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Sample records for automatic stationary hydrostatic

  1. Measurements of vertical displacement of power station buildings using an automatic stationary hydrostatic measuring system; Anwendung des automatisierten stationaeren hydrostatischen Messsystems fuer die Aufnahme der Vertikalverschiebungen an den Objekten der Kern- und Waermekraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechner, J. [Forschungsinstitut fuer Geodaesie, Topographie und Kartographie, Zdiby (Czechoslovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The contribution describes hydrostatic stationary measuring systems for measurements of height variations of a turbine unit. The measuring system developed at the research institute and the algorithms for calibration, measurement and evaluation are presented. Measurements were made on a 500 MW turbogenerator unit at different states of operation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Beitrag enthaelt eine kurze Uebersicht ueber die hydrostatischen stationaeren Messsysteme fuer das Gebiet der Messung der Hoehenaenderung eines Grossturbinentisches. Es wird das automatische stationaere hydrostatische Messsystem, das im Forschungsinstitut entwickelt wurde, der Algorithmus der Kalibrierung, der Messung und der Auswertung der Messergebnisse vorgestellt. Es wird das Messergebnis der Vertikalverschiebungen der Konstruktion des Turbogenerators mit der Leistung 500 Megawatt bei seinem verschiedenen Betriebszustand angefuehrt. (orig.)

  2. Fusing moving average model and stationary wavelet decomposition for automatic incident detection: case study of Tokyo Expressway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a growing problem in urban areas all over the world. The transport sector has been in full swing event study on intelligent transportation system for automatic detection. The functionality of automatic incident detection on expressways is a primary objective of advanced traffic management system. In order to save lives and prevent secondary incidents, accurate and prompt incident detection is necessary. This paper presents a methodology that integrates moving average (MA model with stationary wavelet decomposition for automatic incident detection, in which parameters of layer coefficient are extracted from the difference between the upstream and downstream occupancy. Unlike other wavelet-based method presented before, firstly it smooths the raw data with MA model. Then it uses stationary wavelet to decompose, which can achieve accurate reconstruction of the signal, and does not shift the signal transfer coefficients. Thus, it can detect the incidents more accurately. The threshold to trigger incident alarm is also adjusted according to normal traffic condition with congestion. The methodology is validated with real data from Tokyo Expressway ultrasonic sensors. Experimental results show that it is accurate and effective, and that it can differentiate traffic accident from other condition such as recurring traffic congestion.

  3. Automatically stable discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin methods for stationary transport problems: Quasi-optimal test space norm

    KAUST Repository

    Niemi, Antti H.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the application of the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) finite element framework to stationary convection-diffusion problems. In particular, we demonstrate how the quasi-optimal test space norm improves the robustness of the DPG method with respect to vanishing diffusion. We numerically compare coarse-mesh accuracy of the approximation when using the quasi-optimal norm, the standard norm, and the weighted norm. Our results show that the quasi-optimal norm leads to more accurate results on three benchmark problems in two spatial dimensions. We address the problems associated to the resolution of the optimal test functions with respect to the quasi-optimal norm by studying their convergence numerically. In order to facilitate understanding of the method, we also include a detailed explanation of the methodology from the algorithmic point of view. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Hydrostatic Paradox Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon…

  5. Hydrostatic extrusion of magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Bohlen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with the capabilities and limitations of the hydrostatic extrusion process for the manufacturing of magnesium alloy sections. Firstly, the process basics for the hydrostatic extrusion of materials in general and of magnesium in particular are introduced. Next, some recent research

  6. Non-hydrostatic versus hydrostatic modelings of free surface flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-xin; SUKHODOLOV Alexander N.; LIU Hua

    2014-01-01

    The hydrodynamics of geophysical flows in oceanic shelves, estuaries, and rivers are often studied by solving shallow water equations under either hydrostatic or non-hydrostatic assumptions. Although the hydrostatic models are quite accurate and cost-efficient for many practical applications, there are situations when the fully hydrodynamic models are preferred despite a larger cost for computations. The present numerical model is implemented by the finite volume method (FVM) based on unstructured grids. The model can be efficiently switched between hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic modules. The case study shows that for waves pro- pagating along the bar a criterion with respect to the shallowness alone, the ratio between the depth and the wave length, is insu- fficient to warrant the performance of shallow flow equations with a hydrostatic approach and the nonlinearity in wave dynamics can be better accounted with a hydrodynamic approach. Besides the prediction of the flows over complex bathymetries, for instance, over asymmetrical dunes, by a hydrodynamic approach is shown to be superior in accuracy to the hydrostatic simulation.

  7. Slurry pipeline hydrostatic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy G.; Navarro Rojas, Luis Alejandro [BRASS Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-07-01

    The transportation of concentrates and tailings through long distance pipeline has been proven in recent years to be the most economic, environmentally friendly and secure means of transporting of mine products. This success has led to an increase in the demand for long distance pipeline throughout the mining industry. In year 2007 alone, a total of over 500 km of pipeline has been installed in South America alone and over 800 km are in the planning stages. As more pipelines are being installed, the need to ensure its operating integrity is ever increasing. Hydrostatic testing of long distance pipeline is one of the most economical and expeditious way to proving the operational integrity of the pipe. The intent of this paper is to show the sound reasoning behind construction hydro testing and the economic benefit it presents. It will show how hydro test pressures are determined based on ASME B31.11 criteria. (author)

  8. Scientific Evidence for Hydrostatic Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the scientific support for a ballistic pressure wave radiating outward from a penetrating projectile and causing injury and incapacitation. This phenomenon is known colloquially as "hydrostatic shock." The idea apparently originates with Col. Frank Chamberlin, a World War II trauma surgeon and wound ballistics researcher. The paper reviews claims that hydrostatic shock is a myth and considers supporting evidence through parallels with blast, describing the physics of the pr...

  9. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W B

    1983-01-01

    Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design is a 15-chapter book that focuses on the bearing design and testing. This book first describes the application of hydrostatic bearings, as well as the device pressure, flow, force, power, and temperature. Subsequent chapters discuss the load and flow rate of thrust pads; circuit design, flow control, load, and stiffness; and the basis of the design procedures and selection of tolerances. The specific types of bearings, their design, dynamics, and experimental methods and testing are also shown. This book will be very valuable to students of engineering des

  10. Scientific Evidence for Hydrostatic Shock

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the scientific support for a ballistic pressure wave radiating outward from a penetrating projectile and causing injury and incapacitation. This phenomenon is known colloquially as "hydrostatic shock." The idea apparently originates with Col. Frank Chamberlin, a World War II trauma surgeon and wound ballistics researcher. The paper reviews claims that hydrostatic shock is a myth and considers supporting evidence through parallels with blast, describing the physics of the pressure wave, evidence for remote cerebral effects, and remote effects in the spine and other internal organs. Finally, the review considers the levels of energy transfer required for the phenomenon to be readily observed.

  11. Pellissier H5 hydrostatic level

    CERN Document Server

    Imfeld, H L

    2003-01-01

    Conventional spirit leveling using double scale invar rods has been in use at SLAC for some time as the standard method of obtaining very precise height difference information. Typical accuracy of +- 100 (micro)m and better can routinely be achieved. Procedures and software have evolved to the point where the method is relatively fast and reliable. However, recent projects such as the Final Focus Test Beam have pushed the requested vertical positioning tolerances for alignment of quadrupoles to the 30 mu m level. It is apparent that conventional spirit leveling cannot achieve this level of accuracy. To meet the challenge, the alignment group contracted with Pellissier, Inc. to develop a portable hydrostatic leveling system. The H5 grew out of this development effort and is expected to provide the needed accuracy and ease of use required for such vertical positioning projects. The H5 hydrostatic level is a portable instrument that under ideal operating conditions will provide elevation differences with an accu...

  12. Multiple plate hydrostatic viscous damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A device for damping radial motion of a rotating shaft is described. The damper comprises a series of spaced plates extending in a radial direction. A hydraulic piston is utilized to place a load in these plates. Each annular plate is provided with a suitable hydrostatic bearing geometry on at least one of its faces. This structure provides a high degree of dampening in a rotor case system of turbomachinery in general. The damper is particularly useful in gas turbine engines.

  13. A high-order staggered finite-element vertical discretization for non-hydrostatic atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Jorge E.; Ullrich, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric modeling systems require economical methods to solve the non-hydrostatic Euler equations. Two major differences between hydrostatic models and a full non-hydrostatic description lies in the vertical velocity tendency and numerical stiffness associated with sound waves. In this work we introduce a new arbitrary-order vertical discretization entitled the staggered nodal finite-element method (SNFEM). Our method uses a generalized discrete derivative that consistently combines the discontinuous Galerkin and spectral element methods on a staggered grid. Our combined method leverages the accurate wave propagation and conservation properties of spectral elements with staggered methods that eliminate stationary (2Δx) modes. Furthermore, high-order accuracy also eliminates the need for a reference state to maintain hydrostatic balance. In this work we demonstrate the use of high vertical order as a means of improving simulation quality at relatively coarse resolution. We choose a test case suite that spans the range of atmospheric flows from predominantly hydrostatic to nonlinear in the large-eddy regime. Our results show that there is a distinct benefit in using the high-order vertical coordinate at low resolutions with the same robust properties as the low-order alternative.

  14. Friction phenomena in hydrostatic extrusion of magnesium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moodij, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    When magnesium is hydrostatically extruded an inconsistent and sometimes bad surface quality is encountered. In hydrostatic extrusion the billet is surrounded by a lubricant, usually castor oil. The required pressure to deform the material is applied onto this lubricant and not directly to the bill

  15. On hydrostatic flows in isentropic coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno

    2000-01-01

    The hydrostatic primitive equations of motion which have been used in large-scale weather prediction and climate modelling over the last few decades are analysed with variational methods in an isentropic Eulerian framework. The use of material isentropic coordinates for the Eulerian hydrostatic equa

  16. 49 CFR 325.59 - Measurement procedure; stationary test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... minutes, to permit the engine radiator fan to automatically disengage when the vehicle's noise emissions... Stationary Test, 40 CFR 202.21. (Table 1 in § 325.7 lists the range of maximum permissible sound level... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Stationary Test §...

  17. Hydrostatic Modeling of Buoyant Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, A.; Dewar, W. K.; Wienders, N.; Deremble, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has led to increased interest in understanding point source convection dynamics. Most of the existing oil plume models use a Lagrangian based approach, which computes integral measures such as plume centerline trajectory and plume radius. However, this approach doesn't account for feedbacks of the buoyant plume on the ambient environment. Instead, we employ an Eulerian based approach to acquire a better understanding of the dynamics of buoyant plumes. We have performed a series of hydrostatic modeling simulations using the MITgcm. Our results show that there is a dynamical response caused by the presence of the buoyant plume, in that there is a modification of the background flow. We find that the buoyant plume becomes baroclinically unstable and sheds eddies at the neutral buoyancy layer. We also explore different scenarios to determine the effect of the buoyancy source and the temperature stratification on the evolution of buoyant plumes.

  18. Learning Markov models for stationary system behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yingke; Mao, Hua; Jaeger, Manfred;

    2012-01-01

    to a single long observation sequence, and in these situations existing automatic learning methods cannot be applied. In this paper, we adapt algorithms for learning variable order Markov chains from a single observation sequence of a target system, so that stationary system properties can be verified using......Establishing an accurate model for formal verification of an existing hardware or software system is often a manual process that is both time consuming and resource demanding. In order to ease the model construction phase, methods have recently been proposed for automatically learning accurate...... the learned model. Experiments demonstrate that system properties (formulated as stationary probabilities of LTL formulas) can be reliably identified using the learned model....

  19. Generalized stationary phase approximations for mountain waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, H.; Broutman, D.; Eckermann, S. D.

    2016-04-01

    Large altitude asymptotic approximations are derived for vertical displacements due to mountain waves generated by hydrostatic wind flow over arbitrary topography. This leads to new asymptotic analytic expressions for wave-induced vertical displacement for mountains with an elliptical Gaussian shape and with the major axis oriented at any angle relative to the background wind. The motivation is to understand local maxima in vertical displacement amplitude at a given height for elliptical mountains aligned at oblique angles to the wind direction, as identified in Eckermann et al. ["Effects of horizontal geometrical spreading on the parameterization of orographic gravity-wave drag. Part 1: Numerical transform solutions," J. Atmos. Sci. 72, 2330-2347 (2015)]. The standard stationary phase method reproduces one type of local amplitude maximum that migrates downwind with increasing altitude. Another type of local amplitude maximum stays close to the vertical axis over the center of the mountain, and a new generalized stationary phase method is developed to describe this other type of local amplitude maximum and the horizontal variation of wave-induced vertical displacement near the vertical axis of the mountain in the large altitude limit. The new generalized stationary phase method describes the asymptotic behavior of integrals where the asymptotic parameter is raised to two different powers (1/2 and 1) rather than just one power as in the standard stationary phase method. The vertical displacement formulas are initially derived assuming a uniform background wind but are extended to accommodate both vertical shear with a fixed wind direction and vertical variations in the buoyancy frequency.

  20. Hydrodynamic modelling of hydrostatic magnesium extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moodij, E.; Rooij, de M.B.; Schipper, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Wilson’s hydrodynamic model of the hydrostatic extrusion process is extended to meet the geometry found on residual billets. The transition from inlet to work zone of the process is not considered sharp as in the model of Wilson but as a rounded edge, modelled by a parabolic function. It is shown th

  1. Railcar waste transfer system hydrostatic test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, S.D.

    1997-04-03

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents for record purposes the field results, acceptance, and approvals of the completed acceptance test per HNF-SD-W417-ATP-001, ''Rail car Waste Transfer System Hydrostatic Test''. The test was completed and approved without any problems or exceptions.

  2. Railcar waste transfer system hydrostatic test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, S.D.

    1997-03-31

    Recent modifications have been performed on the T-Plant Railcar Waste Transfer System, This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that identified piping welds and mechanical connections incorporated during the modification are of high integrity and are acceptable for service. This will be achieved by implementation of a hydrostatic leak test.

  3. Mapping Initial Hydrostatic Models in Godunov Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Zingale, M.; Dursi, L. J.; ZuHone, J.; Calder, A. C.; Fryxell, B.; Plewa, T.; Truran, J. W.; Caceres, A; Olson, K; Ricker, P. M.; Riley, K.; Rosner, R.; Siegel, A.; Timmes, F. X.; Vladimirova, N.

    2002-01-01

    We look in detail at the process of mapping an astrophysical initial model from a stellar evolution code onto the computational grid of an explicit, Godunov type code while maintaining hydrostatic equilibrium. This mapping process is common in astrophysical simulations, when it is necessary to follow short-timescale dynamics after a period of long timescale buildup. We look at the effects of spatial resolution, boundary conditions, the treatment of the gravitational source terms in the hydrod...

  4. History and evidence regarding hydrostatic shock

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and evidence related to remote wounding effects of ballistic pressure waves imparted to tissue by the impact of a bullet. Such remote effects are often referred to as hydraulic or hydrostatic shock. In spite of considerable published evidence and a long history, some medical professionals continue to regard the ability of a bullet to injure tissue that is not directly crushed or stretched as mythical (Jandial R, Reichwage B, Levy M, Duenas V, Sturdivan L. Ballis...

  5. Automatic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    Automatic sequences are sequences which are produced by a finite automaton. Although they are not random they may look as being random. They are complicated, in the sense of not being not ultimately periodic, they may look rather complicated, in the sense that it may not be easy to name the rule by which the sequence is generated, however there exists a rule which generates the sequence. The concept automatic sequences has special applications in algebra, number theory, finite automata and formal languages, combinatorics on words. The text deals with different aspects of automatic sequences, in particular:· a general introduction to automatic sequences· the basic (combinatorial) properties of automatic sequences· the algebraic approach to automatic sequences· geometric objects related to automatic sequences.

  6. Arsenolite: a quasi-hydrostatic solid pressure-transmitting medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, J A; Manjón, F J; Popescu, C; Muñoz, A; Rodríguez-Hernández, P; Jordá, J L; Rey, F

    2016-11-30

    This study reports the experimental characterization of the hydrostatic properties of arsenolite (As4O6), a molecular solid which is one of the softest minerals in the absence of hydrogen bonding. The high compressibility of arsenolite and its stability up to 15 GPa have been proved by x-ray diffraction measurements, and the progressive loss of hydrostaticity with increasing pressure up to 20 GPa has been monitored by ruby photoluminescence. Arsenolite has been found to exhibit hydrostatic behavior up to 2.5 GPa and a quasi-hydrostatic behavior up to 10 GPa at room temperature. This result opens the way to explore other molecular solids as possible quasi-hydrostatic pressure-transmitting media. The validity of arsenolite as an insulating, stable, non-penetrating and quasi-hydrostatic medium is explored by the study of the x-ray diffraction of zeolite ITQ-29 at high pressure. PMID:27636010

  7. Mapping Initial Hydrostatic Models in Godunov Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Zingale, M A; Zu Hone, J; Calder, A C; Fryxell, B; Plewa, T; Truran, J W; Caceres, A; Olson, K; Ricker, P M; Riley, K; Rosner, R; Siegel, A; Timmes, F X; Vladimirova, N

    2002-01-01

    We look in detail at the process of mapping an astrophysical initial model from a stellar evolution code onto the computational grid of an explicit, Godunov type code while maintaining hydrostatic equilibrium. This mapping process is common in astrophysical simulations, when it is necessary to follow short-timescale dynamics after a period of long timescale buildup. We look at the effects of spatial resolution, boundary conditions, the treatment of the gravitational source terms in the hydrodynamics solver, and the initialization process itself. We conclude with a summary detailing the mapping process that yields the lowest ambient velocities in the mapped model.

  8. Hydrostatic, aerostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W Brian

    2012-01-01

    Solve your bearing design problems with step-by-step procedures and hard-won performance data from a leading expert and consultant Compiled for ease of use in practical design scenarios, Hydrostatic, Aerostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design provides the basic principles, design procedures and data you need to create the right bearing solution for your requirements. In this valuable reference and design companion, author and expert W. Brian Rowe shares the hard-won lessons and figures from a lifetime's research and consultancy experience. Coverage includes: Clear e

  9. A well-balanced finite volume scheme for the Euler equations with gravitation. The exact preservation of hydrostatic equilibrium with arbitrary entropy stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käppeli, R.; Mishra, S.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Many problems in astrophysics feature flows which are close to hydrostatic equilibrium. However, standard numerical schemes for compressible hydrodynamics may be deficient in approximating this stationary state, where the pressure gradient is nearly balanced by gravitational forces. Aims: We aim to develop a second-order well-balanced scheme for the Euler equations. The scheme is designed to mimic a discrete version of the hydrostatic balance. It therefore can resolve a discrete hydrostatic equilibrium exactly (up to machine precision) and propagate perturbations, on top of this equilibrium, very accurately. Methods: A local second-order hydrostatic equilibrium preserving pressure reconstruction is developed. Combined with a standard central gravitational source term discretization and numerical fluxes that resolve stationary contact discontinuities exactly, the well-balanced property is achieved. Results: The resulting well-balanced scheme is robust and simple enough to be very easily implemented within any existing computer code that solves time explicitly or implicitly the compressible hydrodynamics equations. We demonstrate the performance of the well-balanced scheme for several astrophysically relevant applications: wave propagation in stellar atmospheres, a toy model for core-collapse supernovae, convection in carbon shell burning, and a realistic proto-neutron star.

  10. External Coulomb-Friction Damping For Hydrostatic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmann, Paul S.

    1992-01-01

    External friction device damps vibrations of shaft and hydrostatic ring bearing in which it turns. Does not rely on wear-prone facing surfaces. Hydrostatic bearing ring clamped in radially flexing support by side plates clamped against radial surfaces by spring-loaded bolts. Plates provide friction against radial motions of shaft.

  11. A Simple Explanation of the Classic Hydrostatic Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontomaris, Stylianos-Vasileios; Malamou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    An interesting problem in fluid mechanics, with significant educational importance, is the classic hydrostatic paradox. The hydrostatic paradox states the fact that in different shaped containers, with the same base area, which are filled with a liquid of the same height, the applied force by the liquid on the base of each container is exactly the…

  12. Hydrostatic Hamiltonian particle-mesh (HPM) methods for atmospheric modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, S.; Reich, S.; Frank, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a hydrostatic Hamiltonian particle-mesh (HPM) method for efficient long-term numerical integration of the atmosphere. In the HPM method, the hydrostatic approximation is interpreted as a holonomic constraint for the vertical position of particles. This can be viewed as defining a set of v

  13. 49 CFR 230.36 - Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Pressure Testing of Boilers § 230.36 Hydrostatic testing of boilers. (a) Time of test. The... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrostatic testing of boilers. 230.36 Section...

  14. History and evidence regarding hydrostatic shock

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael; 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182041992

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and evidence related to remote wounding effects of ballistic pressure waves imparted to tissue by the impact of a bullet. Such remote effects are often referred to as hydraulic or hydrostatic shock. In spite of considerable published evidence and a long history, some medical professionals continue to regard the ability of a bullet to injure tissue that is not directly crushed or stretched as mythical (Jandial R, Reichwage B, Levy M, Duenas V, Sturdivan L. Ballistics for the neurosurgeon. Neurosurgery. 2008:62:472-480.) Early references to these effects date to the 19th century; however, compelling experimental support and medical findings in human case studies did not become available until the late 20th and early 21st century.

  15. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roode, M. van [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  16. Hydrostatic self-locking bevel differential gear; Hydrostatisch selbstsperrendes Kegelraddifferentialgetriebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalmbach, K.

