. The change in units sold and revenue between February through June 2014 and 2015. Linear regression models (main effects and interaction effects) and t test analyses were performed. The interaction between healthier product guidelines and promotional signs in snack vending machines documented increased revenue (Prevenue change. Price reductions alone had no effect, nor were there any effects for the three-way interaction of the factors. Examining top-selling products for all vending machines combined, pre- to postintervention, we found an overall shift to healthier purchasing. When healthier vending snacks are available, promotional signs are also important to ensure consumers purchase those items in greater amounts. Mitigating potential loss in profits is essential for sustainability of a healthier food environment. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Model design and simulation of automatic sorting machine using proximity sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole I. Oladapo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The automatic sorting system has been reported to be complex and a global problem. This is because of the inability of sorting machines to incorporate flexibility in their design concept. This research therefore designed and developed an automated sorting object of a conveyor belt. The developed automated sorting machine is able to incorporate flexibility and separate species of non-ferrous metal objects and at the same time move objects automatically to the basket as defined by the regulation of the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC with a capacitive proximity sensor to detect a value range of objects. The result obtained shows that plastic, wood, and steel were sorted into their respective and correct position with an average, sorting, time of 9.903 s, 14.072 s and 18.648 s respectively. The proposed developed model of this research could be adopted at any institution or industries, whose practices are based on mechatronics engineering systems. This is to guide the industrial sector in sorting of object and teaching aid to institutions and hence produce the list of classified materials according to the enabled sorting program commands.

  18. Learning machines and sleeping brains: Automatic sleep stage classification using decision-tree multi-class support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajnef, Tarek; Chaibi, Sahbi; Ruby, Perrine; Aguera, Pierre-Emmanuel; Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Samet, Mounir; Kachouri, Abdennaceur; Jerbi, Karim

    2015-07-30

    Sleep staging is a critical step in a range of electrophysiological signal processing pipelines used in clinical routine as well as in sleep research. Although the results currently achievable with automatic sleep staging methods are promising, there is need for improvement, especially given the time-consuming and tedious nature of visual sleep scoring. Here we propose a sleep staging framework that consists of a multi-class support vector machine (SVM) classification based on a decision tree approach. The performance of the method was evaluated using polysomnographic data from 15 subjects (electroencephalogram (EEG), electrooculogram (EOG) and electromyogram (EMG) recordings). The decision tree, or dendrogram, was obtained using a hierarchical clustering technique and a wide range of time and frequency-domain features were extracted. Feature selection was carried out using forward sequential selection and classification was evaluated using k-fold cross-validation. The dendrogram-based SVM (DSVM) achieved mean specificity, sensitivity and overall accuracy of 0.92, 0.74 and 0.88 respectively, compared to expert visual scoring. Restricting DSVM classification to data where both experts' scoring was consistent (76.73% of the data) led to a mean specificity, sensitivity and overall accuracy of 0.94, 0.82 and 0.92 respectively. The DSVM framework outperforms classification with more standard multi-class "one-against-all" SVM and linear-discriminant analysis. The promising results of the proposed methodology suggest that it may be a valuable alternative to existing automatic methods and that it could accelerate visual scoring by providing a robust starting hypnogram that can be further fine-tuned by expert inspection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Raw Milk Hygiene at Local Markets and Automatic Milk Dispenser Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, direct sales of raw milk to the final consumer is developed based on the local regulations. These are in accordance to European Regulation that must meet some quality requirements for the total number of germs, somatic cells, without antibiotics, coming from healthy animals who did not suffer from diseases that can be transmitted to humans through milk. Raw milk is sold in Romania in local markets and by automatic milk dispenser machines. Based on these regulations, a study regarding the quality and security to human health of raw milk was conducted on the commercialized milk in local markets and automatic milk dispensers. During May-June 2014 samples of raw milk were collected from Cluj-Napoca local markets and automatic milk dispensers. All samples were kept to refrigeration conditions until the moment of analyze which took place at the sampling day. The following parameters were taken into account: fat content, protein, casein, lactose, nonfat dry matter, pH, milk freezing point, added water, antibiotics residues, milk urea, number of germ cells and somatic cells. All obtained results were verified by the validated methods applied. Our research can be forward conducted in order to verify the hygiene and composition of milk from the whole dairy chain. 

  20. Automatic bad channel detection in intracranial electroencephalographic recordings using ensemble machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyisenge, Viateur; Trebaul, Lena; Bhattacharjee, Manik; Chanteloup-Forêt, Blandine; Saubat-Guigui, Carole; Mîndruţă, Ioana; Rheims, Sylvain; Maillard, Louis; Kahane, Philippe; Taussig, Delphine; David, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    Intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) recordings contain "bad channels", which show non-neuronal signals. Here, we developed a new method that automatically detects iEEG bad channels using machine learning of seven signal features. The features quantified signals' variance, spatial-temporal correlation and nonlinear properties. Because the number of bad channels is usually much lower than the number of good channels, we implemented an ensemble bagging classifier known to be optimal in terms of stability and predictive accuracy for datasets with imbalanced class distributions. This method was applied on stereo-electroencephalographic (SEEG) signals recording during low frequency stimulations performed in 206 patients from 5 clinical centers. We found that the classification accuracy was extremely good: It increased with the number of subjects used to train the classifier and reached a plateau at 99.77% for 110 subjects. The classification performance was thus not impacted by the multicentric nature of data. The proposed method to automatically detect bad channels demonstrated convincing results and can be envisaged to be used on larger datasets for automatic quality control of iEEG data. This is the first method proposed to classify bad channels in iEEG and should allow to improve the data selection when reviewing iEEG signals. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Automatic Gleason grading of prostate cancer using quantitative phase imaging and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tan H.; Sridharan, Shamira; Macias, Virgilia; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Melamed, Jonathan; Do, Minh N.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    We present an approach for automatic diagnosis of tissue biopsies. Our methodology consists of a quantitative phase imaging tissue scanner and machine learning algorithms to process these data. We illustrate the performance by automatic Gleason grading of prostate specimens. The imaging system operates on the principle of interferometry and, as a result, reports on the nanoscale architecture of the unlabeled specimen. We use these data to train a random forest classifier to learn textural behaviors of prostate samples and classify each pixel in the image into different classes. Automatic diagnosis results were computed from the segmented regions. By combining morphological features with quantitative information from the glands and stroma, logistic regression was used to discriminate regions with Gleason grade 3 versus grade 4 cancer in prostatectomy tissue. The overall accuracy of this classification derived from a receiver operating curve was 82%, which is in the range of human error when interobserver variability is considered. We anticipate that our approach will provide a clinically objective and quantitative metric for Gleason grading, allowing us to corroborate results across instruments and laboratories and feed the computer algorithms for improved accuracy.

  2. Design and Assessment of a Machine Vision System for Automatic Vehicle Wheel Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Furferi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wheel alignment, consisting of properly checking the wheel characteristic angles against vehicle manufacturers' specifications, is a crucial task in the automotive field since it prevents irregular tyre wear and affects vehicle handling and safety. In recent years, systems based on Machine Vision have been widely studied in order to automatically detect wheels' characteristic angles. In order to overcome the limitations of existing methodologies, due to measurement equipment being mounted onto the wheels, the present work deals with design and assessment of a 3D machine vision-based system for the contactless reconstruction of vehicle wheel geometry, with particular reference to characteristic planes. Such planes, properly referred to as a global coordinate system, are used for determining wheel angles. The effectiveness of the proposed method was tested against a set of measurements carried out using a commercial 3D scanner; the absolute average error in measuring toe and camber angles with the machine vision system resulted in full compatibility with the expected accuracy of wheel alignment systems.

  3. Towards an automatic model transformation mechanism from UML state machines to DEVS models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel González

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of complex event-driven systems requires studies and analysis prior to deployment with the goal of detecting unwanted behavior. UML is a language widely used by the software engineering community for modeling these systems through state machines, among other mechanisms. Currently, these models do not have appropriate execution and simulation tools to analyze the real behavior of systems. Existing tools do not provide appropriate libraries (sampling from a probability distribution, plotting, etc. both to build and to analyze models. Modeling and simulation for design and prototyping of systems are widely used techniques to predict, investigate and compare the performance of systems. In particular, the Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS formalism separates the modeling and simulation; there are several tools available on the market that run and collect information from DEVS models. This paper proposes a model transformation mechanism from UML state machines to DEVS models in the Model-Driven Development (MDD context, through the declarative QVT Relations language, in order to perform simulations using tools, such as PowerDEVS. A mechanism to validate the transformation is proposed. Moreover, examples of application to analyze the behavior of an automatic banking machine and a control system of an elevator are presented.

  4. Analysis on machine tool systems using spindle vibration monitoring for automatic tool changer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Liang Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the intelligent systems of technology have become one of the major items in the development of machine tools. One crucial technology is the machinery status monitoring function, which is required for abnormal warnings and the improvement of cutting efficiency. During processing, the mobility act of the spindle unit determines the most frequent and important part such as automatic tool changer. The vibration detection system includes the development of hardware and software, such as vibration meter, signal acquisition card, data processing platform, and machine control program. Meanwhile, based on the difference between the mechanical configuration and the desired characteristics, it is difficult for a vibration detection system to directly choose the commercially available kits. For this reason, it was also selected as an item for self-development research, along with the exploration of a significant parametric study that is sufficient to represent the machine characteristics and states. However, we also launched the development of functional parts of the system simultaneously. Finally, we entered the conditions and the parameters generated from both the states and the characteristics into the developed system to verify its feasibility.

  5. Automatic selection of atomic fingerprints and reference configurations for machine-learning potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbalzano, Giulio; Anelli, Andrea; Giofré, Daniele; Klees, Sinja; Behler, Jörg; Ceriotti, Michele

    2018-06-01

    Machine learning of atomic-scale properties is revolutionizing molecular modeling, making it possible to evaluate inter-atomic potentials with first-principles accuracy, at a fraction of the costs. The accuracy, speed, and reliability of machine learning potentials, however, depend strongly on the way atomic configurations are represented, i.e., the choice of descriptors used as input for the machine learning method. The raw Cartesian coordinates are typically transformed in "fingerprints," or "symmetry functions," that are designed to encode, in addition to the structure, important properties of the potential energy surface like its invariances with respect to rotation, translation, and permutation of like atoms. Here we discuss automatic protocols to select a number of fingerprints out of a large pool of candidates, based on the correlations that are intrinsic to the training data. This procedure can greatly simplify the construction of neural network potentials that strike the best balance between accuracy and computational efficiency and has the potential to accelerate by orders of magnitude the evaluation of Gaussian approximation potentials based on the smooth overlap of atomic positions kernel. We present applications to the construction of neural network potentials for water and for an Al-Mg-Si alloy and to the prediction of the formation energies of small organic molecules using Gaussian process regression.

  6. A relevance vector machine technique for the automatic detection of clustered microcalcifications (Honorable Mention Poster Award)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liyang; Yang, Yongyi; Nishikawa, Robert M.

    2005-04-01

    Microcalcification (MC) clusters in mammograms can be important early signs of breast cancer in women. Accurate detection of MC clusters is an important but challenging problem. In this paper, we propose the use of a recently developed machine learning technique -- relevance vector machine (RVM) -- for automatic detection of MCs in digitized mammograms. RVM is based on Bayesian estimation theory, and as a feature it can yield a decision function that depends on only a very small number of so-called relevance vectors. We formulate MC detection as a supervised-learning problem, and use RVM to classify if an MC object is present or not at each location in a mammogram image. MC clusters are then identified by grouping the detected MC objects. The proposed method is tested using a database of 141 clinical mammograms, and compared with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier which we developed previously. The detection performance is evaluated using the free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curves. It is demonstrated that the RVM classifier matches closely with the SVM classifier in detection performance, and does so with a much sparser kernel representation than the SVM classifier. Consequently, the RVM classifier greatly reduces the computational complexity, making it more suitable for real-time processing of MC clusters in mammograms.

  7. Automatic assessment of average diaphragm motion trajectory from 4DCT images through machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Wei, Jie; Huang, Hailiang; Gaebler, Carl Philipp; Yuan, Amy; Deasy, Joseph O

    2015-12-01

    To automatically estimate average diaphragm motion trajectory (ADMT) based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT), facilitating clinical assessment of respiratory motion and motion variation and retrospective motion study. We have developed an effective motion extraction approach and a machine-learning-based algorithm to estimate the ADMT. Eleven patients with 22 sets of 4DCT images (4DCT1 at simulation and 4DCT2 at treatment) were studied. After automatically segmenting the lungs, the differential volume-per-slice (dVPS) curves of the left and right lungs were calculated as a function of slice number for each phase with respective to the full-exhalation. After 5-slice moving average was performed, the discrete cosine transform (DCT) was applied to analyze the dVPS curves in frequency domain. The dimensionality of the spectrum data was reduced by using several lowest frequency coefficients ( f v ) to account for most of the spectrum energy (Σ f v 2 ). Multiple linear regression (MLR) method was then applied to determine the weights of these frequencies by fitting the ground truth-the measured ADMT, which are represented by three pivot points of the diaphragm on each side. The 'leave-one-out' cross validation method was employed to analyze the statistical performance of the prediction results in three image sets: 4DCT1, 4DCT2, and 4DCT1 + 4DCT2. Seven lowest frequencies in DCT domain were found to be sufficient to approximate the patient dVPS curves ( R = 91%-96% in MLR fitting). The mean error in the predicted ADMT using leave-one-out method was 0.3 ± 1.9 mm for the left-side diaphragm and 0.0 ± 1.4 mm for the right-side diaphragm. The prediction error is lower in 4DCT2 than 4DCT1, and is the lowest in 4DCT1 and 4DCT2 combined. This frequency-analysis-based machine learning technique was employed to predict the ADMT automatically with an acceptable error (0.2 ± 1.6 mm). This volumetric approach is not affected by the presence of the lung tumors

  8. Two years of experience with an automatic milking system: 1. Time on machine and successful attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Speroni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The installation of an automatic milking system (AMS is not simply the replacement of an old traditional milking parlour with a new milking machine, but it requires a deeply modification of herd management (Spahr et al., 1997. Robotic milking is now considered fairly reliable and friendly and more than 1100 commercial farmers have installed at least one milking unit (De Koning et al., 2002. A lot of studies have been carried out on the interactions between milking robot, cows and farmer, but most of them referred to farm in the Northern Europe. On December 2000, an AMS (Voluntary Milking System, VMSTM, De Laval was installed at the Experimental Farm of Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia in Cremona (Italy......

  9. Procedural and developmental aspects of a multielement automatic radiochemical machine, applied to neutron irradiated biomedical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.

    1976-06-01

    This report is intended to serve as a practical guide, elaborately describing the working details and some developmental work connected with an automatic multielement radiochemical machine based on thermal neutron activation analysis using ion exchange and partition chromatography. Some of the practical aspects and personal observations after much experience with this versatile multielement method, applied to investigate the elemental composition of different biomedical matrices, are summarized. Standard reference materials are analyzed, and the data are presented with a set of gamma-spectra obtained before and after chemical separation into convenient groups suitable for gamma spectroscopy. The samples analyzed included various human and animal tissues, body fluids, IAEA biological standard reference materials, and samples from the WHO/IAEA project on 'Trace elements in relation to cardiovascular diseases'. Simplified modifications of the radiochemical processing, suitable for fast and routine analysis of clinical samples have also been discussed. (orig.) [de

  10. A support vector machine approach to the automatic identification of fluorescence spectra emitted by biological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Lungaroni, M.; Malizia, A.; Parracino, S.; Peluso, E.; Cenciarelli, O.; Carestia, M.; Pizzoferrato, R.; Vega, J.; Gaudio, P.

    2016-10-01

    Two of the major new concerns of modern societies are biosecurity and biosafety. Several biological agents (BAs) such as toxins, bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are able to cause damage to living systems either humans, animals or plants. Optical techniques, in particular LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR), based on the transmission of laser pulses and analysis of the return signals, can be successfully applied to monitoring the release of biological agents into the atmosphere. It is well known that most of biological agents tend to emit specific fluorescence spectra, which in principle allow their detection and identification, if excited by light of the appropriate wavelength. For these reasons, the detection of the UVLight Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) emitted by BAs is particularly promising. On the other hand, the stand-off detection of BAs poses a series of challenging issues; one of the most severe is the automatic discrimination between various agents which emit very similar fluorescence spectra. In this paper, a new data analysis method, based on a combination of advanced filtering techniques and Support Vector Machines, is described. The proposed approach covers all the aspects of the data analysis process, from filtering and denoising to automatic recognition of the agents. A systematic series of numerical tests has been performed to assess the potential and limits of the proposed methodology. The first investigations of experimental data have already given very encouraging results.

  11. Automatic detection and counting of cattle in UAV imagery based on machine vision technology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Foster, Jamie; Starek, Michael J.

    2017-05-01

    Beef production is the main agricultural industry in Texas, and livestock are managed in pasture and rangeland which are usually huge in size, and are not easily accessible by vehicles. The current research method for livestock location identification and counting is visual observation which is very time consuming and costly. For animals on large tracts of land, manned aircraft may be necessary to count animals which is noisy and disturbs the animals, and may introduce a source of error in counts. Such manual approaches are expensive, slow and labor intensive. In this paper we study the combination of small unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV) and machine vision technology as a valuable solution to manual animal surveying. A fixed-wing UAV fitted with GPS and digital RGB camera for photogrammetry was flown at the Welder Wildlife Foundation in Sinton, TX. Over 600 acres were flown with four UAS flights and individual photographs used to develop orthomosaic imagery. To detect animals in UAV imagery, a fully automatic technique was developed based on spatial and spectral characteristics of objects. This automatic technique can even detect small animals that are partially occluded by bushes. Experimental results in comparison to ground-truth show the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  12. Robust Machine Learning-Based Correction on Automatic Segmentation of the Cerebellum and Brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun Yi; Ngo, Michael M; Hessl, David; Hagerman, Randi J; Rivera, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Automated segmentation is a useful method for studying large brain structures such as the cerebellum and brainstem. However, automated segmentation may lead to inaccuracy and/or undesirable boundary. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether SegAdapter, a machine learning-based method, is useful for automatically correcting large segmentation errors and disagreement in anatomical definition. We further assessed the robustness of the method in handling size of training set, differences in head coil usage, and amount of brain atrophy. High resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 30 healthy controls scanned with either an 8-channel or 32-channel head coil. Ten patients, who suffered from brain atrophy because of fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, were scanned using the 32-channel head coil. The initial segmentations of the cerebellum and brainstem were generated automatically using Freesurfer. Subsequently, Freesurfer's segmentations were both manually corrected to serve as the gold standard and automatically corrected by SegAdapter. Using only 5 scans in the training set, spatial overlap with manual segmentation in Dice coefficient improved significantly from 0.956 (for Freesurfer segmentation) to 0.978 (for SegAdapter-corrected segmentation) for the cerebellum and from 0.821 to 0.954 for the brainstem. Reducing the training set size to 2 scans only decreased the Dice coefficient ≤0.002 for the cerebellum and ≤ 0.005 for the brainstem compared to the use of training set size of 5 scans in corrective learning. The method was also robust in handling differences between the training set and the test set in head coil usage and the amount of brain atrophy, which reduced spatial overlap only by segmentation and corrective learning provides a valuable method for accurate and efficient segmentation of the cerebellum and brainstem, particularly in large-scale neuroimaging studies, and potentially for segmenting other neural regions as

  13. Automatic Test Pattern Generator for Fuzzing Based on Finite State Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the Internet, several emerging technologies are adopted to construct fancy, interactive, and user-friendly websites. Among these technologies, HTML5 is a popular one and is widely used in establishing modern sites. However, the security issues in the new web technologies are also raised and are worthy of investigation. For vulnerability investigation, many previous studies used fuzzing and focused on generation-based approaches to produce test cases for fuzzing; however, these methods require a significant amount of knowledge and mental efforts to develop test patterns for generating test cases. To decrease the entry barrier of conducting fuzzing, in this study, we propose a test pattern generation algorithm based on the concept of finite state machines. We apply graph analysis techniques to extract paths from finite state machines and use these paths to construct test patterns automatically. According to the proposal, fuzzing can be completed through inputting a regular expression corresponding to the test target. To evaluate the performance of our proposal, we conduct an experiment in identifying vulnerabilities of the input attributes in HTML5. According to the results, our approach is not only efficient but also effective for identifying weak validators in HTML5.

  14. Pricing and promotion effects on low-fat vending snack purchases: the CHIPS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, S A; Jeffery, R W; Story, M; Breitlow, K K; Baxter, J S; Hannan, P; Snyder, M P

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of pricing and promotion strategies on purchases of low-fat snacks from vending machines. METHODS: Low-fat snacks were added to 55 vending machines in a convenience sample of 12 secondary schools and 12 worksites. Four pricing levels (equal price, 10% reduction, 25% reduction, 50% reduction) and 3 promotional conditions (none, low-fat label, low-fat label plus promotional sign) were crossed in a Latin square design. Sales of low-fat vending snacks were measured continuously for the 12-month intervention. RESULTS: Price reductions of 10%, 25%, and 50% on low-fat snacks were associated with significant increases in low-fat snack sales; percentages of low-fat snack sales increased by 9%, 39%, and 93%, respectively. Promotional signage was independently but weakly associated with increases in low-fat snack sales. Average profits per machine were not affected by the vending interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing relative prices on low-fat snacks was effective in promoting lower-fat snack purchases from vending machines in both adult and adolescent populations. PMID:11189801

  15. AUTOMATIC LUNG NODULE DETECTION BASED ON STATISTICAL REGION MERGING AND SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Aghabalaei Khordehchi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common diseases in the world that can be treated if the lung nodules are detected in their early stages of growth. This study develops a new framework for computer-aided detection of pulmonary nodules thorough a fully-automatic analysis of Computed Tomography (CT images. In the present work, the multi-layer CT data is fed into a pre-processing step that exploits an adaptive diffusion-based smoothing algorithm in which the parameters are automatically tuned using an adaptation technique. After multiple levels of morphological filtering, the Regions of Interest (ROIs are extracted from the smoothed images. The Statistical Region Merging (SRM algorithm is applied to the ROIs in order to segment each layer of the CT data. Extracted segments in consecutive layers are then analyzed in such a way that if they intersect at more than a predefined number of pixels, they are labeled with a similar index. The boundaries of the segments in adjacent layers which have the same indices are then connected together to form three-dimensional objects as the nodule candidates. After extracting four spectral, one morphological, and one textural feature from all candidates, they are finally classified into nodules and non-nodules using the Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier. The proposed framework has been applied to two sets of lung CT images and its performance has been compared to that of nine other competing state-of-the-art methods. The considerable efficiency of the proposed approach has been proved quantitatively and validated by clinical experts as well.

  16. Automatically annotating topics in transcripts of patient-provider interactions via machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Byron C; Laws, M Barton; Small, Kevin; Wilson, Ira B; Trikalinos, Thomas A

    2014-05-01

    Annotated patient-provider encounters can provide important insights into clinical communication, ultimately suggesting how it might be improved to effect better health outcomes. But annotating outpatient transcripts with Roter or General Medical Interaction Analysis System (GMIAS) codes is expensive, limiting the scope of such analyses. We propose automatically annotating transcripts of patient-provider interactions with topic codes via machine learning. We use a conditional random field (CRF) to model utterance topic probabilities. The model accounts for the sequential structure of conversations and the words comprising utterances. We assess predictive performance via 10-fold cross-validation over GMIAS-annotated transcripts of 360 outpatient visits (>230,000 utterances). We then use automated in place of manual annotations to reproduce an analysis of 116 additional visits from a randomized trial that used GMIAS to assess the efficacy of an intervention aimed at improving communication around antiretroviral (ARV) adherence. With respect to 6 topic codes, the CRF achieved a mean pairwise kappa compared with human annotators of 0.49 (range: 0.47-0.53) and a mean overall accuracy of 0.64 (range: 0.62-0.66). With respect to the RCT reanalysis, results using automated annotations agreed with those obtained using manual ones. According to the manual annotations, the median number of ARV-related utterances without and with the intervention was 49.5 versus 76, respectively (paired sign test P = 0.07). When automated annotations were used, the respective numbers were 39 versus 55 (P = 0.04). While moderately accurate, the predicted annotations are far from perfect. Conversational topics are intermediate outcomes, and their utility is still being researched. This foray into automated topic inference suggests that machine learning methods can classify utterances comprising patient-provider interactions into clinically relevant topics with reasonable accuracy.

  17. Robust Machine Learning-Based Correction on Automatic Segmentation of the Cerebellum and Brainstem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yi Wang

    Full Text Available Automated segmentation is a useful method for studying large brain structures such as the cerebellum and brainstem. However, automated segmentation may lead to inaccuracy and/or undesirable boundary. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether SegAdapter, a machine learning-based method, is useful for automatically correcting large segmentation errors and disagreement in anatomical definition. We further assessed the robustness of the method in handling size of training set, differences in head coil usage, and amount of brain atrophy. High resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 30 healthy controls scanned with either an 8-channel or 32-channel head coil. Ten patients, who suffered from brain atrophy because of fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, were scanned using the 32-channel head coil. The initial segmentations of the cerebellum and brainstem were generated automatically using Freesurfer. Subsequently, Freesurfer's segmentations were both manually corrected to serve as the gold standard and automatically corrected by SegAdapter. Using only 5 scans in the training set, spatial overlap with manual segmentation in Dice coefficient improved significantly from 0.956 (for Freesurfer segmentation to 0.978 (for SegAdapter-corrected segmentation for the cerebellum and from 0.821 to 0.954 for the brainstem. Reducing the training set size to 2 scans only decreased the Dice coefficient ≤0.002 for the cerebellum and ≤ 0.005 for the brainstem compared to the use of training set size of 5 scans in corrective learning. The method was also robust in handling differences between the training set and the test set in head coil usage and the amount of brain atrophy, which reduced spatial overlap only by <0.01. These results suggest that the combination of automated segmentation and corrective learning provides a valuable method for accurate and efficient segmentation of the cerebellum and brainstem, particularly in large

  18. Automatic Assignment of Methyl-NMR Spectra of Supramolecular Machines Using Graph Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritišanac, Iva; Degiacomi, Matteo T; Alderson, T Reid; Carneiro, Marta G; Ab, Eiso; Siegal, Gregg; Baldwin, Andrew J

    2017-07-19

    Methyl groups are powerful probes for the analysis of structure, dynamics and function of supramolecular assemblies, using both solution- and solid-state NMR. Widespread application of the methodology has been limited due to the challenges associated with assigning spectral resonances to specific locations within a biomolecule. Here, we present Methyl Assignment by Graph Matching (MAGMA), for the automatic assignment of methyl resonances. A graph matching protocol examines all possibilities for each resonance in order to determine an exact assignment that includes a complete description of any ambiguity. MAGMA gives 100% accuracy in confident assignments when tested against both synthetic data, and 9 cross-validated examples using both solution- and solid-state NMR data. We show that this remarkable accuracy enables a user to distinguish between alternative protein structures. In a drug discovery application on HSP90, we show the method can rapidly and efficiently distinguish between possible ligand binding modes. By providing an exact and robust solution to methyl resonance assignment, MAGMA can facilitate significantly accelerated studies of supramolecular machines using methyl-based NMR spectroscopy.

  19. Automatic detection of ischemic stroke based on scaling exponent electroencephalogram using extreme learning machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhi, H. A.; Wijaya, S. K.; Prawito; Badri, C.; Rezal, M.

    2017-03-01

    Stroke is one of cerebrovascular diseases caused by the obstruction of blood flow to the brain. Stroke becomes the leading cause of death in Indonesia and the second in the world. Stroke also causes of the disability. Ischemic stroke accounts for most of all stroke cases. Obstruction of blood flow can cause tissue damage which results the electrical changes in the brain that can be observed through the electroencephalogram (EEG). In this study, we presented the results of automatic detection of ischemic stroke and normal subjects based on the scaling exponent EEG obtained through detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) using extreme learning machine (ELM) as the classifier. The signal processing was performed with 18 channels of EEG in the range of 0-30 Hz. Scaling exponents of the subjects were used as the input for ELM to classify the ischemic stroke. The performance of detection was observed by the value of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The result showed, performance of the proposed method to classify the ischemic stroke was 84 % for accuracy, 82 % for sensitivity and 87 % for specificity with 120 hidden neurons and sine as the activation function of ELM.

  20. Label-free sensor for automatic identification of erythrocytes using digital in-line holographic microscopy and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Taesik; Byeon, Hyeokjun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2018-04-30

    Cell types of erythrocytes should be identified because they are closely related to their functionality and viability. Conventional methods for classifying erythrocytes are time consuming and labor intensive. Therefore, an automatic and accurate erythrocyte classification system is indispensable in healthcare and biomedical fields. In this study, we proposed a new label-free sensor for automatic identification of erythrocyte cell types using a digital in-line holographic microscopy (DIHM) combined with machine learning algorithms. A total of 12 features, including information on intensity distributions, morphological descriptors, and optical focusing characteristics, is quantitatively obtained from numerically reconstructed holographic images. All individual features for discocytes, echinocytes, and spherocytes are statistically different. To improve the performance of cell type identification, we adopted several machine learning algorithms, such as decision tree model, support vector machine, linear discriminant classification, and k-nearest neighbor classification. With the aid of these machine learning algorithms, the extracted features are effectively utilized to distinguish erythrocytes. Among the four tested algorithms, the decision tree model exhibits the best identification performance for the training sets (n = 440, 98.18%) and test sets (n = 190, 97.37%). This proposed methodology, which smartly combined DIHM and machine learning, would be helpful for sensing abnormal erythrocytes and computer-aided diagnosis of hematological diseases in clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of cleaning and disinfection performance of automatic washer disinfectors machines in programs presenting different cycle times and temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Bergo,Maria do Carmo Noronha Cominato

    2006-01-01

    Thermal washer-disinfectors represent a technology that brought about great advantages such as, establishment of protocols, standard operating procedures, reduction in occupational risk of a biological and environmental nature. The efficacy of the cleaning and disinfection obtained by automatic washer disinfectors machines in running programs with different times and temperatures determined by the different official agencies was validated according to recommendations from ISO Standards 15883-...

  2. Study on granulated material automatic weighing machine%颗粒状物料自动称量机研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丽娜; 张辉; 陈文庆

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of the granulated material automatic weighing, according to the characteristics of granulated material, the granulated material automatic weighing machine based on PLC was established. A method was presented to improve the automatic weighing machine speed and accuracy effectively, that used frequency conversion motor driving synchronous belt rough charging and vibrating feeder fine dosing. The weighing experiments were evaluated on the granulated material automatic weighing machine, the several kinds of drug were tested. The experimental results show that the equipment has high weighing accuracy and weighing speed, the characteristics of the operation is stable and reliable, and the equipment can satisfy different granulated drug automatic weighing requirements.%为了解决颗粒状物料自动称量的问题,根据颗粒状物料特性,研制了一种基于PLC的颗粒状物料自动称量机,该系统采用变频电机驱动同步带进行粗加料和振动给料机精加料结合的方式,有效提高了自动称量机的速度和精度.对不同种类的颗粒状药品进行了称量试验,试验结果表明,该称量设备具有精度高、称量速度快、运行稳定可靠的特点,且可以满足不同颗粒药品的自动称量要求.

  3. Milk Vending Does Not Improve College Students' Milk and Calcium Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Angela M; Williams, Rachel A; Hanks, Andrew S; Kennel, Julie A; Gunther, Carolyn

    2018-03-01

    In the transition from adolescence to young adulthood, overall diet quality decreases, including a reduction in both dairy and calcium consumption. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the impact of milk vending on milk and calcium intakes in college students. Participants were 124 college students living in dorms at a large public university (Fall 2012). Milk vending machines were installed in two campus dorms. Before and 2 months after installation, students were surveyed about milk and calcium intakes, as well as attitudes regarding milk vending. Sales data for the newly installed machines were also collected between the pre- and posttest surveys. Students reported similar milk and calcium consumption before and after the intervention. Mean calcium intakes were lower than the recommended dietary allowance for students in either life stage group (18 years old or 19 years and older). Milk vending sales data showed that during the study period, approximately nine bottles of milk were bought each day from the two dorms combined. Results from this study suggest that milk vending alone may not be an effective strategy for preventing the commonly observed decrease in milk and calcium intakes among college students.

  4. Discrete data processing from a scintillation sensor for exposure automatic machine in medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadimov, D.; Petukhov, N.; Dimitrova, S.; Vasilev, M.

    1983-01-01

    An exposure automatic machine with a thin plastic scintillator plate collimated by light guide with a photoconverter is described. Due to the physical processes nature in the scintillator accounted by the photomultiplier there is a possibility of a radiation analysis as well as of a digital processing of the results. Two alternative devices are shown. In the first of them the photomultiplier output signal is fed to a pulse-height selector at the output of which standard logical level pulses are obtained. These pulses are fed to a data register and then to a digital comparator where they are compared with a preset quantity selected depending on X-ray film sensitivity and foil combinations as well as on the desired film darkening. The ionizing radiation interruption is controlled by a switch unit. The detector spectral sensitivity correction is accomplished changing the photomultiplier supply voltage. In the second alternative a noise and ionizing radiation discriminator is used where a pulse-height selection according to the radiant energy is carried out. A digital comparator and a switching circuit control the ionizing radiation. By a second switching circuit the spectral distributed pulses from the discriminator are fed to a spectral analyser controlling dinamically the digital comparator compensating for the ionizing radiation spectral response influence. The second alternative advantage is that it allows for the radiation parameters control both in radiograph mode and X-ray examination mode. Due to the system fast-acting the device can be used to measure very short exposures as well as in serial examinations

  5. A multi-label learning based kernel automatic recommendation method for support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Song, Qinbao

    2015-01-01

    Choosing an appropriate kernel is very important and critical when classifying a new problem with Support Vector Machine. So far, more attention has been paid on constructing new kernels and choosing suitable parameter values for a specific kernel function, but less on kernel selection. Furthermore, most of current kernel selection methods focus on seeking a best kernel with the highest classification accuracy via cross-validation, they are time consuming and ignore the differences among the number of support vectors and the CPU time of SVM with different kernels. Considering the tradeoff between classification success ratio and CPU time, there may be multiple kernel functions performing equally well on the same classification problem. Aiming to automatically select those appropriate kernel functions for a given data set, we propose a multi-label learning based kernel recommendation method built on the data characteristics. For each data set, the meta-knowledge data base is first created by extracting the feature vector of data characteristics and identifying the corresponding applicable kernel set. Then the kernel recommendation model is constructed on the generated meta-knowledge data base with the multi-label classification method. Finally, the appropriate kernel functions are recommended to a new data set by the recommendation model according to the characteristics of the new data set. Extensive experiments over 132 UCI benchmark data sets, with five different types of data set characteristics, eleven typical kernels (Linear, Polynomial, Radial Basis Function, Sigmoidal function, Laplace, Multiquadric, Rational Quadratic, Spherical, Spline, Wave and Circular), and five multi-label classification methods demonstrate that, compared with the existing kernel selection methods and the most widely used RBF kernel function, SVM with the kernel function recommended by our proposed method achieved the highest classification performance.

  6. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of Automatic Transmission Fluid Jets with Implications for Electric Machine Thermal Management: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin; Moreno, Gilberto

    2015-09-29

    Thermal management for electric machines (motors/ generators) is important as the automotive industry continues to transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. Cooling of the electric machine(s) in some electric vehicle traction drive applications is accomplished by impinging automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets onto the machine's copper windings. In this study, we provide the results of experiments characterizing the thermal performance of ATF jets on surfaces representative of windings, using Ford's Mercon LV ATF. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients. Fluid temperatures were varied from 50 degrees C to 90 degrees C to encompass potential operating temperatures within an automotive transaxle environment. The jet nozzle velocities were varied from 0.5 to 10 m/s. The experimental ATF heat transfer coefficient results provided in this report are a useful resource for understanding factors that influence the performance of ATF-based cooling systems for electric machines.

  7. Cart'Eaux: an automatic mapping procedure for wastewater networks using machine learning and data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, J. S.; Delenne, C.; Chahinian, N.; Bringay, S.; Commandré, B.; Chaumont, M.; Derras, M.; Deruelle, L.; Roche, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Subsol, G.; Teisseire, M.

    2017-12-01

    In France, local government institutions must establish a detailed description of wastewater networks. The information should be available, but it remains fragmented (different formats held by different stakeholders) and incomplete. In the "Cart'Eaux" project, a multidisciplinary team, including an industrial partner, develops a global methodology using Machine Learning and Data Mining approaches applied to various types of large data to recover information in the aim of mapping urban sewage systems for hydraulic modelling. Deep-learning is first applied using a Convolution Neural Network to localize manhole covers on 5 cm resolution aerial RGB images. The detected manhole covers are then automatically connected using a tree-shaped graph constrained by industry rules. Based on a Delaunay triangulation, connections are chosen to minimize a cost function depending on pipe length, slope and possible intersection with roads or buildings. A stochastic version of this algorithm is currently being developed to account for positional uncertainty and detection errors, and generate sets of probable networks. As more information is required for hydraulic modeling (slopes, diameters, materials, etc.), text data mining is used to extract network characteristics from data posted on the Web or available through governmental or specific databases. Using an appropriate list of keywords, the web is scoured for documents which are saved in text format. The thematic entities are identified and linked to the surrounding spatial and temporal entities. The methodology is developed and tested on two towns in southern France. The primary results are encouraging: 54% of manhole covers are detected with few false detections, enabling the reconstruction of probable networks. The data mining results are still being investigated. It is clear at this stage that getting numerical values on specific pipes will be challenging. Thus, when no information is found, decision rules will be used to

  8. Applying machine-learning techniques to Twitter data for automatic hazard-event classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, R.; Bee, E. J.; Diaz-Doce, D.; Poole, J., Sr.; Singh, A.

    2017-12-01

    The constant flow of information offered by tweets provides valuable information about all sorts of events at a high temporal and spatial resolution. Over the past year we have been analyzing in real-time geological hazards/phenomenon, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, floods or the aurora, as part of the GeoSocial project, by geo-locating tweets filtered by keywords in a web-map. However, not all the filtered tweets are related with hazard/phenomenon events. This work explores two classification techniques for automatic hazard-event categorization based on tweets about the "Aurora". First, tweets were filtered using aurora-related keywords, removing stop words and selecting the ones written in English. For classifying the remaining between "aurora-event" or "no-aurora-event" categories, we compared two state-of-art techniques: Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) algorithms. Both approaches belong to the family of supervised learning algorithms, which make predictions based on labelled training dataset. Therefore, we created a training dataset by tagging 1200 tweets between both categories. The general form of SVM is used to separate two classes by a function (kernel). We compared the performance of four different kernels (Linear Regression, Logistic Regression, Multinomial Naïve Bayesian and Stochastic Gradient Descent) provided by Scikit-Learn library using our training dataset to build the SVM classifier. The results shown that the Logistic Regression (LR) gets the best accuracy (87%). So, we selected the SVM-LR classifier to categorise a large collection of tweets using the "dispel4py" framework.Later, we developed a CNN classifier, where the first layer embeds words into low-dimensional vectors. The next layer performs convolutions over the embedded word vectors. Results from the convolutional layer are max-pooled into a long feature vector, which is classified using a softmax layer. The CNN's accuracy

  9. Automatic Quality Inspection of Percussion Cap Mass Production by Means of 3D Machine Vision and Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellaeche, A.; Arana, R.; Ibarguren, A.; Martínez-Otzeta, J. M.

    The exhaustive quality control is becoming very important in the world's globalized market. One of these examples where quality control becomes critical is the percussion cap mass production. These elements must achieve a minimum tolerance deviation in their fabrication. This paper outlines a machine vision development using a 3D camera for the inspection of the whole production of percussion caps. This system presents multiple problems, such as metallic reflections in the percussion caps, high speed movement of the system and mechanical errors and irregularities in percussion cap placement. Due to these problems, it is impossible to solve the problem by traditional image processing methods, and hence, machine learning algorithms have been tested to provide a feasible classification of the possible errors present in the percussion caps.

  10. Enhancing interpretability of automatically extracted machine learning features: application to a RBM-Random Forest system on brain lesion segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio; Meier, Raphael; McKinley, Richard; Wiest, Roland; Alves, Victor; Silva, Carlos A; Reyes, Mauricio

    2018-02-01

    Machine learning systems are achieving better performances at the cost of becoming increasingly complex. However, because of that, they become less interpretable, which may cause some distrust by the end-user of the system. This is especially important as these systems are pervasively being introduced to critical domains, such as the medical field. Representation Learning techniques are general methods for automatic feature computation. Nevertheless, these techniques are regarded as uninterpretable "black boxes". In this paper, we propose a methodology to enhance the interpretability of automatically extracted machine learning features. The proposed system is composed of a Restricted Boltzmann Machine for unsupervised feature learning, and a Random Forest classifier, which are combined to jointly consider existing correlations between imaging data, features, and target variables. We define two levels of interpretation: global and local. The former is devoted to understanding if the system learned the relevant relations in the data correctly, while the later is focused on predictions performed on a voxel- and patient-level. In addition, we propose a novel feature importance strategy that considers both imaging data and target variables, and we demonstrate the ability of the approach to leverage the interpretability of the obtained representation for the task at hand. We evaluated the proposed methodology in brain tumor segmentation and penumbra estimation in ischemic stroke lesions. We show the ability of the proposed methodology to unveil information regarding relationships between imaging modalities and extracted features and their usefulness for the task at hand. In both clinical scenarios, we demonstrate that the proposed methodology enhances the interpretability of automatically learned features, highlighting specific learning patterns that resemble how an expert extracts relevant data from medical images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Design of an ARM-based Automatic Rice-Selling Machine for Cafeterias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Kang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To address the problems of low selling efficiency, poor sanitation conditions, labor-intensive requirement, and quick rice cooling speed in manual rice selling in cafeterias, especially in colleges and secondary schools, this paper presented an Advanced RISC Machines (ARM microprocessor-based rice-selling machine for cafeterias. The machines consisted of a funnel-shaped rice bin, a thermal insulation box, and a conveying and scattering mechanism. Moreover, this machine exerts fuzzy control over stepper motor rpm, and the motor drives the conveyor belt with a scraper to scatter rice, deliver it, and keep it warm. Apart from an external 4*4 keyboard, a point of sale (POS machine, an ARM process and a pressure sensor, the machine is also equipped with card swiping and weighting mechanisms to achieve functions of card swiping payment and precise measurement, respectively. In addition, detection of the right amount of rice and the alarm function are achieved using an ultrasonic sensor and a beeper, respectively. The presence of the rice container on the rice outlet is detected by an optoelectronic switch. Results show that this rice-selling machine achieves precise measurement, quick card swiping, fast rice selling, stable operation, and good rice heat preservation. Therefore, the mechanical design enables the machine to achieve its goals.

  12. A SEMI-AUTOMATIC RULE SET BUILDING METHOD FOR URBAN LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION BASED ON MACHINE LEARNING AND HUMAN KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Gu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Classification rule set is important for Land Cover classification, which refers to features and decision rules. The selection of features and decision are based on an iterative trial-and-error approach that is often utilized in GEOBIA, however, it is time-consuming and has a poor versatility. This study has put forward a rule set building method for Land cover classification based on human knowledge and machine learning. The use of machine learning is to build rule sets effectively which will overcome the iterative trial-and-error approach. The use of human knowledge is to solve the shortcomings of existing machine learning method on insufficient usage of prior knowledge, and improve the versatility of rule sets. A two-step workflow has been introduced, firstly, an initial rule is built based on Random Forest and CART decision tree. Secondly, the initial rule is analyzed and validated based on human knowledge, where we use statistical confidence interval to determine its threshold. The test site is located in Potsdam City. We utilised the TOP, DSM and ground truth data. The results show that the method could determine rule set for Land Cover classification semi-automatically, and there are static features for different land cover classes.

  13. Machine Beats Experts: Automatic Discovery of Skill Models for Data-Driven Online Course Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Noboru; Furukawa, Tadanobu; Bier, Norman; Faloutsos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    How can we automatically determine which skills must be mastered for the successful completion of an online course? Large-scale online courses (e.g., MOOCs) often contain a broad range of contents frequently intended to be a semester's worth of materials; this breadth often makes it difficult to articulate an accurate set of skills and knowledge…

  14. Innovation on structure of all automatic multi-studs four synchronous installing machine used in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qirong; Zou Xiyang

    2002-01-01

    First of all from structure bring forth many new ideas. New stud, nut and a brand-new installing machine have been designed. In main machine, the integrated gear mechanism simple in structure achieves synchronous turning function, instead of the precision, complicated, expensive manipulator or robot. In aspect of supervising and controlling, computer electro-hydraulic proportional control and advanced examine measure system have been designed to measure stress and extension of stud as tensioning. Mathematics model and transmit function have been built using theory of modern times fluid transmission and control. As a result four synchronous installing has been achieved

  15. Automatic vetting of planet candidates from ground based surveys: Machine learning with NGTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David J.; Günther, Maximilian N.; McCormac, James; Smith, Alexis M. S.; Bayliss, Daniel; Bouchy, François; Burleigh, Matthew R.; Casewell, Sarah; Eigmüller, Philipp; Gillen, Edward; Goad, Michael R.; Hodgkin, Simon T.; Jenkins, James S.; Louden, Tom; Metrailler, Lionel; Pollacco, Don; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Queloz, Didier; Raynard, Liam; Rauer, Heike; Udry, Stéphane; Walker, Simon R.; Watson, Christopher A.; West, Richard G.; Wheatley, Peter J.

    2018-05-01

    State of the art exoplanet transit surveys are producing ever increasing quantities of data. To make the best use of this resource, in detecting interesting planetary systems or in determining accurate planetary population statistics, requires new automated methods. Here we describe a machine learning algorithm that forms an integral part of the pipeline for the NGTS transit survey, demonstrating the efficacy of machine learning in selecting planetary candidates from multi-night ground based survey data. Our method uses a combination of random forests and self-organising-maps to rank planetary candidates, achieving an AUC score of 97.6% in ranking 12368 injected planets against 27496 false positives in the NGTS data. We build on past examples by using injected transit signals to form a training set, a necessary development for applying similar methods to upcoming surveys. We also make the autovet code used to implement the algorithm publicly accessible. autovet is designed to perform machine learned vetting of planetary candidates, and can utilise a variety of methods. The apparent robustness of machine learning techniques, whether on space-based or the qualitatively different ground-based data, highlights their importance to future surveys such as TESS and PLATO and the need to better understand their advantages and pitfalls in an exoplanetary context.

  16. Research on the automatic laser navigation system of the tunnel boring machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yake; Li, Yueqiang

    2011-12-01

    By establishing relevant coordinates of the Automatic Laser Navigation System, the basic principle of the system which accesses the TBM three-dimensional reference point and yawing angle by mathematical transformation between TBM, target prism and earth coordinate systems is discussed deeply in details. According to the way of rigid body descriptions of its posture, TBM attitude parameters measurement and data acquisition methods are proposed, and measures to improve the accuracy of the Laser Navigation System are summarized.

  17. Automatic Recognition Method for Optical Measuring Instruments Based on Machine Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Le; LIN Yuchi; HAO Liguo

    2008-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive study of various algorithms, the automatic recognition of traditional ocular optical measuring instruments is realized. Taking a universal tools microscope (UTM) lens view image as an example, a 2-layer automatic recognition model for data reading is established after adopting a series of pre-processing algorithms. This model is an optimal combination of the correlation-based template matching method and a concurrent back propagation (BP) neural network. Multiple complementary feature extraction is used in generating the eigenvectors of the concurrent network. In order to improve fault-tolerance capacity, rotation invariant features based on Zernike moments are extracted from digit characters and a 4-dimensional group of the outline features is also obtained. Moreover, the operating time and reading accuracy can be adjusted dynamically by setting the threshold value. The experimental result indicates that the newly developed algorithm has optimal recognition precision and working speed. The average reading ratio can achieve 97.23%. The recognition method can automatically obtain the results of optical measuring instruments rapidly and stably without modifying their original structure, which meets the application requirements.

  18. Food Safety by Using Machine Learning for Automatic Classification of Seeds of the South-American Incanut Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemanzyk, Thomas; Anding, Katharina; Linss, Gerhard; Hernández, Jorge Rodriguez; Theska, René

    2015-01-01

    The following paper deals with the classification of seeds and seed components of the South-American Incanut plant and the modification of a machine to handle this task. Initially the state of the art is being illustrated. The research was executed in Germany and with a relevant part in Peru and Ecuador. Theoretical considerations for the solution of an automatically analysis of the Incanut seeds were specified. The optimization of the analyzing software and the separation unit of the mechanical hardware are carried out with recognition results. In a final step the practical application of the analysis of the Incanut seeds is held on a trial basis and rated on the bases of statistic values

  19. Automatic fitting of conical envelopes to free-form surfaces for flank CNC machining

    OpenAIRE

    Bo P.; Bartoň M.; Pottmann H.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new algorithm to detect patches of free-form surfaces that can be well approximated by envelopes of a rotational cone under a rigid body motion. These conical envelopes are a preferable choice from the manufacturing point of view as they are, by-definition, manufacturable by computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining using the efficient flank (peripheral) method with standard conical tools. Our geometric approach exploits multi-valued vector fields that consist of vectors in...