    2001-07-01

    The product range of the rail vehicle industry comprises the construction of railroad material for long-distance and short-distance transport. This includes, for example, locomotives and cars, subway, light railway and tramway cars as well as rail vehicle equipment. The development of the industry is determined by the demand for transport services and government actions for the extension of railways and procurement of suitable vehicle types. In contrast to road vehicles, differential gears are only used in a negligible percentage of rail vehicles. Primarily in the short-distance rail transport sector, the demand for differential gears is growing due to increased drive power, smaller wheel diameters, lower vehicle mass with higher load capacity, the introduction of low-floor technology as well as the requirement of employing ever more quiet vehicles. In hydrostatic self-locking differential gears, oil is supplied to the gears within the differential gearbox. They only rotate relative to each other when the differential gear performs a compensation movement. In this case, oil is transported in the tooth space to the meshing of the gears, where it is displaced due to the meshing and must drain through tight gaps. The pressure generated by this process acts against the compensation movement of the gear, and the drive torque is transmitted to the wheel that has the higher friction. The achievable locking torque is linearly dependent on the differential speed of the drive wheel. This locking effect is achieved without wear-prone components and works automatically without active external intervention. The design space required corresponds to that of conventional differential gears, as the locking effect is integrated in the existing design. (orig.)

  17. A simple explanation of the classic hydrostatic paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontomaris, Stylianos-Vasileios; Malamou, Anna

    2016-07-01

    An interesting problem in fluid mechanics, with significant educational importance, is the classic hydrostatic paradox. The hydrostatic paradox states the fact that in different shaped containers, with the same base area, which are filled with a liquid of the same height, the applied force by the liquid on the base of each container is exactly the same. However, if the shape of the container is different, the amount of the liquid (and as a consequence the weight) can greatly vary. In this paper, a simple explanation of the hydrostatic paradox, specifically designed and implemented for educational purposes regarding secondary education, is provided.

  18. Calibration of capacitive hydrostatic leveling sensors of NSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of capacitive hydrostatic leveling sensors was presented. Simulations of sensors with two kinds of materials (metal and distilled water) as target electrode in the situations of calibration and work were carried out by Ansoft Maxwell software. Different values of capacitances in different situations were compared and analyzed. Then some experiments were done with independently developed prototype of capacitive hydrostatic leveling sensors to verify the above simulations. In the situations of calibration and work, the same property (conductivity and dielectric constant) material as target electrode should be chosen for capacitive hydrostatic leveling sensors. Otherwise, there is an error of sensors after calibration, and the main factor is conductivity. (authors)

  19. WORK PRINCIPLE AND CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSES OF HYDROSTATIC BEARING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at the new characteristic of water hydraulic system, a kind of hydrostatic bearing with a concentric gap damper is introduced. The lubricative film thickness of the hydrostatic bearing possesses inflexibility and the loading capacity is just determined by the geometrical dimension of the piston-slipper subassembly and has no relation with system pressure, viscosity and temperature of water and speed of rotor. Theoretical analyses and the verification of scheme done at the test rig show that the hydrostatic bearing with a concentric gap damper is especially fit for water hydraulic components.

  20. Quasi-hydrostatic Primitive Equations for Ocean Global Circulation Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carine LUCAS; Madalina PETCU; Antoine ROUSSEAU

    2010-01-01

    Global existence of weak and strong solutions to the quasi-hydrostatic primitive equations is studied in this paper.This model,that derives from the full non-hydrostatic model for geophysical fluid dynamics in the zero-limit of the aspect ratio,is more realistic than the classical hydrostatic model,since the traditional approximation that consists in neglecting a part of the Coriolis force is relaxed.After justifying the derivation of the model,the authors provide a rigorous proof of global existence of weak solutions,and well-posedness for strong solutions in dimension three.

  1. Stationary and Transient Response Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Krenk, Steen

    1982-01-01

    The covariance functions for the transient response of a linear MDOF-system due to stationary time limited excitation with an arbitrary frequency content are related directly to the covariance functions of the stationary response. For rational spectral density functions closed form expressions fo...

  2. Compressive formability of 7075 aluminum alloy rings under hydrostatic pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang; WANG Li-liang; YUAN Shi-jian; WANG Zhong-ren

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of hydrostatic pressure on compression limit of the ring, numerical simulation and experimental research were carried out. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the deformation of aluminum alloy 7075 ring was obtained by numerical simulation. The die set for compressing ring under high hydrostatic pressure was designed and manufactured. Experimental results show that the compression limit increases linearly as the hydrostatic pressure increases in a certain range. At 100 MPa the maximum compressive strain is increased by 32.42%. At strain limit, the cracks initiate from the corner of the outer wall to the middle of the inner wall along the direction of the maximum shear stress.

  3. Nonlinear Analyses of the Dynamic Properties of Hydrostatic Bearing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei(刘伟); WU Xiujiang(吴秀江); V.A. Prokopenko

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear analyses of hydrostatic bearing systems are necessary to adequately model the fluid-solid interaction. The dynamic properties of linear and nonlinear analytical models of hydrostatic bearings are compared in this paper. The analyses were based on the determination of the aperiodic border of transient processes with external step loads. The results show that the dynamic properties can be most effectively improved by increasing the hydrostatic bearing crosspiece width and additional pocket volume in a bearing can extend the load range for which the transient process is aperiodic, but an additional restrictor and capacitor (RC) chain must be introduced for increasing damping. The nonlinear analyses can also be used to predict typical design parameters for a hydrostatic bearing.

  4. SPR Hydrostatic Column Model Verification and Validation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Gram, Inc. Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    A Hydrostatic Column Model (HCM) was developed to help differentiate between normal "tight" well behavior and small-leak behavior under nitrogen for testing the pressure integrity of crude oil storage wells at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. This effort was motivated by steady, yet distinct, pressure behavior of a series of Big Hill caverns that have been placed under nitrogen for extended period of time. This report describes the HCM model, its functional requirements, the model structure and the verification and validation process. Different modes of operation are also described, which illustrate how the software can be used to model extended nitrogen monitoring and Mechanical Integrity Tests by predicting wellhead pressures along with nitrogen interface movements. Model verification has shown that the program runs correctly and it is implemented as intended. The cavern BH101 long term nitrogen test was used to validate the model which showed very good agreement with measured data. This supports the claim that the model is, in fact, capturing the relevant physical phenomena and can be used to make accurate predictions of both wellhead pressure and interface movements.

  5. Testing Strict Hydrostatic Equilibrium in Abell 1689

    CERN Document Server

    Molnar, S M; Hearn, N; Broadhurst, T; Bryan, G; Shang, C

    2010-01-01

    Recent mass estimates of the well-studied massive galaxy cluster Abell 1689 based on X-ray observations and gravitational lensing, assuming spherical symmetry, still give discrepant results. Contamination by a cool component, substructure and triaxial gas distribution have been proposed to resolve this discrepancy. However, none of these solutions is fully consistent with all observations and predictions of cold dark matter models. A common assumption in all proposed solutions is strict hydrostatic equilibrium, i.e., the gas pressure is provided entirely by thermal pressure, P_he = P_th. We derive P_th and P_he from X-ray and gravitational lensing observations of A1689 in order to test the validity of this assumption. Assuming spherical symmetry, we find that P_th/P_he ~0.6 within the core region of this cluster. We analyze a sample of massive clusters of galaxies drawn from high resolution cosmological simulations, and find, in accord with previous studies, that there is a significant contribution from non-t...

  6. Control of hydrostatic transmission wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabhandharaks, Danop

    In this study, we proposed a control strategy for a wind turbine that employed a hydrostatic transmission system for transmitting power from the wind turbine rotor via a hydraulic transmission line to a ground level generator. Wind turbine power curve tracking was achieved by controlling the hydraulic pump displacement and, at the other end of the hydraulic line, the hydraulic motor displacement was controlled so that the overall transmission loss was minimized. Steady state response, dynamic response, and system stability were assessed. The maximum transmission efficiency obtained ranged from 79% to 84% at steady state when the proposed control strategy was implemented. The leakage and friction losses of the hydraulic components were the main factors that compromised the efficiency. The simulation results showed that the system was stable and had fast and well-damped transient response. Double wind turbine system sharing hydraulic pipes, a hydraulic motor, and a generator were also studied. The hydraulic pipe diameter used in the double-turbine system increased by 27% compared to the single-turbine system in order to make the transmission coefficient comparable between both systems. The simulation results suggested that the leakage losses were so significant that the efficiency of the system was worsened compared with the single-turbine system. Future studies of other behavioral aspects and practical issues such as fluid dynamics, structure strength, materials, and costs are needed.

  7. Effect of Superimposed Hydrostatic Pressure on Bendability of Sheet Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. X.; Wu, P. D.; Lloyd, D. J.

    2010-06-01

    The effect of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on fracture under three-point bending is studied numerically using the finite element method based on the Gurson damage model. It is demonstrated that superimposed hydrostatic pressure significantly increases the bendability and bending fracture strain due to the fact that a superimposed pressure delays or completely eliminates the nucleation, growth and coalescence of microvoids or microcracks. Numerical results are found to be in good agreement with experimental observations.

  8. Hydrodynamic Analysis to Process of Hydrostatic Extrusion for Tungsten Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuchi WANG; Zhaohui ZHANG; Shukui LI

    2001-01-01

    The hydrodynamic analysis to the process of the hydrostatic extrusion for tungsten alloy is carried through the hydrodynamic lubrication theory and Reynolds equation in this paper. The critical velocity equation when the hydrodynamic lubrication conditions appear between the surfaces of the work- piece and the die is obtained, and the relationship between the critical velocity and the extrusion parameters is discussed, which build the theoretical bases to the application of the hydrostatic extrusion for tungsten alloy.

  9. Automatic Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迪

    2007-01-01

    <正>Reading is the key to school success and,like any skill,it takes practice.A child learns to walk by practising until he no longer has to think about how to put one foot in front of the other.The great athlete practises until he can play quickly,accurately and without thinking.Ed- ucators call it automaticity.

  10. Hydrostatic Stress Effect on the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has negligible effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of various geometries. Fatigue tests and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN100) equal-arm bend specimens and new monotonic tests and nonlinear finite element analyses of IN100 smooth tension, smooth compression, and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions were performed. A new FEA constitutive model was developed that incorporates a pressure-dependent yield function with combined multilinear kinematic and multilinear isotropic hardening using the ABAQUS user subroutine (UMAT) utility. In all monotonic tensile test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains for the DENT specimen, the Drucker-Prager FEM s predicted loads that were approximately 3% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEM s predicted strains that were up to 35% greater than the von Mises values. Both the Drucker-Prager model and the von Mises model performed equally-well in simulating the equal-arm bend fatigue test.

  11. Orientation of hydraulic fractures in SALT under hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of laboratory experiments were performed to determine the influence of deviatoric in situ stress on the form and orientation of hydraulic fractures in salt. The principal hydraulic fracturing tests were run on prismatic blocks confined in a polyaxial loading frame using flatjacks. The vertical stress and the minimum horizontal stress were 10.3 MPa for all tests. The maximum horizontal stress was varied form 10.3 MPa to 15.5 MPa to provide a range of horizontal stress ratios from 1.0 (hydrostatic) to 1.5. The fracturing oil contained a fluorescent dye that marked the fracture traces for mapping after the samples were split. At high stress ratios (1.5) the hydraulic fractures formed as two distinct traces emanating from opposite sides of the borehole in the maximum horizontal stress direction. At progressively lower stress ratios the orientations of the fractures varied about the maximum stress direction, and the fracture traces tended to branch. At stress ratios below between 1.10 and 1.13 the fracture no longer appeared to have an orientation controlled by the in situ stress directions. The results indicate that the form of the hydraulic fracture reflects whether or not the stresses are nearly hydrostatic. Fracture form can be determined by mapping dyed hydraulic fractures underground. The fractures should be made in portions of an underground facility that are to be excavated, and the fractures should be mapped as the excavation proceeds through the area of fracturing. 2 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Hydrostatic Pressure Promotes Domain Formation in Model Lipid Raft Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, David L; Weinrich, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements demonstrate that hydrostatic pressure promotes liquid-ordered (Lo) domain formation in lipid membranes prepared as both oriented multilayers and unilamellar vesicles made of a canonical ternary lipid mixture for which demixing transitions have been extensively studied. The results demonstrate an unusually large dependence of the mixing transition on hydrostatic pressure. Additionally, data at 28 °C show that the magnitude of increase in Lo caused by 10 MPa pressure is much the same as the decrease in Lo produced by twice minimum alveolar concentrations (MAC) of general anesthetics such as halothane, nitrous oxide, and xenon. Therefore, the results may provide a plausible explanation for the reversal of general anesthesia by hydrostatic pressure.

  13. Stationary surgical smoke evacuation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Two types of systems are available for evacuating the surgical smoke created by electrosurgery and laser surgery: portable and stationary surgical smoke evacuation systems. While portable systems dominate the market today, stationary systems are an alternative worth considering--even though they are still in their infancy, with fewer than 90 systems installed to date. Stationary systems represent a major commitment on the part of the healthcare facility. Several system components must be installed as part of the physical plant (for instance, within the walls), making the system a permanent fixture in the surgical suite. Installation of these systems is often carried out during building construction or major renovation--although the systems can be cost-effective even if no renovations are planned. For this Evaluation, we tested three stationary systems. All three are adequate to capture surgical smoke and evacuate it from the operating room. These systems are easy to use, are quietter than their portable counterparts, and require minimal user maintenance. They represent an excellent option for most hospitals actively evacuating surgical smoke. In this article, we discuss the factors to consider when selecting from among these systems. We also offer guidance on choosing between stationary systems and portable ones. PMID:11321758

  14. Research progress of the static and dynamic characteristics and motion errors of hydrostatic supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei WANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, the research on static and dynamic characteristics of hydrostatic supports depend on the form and structure of the restrictor, which are mainly focused on the influences of recess shape, bearing structure, bearing surface roughness, lubricant and elastic deformations of the bearing. There are few studies on the thermal effect of hydrostatic supports and static and dynamic characteristics of hydrostatic guideways. The research on motion errors of hydrostatic supports is primarily based on the static equilibrium of the moving part. The effects of the motion speed of the moving part and structural deformation on the motion errors are not considered. Finally, the research prospects from the standardization, modularization and industrialization of hydrostatic supports, thermal effect of hydrostatic bearing, the static and dynamic characteristics of hydrostatic guideways and motion errors of hydrostatic supports under operating conditions are concluded.

  15. Learning in Non-Stationary Environments Methods and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lughofer, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Recent decades have seen rapid advances in automatization processes, supported by modern machines and computers. The result is significant increases in system complexity and state changes, information sources, the need for faster data handling and the integration of environmental influences. Intelligent systems, equipped with a taxonomy of data-driven system identification and machine learning algorithms, can handle these problems partially. Conventional learning algorithms in a batch off-line setting fail whenever dynamic changes of the process appear due to non-stationary environments and external influences.   Learning in Non-Stationary Environments: Methods and Applications offers a wide-ranging, comprehensive review of recent developments and important methodologies in the field. The coverage focuses on dynamic learning in unsupervised problems, dynamic learning in supervised classification and dynamic learning in supervised regression problems. A later section is dedicated to applications in which dyna...

  16. High hydrostatic pressure treatment of porcine oocytes induces parthenogenetic activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Lin; Pribenszky, Csaba; Molnár, Miklós;

    2010-01-01

    An innovative technique called high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has recently been reported to improve the cryosurvival of gametes and embryos in certain mammalian species, including the mouse, pig, and cattle. In the present study the parthenogenetic activation (PA) of pig oocytes caused...

  17. Comparison of hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressure to inactivate foodborne viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HPP) and hydrodynamic pressure (HDP), in combination with chemical treatments, was evaluated for inactivation of foodborne viruses and non-pathogenic surrogates in a pork sausage product. Sausages were immersed in water, 100 ppm EDTA, or 2 percent lactoferrin...

  18. Nonmonotone Saturation Profiles for Hydrostatic Equilibrium in Homogeneous Porous Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilfer, R.; Doster, F.; Zegeling, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Nonmonotonic saturation profiles (saturation overshoot) occur as travelling waves in gravity driven fingering. They seem important for preferential flow mechanisms and have found much attention recently. Here, we predict them even for hydrostatic equilibrium when all velocities vanish. We suggest th

  19. Condensational theory of stationary tornadoes

    CERN Document Server

    Makarieva, Anastassia M; Nefiodov, Andrei V; 10.1016/j.physleta.2011.04.023

    2012-01-01

    Using the Bernoulli integral for air streamline with condensing water vapor a stationary axisymmetric tornado circulation is described. The obtained profiles of vertical, radial and tangential velocities are in agreement with observations for the Mulhall tornado, world's largest on record and longest-lived among the three tornadoes for which 3D velocity data are available. Maximum possible vortex velocities are estimated.

  20. Nonlinear stability of pulsational mode of gravitational collapse in self-gravitating hydrostatically bounded dust molecular cloud

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Karmakar

    2011-06-01

    The pulsational mode of gravitational collapse (PMGC) in a hydrostatically bounded dust molecular cloud is responsible for the evolution of tremendous amount of energy during star formation. The source of free energy for this gravito-electrostatic instability lies in the associated self-gravity of the dispersed phase of relatively huge dust grains of solid matter over the gaseous phase of background plasma. The nonlinear stability of the same PMGC in an infinite dusty plasma model (plane geometry approximation for large wavelength fluctuation in the absence of curvature effects) is studied in a hydrostatic kind of homogeneous equilibrium configuration. By the standard reductive perturbation technique, a Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation for investigating the nonlinear evolution of the lowest order perturbed self-gravitational potential is developed in a time-stationary (steady-state) form, which is studied analytically as well as numerically. Different nonlinear structures (soliton-like and soliton chain-like) are found to exist in different situations. Astrophysical situations, relevant to it, are briefly discussed.

  1. Stationary plasma accelerator - ATON engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles of a stationary plasma accelerator (engine) with closed electron drift are described. The accelerator has record integral characteristics. A method for analysis of operating process features in the integral characteristics is proposed. Results are presented of local measurements of the plasma parameters in the accelerator channel and in the leaving plasma jet Main attention is paid to determination of the part of twice ionized ions in the plasma flow

  2. Are stationary hyperinflation paths learnable?

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Klaus; W., George; Honkapohja, Seppo

    2003-01-01

    Earlier studies of the seigniorage inflation model have found that the high-inflation steady state is not stable under adaptive learning. We reconsider this issue and analyze the full set of solutions for the linearized model. Our main focus is on stationary hyperinflationary paths near the high-inflation steady state. The hyperinflationary paths are stable under learning if agents can utilize contemporaneous data. However, in an economy populated by a mixture of agents, some of whom only hav...

  3. Achieving Textbook Multigrid Efficiency for Hydrostatic Ice Sheet Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Jed

    2013-03-12

    The hydrostatic equations for ice sheet flow offer improved fidelity compared with the shallow ice approximation and shallow stream approximation popular in today\\'s ice sheet models. Nevertheless, they present a serious bottleneck because they require the solution of a three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear system, as opposed to the two-dimensional system present in the shallow stream approximation. This 3D system is posed on high-aspect domains with strong anisotropy and variation in coefficients, making it expensive to solve with current methods. This paper presents a Newton--Krylov multigrid solver for the hydrostatic equations that demonstrates textbook multigrid efficiency (an order of magnitude reduction in residual per iteration and solution of the fine-level system at a small multiple of the cost of a residual evaluation). Scalability on Blue Gene/P is demonstrated, and the method is compared to various algebraic methods that are in use or have been proposed as viable approaches.

  4. Influence of Floating Monitoring Platform Structure on the Hydrostatic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the environment and work styles, the underwater monitoring devices can be divided into three type, fixed monitoring device, the floating monitoring device and mobile monitoring device. Floating monitoring platform is a new type of monitoring device of the floating monitoring device, which is mainly used for underwater video monitoring of pool. as the floating platform monitoring in water motion and hydrostatic characteristics are closely related, the influent of counterweight, weight distance and floating body diameter of the structure parameters on its hydrostatic characteristics and the natural periods for roll, pitch and heave should be considered, In this work, the floating body diameter influent most, the counterweight followed, and the structure parameters have different influence on the natural periods for roll, pitch and heave , it need to be analyzed according to the concrete structure parameters.

  5. LoCuSS: Testing hydrostatic equilibrium in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. P.; Mazzotta, P.; Okabe, N.; Ziparo, F.; Mulroy, S. L.; Babul, A.; Finoguenov, A.; McCarthy, I. G.; Lieu, M.; Bahé, Y. M.; Bourdin, H.; Evrard, A. E.; Futamase, T.; Haines, C. P.; Jauzac, M.; Marrone, D. P.; Martino, R.; May, P. E.; Taylor, J. E.; Umetsu, K.

    2016-02-01

    We test the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium in an X-ray luminosity selected sample of 50 galaxy clusters at 0.15 sub-4 per cent, and our hydrostatic measurements of the same achieve excellent agreement between XMM-Newton and Chandra. The mean ratio of X-ray to lensing mass for these 50 clusters is β_X= 0.95± 0.05, and for the 44 clusters also detected by Planck, the mean ratio of Planck mass estimate to LoCuSS lensing mass is β_P= 0.95± 0.04. Based on a careful like-for-like analysis, we find that LoCuSS, the Canadian Cluster Comparison Project, and Weighing the Giants agree on β_P ≃ 0.9-0.95 at 0.15 Planck cosmology results from the cosmic microwave background and galaxy cluster counts.

  6. Imperfection effects on the buckling of hydrostatically loaded cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinna, Rodney; Madsen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    in design has also increased. Practical guidance on how to do this is fairly limited, in particular for geometries or load conditions other than the standard cases. The effect of imperfections on the collapse load of cylinders under axial load has been studied extensively, as such cylinders show the......The presence of geometric and other imperfections in cylinders has been known to result in collapse loads well below those predicted from eigenvalue analysis for a long time. As the designer's ability to routinely employ non-linear FEA has increased, the importance of modelling such imperfections...... largest imperfection sensitivity. Work on cylinders with other loading conditions, such as hydrostatic loading, is more limited. Similarly, there is limited work on cylinders with boundary conditions other than simply-supported ends. This paper looks at the case of cylinders under hydrostatic load, which...