  20. Automatic ice-cream characterization by impedance measurements for optimal machine setting

    OpenAIRE

    Grossi , Marco; Lanzoni , Massimo; Lazzarini , Roberto; Riccò , Bruno

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Electrical characterization of products is gaining increasing interest in the food industry for quality monitoring and control. In particular, this is the case in the ice-cream industry, where machines dedicated to store ice-cream mixes are programmed ''ad hoc'' for different groups of products. To this purpose, the present work shows that essential product classification (discrimination between milk based and fruit based ice-cream mixes) can be done by means of a tech...

  1. Lamb wave based automatic damage detection using matching pursuit and machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Sushant; Mitra, Mira

    2014-01-01

    In this study, matching pursuit (MP) has been tested with machine learning algorithms such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machines (SVMs) to automate the process of damage detection in metallic plates. Here, damage detection is done using the Lamb wave response in a thin aluminium plate simulated using a finite element (FE) method. To reduce the complexity of the Lamb wave response, only the A 0 mode is excited and sensed. The procedure adopted for damage detection consists of three major steps, involving signal processing and machine learning (ML). In the first step, MP is used for de-noising and enhancing the sparsity of the database. In the existing literature, MP is used to decompose any signal into a linear combination of waveforms that are selected from a redundant dictionary. In this work, MP is deployed in two stages to make the database sparse as well as to de-noise it. After using MP on the database, it is then passed as input data for ML classifiers. ANN and SVM are used to detect the location of the potential damage from the reduced data. The study demonstrates that the SVM is a robust classifier in the presence of noise and is more efficient than the ANN. Out-of-sample data are used for the validation of the trained and tested classifier. Trained classifiers are found to be successful in the detection of damage with a detection rate of more than 95%. (paper)

  2. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-02: Automatic Recognition of Patient Treatment Site in Portal Images Using Machine Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, X; Yang, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the method to automatically recognize the treatment site in the X-Ray portal images. It could be useful to detect potential treatment errors, and to provide guidance to sequential tasks, e.g. automatically verify the patient daily setup. Methods: The portal images were exported from MOSAIQ as DICOM files, and were 1) processed with a threshold based intensity transformation algorithm to enhance contrast, and 2) where then down-sampled (from 1024×768 to 128×96) by using bi-cubic interpolation algorithm. An appearance-based vector space model (VSM) was used to rearrange the images into vectors. A principal component analysis (PCA) method was used to reduce the vector dimensions. A multi-class support vector machine (SVM), with radial basis function kernel, was used to build the treatment site recognition models. These models were then used to recognize the treatment sites in the portal image. Portal images of 120 patients were included in the study. The images were selected to cover six treatment sites: brain, head and neck, breast, lung, abdomen and pelvis. Each site had images of the twenty patients. Cross-validation experiments were performed to evaluate the performance. Results: MATLAB image processing Toolbox and scikit-learn (a machine learning library in python) were used to implement the proposed method. The average accuracies using the AP and RT images separately were 95% and 94% respectively. The average accuracy using AP and RT images together was 98%. Computation time was ∼0.16 seconds per patient with AP or RT image, ∼0.33 seconds per patient with both of AP and RT images. Conclusion: The proposed method of treatment site recognition is efficient and accurate. It is not sensitive to the differences of image intensity, size and positions of patients in the portal images. It could be useful for the patient safety assurance. The work was partially supported by a research grant from Varian Medical System

  3. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-02: Automatic Recognition of Patient Treatment Site in Portal Images Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, X; Yang, D [Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the method to automatically recognize the treatment site in the X-Ray portal images. It could be useful to detect potential treatment errors, and to provide guidance to sequential tasks, e.g. automatically verify the patient daily setup. Methods: The portal images were exported from MOSAIQ as DICOM files, and were 1) processed with a threshold based intensity transformation algorithm to enhance contrast, and 2) where then down-sampled (from 1024×768 to 128×96) by using bi-cubic interpolation algorithm. An appearance-based vector space model (VSM) was used to rearrange the images into vectors. A principal component analysis (PCA) method was used to reduce the vector dimensions. A multi-class support vector machine (SVM), with radial basis function kernel, was used to build the treatment site recognition models. These models were then used to recognize the treatment sites in the portal image. Portal images of 120 patients were included in the study. The images were selected to cover six treatment sites: brain, head and neck, breast, lung, abdomen and pelvis. Each site had images of the twenty patients. Cross-validation experiments were performed to evaluate the performance. Results: MATLAB image processing Toolbox and scikit-learn (a machine learning library in python) were used to implement the proposed method. The average accuracies using the AP and RT images separately were 95% and 94% respectively. The average accuracy using AP and RT images together was 98%. Computation time was ∼0.16 seconds per patient with AP or RT image, ∼0.33 seconds per patient with both of AP and RT images. Conclusion: The proposed method of treatment site recognition is efficient and accurate. It is not sensitive to the differences of image intensity, size and positions of patients in the portal images. It could be useful for the patient safety assurance. The work was partially supported by a research grant from Varian Medical System.

  4. Fully automatic time-window selection using machine learning for global adjoint tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Hill, J.; Lei, W.; Lefebvre, M. P.; Bozdag, E.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.

    2017-12-01

    Selecting time windows from seismograms such that the synthetic measurements (from simulations) and measured observations are sufficiently close is indispensable in a global adjoint tomography framework. The increasing amount of seismic data collected everyday around the world demands "intelligent" algorithms for seismic window selection. While the traditional FLEXWIN algorithm can be "automatic" to some extent, it still requires both human input and human knowledge or experience, and thus is not deemed to be fully automatic. The goal of intelligent window selection is to automatically select windows based on a learnt engine that is built upon a huge number of existing windows generated through the adjoint tomography project. We have formulated the automatic window selection problem as a classification problem. All possible misfit calculation windows are classified as either usable or unusable. Given a large number of windows with a known selection mode (select or not select), we train a neural network to predict the selection mode of an arbitrary input window. Currently, the five features we extract from the windows are its cross-correlation value, cross-correlation time lag, amplitude ratio between observed and synthetic data, window length, and minimum STA/LTA value. More features can be included in the future. We use these features to characterize each window for training a multilayer perceptron neural network (MPNN). Training the MPNN is equivalent to solve a non-linear optimization problem. We use backward propagation to derive the gradient of the loss function with respect to the weighting matrices and bias vectors and use the mini-batch stochastic gradient method to iteratively optimize the MPNN. Numerical tests show that with a careful selection of the training data and a sufficient amount of training data, we are able to train a robust neural network that is capable of detecting the waveforms in an arbitrary earthquake data with negligible detection error

  5. Automatically quantifying the scientific quality and sensationalism of news records mentioning pandemics: validating a maximum entropy machine-learning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Steven J; Justicz, Victoria

    2016-07-01

    To develop and validate a method for automatically quantifying the scientific quality and sensationalism of individual news records. After retrieving 163,433 news records mentioning the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and H1N1 pandemics, a maximum entropy model for inductive machine learning was used to identify relationships among 500 randomly sampled news records that correlated with systematic human assessments of their scientific quality and sensationalism. These relationships were then computationally applied to automatically classify 10,000 additional randomly sampled news records. The model was validated by randomly sampling 200 records and comparing human assessments of them to the computer assessments. The computer model correctly assessed the relevance of 86% of news records, the quality of 65% of records, and the sensationalism of 73% of records, as compared to human assessments. Overall, the scientific quality of SARS and H1N1 news media coverage had potentially important shortcomings, but coverage was not too sensationalizing. Coverage slightly improved between the two pandemics. Automated methods can evaluate news records faster, cheaper, and possibly better than humans. The specific procedure implemented in this study can at the very least identify subsets of news records that are far more likely to have particular scientific and discursive qualities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. HAVmS: Highly Available Virtual Machine Computer System Fault Tolerant with Automatic Failback and Close to Zero Downtime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memmo Federici

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In scientic computing, systems often manage computations that require continuous acquisition of of satellite data and the management of large databases, as well as the execution of analysis software and simulation models (e.g. Monte Carlo or molecular dynamics cell simulations which may require several weeks of continuous run. These systems, consequently, should ensure the continuity of operation even in case of serious faults. HAVmS (High Availability Virtual machine System is a highly available, "fault tolerant" system with zero downtime in case of fault. It is based on the use of Virtual Machines and implemented by two servers with similar characteristics. HAVmS, thanks to the developed software solutions, is unique in its kind since it automatically failbacks once faults have been fixed. The system has been designed to be used both with professional or inexpensive hardware and supports the simultaneous execution of multiple services such as: web, mail, computing and administrative services, uninterrupted computing, data base management. Finally the system is cost effective adopting exclusively open source solutions, is easily manageable and for general use.

  7. Machine learning approach for automatic quality criteria detection of health web pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudinat, Arnaud; Grabar, Natalia; Boyer, Célia

    2007-01-01

    The number of medical websites is constantly growing [1]. Owing to the open nature of the Web, the reliability of information available on the Web is uneven. Internet users are overwhelmed by the quantity of information available on the Web. The situation is even more critical in the medical area, as the content proposed by health websites can have a direct impact on the users' well being. One way to control the reliability of health websites is to assess their quality and to make this assessment available to users. The HON Foundation has defined a set of eight ethical principles. HON's experts are working in order to manually define whether a given website complies with s the required principles. As the number of medical websites is constantly growing, manual expertise becomes insufficient and automatic systems should be used in order to help medical experts. In this paper we present the design and the evaluation of an automatic system conceived for the categorisation of medical and health documents according to he HONcode ethical principles. A first evaluation shows promising results. Currently the system shows 0.78 micro precision and 0.73 F-measure, with 0.06 errors.

  8. Automatic Creation of Machine Learning Workflows with Strongly Typed Genetic Programming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křen, T.; Pilát, M.; Neruda, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2017), č. článku 1760020. ISSN 0218-2130 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19877S Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015042 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : genetic programming * machine learning workflows * asynchronous evolutionary algorithm Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.778, year: 2016

  9. Automatic machine-learning based identification of jogging periods from accelerometer measurements of adolescents under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdravevski, Eftim; Risteska Stojkoska, Biljana; Standl, Marie; Schulz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of health benefits associated with physical activity depend on the activity duration, intensity and frequency, therefore their correct identification is very valuable and important in epidemiological and clinical studies. The aims of this study are: to develop an algorithm for automatic identification of intended jogging periods; and to assess whether the identification performance is improved when using two accelerometers at the hip and ankle, compared to when using only one at either position. The study used diarized jogging periods and the corresponding accelerometer data from thirty-nine, 15-year-old adolescents, collected under field conditions, as part of the GINIplus study. The data was obtained from two accelerometers placed at the hip and ankle. Automated feature engineering technique was performed to extract features from the raw accelerometer readings and to select a subset of the most significant features. Four machine learning algorithms were used for classification: Logistic regression, Support Vector Machines, Random Forest and Extremely Randomized Trees. Classification was performed using only data from the hip accelerometer, using only data from ankle accelerometer and using data from both accelerometers. The reported jogging periods were verified by visual inspection and used as golden standard. After the feature selection and tuning of the classification algorithms, all options provided a classification accuracy of at least 0.99, independent of the applied segmentation strategy with sliding windows of either 60s or 180s. The best matching ratio, i.e. the length of correctly identified jogging periods related to the total time including the missed ones, was up to 0.875. It could be additionally improved up to 0.967 by application of post-classification rules, which considered the duration of breaks and jogging periods. There was no obvious benefit of using two accelerometers, rather almost the same performance could be achieved from

  10. Automatic machine-learning based identification of jogging periods from accelerometer measurements of adolescents under field conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftim Zdravevski

    Full Text Available Assessment of health benefits associated with physical activity depend on the activity duration, intensity and frequency, therefore their correct identification is very valuable and important in epidemiological and clinical studies. The aims of this study are: to develop an algorithm for automatic identification of intended jogging periods; and to assess whether the identification performance is improved when using two accelerometers at the hip and ankle, compared to when using only one at either position.The study used diarized jogging periods and the corresponding accelerometer data from thirty-nine, 15-year-old adolescents, collected under field conditions, as part of the GINIplus study. The data was obtained from two accelerometers placed at the hip and ankle. Automated feature engineering technique was performed to extract features from the raw accelerometer readings and to select a subset of the most significant features. Four machine learning algorithms were used for classification: Logistic regression, Support Vector Machines, Random Forest and Extremely Randomized Trees. Classification was performed using only data from the hip accelerometer, using only data from ankle accelerometer and using data from both accelerometers.The reported jogging periods were verified by visual inspection and used as golden standard. After the feature selection and tuning of the classification algorithms, all options provided a classification accuracy of at least 0.99, independent of the applied segmentation strategy with sliding windows of either 60s or 180s. The best matching ratio, i.e. the length of correctly identified jogging periods related to the total time including the missed ones, was up to 0.875. It could be additionally improved up to 0.967 by application of post-classification rules, which considered the duration of breaks and jogging periods. There was no obvious benefit of using two accelerometers, rather almost the same performance could be

  11. The vending and à la carte policy intervention in Maine public high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davee, Anne-Marie; Blum, Janet E Whatley; Devore, Rachel L; Beaudoin, Christina M; Kaley, Lori A; Leiter, Janet L; Wigand, Debra A

    2005-11-01

    A healthy school nutrition environment may be important for decreasing childhood overweight. This article describes a project to make healthier snacks and beverages available in vending machines and à la carte programs in Maine public high schools. Seven public high schools in Maine volunteered to participate in this project. Four schools made changes to the nutrition environment, and three schools that served as controls did not. The nutrition guidelines were to offer only low-fat (not more than 30% of total calories from fat) and low-sugar (not more than 35% by weight of sugar) items in vending machines and à la carte programs. Strategies to implement the project included early communications with school officials, monetary stipends for participation, identification of a school liaison, and a committee at each school to promote the healthy changes. Baseline nutrient content and sales of all competitive foods and beverages were assessed to develop the guidelines for changes in the four schools. Student volunteers at all seven schools were measured for height, weight, diet quality, and physical activity level to assess the impact of the change to the nutrition environment. Baseline measures were taken in the spring semester of 2004. Nutrition changes were made to the à la carte programs and vending machines in the four intervention schools at the start of the fall semester of 2004. Follow-up nutrition assessment and student data collection occurred in the spring semester of 2005. Healthy changes in vending machines were more easily achieved than those made in the à la carte programs. Technical assistance and ongoing support were essential for successful implementation of this intervention. It is possible to improve the nutrition environment of Maine public high schools. Stakeholder support is essential to sustain healthy changes.

  12. 32 CFR 260.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operations. Direct competition. The presence and operation of a DoD Component vending machine or a vending... machines or vending facilities operated in areas serving employees, the majority of whom normally do not... the United States. Vending facility. Automatic vending machines, cafeterias, snack bars, cart service...

  13. Automatic Color Sorting Machine Using TCS230 Color Sensor And PIC Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunhimohammed C K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorting of products is a very difficult industrial process. Continuous manual sorting creates consistency issues. This paper describes a working prototype designed for automatic sorting of objects based on the color. TCS230 sensor was used to detect the color of the product and the PIC16F628A microcontroller was used to control the overall process. The identification of the color is based on the frequency analysis of the output of TCS230 sensor. Two conveyor belts were used, each controlled by separate DC motors. The first belt is for placing the product to be analyzed by the color sensor, and the second belt is for moving the container, having separated compartments, in order to separate the products. The experimental results promise that the prototype will fulfill the needs for higher production and precise quality in the field of automation.

  14. Automatic control of the preload in adaptive friction drives of chemical production machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakin, P. D.

    2017-08-01

    Being based on the principle of providing the systems with adaptation property to the real parameters and operational condition, the energy effective mechanical system constructed on the base of friction gear with automated preload is offered and this allows keeping mechanical efficiency value adequate transforming drive path to in the terms of multimode operation. This is achieved by integrated control loop, operating on the basis of the laws of motion with the energy of the main power flow by changing automatically the kinematic dimension of the section and, hence, the value of preload in the friction contact. The given ratios of forces and deformations in the control loop are required at the stage of conceptual design to determine design dimensions of power transmission elements with new properties.

  15. Method of Automatic Ontology Mapping through Machine Learning and Logic Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英林

    2004-01-01

    Ontology mapping is the bottleneck of handling conflicts among heterogeneous ontologies and of implementing reconfiguration or interoperability of legacy systems. We proposed an ontology mapping method by using machine learning, type constraints and logic mining techniques. This method is able to find concept correspondences through instances and the result is optimized by using an error function; it is able to find attribute correspondence between two equivalent concepts and the mapping accuracy is enhanced by combining together instances learning, type constraints and the logic relations that are imbedded in instances; moreover, it solves the most common kind of categorization conflicts. We then proposed a merging algorithm to generate the shared ontology and proposed a reconfigurable architecture for interoperation based on multi agents. The legacy systems are encapsulated as information agents to participate in the integration system. Finally we give a simplified case study.

  16. Big Data Analysis for Personalized Health Activities: Machine Learning Processing for Automatic Keyword Extraction Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ho Huh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The obese population is increasing rapidly due to the change of lifestyle and diet habits. Obesity can cause various complications and is becoming a social disease. Nonetheless, many obese patients are unaware of the medical treatments that are right for them. Although a variety of online and offline obesity management services have been introduced, they are still not enough to attract the attention of users and are not much of help to solve the problem. Obesity healthcare and personalized health activities are the important factors. Since obesity is related to lifestyle habits, eating habits, and interests, I concluded that the big data analysis of these factors could deduce the problem. Therefore, I collected big data by applying the machine learning and crawling method to the unstructured citizen health data in Korea and the search data of Naver, which is a Korean portal company, and Google for keyword analysis for personalized health activities. It visualized the big data using text mining and word cloud. This study collected and analyzed the data concerning the interests related to obesity, change of interest on obesity, and treatment articles. The analysis showed a wide range of seasonal factors according to spring, summer, fall, and winter. It also visualized and completed the process of extracting the keywords appropriate for treatment of abdominal obesity and lower body obesity. The keyword big data analysis technique for personalized health activities proposed in this paper is based on individual’s interests, level of interest, and body type. Also, the user interface (UI that visualizes the big data compatible with Android and Apple iOS. The users can see the data on the app screen. Many graphs and pictures can be seen via menu, and the significant data values are visualized through machine learning. Therefore, I expect that the big data analysis using various keywords specific to a person will result in measures for personalized

  17. Infrared machine vision system for the automatic detection of olive fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Elena; Baeten, Vincent; Pierna, Juan Antonio Fernández; García-Mesa, José A

    2013-11-15

    External quality is an important factor in the extraction of olive oil and the marketing of olive fruits. The appearance and presence of external damage are factors that influence the quality of the oil extracted and the perception of consumers, determining the level of acceptance prior to purchase in the case of table olives. The aim of this paper is to report on artificial vision techniques developed for the online estimation of olive quality and to assess the effectiveness of these techniques in evaluating quality based on detecting external defects. This method of classifying olives according to the presence of defects is based on an infrared (IR) vision system. Images of defects were acquired using a digital monochrome camera with band-pass filters on near-infrared (NIR). The original images were processed using segmentation algorithms, edge detection and pixel value intensity to classify the whole fruit. The detection of the defect involved a pixel classification procedure based on nonparametric models of the healthy and defective areas of olives. Classification tests were performed on olives to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method. This research showed that the IR vision system is a useful technology for the automatic assessment of olives that has the potential for use in offline inspection and for online sorting for defects and the presence of surface damage, easily distinguishing those that do not meet minimum quality requirements. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards automatic lithological classification from remote sensing data using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Le; Porwal, Alok; Holden, Eun-Jung; Dentith, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Remote sensing data can be effectively used as a mean to build geological knowledge for poorly mapped terrains. Spectral remote sensing data from space- and air-borne sensors have been widely used to geological mapping, especially in areas of high outcrop density in arid regions. However, spectral remote sensing information by itself cannot be efficiently used for a comprehensive lithological classification of an area due to (1) diagnostic spectral response of a rock within an image pixel is conditioned by several factors including the atmospheric effects, spectral and spatial resolution of the image, sub-pixel level heterogeneity in chemical and mineralogical composition of the rock, presence of soil and vegetation cover; (2) only surface information and is therefore highly sensitive to the noise due to weathering, soil cover, and vegetation. Consequently, for efficient lithological classification, spectral remote sensing data needs to be supplemented with other remote sensing datasets that provide geomorphological and subsurface geological information, such as digital topographic model (DEM) and aeromagnetic data. Each of the datasets contain significant information about geology that, in conjunction, can potentially be used for automated lithological classification using supervised machine learning algorithms. In this study, support vector machine (SVM), which is a kernel-based supervised learning method, was applied to automated lithological classification of a study area in northwestern India using remote sensing data, namely, ASTER, DEM and aeromagnetic data. Several digital image processing techniques were used to produce derivative datasets that contained enhanced information relevant to lithological discrimination. A series of SVMs (trained using k-folder cross-validation with grid search) were tested using various combinations of input datasets selected from among 50 datasets including the original 14 ASTER bands and 36 derivative datasets (including 14

  19. AES Cardless Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) Biometric Security System Design Using FPGA Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nabihah; Rifen, A. Aminurdin M.; Helmy Abd Wahab, Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Automated Teller Machine (ATM) is an electronic banking outlet that allows bank customers to complete a banking transactions without the aid of any bank official or teller. Several problems are associated with the use of ATM card such card cloning, card damaging, card expiring, cast skimming, cost of issuance and maintenance and accessing customer account by third parties. The aim of this project is to give a freedom to the user by changing the card to biometric security system to access the bank account using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm. The project is implemented using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) DE2-115 board with Cyclone IV device, fingerprint scanner, and Multi-Touch Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Second Edition (MTL2) using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware (VHSIC) Description Language (VHDL). This project used 128-bits AES for recommend the device with the throughput around 19.016Gbps and utilized around 520 slices. This design offers a secure banking transaction with a low rea and high performance and very suited for restricted space environments for small amounts of RAM or ROM where either encryption or decryption is performed.

  20. Hour-Glass Neural Network Based Daily Money Flow Estimation for Automatic Teller Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karungaru, Stephen; Akashi, Takuya; Nakano, Miyoko; Fukumi, Minoru

    Monetary transactions using Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) have become a normal part of our daily lives. At ATMs, one can withdraw, send or debit money and even update passbooks among many other possible functions. ATMs are turning the banking sector into a ubiquitous service. However, while the advantages for the ATM users (financial institution customers) are many, the financial institution side faces an uphill task in management and maintaining the cash flow in the ATMs. On one hand, too much money in a rarely used ATM is wasteful, while on the other, insufficient amounts would adversely affect the customers and may result in a lost business opportunity for the financial institution. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a daily cash flow estimation system using neural networks that enables better daily forecasting of the money required at the ATMs. The neural network used in this work is a five layered hour glass shaped structure that achieves fast learning, even for the time series data for which seasonality and trend feature extraction is difficult. Feature extraction is carried out using the Akamatsu Integral and Differential transforms. This work achieves an average estimation accuracy of 92.6%.

  1. Machine learning approach to automatic exudate detection in retinal images from diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopharak, Akara; Dailey, Matthew N.; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Barman, Sarah; Williamson, Tom; Thet Nwe, Khine; Aye Moe, Yin

    2010-01-01

    Exudates are among the preliminary signs of diabetic retinopathy, a major cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. Early detection of exudates could improve patients' chances to avoid blindness. In this paper, we present a series of experiments on feature selection and exudates classification using naive Bayes and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. We first fit the naive Bayes model to a training set consisting of 15 features extracted from each of 115,867 positive examples of exudate pixels and an equal number of negative examples. We then perform feature selection on the naive Bayes model, repeatedly removing features from the classifier, one by one, until classification performance stops improving. To find the best SVM, we begin with the best feature set from the naive Bayes classifier, and repeatedly add the previously-removed features to the classifier. For each combination of features, we perform a grid search to determine the best combination of hyperparameters ν (tolerance for training errors) and γ (radial basis function width). We compare the best naive Bayes and SVM classifiers to a baseline nearest neighbour (NN) classifier using the best feature sets from both classifiers. We find that the naive Bayes and SVM classifiers perform better than the NN classifier. The overall best sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy are 92.28%, 98.52%, 53.05%, and 98.41%, respectively.