  7. High efficiency stationary hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hynek, S.; Fuller, W.; Truslow, S. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Stationary storage of hydrogen permits one to make hydrogen now and use it later. With stationary hydrogen storage, one can use excess electrical generation capacity to power an electrolyzer, and store the resultant hydrogen for later use or transshipment. One can also use stationary hydrogen as a buffer at fueling stations to accommodate non-steady fueling demand, thus permitting the hydrogen supply system (e.g., methane reformer or electrolyzer) to be sized to meet the average, rather than the peak, demand. We at ADL designed, built, and tested a stationary hydrogen storage device that thermally couples a high-temperature metal hydride to a phase change material (PCM). The PCM captures and stores the heat of the hydriding reaction as its own heat of fusion (that is, it melts), and subsequently returns that heat of fusion (by freezing) to facilitate the dehydriding reaction. A key component of this stationary hydrogen storage device is the metal hydride itself. We used nickel-coated magnesium powder (NCMP) - magnesium particles coated with a thin layer of nickel by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Magnesium hydride can store a higher weight fraction of hydrogen than any other practical metal hydride, and it is less expensive than any other metal hydride. We designed and constructed an experimental NCM/PCM reactor out of 310 stainless steel in the form of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, with the tube side packed with NCMP and the shell side filled with a eutectic mixture of NaCL, KCl, and MgCl{sub 2}. Our experimental results indicate that with proper attention to limiting thermal losses, our overall efficiency will exceed 90% (DOE goal: >75%) and our overall system cost will be only 33% (DOE goal: <50%) of the value of the delivered hydrogen. It appears that NCMP can be used to purify hydrogen streams and store hydrogen at the same time. These prospects make the NCMP/PCM reactor an attractive component in a reformer-based hydrogen fueling station.

  8. Cold hydrostatic extrusion of powder metallurgy processed superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrostatically extruded multifilamentary composites of Cu-Nb, Cu-Nb with a central tin core and Nb-Al were directly drawn to fine wires without intermediate annealing. Uniform deformation was observed throughout the process. Cu-Nb composite wires were Sn plated for external diffusion. Overall critical current densities of better than 104 A/cm2 at 16 T were achieved for Nb3Sn-Cu composite wires with nominal areal reductions of 2000

  9. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincke, J.R.

    1980-05-02

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

  10. Response of Pathogenic Vibrio Species to High Hydrostatic Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Berlin, Daniel L.; Herson, Diane S.; Hicks, Doris T.; Hoover, Dallas G.

    1999-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802, Vibrio vulnificus ATCC 27562, Vibrio cholerae O:1 ATCC 14035, Vibrio cholerae non-O:1 ATCC 14547, Vibrio hollisae ATCC 33564, and Vibrio mimicus ATCC 33653 were treated with 200 to 300 MPa for 5 to 15 min at 25°C. High hydrostatic pressure inactivated all strains of pathogenic Vibrio without triggering a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state; however, cells already existing in a VBNC state appeared to possess greater pressure resistance.

  11. On the quasi-hydrostatic quasi-geostrophic model

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Carine; Mcwilliams, James C.; Rousseau, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a rigorous derivation of the quasi-hydrostatic quasi-geostrophic (QHQG) equations of large scale ocean as the Rossby number goes to zero. We follow classical techniques for the derivation of the quasi-geostrophic (QG) equations (as in [BB94]), but the primitive equations that we consider account for the nontraditional rotating terms, as in [LPR10]. We end up with a slightly different QG model with a tilted vertical direction, which has been illustrated in previous works ...

  12. Mechanical response of collagen molecule under hydrostatic compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, Karanvir, E-mail: karans@iitrpr.ac.in; Kumar, Navin

    2015-04-01

    Proteins like collagen are the basic building blocks of various body tissues (soft and hard). Collagen molecules find their presence in the skeletal system of the body where they bear mechanical loads from different directions, either individually or along with hydroxy-apatite crystals. Therefore, it is very important to understand the mechanical behavior of the collagen molecule which is subjected to multi-axial state of loading. The estimation of strains of collagen molecule along different directions resulting from the changes in hydrostatic pressure magnitude, can provide us new insights into its mechanical behavior. In the present work, full atomistic simulations have been used to study global (volumetric) as well as local (along different directions) mechanical properties of the hydrated collagen molecule which is subjected to different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. To estimate the local mechanical properties, the strains of collagen molecule along its longitudinal and transverse directions have been acquired at different hydrostatic pressure magnitudes. In spite of non-homogeneous distribution of atoms within the collagen molecule, the calculated values of local mechanical properties have been found to carry the same order of magnitude along the longitudinal and transverse directions. It has been demonstrated that the values of global mechanical properties like compressibility, bulk modulus, etc. as well as local mechanical properties like linear compressibility, linear elastic modulus, etc. are functions of magnitudes of applied hydrostatic pressures. The mechanical characteristics of collagen molecule based on the atomistic model have also been compared with that of the continuum model in the present work. The comparison showed up orthotropic material behavior for the collagen molecule. The information on collagen molecule provided in the present study can be very helpful in designing the future bio-materials.

  13. Can Hydrostatic Cores Form Within Isothermal Molecular Clouds?

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Shadmehri, Mohsen; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier

    2002-01-01

    Under the assumptions that molecular clouds are nearly spatially and temporally isothermal and that the density peaks (``cores'') within them are formed by turbulent fluctuations, we argue that cores cannot reach a hydrostatic (or magneto-static) state as a consequence of their formation process. In the non-magnetic case, stabilization requires a Bonnor-Ebert truncation at a finite radius, which is not feasible for a single-temperature flow, unless it amounts to a shock, which is clearly a dy...

  14. LoCuSS: Testing hydrostatic equilibrium in galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, G P; Okabe, N; Ziparo, F; Mulroy, S L; Babul, A; Finoguenov, A; McCarthy, I G; Lieu, M; Bahe, Y; Bourdin, H; Evrard, A E; Futamase, T; Haines, C P; Jauzac, M; Marrone, D P; Martino, R; May, P E; Taylor, J E; Umetsu, K

    2015-01-01

    We test the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium in an X-ray luminosity selected sample of 50 galaxy clusters at $0.15hydrostatic measurements of the same achieve excellent agreement between XMM-Newton and Chandra. The mean ratio of X-ray to lensing mass for these 50 clusters is $\\beta_{\\rm X}=0.95\\pm0.05$, and for the 44 clusters also detected by Planck, the mean ratio of Planck mass estimate to LoCuSS lensing mass is $\\beta_{\\rm P}=0.95\\pm0.04$. Based on a careful like-for-like analysis, we find that LoCuSS, the Canadian Cluster Comparison Project (CCCP), and Weighing the Giants (WtG) agree on $\\beta_{\\rm P}\\simeq0.9-0.95$ at $0.15hydrostatic bias disagrees at $\\sim5\\sigma$ with the level required to reconcile Planck cosmology results from the cosmic microwave background and galaxy cluster counts.

  15. A new generation of the regional climate model REMO: REMO non-hydrostatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieck, Kevin; Raub, Thomas; Marien, Lennart; Buntemeyer, Lars; Jacob, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    The regional climate model REMO is well established and has proofed it's value in regional climate simulations for more than a decade. However, due to the hydrostatic formulation REMO is not able to produce useful regional climate information on scales smaller than ~10 km. The demand for higher resolution data especially in the climate service sector is evident. Often climate change information on urban district or even point level is needed. A previous development of a non-hydrostatic dynamical core for REMO utilizing ideas of Miller and Pearce (1974) and Janjic (2001) has been picked up and implemented into the latest hydrostatic REMO version. One of the advantages of the Janjic formulation is that hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic computations are well separated. This offers a straightforward implementation of the non-hydrostatic calculations into an existing hydrostatic model. Other advantages are the easy quantification of the error done by the hydrostatic approximation and the lower computational costs at lower resolutions by switching of the non-hydrostatic part. We will show results from climate simulations on the EURO-CORDEX domain with and without non-hydrostatic option.

  16. Compression of α-cristobalite under different hydrostatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernok, Ana; Marquardt, Katharina; Bykova, Elena; Liermann, Hanns-Peter; Dubrovinsky, Leonid

    2015-04-01

    The response of α-cristobalite to high-pressure has been a subject of numerous experimental and theoretical studies for more than two decades. The results indicated prolific polymorphism under high pressures, yet no consensus has emerged on what is the sequence of these pressure-induced transformations. In particular, the structure of the high-pressure polymorph that appears above ~10 GPa (hereafter cristobalite X-I), which is believed to be a direct link between the low-pressure (silicon in SiO4 tetrahedra) and the high-pressure (SiO6 octahedra) forms of silica remained elusive. This study examined the response of α-cristobalite when compressed at different levels of hydrostaticity, with the special focus on formation and stability of cristobalite X-I. The structural behavior of cristobalite under pressure was investigated up to ~80 GPa and at ambient temperature. We investigated behavior of single crystals and powders, in either (quasy)-hydrostatic or non-hydrostatic environment. In situ high pressure transformation path and structural behavior was studied by means of Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). The samples recovered after pressure release were additionally investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Low- or α-cristobalite responds differently to high pressure depending on the degree of the hydrostaticity. The highest attainable hydrostaticity preserves the initial structure of cristobalite at least up to ~15 GPa. When the crystal experiences even slight stresses during an experiment, transformation sequence leads to cristobalite X-I - a monoclinic polymorph with silicon in octahedral coordination. This polymorph belongs to the family of the high-pressure silica phases that are comprised of distorted close-packed array of oxygen ions in which silicon atoms fully or partially occupy octahedral sites. The reflections collected on a single crystal at ~11 GPa can be indexed by a monoclinic unit cell a=6.658(9) Å, b=4

  17. Stationary bubbles: information loss paradox?

    CERN Document Server

    Domènech, Guillem

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to build classically stationary bubbles, within the thin-shell formalism, which are unstable under quantum effects; they either collapse into a black hole or expand. Thus, the final state can be thought of a superposition of geometries. We point out that, from a quantum mechanical point of view, there is no issue with a loss of information in such configuration. A classical observer sees a definite geometry and, hence, finds an effective loss of information. Although it does not cover all possible cases, we emphasise the role of semi-classical gravitational effects, mediated by instatons, in alleviating/solving the information loss paradox.

  18. ELEMENT DESIGN FOR AN INKJET SYSTEM OF HYDROSTATIC GAS BEARING CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Il'ina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Study. The paper discusses the concept of inkjet systems application, also known as pneumonics, for automatic hydrostatic gas bearing control. Inkjet systems have the advantages over traditional control systems in those problems where the speed of traditional mechanical, electrical or hydraulic servomotors is not enough. Control of the shaft position in gas bearing with forced gas supply into the gap between the shaft and the bearing is typical for this class of problems. In this case, control means the pressure changing or flow rate of gas supplied to the gap by at least one of three axes at a frequency higher than the nominal speed of the shaft. Thus, high speed of response is required from the system. The objective of this work is to design a discrete jet element, testing of its geometry and switching characteristics. Main Results. The discrete inkjet element for oil-free non-contact transmission working on the refrigerant was designed. Relay transition process was modeled in the inkjet element with the use of numerical methods. The switching time has reached 0.2-0.3 ms; this is one order less than the requirements of aircraft control systems, which typically operate at a frequency of about 200 Hz. It is shown that periodic oscillations with high frequency occur when the control signal is injected with insufficient level of pressure. Therefore, a separate design task is to determine the minimum pressure allowable in the control channel.

  19. ZF cPower – Hydrostatic-Mechanical Powersplit Transmission for Construction and Forest Machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Legner, Jürgen; Rebholz, Wolfgang; Morrison, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, hydrostatic-mechanical power split CVT drivelines have not found a place in construction machinery. The majority of these vehicles still use hydrodynamic powershift transmissions, full-hydrostatic transmissions or mechanical direct-shift transmissions. Hydrostatic drive lines are widely used in construction machinery possessing lower engine power. The upper power range is dominated by hydrodynamic powershift transmissions. Decisions made by vehicle manufacturers about which dr...

  20. Sensor of hydrostatic pressure based on gallium antimonide microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A. A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, silicon and germanium, the most common materials in the production of discrete semiconductor devices and integrated circuits, do not always meet all the requirements to the sensing elements of mechanical quantities sensors. Therefore, it is logical to research the properties of other semiconductor materials that could be used as sensing elements in such sensors. A3B5 semiconductor compounds seem promising for such purpose. Effect of hydrostatic pressure up to 5000 bar on the resistance of n-type antimonide gallium whiskers doped by Se or Te was studied. Coefficient of hydrostatic pressure for this crystals was determined, it equals Kh = (16,5—20,0•10–5 bar–1 at 20°N. Temperature dependence of resistance and coefficient Kh for this crystals in the temperature range ±60°N was studied. Design of the developed hydrostatic pressure sensor based on GaSb whiskers and its characteristics are presented. The possibility to decrease the temperature dependence of sensitive element resistance by mounting GaSb whiskers on the substrates fabricated from materials with different temperature coefficient of expansion was examined. It was shown that mounting of GaSb crystals on Cu substrate gives the optimal result, in this case the temperature coefficient decrease to 0,05%•°N–1, that leads to decrease of output temperature dependence. The main advantages of developed pressure sensor are: the simplified design in comparison with pressure sensors with strain gauges mounted on spring elements; the high sensitivity to pressure that is constant in the wide pressure range; the improvement of sensors metrological characteristics owing to hysteresis absence. The possible application fields of developed sensors are measuring of high and extremely high pressure, chemical and oil industries, measuring of pressure in oil bore-holes, investigation of explosive processes.

  1. Evaluation of a hybrid hydrostatic bearing for cryogenic turbopump application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spica, P. W.; Hannum, N. P.; Meyer, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    A hybrid hydrostatic bearing was designed to operate in liquid hydrogen at speeds to 80,000 rpm and radial loads to 440 n (100 lbf). The bearing assembly consisted of a pair of 20-mm angular-contact ball bearings encased in a journal, which was in turn supported by a fluid film of liquid hydrogen. The size and operating conditions of the bearing were selected to be compatible with the operating requirements of an advanced technology turbopump. Several test parameters were varied to characterize the bearing's steady-state operation. The rotation of the tester shaft was varied between 0 and 80,000 rpm. Bearing inlet fluid pressure was varied between 2.07 and 4.48 MPa (300 and 650 psia), while the fluid sump pressure was independently varied between 0.34 and 2.07 MPa (50 and 300 psia). The maximum radial load applied to the bearing was 440 N (110 lbf). Measured hybrid-hydrostatic-bearing stiffness was 1.5 times greater than predicted, while the fluid flow rate through the bearing was 35 to 65 percent less than predicted. Under two-phase fluid conditions, the stiffness was even greater and the flow rate was less. The optimal pressure ratio for the bearing should be between 0.2 and 0.55 depending on the balance desired between bearing efficiency and stiffness. Startup and shutdown cyclic tests were conducted to demonstrate the ability of the hybrid-hydrostatic-bearing assembly to survive at least a 300-firing-duty cycle. For a typical cycle, the shaft was accelerated to 50,000 rpm in 1.8 sec. The bearing operated for 337 start-stop cycles without failure.

  2. Strong Stationary Duality for Diffusion Processes

    OpenAIRE

    fill, james Allen; Lyzinski, Vince

    2014-01-01

    We develop the theory of strong stationary duality for diffusion processes on compact intervals. We analytically derive the generator and boundary behavior of the dual process and recover a central tenet of the classical Markov chain theory in the diffusion setting by linking the separation distance in the primal diffusion to the absorption time in the dual diffusion. We also exhibit our strong stationary dual as the natural limiting process of the strong stationary dual sequence of a well ch...

  3. Hydrostatic pressure dependence of elastic constants for lead fluoride crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variations of the second order elastic constants (SOEC) and longitudinal and shear moduli with hydrostatic pressure for the lead fluoride have been investigated theoretically, for the first time, by means of a three-body force potential (TBP) model. The significance of three-body interactions (TBI) has been clearly demonstrated in these investigations. The present TBP model has reproduced the pressure derivatives of the SOEC of PbF more satisfactorily than the shell model and other model calculations. (author). 24 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Hydrostatic extrusion of Cu-Ag melt spun ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mary Ann; Bingert, John F.; Bingert, Sherri A.; Thoma, Dan J.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of producing high-strength and high-conductance copper and silver materials comprising the steps of combining a predetermined ratio of the copper with the silver to produce a composite material, and melt spinning the composite material to produce a ribbon of copper and silver. The ribbon of copper and silver is heated in a hydrogen atmosphere, and thereafter die pressed into a slug. The slug then is placed into a high-purity copper vessel and the vessel is sealed with an electron beam. The vessel and slug then are extruded into wire form using a cold hydrostatic extrusion process.

  5. Numerical and Experimental Study of Friction Loss in Hydrostatic Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Mørk; Hansen, Michael R.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of the losses in a hydrostatic motor principle. The motor is designed so that the structural de ections and lubricating regimes between moving surfaces and, subsequently, the leakage and friction losses, can be controlled during operation....... This is done by means of additional pressure volumes that in uence the stator de ection. These pressures are referred to as compensation pressures and the main emphasis is on friction or torque loss modeling of the motor as a function of the compensation pressures and the high and low pressures related...

  6. Condensational theory of stationary tornadoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Bernoulli integral for air streamline with condensing water vapor a stationary axisymmetric tornado circulation is described. The obtained profiles of vertical, radial and tangential velocities are in agreement with observations for the Mulhall tornado, world's largest on record and longest-lived among the three tornadoes for which 3D velocity data are available. Maximum possible vortex velocities are estimated. -- Highlights: → Water vapor condensation causes a logarithmic drop of air pressure towards tornado center. → The first ever theoretical description of tornado velocities is obtained. → The maximum vortex velocity grows logarithmically with decreasing tornado eye radius. → Air motion with high velocities can only develop in sufficiently large condensation areas.

  7. Microdynamics in stationary complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gautreau, Aurelien; Barthelemy, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Many complex systems, including networks, are not static but can display strong fluctuations at various time scales. Characterizing the dynamics in complex networks is thus of the utmost importance in the understanding of these networks and of the dynamical processes taking place on them. In this article, we study the example of the US airport network in the time period 1990-2000. We show that even if the statistical distributions of most indicators are stationary, an intense activity takes place at the local (`microscopic') level, with many disappearing/appearing connections (links) between airports. We find that connections have a very broad distribution of lifetimes, and we introduce a set of metrics to characterize the links' dynamics. We observe in particular that the links which disappear have essentially the same properties as the ones which appear, and that links which connect airports with very different traffic are very volatile. Motivated by this empirical study, we propose a model of dynamical net...

  8. Optimization of conical hydrostatic bearing for minimum friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nypan, L. J.; Hamrock, B. J.; Scibbe, H. W.; Anderson, W. J.

    1971-01-01

    Equations for the flow rate, load capacity, and friction torque for a conical hydrostatic bearing were developed. These equations were solved by a digital computer program to determine bearing configurations for minimum friction torque. Design curves are presented that show optimal bearing dimensions for minimum friction torque as a function of dimensionless flow rate for a range of dimensionless load capacity. Results are shown for both laminar and turbulent flow conditions. The results indicate that hydrostatic pocket friction is a significant portion of the total friction torque. However, the bearing dimensions for a minimum friction design are affected very little by inclusion of pocket friction in the analysis. For laminar flow the values of the outer-land radius ratio X3 and outer bearing radius ratio X4 did not change significantly with increasing friction factor. For turbulent flow, the outer bearing radius ratio X4 did not change with increasing friction factor; therefore the value determined for X4 in the laminar flow case is valid for all turbulent flows.

  9. Opportunities of hydrostatically coupled dielectric elastomer actuators for haptic interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Federico; Frediani, Gabriele; De Rossi, Danilo

    2011-04-01

    As a means to improve versatility and safety of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) for several fields of application, so-called 'hydrostatically coupled' DEAs (HC-DEAs) have recently been described. HC-DEAs are based on an incompressible fluid that mechanically couples a DE-based active part to a passive part interfaced to the load, so as to enable hydrostatic transmission. This paper presents ongoing developments of HC-DEAs and potential applications in the field of haptics. Three specific examples are considered. The first deals with a wearable tactile display used to provide users with tactile feedback during electronic navigation in virtual environments. The display consists of HCDEAs arranged in contact with finger tips. As a second example, an up-scaled prototype version of an 8-dots refreshable cell for dynamic Braille displays is shown. Each Braille dot consists of a miniature HC-DEA, with a diameter lower than 2 mm. The third example refers to a device for finger rehabilitation, conceived to work as a sort of active version of a rehabilitation squeezing ball. The device is designed to dynamically change its compliance according to an electric control. The three examples of applications intend to show the potential of the new technology and the prospective opportunities for haptic interfaces.

  10. Hydrostatic equilibrium in a magnetized, warped Galactic disc

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, A; Fletcher, Andrew; Shukurov, Anvar

    2001-01-01

    Hydrostatic equilibrium of the multiphase interstellar medium in the solar vicinity is reconsidered, with the regular and turbulent magnetic fields treated separately. The regular magnetic field strength required to support the gas is consistent with independent estimates provided energy equipartition is maintained between turbulence and random magnetic fields. Our results indicate that a midplane value of $B_{0}=4\\mkG$ for the regular magnetic field near the Sun leads to more attractive models than $B_{0}=2\\mkG$. The vertical profiles of both the regular and random magnetic fields contain disc and halo components whose parameters we have determined. The layer at $1\\la|z|\\la4\\kpc$ can be overpressured and an outflow at a speed of about $50\\kms$ may occur there, presumably associated with a Galactic fountain flow, if $B_{0}\\simeq 2\\mkG$. We show that hydrostatic equilibrium in a warped disc must produce asymmetric density distributions in $z$, in rough agreement with \\HI observations in the outer Galaxy. This ...