  2. Evaluation of cleaning and disinfection performance of automatic washer disinfectors machines in programs presenting different cycle times and temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergo, Maria do Carmo Noronha Cominato

    2006-01-01

    Thermal washer-disinfectors represent a technology that brought about great advantages such as, establishment of protocols, standard operating procedures, reduction in occupational risk of a biological and environmental nature. The efficacy of the cleaning and disinfection obtained by automatic washer disinfectors machines in running programs with different times and temperatures determined by the different official agencies was validated according to recommendations from ISO Standards 15883-1/1999 and HTM2030 (NHS Estates, 1997) for the determining of the Minimum Lethality and DAL both theoretically and through the use with thermocouples. In order to determine the cleaning efficacy, the Soil Test, Biotrace Pro-tect and the Protein Test Kit were used. The procedure to verify the CFU count of viable microorganisms was performed before and after the thermal disinfection. This article shows that the results are in compliance with the ISO and HTM Standards. The validation steps confirmed the high efficacy level of the Medical Washer-Disinfectors. This protocol enabled the evaluation of the procedure based on evidence supported by scientific research, aiming at the support of the Supply Center multi-professional personnel with information and the possibility of developing further research.

  3. Automatic Sleep Staging using Multi-dimensional Feature Extraction and Multi-kernel Fuzzy Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper employed the clinical Polysomnographic (PSG data, mainly including all-night Electroencephalogram (EEG, Electrooculogram (EOG and Electromyogram (EMG signals of subjects, and adopted the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM clinical staging manual as standards to realize automatic sleep staging. Authors extracted eighteen different features of EEG, EOG and EMG in time domains and frequency domains to construct the vectors according to the existing literatures as well as clinical experience. By adopting sleep samples self-learning, the linear combination of weights and parameters of multiple kernels of the fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM were learned and the multi-kernel FSVM (MK-FSVM was constructed. The overall agreement between the experts' scores and the results presented was 82.53%. Compared with previous results, the accuracy of N1 was improved to some extent while the accuracies of other stages were approximate, which well reflected the sleep structure. The staging algorithm proposed in this paper is transparent, and worth further investigation.

  4. Effect of Extended State Observer and Automatic Voltage Regulator on Synchronous Machine Connected to Infinite Bus Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angu, Rittu; Mehta, R. K.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a robust controller known as Extended State Observer (ESO) in order to improve the stability and voltage regulation of a synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus power system through a transmission line. The ESO-based control scheme is implemented with an automatic voltage regulator in conjunction with an excitation system to enhance the damping of low frequency power system oscillations, as the Power System Stabilizer (PSS) does. The implementation of PSS excitation control techniques however requires reliable information about the entire states, though they are not always directly measureable. To address this issue, the proposed ESO provides the estimate of system states as well as disturbance state together in order to improve not only the damping but also compensates system efficiently in presence of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. The Closed-Loop Poles (CLPs) of the system have been assigned by the symmetric root locus technique, with the desired level of system damping provided by the dominant CLPs. The performance of the system is analyzed through simulating at different operating conditions. The control method is not only capable of providing zero estimation error in steady-state, but also shows robustness in tracking the reference command under parametric variations and external disturbances. Illustrative examples have been provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed methodology.

  5. Hybrid three-dimensional and support vector machine approach for automatic vehicle tracking and classification using a single camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachach, Redouane; Cañas, José María

    2016-05-01

    Using video in traffic monitoring is one of the most active research domains in the computer vision community. TrafficMonitor, a system that employs a hybrid approach for automatic vehicle tracking and classification on highways using a simple stationary calibrated camera, is presented. The proposed system consists of three modules: vehicle detection, vehicle tracking, and vehicle classification. Moving vehicles are detected by an enhanced Gaussian mixture model background estimation algorithm. The design includes a technique to resolve the occlusion problem by using a combination of two-dimensional proximity tracking algorithm and the Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi feature tracking algorithm. The last module classifies the shapes identified into five vehicle categories: motorcycle, car, van, bus, and truck by using three-dimensional templates and an algorithm based on histogram of oriented gradients and the support vector machine classifier. Several experiments have been performed using both real and simulated traffic in order to validate the system. The experiments were conducted on GRAM-RTM dataset and a proper real video dataset which is made publicly available as part of this work.

  6. Automatic Recognition of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in Blood Microscopic Images Using K-means Clustering and Support Vector Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Fatemeh; Najafabadi, Tooraj Abbasian; Araabi, Babak Nadjar

    2016-01-01

    Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a subtype of acute leukemia, which is characterized by the accumulation of myeloid blasts in the bone marrow. Careful microscopic examination of stained blood smear or bone marrow aspirate is still the most significant diagnostic methodology for initial AML screening and considered as the first step toward diagnosis. It is time-consuming and due to the elusive nature of the signs and symptoms of AML; wrong diagnosis may occur by pathologists. Therefore, the need for automation of leukemia detection has arisen. In this paper, an automatic technique for identification and detection of AML and its prevalent subtypes, i.e., M2-M5 is presented. At first, microscopic images are acquired from blood smears of patients with AML and normal cases. After applying image preprocessing, color segmentation strategy is applied for segmenting white blood cells from other blood components and then discriminative features, i.e., irregularity, nucleus-cytoplasm ratio, Hausdorff dimension, shape, color, and texture features are extracted from the entire nucleus in the whole images containing multiple nuclei. Images are classified to cancerous and noncancerous images by binary support vector machine (SVM) classifier with 10-fold cross validation technique. Classifier performance is evaluated by three parameters, i.e., sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Cancerous images are also classified into their prevalent subtypes by multi-SVM classifier. The results show that the proposed algorithm has achieved an acceptable performance for diagnosis of AML and its common subtypes. Therefore, it can be used as an assistant diagnostic tool for pathologists.

  7. Assessment of Machine Learning Algorithms for Automatic Benthic Cover Monitoring and Mapping Using Towed Underwater Video Camera and High-Resolution Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Benthic habitat monitoring is essential for many applications involving biodiversity, marine resource management, and the estimation of variations over temporal and spatial scales. Nevertheless, both automatic and semi-automatic analytical methods for deriving ecologically significant information from towed camera images are still limited. This study proposes a methodology that enables a high-resolution towed camera with a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS to adaptively monitor and map benthic habitats. First, the towed camera finishes a pre-programmed initial survey to collect benthic habitat videos, which can then be converted to geo-located benthic habitat images. Second, an expert labels a number of benthic habitat images to class habitats manually. Third, attributes for categorizing these images are extracted automatically using the Bag of Features (BOF algorithm. Fourth, benthic cover categories are detected automatically using Weighted Majority Voting (WMV ensembles for Support Vector Machines (SVM, K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN, and Bagging (BAG classifiers. Fifth, WMV-trained ensembles can be used for categorizing more benthic cover images automatically. Finally, correctly categorized geo-located images can provide ground truth samples for benthic cover mapping using high-resolution satellite imagery. The proposed methodology was tested over Shiraho, Ishigaki Island, Japan, a heterogeneous coastal area. The WMV ensemble exhibited 89% overall accuracy for categorizing corals, sediments, seagrass, and algae species. Furthermore, the same WMV ensemble produced a benthic cover map using a Quickbird satellite image with 92.7% overall accuracy.

  8. Automatic classification of written descriptions by healthy adults: An overview of the application of natural language processing and machine learning techniques to clinical discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Cíntia Matsuda; Cunha, Andre; Scarton, Carolina; Aluísio, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Discourse production is an important aspect in the evaluation of brain-injured individuals. We believe that studies comparing the performance of brain-injured subjects with that of healthy controls must use groups with compatible education. A pioneering application of machine learning methods using Brazilian Portuguese for clinical purposes is described, highlighting education as an important variable in the Brazilian scenario. The aims were to describe how to:(i) develop machine learning classifiers using features generated by natural language processing tools to distinguish descriptions produced by healthy individuals into classes based on their years of education; and(ii) automatically identify the features that best distinguish the groups. The approach proposed here extracts linguistic features automatically from the written descriptions with the aid of two Natural Language Processing tools: Coh-Metrix-Port and AIC. It also includes nine task-specific features (three new ones, two extracted manually, besides description time; type of scene described - simple or complex; presentation order - which type of picture was described first; and age). In this study, the descriptions by 144 of the subjects studied in Toledo 18 were used,which included 200 healthy Brazilians of both genders. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a radial basis function (RBF) kernel is the most recommended approach for the binary classification of our data, classifying three of the four initial classes. CfsSubsetEval (CFS) is a strong candidate to replace manual feature selection methods.

  9. Automatic classification of written descriptions by healthy adults: An overview of the application of natural language processing and machine learning techniques to clinical discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Matsuda Toledo

    Full Text Available Discourse production is an important aspect in the evaluation of brain-injured individuals. We believe that studies comparing the performance of brain-injured subjects with that of healthy controls must use groups with compatible education. A pioneering application of machine learning methods using Brazilian Portuguese for clinical purposes is described, highlighting education as an important variable in the Brazilian scenario.OBJECTIVE: The aims were to describe how to: (i develop machine learning classifiers using features generated by natural language processing tools to distinguish descriptions produced by healthy individuals into classes based on their years of education; and (ii automatically identify the features that best distinguish the groups.METHODS: The approach proposed here extracts linguistic features automatically from the written descriptions with the aid of two Natural Language Processing tools: Coh-Metrix-Port and AIC. It also includes nine task-specific features (three new ones, two extracted manually, besides description time; type of scene described - simple or complex; presentation order - which type of picture was described first; and age. In this study, the descriptions by 144 of the subjects studied in Toledo18 were used, which included 200 healthy Brazilians of both genders.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:A Support Vector Machine (SVM with a radial basis function (RBF kernel is the most recommended approach for the binary classification of our data, classifying three of the four initial classes. CfsSubsetEval (CFS is a strong candidate to replace manual feature selection methods.

  10. Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine ...

  11. 32 CFR 1903.17 - Soliciting, vending, and debt collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.17 Soliciting, vending, and debt collection. Commercial or political soliciting, vending of all kinds, displaying or distributing commercial advertising... 5 CFR parts 110 and 950 as amended and sponsored or approved by the Director of Central Intelligence...

  12. System for automatic crate recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Kukla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes usage of computer vision and artificial intelligence methods for application. The method solves abuse of reverse vending machine. This topic has been solved as innovation voucher for the South Moravian Region. It was developed by Mendel university in Brno (Department of informatics – Faculty of Business and Economics and Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Engineering – Faculty of Agronomy together with the Czech subsidiary of Tomra. The project is focused on a possibility of integration industrial cameras and computers to process recognition of crates in the verse vending machine. The aim was the effective security system that will be able to save hundreds-thousands financial loss. As suitable development and runtime platform there was chosen product ControlWeb and VisionLab developed by Moravian Instruments Inc.

  13. Automatic Classification of Sub-Techniques in Classical Cross-Country Skiing Using a Machine Learning Algorithm on Micro-Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Marius Hoel Rindal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The automatic classification of sub-techniques in classical cross-country skiing provides unique possibilities for analyzing the biomechanical aspects of outdoor skiing. This is currently possible due to the miniaturization and flexibility of wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs that allow researchers to bring the laboratory to the field. In this study, we aimed to optimize the accuracy of the automatic classification of classical cross-country skiing sub-techniques by using two IMUs attached to the skier’s arm and chest together with a machine learning algorithm. The novelty of our approach is the reliable detection of individual cycles using a gyroscope on the skier’s arm, while a neural network machine learning algorithm robustly classifies each cycle to a sub-technique using sensor data from an accelerometer on the chest. In this study, 24 datasets from 10 different participants were separated into the categories training-, validation- and test-data. Overall, we achieved a classification accuracy of 93.9% on the test-data. Furthermore, we illustrate how an accurate classification of sub-techniques can be combined with data from standard sports equipment including position, altitude, speed and heart rate measuring systems. Combining this information has the potential to provide novel insight into physiological and biomechanical aspects valuable to coaches, athletes and researchers.

  14. 34 CFR 395.32 - Collection and distribution of vending machine income from vending machines on Federal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... at which at least 50 per centum of the total hours worked on the premises occurs during a period other than normal working hours, shall accrue to the State licensing agency which shall disburse such... such department, agency, or instrumentality, shall be responsible for the collection of, and accounting...

  15. Automatic classification of 6-month-old infants at familial risk for language-based learning disorder using a support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Marzieh; Rezvani, Zahra; Benasich, April A

    2016-07-01

    This study assesses the ability of a novel, "automatic classification" approach to facilitate identification of infants at highest familial risk for language-learning disorders (LLD) and to provide converging assessments to enable earlier detection of developmental disorders that disrupt language acquisition. Network connectivity measures derived from 62-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) recording were used to identify selected features within two infant groups who differed on LLD risk: infants with a family history of LLD (FH+) and typically-developing infants without such a history (FH-). A support vector machine was deployed; global efficiency and global and local clustering coefficients were computed. A novel minimum spanning tree (MST) approach was also applied. Cross-validation was employed to assess the resultant classification. Infants were classified with about 80% accuracy into FH+ and FH- groups with 89% specificity and precision of 92%. Clustering patterns differed by risk group and MST network analysis suggests that FH+ infants' EEG complexity patterns were significantly different from FH- infants. The automatic classification techniques used here were shown to be both robust and reliable and should provide valuable information when applied to early identification of risk or clinical groups. The ability to identify infants at highest risk for LLD using "automatic classification" strategies is a novel convergent approach that may facilitate earlier diagnosis and remediation. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Eddy-current guidance of the automatic inspection machine for the main vessel of the superphenix reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, B.; Pigeon, M.

    1985-01-01

    The weld detector device is an eddy-current measurement system consisting of four dual sensors (absolute + differential types), and a control cabinet with eight analog channels. The system delivers all the signals required for computing the correct track of the MIR machine along the welds, irrespective of bend, temperature, width and type of the seam, junctions of seams

  17. Electricity of machine tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijeon media editorial department

    1977-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with electricity machine, which can taints from generator to motor, motor a power source of machine tool, electricity machine for machine tool such as switch in main circuit, automatic machine, a knife switch and pushing button, snap switch, protection device, timer, solenoid, and rectifier. The second part handles wiring diagram. This concludes basic electricity circuit of machine tool, electricity wiring diagram in your machine like milling machine, planer and grinding machine. The third part introduces fault diagnosis of machine, which gives the practical solution according to fault diagnosis and the diagnostic method with voltage and resistance measurement by tester.

  18. Generalized synthetic aperture radar automatic target recognition by convolutional neural network with joint use of two-dimensional principal component analysis and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ce; Jiang, Xue; Liu, Xingzhao

    2017-10-01

    Convolutional neural network (CNN), as a vital part of the deep learning research field, has shown powerful potential for automatic target recognition (ATR) of synthetic aperture radar (SAR). However, the high complexity caused by the deep structure of CNN makes it difficult to generalize. An improved form of CNN with higher generalization capability and less probability of overfitting, which further improves the efficiency and robustness of the SAR ATR system, is proposed. The convolution layers of CNN are combined with a two-dimensional principal component analysis algorithm. Correspondingly, the kernel support vector machine is utilized as the classifier layer instead of the multilayer perceptron. The verification experiments are implemented using the moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition database, and the results validate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  19. Fully automatized renal parenchyma volumetry using a support vector machine based recognition system for subject-specific probability map generation in native MR volume data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloger, Oliver; Tönnies, Klaus; Mensel, Birger; Völzke, Henry

    2015-11-01

    In epidemiological studies as well as in clinical practice the amount of produced medical image data strongly increased in the last decade. In this context organ segmentation in MR volume data gained increasing attention for medical applications. Especially in large-scale population-based studies organ volumetry is highly relevant requiring exact organ segmentation. Since manual segmentation is time-consuming and prone to reader variability, large-scale studies need automatized methods to perform organ segmentation. Fully automatic organ segmentation in native MR image data has proven to be a very challenging task. Imaging artifacts as well as inter- and intrasubject MR-intensity differences complicate the application of supervised learning strategies. Thus, we propose a modularized framework of a two-stepped probabilistic approach that generates subject-specific probability maps for renal parenchyma tissue, which are refined subsequently by using several, extended segmentation strategies. We present a three class-based support vector machine recognition system that incorporates Fourier descriptors as shape features to recognize and segment characteristic parenchyma parts. Probabilistic methods use the segmented characteristic parenchyma parts to generate high quality subject-specific parenchyma probability maps. Several refinement strategies including a final shape-based 3D level set segmentation technique are used in subsequent processing modules to segment renal parenchyma. Furthermore, our framework recognizes and excludes renal cysts from parenchymal volume, which is important to analyze renal functions. Volume errors and Dice coefficients show that our presented framework outperforms existing approaches.

  20. Fully automatized renal parenchyma volumetry using a support vector machine based recognition system for subject-specific probability map generation in native MR volume data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloger, Oliver; Völzke, Henry; Tönnies, Klaus; Mensel, Birger

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiological studies as well as in clinical practice the amount of produced medical image data strongly increased in the last decade. In this context organ segmentation in MR volume data gained increasing attention for medical applications. Especially in large-scale population-based studies organ volumetry is highly relevant requiring exact organ segmentation. Since manual segmentation is time-consuming and prone to reader variability, large-scale studies need automatized methods to perform organ segmentation. Fully automatic organ segmentation in native MR image data has proven to be a very challenging task. Imaging artifacts as well as inter- and intrasubject MR-intensity differences complicate the application of supervised learning strategies. Thus, we propose a modularized framework of a two-stepped probabilistic approach that generates subject-specific probability maps for renal parenchyma tissue, which are refined subsequently by using several, extended segmentation strategies. We present a three class-based support vector machine recognition system that incorporates Fourier descriptors as shape features to recognize and segment characteristic parenchyma parts. Probabilistic methods use the segmented characteristic parenchyma parts to generate high quality subject-specific parenchyma probability maps. Several refinement strategies including a final shape-based 3D level set segmentation technique are used in subsequent processing modules to segment renal parenchyma. Furthermore, our framework recognizes and excludes renal cysts from parenchymal volume, which is important to analyze renal functions. Volume errors and Dice coefficients show that our presented framework outperforms existing approaches. (paper)

  1. MO-G-BRE-04: Automatic Verification of Daily Treatment Deliveries and Generation of Daily Treatment Reports for a MR Image-Guided Treatment Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D; Li, X; Li, H; Wooten, H; Green, O; Rodriguez, V; Mutic, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Two aims of this work were to develop a method to automatically verify treatment delivery accuracy immediately after patient treatment and to develop a comprehensive daily treatment report to provide all required information for daily MR-IGRT review. Methods: After systematically analyzing the requirements for treatment delivery verification and understanding the available information from a novel MR-IGRT treatment machine, we designed a method to use 1) treatment plan files, 2) delivery log files, and 3) dosimetric calibration information to verify the accuracy and completeness of daily treatment deliveries. The method verifies the correctness of delivered treatment plans and beams, beam segments, and for each segment, the beam-on time and MLC leaf positions. Composite primary fluence maps are calculated from the MLC leaf positions and the beam-on time. Error statistics are calculated on the fluence difference maps between the plan and the delivery. We also designed the daily treatment delivery report by including all required information for MR-IGRT and physics weekly review - the plan and treatment fraction information, dose verification information, daily patient setup screen captures, and the treatment delivery verification results. Results: The parameters in the log files (e.g. MLC positions) were independently verified and deemed accurate and trustable. A computer program was developed to implement the automatic delivery verification and daily report generation. The program was tested and clinically commissioned with sufficient IMRT and 3D treatment delivery data. The final version has been integrated into a commercial MR-IGRT treatment delivery system. Conclusion: A method was developed to automatically verify MR-IGRT treatment deliveries and generate daily treatment reports. Already in clinical use since December 2013, the system is able to facilitate delivery error detection, and expedite physician daily IGRT review and physicist weekly chart

  2. Modified automatic teller machine prototype for older adults: a case study of participative approach to inclusive design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chetwyn C H; Wong, Alex W K; Lee, Tatia M C; Chi, Iris

    2009-03-01

    The goal of this study was to enhance an existing automated teller machine (ATM) human-machine interface in order to accommodate the needs of older adults. Older adults were involved in the design and field test of the modified ATM prototype. The design of the user interface and functionality took the cognitive and physical abilities of older adults into account. The modified ATM system included only "cash withdrawal" and "transfer" functions based on the task demands and needs for services of older adults. One hundred and forty-one older adults (aged 60 or above) participated in the field test by operating modified or existing ATM systems. Those who operated the modified system were found to have significantly higher success rates than those who operated the existing system. The enhancement was most significant among older adults who had lower ATM-related abilities, a lower level of education, and no prior experience of using ATMs. This study demonstrates the usefulness of using a universal design and participatory approach to modify the existing ATM system for use by older adults. However, it also leads to a reduction in functionality of the enhanced system. Future studies should explore ways to develop a universal design ATM system which can satisfy the abilities and needs of all users in the entire population.

  3. GAPscreener: An automatic tool for screening human genetic association literature in PubMed using the support vector machine technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoury Muin J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthesis of data from published human genetic association studies is a critical step in the translation of human genome discoveries into health applications. Although genetic association studies account for a substantial proportion of the abstracts in PubMed, identifying them with standard queries is not always accurate or efficient. Further automating the literature-screening process can reduce the burden of a labor-intensive and time-consuming traditional literature search. The Support Vector Machine (SVM, a well-established machine learning technique, has been successful in classifying text, including biomedical literature. The GAPscreener, a free SVM-based software tool, can be used to assist in screening PubMed abstracts for human genetic association studies. Results The data source for this research was the HuGE Navigator, formerly known as the HuGE Pub Lit database. Weighted SVM feature selection based on a keyword list obtained by the two-way z score method demonstrated the best screening performance, achieving 97.5% recall, 98.3% specificity and 31.9% precision in performance testing. Compared with the traditional screening process based on a complex PubMed query, the SVM tool reduced by about 90% the number of abstracts requiring individual review by the database curator. The tool also ascertained 47 articles that were missed by the traditional literature screening process during the 4-week test period. We examined the literature on genetic associations with preterm birth as an example. Compared with the traditional, manual process, the GAPscreener both reduced effort and improved accuracy. Conclusion GAPscreener is the first free SVM-based application available for screening the human genetic association literature in PubMed with high recall and specificity. The user-friendly graphical user interface makes this a practical, stand-alone application. The software can be downloaded at no charge.

  4. WEIBULL MULTIPLICATIVE MODEL AND MACHINE LEARNING MODELS FOR FULL-AUTOMATIC DARK-SPOT DETECTION FROM SAR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Taravat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As a major aspect of marine pollution, oil release into the sea has serious biological and environmental impacts. Among remote sensing systems (which is a tool that offers a non-destructive investigation method, synthetic aperture radar (SAR can provide valuable synoptic information about the position and size of the oil spill due to its wide area coverage and day/night, and all-weather capabilities. In this paper we present a new automated method for oil-spill monitoring. A new approach is based on the combination of Weibull Multiplicative Model and machine learning techniques to differentiate between dark spots and the background. First, the filter created based on Weibull Multiplicative Model is applied to each sub-image. Second, the sub-image is segmented by two different neural networks techniques (Pulsed Coupled Neural Networks and Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks. As the last step, a very simple filtering process is used to eliminate the false targets. The proposed approaches were tested on 20 ENVISAT and ERS2 images which contained dark spots. The same parameters were used in all tests. For the overall dataset, the average accuracies of 94.05 % and 95.20 % were obtained for PCNN and MLP methods, respectively. The average computational time for dark-spot detection with a 256 × 256 image in about 4 s for PCNN segmentation using IDL software which is the fastest one in this field at present. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach is very fast, robust and effective. The proposed approach can be applied to the future spaceborne SAR images.

  5. Weibull Multiplicative Model and Machine Learning Models for Full-Automatic Dark-Spot Detection from SAR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taravat, A.; Del Frate, F.

    2013-09-01

    As a major aspect of marine pollution, oil release into the sea has serious biological and environmental impacts. Among remote sensing systems (which is a tool that offers a non-destructive investigation method), synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can provide valuable synoptic information about the position and size of the oil spill due to its wide area coverage and day/night, and all-weather capabilities. In this paper we present a new automated method for oil-spill monitoring. A new approach is based on the combination of Weibull Multiplicative Model and machine learning techniques to differentiate between dark spots and the background. First, the filter created based on Weibull Multiplicative Model is applied to each sub-image. Second, the sub-image is segmented by two different neural networks techniques (Pulsed Coupled Neural Networks and Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks). As the last step, a very simple filtering process is used to eliminate the false targets. The proposed approaches were tested on 20 ENVISAT and ERS2 images which contained dark spots. The same parameters were used in all tests. For the overall dataset, the average accuracies of 94.05 % and 95.20 % were obtained for PCNN and MLP methods, respectively. The average computational time for dark-spot detection with a 256 × 256 image in about 4 s for PCNN segmentation using IDL software which is the fastest one in this field at present. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach is very fast, robust and effective. The proposed approach can be applied to the future spaceborne SAR images.

  6. Street vending and informal economy: Survey data from Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Lina M; Estrada, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    This data brief describes data collected in Cali, Colombia about the economic dynamic and socioeconomic conditions of street vendors in the city. The study was conducted between 2014 and 2016 in two populated sites in terms of formal and informal commerce in the city. We present the methodology followed in the study, location of street vending sites and type of data collected to approximate to the economic dimension of street vending. Data collected contains information about sociodemographic characteristics, life satisfaction, business operation and characteristics, income and expenses, official license for operation. This information is linked to the publication (Martinez et al., 2017) [1].

  7. Automatic recognition of disorders, findings, pharmaceuticals and body structures from clinical text: an annotation and machine learning study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeppstedt, Maria; Kvist, Maria; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Dalianis, Hercules

    2014-06-01

    Automatic recognition of clinical entities in the narrative text of health records is useful for constructing applications for documentation of patient care, as well as for secondary usage in the form of medical knowledge extraction. There are a number of named entity recognition studies on English clinical text, but less work has been carried out on clinical text in other languages. This study was performed on Swedish health records, and focused on four entities that are highly relevant for constructing a patient overview and for medical hypothesis generation, namely the entities: Disorder, Finding, Pharmaceutical Drug and Body Structure. The study had two aims: to explore how well named entity recognition methods previously applied to English clinical text perform on similar texts written in Swedish; and to evaluate whether it is meaningful to divide the more general category Medical Problem, which has been used in a number of previous studies, into the two more granular entities, Disorder and Finding. Clinical notes from a Swedish internal medicine emergency unit were annotated for the four selected entity categories, and the inter-annotator agreement between two pairs of annotators was measured, resulting in an average F-score of 0.79 for Disorder, 0.66 for Finding, 0.90 for Pharmaceutical Drug and 0.80 for Body Structure. A subset of the developed corpus was thereafter used for finding suitable features for training a conditional random fields model. Finally, a new model was trained on this subset, using the best features and settings, and its ability to generalise to held-out data was evaluated. This final model obtained an F-score of 0.81 for Disorder, 0.69 for Finding, 0.88 for Pharmaceutical Drug, 0.85 for Body Structure and 0.78 for the combined category Disorder+Finding. The obtained results, which are in line with or slightly lower than those for similar studies on English clinical text, many of them conducted using a larger training data set, show that

  8. Lessons Learned From a Healthful Vending Pilot Program in Delaware State Agency Buildings, 2011–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Laura; Trotter, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Changes in food availability in worksites can result in changes in eating behavior and weight status. Nemours Health and Prevention Services, in conjunction with partners in Delaware, conducted a 6-month pilot program to assess the feasibility and impact of requiring that 75% of the items in vending machines in 3 state agency buildings have healthful items. Methods We collected process evaluation data from October 2011 through April 2012 by taking weekly photographs of all machines to record the number of healthful items available. Outcomes were measured through sales reports designed to enumerate changes in number and type of items sold and overall profit from each building. Results We found challenges in fully implementing the 75% goal. In one of the 3 buildings, all machines were compliant within 7 weeks; in another, full compliance did not occur until week 19. Despite these challenges, the number of items sold in each machine was comparable to numbers from the previous year. Total profits from each building varied across the 3 sites and during the pilot. One building had a 51% increase in profits in January 2012 compared with profits averaged for January 2011 and January 2010. In contrast, monthly profit at another building fluctuated from an increase of 6% to a loss of 30%. Conclusion Overall, our results suggest that collaborative efforts can result in a feasible intervention with little negative influence on profits. PMID:25144678

  9. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leftover, heated, spiced and roasted suya of the following day, were collected from three locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended chicken and beef suya and measure the microbial count at each stage of handling from the raw state to marketing and consumption. The plate count ...

  10. Microbial Hazards of Street-Vended Grilled Chicken Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Patricia Azanza

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial hazards associated with street-vended grilled chicken intestine (isaw were studied. Grilling of isaw effected ≥89.00% decrease in the total microbial load of the sample. Cooked isaw contained about 105-106 cfu/g aerobic plate counts and 103-104 MPN/g coliform counts. Salmonella per 25 g sample was isolated from cooked isaw samples. Grilling eliminated Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes cells initially present in pre-cooked samples. Different sauces of isaw showed increasing numbers of total aerobic microorganisms and coliform during vending operations. The total plate counts and coliform counts of the sour sauce, which ranged from 103-105 cfu/g and 101 MPN/g, respectively, were observed to be lower than those found in the sweet sauce. Sources of microbial contaminants of grilled chicken isaw included the natural flora of the raw materials, contaminations from food-contact surfaces, bamboo skewers, and the hands of the food handlers. Among the critical control points identified in the street-vending operation of chicken isaw were the control of time and temperature during cooking and hold-on periods during vending operations.

  11. Bacteria associated with street vended foods: implications to food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street vended foods were analysed for the bacterial load and the presence of pathogenic and/or potentially pathogenic bacteria. The foods were collected randomly from ambulatory and stationary vendors and analysed individually and then categorized as meats, salads and carbohydrates. The microbial analysis indicated ...

  12. Itinerant vending of medicines inside buses in Nigeria: vending strategies, dominant themes and medicine-related information provided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuff, Kazeem B; Wassi Sanni, Abd'

    2011-07-01

    To determine vending strategies and marketing themes employed by itinerant bus vendors, and assess the accuracy and completeness of information provided on medicines being sold in an urban setting in Nigeria. Cross-sectional study and content analysis of itinerant vending of medicines inside buses recorded with a mobile telephone on purposively selected routes in a mega city with an estimated 18 million residents in southwestern Nigeria over a 2-month period. Two coders independently assessed 192 vending episodes by 56 vendors for 147 OTC and prescription medicines. Inter-rater reliability (Gwet AC1 =0.924; p<0.0001). Fourteen thousands and four hundred potential consumers encountered 192 recorded episodes of vending of medicines inside 192 buses within the study periods. Forty-four (78•5%) of the 56 vendors were females in the 30-45 years age bracket, were mostly (75%) attired in the local 'Iro and Buba' Ankara fabric and showed laminated identity cards (97.5%) issued by the local association for 'marketers' of medicines inside buses, markets, and motor parks. Of the 14400 consumers encountered inside buses during the study period, between 6.7% and 48.3% purchased the medicines promoted. Prayers against death from road traffic accidents and diseases of physical and / or meta-physical origins were the most frequently used (76•8%) ice-breaking opening statement / strategy to gain consumers' attention. Hematinics, multi-vitamins, simple analgesic, NSAIDs and corticosteroids were the most frequently vended medicines. Consumers' enquiries were related to dosing for children (51.8%), elderly (28.6%), and pregnancy (52.7%); and contra-indications during pregnancy (8.9%). Factual medicines information such as dose, frequency, potential side effects and contra-indications were not provided in majority of vending episodes. Itinerant vending of medicines and the use of misleading and melodramatic themes to secure high consumer patronage appear considerable in Nigeria

  13. School and district wellness councils and availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare in Minnesota middle and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y; Lytle, Leslie A; Farbakhsh, Kian

    2011-01-01

    The Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act of 2004 required school districts participating in the federal school meals program to establish by the start of the 2006-2007 school year policies that included nutrition guidelines for all foods sold on school campus during the school day and policy development involving key stakeholders. For many schools, policy development was done by wellness councils. This study examined the association between having a wellness council and availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense foods/beverages in school vending machines following enactment of the federal legislation. In 2006-2007, Minnesota middle (n=35) and high (n=54) school principals reported whether their school and district had a wellness council. Trained research staff observed foods/beverages in vending machines accessible to students. Low-nutrient, energy-dense foods/beverages (snacks >3 g fat or >200 calories/serving, and soda, fruit/sport drinks and reduced-fat/whole milk) were grouped into seven categories (eg, high-fat baked goods) and a food score was calculated. Higher scores indicated more low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare. Multivariate linear regression, adjusted for school characteristics, was used to examine associations between scores and a three-category council variable (district-only; district and school; no council). Among schools, 53% had district-only councils, 38% district and school councils, and 9% had no council. Schools with both a district and school council had a significantly lower mean food score than schools without councils (P=0.03). The potential of wellness councils to impact availability of low-nutrient, energy-dense vending fare is promising. There may be an added benefit to having both a school and district council. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 34 CFR 395.10 - The maintenance and replacement of vending facility equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and replacement of vending facility equipment. The State licensing agency shall maintain (or cause to... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The maintenance and replacement of vending facility equipment. 395.10 Section 395.10 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education...

  15. Socio-economic and hygiene features of street food vending in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study were firstly to determine the health risks associated with street food vending, secondly to determine the opinions of street food ... such as South Africa be allowed to earn their livelihood by means of an 'easy-to-enter' business such as street food vending when hygiene standards are acceptable.

  16. Construction and final assembly of an automatic arc welding machine; Construccion y puesta a punto de una maquina automatica para soldadura remota por arco bajo atmosfera inerte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero Alvarez, J; Diaz Diaz, J; Diaz Diaz, J L

    1972-07-01

    It has been constructed a remote are welding machine, wholly transistorized, to be used in a Hot Cell of 1.000 Cu. In this work are presented the different parts of the equipment and its electronic description. Finally, some works of final preparation are shown such as ending of irradiation capsules, thermocouples welding, stainless steel cover welding. For these types of welding are quoted its relative programs. (Author)

  17. Automatic garment template sewing technology based on machine identification%基于机器识别的全自动服装模板缝纫技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华玲; 戴斌辉; 原竞杰

    2016-01-01

    In view of the low efficiency of the traditional garment sewing process and dependence on the manual operation and other issues,a kind of automatic sewing technology of intelligent garment templates is put forward based on visual technology.The X/Y/Z direction of the three freedom mo-tion of the mechanical body is designed to complete the cutting and molding of the fabric,PVC,leath-er and other different materials.Then by using the teaching acquisition intelligent vision technology, the sample is automaticly generated to complete intelligent traj ectory planning,and drive sequential action of mechanical body through the embedded platform.The automation of garment sewing clothing is realized,improving the streamlined,standardized and efficient operations,decreasing the depend-ence of garment factory on skilled workers.%针对传统服装缝制工艺效率低且依赖于人工操作等问题,提出一种基于智能视觉技术的全自动服装模板缝纫技术。设计一个可沿 X/Y/Z 3个方向自由运动的机械本体,完成对面料、PVC、皮革等不同材料的裁剪和制模;运用智能视觉技术软件进行视教采集,自动生成样片完成智能轨迹规划并通过嵌入式平台驱动机械本体的顺序动作,实现服装缝制自动化,提高服装作业的流水化、标准化、高效化,降低服装厂对熟练工的依赖性。

  18. Machine Learning examples on Invenio

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    This talk will present the different Machine Learning tools that the INSPIRE is developing and integrating in order to automatize as much as possible content selection and curation in a subject based repository.

  19. Quantum Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Romero García, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    [EN] In a world in which accessible information grows exponentially, the selection of the appropriate information turns out to be an extremely relevant problem. In this context, the idea of Machine Learning (ML), a subfield of Artificial Intelligence, emerged to face problems in data mining, pattern recognition, automatic prediction, among others. Quantum Machine Learning is an interdisciplinary research area combining quantum mechanics with methods of ML, in which quantum properties allow fo...

  20. Automatic Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  1. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  2. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  3. Machine learning and radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

  5. 76 FR 19237 - Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... exemption from nutrition labeling for food that is served in restaurants or other establishments in which... the selection button that includes a clear and conspicuous statement disclosing the number of calories... Act also requires certain restaurants and similar retail food establishments to provide calorie and...

  6. Soft Drink Vending Machines in Schools: A Clear and Present Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James; Murnan, Judy; Moore, Bradene

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the availability of soft drinks in schools ("pouring rights contracts") and its effects on the growing nutritional problems of American youth. Of special concern is the prevalence of overweight youth, which has been increasing at alarming rates. There has been a direct relationship found between soft drink consumption and…

  7. "Nutritional Wastelands": Vending Machines, Fast Food Outlets, and the Fight over Junk Food in Canadian Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidney, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In light of a growing obesity crisis among children and concern about junk food in schools, this article investigates the attempt by food and beverage companies to gain entry into Canadian schools. Focusing in particular on the introduction of fast-food franchises in cafeterias and on school boards' secret exclusivity deals with soft drink manufacturers in the 1990s, it examines how and why this process occurred, public reactions to it, and government responses. Placing this phenomenon within a larger pattern of commercialization in North American schools, it argues that long-lasting reforms require government intervention and enforcement.

  8. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Annual Review in Automatic Programming, Volume 4 is a collection of papers that deals with the GIER ALGOL compiler, a parameterized compiler based on mechanical linguistics, and the JOVIAL language. A couple of papers describes a commercial use of stacks, an IBM system, and what an ideal computer program support system should be. One paper reviews the system of compilation, the development of a more advanced language, programming techniques, machine independence, and program transfer to other machines. Another paper describes the ALGOL 60 system for the GIER machine including running ALGOL pro

  9. Changing Household Dynamics: Children's American Generational Resources in Street Vending Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Emir

    2013-01-01

    This article prompts a re-visioning of segmented assimilation theory by examining the household dynamics and consequences that occur when Latino immigrant children and youth become active contributors to family street vending businesses. Based on participant observation and 20 in-depth interviews with Latino children who work with their immigrant…

  10. Assessment of Quality and Safety of Street-vended Fried West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the quality and safety of street-vended fried West African ilisha (Ilisha africana) from major markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. A total number of 100 fried fish samples obtained from ten major markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria were analysed in the laboratory for: proximate ...

  11. Socio-economic and hygiene features of street food vending in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-12-04

    Dec 4, 2006 ... Results. The survey showed a high hygiene standard maintained by most vendors during ... vending for their livelihood and that their customers appreciate their trade. .... They followed a judgemental approach in their .... that occur in microscopic clusters, with S. aureus .... Customer satisfaction with street.

  12. Soft computing in machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jooyoung; Inoue, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    As users or consumers are now demanding smarter devices, intelligent systems are revolutionizing by utilizing machine learning. Machine learning as part of intelligent systems is already one of the most critical components in everyday tools ranging from search engines and credit card fraud detection to stock market analysis. You can train machines to perform some things, so that they can automatically detect, diagnose, and solve a variety of problems. The intelligent systems have made rapid progress in developing the state of the art in machine learning based on smart and deep perception. Using machine learning, the intelligent systems make widely applications in automated speech recognition, natural language processing, medical diagnosis, bioinformatics, and robot locomotion. This book aims at introducing how to treat a substantial amount of data, to teach machines and to improve decision making models. And this book specializes in the developments of advanced intelligent systems through machine learning. It...

  13. Low Speed Control for Automatic Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Amplifier module allows rotating positioner of automatic welding machine to operate at speeds below normal range. Low speeds are precisely regulated by a servomechanism as are normal-range speeds. Addition of module to standard welding machine makes it unnecessary to purchase new equipment for low-speed welding.

  14. Cleaning and can end chamfering special machine MSCS-04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negulescu, D.; Rusu, A.; Dragomir, I.; Turcanu, V.; Bailescu, V.; Burcea, Gh.; Chitu, I.

    2001-01-01

    The MSCS-04 machine executes cleaning and can end chamfering of the CANDU 6 fuel element can through the following technologic chain: - manual positioning of the workpiece in the transporter feeding location; - the transport of the workpiece in front of the cleaning machine and workpiece orientation checking; - automatic loading of the workpiece in the cleaning machine; - bonding the workpiece in the cleaning machine; - cleaning the ends of the workpiece with graphite dust aspiration; - automatic disconnection of the workpiece from the cleaning machine; - automatic unloading of the cleaning machine; - disposal of the workpiece on the transporter in front of cleaning machine; workpiece's transport in front of the chamfering machine; - automatic checking of the workpiece orientation; - automatic loading of the workpiece in the chamfering machine; - axial positioning and bounding of the workpiece in the chamfering machine; chamfering the workpiece's ends with graphite dust and splinter aspiration; - disconnecting the workpiece from the chamfering machine; - automatic unloading of the workpiece from the chamfering machine with splinter blow from the workpiece interior; - workpiece disposal on transporter and the piece transport to the outlet. Details about the technological system, transport system, manipulators, cleaning and chamfering machines are given. Novel elements are highlighted and the technical characteristics are presented

  15. Optics, illumination, and image sensing for machine vision II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetkoff, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on the general subject of machine vision. Topics include illumination and viewing systems, x-ray imaging, automatic SMT inspection with x-ray vision, and 3-D sensing for machine vision

  16. A method of numerically controlled machine part programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    Computer program is designed for automatically programmed tools. Preprocessor computes desired tool path and postprocessor computes actual commands causing machine tool to follow specific path. It is used on a Cincinnati ATC-430 numerically controlled machine tool.

  17. Machine learning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R

    1984-05-01

    With the dramatic rise of expert systems has come a renewed interest in the fuel that drives them-knowledge. For it is specialist knowledge which gives expert systems their power. But extracting knowledge from human experts in symbolic form has proved arduous and labour-intensive. So the idea of machine learning is enjoying a renaissance. Machine learning is any automatic improvement in the performance of a computer system over time, as a result of experience. Thus a learning algorithm seeks to do one or more of the following: cover a wider range of problems, deliver more accurate solutions, obtain answers more cheaply, and simplify codified knowledge. 6 references.

  18. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  19. Raimond Valgre noorem vend - kes ta oli? : Kuno-Enn Valgre (30.05.1918-02.03.1987) / Valdur Ohmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ohmann, Valdur, 1958-

    2011-01-01

    Vastukäivad andmed ärgitasid uurima, kes õigupoolest oli Valgre noorem vend. Kõige ehedamalt annab Enn Valgre sõjaaegse käekäigu edasi ülekuulamisprotokoll 11. novembrist 1944. Ülekuulamisprotokolli tekst

  20. Hybrid genetic algorithm for minimizing non productive machining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimization of non-productive time of tool during machining for 2.5 D milling significantly reduces the machining cost. The tool gets retracted and repositioned several times in multi pocket jobs during rough machining which consumes 15 to 30% of total machining time depending on the complexity of job. The automatic ...

  1. Assessment of physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, Hezron E; Simforian, Edeltruds A; Ndabikunze, Bernadette K

    2014-10-01

    Fresh fruit juice is an essential component of human diet and there is considerable evidence of health and nutritional benefits. However, nature of the fruits used in juicing and unhygienic processes in the value chain may cause poor quality of juice. This cross- sectional study was conducted to assess physicochemical characteristics and hygienic practices along the value chain of raw fruit juice vended in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 90 juice vendors were interviewed. Ninety juice samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical quality. The pH of juices ranged between 2.7 and 6.4, acidity 0.01% and 1.3% and, total soluble solids ranged between -1.5 and 18.04 °Brix. Most juices (67.8%) had -Brix levels below Codex recommended values classified as weak and watery. Juices were made of mango, passion, tamarind, sugar cane and mixture of these fruits sourced from open markets in the city. Water for washing of fruits and dilution of juices was from deep wells (53.3%) and taps (46.7%). About one third (37.8%) of the juice vendors didn't wash the fruits before juicing and 44.4% didn't boil water for juice dilution. Juice extraction was done by kitchen blenders, boiling in water and squeezing by simple machines. Juice pasteurization was not done. The majority of vendors (78.9%) stored juices in plastic buckets and juice was sold in glass cups, reused plastic bottles and disposable cups. Vending sites were restaurants, bus stands and along roadsides. The majority of premises (78.9%) were in unhygienic condition that likely encouraged or introduced contaminants to the juices. It is concluded that, the overall handling, preparation practices and physicochemical quality of raw fruit juices vended in Dare es Salaam City are poor. The government should educate the vendors on food safety and hygiene as well as enforcing regular monitoring of the quality of street fruit juices.

  2. Smart Machine Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.; Nelson, D.; Grillo, A.; Spencer, N.; Hutchinson, D.; Olsen, J.; Millsom, D.; White, G.; Gromme, T.; Allison, S.; Underwood, K.; Zelazny, M.; Kang, H.

    1991-11-01

    A Machine Protection System implemented on the SLC automatically controls the beam repetition rates in the accelerator so that radiation or temperature faults slow the repetition rate to bring the fault within tolerance without shutting down the machine. This process allows the accelerator to aid in the fault diagnostic process, and the protection system automatically restores the beams back to normal rates when the fault is diagnosed and corrected. The user interface includes facilities to monitor the performance of the system, and track rate limits, faults, and recoveries. There is an edit facility to define the devices to be included in the protection system, along with their set points, limits, and trip points. This set point and limit data is downloaded into the CAMAC modules, and the configuration data is compiled into a logical decision tree for the 68030 processor. 3 figs

  3. Smart machine protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.; Nelson, D.; Grillo, A.

    1992-01-01

    A Machine Protection System implemented on the SLC automatically controls the beam repetition rates in the accelerator so that radiation or temperature faults slow the repetition rate to bring the fault within tolerance without shutting down the machine. This process allows the accelerators to aid in the fault diagnostic process, and the protection system automatically restores the beams back to normal rates when the fault is diagnosed and corrected. The user interface includes facilities to monitor the performance of the system, and track rate limits, faults, and recoveries. There is an edit facility to define the devices to be included in the protection system, along with their set points, limits, and trip points. This set point and limit data is downloaded into the CAMAC modules, and the configuration data is complied into a logical decision tree for the 68030 processor. (author)

  4. Machine Translation from Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  5. Changes in Sugary Beverage Consumption and Public Perceptions in Upstate New York After Implementation of a Community Awareness Campaign and Healthier Vending Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Danielle J; Lowenfels, Ann; Ren, Jia; Brissette, Ian; Martin, Erika G

    2018-02-23

    the harmfulness of sugary beverages and provision of healthier options in some vending machines successfully impacted soda availability and support for regulation, it did not reduce consumption. This intervention seems promising but should be paired with other community-based interventions for a more comprehensive approach.

  6. A topological insight into restricted Boltzmann machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocanu, D.C.; Mocanu, E.; Nguyen, H.P.; Gibescu, M.; Liotta, A.

    Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) and models derived from them have been successfully used as basic building blocks in deep artificial neural networks for automatic features extraction, unsupervised weights initialization, but also as density estimators. Thus, their generative and discriminative

  7. Automatic operation of CSR Drayton coal stockyard. [Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauerbach, R

    1985-12-01

    The automatic remote control of the stackers and reclaimer at the coal stockyard of the CSR Drayton opencast coal mine in Australia is described. Each machine is controlled by an on-board programmable logic controller (PLC) which monitors the machine location in its working section in relation to the other machines and can halt operations should any danger of a collision be imminent.