  11. Double nanoplate-based NEMS under hydrostatic and electrostatic actuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Hosseini, S. H. S.

    2016-05-01

    Presented herein is a comprehensive investigation on the nonlinear vibration behavior of nanoplate-based nano electromechanical systems (NEMS) under hydrostatic and electrostatic actuations based on nonlocal elasticity and Gurtin-Murdoch theory. Using nonlinear strain-displacement relations, the geometrical nonlinearity is modeled. Based on Kelvin-Voigt model, the influence of the viscoelastic coefficient is also discussed. Nonlocal plate theory and Hamilton's principle are utilized for deriving the governing equations. Furthermore, the differential quadrature method (DQM) is employed to compute the nonlinear frequency. In addition, pull-in voltage and hydrostatic pressure are considered by comparing the results obtained from nanoplates made of two different materials including aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si). Finally, the influences of important parameters including the small scale, thickness of the nanoplate, center gap and Winkler coefficient in the actuated nanoplate are thoroughly studied. The plots for the ratio of nonlinear-to-linear frequencies against thickness, maximum transverse amplitude and non-dimensional center gap of nanoplate are also presented.

  12. Study of glass hydrometer calibration by hydrostatic weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaoyun; Wang, Jintao; Li, Zhihao; Zhang, Peiman

    2016-01-01

    Glass hydrometers are simple but effective instruments for measuring the density of liquids. Glass hydrometers calibration based on the Archimedes law, using silicon ring as a reference standard solid density, n-tridecane with density stability and low surface tension as the standard working liquid, based on hydrostatic weighing method designs a glass hydrometer calibration system. Glass hydrometer calibration system uses CCD image measurement system to align the scale of hydrometer and liquid surface, with positioning accuracy of 0.01 mm. Surface tension of the working liquid is measured by Whihemy plate. According to twice glass hydrometer weighing in the air and liquid can calculate the correction value of the current scale. In order to verify the validity of the principle of the hydrostatic weighing method of glass hydrometer calibration system, for measuring the density range of (770-790) kg/m3, with a resolution of 0.2 kg/m3 of hydrometer. The results of measurement compare with the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt(PTB) ,verifying the validity of the calibration system.

  13. Inelastic compaction, dilation and hysteresis of sandstones under hydrostatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Eyal; Lyakhovsky, Vladimir; Ougier-Simonin, Audrey; Hamiel, Yariv; Zhu, Wenlu

    2014-05-01

    Sandstones display non-linear and inelastic behaviour such as hysteresis when subjected to cyclic loading. We present three hydrostatic compaction experiments with multiple loading-unloading cycles on Berea and Darley Dale sandstones and explain their hysteretic behaviour using non-linear inelastic compaction and dilation. Each experiment included eight to nine loading-unloading cycles with increasing maximum pressure in each subsequent cycle. Different pressure-volumetric strain relations during loading and unloading were observed. During the first cycles, under relatively low pressures, not all of the volumetric strain is recovered at the end of each cycle whereas at the last cycles, under relatively high pressures, the strain is recovered and the pressure-volumetric strain hysteresis loops are closed. The observed pressure-volumetric strain relations are non-linear and the effective bulk modulus of the sandstones changes between cycles. Observations are modelled with two inelastic deformation processes: irreversible compaction caused by changes in grain packing and recoverable compaction associated with grain contact adhesion, frictional sliding on grains or frictional sliding on cracks. The irreversible compaction is suggested to reflect rearrangement of grains into a more compact mode as the maximum pressure increases. Our model describes the `inelastic compaction envelope' in which sandstone sample will follow during hydrostatic loading. Irreversible compaction occurs when pressure is greater than a threshold value defined by the `inelastic compaction envelope'.

  14. Space plasma physics: I - Stationary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Sato, Tetsuya

    1989-01-01

    The physics of stationary processes in space plasmas is examined theoretically in an introduction intended for graduate students. The approach involves the extensive use of numerical simulations. Chapters are devoted to fundamental principles, small-amplitude waves, and the stationary solar plasma system; typical measurement data and simulation results are presented graphically.

  15. Stationary and non-stationary occurrences of miniature end plate potentials are well described as stationary and non-stationary Poisson processes in the mollusc Navanax inermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, M S; Spray, D C; Bennett, M V

    1988-06-28

    Protractor muscles in the gastropod mollusc Navanax inermis exhibit typical spontaneous miniature end plate potentials with mean amplitude 1.71 +/- 1.19 (standard deviation) mV. The evoked end plate potential is quantized, with a quantum equal to the miniature end plate potential amplitude. When their rate is stationary, occurrence of miniature end plate potentials is a random, Poisson process. When non-stationary, spontaneous miniature end plate potential occurrence is a non-stationary Poisson process, a Poisson process with the mean frequency changing with time. This extends the random Poisson model for miniature end plate potentials to the frequently observed non-stationary occurrence. Reported deviations from a Poisson process can sometimes be accounted for by the non-stationary Poisson process and more complex models, such as clustered release, are not always needed.

  16. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on overall quality parameters of watermelon juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Zhao, X Y; Zou, L; Hu, X S

    2013-06-01

    High hydrostatic pressure as a kind of non-thermal processing might maintain the quality of thermo-sensitive watermelon juice. So, the effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on enzymes and quality of watermelon juice was investigated. After high hydrostatic pressure treatment, the activities of polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and pectin methylesterase of juice decreased significantly with the pressure (P  0.05). No significant difference was observed in lycopene and total phenolics after high hydrostatic pressure treatment when compared to the control (P > 0.05). Cloudiness and viscosity increased with pressure (P  0.05). a*- and b*-value both unchanged after high hydrostatic pressure treatment (P > 0.05) while L*-value increased but the values had no significant difference among treated juices. Browning degree after high hydrostatic pressure treatment decreased with increase in pressure and treatment time (P high hydrostatic pressure had little effect on color of juice. The results of this study demonstrated the efficacy of high hydrostatic pressure in inactivating enzymes and maintaining the quality of watermelon juice.

  17. Dynamic transmission response of a hydrostatic transmission measured on a test bench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, J.; Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Vatheuer, N.; Murrenhoff, H.

    2012-01-01

    Within the scope of a current research project a hydrostatic transmission for wind turbines is being developed at IFAS. In this paper, two different strategies to control a hydrostatic transmission in wind turbines are presented and discussed. Main criteria are the optimal adaption of the system to

  18. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on elastic properties of ZDTP tribofilms

    CERN Document Server

    Demmou, Karim; Loubet, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the elastic properties of Zinc Dialkyl-dithiophosphate (ZDTP) tribofilms measured by nanoindentation increase versus applied pressure (Anvil effect) [1, 2]. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that, up to 8 GPa, this increase is a reversible phenomenon. A ZDTP tribofilm has been produced on "AISI 52100" steel substrate using a Cameron-Plint tribometer. After its formation, a hydrostatic pressure of about 8 GPa was applied during one minute on the tribofilm using a large radius steel ball ("Brinell-like" test). Nanoindentation tests were performed with a Berkovich tip on pads in order to measure and compare the mechanical properties of the tribofilm inside and outside the macroscopic plastically deformed area. Careful AFM observations have been carried out on each indent in order to take into account actual contact area. No difference in elastic properties was observed between the two areas: tribofilm modulus and pressure sensitivity are the same inside and outside the resi...

  19. Role of osmotic and hydrostatic pressures in bacteriophage genome ejection

    CERN Document Server

    Lemay, Serge G; Molineux, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    A critical step in the bacteriophage life cycle is genome ejection into host bacteria. The ejection process for double-stranded DNA phages has been studied thoroughly \\textit{in vitro}, where after triggering with the cellular receptor the genome ejects into a buffer. The experimental data have been interpreted in terms of the decrease in free energy of the densely packed DNA associated with genome ejection. Here we detail a simple model of genome ejection in terms of the hydrostatic and osmotic pressures inside the phage, a bacterium, and a buffer solution/culture medium. We argue that the hydrodynamic flow associated with the water movement from the buffer solution into the phage capsid and further drainage into the bacterial cytoplasm, driven by the osmotic gradient between the bacterial cytoplasm and culture medium, provides an alternative mechanism for phage genome ejection \\textit{in vivo}; the mechanism is perfectly consistent with phage genome ejection \\textit{in vitro}.

  20. Multi-Pulsed High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment of Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sencer Buzrul

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-pulsed high hydrostatic pressure (mpHHP treatment of foods has been investigated for more than two decades. It was reported that the mpHHP treatment, with few exceptions, is more effective than the classical or single-pulsed HHP (spHHP treatment for inactivation of microorganisms in fruit juice, dairy products, liquid whole egg, meat products, and sea foods. Moreover, the mpHHP treatment could be also used to inactivate enzymes in foods and to increase the shelf-life of foods. The effects of the mpHHP treatment of foods are summarized and the differences between the mpHHP and spHHP are also emphasized.

  1. Numerical and experimental study of hydrostatic displacement machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Mørk; Hansen, Michael; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation tool to determine the structural deflections and corresponding leakage flow in a hydrostatic displacement motor. The simulation tool is applied to a new motor principle that is categorized as an extreme low-speed high-torque motor with dimensions that calls...... distribution across both end faces. The fluid pressure is combined with structural calculations in a fluid structural interaction simulation, which evaluates the influence of structural deflections on the gaps and the leakage flow. The numerical work is validated by prototype tests. Both deflections...... and leakage flows are measured and compared with those from the simulations with good correlation. The deflections, and hence leakage flow, are reduced by the use of compensation pressure volumes, which is validated both numerically and experimentally....

  2. Investigating the nucleation of protein crystals with hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadri, A [Departement ' Mecanismes et Macromolecules de la Synthese Proteique et Cristallogenese' UPR 9002, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire du CNRS, 15 rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Damak, M [Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Naturelles, Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, BP 802, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Jenner, G [Laboratoire de Piezochimie Organique, UMR 7123, Faculte de Chimie, Universite Louis Pasteur, 1 rue Blaise Pascal, F-67008 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Lorber, B [Departement ' Mecanismes et Macromolecules de la Synthese Proteique et Cristallogenese' UPR 9002, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire du CNRS, 15 rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Giege, R [Departement ' Mecanismes et Macromolecules de la Synthese Proteique et Cristallogenese' UPR 9002, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire du CNRS, 15 rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

    2003-12-17

    Hydrostatic pressure in the 0.1-75 MPa range has been used as a non-invasive tool to study the crystallization process of the tetragonal crystal form of the protein thaumatin (M{sub r} 22 200). Crystals were prepared within agarose gel and at temperatures in the range from 283 to 303 K. The solubility, i.e. the concentration of soluble macromolecules remaining in equilibrium with the crystals, decreases when the pressure increases and when the temperature decreases. High pressure was used to probe the nucleation behaviour of thaumatin. The pressure dependence of the nucleation rate leads to an activation volume of -46.5cm{sup 3} mol{sup -1}. It is shown that an increase in pressure decreases the enthalpy, the entropy and the free energy of crystallization of thaumatin. The data are discussed in the light of the results of crystallographic analyses and of the structure of the protein.

  3. Analysis of pipe expansion associated with field hydrostatic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Stephen C.; Lamberth William [Spectra Energy Transmission (United States); Dimopoulos, Dimitris; Gotsis, Vassilis [Corinth Pipeworks (United States); Rosenfeld, M. J. [Kiefner and Associates, Inc. (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In the United States, PHMSA has reported some potential low yield strength concerning X-70 and X-80 grade pipes used in pipeline construction projects. In some cases significant pipe expansion has been reported under high stress levels. In response to PHMSA's advisory notice, a detailed pipe expansion review was performed on the Southeast Supply Header (SESH) pipeline; the aim of this paper is to present this review and show that pipe expansion might occur for reasons other than low yield strength pipe. The review included a statistical analysis of the pipe yield strength and an inspection of hydrostatic test levels. Results showed no pipe yielding at the pipe mill; 6 pipes did expand by over 1.5% in diameter and this was most likely to be due to incremental compression stresses. This study provided a review of the SESH pipeline and highlighted that expansion might be attributed to construction practices rather than to low yield strength pipes.

  4. Role of osmotic and hydrostatic pressures in bacteriophage genome ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Serge G.; Panja, Debabrata; Molineux, Ian J.

    2013-02-01

    A critical step in the bacteriophage life cycle is genome ejection into host bacteria. The ejection process for double-stranded DNA phages has been studied thoroughly in vitro, where after triggering with the cellular receptor the genome ejects into a buffer. The experimental data have been interpreted in terms of the decrease in free energy of the densely packed DNA associated with genome ejection. Here we detail a simple model of genome ejection in terms of the hydrostatic and osmotic pressures inside the phage, a bacterium, and a buffer solution or culture medium. We argue that the hydrodynamic flow associated with the water movement from the buffer solution into the phage capsid and further drainage into the bacterial cytoplasm, driven by the osmotic gradient between the bacterial cytoplasm and culture medium, provides an alternative mechanism for phage genome ejection in vivo; the mechanism is perfectly consistent with phage genome ejection in vitro.

  5. Structural and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes under hydrostatic pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ying; Cao Jue-Xian; Yang Wei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the structural and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes under hydrostatic pressures based on molecular dynamics simulations and first principles band structure calculations.It is found that carbon nanotubes experience a hard-to-soft transition as external pressure increases.The bulk modulus of soft phase is two orders of magnitude smaller than that of hard phase.The band structure calculations show that band gap of (10,0) nanotube increases with the increase of pressure at low pressures. Above a critical pressure (5.70GPa),band gap of (10,0) nanotube drops rapidly and becomes zero at 6.62GPa. Moreover,the calculated charge density shows that a large pressure can induce an sp2-to-sp3 bonding transition,which is confirmed by recent experiments on deformed carbon nanotubes.

  6. APPLICATIONS OF HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya TÜLEK

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, thermal processes are used in order to preserve food from microbiologic and enzymatic changes and extend the shelf life. Thermal treatments are particularly safe, assures a total inactivation of vegetative microorganism cells and spore. On the other hand it present some disadvantages related to the high temperature employed, such as denaturation of proteins, vitamins, productions of toxic compound, undesirable organoleptic features. The last decade, non-thermal inactivation techniques have been a major research issue, driven by an increased consumer demand for nutritious, fresh like food products with a high organoleptical quality and an acceptable shelf life. Present article represents studies on application aspects and effects of high hydrostatic pressure in foods.

  7. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.

  8. Automatic input rectification

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Fan; Ganesh, Vijay; Carbin, Michael James; Sidiroglou, Stelios; Rinard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique, automatic input rectification, and a prototype implementation, SOAP. SOAP learns a set of constraints characterizing typical inputs that an application is highly likely to process correctly. When given an atypical input that does not satisfy these constraints, SOAP automatically rectifies the input (i.e., changes the input so that it satisfies the learned constraints). The goal is to automatically convert potentially dangerous inputs into typical inputs that the ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stationary night blindness autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked congenital stationary night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stationary night blindness X-linked congenital stationary night blindness Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description X-linked congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  11. On the Nature of Hydrostatic Equilibrium in Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, V.; Borgani, S.; Murante, G.; Rasia, E.; Planelles, S.; Granato, G. L.; Ragone-Figueroa, C.; Beck, A. M.; Gaspari, M.; Dolag, K.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate the level of hydrostatic equilibrium (HE) in the intracluster medium of simulated galaxy clusters, extracted from state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulations performed with the Smoothed-Particle-Hydrodynamic code GADGET-3. These simulations include several physical processes, among which are stellar and active galactic nucleus feedback, and have been performed with an improved version of the code that allows for a better description of hydrodynamical instabilities and gas mixing processes. Evaluating the radial balance between the gravitational and hydrodynamical forces via the gas accelerations generated, we effectively examine the level of HE in every object of the sample and its dependence on the radial distance from the center and on the classification of the cluster in terms of either cool-coreness or dynamical state. We find an average deviation of 10%-20% out to the virial radius, with no evident distinction between cool-core and non-cool-core clusters. Instead, we observe a clear separation between regular and disturbed systems, with a more significant deviation from HE for the disturbed objects. The investigation of the bias between the hydrostatic estimate and the total gravitating mass indicates that, on average, this traces the deviation from HE very well, even though individual cases show a more complex picture. Typically, in the radial ranges where mass bias and deviation from HE are substantially different, the gas is characterized by a significant amount of random motions (≳ 30 % ), relative to thermal ones. As a general result, the HE-deviation and mass bias, at a given distance from the cluster center, are not very sensitive to the temperature inhomogeneities in the gas.

  12. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. (comp.)

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  13. Thermal conductivity and compressive strain of foam neoprene insulation under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to show that the thermal properties of foam neoprene under hydrostatic pressure cannot be predicted by theoretical means, and that uni-axial pressure cannot simulate hydrostatic compression. The thermal conductivity and compressive strain of foam neoprene were measured under hydrostatic pressure. In parallel, uni-axial compressive strain data were collected. The experimental set-up and data were put into perspective with past published studies. It was shown that uni-axial compression yielded strains 20-25% greater than did hydrostatic compression. This suggests the need for direct hydrostatic pressure measurement. For comparison to hydrostatic experimental data, a series of thermal conductivity theories of two phase composites based on particulate phase geometry were utilized. Due to their dependence on the porosity and constituent thermal conductivities, a model to predict porosity under hydrostatic pressure was used and an empirical correlation was derived to calculate the thermal conductivity of pure neoprene rubber from experimental data. It was shown that, although some agreement between experimental data and thermal conductivity theories was present, no particular theory can be used because they all fail to model the complex structure of the pores. It was therefore concluded that an experimental programme, such as reported here, is necessary for direct measurement

  14. On the existence of stationary Ricci solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Figueras, Pau

    2016-01-01

    Previously the DeTurck 'trick' has been used to render the stationary Einstein's equation a well posed elliptic system that may be solved numerically by geometric flow or directly. Whilst in the static case for pure gravity with zero or negative cosmological constant there is a simple proof that solving the modified "harmonic" Einstein's equation leads to a solution of the original Einstein system - i.e. not a Ricci soliton - in the stationary case this argument no longer works. Here we provide a new argument that extends the static result to the case of stationary spacetimes that possess a "$t$-$\\phi$" reflection symmetry. Defining a "soliton charge" from the asymptotic behaviour of the solution, we show that this quantity is always non-positive. Provided asymptotic conditions are chosen such that this charge vanishes, then stationary solitons cannot exist.

  15. Stable Stationary Harmonic Maps to Spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Hua LIN; Chang You WANG

    2006-01-01

    For k ≥ 3, we establish new estimate on Hausdorff dimensions of the singular set of stable-stationary harmonic maps to the sphere Sk. We show that the singular set of stable-stationary harmonic maps from B5 to S3 is the union of finitely many isolated singular points and finitely many Holder continuous curves. We also discuss the minimization problem among continuous maps from Bn to S2.

  16. Stationary infinitely divisible processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.

    Several recent strands of work has led to the consideration of various types of continuous time stationary and infinitely divisible processes. A review of these types, with some new results, is presented.......Several recent strands of work has led to the consideration of various types of continuous time stationary and infinitely divisible processes. A review of these types, with some new results, is presented....

  17. Direct Georeferencing of Stationary LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Mohamed; Benjamin Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    Unlike mobile survey systems, stationary survey systems are given very little direct georeferencing attention. Direct Georeferencing is currently being used in several mobile applications, especially in terrestrial and airborne LiDAR systems. Georeferencing of stationary terrestrial LiDAR scanning data, however, is currently performed indirectly through using control points in the scanning site. The indirect georeferencing procedure is often troublesome; the availability of control stations w...

  18. Self-Organized Stationary States of Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardin, S. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Ferraro, N. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Krebs, I. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Max-Plank-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, Garching, Germany

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate that in a 3D resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulation, for some parameters it is possible to form a stationary state in a tokamak where a saturated interchange mode in the center of the discharge drives a near helical flow pattern that acts to nonlinearly sustain the configuration by adjusting the central loop voltage through a dynamo action. This could explain the physical mechanism for maintaining stationary nonsawtoothing "hybrid" discharges, often referred to as "flux pumping."

  19. Self-Organized Stationary States of Tokamaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, S C; Ferraro, N; Krebs, I

    2015-11-20

    We demonstrate that in a 3D resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulation, for some parameters it is possible to form a stationary state in a tokamak where a saturated interchange mode in the center of the discharge drives a near helical flow pattern that acts to nonlinearly sustain the configuration by adjusting the central loop voltage through a dynamo action. This could explain the physical mechanism for maintaining stationary nonsawtoothing "hybrid" discharges, often referred to as "flux pumping."

  20. Shift ergodicity for stationary Markov processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    东金文

    2001-01-01

    In this paper shift ergodicity and related topics are studied for certain stationary processes. We first present a simple proof of the conclusion that every stationary Markov process is a generalized convex combination of stationary ergodic Markov processes. A direct consequence is that a stationary distribution of a Markov process is extremal if and only if the corresponding stationary Markov process is time ergodic and every stationary distribution is a generalized convex combination of such extremal ones. We then consider space ergodicity for spin flip particle systems. We prove space shift ergodicity and mixing for certain extremal invariant measures for a class of spin systems, in which most of the typical models, such as the Voter Models and the Contact Models, are included. As a consequence of these results we see that for such systems, under each of those extremal invariant measures, the space and time means of an observable coincide, an important phenomenon in statistical physics. Our results provide partial answers to certain interesting problems in spin systems.