  8. Listeria spp. in Street-Vended Ready-to-Eat Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shenawy, Moustafa; El-Shenawy, Mohamed; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    Street-vended ready-to-eat food sold in Egypt, including sandwiches and dishes of traditional food, was examined for the presence of Listeria species. Out of 576 samples, 24% were found to contain Listeria species. L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated from 57% and 39% of the contaminated samples, respectively. Other Listeria spp. were detected with lower frequency. L. monocytogenes of ≥103 CFU/g were detected in 7% of the total examined samples, which represent 49% of the contaminated food samples (meat, poultry, seafood, dairy products, and products of plant origin). Most of the samples contaminated by L. monocytogenes had high levels of total viable bacterial counts. The results obtained may help to clarify the epidemiology of listeriosis in the country and draw the attention of the decision makers to issue hygienic regulations for food processing industries as well as street vendors in order to ensure safe street-vended ready-to-eat food. PMID:22194742

  9. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Annual Review in Automatic Programming focuses on the techniques of automatic programming used with digital computers. Topics covered range from the design of machine-independent programming languages to the use of recursive procedures in ALGOL 60. A multi-pass translation scheme for ALGOL 60 is described, along with some commercial source languages. The structure and use of the syntax-directed compiler is also considered.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the basic ideas involved in the description of a computing process as a program for a computer, expressed in

  10. Presidendi vend : loobuge maasturist - sellega sõites toetate Iraani valitsust! / Allar Viivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viivik, Allar

    2008-01-01

    Tallinnas toimunud president Lennart Meri nimelisel konverentsil esines ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese vend Andres Ilves, kes juhib BBC pärsia- ja puštukeelsete saadete toimetust. Andres Ilves ütles, et nafta kõrge hind on põhiline, mis Iraani valitsust tugevdab. Konverentsi korraldaja, Rahvusvahelise Kaitseuuringute Keskuse juht Kadri Liik leiab, et A. Ilvest osundati valesti. Eesti tuntud džiibiomanikud oma sõidukitest loobuda ei kavatse

  11. Antimicrobial resistance and typing of Salmonella isolated from street vended foods and associated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anukampa; Shagufta, Bi; Sivakumar, M; Kumar, Surender; Agarwal, Rajesh Kumar; Bhilegaonkar, Kiran Narayan; Kumar, Ashok; Dubal, Zunjar Baburao

    2017-07-01

    The present study was carried out to find out the occurrence and types of Salmonella present in street vended foods and associated environment, and their resistance pattern against various antibiotics. About 1075 street vended food and associated environment samples were processed for isolation and confirmation of different Salmonella spp. by targeting gene specific inv A gene and serotype specific Sdf I, Via B and Spy genes by PCR. Selected Salmonella isolates were screened for antibiotic resistance by using Baeur-Kirby disk diffusion test. Out of 1075 samples, only 31 (2.88%) isolates could be amplified the inv A gene of which 19 could be recovered from meat vendors; 8 from egg vendors while remaining 4 from milk vendors. Though, majority of Salmonella recovered from raw foods the ready-to-eat food like chicken gravy and rasmalai also showed its presence which pose a serious public health threat. Overall, 19, 6 and 1 isolates of S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis and S. Typhi could be detected by PCR while remaining 5 isolates could not be amplified suggesting other type of Salmonella. Selected Salmonella isolates were completely resistance to Oxacillin (100%) followed by Cefoxitin (30.43%) and Ampicillin (26.10%). Thus, it is observed that the street vended foods of animal origin and associated environment play an important role in transmission of food borne pathogens including Salmonella .

  12. Profiling online recreational/prescription drugs' customers and overview of drug vending virtual marketplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsolini, Laura; Francesconi, Giulia; Papanti, Duccio; Giorgetti, Arianna; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2015-07-01

    Internet and social networking sites play a significant role in the marketing and distribution of recreational/prescription drugs without restrictions. We aimed here at reviewing data relating to the profile of the online drug customer and at describing drug vending websites. The PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases were searched here in order to elicit data on the socio-demographic characteristics of the recreational marketplaces/online pharmacies' customers and the determinants relating to online drug purchasing activities. Typical online recreational drugs' customers seem to be Caucasian, men, in their 20s, highly educated, and using the web to impact as minimally as possible on their existing work/professional status. Conversely, people without any health insurance seemed to look at the web as a source of more affordable prescription medicines. Drug vending websites are typically presented here with a "no prescription required" approach, together with aggressive marketing strategies. The online availability of recreational/prescriptions drugs remains a public health concern. A more precise understanding of online vending sites' customers may well facilitate the drafting and implementation of proper prevention campaigns aimed at counteracting the increasing levels of online drug acquisition and hence intake activities. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Identification of specific microorganisms in fresh squeezed street vended fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sahithi Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In developing country like India, street foods such as salads and fresh cut fruits are widely consumed. Among all street foods, fruit juices are common beverages, consumed more because of higher consumer preference both in terms of taste and health. Moreover, there is a dearth of Indian studies on contamination of street vended fruit juices. Aim: To determine the pH and specific microorganisms in freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices. Materials and Methods: Four fruit juices i.e., Grapes, Sweet Lime, Pineapple and Sapota were chosen for the study. Juices were collected in summer season in months between April and June 2013. Ten samples of 50 ml each fruit juice was collected in sterile bottles from various street vendors of Dilshuknagar area of Hyderabad city. Transportation of samples to Food Toxicology laboratory, National Institute of Nutrition was done in the ice box and processing was done within 2–4 h. Results: All juices showed bacterial contamination except one sample of grape juice. Pineapple juice samples showed the high bacterial contamination with all samples positive for fecal coliforms and Shigella spp. (100%. Salmonella spp. was detected only in one sample of Sapota juice (10%. Significant difference among fruit juices for prevalence of microorganisms was seen only for Escherichia coli (P = 0.03 with least count in Grape juice (20%. Conclusion: Freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, which significantly attributed to public health problem.

  14. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  15. Remote filter handling machine for Sizewell B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, D.

    1993-01-01

    Two Filter Handling machines (FHM) have been supplied to Nuclear Electric plc for use at Sizewell B Power Station. These machines have been designed and built following ALARP principles with the functional objective being to remove radioactive filter cartridges from a filter housing and replace them with clean filter cartridges. Operation of the machine is achieved by the prompt of each distinct task via an industrial computer or the prompt of a full cycle using the automatic mode. The design of the machine features many aspects demonstrating ALARP while keeping the machine simple, robust and easy to maintain. (author)

  16. The construction of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter: automatic measurements of the physics parameters of PWO crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Crystal properties (dimensions, optical transmission, light yield) are automatically measured. The pictures show different measurement stations of the automatic machine. Crystals are measured on trays containing five crystals each.

  17. Empirical Studies On Machine Learning Based Text Classification Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Shweta C. Dharmadhikari; Maya Ingle; Parag Kulkarni

    2011-01-01

    Automatic classification of text documents has become an important research issue now days. Properclassification of text documents requires information retrieval, machine learning and Natural languageprocessing (NLP) techniques. Our aim is to focus on important approaches to automatic textclassification based on machine learning techniques viz. supervised, unsupervised and semi supervised.In this paper we present a review of various text classification approaches under machine learningparadig...

  18. Semi-automatic fluoroscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarpley, M.W.

    1976-10-01

    Extruded aluminum-clad uranium-aluminum alloy fuel tubes must pass many quality control tests before irradiation in Savannah River Plant nuclear reactors. Nondestructive test equipment has been built to automatically detect high and low density areas in the fuel tubes using x-ray absorption techniques with a video analysis system. The equipment detects areas as small as 0.060-in. dia with 2 percent penetrameter sensitivity. These areas are graded as to size and density by an operator using electronic gages. Video image enhancement techniques permit inspection of ribbed cylindrical tubes and make possible the testing of areas under the ribs. Operation of the testing machine, the special low light level television camera, and analysis and enhancement techniques are discussed

  19. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  20. Evaluation of automatic vacuum- assisted compaction solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brzeziński

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently on the mould-making machines market the companies like: DiSA, KUENKEL WAGNER, HAFLINGER, HEINRICH WAGNER SINTO, HUNTER, SAVELLI AND TECHNICAL play significant role. These companies are the manufacturers of various solutions in machines and instalations applied in foundry engineering. Automatic foundry machines for compaction of green sand have the major role in mechanisation and automation processes of making the mould. The concept of operation of automatic machines is based on the static and dynamic methods of compacting the green sand. The method which gains the importance is the compacting method by using the energy of the air pressure. It's the initial stage or the supporting process of compacting the green sand. However in the automatic mould making machines using this method it's essential to use the additional compaction of the mass in order to receive the final parameters of the form. In the constructional solutions of the machines there is the additional division which concerns the method of putting the sand into the mould box. This division distinquishes the transport of the sand with simultaneous compaction or the putting of the sand without the pre-compaction. As the solutions of the major manufacturers are often the subject for application in various foundries, the authors of the paper would like/have the confidence to present their own evaluation process confirmed by their own researches and independent analysis of the producers' solutions.

  1. Survey of physicochemical characteristics and microbial contamination in selected food locally vended in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel; Ngowi, Helena Aminiel; Mdegela, Robinson Hammerthon; Mutakyawa, Eliud; Nyahinga, Gabriel Busungu; William, Robert; Mwadini, Mtumwa Mohd

    2015-11-26

    Raw milk, raw fruit juice and raw fish are enriched with essential nutrients for human diet but are prone to microbial contamination along the value chain. This cross sectional study was conducted to assess physicochemical characteristics and microbial quality of raw milk, fruit juice and fish from food vendors in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania. The physicochemical assessment of food samples was done by smell, colour, presence of debris, turbidity, consistence, pH and clot on alcohol test. Hygiene of food containers, personnel and the vending environment was also assessed. Qualitative and quantitative microbial assessment of food was done using standard laboratory protocols as described by Tanzania Bureau of Standards and International Systems of Standards. Raw milk sold in Morogoro was of poor quality since was adulterated with water, contained sediments and clotted on alcohol test. Up to 63 % of the milk samples were contaminated with Escherichia coli and 60 % had higher total viable count (TVC) than the recommended values. Raw fruit juice was stored in dirty containers and sold under unhygienic environment. Seventy-three percent of juice samples had TVC beyond the recommendations while E. coli contamination rate was 63.3 %. The raw fish samples had started spoiling as depicted through sensory evaluation. E. coli contamination rate was 55 % and that of Campylobacter jejuni was 0.5 %. The mean TVC of raw fish was 8.1 (Log cfu/g) and 96.2 % of the fish samples had TVC beyond the recommended limits of 5.0 Log cfu/g. The physicochemical characteristics of food vended in Morogoro Municipality were of poor quality. The food had high bacterial contaminations. This situation poses health risks to the public and losses to food vendors due to spoilage. Stakeholders in food value chain should be educated on safe production and good hygienic practices. Routine quality and safety assessment of locally vended food, inspection of selling premises and regular health check-up of

  2. Listeria spp. in Street-Vended Ready-to-Eat Foods

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shenawy, Moustafa; El-Shenawy, Mohamed; Ma?es, Jordi; Soriano, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    Street-vended ready-to-eat food sold in Egypt, including sandwiches and dishes of traditional food, was examined for the presence of Listeria species. Out of 576 samples, 24% were found to contain Listeria species. L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated from 57% and 39% of the contaminated samples, respectively. Other Listeria spp. were detected with lower frequency. L. monocytogenes of ≥103 CFU/g were detected in 7% of the total examined samples, which represent 49% of the contamina...

  3. Face machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-06-01

    The article surveys latest equipment available from the world`s manufacturers of a range of machines for tunnelling. These are grouped under headings: excavators; impact hammers; road headers; and shields and tunnel boring machines. Products of thirty manufacturers are referred to. Addresses and fax numbers of companies are supplied. 5 tabs., 13 photos.

  4. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  5. Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirrane, Diane E.

    1990-01-01

    As scientists seek to develop machines that can "learn," that is, solve problems by imitating the human brain, a gold mine of information on the processes of human learning is being discovered, expert systems are being improved, and human-machine interactions are being enhanced. (SK)

  6. Nonplanar machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritson, D.

    1989-05-01

    This talk examines methods available to minimize, but never entirely eliminate, degradation of machine performance caused by terrain following. Breaking of planar machine symmetry for engineering convenience and/or monetary savings must be balanced against small performance degradation, and can only be decided on a case-by-case basis. 5 refs

  7. 26 CFR 1.48-1 - Definition of section 38 property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pump, hydraulic car lift, or automatic vending machine, although annexed to the ground, shall be... as an integral part of such activity. Examples of research facilities include wind tunnels and test...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 438 - Typical Products in Metal Products and Machinery Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Air & Gas Compressors Automatic Vending Machines Ball & Roller Bearings Blowers... Fields, & Services BUS & TRUCK Bus Terminal & Service Facilities Courier Services, Except by Air Freight... Work Bolts, Nuts, Screws, Rivets & Washers Crowns & Closures Cutlery Fabricated Metal Products...

  9. Tangent: Automatic Differentiation Using Source Code Transformation in Python

    OpenAIRE

    van Merriënboer, Bart; Wiltschko, Alexander B.; Moldovan, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Automatic differentiation (AD) is an essential primitive for machine learning programming systems. Tangent is a new library that performs AD using source code transformation (SCT) in Python. It takes numeric functions written in a syntactic subset of Python and NumPy as input, and generates new Python functions which calculate a derivative. This approach to automatic differentiation is different from existing packages popular in machine learning, such as TensorFlow and Autograd. Advantages ar...

  10. Research on wireless communication technology based on automatic logistics system of welder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the requirements of high real-time and high stability of data transmission in automatic welding system, RTU data format and real-time communication mechanism are adopted in this system. In the automatic logistics system through the Ethernet and wireless WIFI technology will palletizer, stacker, AGV car organically together to complete the palletizer automatic crawling the goods, AGV car automatic delivery, stacking machine automatically out of the Dimensional warehouse. .

  11. Research on wireless communication technology based on automatic logistics system of welder

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Xuan; Wang Zhi-yong; Ma Zhe-dong

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of high real-time and high stability of data transmission in automatic welding system, RTU data format and real-time communication mechanism are adopted in this system. In the automatic logistics system through the Ethernet and wireless WIFI technology will palletizer, stacker, AGV car organically together to complete the palletizer automatic crawling the goods, AGV car automatic delivery, stacking machine automatically out of the Dimensional warehouse. .

  12. The Machine within the Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Although Virtual Machines are widespread across CERN, you probably won't have heard of them unless you work for an experiment. Virtual machines - known as VMs - allow you to create a separate machine within your own, allowing you to run Linux on your Mac, or Windows on your Linux - whatever combination you need.   Using a CERN Virtual Machine, a Linux analysis software runs on a Macbook. When it comes to LHC data, one of the primary issues collaborations face is the diversity of computing environments among collaborators spread across the world. What if an institute cannot run the analysis software because they use different operating systems? "That's where the CernVM project comes in," says Gerardo Ganis, PH-SFT staff member and leader of the CernVM project. "We were able to respond to experimentalists' concerns by providing a virtual machine package that could be used to run experiment software. This way, no matter what hardware they have ...

  13. Listeria spp. in Street-Vended Ready-to-Eat Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa El-Shenawy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Street-vended ready-to-eat food sold in Egypt, including sandwiches and dishes of traditional food, was examined for the presence of Listeria species. Out of 576 samples, 24% were found to contain Listeria species. L. monocytogenes and L. innocua were isolated from 57% and 39% of the contaminated samples, respectively. Other Listeria spp. were detected with lower frequency. L. monocytogenes of ≥103 CFU/g were detected in 7% of the total examined samples, which represent 49% of the contaminated food samples (meat, poultry, seafood, dairy products, and products of plant origin. Most of the samples contaminated by L. monocytogenes had high levels of total viable bacterial counts. The results obtained may help to clarify the epidemiology of listeriosis in the country and draw the attention of the decision makers to issue hygienic regulations for food processing industries as well as street vendors in order to ensure safe street-vended ready-to-eat food.

  14. Prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in street vended ready-to-eat meats in Windhoek, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiningeni, Daphney; Chimwamurombe, Percy; Shilangale, Renatus; Misihairabgwi, Jane

    2018-05-31

    To determine the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in street vended ready-to-eat meats in Windhoek, Namibia, a total of 96 street vended ready to eat meat samples were evaluated. Prevalences of 42%, 52%, 15%, 6% and 83% were observed for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella and Enterobacteriaceae respectively, while the highest aerobic plate counts were 7.74 Log 10 cfu/g, 5.67 Log 10 cfu/g, 5.12 Log 10 cfu/g , 4.56 Log 10 cfu/g, 3.3 Log 10 cfu/g, 5.75 Log 10 cfu/g respectively. Unsatisfactory microbial levels were 32% for aerobic plate count, 26% for Enterobacteriaceae, 35% for Escherichia coli, 11% for Listeria monocytogenes, 7% for Staphylococcus aureus and 6% for Shigella. Salmonella was detected in 11% and 40% of samples from two suburbs. The unsatisfactory microbiological quality of some ready-to-eat meats necessitates the provision of training on food safety and hygiene to street vendors for consumer protection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Machine translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M

    1982-04-01

    Each language has its own structure. In translating one language into another one, language attributes and grammatical interpretation must be defined in an unambiguous form. In order to parse a sentence, it is necessary to recognize its structure. A so-called context-free grammar can help in this respect for machine translation and machine-aided translation. Problems to be solved in studying machine translation are taken up in the paper, which discusses subjects for semantics and for syntactic analysis and translation software. 14 references.

  16. Giro form reading machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh Ha, Thien; Niggeler, Dieter; Bunke, Horst; Clarinval, Jose

    1995-08-01

    Although giro forms are used by many people in daily life for money remittance in Switzerland, the processing of these forms at banks and post offices is only partly automated. We describe an ongoing project for building an automatic system that is able to recognize various items printed or written on a giro form. The system comprises three main components, namely, an automatic form feeder, a camera system, and a computer. These components are connected in such a way that the system is able to process a bunch of forms without any human interactions. We present two real applications of our system in the field of payment services, which require the reading of both machine printed and handwritten information that may appear on a giro form. One particular feature of giro forms is their flexible layout, i.e., information items are located differently from one form to another, thus requiring an additional analysis step to localize them before recognition. A commercial optical character recognition software package is used for recognition of machine-printed information, whereas handwritten information is read by our own algorithms, the details of which are presented. The system is implemented by using a client/server architecture providing a high degree of flexibility to change. Preliminary results are reported supporting our claim that the system is usable in practice.

  17. Game-powered machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Luke; Turnbull, Douglas; Lanckriet, Gert

    2012-04-24

    Searching for relevant content in a massive amount of multimedia information is facilitated by accurately annotating each image, video, or song with a large number of relevant semantic keywords, or tags. We introduce game-powered machine learning, an integrated approach to annotating multimedia content that combines the effectiveness of human computation, through online games, with the scalability of machine learning. We investigate this framework for labeling music. First, a socially-oriented music annotation game called Herd It collects reliable music annotations based on the "wisdom of the crowds." Second, these annotated examples are used to train a supervised machine learning system. Third, the machine learning system actively directs the annotation games to collect new data that will most benefit future model iterations. Once trained, the system can automatically annotate a corpus of music much larger than what could be labeled using human computation alone. Automatically annotated songs can be retrieved based on their semantic relevance to text-based queries (e.g., "funky jazz with saxophone," "spooky electronica," etc.). Based on the results presented in this paper, we find that actively coupling annotation games with machine learning provides a reliable and scalable approach to making searchable massive amounts of multimedia data.

  18. 23 CFR 752.5 - Safety rest areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for the handicapped. (b) The State may permit the placement of vending machines in existing or new... allowed. Such vending machines shall be operated by the State. (c) The State may operate the vending... vending machines. In permitting the placement of vending machines the State shall give priority to vending...

  19. Machine Learning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  20. Machine Translation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research Mt System Example: The 'Janus' Translating Phone Project. The Janus ... based on laptops, and simultaneous translation of two speakers in a dialogue. For more ..... The current focus in MT research is on using machine learning.

  1. Machine Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlauth, Markus; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012

  2. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  3. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, Markus; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  4. Machine Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerlauth, Markus; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Wenninger, Jörg [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  5. Microbiological quality of urban-vended salad and its association with gastrointestinal diseases in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fung, Jessica; Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    The influence of consumption of salads on exposure to gastrointestinal diseases was assessed in urban environments in Kumasi, Ghana. Data was collected using a cross-sectional survey involving 15 salad sellers and 213 consumers and microbiological laboratory analysis of 96 samples of ready......-to-eat salad. Findings showed higher contamination in street-vended salads than those in cafeterias with thermotelerant coliforms levels of 4.00-5.43 log units per 100 g salad, 32% of samples had Salmonella sp., and 17% had helminth eggs. Overall, there was an insignificant inverse relationship between salad...... consumption and gastrointestinal diseases among street salad consumers (RR = 0.81) and a strong positive relationship with cafeteria consumers (RR = 5.51). However, stratified analysis on relative risk showed a likelihood of strong influence from other risk factors embedded in socio-economic status...

  6. Teletherapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panyam, Vinatha S.; Rakshit, Sougata; Kulkarni, M.S.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation Standards Section (RSS), RSSD, BARC is the national metrology institute for ionizing radiation. RSS develops and maintains radiation standards for X-ray, beta, gamma and neutron radiations. In radiation dosimetry, traceability, accuracy and consistency of radiation measurements is very important especially in radiotherapy where the success of patient treatment is dependent on the accuracy of the dose delivered to the tumour. Cobalt teletherapy machines have been used in the treatment of cancer since the early 1950s and India had its first cobalt teletherapy machine installed at the Cancer Institute, Chennai in 1956

  7. Model-based machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Christopher M

    2013-02-13

    Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications.

  8. Automatic EEG spike detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Richard

    2009-10-01

    Since the 1970s advances in science and technology during each succeeding decade have renewed the expectation of efficient, reliable automatic epileptiform spike detection (AESD). But even when reinforced with better, faster tools, clinically reliable unsupervised spike detection remains beyond our reach. Expert-selected spike parameters were the first and still most widely used for AESD. Thresholds for amplitude, duration, sharpness, rise-time, fall-time, after-coming slow waves, background frequency, and more have been used. It is still unclear which of these wave parameters are essential, beyond peak-peak amplitude and duration. Wavelet parameters are very appropriate to AESD but need to be combined with other parameters to achieve desired levels of spike detection efficiency. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and expert-system methods may have reached peak efficiency. Support Vector Machine (SVM) technology focuses on outliers rather than centroids of spike and nonspike data clusters and should improve AESD efficiency. An exemplary spike/nonspike database is suggested as a tool for assessing parameters and methods for AESD and is available in CSV or Matlab formats from the author at brainvue@gmail.com. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) is presented as a graphic method for finding better spike parameters and for the step-wise evaluation of the spike detection process.

  9. Machine testning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with a laboratory exercise of 3 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercise includes a series of tests carried out by the student on a conventional and a numerically controled lathe, respectively. This document...

  10. SRV-automatic handling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Koji

    1987-01-01

    Automatic handling device for the steam relief valves (SRV's) is developed in order to achieve a decrease in exposure of workers, increase in availability factor, improvement in reliability, improvement in safety of operation, and labor saving. A survey is made during a periodical inspection to examine the actual SVR handling operation. An SRV automatic handling device consists of four components: conveyor, armed conveyor, lifting machine, and control/monitoring system. The conveyor is so designed that the existing I-rail installed in the containment vessel can be used without any modification. This is employed for conveying an SRV along the rail. The armed conveyor, designed for a box rail, is used for an SRV installed away from the rail. By using the lifting machine, an SRV installed away from the I-rail is brought to a spot just below the rail so that the SRV can be transferred by the conveyor. The control/monitoring system consists of a control computer, operation panel, TV monitor and annunciator. The SRV handling device is operated by remote control from a control room. A trial equipment is constructed and performance/function testing is carried out using actual SRV's. As a result, is it shown that the SRV handling device requires only two operators to serve satisfactorily. The required time for removal and replacement of one SRV is about 10 minutes. (Nogami, K.)

  11. Machine rates for selected forest harvesting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Brinker; J. Kinard; Robert Rummer; B. Lanford

    2002-01-01

    Very little new literature has been published on the subject of machine rates and machine cost analysis since 1989 when the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 296, Machine Rates for Selected Forest Harvesting Machines, was originally published. Many machines discussed in the original publication have undergone substantial changes in various aspects, not...

  12. Remote handling machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shinri

    1985-01-01

    In nuclear power facilities, the management of radioactive wastes is made with its technology plus the automatic techniques. Under the radiation field, the maintenance or aid of such systems is important. To cope with this situation, MF-2 system, MF-3 system and a manipulator system as remote handling machines are described. MF-2 system consists of an MF-2 carrier truck, a control unit and a command trailer. It is capable of handling heavy-weight objects. The system is not by hydraulic but by electrical means. MF-3 system consists of a four-crawler truck and a manipulator. The truck is versatile in its posture by means of the four independent crawlers. The manipulator system is bilateral in operation, so that the delicate handling is made possible. (Mori, K.)

  13. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  14. Probabilistic machine learning and artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-05-28

    How can a machine learn from experience? Probabilistic modelling provides a framework for understanding what learning is, and has therefore emerged as one of the principal theoretical and practical approaches for designing machines that learn from data acquired through experience. The probabilistic framework, which describes how to represent and manipulate uncertainty about models and predictions, has a central role in scientific data analysis, machine learning, robotics, cognitive science and artificial intelligence. This Review provides an introduction to this framework, and discusses some of the state-of-the-art advances in the field, namely, probabilistic programming, Bayesian optimization, data compression and automatic model discovery.