  1. ERK activation is required for hydrostatic pressure induced-tensile changes in engineered articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    DuRaine, G D; Athanasiou, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the ERK 1/2 involvement in the changes in compressive and tensile mechanical properties associated with hydrostatic pressure treatment of self-assembled cartilage constructs. In study 1, ERK 1/2 phosphorylation was detected by immunoblot following application of hydrostatic pressure (1 hour of static 10MPa) applied at day 10-14 of self-assembly culture. In study 2, ERK 1/2 activation was blocked during hydrostatic pressure application on days 10-14....

  2. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel

  3. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Grandy, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boroski, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krajtl, Lubomir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Johnson, Terry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel

  4. FO hydrophone with hydrostatic pressure compensation: comparative experiment with a conventional piezo hydrophone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Bruijn, D. de

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the performance of a TPD FO hydrophone with hydrostatic pressure compensation. In particularly a comparison with a conventional piezo hydrophone system is discussed. ©2003 Copyright SPIE

  5. Mass modeling of galaxy clusters: quantifying hydrostatic bias and contribution from non-thermal pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Martizzi, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy cluster mass determinations achieved using X-ray and Sunyaev-Zeldovich data combined with the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium are generally biased. The bias exists for two main reasons: non-thermal pressure forces are expected to contribute to the overall pressure balance and deviations from spherical symmetry and hydrostatic equilibrium can be present. In this paper, we use a sample of zoom-in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy clusters to measure the magnitude of hydrostatic bias and the contribution from turbulence to the total pressure. We propose a new empirical model for turbulent pressure based on our simulations that can be applied to observations. We show that our model can be successfully applied to remove most of the bias related to neglection of turbulent pressure, which is usually not included in hydrostatic cluster mass profile reconstructions. The use of this model may significantly improve the calibration of cluster scaling relations that are a key tool for cluster cosmology.

  6. On the nature of hydrostatic equilibrium in galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Biffi, V; Murante, G; Rasia, E; Planelles, S; Granato, G L; Ragone-Figueroa, C; Beck, A M; Gaspari, M; Dolag, K

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the level of hydrostatic equilibrium (HE) in the intra-cluster medium of simulated galaxy clusters, extracted from state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamical simulations performed with the Smoothed-Particle-Hydrodynamic code GADGET-3. These simulations include several physical processes, among which stellar and AGN feedback, and have been performed with an improved version of the code that allows for a better description of hydrodynamical instabilities and gas mixing processes. Evaluating the radial balance between the gravitational and hydrodynamical forces, via the gas accelerations generated, we effectively examine the level of HE in every object of the sample, its dependence on the radial distance from the center and on the classification of the cluster in terms of either cool-coreness or dynamical state. We find an average deviation of 10-20% out to the virial radius, with no evident distinction between cool-core and non-cool-core clusters. Instead, we observe a clear separ...

  7. Recent Advances in Food Processing Using High Hydrostatic Pressure Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Hsu, Chiao-Ping; Yang, Binghuei Barry

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is an emerging non-thermal technology that can achieve the same standards of food safety as those of heat pasteurization and meet consumer requirements for fresher tasting, minimally processed foods. Applying high-pressure processing can inactivate pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and enzymes, as well as modify structures with little or no effects on the nutritional and sensory quality of foods. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) have approved the use of high-pressure processing (HPP), which is a reliable technological alternative to conventional heat pasteurization in food-processing procedures. This paper presents the current applications of HPP in processing fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, dairy, and egg products; such applications include the combination of pressure and biopreservation to generate specific characteristics in certain products. In addition, this paper describes recent findings on the microbiological, chemical, and molecular aspects of HPP technology used in commercial and research applications.

  8. Quantitative assessment of meteorological and tropospheric Zenith Hydrostatic Delay models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Guo, Jiming; Chen, Ming; Shi, Junbo; Zhou, Lv

    2016-09-01

    Tropospheric delay has always been an important issue in GNSS/DORIS/VLBI/InSAR processing. Most commonly used empirical models for the determination of tropospheric Zenith Hydrostatic Delay (ZHD), including three meteorological models and two empirical ZHD models, are carefully analyzed in this paper. Meteorological models refer to UNB3m, GPT2 and GPT2w, while ZHD models include Hopfield and Saastamoinen. By reference to in-situ meteorological measurements and ray-traced ZHD values of 91 globally distributed radiosonde sites, over a four-years period from 2010 to 2013, it is found that there is strong correlation between errors of model-derived values and latitudes. Specifically, the Saastamoinen model shows a systematic error of about -3 mm. Therefore a modified Saastamoinen model is developed based on the "best average" refractivity constant, and is validated by radiosonde data. Among different models, the GPT2w and the modified Saastamoinen model perform the best. ZHD values derived from their combination have a mean bias of -0.1 mm and a mean RMS of 13.9 mm. Limitations of the present models are discussed and suggestions for further improvements are given.

  9. II-VI wide band gap semiconductors under hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, R.; Decoss, R.; Olguin, D.

    1993-08-01

    We set an analytical expression for the gap as a function of hydrostatic deformation, E(sub g)(epsilon), by diagonalizing in Gamma the corresponding empirical tight-binding Hamiltonian (ETBH). In the ETBH we use the well known d(exp -2) Harrison scaling law (HSL) to adjust the TB parameter (TBP) to the changes in interatomic distances. We do not consider cation-anion charge transfer. We calculate E(sub g)(epsilon) for wide band gap II-VI semiconductors with zincblende crystal structure for deformations under pressure up to -5 percent. Results are in good agreement with experiment for the compounds of lower ionicity but deviate as the ionicity of the compound increases. This is due to the neglect of charge transfer which should be included self-consistently. Within the approximation we always find a positive second derivative of E(sub g)(epsilon) with respect to epsilon, independent of the material. Furthermore, the inclusion of deviations from HSL appear to be unimportant to this problem.

  10. Challenging Oil Bioremediation at Deep-Sea Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoma, Alberto; Yakimov, Michail M.; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident has brought oil contamination of deep-sea environments to worldwide attention. The risk for new deep-sea spills is not expected to decrease in the future, as political pressure mounts to access deep-water fossil reserves, and poorly tested technologies are used to access oil. This also applies to the response to oil-contamination events, with bioremediation the only (bio)technology presently available to combat deep-sea spills. Many questions about the fate of petroleum-hydrocarbons within deep-sea environments remain unanswered, as well as the main constraints limiting bioremediation under increased hydrostatic pressures and low temperatures. The microbial pathways fueling oil bioassimilation are unclear, and the mild upregulation observed for beta-oxidation-related genes in both water and sediments contrasts with the high amount of alkanes present in the spilled oil. The fate of solid alkanes (tar), hydrocarbon degradation rates and the reason why the most predominant hydrocarbonoclastic genera were not enriched at deep-sea despite being present at hydrocarbon seeps at the Gulf of Mexico have been largely overlooked. This mini-review aims at highlighting the missing information in the field, proposing a holistic approach where in situ and ex situ studies are integrated to reveal the principal mechanisms accounting for deep-sea oil bioremediation. PMID:27536290

  11. Deep borehole excavation by hydrostatic-decompression/suction spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhle, J.L. [California State Univ., Fullerton, CA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1996-09-01

    Any deep drilling system that seeks to abrade or claw its way through deeply buried rock is highly energy-intensive and very much like trying to cut a pane of glass with a hacksaw. Since rock is very weak in tension, it should require far less energy input to fail the rock at the bottom of a deep borehole if the rock were subjected to tensional loads. Furthermore, a significant amount of elastic energy is stored in the matrix of deeply buried rock, and a large amount of hydraulic and pneumatic energy is stored in the pore-fluids of deeply buried rock. Given the relative ease of inducing deep-borehole breakouts by means of minor downward adjustments in drilling fluid density, and given the stress-relief core-disking effects associated with deep coring operations, the rock at the bottom of a deep borehole should readily destroy itself by means of its own self-contained energy if a deliberate and concerted effort were made to induce a rockburst at the bottom of the borehole. A drilling apparatus has recently been designed and prototyped which is intended to excavate rock at the bottom of a deep borehole by means of hydrostatic-decompression and suction-spallation effects. The initial test results are presented and evaluated.

  12. Efficiency of the Ultrasound Guided Hydrostatic Reduction of Intussusception with Normal Saline

    OpenAIRE

    Azim Motamed Far; Hamid Dehdashti; Mohammad Davoudi

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objective: Conventional hydrostatic barium reduction or pneumatic reduction of intussusception is associated with considerable ionizing radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate ultrasound guided hydrostatic reduction of childhood intussusceptions using water enema."nPatients and Methods: The reduction was attempted using a warm water reservoir at a height of 80-120 cm above the table. The vital signs and the abrupt accumulation of liquid in the abdomen were controlled ...

  13. Experimental research on dynamic mechanical properties of PZT ceramic under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We developed an experimental device to examine dynamic mechanical properties of PZT. → Ductile behavior of PZT was seen when hydrostatic pressure was involved. → Compressive strength was shown sensitive to hydrostatic pressure and strain-rate. → A failure criterion was suggested to explain the failure behavior of PZT. - Abstract: An experimental technique for initially applied hydrostatic pressure in specimens subjected to axial impact has been developed to study the dynamic mechanical properties of materials. The technique was employed for the purpose of examining the dynamic mechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) at zero to 15 MPa hydrostatic pressures. Experimental results unambiguously exhibit the ductile behavior of PZT when hydrostatic pressure is involved. The compressive strength is demonstrated sensitive to the initial hydrostatic pressure and the strain-rate. The fracture modes are analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, a failure criterion based on Mohr-Coulomb failure theory is suggested to explain the brittle and ductile failure of PZT.

  14. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  15. STATIONARY CONNECTED CURVES IN HILBERT SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Hatamleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the structure of non-stationary curves which are stationary connected in Hilbert space is studied using triangular models of non-self-adjoint operator. The concept of evolutionary representability plays here an important role. It is proved that if one of two curves in Hilbert space is evolutionary representable and the curves are stationary connected, then another curve is evolutionary representable too. These curves are studied firstly. The structure of a cross-correlation function in the case when operator, defining the evolutionary representation, has one-dimensional non-Hermitian subspace (the spectrum is discreet and situated in the upper complex half-plane or has infinite multiplicity at zero (Volterra operator is studied.

  16. Coherent control of stationary light pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, F. E.; André, A.; Lukin, M. D.; Fleischhauer, M.

    2006-08-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the recently demonstrated technique to generate quasi-stationary pulses of light [M. Bajcsy, A.S. Zibrov, M.D. Lukin, Nature (London) 426 (2003) 638] based on electromagnetically induced transparency. We show that the use of counter-propagating control fields to retrieve a light pulse, previously stored in a collective atomic Raman excitation, leads to quasi-stationary light field that undergoes a slow diffusive spread. The underlying physics of this process is identified as pulse matching of probe and control fields. We then show that spatially modulated control-field amplitudes allow us to coherently manipulate and compress the spatial shape of the stationary light pulse. These techniques can provide valuable tools for quantum nonlinear optics and quantum information processing.

  17. Full Counting Statistics of Stationary Particle Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kiukas, J; Werner, R F

    2010-01-01

    We present a general scheme for treating particle beams, including stationary beams, as many particle systems. This includes the full counting statistics and the requirements of Bose/Fermi symmetry. We treat in detail a model of a source, creating particles in a fixed state, which then evolve under the free time evolution, and we determine the resulting stationary beam in the far field. In comparison to the one-particle picture we obtain a correction from Bose/Fermi statistics, which depends on the emission rate.

  18. Stationary Scalar Clouds Around Rotating Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by novel results in the theory of wave dynamics in black-hole spacetimes, we analyze the dynamics of a massive scalar field surrounding a rapidly rotating Kerr black hole. In particular, we report on the existence of stationary (infinitely long-lived) regular field configurations in the background of maximally rotating black holes. The effective height of these scalar "clouds" above the central black hole is determined analytically. Our results support the possible existence of stationary scalar field dark matter distributions surrounding rapidly rotating black holes.

  19. Stationary Light Pulses in Cold Atomic Media

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Wen-Te; Peters, Thorsten; Chou, Hung-Chih; Wang, Jian-Siung; Kuan, Pei-Chen; Yu, Ite A

    2008-01-01

    Stationary light pulses (SLPs), i.e., light pulses without motion, are formed via the retrieval of stored probe pulses with two counter-propagating coupling fields. We show that there exist non-negligible hybrid Raman excitations in media of cold atoms that prohibit the SLP formation. We experimentally demonstrate a method to suppress these Raman excitations and realize SLPs in laser-cooled atoms. Our work opens the way to SLP studies in cold as well as in stationary atoms and provides a new avenue to low-light-level nonlinear optics.

  20. Structure of stationary and axisymmetric metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the structure of stationary and axisymmetric metrics solving the vacuum Einstein equations of general relativity in four and higher dimensions, building on recent work in Phys. Rev. D 70, 124002 (2004). We write the Einstein equations in a new form that naturally identifies the sources for such metrics. The sources live in a one-dimensional subspace and the entire metric is uniquely determined by them. We study in detail the structure of stationary and axisymmetric metrics in four dimensions, and consider as an example the sources of the Kerr black hole

  1. New understanding of the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the corrosion of Ni–Cr–Mo–V high strength steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Stress distributions of pits under different hydrostatic pressures are simulated. •Corrosion model of Ni–Cr–Mo–V steel under hydrostatic pressure is established. •A novel understanding of the effect of hydrostatic pressure is proposed. -- Abstract: Corrosion of Ni–Cr–Mo–V high strength steel at different hydrostatic pressures is investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and finite element analysis (FEA). The results indicate that corrosion pits of Ni–Cr–Mo–V high strength steel originate from inclusions in the steel and high hydrostatic pressures accelerate pit growth rate parallel to steel and the coalescence rate of neighbouring pits, which lead to the fast formation of uniform corrosion. Corrosion of Ni–Cr–Mo–V high strength steel under high hydrostatic pressure is the interaction result between electrochemical corrosion and elastic stress

  2. Charged particle tunnels from the stationary and non-stationary Kerr-Newman black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Deyou; Yang, Shuzheng

    2007-09-01

    Considering the unfixed background space-time and self-gravitational interaction, we view the Hawking radiation of a stationary Kerr-Newman black hole by Hamilton-Jacobi method. Meanwhile, extending this work to non-stationary black holes, we attempt to investigate the Hawking radiation of the non-stationary Kerr-Newman black hole. Both of the results show the tunneling probabilities are related to the change of Bekenstein- Hawking entropy and the radiation spectrums deviate from the purely thermal one, which is in accordance with the known result.

  3. Autoregression of Quasi-Stationary Time Series (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, T. M.; Küperkoch, L.

    2009-12-01

    Autoregression is a model based tool for spectral analysis and prediction of time series. It has the potential to increase the resolution of spectral estimates. However, the validity of the assumed model has to be tested. Here we review shortly methods for the determination of the parameters of autoregression and summarize properties of autoregressive prediction and autoregressive spectral analysis. Time series with a limited number of dominant frequencies varying slowly in time (quasi-stationary time series) may well be described by a time-dependent autoregressive model of low order. An algorithm for the estimation of the autoregression parameters in a moving window is presented. Time-varying dominant frequencies are estimated. The comparison to results obtained by Fourier transform based methods and the visualization of the time dependent normalized prediction error are essential for quality assessment of the results. The algorithm is applied to synthetic examples as well as to mircoseism and tremor. The sensitivity of the results to the choice of model and filter parameters is discussed. Autoregressive forward prediction offers the opportunity to detect body wave phases in seismograms and to determine arrival times automatically. Examples are shown for P- and S-phases at local and regional distances. In order to determine S-wave arrival times the autoregressive model is extended to multi-component recordings. For the detection of significant temporal changes in waveforms, the choice of the model appears to be less crucial compared to spectral analysis. Temporal changes in frequency, amplitude, phase, and polarisation are detectable by autoregressive prediction. Quality estimates of automatically determined onset times may be obtained from the slope of the absolute prediction error as a function of time and the signal-to-noise ratio. Results are compared to manual readings.

  4. SS 433: Stationary lines and primary eclipses

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, M G

    2015-01-01

    Some stationary lines in the emission spectra of SS 433 are eclipsed, but most are not. Lines attributed to a circumbinary disk are not eclipsed, but double in relative intensity during primary eclipse. A C II doublet is eclipsed and Doppler shifts over two periods yield an orbital speed of 176 +/- 13 km/s.

  5. Stationary Double Layers in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noriyoshi, Sato; Mieno, Tetsu; Hatakeyama, Rikizo;

    1983-01-01

    plate on the low-potential side, being accompanied with current limitation. This localized potential drop moves along the plasma column, but finally stops and results in the formation of the stationary double layer in the presence of sufficient plasma supply from the plate on the high-potential side....

  6. Realizability of stationary spherically symmetric transonic accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, A K; Ray, Arnab K.

    2002-01-01

    The spherically symmetric stationary transonic (Bondi) flow is considered a classic example of an accretion flow. This flow, however, is along a separatrix, which is usually not physically realizable. We demonstrate, using a pedagogical example, that it is the dynamics which selects the transonic flow.

  7. Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armas, J.; Obers, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid mechanics can be formulated on dynamical surfaces of arbitrary codimension embedded in a background space-time. This has been the main object of study of the blackfold approach in which the emphasis has primarily been on stationary fluid configurations. Motivated by this approach we show un...

  8. Markov Chains with Stochastically Stationary Transition Probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Orey, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Markov chains on a countable state space are studied under the assumption that the transition probabilities $(P_n(x,y))$ constitute a stationary stochastic process. An introductory section exposing some basic results of Nawrotzki and Cogburn is followed by four sections of new results.

  9. Using vector Taylor series with noise clustering for speech recognition in non-stationary noisy environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The performance of automatic speech recognizer degrades seriously when there are mismatches between the training and testing conditions. Vector Taylor Series (VTS) approach has been used to compensate mismatches caused by additive noise and convolutive channel distortion in the cepstral domain. In this paper, the conventional VTS is extended by incorporating noise clustering into its EM iteration procedure, improving its compensation effectiveness under non-stationary noisy environments. Recognition experiments under babble and exhibition noisy environments demonstrate that the new algorithm achieves35 % average error rate reduction compared with the conventional VTS.

  10. Automatic text summarization

    CERN Document Server

    Torres Moreno, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This new textbook examines the motivations and the different algorithms for automatic document summarization (ADS). We performed a recent state of the art. The book shows the main problems of ADS, difficulties and the solutions provided by the community. It presents recent advances in ADS, as well as current applications and trends. The approaches are statistical, linguistic and symbolic. Several exemples are included in order to clarify the theoretical concepts.  The books currently available in the area of Automatic Document Summarization are not recent. Powerful algorithms have been develop

  11. Automatic utilities auditing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Colin Boughton [Energy Metering Technology (United Kingdom)

    2000-08-01

    At present, energy audits represent only snapshot situations of the flow of energy. The normal pattern of energy audits as seen through the eyes of an experienced energy auditor is described. A brief history of energy auditing is given. It is claimed that the future of energy auditing lies in automatic meter reading with expert data analysis providing continuous automatic auditing thereby reducing the skill element. Ultimately, it will be feasible to carry out auditing at intervals of say 30 minutes rather than five years.

  12. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...... camera. We approach this problem by modelling it as a dynamic multi-objective optimisation problem and show how this metaphor allows a much richer expressiveness than a classical single objective approach. Finally, we showcase the application of a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to generate a shot...

  13. Pulmonary edema: an MR study of permeability and hydrostatic types in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H C; Tsay, D G; Higgins, C B

    1986-02-01

    Permeability pulmonary edema was induced in ten rats by intravenous injection of oleic acid. Hydrostatic pulmonary edema was induced in another ten rats by continuous infusion of saline. Permeability pulmonary edema was detected as increased signal intensity in all animals on images obtained with repetition times (TR) of 2.0 sec and echo times (TE) of 28 and 56 msec. Hydrostatic pulmonary edema was perceivable only in seven of ten rats. It was best seen on spin-echo TR = 2.0 sec, TE = 28 msec images as increased intensity either throughout the whole lung or in a predominant central distribution. The slopes of the relationships between the mean signal intensity and water content of both lungs were lower for hydrostatic pulmonary edema than for permeability pulmonary edema. Hydrostatic pulmonary edema demonstrated similar T1 but markedly shorter T2 relaxation times than permeability edema. Magnetic resonance imaging can be used to estimate severity of hydrostatic and permeability pulmonary edemas. PMID:3941856

  14. Use of pressurized eccentric tubes to study the effect of hydrostatic stress on swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for measuring the effect of hydrostatic stress on radiation-induced swelling is presented. This technique is based on the nonuniform hydrostatic stress that arises when an eccentric tube (a tube with inner and outer surfaces having dissimilar centers of revolution) is internally pressurized. The elastic analyses of the thin- and thick-walled eccentric tube are given. The elastic stress state is allowed to relax plastically, based on a constitutive law for deformation during neutron irradiation. In this case, the constitutive law contains a linearly stress-dependent deviatoric strain rate and a dilatation rate that is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress. Emphasis is placed on the specimen design and experimental procedure for in-reactor experiments in which the coefficient relating hydrostatic stress and swelling is sought. It is shown that, for the 316L stainless steel specimens placed in EBR-II, we may expect that any appreciable effect of hydrostatic stress on swelling will be observable through changes in specimen curvature

  15. PPARγ ligands decrease hydrostatic pressure-induced platelet aggregation and proinflammatory activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Rao

    Full Text Available Hypertension is known to be associated with platelet overactivity, but the direct effects of hydrostatic pressure on platelet function remain unclear. The present study sought to investigate whether elevated hydrostatic pressure is responsible for platelet activation and to address the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ. We observed that hypertensive patients had significantly higher platelet volume and rate of ADP-induced platelets aggregation compared to the controls. In vitro, Primary human platelets were cultured under standard (0 mmHg or increased (120, 180, 240 mmHg hydrostatic pressure for 18 h. Exposure to elevated pressure was associated with morphological changes in platelets. Platelet aggregation and PAC-1 (the active confirmation of GPIIb/IIIa binding were increased, CD40L was translocated from cytoplasm to the surface of platelet and soluble CD40L (sCD40L was released into the medium in response to elevated hydrostatic pressure (180 and 240 mmHg. The PPARγ activity was up-regulated as the pressure was increased from 120 mmHg to 180 mmHg. Pressure-induced platelet aggregation, PAC-1 binding, and translocation and release of CD40L were all attenuated by the PPARγ agonist Thiazolidinediones (TZDs. These results demonstrate that platelet activation and aggregation are increased by exposure to elevated pressure and that PPARγ may modulate platelet activation induced by high hydrostatic pressure.

  16. Simulation and experimental analysis of supporting characteristics of multiple oil pad hydrostatic bearing disk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-qin; FAN Li-guo; LI Rui; DAI Chun-xi; YU Xiao-dong

    2013-01-01

    To study the heavy hydrostatic bearing with multiple oil pads,a reasonably simplified model of the pad is put forward,and the mathematical model of the bearing characteristics of the multiple oil pad hydrostatic bearing is built with consideration of variable viscosity.The pressure field in the clearance oil film of the hydrostatic bearing at various velocities is simulated based on the Finite Volume Method (FVM) by using the software of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).Some pressure experiments on the hydrostatic bearing were carried out and the results verified the rationality of the simplified model of the pad and the validity of the numerical simulation.It is concluded that the viscosity has a great influence on the pressure in the heavy hydrostatic beating and cannot be neglected,especially,in cases of high rotating speed.The results of numerical calculations provide the internal flow states inside the bearing,which would help the design of the oil cavity structure of the bearing in engineering practice.

  17. R-peaks detection based on stationary wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merah, M; Abdelmalik, T A; Larbi, B H

    2015-10-01

    Automatic detection of the QRS complexes/R-peaks in an electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is the most important step preceding any kind of ECG processing and analysis. The performance of these systems heavily relies on the accuracy of the QRS detector. The objective of present work is to drive a new robust method based on stationary wavelet transform (SWT) for R-peaks detection. The decimation of the coefficients at each level of the transformation algorithm is omitted, more samples in the coefficient sequences are available and hence a better outlier detection can be performed. Using the information of local maxima, minima and zero crossings of the fourth SWT coefficient detail, the proposed algorithm identifies the significant points for detection and delineation of the QRS complexes, as well as detection and identification of the QRS individual waves peaks of the pre-processed ECG signal. Various experimental results show that the proposed algorithm exhibits reliable QRS detection as well as accurate ECG delineation, achieving excellent performance on different databases, on the MIT-BIH database (Se=99.84%, P=99.88%), on the QT Database (Se=99.94%, P=99.89%) and on MIT-BIH Noise Stress Test Database, (Se=95.30%, P=93.98%). Reliability and accuracy are close to the highest among the ones obtained in other studies. Experiments results being satisfactory, the SWT may represent a novel QRS detection tool, for a robust ECG signal analysis. PMID:26105724

  18. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1989-01-01

    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstract...

  19. Real Indeterminacy of Stationary Monetary Equilibria in Centralized Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Kamiya, Kazuya; Kubota, So; Nakajima, Kayuna

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new logic of indeterminacy of stationary monetary equilibria. We rst show that, in a class of dynamic Walrasian market models with at money, stationary equilibria are indeterminate; that is, there exists a continuum of stationary equilibria, where the value of money varies across the stationary equilibria. Then we explore the logic of the indeterminacy, and show that it can be applied not only to dynamic Walrasian market models but also to Jean et al. (2010)'s sear...

  20. Polyploidy induction by hydrostatic pressure shock and embryo development of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Jun; CHANG Yaqing; WANG Zichen; SONG Jian

    2007-01-01

    The manipulation of the chromosome set for commercially valuable marine animals is important for enhancing aquacultural production. In this study, triploid and tetraploid sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were induced by hydrostatic pressure shock, and the conditions of appropriate induction were tested with different starting times, and hydrostatic pressure intensities and durations. The highest rate of triploid induction reached 20% and that of tetraploid was 60%. In consideration of the survival rate and hatch rate, the appropriate treatment for triploid was 55 Mpa of hydrostatic pressure for 5 min at 55 min after fertilization (a.f.), while for tetraploid it was 60 Mpa for 5 min at 61 min a.f. The triploid of the sea cucumber could survive through the pelagic larval stage and attachment stage, and develop like the control group of the experiment. The tetraploid, however, could not survive the attachment stage.

  1. Analytical model for non-thermal pressure in galaxy clusters - III. Removing the hydrostatic mass bias

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Xun; Nagai, Daisuke; Lau, Erwin T

    2015-01-01

    Non-thermal pressure in galaxy clusters leads to underestimation of the mass of galaxy clusters based on hydrostatic equilibrium with thermal gas pressure. This occurs even for dynamically relaxed clusters that are used for calibrating the mass-observable scaling relations. We show that the analytical model for non-thermal pressure developed in Shi & Komatsu 2014 can correct for this so-called `hydrostatic mass bias', if most of the non-thermal pressure comes from bulk and turbulent motions of gas in the intracluster medium. Our correction works for the sample average irrespective of the mass estimation method, or the dynamical state of the clusters. This makes it possible to correct for the bias in the hydrostatic mass estimates from X-ray surface brightness and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich observations that will be available for clusters in a wide range of redshifts and dynamical states.

  2. The electrical signature of rock samples exposed to hydrostatic and triaxial pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nover

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrical signature of sedimentary (carbonate and crystalline rock samples was studied in hydrostatic and triaxial pressure experiments up to 300 MPa. The aim was to establish a relation between an electrical signal stimulated by an external pressure acting on the sample and the mechanical stability of the rock. Natural open fractures tend to be closed under hydrostatic pressure conditions, whereas in triaxial pressure experiments new fractures are generated. These contrary processes of either decrease or increase in crack density and geometry, cause a decrease or increase in the inner surface of the sample. Such pressure induced variations in pore geometry were investigated by an interpretation and modelling of the frequency dependence of the complex electrical conductivity. In a series of hydrostatic pressure experiments crack-closure was found in the electrical signature by a decrease of the model capacitor C being related to crack geometry. This capacitor increases in the triaxial experiments where new fractures were formed.

  3. On variable hydrostatic transmission for road vehicles, powered by supply of fluid at constant pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, M.; Freivald, A.; Andersson, I.; Ericsson, U.

    1981-01-01

    Various hydrostatic power transmission systems for automotive applications with power supply at constant pressure and unrestricted flow and with a Volvo Flygmotor variable displacement motor as the principal unit were investigated. Two most promising concepts were analyzed in detail and their main components optimized for minimum power loss at the EPA Urban Driving Cycle. The best fuel consumption is less than 10 lit. per 100 kM for a 1542 kG vehicle with a hydrostatic motor and a two speed gear box in series (braking power not recovered). Realistic system pressure affects the fuel consumption just slightly, but the package volume/weight drastically. Back pressure increases losses significantly. Special attention was paid to description of the behavior and modeling of the losses of variable displacement hydrostatic machines.

  4. On variable hydrostatic transmission for road vehicles, powered by supply of fluid at constant pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, M.; Freivald, A.; Andersson, I.; Ericsson, U.

    1981-05-01

    Various hydrostatic power transmission systems for automotive applications with power supply at constant pressure and unrestricted flow and with a Volvo Flygmotor variable displacement motor as the principal unit were investigated. Two most promising concepts were analyzed in detail and their main components optimized for minimum power loss at the EPA Urban Driving Cycle. The best fuel consumption is less than 10 lit. per 100 kM for a 1542 kG vehicle with a hydrostatic motor and a two speed gear box in series (braking power not recovered). Realistic system pressure affects the fuel consumption just slightly, but the package volume/weight drastically. Back pressure increases losses significantly. Special attention was paid to description of the behavior and modeling of the losses of variable displacement hydrostatic machines.

  5. Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A.

    2013-02-01

    Fluid mechanics can be formulated on dynamical surfaces of arbitrary codimension embedded in a background space-time. This has been the main object of study of the blackfold approach in which the emphasis has primarily been on stationary fluid configurations. Motivated by this approach we show under certain conditions that a given stationary fluid configuration living on a dynamical surface of vanishing thickness and satisfying locally the first law of thermodynamics will behave like an elastic brane when the surface is subject to small deformations. These results, which are independent of the number of space-time dimensions and of the fluid arising from a gravitational dual, reveal the (electro)elastic character of (charged) black branes when considering extrinsic perturbations.

  6. Stationary processes with pure point diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We consider the construction and classification of some new mathematical objects, called ergodic spatial stationary processes, on locally compact Abelian groups, which provide a natural and very general setting for studying diffraction and the famous inverse problems associated with it. In particular we can construct complete families of solutions to the inverse problem from any given pure point measure that is chosen to be the diffraction. In this case these processes can be classified by the dual of the group of relators based on the set of Bragg peaks, and this gives a solution to the homometry problem for pure point diffraction. An ergodic spatial stationary process consists of a measure theoretical dynamical system and a mapping linking it with the ambient space in which diffracting density is supposed to exist. After introducing these processes we study their general properties and link pure point diffraction to almost periodicity. Given a pure point measure we show how to construct from it and a given ...

  7. Stationary SMS lenses for concentrating photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsidas, Panagiotis; Chatzi, Eleni; Modi, Vijay

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a novel approach regarding the design of stationary, non imaging, refractive lenses with high acceptance angles. A lens lies on a stationary aperture and as the sun moves throughout the day, the concentrated focal spot is tracked by a moving solar cell. The purpose of this work is to replace the 2-axis tracking of the sun with internal motion of the miniaturized solar cell inside the module. We show families of linear lenses with wide acceptance angles 60. and 30. achieving moderate concentrations of 10 - 30 suns. The lens is designed with a variation of the simultaneous multiple surface (SMS) technique which is combined with a genetic algorithm to optimize the free variables of the problem.

  8. Relativistic Elasticity of Stationary Fluid Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Fluid mechanics can be formulated on dynamical surfaces of arbitrary co-dimension embedded in a background space-time. This has been the main object of study of the blackfold approach in which the emphasis has primarily been on stationary fluid configurations. Motivated by this approach we show under certain conditions that a given stationary fluid configuration living on a dynamical surface of vanishing thickness and satisfying locally the first law of thermodynamics will behave like an elastic brane when the surface is subject to small deformations. These results, which are independent of the number of space-time dimensions and of the fluid arising from a gravitational dual, reveal the (electro)elastic character of (charged) black branes when considering extrinsic perturbations.

  9. Carbon nanotube stationary phases for microchip electrochromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    nanotubes are very interesting for integration in especially microfluidic devices, because they can readily be grown on planar substrates by means of chemical vapour deposition. In this way the cumbersome process of packing of the stationary phase in the finished microfluidic channels is avoided and the CNT...... surface can furthermore be used directly as a stationary phase in reverse-phase separations, thereby avoiding subsequent functionalization of the nanostructures. This significantly reduces the fabrication time and possibly also increases the reproducibility of the column performance. In this presentation......, microfluidic devices with microfabricated carbon nanotube columns for electrochromatographic separations will be presented. The electrically conductive carbon nanotube layer has been patterned into hexoganol micropillars in order to support electroosmotic flow without forming gas bubbles from electrolysis...

  10. A Bidenate Amide Bonded Stationary Phase for HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Shun MA; Yuan De LONG; Yong Liang DING; Tian Bao HUANG

    2003-01-01

    A novel bonded stationary phase, bidenate amide bonded stationary phase (BABSP), was prepared by reacting YWG silica gel firstly with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, then with diacid chloride. Hydrophobicity, selectivity, and especially silanophilic activity of BABSP were evaluated. The stationary phase exhibited good column efficiency and peak shape for separation of some basic solutes.

  11. 30 CFR 75.1723 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. 75.1723 Section 75.1723 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1723 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other...

  12. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing...

  13. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing...

  14. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4561 Stationary diesel equipment underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and...

  15. 30 CFR 77.401 - Stationary grinding machines; protective devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines; protective... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.401 Stationary grinding machines; protective devices. (a) Stationary grinding machines other than special bit grinders shall be equipped...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14115 - Stationary grinding machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines. 57.14115 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14115 Stationary grinding machines. Stationary grinding machines, other than special bit grinders, shall be equipped with— (a) Peripheral...

  17. Stationary plume induced by carbon dioxide dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, laminar convection flows induced by carbon dioxide absorption are addressed from experimental, numerical and theoretical points of view. A vertical glass tube (of centimetre scale) filled with distilled water is subjected to a sudden increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. As a result of the diffusion of the gas into the unsaturated solution, a thin layer of fluid located underneath the surface becomes heavier. This initial density gradient first destabilizes to form a plume, which goes downwards through the entire cell. After a first transient pulsating regime (periodic succession of such Rayleigh-Benard plumes), a stationary flow settles in the tube, which is maintained by the constant supply of gas at the surface. At late stages, this stationary regime is followed by an aperiodic regime, which lasts until the complete saturation of the solution (thermodynamic equilibrium). The present study only focuses on the stationary regime, whose characteristics appear to be almost independent of the Bond number and the aspect ratio but strongly dependent on the chemical Rayleigh number. Three decades of Rayleigh numbers are explored using particle image velocimetry measurements, which allows for a precise determination of the scaling exponents for the vertical velocity amplitude and the plume width. The assumption that gravity and a constant pressure gradient balance the viscous effects enables us to derive an analytic expression for the stationary vertical velocity on the axis, which scales as Ra2/3 (ln Ra)1/3. As a consequence, the width of the plume scales as Ra-1/6 (ln Ra)-1/3 and the mass Nusselt number as (Ra= ln Ra)1/3. These scalings are in excellent agreement with the experimental and numerical results. The multiplicative constants of these scalings can also be calculated and show a fairly good agreement if a rigid boundary condition (no-slip) is assumed at the free surface. (authors)

  18. Developments in lead/acid stationary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Don

    1993-05-01

    Valve-regulated designs of the lead/acid system are securing significant shares of the markets for stationary batteries. This paper discusses the major problems that have been encountered with the introduction of valve-generated technology. Areas that have provided particular difficulties include: (1) acid leakage (container-cover, post-seal and vent leaks); (2) adverse effects of ripple current; (3) variations in float voltage, and (4) initial value of recharge current.

  19. BISTATIC SONOBUOY DEPLOYMENT CONFIGURATION FOR STATIONARY TARGETS

    OpenAIRE

    KARATAŞ, Mümtaz; Gülşen AKMAN

    2015-01-01

    Countering submerged targets using bistatic and multistatic sonobuoy systems is a fundamental problem in Anti-Submarine Warfare. A key question is: what is the best deployment geometry of sensors to successfully detect a submarine threat in a field of interest? The unique properties of these systems distinguish this problem from the conventional ones. This paper examines the optimum deployment strategies of bistatic sonobuoys against stationary or low speed targets. 

  20. Stationary phase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Werner-Washburne, M; Braun, E.; Johnston, G C; Singer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Growth and proliferation of microorganisms such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are controlled in part by the availability of nutrients. When proliferating yeast cells exhaust available nutrients, they enter a stationary phase characterized by cell cycle arrest and specific physiological, biochemical, and morphological changes. These changes include thickening of the cell wall, accumulation of reserve carbohydrates, and acquisition of thermotolerance. Recent characterization of mutant c...

  1. Superheater Tube Flat Wall Stationary Temperature Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parpiev A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The BKZ-220-100-9 steam generator platen superheater tube flat wall stationary temperature fields analysis have been made. The six steel grades, using in boiler fabrication, namely, St. 10, St. 20, 12H1MF, 15HM, 1H18N9T and 12H18N12T, have been used. The temperature curves calculation has been made by using outer and inner surface heat-transfer coefficients nine different combinations.

  2. L1-stability of stationary discrete shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonlinear stability in the Lp-norm, p ≥ 1, of stationary weak discrete shocks for the Lax-Friedrichs scheme approximating general m x m systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws is proved, provided that the summations of the initial perturbations equal zero. The result is proved by using a both weighted estimate and characteristic energy method based on the internal structures of the discrete shocks and the essential monotonicity of the Lax-Friedrichs scheme. 13 refs

  3. Stationary nonlinear Alfven waves and solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, T.; Kennel, C. F.; Buti, B.

    1989-01-01

    Stationary solutions of the derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation are discussed and classified by using a pseudopotential formulation. The solutions consist of a rich family of nonlinear Alfven waves and solitons with parallel and oblique propagation directions. Expressions for the envelope and the phase of nonlinear waves with periodic envelope modulation, and 'hyperbolic' and 'algebraic' solitons are given. The propagation angle for the slightly modulated elliptic, periodic waves and for oblique solitons is evaluated.

  4. Gravitating Stationary Dyons and Rotating Vortex Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, B; Neemann, U; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Neemann, Ulrike

    2005-01-01

    We construct dyons, and electrically charged monopole-antimonopole pairs and vortex rings in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory coupled to Einstein gravity. The solutions are stationary, axially symmetric and asymptotically flat. The dyons with magnetic charge $n\\ge 2$ represent non-static solutions with vanishing angular momentum. The electrically charged monopole-antimonopole pairs and vortex rings, in contrast, possess vanishing magnetic charge, but finite angular momentum, equaling $n$ times their electric charge.

  5. Height Fluctuations for the Stationary KPZ Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Alexei; Corwin, Ivan; Ferrari, Patrik; Vető, Bálint

    2015-12-01

    We compute the one-point probability distribution for the stationary KPZ equation (i.e. initial data , for B( X) a two-sided standard Brownian motion) and show that as time T goes to infinity, the fluctuations of the height function grow like T 1/3 and converge to those previously encountered in the study of the stationary totally asymmetric simple exclusion process, polynuclear growth model and last passage percolation. The starting point for this work is our derivation of a Fredholm determinant formula for Macdonald processes which degenerates to a corresponding formula for Whittaker processes. We relate this to a polymer model which mixes the semi-discrete and log-gamma random polymers. A special case of this model has a limit to the KPZ equation with initial data given by a two-sided Brownian motion with drift ß to the left of the origin and b to the right of the origin. The Fredholm determinant has a limit for ß > b, and the case where ß = b (corresponding to the stationary initial data) follows from an analytic continuation argument.

  6. Effect of hydrostatic stress on yield function and plastic constitutive relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖秉政

    2001-01-01

    A new yield function taking effect of hydrostatic stress into account is presented through establishing and solving the functional equation satisfied by the yield function, and its characteristic is simple in form and strong in generality. In order to reveal its availability, a comparison is made between the results obtained with it and the experimental results of grey cast iron has be done, both seem to be in good agreement. At the same time, taking the yield function obtained here as a potential function, a new associative plastic constitutive equation taking effect of hydrostatic stress into account is built, and the plastic volume change ratio of plastic deformation is given.

  7. Influence of load capacity on hydrostatic journal support deformation in finite element calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵俊鹏; 张艳芹; 李永海; 于晓东; 姜辉

    2008-01-01

    Based on the application of the four-oil-pad radial hydrostatic bearing in heavy equipments, the deformation of the four-oil-pad radial hydrostatic bearing was calculated by using the finite element method. The formula of film stiffness, film thickness and carrying capacity were established; the influence of the main parameters, such as load, load area and deformation on the supportability was analyzed; and the capacity of the two kinds of bearings was compared. The result shows that the carrying capacity of typeⅠ is prior to that of type Ⅱ . Calculations provide a theoretical basis for the bearing choosing and structure designing in the actual project.

  8. Nonlinear Control of Wind Turbines with Hydrostatic Transmission Based on Takagi-Sugeno Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Horst; Georg, Soren

    2014-06-01

    A nonlinear model-based control concept for wind turbines with hydrostatic transmission is proposed. The complete mathematical model of a wind turbine drive train with variable displacement pump and variable displacement motor is presented. The controller design takes into consideration the nonlinearity of the aerodynamic maps and hydrostatic drive train by an convex combination of state space controller with measurable generator speed and hydraulic motor displacement as scheduling parameters. The objectives are the set point control of generator speed and tracking control of the rotor speed to reach the maximum power according to the power curve in the partial-load region.

  9. Automatic trend estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Vamos¸, C˘alin

    2013-01-01

    Our book introduces a method to evaluate the accuracy of trend estimation algorithms under conditions similar to those encountered in real time series processing. This method is based on Monte Carlo experiments with artificial time series numerically generated by an original algorithm. The second part of the book contains several automatic algorithms for trend estimation and time series partitioning. The source codes of the computer programs implementing these original automatic algorithms are given in the appendix and will be freely available on the web. The book contains clear statement of the conditions and the approximations under which the algorithms work, as well as the proper interpretation of their results. We illustrate the functioning of the analyzed algorithms by processing time series from astrophysics, finance, biophysics, and paleoclimatology. The numerical experiment method extensively used in our book is already in common use in computational and statistical physics.

  10. Automatic Program Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia Maria da Silva Ribeiro; Gabriel de Sousa Torcato David

    2007-01-01

    To profit from the data collected by the SIGARRA academic IS, a systematic setof graphs and statistics has been added to it and are available on-line. Thisanalytic information can be automatically included in a flexible yearly report foreach program as well as in a synthesis report for the whole school. Somedifficulties in the interpretation of some graphs led to the definition of new keyindicators and the development of a data warehouse across the university whereeffective data consolidation...