  15. Probabilistic machine learning and artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-05-01

    How can a machine learn from experience? Probabilistic modelling provides a framework for understanding what learning is, and has therefore emerged as one of the principal theoretical and practical approaches for designing machines that learn from data acquired through experience. The probabilistic framework, which describes how to represent and manipulate uncertainty about models and predictions, has a central role in scientific data analysis, machine learning, robotics, cognitive science and artificial intelligence. This Review provides an introduction to this framework, and discusses some of the state-of-the-art advances in the field, namely, probabilistic programming, Bayesian optimization, data compression and automatic model discovery.

  16. The Engineering Of PCB Processing Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handoyo, Demon; Satmoko, Ari; T, Sapta; Heru, G. B.

    2001-01-01

    The engineering of PCB processing machine had been done. Purposes of the engineering of PCB processing machine are used to process PCB and to get the data's of characteristic of PCB processing. Further, these data's will be used as setting point when processing of PCB is done with manual and automatic control. The method of processing of PCB are inserting and pulling of the PCB rack to and from Ferro chlorite using electrical motor to corrosive Cu shield parts witch is not used. The experiment have result that the characteristic of operation of PCB processing machine as we hope when designing

  17. Safety assessment of street vended juices in Multan-Pakistan: A study on prevalence levels of trace elements

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Akhtar; Tariq Ismail; Muhammad Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Street vended juices are most commonly available, accessible and economical nutritional food sources of poor slums in developing economies like Pakistan. Study was undertaken to elucidate impact of industrialization, agro chemicals induction in agronomic practices and food processing hygiene measurements on food chain heavy metals intoxication. If overlooked, certain quality risks associated either with fresh produce or processed commodity might initiate food intoxication.In order to understa...

  18. Electric machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    BASIC ELECTROMAGNETIC CONCEPTSBasic Magnetic ConceptsMagnetically Linear Systems: Magnetic CircuitsVoltage, Current, and Magnetic Field InteractionsMagnetic Properties of MaterialsNonlinear Magnetic Circuit AnalysisPermanent MagnetsSuperconducting MagnetsThe Fundamental Translational EM MachineThe Fundamental Rotational EM MachineMultiwinding EM SystemsLeakage FluxThe Concept of Ratings in EM SystemsSummaryProblemsTRANSFORMERSThe Ideal n-Winding TransformerTransformer Ratings and Per-Unit ScalingThe Nonideal Three-Winding TransformerThe Nonideal Two-Winding TransformerTransformer Efficiency and Voltage RegulationPractical ConsiderationsThe AutotransformerOperation of Transformers in Three-Phase EnvironmentsSequence Circuit Models for Three-Phase Transformer AnalysisHarmonics in TransformersSummaryProblemsBASIC MECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONSSome General PerspectivesEfficiencyLoad Torque-Speed CharacteristicsMass Polar Moment of InertiaGearingOperating ModesTranslational SystemsA Comprehensive Example: The ElevatorP...

  19. Charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine. 3 claims, 11 drawing figures

  20. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  1. Study of on-machine error identification and compensation methods for micro machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shih-Ming; Yu, Han-Jen; Lee, Chun-Yi; Chiu, Hung-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Micro machining plays an important role in the manufacturing of miniature products which are made of various materials with complex 3D shapes and tight machining tolerance. To further improve the accuracy of a micro machining process without increasing the manufacturing cost of a micro machine tool, an effective machining error measurement method and a software-based compensation method are essential. To avoid introducing additional errors caused by the re-installment of the workpiece, the measurement and compensation method should be on-machine conducted. In addition, because the contour of a miniature workpiece machined with a micro machining process is very tiny, the measurement method should be non-contact. By integrating the image re-constructive method, camera pixel correction, coordinate transformation, the error identification algorithm, and trajectory auto-correction method, a vision-based error measurement and compensation method that can on-machine inspect the micro machining errors and automatically generate an error-corrected numerical control (NC) program for error compensation was developed in this study. With the use of the Canny edge detection algorithm and camera pixel calibration, the edges of the contour of a machined workpiece were identified and used to re-construct the actual contour of the work piece. The actual contour was then mapped to the theoretical contour to identify the actual cutting points and compute the machining errors. With the use of a moving matching window and calculation of the similarity between the actual and theoretical contour, the errors between the actual cutting points and theoretical cutting points were calculated and used to correct the NC program. With the use of the error-corrected NC program, the accuracy of a micro machining process can be effectively improved. To prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods, micro-milling experiments on a micro machine tool were conducted, and the results

  2. Document Classification Using Distributed Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Galip; Hallac, Ibrahim Riza

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance and success rates of Na\\"ive Bayes Classification Algorithm for automatic classification of Turkish news into predetermined categories like economy, life, health etc. We use Apache Big Data technologies such as Hadoop, HDFS, Spark and Mahout, and apply these distributed technologies to Machine Learning.

  3. Finding weak points automatically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinger, P.; Wassenberg, M.

    1999-01-01

    Operators of nuclear power stations have to carry out material tests at selected components by regular intervalls. Therefore a full automaticated test, which achieves a clearly higher reproducibility, compared to part automaticated variations, would provide a solution. In addition the full automaticated test reduces the dose of radiation for the test person. (orig.) [de

  4. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S.; Xian, Xuefeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality i...

  5. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Photography not only represents space. Space is produced photographically. Since its inception in the 19th century, photography has brought to light a vast array of represented subjects. Always situated in some spatial order, photographic representations have been operatively underpinned by social...... to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...... possibilities, and genre distinctions. Presenting several distinct ways of producing space photographically, this book opens a new and important field of inquiry for photography research....

  6. Shear machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astill, M.; Sunderland, A.; Waine, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    A shear machine for irradiated nuclear fuel elements has a replaceable shear assembly comprising a fuel element support block, a shear blade support and a clamp assembly which hold the fuel element to be sheared in contact with the support block. A first clamp member contacts the fuel element remote from the shear blade and a second clamp member contacts the fuel element adjacent the shear blade and is advanced towards the support block during shearing to compensate for any compression of the fuel element caused by the shear blade (U.K.)

  7. Oocytes Polar Body Detection for Automatic Enucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Enucleation is a crucial step in cloning. In order to achieve automatic blind enucleation, we should detect the polar body of the oocyte automatically. The conventional polar body detection approaches have low success rate or low efficiency. We propose a polar body detection method based on machine learning in this paper. On one hand, the improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG algorithm is employed to extract features of polar body images, which will increase success rate. On the other hand, a position prediction method is put forward to narrow the search range of polar body, which will improve efficiency. Experiment results show that the success rate is 96% for various types of polar bodies. Furthermore, the method is applied to an enucleation experiment and improves the degree of automatic enucleation.

  8. Automatic welding of stainless steel tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clautice, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    The use of automatic welding for making girth welds in stainless steel tubing was investigated as well as the reduction in fabrication costs resulting from the elimination of radiographic inspection. Test methodology, materials, and techniques are discussed, and data sheets for individual tests are included. Process variables studied include welding amperes, revolutions per minute, and shielding gas flow. Strip chart recordings, as a definitive method of insuring weld quality, are studied. Test results, determined by both radiographic and visual inspection, are presented and indicate that once optimum welding procedures for specific sizes of tubing are established, and the welding machine operations are certified, then the automatic tube welding process produces good quality welds repeatedly, with a high degree of reliability. Revised specifications for welding tubing using the automatic process and weld visual inspection requirements at the Kennedy Space Center are enumerated.

  9. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  10. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  11. MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION OF STREET VENDED FOODS FROM A UNIVERSITY CAMPUS IN BANGLADESH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Sufia; Nasrin, Nishat; Rizwan, Farhana; Nahar, Lutfun; Bhowmik, Adity; Esha, Sayma Afrin; Talukder, Kaisar Ali; Akter, Mahmuda; Roy, Ajoy; Ahmed, Muniruddin

    2015-05-01

    The microbiological quality of street vended food samples from Dhaka, Bangladesh was evaluated. The objective of the study was to identify the presence of common pathogens (Escherichia coli, Shigella spp, Salmonella and Vibrio spp) and to describe the molecular characterization of E coli, a commonly found pathogen in various street foods. Fifty food samples were collected from fixed and mobile vendors from two sampling locations (Mohakhali and Aftabnagar) in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. The tested samples included deep fried and fried snacks; quick lunch items; pickles; fruit chutney; baked items; spicy, sour and hot snacks etc: Juices, tamarind water and plain drinking water were also tested. Sterile polythene bags were used for collecting 200 g of each category of samples. They were tested for the presence of microorganisms following conventional microbiological processes. Biochemical tests followed by serology were done for the confirmation of Shigella and Salmonella. Serological reaction was carried out for confirmation of Vibrio spp. DNA was isolated for the molecular characterization to detect the pathogenic E. coli by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of 50 food samples, six (12%) were confirmed to contain different species of E. coli and Shigella. Molecular characterization of E. coli revealed that three samples were contaminated with enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) and one was contaminated with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Shigellaflexneri X variant was detected in one food item and Shigella flexneri 2a was found in drinking water. All these enteric pathogens could be the potential cause for foodborne illnesses.

  12. Study on a model of street vended food choices by Korean high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kiwoong; Park, Sanghyun; Joo, Nami

    2011-10-01

    Street vended food (SVF) includes food and beverages prepared and sold outdoors or in public areas by street merchants for consumption on the scene or later without further preparation. Due to its low price and convenience, SVF has been popular in Korea for a long time, particularly with high school students. Beyond Korea, SVF is also popular in southeast Asia and southern Africa in the form of ready-to-eat food. This study on high school students, who are main consumers of SVF in Korea, focused on the factors that affect consumer loyalty. The study was performed by questionnaire and used AMOS software to develop a structural equation model. The results of verifying the model's fidelity were χ(2) = 685.989, df = 261, GFI = 0.851, AGFI = 0.814, NFI = 0.901, CFI = 0.907, RMR = 0.048, indicating a satisfying structural model. SVF quality and service, emotional response, and the physical environment had a statistically significant effect on consumer loyalty. In contrast, SVF sanitation had no statistically significant effect on consumer loyalty. Based on these results, the sanitary management of SVF needs to be addressed immediately combined with education for SVF providers to maintain a clean environment.

  13. Machine-vision-based identification of broken inserts in edge profile milling heads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Robles, Laura; Azzopardi, George; Alegre, Enrique; Petkov, Nicolai

    This paper presents a reliable machine vision system to automatically detect inserts and determine if they are broken. Unlike the machining operations studied in the literature, we are dealing with edge milling head tools for aggressive machining of thick plates (up to 12 centimetres) in a single

  14. Using the TED Talks to Evaluate Spoken Post-editing of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liyanapathirana, Jeevanthi; Popescu-Belis, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to evaluate spoken post-editing of imperfect machine translation output by a human translator. We compare two approaches to the combination of machine translation (MT) and automatic speech recognition (ASR): a heuristic algorithm and a machine learning method...

  15. Implementing finite state machines in a computer-based teaching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Charles H.; Sitte, Renate

    1999-09-01

    Finite State Machines (FSM) are models for functions commonly implemented in digital circuits such as timers, remote controls, and vending machines. Teaching FSM is core in the curriculum of many university digital electronic or discrete mathematics subjects. Students often have difficulties grasping the theoretical concepts in the design and analysis of FSM. This has prompted the author to develop an MS-WindowsTM compatible software, WinState, that provides a tutorial style teaching aid for understanding the mechanisms of FSM. The animated computer screen is ideal for visually conveying the required design and analysis procedures. WinState complements other software for combinatorial logic previously developed by the author, and enhances the existing teaching package by adding sequential logic circuits. WinState enables the construction of a students own FSM, which can be simulated, to test the design for functionality and possible errors.

  16. Computerized automatic tip scanning operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, K.; Fukushima, T.; Nakai, H.; Yanagisawa, A.

    1984-01-01

    In BWR nuclear power stations the Traversing Incore Probe (TIP) system is one of the most important components in reactor monitoring and control. In previous TIP systems, however, operators have suffered from the complexity of operation and long operation time required. The system presented in this paper realizes the automatic operation of the TIP system by monitoring and driving it with a process computer. This system significantly reduces the burden on customer operators and improves plant efficiency by simplifying the operating procedure, augmenting the accuracy of the measured data, and shortening operating time. The process computer is one of the PODIA (Plant Operation by Displayed Information Automation) systems. This computer transfers control signals to the TIP control panel, which in turn drives equipment by microprocessor control. The process computer contains such components as the CRT/KB unit, the printer plotter, the hard copier, and the message typers required for efficient man-machine communications. Its operation and interface properties are described

  17. Automatic creation of simulation configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudot, G.; Poizat, F.

    1993-01-01

    SIPA, which stands for 'Simulator for Post Accident', includes: 1) a sophisticated software oriented workshop SWORD (which stands for 'Software Workshop Oriented towards Research and Development') designed in the ADA language including integrated CAD system and software tools for automatic generation of simulation software and man-machine interface in order to operate run-time simulation; 2) a 'simulator structure' based on hardware equipment and software for supervision and communications; 3) simulation configuration generated by SWORD, operated under the control of the 'simulator structure' and run on a target computer. SWORD has already been used to generate two simulation configurations (French 900 MW and 1300 MW nuclear power plants), which are now fully operational on the SIPA training simulator. (Z.S.) 1 ref

  18. Machine learning a probabilistic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2012-01-01

    Today's Web-enabled deluge of electronic data calls for automated methods of data analysis. Machine learning provides these, developing methods that can automatically detect patterns in data and then use the uncovered patterns to predict future data. This textbook offers a comprehensive and self-contained introduction to the field of machine learning, based on a unified, probabilistic approach. The coverage combines breadth and depth, offering necessary background material on such topics as probability, optimization, and linear algebra as well as discussion of recent developments in the field, including conditional random fields, L1 regularization, and deep learning. The book is written in an informal, accessible style, complete with pseudo-code for the most important algorithms. All topics are copiously illustrated with color images and worked examples drawn from such application domains as biology, text processing, computer vision, and robotics. Rather than providing a cookbook of different heuristic method...

  19. Analysis of machining and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    This book delivers the fundamental science and mechanics of machining and machine tools by presenting systematic and quantitative knowledge in the form of process mechanics and physics. It gives readers a solid command of machining science and engineering, and familiarizes them with the geometry and functionality requirements of creating parts and components in today’s markets. The authors address traditional machining topics, such as: single and multiple point cutting processes grinding components accuracy and metrology shear stress in cutting cutting temperature and analysis chatter They also address non-traditional machining, such as: electrical discharge machining electrochemical machining laser and electron beam machining A chapter on biomedical machining is also included. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate mechani cal engineering students, manufacturing engineers, and researchers. Each chapter contains examples, exercises and their solutions, and homework problems that re...

  20. Machine Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an interlock system providing the glue between these systems. The most recent accelerator, the LHC, will operate with about 3 × 10 14 protons per beam, corresponding to an energy stored in each beam of 360 MJ. This energy can cause massive damage to accelerator equipment in case of uncontrolled beam loss, and a single accident damaging vital parts of the accelerator could interrupt operation for years. This article provides an overview of the requirements for protection of accelerator equipment and introduces the various protection systems. Examples are mainly from LHC, SNS and ESS

  1. An Automatic Car Counting System Using OverFeat Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Debojit; Su, Hongbo; Wang, Chengyi; Blankenship, Jason; Stevanovic, Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Automatic car counting is an important component in the automated traffic system. Car counting is very important to understand the traffic load and optimize the traffic signals. In this paper, we implemented the Gaussian Background Subtraction Method and OverFeat Framework to count cars. OverFeat Framework is a combination of Convolution Neural Network (CNN) and one machine learning classifier (like Support Vector Machines (SVM) or Logistic Regression). With this study, we showed another poss...

  2. Automatic Photoelectric Telescope Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, R.M.; Boyd, L.J.; Kissell, K.E.; Crawford, D.L.; Hall, D.S.; BDM Corp., McLean, VA; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Dyer Observatory, Nashville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    Automatic observatories have the potential of gathering sizable amounts of high-quality astronomical data at low cost. The Automatic Photoelectric Telescope Service (APT Service) has realized this potential and is routinely making photometric observations of a large number of variable stars. However, without observers to provide on-site monitoring, it was necessary to incorporate special quality checks into the operation of the APT Service at its multiple automatic telescope installation on Mount Hopkins. 18 references

  3. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.

  4. Machine terms dictionary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-04-15

    This book gives descriptions of machine terms which includes machine design, drawing, the method of machine, machine tools, machine materials, automobile, measuring and controlling, electricity, basic of electron, information technology, quality assurance, Auto CAD and FA terms and important formula of mechanical engineering.

  5. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. [comp.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  6. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-01-01

    The remediation and deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear waste storage tanks using telerobotics is one of the most challenging tasks faced in environmental cleanup. Since a number of tanks have reached the end of their design life and some of them have leaks, the unstructured, uncertain and radioactive environment makes the work inefficient and expensive. However, the execution time of teleoperation consumes ten to hundred times that of direct contact with an associated loss in quality. Thus, a considerable effort has been expended to improve the quality and efficiency of telerobotics by incorporating into teleoperation and robotic control functions such as planning, trajectory generation, vision, and 3-D modeling. One example is the Robot Task Space Analyzer (RTSA), which has been developed at the Robotics and Electromechanical Systems Laboratory (REMSL) at the University of Tennessee in support of the D and D robotic work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This system builds 3-D models of the area of interest in task space through automatic image processing and/or human interactive manual modeling. The RTSA generates a task plan file, which describes the execution of a task including manipulator and tooling motions. The high level controller of the manipulator interprets the task plan file and executes the task automatically. Thus, if the environment is not highly unstructured, a tooling task, which interacts with environment, will be executed in the autonomous mode. Therefore, the RTSA not only increases the system efficiency, but also improves the system reliability because the operator will act as backstop for safe operation after the 3-D models and task plan files are generated. However, unstructured conditions of environment and tasks necessitate that the telerobot operates in the teleoperation mode for successful execution of task. The inefficiency in the teleoperation mode led to the

  7. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    The remediation and deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear waste storage tanks using telerobotics is one of the most challenging tasks faced in environmental cleanup. Since a number of tanks have reached the end of their design life and some of them have leaks, the unstructured, uncertain and radioactive environment makes the work inefficient and expensive. However, the execution time of teleoperation consumes ten to hundred times that of direct contact with an associated loss in quality. Thus, a considerable effort has been expended to improve the quality and efficiency of telerobotics by incorporating into teleoperation and robotic control functions such as planning, trajectory generation, vision, and 3-D modeling. One example is the Robot Task Space Analyzer (RTSA), which has been developed at the Robotics and Electromechanical Systems Laboratory (REMSL) at the University of Tennessee in support of the D&D robotic work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This system builds 3-D models of the area of interest in task space through automatic image processing and/or human interactive manual modeling. The RTSA generates a task plan file, which describes the execution of a task including manipulator and tooling motions. The high level controller of the manipulator interprets the task plan file and executes the task automatically. Thus, if the environment is not highly unstructured, a tooling task, which interacts with environment, will be executed in the autonomous mode. Therefore, the RTSA not only increases the system efficiency, but also improves the system reliability because the operator will act as backstop for safe operation after the 3-D models and task plan files are generated. However, unstructured conditions of environment and tasks necessitate that the telerobot operates in the teleoperation mode for successful execution of task. The inefficiency in the teleoperation mode led to the research

  8. Perspex machine: V. Compilation of C programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanner, Matthew P.; Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2006-01-01

    The perspex machine arose from the unification of the Turing machine with projective geometry. The original, constructive proof used four special, perspective transformations to implement the Turing machine in projective geometry. These four transformations are now generalised and applied in a compiler, implemented in Pop11, that converts a subset of the C programming language into perspexes. This is interesting both from a geometrical and a computational point of view. Geometrically, it is interesting that program source can be converted automatically to a sequence of perspective transformations and conditional jumps, though we find that the product of homogeneous transformations with normalisation can be non-associative. Computationally, it is interesting that program source can be compiled for a Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), the perspex machine, that is a Single Instruction, Zero Exception (SIZE) computer.

  9. Machinability of IPS Empress 2 framework ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Weigl, P

    2000-01-01

    Using ceramic materials for an automatic production of ceramic dentures by CAD/CAM is a challenge, because many technological, medical, and optical demands must be considered. The IPS Empress 2 framework ceramic meets most of them. This study shows the possibilities for machining this ceramic with economical parameters. The long life-time requirement for ceramic dentures requires a ductile machined surface to avoid the well-known subsurface damages of brittle materials caused by machining. Slow and rapid damage propagation begins at break outs and cracks, and limits life-time significantly. Therefore, ductile machined surfaces are an important demand for machine dental ceramics. The machining tests were performed with various parameters such as tool grain size and feed speed. Denture ceramics were machined by jig grinding on a 5-axis CNC milling machine (Maho HGF 500) with a high-speed spindle up to 120,000 rpm. The results of the wear test indicate low tool wear. With one tool, you can machine eight occlusal surfaces including roughing and finishing. One occlusal surface takes about 60 min machining time. Recommended parameters for roughing are middle diamond grain size (D107), cutting speed v(c) = 4.7 m/s, feed speed v(ft) = 1000 mm/min, depth of cut a(e) = 0.06 mm, width of contact a(p) = 0.8 mm, and for finishing ultra fine diamond grain size (D46), cutting speed v(c) = 4.7 m/s, feed speed v(ft) = 100 mm/min, depth of cut a(e) = 0.02 mm, width of contact a(p) = 0.8 mm. The results of the machining tests give a reference for using IPS Empress(R) 2 framework ceramic in CAD/CAM systems. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Pattern-Driven Automatic Parallelization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph W. Kessler

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a knowledge-based system for automatic parallelization of a wide class of sequential numerical codes operating on vectors and dense matrices, and for execution on distributed memory message-passing multiprocessors. Its main feature is a fast and powerful pattern recognition tool that locally identifies frequently occurring computations and programming concepts in the source code. This tool also works for dusty deck codes that have been "encrypted" by former machine-specific code transformations. Successful pattern recognition guides sophisticated code transformations including local algorithm replacement such that the parallelized code need not emerge from the sequential program structure by just parallelizing the loops. It allows access to an expert's knowledge on useful parallel algorithms, available machine-specific library routines, and powerful program transformations. The partially restored program semantics also supports local array alignment, distribution, and redistribution, and allows for faster and more exact prediction of the performance of the parallelized target code than is usually possible.

  11. Addiction Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Godley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Entry into the crypt William Burroughs shared with his mother opened and shut around a failed re-enactment of William Tell’s shot through the prop placed upon a loved one’s head. The accidental killing of his wife Joan completed the installation of the addictation machine that spun melancholia as manic dissemination. An early encryptment to which was added the audio portion of abuse deposited an undeliverable message in WB. Wil- liam could never tell, although his corpus bears the in- scription of this impossibility as another form of pos- sibility. James Godley is currently a doctoral candidate in Eng- lish at SUNY Buffalo, where he studies psychoanalysis, Continental philosophy, and nineteenth-century litera- ture and poetry (British and American. His work on the concept of mourning and “the dead” in Freudian and Lacanian approaches to psychoanalytic thought and in Gothic literature has also spawned an essay on zombie porn. Since entering the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe in 2007, Valentin Hennig has studied in the classes of Sil- via Bächli, Claudio Moser, and Corinne Wasmuht. In 2010 he spent a semester at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts. His work has been shown in group exhibi- tions in Freiburg and Karlsruhe.

  12. Machine musicianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  13. Virtual NC machine model with integrated knowledge data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenko, Sofija; Dukovski, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    The concept of virtual NC machining was established for providing a virtual product that could be compared with an appropriate designed product, in order to make NC program correctness evaluation, without real experiments. This concept is applied in the intelligent CAD/CAM system named VIRTUAL MANUFACTURE. This paper presents the first intelligent module that enables creation of the virtual models of existed NC machines and virtual creation of new ones, applying modular composition. Creation of a virtual NC machine is carried out via automatic knowledge data saving (features of the created NC machine). (Author)

  14. Design principles of metal-cutting machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1964-01-01

    Design Principles of Metal-Cutting Machine Tools discusses the fundamentals aspects of machine tool design. The book covers the design consideration of metal-cutting machine, such as static and dynamic stiffness, operational speeds, gearboxes, manual, and automatic control. The text first details the data calculation and the general requirements of the machine tool. Next, the book discusses the design principles, which include stiffness and rigidity of the separate constructional elements and their combined behavior under load, as well as electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic drives for the op

  15. Neural Bases of Automaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Mathieu; Cassey, Peter; Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2018-01-01

    Automaticity allows us to perform tasks in a fast, efficient, and effortless manner after sufficient practice. Theories of automaticity propose that across practice processing transitions from being controlled by working memory to being controlled by long-term memory retrieval. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies have sought to test this…

  16. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi

    2004-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  17. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...