  11. Automatic food decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    Consumers' food decisions are to a large extent shaped by automatic processes, which are either internally directed through learned habits and routines or externally influenced by context factors and visual information triggers. Innovative research methods such as eye tracking, choice experiments...... and food diaries allow us to better understand the impact of unconscious processes on consumers' food choices. Simone Mueller Loose will provide an overview of recent research insights into the effects of habit and context on consumers' food choices....

  12. Automatic Differentiation Variational Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Kucukelbir, Alp; Tran, Dustin; Ranganath, Rajesh; Gelman, Andrew; Blei, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic modeling is iterative. A scientist posits a simple model, fits it to her data, refines it according to her analysis, and repeats. However, fitting complex models to large data is a bottleneck in this process. Deriving algorithms for new models can be both mathematically and computationally challenging, which makes it difficult to efficiently cycle through the steps. To this end, we develop automatic differentiation variational inference (ADVI). Using our method, the scientist on...

  13. Transcriptomics reveal several gene expression patterns in the piezophile Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis in response to hydrostatic pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Amrani

    Full Text Available RNA-seq was used to study the response of Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis, isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal chimney on the East-Pacific Rise at a depth of 2,600 m, to various hydrostatic pressure growth conditions. The transcriptomic datasets obtained after growth at 26, 10 and 0.1 MPa identified only 65 differentially expressed genes that were distributed among four main categories: aromatic amino acid and glutamate metabolisms, energy metabolism, signal transduction, and unknown function. The gene expression patterns suggest that D. hydrothermalis uses at least three different adaptation mechanisms, according to a hydrostatic pressure threshold (HPt that was estimated to be above 10 MPa. Both glutamate and energy metabolism were found to play crucial roles in these mechanisms. Quantitation of the glutamate levels in cells revealed its accumulation at high hydrostatic pressure, suggesting its role as a piezolyte. ATP measurements showed that the energy metabolism of this bacterium is optimized for deep-sea life conditions. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms linked to hydrostatic pressure adaptation in sulfate-reducing bacteria.

  14. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on genomic expression profiling of porcine parthenogenetic activated and cloned embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Lin; Luo, Yonglun; Sørensen, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    Handmade cloning (HMC) has been used to generate transgenic pigs for biomedical research. Recently, we found that parthenogenetic activation (PA) of porcine oocytes and improved HMC efficiency could be achieved by treatment with sublethal high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). However, the molecular...

  15. Thermal fluid-solid interaction model and experimental validation for hydrostatic mechanical face seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weifeng; Liao, Chuanjun; Liu, Xiangfeng; Suo, Shuangfu; Liu, Ying; Wang, Yuming

    2014-09-01

    Hydrostatic mechanical face seals for reactor coolant pumps are very important for the safety and reliability of pressurized-water reactor power plants. More accurate models on the operating mechanism of the seals are needed to help improve their performance. The thermal fluid-solid interaction (TFSI) mechanism of the hydrostatic seal is investigated in this study. Numerical models of the flow field and seal assembly are developed. Based on the mechanism for the continuity condition of the physical quantities at the fluid-solid interface, an on-line numerical TFSI model for the hydrostatic mechanical seal is proposed using an iterative coupling method. Dynamic mesh technology is adopted to adapt to the changing boundary shape. Experiments were performed on a test rig using a full-size test seal to obtain the leakage rate as a function of the differential pressure. The effectiveness and accuracy of the TFSI model were verified by comparing the simulation results and experimental data. Using the TFSI model, the behavior of the seal is presented, including mechanical and thermal deformation, and the temperature field. The influences of the rotating speed and differential pressure of the sealing device on the temperature field, which occur widely in the actual use of the seal, are studied. This research proposes an on-line and assembly-based TFSI model for hydrostatic mechanical face seals, and the model is validated by full-sized experiments.

  16. The behavior of high-strength unidirectional composites under tension with superposed hydrostatic pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinoviev, P.A.; Tsvetkov, S.V.; Kulish, G.G.; Berg, van den R.W.; Schepdael, van L.J.M.M.

    2001-01-01

    Three types of high-strength unidirectional composite materials were studied under longitudinal tension with superposed high hydrostatic pressure. Reinforcing fibers were T1000G carbon, S2 glass and Zylon PBO fibers; the Ciba 5052 epoxy resin was used as matrix. The composites were tested under exte

  17. Ill-Posedness of the Hydrostatic Euler and Singular Vlasov Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han-Kwan, Daniel; Nguyen, Toan T.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we develop an abstract framework to establish ill-posedness, in the sense of Hadamard, for some nonlocal PDEs displaying unbounded unstable spectra. We apply this to prove the ill-posedness for the hydrostatic Euler equations as well as for the kinetic incompressible Euler equations and the Vlasov-Dirac-Benney system.

  18. Hydrostatic pressure and strain effects in short period InN/GaN superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, Niels Egede;

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structures of short-period pseudomorphically grown superlattices (SLs) of the form mInN/nGaN are calculated and the band gap variation with the well and the barrier thicknesses is discussed including hydrostatic pressure effects. The calculated band gap shows a strong dependence...

  19. Solidification and loss of hydrostaticity in liquid media used for pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torikachvili, M. S.; Kim, S. K.; Colombier, E.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    We carried out a study of the pressure dependence of the solidification temperature in nine pressure transmitting media that are liquid at ambient temperature, under pressures up to 2.3 GPa. These fluids are 1:1 isopentane/n-pentane, 4:6 light mineral oil/n-pentane, 1:1 isoamyl alcohol/n-pentane, 4:1 methanol/ethanol, 1:1 FC72/FC84 (Fluorinert), Daphne 7373, isopentane, and Dow Corning PMX silicone oils 200 and 60 000 cS. We relied on the high sensitivity of the electrical resistivity of Ba(Fe1-xRux)2As2 single crystals to the freezing of the pressure media and cross-checked with corresponding anomalies observed in the resistance of the manganin coil that served as the ambient temperature resistive manometer. In addition to establishing the temperature-pressure line separating the liquid (hydrostatic) and frozen (non-hydrostatic) phases, these data permit rough estimates of the freezing pressure of these media at ambient temperature. This pressure establishes the extreme limit for the medium to be considered hydrostatic. For higher applied pressures, the medium has to be treated as non-hydrostatic.

  20. Investigation of Apoptosis Induction in Differentiated PC-12 Cells after Exposure to Hydrostatic Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sadri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hydrostatic pressure is crucial component of cell environment andfundamental physical quantity, also it is the main factor of both cell integrity andfunction. Pressure variation disorder, beyond physiological limits, may lead topathological states. In this study, we examined the effect of hydrostatic pressureon apoptosis induction, viability, morphology, adhesion potency to substrate andmigration of differentiated PC-12 cells.Materials and Methods: PC-12 as a neuronal cell line maintained in RPMI1640 culture medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Staurosporinewas used for differentiating of mitotic PC-12 cells to post mitotic anddifferentiated neuronal cells. Exclusion Dye was used for viability assay, totalneurite length of each cell as well as morphometry. TUNEL staining was alsoperformed for apoptosis detection, adhesion potency of cells to substrate andevaluation of cell migration.Results: Hydrostatic pressure, over physiological limits, induced apoptosis indifferentiated PC-12 cells. It changed cell viability gradually and reduction happenedsignificantly after 24 hours (p<0.05. In compare to the control group, hydrostaticpressure reduced total neurite length, adhesion potency to substrate and migrationof cells in the examined group (p<0.05.Conclusion: Hydrostatic pressure induced apoptosis in differentiated PC-12 cellsas a result of inappropriate interaction between cells and substrate. We proposethat apoptosis in differentiated PC-12 cells may be an anoikis causing to lose theattachment to the substrate.

  1. A class-A GPCR solubilized under high hydrostatic pressure retains its ligand binding ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the solubilization of a class-A G protein-coupled receptor, the silkmoth pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide receptor (PBANR), was investigated. PBANR was expressed in expresSF+ insect cells as a C-terminal fusion protein with EGFP. The mem...

  2. Reconciling Planck cluster counts and cosmology: Chandra/XMM instrumental calibration and hydrostatic mass bias

    CERN Document Server

    Israel, Holger; Nevalainen, Jukka; Massey, Richard; Reiprich, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The temperature of X-ray emitting gas $T_X$ is often used to infer the total mass of galaxy clusters (under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium). Unfortunately, XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories measure inconsistent temperatures for the same gas, due to uncertain instrumental calibration. We translate the relative bias in $T_X$ measurements of Schellenberger et al. (2014) into a bias on inferred mass for a sample of clusters with homogeneous weak lensing (WL) masses, to simultaneously examine the hydrostatic bias and instrument calibration. Israel et al. (2014) found consistent WL and Chandra hydrostatic X-ray masses for a sample of clusters at $z$~0.5 and masses of a few $10^{14}$ $M_{\\odot}$. We find their XMM-Newton masses to be lower by $b^{xcal}=15$-$20$ % than their Chandra masses. At the massive end ($>5\\cdot 10^{14}$ $M_{\\odot}$), the XMM-Newton masses are ~35% lower than the WL masses. Assuming that the true hydrostatic bias is 20 %, as indicated by simulations, our results for the massive e...

  3. Hydrostatic Pressure Project: Linked-Class Problem-Based Learning in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Freddie J.; Lockwood-Cooke, Pamela; Hunt, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, WTAMU Mathematics, Engineering and Science faculty has used interdisciplinary projects as the basis for implementation of a linked-class approach to Problem-Based Learning (PBL). A project that has significant relevance to engineering statics, fluid mechanics, and calculus is the Hydrostatic Pressure Project. This project…

  4. Thermal Fluid-Solid Interaction Model and Experimental Validation for Hydrostatic Mechanical Face Seals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Weifeng; LIAO Chuanjun; LIU Xiangfeng; SUO Shuangfu; LIU Ying; WANG Yuming

    2014-01-01

    Hydrostatic mechanical face seals for reactor coolant pumps are very important for the safety and reliability of pressurized-water reactor power plants. More accurate models on the operating mechanism of the seals are needed to help improve their performance. The thermal fluid-solid interaction (TFSI) mechanism of the hydrostatic seal is investigated in this study. Numerical models of the flow field and seal assembly are developed. Based on the mechanism for the continuity condition of the physical quantities at the fluid-solid interface, an on-line numerical TFSI model for the hydrostatic mechanical seal is proposed using an iterative coupling method. Dynamic mesh technology is adopted to adapt to the changing boundary shape. Experiments were performed on a test rig using a full-size test seal to obtain the leakage rate as a function of the differential pressure. The effectiveness and accuracy of the TFSI model were verified by comparing the simulation results and experimental data. Using the TFSI model, the behavior of the seal is presented, including mechanical and thermal deformation, and the temperature field. The influences of the rotating speed and differential pressure of the sealing device on the temperature field, which occur widely in the actual use of the seal, are studied. This research proposes an on-line and assembly-based TFSI model for hydrostatic mechanical face seals, and the model is validated by full-sized experiments.

  5. Hydrostatic Pressure Affects In Vitro Maturation of Oocytes and Follicles and Increases Granulosa Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Karimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examines the effects of hydrostatic pressure on in vitro maturation (IVM of oocytes derived from in vitro grown follicles.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, preantral follicles were isolated from 12-day-old female NMRI mice. Each follicle was cultured individually in Alpha Minimal Essential Medium (α-MEM under mineral oil for 12 days. Then, follicles were induced for IVM and divided into two groups, control and experiment. In the experiment group follicles were subjected to 20 mmHg pressure for 30 minutes and cultured for 24-48 hours. We assessed for viability and IVM of the oocytes. The percentage of apoptosis in cumulus cells was determined by the TUNEL assay. A comparison between groups was made using the student’s t test.Results: The percentage of metaphase II oocytes (MII increased in hydrostatic pressure-treated follicles compared to controls (p<0.05. Cumulus cell viability reduced in hydrostatic pressure-treated follicles compared to controls (p<0.05. Exposure of follicles to pressure increased apoptosis in cumulus cells compared to controls (p<0.05.Conclusion: Hydrostatic pressure, by inducing apoptosis in cumulus cells, participates in the cumulus oocyte coupled relationship with oocyte maturation.

  6. Numerical Methods for Finding Stationary Gravitational Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, Oscar J C; Way, Benson

    2015-01-01

    The wide applications of higher dimensional gravity and gauge/gravity duality have fuelled the search for new stationary solutions of the Einstein equation (possibly coupled to matter). In this topical review, we explain the mathematical foundations and give a practical guide for the numerical solution of gravitational boundary value problems. We present these methods by way of example: resolving asymptotically flat black rings, singly-spinning lumpy black holes in anti-de Sitter (AdS), and the Gregory-Laflamme zero modes of small rotating black holes in AdS$_5\\times S^5$. We also include several tools and tricks that have been useful throughout the literature.

  7. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Illerup, J. B.

    in stationary combustion has increased by 12% - the fossil fuel consumption however only by 6%. Despite the increased fuel consumption the emission of several pollutants have decreased due to the improved flue gas cleaning technology, improved burner technology and the change of fuel type used. A considerable...... decrease of the SO2, NOx and heavy metal emissions is mainly a result of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The greenhouse gas emission has decreased 1,5% since 1990. The emission of CH4, however, has increased due to increased use of lean-burn gas engines in CHP...

  8. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M.; Illerup, J. B.

    in stationary combustion has increased by 14% - the fossil fuel consumption however only by 8%. Despite the increased fuel consumption the emission of several pollutants has decreased due to the improved flue gas cleaning technology, improved burner technology and the change of fuel type used. A considerable...... decrease of the SO2, NOX and heavy metal emissions is mainly a result of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The greenhouse gas emission has decreased 1,3% since 1990. The emission of CH4, however, has increased due to increased use of lean-burn gas engines in CHP...

  9. Stability estimates in stationary inverse transport

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, Guillaume

    2008-01-01

    We study the stability of the reconstruction of the scattering and absorption coefficients in a stationary linear transport equation from knowledge of the full albedo operator in dimension $n\\geq3$. The albedo operator is defined as the mapping from the incoming boundary conditions to the outgoing transport solution at the boundary of a compact and convex domain. The uniqueness of the reconstruction was proved in [M. Choulli-P. Stefanov, 1996 and 1999] and partial stability estimates were obtained in [J.-N. Wang, 1999] for spatially independent scattering coefficients. We generalize these results and prove an $L^1$-stability estimate for spatially dependent scattering coefficients.

  10. Stationary stochastic processes for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Lindgren, Georg; Sandsten, Maria

    2013-01-01

    ""This book is designed for a first course in stationary stochastic processes in science and engineering and does a very good job in introducing many concepts and ideas to students in these fields. … the book has probably been tested in the classroom many times, which also manifests itself in its virtual lack of typos. … Another great feature of the book is that it contains a wealth of worked example from many different fields. These help clarify concepts and theorems and I believe students will appreciate them-I certainly did. … The book is well suited for a one-semester course as it contains

  11. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr T. Chruściel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  12. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  13. Comment on "Conformally flat stationary axisymmetric metrics"

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, A; Senovilla, José MM

    2003-01-01

    Garcia and Campuzano claim to have found a previously overlooked family of stationary and axisymmetric conformally flat spacetimes, contradicting an old theorem of Collinson. In both these papers it is tacitly assumed that the isometry group is orthogonally transitive. Under the same assumption, we point out here that Collinson's result still holds if one demands the existence of an axis of symmetry on which the axial Killing vector vanishes. On the other hand if the assumption of orthogonal transitivity is dropped, a wider class of metrics is allowed and it is possible to find explicit counterexamples to Collinson's result.

  14. On D = 4 Stationary Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review some recent results concerning non-extremal and extremal stationary, asymptotically flat black hole solutions in extended D = 4 supergravities, and their properties with respect to the global symmetries of the theory. More specifically we refer to the effective three-dimensional description of these solutions and their classification within orbits with respect to the action of the global symmetry group, illustrating, for single-center solutions, the general mathematical relation between the orbits of non-extremal and extremal black holes

  15. Numerical methods for finding stationary gravitational solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.; Way, Benson

    2016-07-01

    The wide applications of higher dimensional gravity and gauge/gravity duality have fuelled the search for new stationary solutions of the Einstein equation (possibly coupled to matter). In this topical review, we explain the mathematical foundations and give a practical guide for the numerical solution of gravitational boundary value problems. We present these methods by way of example: resolving asymptotically flat black rings, singly spinning lumpy black holes in anti-de Sitter (AdS), and the Gregory–Laflamme zero modes of small rotating black holes in AdS{}5× {S}5. We also include several tools and tricks that have been useful throughout the literature.

  16. Nonlinear Optics with Stationary Pulses of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, A.; Bajcsy, M.; Zibrov, A. S.; Lukin, M. D.

    2005-02-01

    We show that the recently demonstrated technique for generating stationary pulses of light [M. Bajcsy, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Nature (London)NATUAS0028-0836 426, 638 (2003)10.1038/nature02176] can be extended to localize optical pulses in all three spatial dimensions in a resonant atomic medium. This method can be used to dramatically enhance the nonlinear interaction between weak optical pulses. In particular, we show that an efficient Kerr-like interaction between two pulses can be implemented as a sequence of several purely linear optical processes. The resulting process may enable coherent interactions between single photon pulses.

  17. Effect of working position on vertical motion straightness of open hydrostatic guideways in grinding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Jun; Wang, Zhiwei; Xue, Fei; Chen, Yaolong

    2016-08-01

    Hydrostatic guideways have various applications in precision machine tools due to their high motion accuracy. The analysis of motion straightness in hydrostatic guideways is generally ignoring the external load on the slider. A variation force also exists, caused by the different working positions, together with the dead load of the slider and that of other auxiliary devices. The effect of working position on vertical motion straightness is investigated based on the equivalent static model, considering the error averaging effort of pressured oil film in open hydrostatic guideways. Open hydrostatic guideways in LGF1000 are analyzed with this approach. The theoretical results show that the slider has maximum vertical motion straightness when the working position is closer the guiderail of Y axis. The vertical motion straightness reaches a minimum value as the working position is located at the center of the two guiderails on the Y axis. The difference between the maximum and minimum vertical motion straightness is 34.7%. The smaller vertical motion straightness is attributed to the smaller spacing of the two pads centers, along the Y direction. The experimental results show that the vertical motion straightness is 4.15 μm/1200 mm, when the working position is located in the middle of the X beam, and 5.08 μm/1200 mm, when the working position is approaching the Y guiderails, denoting an increase of 18.3%. The changing trends of the measured results validate the correctness of the theoretical model. The research work can be used to reveal the variation law of accuracy of the open hydrostatic guideways, under different working positions, to predict the machining precision, and provides the basis for an error compensation strategy for gantry type grinding machines.

  18. Efficiency of the Ultrasound Guided Hydrostatic Reduction of Intussusception with Normal Saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim Motamed Far

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Conventional hydrostatic barium reduction or pneumatic reduction of intussusception is associated with considerable ionizing radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate ultrasound guided hydrostatic reduction of childhood intussusceptions using water enema."nPatients and Methods: The reduction was attempted using a warm water reservoir at a height of 80-120 cm above the table. The vital signs and the abrupt accumulation of liquid in the abdomen were controlled during the procedure. Reduction of intussuscepted loops was controlled by sonography, the observed fluid surrounding the intussusception was gradually reduced through the ileocecal valve. The procedure was continued until the intussusceptum disappeared completely and the distal ileum was filled with water. The reduction was stopped for 10-15 minutes in those patients in whom the procedure failed after a 10-minute effort. Then the procedure was applied for maximum three times and manual abdominal palpation was applied in some patients to ease the reduction. After successful reduction, the abdomen was re-examined to detect any lead point or recurrence of intussusception. The patients were then transferred to the surgery ward and after 24 hours, the regular oral diet was started and the patients were discharged. Partially reduced cases of intussusception underwent surgical treatment. Fisher exact test was used for the assessment of the relation between intussusception sites and the hydrostatic reduction outcome and/or presence of gangrenous bowel."nResults: Complete reduction was achieved in 21 of 24 patients (87.5%. Hydrostatic reduction was impossible in three patients, bowel resection was performed in 2 patients and the intussusceptions were surgically reduced in one patient."nConclusion: Intussusception is the most common abdominal emergency of early childhood for which non-operative reduction is currently the treatment of choice."nKeywords: Intussusception

  19. 77 FR 52553 - Standards of Performance for Stationary Gas Turbines; Standards of Performance for Stationary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... significantly impact the emissions rate since typical low NO X natural gas-fired duct burners contribute between... duct burner. Therefore, we are proposing that the NO X standard be based on the type of fuel being... gases to generate electricity in stationary combustion turbines (see 74 FR 11858, March 20, 2009)....

  20. Automatic Configuration in NTP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zongli(蒋宗礼); Xu Binbin

    2003-01-01

    NTP is nowadays the most widely used distributed network time protocol, which aims at synchronizing the clocks of computers in a network and keeping the accuracy and validation of the time information which is transmitted in the network. Without automatic configuration mechanism, the stability and flexibility of the synchronization network built upon NTP protocol are not satisfying. P2P's resource discovery mechanism is used to look for time sources in a synchronization network, and according to the network environment and node's quality, the synchronization network is constructed dynamically.

  1. Baroclinic stationary waves in aquaplanet models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, V.; Zappa, G.

    2012-04-01

    An aquaplanet model is used to study the nature of the highly persistent low frequency waves that have been observed in models forced by zonally symmetric boundary conditions. Using the Hayashi spectral analysis of the extratropical waves, we find that a quasi-stationary (QS) wave five belongs to a wave packet obeying a well defined dispersion relation with eastward group velocity. The components of the dispersion relation with k>5 baroclinically convert eddy available potential energy into eddy kinetic energy, while those with kreinforced by a phase lock to an analogous pattern in the tropical convection, which provides further amplification to the wave. We also find that the Pedlosky bounds on the phase speed of unstable waves provide guidance in explaining the latitudinal structure of the energy conversion, which is shown to be more enhanced where the zonal westerly surface wind is weaker. The wave energy is then trapped in the wave guide created by the upper tropospheric jet stream. In agreement with Green's theory, as the equator to pole SST difference is reduced the stationary marginally stable component shifts toward higher wavenumbers, while the wave five becomes neutral and westward propagating. Some properties of the aquaplanet QS waves are found in interesting agreement with a low frequency wave observed by Salby (1982) in the southern hemisphere DJF, so that this perspective on low frequency variability might be, apart from its value in terms of basic geophysical fluid dynamics, of specific interest for studying the Earth's atmosphere.