  18. Automatic differentiation of functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, S.R.

    1990-06-01

    Automatic differentiation is a method of computing derivatives of functions to any order in any number of variables. The functions must be expressible as combinations of elementary functions. When evaluated at specific numerical points, the derivatives have no truncation error and are automatically found. The method is illustrated by simple examples. Source code in FORTRAN is provided

  19. Empirical evaluation of three machine learning method for automatic classification of neoplastic diagnoses Evaluación empírica de tres métodos de aprendizaje automático para clasificar automáticamente diagnósticos de neoplasias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Jara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnoses are a valuable source of information for evaluating a health system. However, they are not used extensively by information systems because diagnoses are normally written in natural language. This work empirically evaluates three machine learning methods to automatically assign codes from the International Classification of Diseases (10th Revision to 3,335 distinct diagnoses of neoplasms obtained from UMLS®. This evaluation is conducted on three different types of preprocessing. The results are encouraging: a well-known rule induction method and maximum entropy models achieve 90% accuracy in a balanced cross-validation experiment.Los diagnósticos médicos son una fuente valiosa de información para evaluar el funcionamiento de un sistema de salud. Sin embargo, su utilización en sistemas de información se ve dificultada porque éstos se encuentran normalmente escritos en lenguaje natural. Este trabajo evalúa empíricamente tres métodos de Aprendizaje Automático para asignar códigos de acuerdo a la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades (décima versión a 3.335 diferentes diagnósticos de neoplasias extraídos desde UMLS®. Esta evaluación se realiza con tres tipos distintos de preprocesamiento. Los resultados son alentadores: un conocido método de inducción de reglas de decisión y modelos de entropía máxima obtienen alrededor de 90% accuracy en una validación cruzada balanceada.

  20. An enhanced model for automatically extracting topic phrase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The key benefit foreseen from this automatic document classification is not only related to search engines, but also to many other fields like, document organization, text filtering and semantic index managing. Key words: Keyphrase extraction, machine learning, search engine snippet, document classification, topic tracking ...

  1. SPARCHS: Symbiotic, Polymorphic, Automatic, Resilient, Clean-Slate, Host Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    SPARCHS: SYMBIOTIC , POLYMORPHIC, AUTOMATIC, RESILIENT, CLEAN-SLATE, HOST SECURITY COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY MARCH 2016 FINAL... SYMBIOTIC , POLYMORPHIC, AUTOTOMIC, RESILIENT, CLEAN-SLATE, HOST SECURITY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8750-10-2-0253 5c. PROGRAM...17 4.2.3 SYMBIOTIC EMBEDDED MACHINES

  2. Quantitative risk assessment of E. coli in street-vended cassava-based delicacies in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesias, I. C. P.

    2018-01-01

    In the Philippines, rootcrop-based food products are gaining popularity in street food trade. However, a number of street-vended food products in the country are reported to be contaminated with E. coli posing possible risk among consumers. In this study, information on quantitative risk assessment of E. coli in street-vended cassava-based delicacies was generated. The assessment started with the prevalence and concentration of E. coli at post production in packages of the cassava-based delicacies. Combase growth predictor was used to trace the microbial population of E. coli in each step of the food chain. The @Risk software package, version 6 (Palisade USA) was used to run the simulations. Scenarios in the post-production to consumption pathway were simulated. The effect was then assessed in relation to exposure to the defined infective dose. In the worst case scenario, a minimum and most likely concentration of 6.3 and 7.8 log CFU of E. coli per serving respectively were observed. The simulation revealed that lowering the temperature in the chain considerably decreased the E. coli concentration prior to consumption and subsequently decreased the percentage of exposure to the infective dose. Exposure to infective dose however was increased with longer lag time from postproduction to consumption.

  3. Safety assessment of street vended juices in Multan-Pakistan: A study on prevalence levels of trace elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Akhtar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Street vended juices are most commonly available, accessible and economical nutritional food sources of poor slums in developing economies like Pakistan. Study was undertaken to elucidate impact of industrialization, agro chemicals induction in agronomic practices and food processing hygiene measurements on food chain heavy metals intoxication. If overlooked, certain quality risks associated either with fresh produce or processed commodity might initiate food intoxication.In order to understand gravity of the issue, street vended freshly drawn juices extracted from the food crops (orange, sugarcane, carrot and mango cultivated in Southern Punjab peri-urban areas and country sides were evaluated for microelements and heavy metals load in summer and winter 2012. The safety study of juices depicted higher concentration of lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd breaching international safety limits implemented in the country. However some microelements (Fe, Zn, Mn were found below the prescribed maximum tolerant limits. The study concluded prevalence of higher concentration of some toxic heavy metals as a serious breach of threshold levels potentially compromising consumer’s safety.

  4. Safety assessment of street vended juices in Multan-Pakistan: A study on prevalence levels of trace elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Akhtar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Street vended juices are most commonly available, accessible and economical nutritional food sources of poor slums in developing economies like Pakistan. Study was undertaken to elucidate impact of industrialization, agro chemicals induction in agronomic practices and food processing hygiene measurements on food chain heavy metals intoxication. If overlooked, certain quality risks associated either with fresh produce or processed commodity might initiate food intoxication.In order to understand gravity of the issue, street vended freshly drawn juices extracted from the food crops (orange, sugarcane, carrot and mango cultivated in Southern Punjab peri-urban areas and country sides were evaluated for microelements and heavy metals load in summer and winter 2012. The safety study of juices depicted higher concentration of lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd breaching international safety limits implemented in the country. However some microelements (Fe, Zn, Mn were found below the prescribed maximum tolerant limits. The study concluded prevalence of higher concentration of some toxic heavy metals as a serious breach of threshold levels potentially compromising consumer’s safety.

  5. Assessing the role of syringe dispensing machines and mobile van outlets in reaching hard-to-reach and high-risk groups of injecting drug users (IDUs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Md Mofizul

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reaching hard-to-reach and high-risk injecting drug users (IDUs is one of the most important challenges for contemporary needle syringe programs (NSPs. The aim of this review is to examine, based upon the available international experience, the effectiveness of syringe vending machines and mobile van/bus based NSPs in making services more accessible to these hard-to-reach and high-risk groups of IDUs. A literature search revealed 40 papers/reports, of which 18 were on dispensing machines (including vending and exchange machines and 22 on mobile vans. The findings demonstrate that syringe dispensing machines and mobile vans are promising modalities of NSPs, which can make services more accessible to the target group and in particular to the harder-to-reach and higher-risk groups of IDUs. Their anonymous and confidential approaches make services attractive, accessible and acceptable to these groups. These two outlets were found to be complementary to each other and to other modes of NSPs. Services through dispensing machines and mobile vans in strategically important sites are crucial elements in continuing efforts in reducing the spread of HIV and other blood borne viruses among IDUs.

  6. microcontroller based automatic control for water pumping machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    60% of the human body [1, 3, 4]. Although water ... systems such as dams, reservoirs, wells, artificial lakes, etc. ... Human intelligence ... maximization of the performance and life span of the ... reduced water quality due to contamination of the.

  7. microcontroller based automatic control for water pumping machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The MBACWPMLI uses ultrasonic sensor installed at the top of a tank to send and receive sound waves, and the time taken is converted to distance by the microcontroller to give corresponding digital outputs which turns ON LEDs that indicate the level of water in the storage tank. The microcontroller also gives digital output ...

  8. The prevalence of the electrocardiographic J wave in the Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen compared to 10 different dog breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudling, E. H.; Schlamowitz, Sarah; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To investigate the prevalence and amplitudes of the electrocardiographic J wave in the Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen compared to 10 other dog breeds. ANIMALS: Electrocardiograms from 206 healthy dogs representing 11 dog breeds were included in the study. Besides Petit Basset Griffon...

  9. Machine technology: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt was made to find existing machines that have been upgraded and that could be used for large-scale decontamination operations outdoors. Such machines are in the building industry, the mining industry, and the road construction industry. The road construction industry has yielded the machines in this presentation. A review is given of operations that can be done with the machines available

  10. Machine Shop Lathes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James

    This guide, the second in a series of five machine shop curriculum manuals, was designed for use in machine shop courses in Oklahoma. The purpose of the manual is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trade at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed so that it can be used in…

  11. Superconducting rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L. Jr.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.; Thullen, P.

    1975-01-01

    The opportunities and limitations of the applications of superconductors in rotating electric machines are given. The relevant properties of superconductors and the fundamental requirements for rotating electric machines are discussed. The current state-of-the-art of superconducting machines is reviewed. Key problems, future developments and the long range potential of superconducting machines are assessed

  12. Automatic Emotional State Detection using Facial Expression Dynamic in Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Meng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an automatic emotion detection system is built for a computer or machine to detect the emotional state from facial expressions in human computer communication. Firstly, dynamic motion features are extracted from facial expression videos and then advanced machine learning methods for classification and regression are used to predict the emotional states. The system is evaluated on two publicly available datasets, i.e. GEMEP_FERA and AVEC2013, and satisfied performances are achieved in comparison with the baseline results provided. With this emotional state detection capability, a machine can read the facial expression of its user automatically. This technique can be integrated into applications such as smart robots, interactive games and smart surveillance systems.

  13. Automatic tuning of free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agapov, Ilya; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL, Schenefeld (Germany); Tomin, Sergey [European XFEL, Schenefeld (Germany); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-07

    Existing FEL facilities often suffer from stability issues: so electron orbit, transverse electron optics, electron bunch compression and other parameters have to be readjusted often to account for drifts in performance of various components. The tuning procedures typically employed in operation are often manual and lengthy. We have been developing a combination of model-free and model-based automatic tuning methods to meet the needs of present and upcoming XFEL facilities. Our approach has been implemented at FLASH to achieve automatic SASE tuning using empirical control of orbit, electron optics and bunch compression. In this paper we describe our approach to empirical tuning, the software which implements it, and the results of using it at FLASH.We also discuss the potential of using machine learning and model-based techniques in tuning methods.

  14. Automatic tuning of free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agapov, Ilya; Zagorodnov, Igor; Geloni, Gianluca; Tomin, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Existing FEL facilities often suffer from stability issues: so electron orbit, transverse electron optics, electron bunch compression and other parameters have to be readjusted often to account for drifts in performance of various components. The tuning procedures typically employed in operation are often manual and lengthy. We have been developing a combination of model-free and model-based automatic tuning methods to meet the needs of present and upcoming XFEL facilities. Our approach has been implemented at FLASH to achieve automatic SASE tuning using empirical control of orbit, electron optics and bunch compression. In this paper we describe our approach to empirical tuning, the software which implements it, and the results of using it at FLASH.We also discuss the potential of using machine learning and model-based techniques in tuning methods.

  15. Thai Automatic Speech Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suebvisai, Sinaporn; Charoenpornsawat, Paisarn; Black, Alan; Woszczyna, Monika; Schultz, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    .... We focus on the discussion of the rapid deployment of ASR for Thai under limited time and data resources, including rapid data collection issues, acoustic model bootstrap, and automatic generation of pronunciations...

  16. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  17. Automatic Test Systems Aquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    We are providing this final memorandum report for your information and use. This report discusses the efforts to achieve commonality in standards among the Military Departments as part of the DoD policy for automatic test systems (ATS...

  18. Brand and automaticity

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, J.

    2008-01-01

    A presumption of most consumer research is that consumers endeavor to maximize the utility of their choices and are in complete control of their purchasing and consumption behavior. However, everyday life experience suggests that many of our choices are not all that reasoned or conscious. Indeed, automaticity, one facet of behavior, is indispensable to complete the portrait of consumers. Despite its importance, little attention is paid to how the automatic side of behavior can be captured and...

  19. Position automatic determination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This book tells of method of position determination and characteristic, control method of position determination and point of design, point of sensor choice for position detector, position determination of digital control system, application of clutch break in high frequency position determination, automation technique of position determination, position determination by electromagnetic clutch and break, air cylinder, cam and solenoid, stop position control of automatic guide vehicle, stacker crane and automatic transfer control.

  20. Automatic intelligent cruise control

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, NA; Young, MS

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the evaluation of automatic intelligent cruise control (AICC) from a psychological perspective. It was anticipated that AICC would have an effect upon the psychology of driving—namely, make the driver feel like they have less control, reduce the level of trust in the vehicle, make drivers less situationally aware, but might reduce the workload and make driving might less stressful. Drivers were asked to drive in a driving simulator under manual and automatic inte...

  1. Exploring cluster Monte Carlo updates with Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei

    2017-11-01

    Boltzmann machines are physics informed generative models with broad applications in machine learning. They model the probability distribution of an input data set with latent variables and generate new samples accordingly. Applying the Boltzmann machines back to physics, they are ideal recommender systems to accelerate the Monte Carlo simulation of physical systems due to their flexibility and effectiveness. More intriguingly, we show that the generative sampling of the Boltzmann machines can even give different cluster Monte Carlo algorithms. The latent representation of the Boltzmann machines can be designed to mediate complex interactions and identify clusters of the physical system. We demonstrate these findings with concrete examples of the classical Ising model with and without four-spin plaquette interactions. In the future, automatic searches in the algorithm space parametrized by Boltzmann machines may discover more innovative Monte Carlo updates.

  2. Exploring cluster Monte Carlo updates with Boltzmann machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei

    2017-11-01

    Boltzmann machines are physics informed generative models with broad applications in machine learning. They model the probability distribution of an input data set with latent variables and generate new samples accordingly. Applying the Boltzmann machines back to physics, they are ideal recommender systems to accelerate the Monte Carlo simulation of physical systems due to their flexibility and effectiveness. More intriguingly, we show that the generative sampling of the Boltzmann machines can even give different cluster Monte Carlo algorithms. The latent representation of the Boltzmann machines can be designed to mediate complex interactions and identify clusters of the physical system. We demonstrate these findings with concrete examples of the classical Ising model with and without four-spin plaquette interactions. In the future, automatic searches in the algorithm space parametrized by Boltzmann machines may discover more innovative Monte Carlo updates.

  3. Automatic Construction by Contour Crafting Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khorramshahi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Contour Crafting is a novel technology in construction industry based on 3D printing that uses robotics to construct free form building structures by repeatedly laying down layers of material such as concrete. It is actually an approach to scale up automatic fabrication from building small industrial parts to constructing buildings. However, there are little information about contour crafting (CC in current use; present paper aims to describe the operational steps of creating a whole building by the machine reviewing relevant literature. Furthermore, it will represent the advantages of CC usage compared to traditional construction methods, as well as its applicability in construction industry.

  4. Personality in speech assessment and automatic classification

    CERN Document Server

    Polzehl, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This work combines interdisciplinary knowledge and experience from research fields of psychology, linguistics, audio-processing, machine learning, and computer science. The work systematically explores a novel research topic devoted to automated modeling of personality expression from speech. For this aim, it introduces a novel personality assessment questionnaire and presents the results of extensive labeling sessions to annotate the speech data with personality assessments. It provides estimates of the Big 5 personality traits, i.e. openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Based on a database built on the questionnaire, the book presents models to tell apart different personality types or classes from speech automatically.

  5. The Employment Effects of High-Technology: A Case Study of Machine Vision. Research Report No. 86-19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan; Stafford, Frank P.

    A case study of machine vision was conducted to identify and analyze the employment effects of high technology in general. (Machine vision is the automatic acquisition and analysis of an image to obtain desired information for use in controlling an industrial activity, such as the visual sensor system that gives eyes to a robot.) Machine vision as…

  6. Stability of the CAE of a digital mammography machine; Estabilidad del CAE de un mamografo digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Lara, A. A.; Ruiz Morales, C.; Buades Forner, M. J.; Tobarra, B. M.

    2013-07-01

    We analyzed the long-term reproducibility automatic exposure control (CAE) of a digital mammography machine for possible drifts and the factors that have led to changes in its baseline are discussed. (Author)

  7. Machine learning in updating predictive models of planning and scheduling transportation projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A method combining machine learning and regression analysis to automatically and intelligently update predictive models used in the Kansas Department of Transportations (KDOTs) internal management system is presented. The predictive models used...

  8. Machine learning techniques for persuasion dectection in conversation

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Pedro.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited We determined that it is possible to automatically detect persuasion in conversations using three traditional machine learning techniques, naive bayes, maximum entropy, and support vector machine. These results are the first of their kind and serve as a baseline for all future work in this field. The three techniques consistently outperformed the baseline F-score, but not at a level that would be useful for real world applications. The...

  9. Future Smart Cooking Machine System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Agushinta R.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many tools make human task get easier. Cooking has become a basic necessity for human beings, since food is one of basic human needs. Until now, the cooking equipment being used is still a hand tool. However everyone has slightly high activity. The presence of cooking tools that can do the cooking work by itself is now necessary. Future Smart Cooking Machine is an artificial intelligence machine that can do cooking work automatically. With this system design, the time is minimized and the ease of work is expected to be achieved. The development of this system is carried out with System Development Life Cycle (SDLC methods. Prototyping method used in this system is a throw-away prototyping approach. At the end of this research there will be produced a cooking machine system design including physical design engine and interface design.

  10. Machine learning: Trends, perspectives, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, M I; Mitchell, T M

    2015-07-17

    Machine learning addresses the question of how to build computers that improve automatically through experience. It is one of today's most rapidly growing technical fields, lying at the intersection of computer science and statistics, and at the core of artificial intelligence and data science. Recent progress in machine learning has been driven both by the development of new learning algorithms and theory and by the ongoing explosion in the availability of online data and low-cost computation. The adoption of data-intensive machine-learning methods can be found throughout science, technology and commerce, leading to more evidence-based decision-making across many walks of life, including health care, manufacturing, education, financial modeling, policing, and marketing. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Some experimental results for an automatic helium liquefier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Kudo, T.; Kuraoka, Y.; Sakura, K.; Tsuruga, H.; Watanabe, T.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes the testing of an automatic cooldown system. The liquefying machine examined is a CTi Model 1400. The automatic helium gas liquefying system is operated by using sequence control with a programmable controller. The automatic mode is carried out by operation of two compressors. The monitoring system consists of 41 remote sensors. Liquid level is measured by a superconducting level meter. The J-T valve and return valve, which require precise control, are operated by pulse motors. The advantages of the automatic cooldown system are reduced operator man power; temperatures and pressures are changed smoothly, so that the flow chart of automation is simple; and the system makes continuous liquefier operation possible

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of the ATM automatic deposit service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Županović

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bankers and other financial experts have analyzed the value of automated teller machines (ATM in terms of growing consumer demand, rising costs of technology development, decreasing profitability and market share. This paper presents a step-by-step cost-benefit analysis of the ATM automatic deposit service. The first step is to determine user attitudes towards using ATM automatic deposit service by using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. The second step is to determine location priorities for ATMs that provide automatic deposit services using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP model. The results of the previous steps enable a highly efficient application of cost-benefit analysis for evaluating costs and benefits of automatic deposit services. To understand fully the proposed procedure outside of theoretical terms, a real-world application of a case study is conducted.

  13. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  14. Trustless Machine Learning Contracts; Evaluating and Exchanging Machine Learning Models on the Ethereum Blockchain

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtulmus, A. Besir; Daniel, Kenny

    2018-01-01

    Using blockchain technology, it is possible to create contracts that offer a reward in exchange for a trained machine learning model for a particular data set. This would allow users to train machine learning models for a reward in a trustless manner. The smart contract will use the blockchain to automatically validate the solution, so there would be no debate about whether the solution was correct or not. Users who submit the solutions won't have counterparty risk that they won't get paid fo...

  15. Study on ultra-fine w-EDM with on-machine measurement-assisted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuntong; Yang Hongye

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the on-machine measurement techniques so as to precisely fabricate micro intricate part using ultra-fine w-EDM. The measurement-assisted approach which employs an automatic optical inspection (AOI) is incorporated to ultra-fine w-EDM process to on-machine detect the machining error for next re-machining. The AOI acquires the image through a high resolution CCD device from the contour of the workpiece after roughing in order to further process and recognize the image for determining the residual. This facilitates the on-machine error detection and compensation re-machining. The micro workpiece and electrode are not repositioned during machining. A fabrication for a micro probe of 30-μm diameter is rapidly machined and verified successfully. Based on the proposed technique, on-machine measurement with AOI has been realized satisfactorily.

  16. Machine Learning Techniques in Clinical Vision Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixinha, Miguel; Nunes, Sandrina

    2017-01-01

    This review presents and discusses the contribution of machine learning techniques for diagnosis and disease monitoring in the context of clinical vision science. Many ocular diseases leading to blindness can be halted or delayed when detected and treated at its earliest stages. With the recent developments in diagnostic devices, imaging and genomics, new sources of data for early disease detection and patients' management are now available. Machine learning techniques emerged in the biomedical sciences as clinical decision-support techniques to improve sensitivity and specificity of disease detection and monitoring, increasing objectively the clinical decision-making process. This manuscript presents a review in multimodal ocular disease diagnosis and monitoring based on machine learning approaches. In the first section, the technical issues related to the different machine learning approaches will be present. Machine learning techniques are used to automatically recognize complex patterns in a given dataset. These techniques allows creating homogeneous groups (unsupervised learning), or creating a classifier predicting group membership of new cases (supervised learning), when a group label is available for each case. To ensure a good performance of the machine learning techniques in a given dataset, all possible sources of bias should be removed or minimized. For that, the representativeness of the input dataset for the true population should be confirmed, the noise should be removed, the missing data should be treated and the data dimensionally (i.e., the number of parameters/features and the number of cases in the dataset) should be adjusted. The application of machine learning techniques in ocular disease diagnosis and monitoring will be presented and discussed in the second section of this manuscript. To show the clinical benefits of machine learning in clinical vision sciences, several examples will be presented in glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration

  17. Automatic Program Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Automatic Program Development is a tribute to Robert Paige (1947-1999), our accomplished and respected colleague, and moreover our good friend, whose untimely passing was a loss to our academic and research community. We have collected the revised, updated versions of the papers published in his...... honor in the Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation Journal in the years 2003 and 2005. Among them there are two papers by Bob: (i) a retrospective view of his research lines, and (ii) a proposal for future studies in the area of the automatic program derivation. The book also includes some papers...... by members of the IFIP Working Group 2.1 of which Bob was an active member. All papers are related to some of the research interests of Bob and, in particular, to the transformational development of programs and their algorithmic derivation from formal specifications. Automatic Program Development offers...

  18. Co-authoring History: Montpellier, the Vendée, and the Co-authorship of the Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István M. Szijártó

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The discourses of literature and history are generally regarded as two distinct genres. This essay sets out to investigate the use of fictitious, that is, the invented, as well as real elements, in addition to narrative tools in some literary and historical texts to examine whether there is evidence for a fundamental difference between them in this respect. In the first half of the article, from the juxtaposition of Merle’s historical novel, En nos vertes années, to Le Roy Ladurie’s The Beggar and the Professor, we shall see that real and fictitious elements are also interwoven in Merle’s text, just as history uses fictitious elements, necessarily and tacitly, or, in some works, in a rather provocative way. In the second half of this essay, in examining literary and historical narratives of the counter-revolution in the Vendée, it will become evident that historians also use the same narrative techniques as writers to orientate readers. While these findings would confound the normative distinction between history and literature, we cannot, however, finally conclude that there is no fundamental difference between literary fiction and history. Arguing against Alun Munslow, who claims in Authoring the Past that “’doing history’ is an authorial activity,” this present article tries to argue that, while in many aspects writing history is indistinguishable from writing fiction, the historian has co-authors: the sources themselves may enter the process of writing history. This is a conclusion that emerges from the analysis of Simon Schama’s Citizens. His text about the revolt in the Vendée points to a potential advantage of history when compared to literary fiction: historians may feel obliged to change their original point of view under the burden of the fact they themselves have enumerated—something we can call the latent but inherent co-authorship of the sources in historical narratives.

  19. MITS machine operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flinchem, J.

    1980-01-01

    This document contains procedures which apply to operations performed on individual P-1c machines in the Machine Interface Test System (MITS) at AiResearch Manufacturing Company's Torrance, California Facility

  20. Brain versus Machine Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Octopus, the villain of the movie "Spiderman 2", is a fusion of man and machine. Neuroscientist Jose Carmena examines the facts behind this fictional account of a brain- machine interface