  2. Feasibility of a stationary micro-SQUID

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The standard operation of a dc SQUID leads to oscillatory electric fields that emit electromagnetic radiation and can change the state of the measured sample. A stationary SQUID could be advantageous when back action on the measured sample has to be avoided. We study a superconducting loop that encloses a magnetic flux, connected to a superconducting and to a normal electrode, when a fixed electric current between the electrodes flows through the loop. The considered circuit does not contain Josephson junctions. We find that in a very broad range of parameters the current flow converges to a stationary regime. The potential difference between the electrodes depends on the magnetic flux, so that measuring this voltage would provide information on the enclosed flux. The influence of thermal noise was estimated. The sizes of the voltage and of the power dissipation could be appropriate for the design of a practical fluxmeter. We found narrow ranges of flux at which the voltage varies sharply with the flux.

  3. The application of unattended ground sensors to stationary targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unattended sensing of stationary (i.e. non-mobile) targets is important in applications ranging from counter-proliferation to law enforcement. With stationary targets, sources of seismic, acoustic, and electro-magnetic emissions can potentially be used to detect, identify, and locate the target. Stationary targets have considerably different sensing requirements than the traditional mobile-target unattended ground sensor applications. This paper presents the novel features and requirements of a system for sensing stationary targets. In particular, issues associated with long-listen time signal processing for signal detection, and array processing techniques for signal localization are presented. Example data and signal processing outputs from a stationary target will be used to illustrate these issues. The impact on sensor, electronic signal processing, battery subsystem, and communication requirements will also be discussed. The paper will conclude with a detailed comparison between mobile-target and stationary-target unattended ground sensor architectures

  4. Static- and Stationary-complete Spacetimes: Algebraic and Causal Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Steven G

    2014-01-01

    This is intended as an analysis of the global properties of static and stationary spacetimes with complete (timelike) Killing field, with particular attention to quotients by group actions. This is presented in terms of algebraic structures which are fairly simple for the static case and more involved for the stationary case; the most important tool, the fundamental cocycle, is a cohomological class for static spacetimes but of somewhat looser structure in the stationary case. In particular: (1) A new measurement, similar to the spacetime interval in Minkowski space, is devised for detecting whether two points are causally related in a stationary spacetime; this proves very useful for analysis. (2) All stationary spacetimes are categorized by how they behave with respect to the fundamental cocycle; this enables a complete characterization of global causality properties. (3) It is shown how these tools determine whether global hyperbolicity of a stationary spacetime is inherited by its quotients. (4) Examples ...

  5. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)

  6. Photometric analysis of the corona during the 20 March 2015 total solar eclipse: density structures, hydrostatic temperatures and magnetic field inference

    CERN Document Server

    Bazin, C; Wittich, R; Koutchmy, S; Mouette, J; Nitschelm, C

    2015-01-01

    We present some new accurate CCD photometry analysis of the white light solar corona at the time of the last 20 March 2015 total eclipse (airborne observations on a Falcon 7X and at ground-based Svalbard). We measured coronal brightness profiles taken along radial directions from 1.001 to 3 solar radii in the northern, southern and equatorial regions, after removing the F corona and the sky background. These studies allow to evaluate the density gradients, structures and temperature heterogeneity, by considering the Thomson scattering in white light of the K corona and also emissions of the EUV Fe XII 193A (1 to 2 MK) and Fe XI 171/174 (lower temperature) simultaneously observed by SDO/AIA and SWAP Proba2 space missions. Some dispersion between the regions is noticed. The limitation of the hydrostatic equilibrium assumption in the solar atmosphere is discussed as well as the contribution of the magnetic field pressure gradients as illustrated by a comparison with the model stationary magnetic corona from Pred...

  7. Transient and Stationary Simulations for a Quantum Hydrodynamic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xin; TANG Shao-Qiang

    2007-01-01

    The transient and stationary characteristics of a one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic model are comparatively studied for semiconductor charge transport in a resonant tunnelling diode. When the bias is not small, our numerical results show a deviation of the asymptotic transient solutions from the stationary ones. A dynamic instability accounts for such deviation. The stationary quantum hydrodynamic model is therefore unsuitable in general for simulating quantum devices.

  8. Stationary Charged Scalar Clouds around Black Holes in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Canisius

    2016-01-01

    It was reported that Kerr-Newman black holes can support linear charged scalar field in their exterior regions. This stationary massive charged scalar field can form a bound-state and these bound-states are called stationary scalar clouds. In this paper, we study that Kerr-Sen black holes can also support stationary massive charged scalar clouds by matching the near and far region solutions of the radial part of Klein-Gordon wave equation. We also review stationary scalar clouds within the background of static electrically charged black hole solution in the low energy limit of heterotic string field theory namely the GMGHS black holes.

  9. A Stochastic Approach for Automatic and Dynamic Modeling of Students' Learning Styles in Adaptive Educational Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano Azevedo DORÇA; Luciano Vieira LIMA; Márcia Aparecida FERNANDES; Carlos Roberto LOPES

    2012-01-01

    Considering learning and how to improve students' performances, an adaptive educational system must know how an individual learns best. In this context, this work presents an innovative approach for student modeling through probabilistic learning styles combination. Experiments have shown that our approach is able to automatically detect and precisely adjust students' learning styles, based on the non-deterministic and non-stationary aspects of learning styles. Because of the probabilistic an...

  10. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Machado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical records are an important source of information about extreme and rare floods with a great value to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historic records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 year flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (Central Spain was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their implications on hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc., epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations on flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO index. Over the systematic gauge record (1913–2008, an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators; (b a time–varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS modelling, that incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI

  11. Quantum teleportation between stationary macroscopic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum teleportation is a process to transfer a quantum state of an object without transferring the state carrier itself. So far, most of the teleportation experiments realized are within the photonic regime. For the teleportation of stationary states, the largest system reported is a single ion. We are now performing an experiment to teleport the state of an macroscopic atomic cloud which consists about 106 single atoms. In our experiment two atomic ensembles are utilized. In the first ensemble A we prepare the collective atomic state to be teleported using the quantum feedback technique. The second ensemble B is utilized to generate entanglement between it collective state with a scattered single-photon. Teleportation is realized by converting the atomic state of A to a single-photon and making a Bell state measurement with the scattered single-photon from ensemble B.

  12. Stationary Light Pulses without Bragg Gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Yen-Wei; Peters, Thorsten; Liao, Wen-Te; Cho, Hung-Wen; Guan, Pei-Chen; Yu, Ite A

    2008-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of the stationary light pulse (SLP) was identified as a band gap being created by a Bragg grating formed by two counter-propagating coupling fields of similar wavelength. Here we present a more general view of the formation of SLPs, namely several balanced four-wave mixing processes sharing the same ground-state coherence. Utilizing this new concept we report the first experimental observation of a bichromatic SLP at wavelengths for which no Bragg grating can be established. We also demonstrate the production of a SLP directly from a propagating light pulse without prior storage. Being easily controlled externally makes SLPs a very versatile tool for low-light-level nonlinear optics and quantum information manipulation.

  13. Effective Complexity of Stationary Process Realizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleta Szkoła

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of effective complexity of an object as the minimal description length of its regularities has been initiated by Gell-Mann and Lloyd. The regularities are modeled by means of ensembles, which is the probability distributions on finite binary strings. In our previous paper [1] we propose a definition of effective complexity in precise terms of algorithmic information theory. Here we investigate the effective complexity of binary strings generated by stationary, in general not computable, processes. We show that under not too strong conditions long typical process realizations are effectively simple. Our results become most transparent in the context of coarse effective complexity which is a modification of the original notion of effective complexity that needs less parameters in its definition. A similar modification of the related concept of sophistication has been suggested by Antunes and Fortnow.

  14. Electric propulsion for control of stationary satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, Roland

    1963-03-15

    The application of electric propulsion engines to attitude control and stationkeeping of 24-hour stationary satellites is analyzed and compared with the performance of contemporary cold gas, monopropellant, and bipropellant propulsion systems. Both a 500-pound spin-stabilized and a 1500-pound three-axis controlled satellite compatible with current boost vehicles are examined, and each type of propulsion system compared as a function of mission duration and maneuver requirements. Solar electric propulsion is shown to be superior to chemical propulsion for long term stationkeeping and three-axis attitude control of the larger satellite. Cold gas and chemical propulsion are superior for attitude control and provide strong competition for electric propulsion in the stationkeeping of the smaller spin-stabilized satellite. (auth)

  15. Complex conjugate pairs in stationary Sturmians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturmian expansions enable a simply accurate separable specification of two nucleon t matrices based upon realistic two nucleon interactions. Sturmian eigenstates specified by stationary scattering boundary conditions are particularly useful in that context, and they can be calculated by solving a generalised eigenvalue equation using real and symmetric matrices. In general, the spectrum of such an equation may contain complex eigenvalues. But to each complex eigenvalues there is a corresponding conjugate partner. In studies using realistic two nucleon potentials, and in certain positive energy intervals, these complex conjugated pairs indeed appear in the Sturmian spectrum. However, it is demonstrated that it is possible to recombine the complex conjugate pairs and corresponding states into a new, (and useful) pair of real eigenvalues and eigenstates with which of effect separable expansions of the (real) two nucleon reactance matrices. 8 refs

  16. Complex conjugate pairs in stationary Sturmian eigenstates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturmian eigenstates specified by stationary scattering boundary conditions are particularly useful in contexts such as forming simple separable two nucleon t matrices, and are determined via solution of generalized eigenvalue equation using real and symmetric matrices. In general, the spectrum of such an equation may contain complex eigenvalues. But to each complex eigenvalue there is a corresponding conjugate partner. In studies using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, and in certain positive energy intervals, these complex conjugated pairs indeed appear in the Sturmian spectrum. However, as we demonstrate herein, it is possible to recombine the complex conjugate pairs and corresponding states into a new, sign-definite pair of real quantities with which to effect separable expansions of the (real) nucleon-nucleon reactance matrices

  17. Stationary phases for superheated water chromatography

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, S

    2002-01-01

    This project focused on the comparison of conventional liquid chromatography and superheated water chromatography. It examined the differences in efficiency and retention of a range of different stationary phases. Alkyl aryl ketones and eight aromatic compounds were separated on PBD-zirconia, Xterra RP 18, Luna C sub 1 sub 8 (2) and Oasis HLB columns using conventional LC and superheated water chromatography system. The retention indices were determined in the different eluents. On changing the organic component of the eluent from methanol to acetonitrile to superheated water considerable improvements were found in the peak shapes and column efficiencies on the PBD-zirconia and Oasis HLB columns. PS-DVB, PBD-zirconia and Xterra RP 18 columns have been used in efficiency studies. It was found that simply elevating the column temperature did not increase the efficiency of a separation in superheated water chromatography. The efficiency depended on flow rate, injection volume and also mobile phase preheating sys...

  18. Generalized Gibbs Entropy, Irreversibility and Stationary States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pérez-Madrid

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A generalization of the Gibbs entropy postulate is proposed, based on the BBGKY hierarchy as the non-equilibrium entropy for a system of N interacting particles. This entropy satisfies the basic principles of thermodynamics in the sense that it reaches its maximum at equilibrium and is coherent with the second law. By using this entropy and the methods of non-equilibrium thermodynamics in the phase space, a generalization of the Liouville equation describing the evolution of the distribution vector in the form of a master equation is obtained. After neglecting correlations in this master equation, the Boltzmann equation was obtained. Moreover, this entropy remains constant in nonequilibrium stationary states and leads to macroscopic hydrodynamics. Non-equilibrium Green-Kubo type relations and the probability for the non-equilibrium fluctuations are also derived.

  19. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt

    of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The combustion of wood in residential plants has increased considerably until 2007 resulting in increased emission of PAH and particulate matter. The emission of NMVOC has increased since 1990 as a result of both the increased...... combustion of wood in residential plants and the increased emission from lean-burn gas engines. The PCDD/F emission decreased since 1990 due to flue gas cleaning on waste incineration plants.......Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, NH3, particulate matter, heavy metals, PCDD/F, HCB and PAH. The CO2 emission in 2011...

  20. Stationary turbine component with laminated skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Allister W.

    2012-08-14

    A stationary turbine engine component, such as a turbine vane, includes a internal spar and an external skin. The internal spar is made of a plurality of spar laminates, and the external skin is made of a plurality of skin laminates. The plurality of skin laminates interlockingly engage the plurality of spar laminates such that the external skin is located and held in place. This arrangement allows alternative high temperature materials to be used on turbine engine components in areas where their properties are needed without having to make the entire component out of such material. Thus, the manufacturing difficulties associated with making an entire component of such a material and the attendant high costs are avoided. The skin laminates can be made of advanced generation single crystal superalloys, intermetallics and refractory alloys.

  1. Hydrostatic Gas Constraints on Supermassive Black Hole Masses: Implications for Hydrostatic Equilibrium and Dynamical Modelling in a Sample of Early-Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Humphrey, Philip J; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Gebhardt, Karl; Mathews, William G

    2009-01-01

    We present new mass measurements for the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the centres of three early-type galaxies. The gas pressure in the surrounding, hot interstellar medium (ISM) is measured through spatially resolved spectroscopy with the Chandra X-ray observatory, allowing the SMBH mass (Mbh) to be inferred directly under the hydrostatic approximation. This technique does not require calibration against other SMBH measurement methods and its accuracy depends only on the ISM being close to hydrostatic, which is supported by the smooth X-ray isophotes of the galaxies. Combined with results from our recent study of the elliptical galaxy NGC4649, this brings to four the number of galaxies with SMBHs measured in this way. Of these, three already have mass determinations from the kinematics of either the stars or a central gas disc, and hence join only a handful of galaxies with Mbh measured by more than one technique. We find good agreement between the different methods, providing support for the assumpti...

  2. The effects of vacancy on melting of Cu under hydrostatic and shock wave loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Ni, S.

    2009-12-01

    Defects, ubiquitous in real solids, are relevant to high pressure melting under static and shock loading conditions as in the Earth’s interior and during planetary impact. A simplest type of defects is vacancy, and we investigate melt- ing of a representative metal (Cu) with pre-existing vacan- cies under hydrostatic and shock wave loading using molec- ular dynamics simulations. The equilibrium melting curve is established with the superheating-supercooling hysteresis method. During hydrostatic compression, the vacancy con- centration is reduced from its initial value and the vacancy effect on melting is minimized at high pressures. Shock wave loading is conducted along h100i at different initial vacancy concentrations. Considerable superheating occurs for initial vacancy concentration5%. Dur- ing shock loading, preexistent vacancies facilitate plasticity and other defect formation, and thus reduce melting temper- ature. Our results indicate that vacancy effect on melting should be considered for shock loading and for low hydro- static pressures. 1

  3. High hydrostatic pressure effect on behaviour of SmS crystals under deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments are carried out on the deformation of SmS monocrystals by uniaxial compression under high (up to 10 kbar) hydrostatic pressure. It is shown that on the whole dependences of mechanical characteristics of samarium monosulfide on the pressure are qualitatively similar to analogous dependences for other materials. While in the quantitative respect effects in samarium monosulfide are much higher, which is evidently connected with high compressibility of semiconducting SmS. It is found that in the result of uniaxial com-- pression of SmS crystals under hydrostatic pressure less than 6.5 kbar, a phase transition analogous to the semiconductor-metal transition under poressure, takes ptace in them

  4. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    KAUST Repository

    Michoud, Gregoire

    2016-06-02

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins.

  5. Parametric analysis of thermal effect on hydrostatic slipper bearing capacity of axial piston pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤何胜; 訚耀保; 张阳; 李晶

    2016-01-01

    Hydrostatic slipper was often used in friction bearing design, allowing improvement of the latter’s dynamic behavior. The influence of thermal effect on hydrostatic slipper bearing capacity of axial piston pump was investigated. A set of lumped parameter mathematical models were developed based on energy conservation law of slipper/ swash plate pair. The results show that thermal equilibrium clearance due to solid thermal deformation periodically changes with shaft rotational angle. The slipper bearing capacity increases dramatically with decreasing thermal equilibrium clearance. In order to improve the slipper bearing capacity, length-to-diameter ratio of fixed damper varies from 3.5 to 8.75 and radius ratio of slipper varies from 1.5 to 2.0. In addition, the higher slipper thermal conductivity is useful to improve slipper bearing capability, but the thermal equilibrium clearance is not compromised.

  6. An implicit wetting and drying approach for non-hydrostatic flows in high aspect ratio domains

    CERN Document Server

    Candy, Adam S

    2013-01-01

    A wetting and drying approach for free surface flows governed by the three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic Navier-Stokes equations in high aspect ratio domains is developed. This has application in the modelling of inundation processes in geophysical domains, where dynamics takes place over a large horizontal extent relative to vertical resolution, such as in the evolution of a tsunami, or an urban fluvial flooding scenario. The approach is novel in that it solves for three dimensional dynamics in these very high aspect ratio domains, to include non-hydrostatic effects and accurately model dispersive processes. These become important in shallow regions with steep gradients, a particularly acute problem where man-made structures exist such as buildings or flood defences in an urban environment. It is implicit in time to allow efficient time integration over a range of mesh element sizes. Specific regularisation methods are introduced to improve conditioning of the full three-dimensional pressure Poisson problem i...

  7. The Effect of Additives on The Performance of HydrostaticThrust Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Abdul Sattar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with, the behavior of the hydrostatic thrust bearings lubricated with liquid-solid lubricants using Einstein viscosity formula, and taking into account the centrifugal force resulting from high speed. Also studied is the effect of the bearing dimensions on the pressure, flow rate, load capacity, shear stress, power consumption and stiffness. The theoretical results show an increase in load capacity by (8.3% in the presence of solid graphite particles with concentration of (16% by weight as compared with pure oil, with increasing shear stress. . In general the performance of hydrostatic thrust bearings improve for load carrying capacity, volume flow rate, pumping power subjected to centrifugal parameter (S, recess position (r1, film thickness ratio (, particle concentration (.

  8. Second harmonic generation in an asymmetric rectangular quantum well under hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karabulut, Ibrahim [Department of Physics, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey)]. E-mail: ikarabulut@seluk.edu.tr; Atav, Ulfet [Department of Physics, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey); Safak, Haluk [Department of Physics, Selcuk University, Konya 42075 (Turkey); Tomak, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey)

    2007-04-30

    The effects of structure parameters and hydrostatic pressure on the electronic states and the second harmonic generation (SHG) susceptibility of asymmetric rectangular quantum well (ARQW) are studied. The asymmetry of the potential can be controlled by changing the structural parameters and this adjustable asymmetry is important for optimizing the SHG susceptibility. We have calculated analytically the electronic states in ARQW within the framework of the envelope function approach. Numerical results for Al {sub xl} Ga{sub 1} {sub -xl} As/GaAs/Al {sub xr} Ga{sub 1-} {sub xr} As quantum well are presented. The results obtained show that the hydrostatic pressure and the structure parameters of ARQW significantly influence the SHG susceptibility. This behavior in the SHG susceptibility gives a new degree of freedom in regions of interest for device applications.

  9. The Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure and Seismic Load on ITER Lower Cryopump Ports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yingxiang; YU Jie; WU Songtao

    2007-01-01

    The lower cryopump ports in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) as a part of the vacuum vessel play many important roles.As the boundary of vacuum it must be ensured against structural damage.In this study a finite element model of the lower cryopump ports was developed by ANSYS code with a purpose to evaluate the stress and displacement level on it. Two kinds of loads were taken into account.One was the hydrostatic pressure including the normal operation pressure and test pressure.The other was the seismic load.The analysis results show that the peak stress does not exceed the allowable stress for either the hydrostatic pressure or the seismic load according to the ITER structural design criterion,which indicates that the structure has a good safety margin.

  10. Electrical Conductivity of Fine Crystalline Graphite under the Influence of the Hydrostatic Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Ovsiienko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It was investigated the influence of hydrostatic pressure on the electrical conductivity of crystalline graphite in temperature range (77-293 K. It was revealed that the reducing of electrical resistivity in specimens of fine crystalline graphite under the action of hydrostatic pressure is due to increasing of overlap between valence and conduction bands that leads to increase of the concentration of free charge carriers. The change of the overlap of valence and conduction bands was estimated. It is shown the decrease of the distance between the graphite layers under pressure is irreversible process, when load is remove the electric resistance increases slightly, but does not acquire the initial value.

  11. High hydrostatic pressure adaptive strategies in an obligate piezophile Pyrococcus yayanosii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Grégoire; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Pyrococcus yayanosii CH1, as the first and only obligate piezophilic hyperthermophilic microorganism discovered to date, extends the physical and chemical limits of life on Earth. It was isolated from the Ashadze hydrothermal vent at 4,100 m depth. Multi-omics analyses were performed to study the mechanisms used by the cell to cope with high hydrostatic pressure variations. In silico analyses showed that the P. yayanosii genome is highly adapted to its harsh environment, with a loss of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways and the high constitutive expression of the energy metabolism compared with other non-obligate piezophilic Pyrococcus species. Differential proteomics and transcriptomics analyses identified key hydrostatic pressure-responsive genes involved in translation, chemotaxis, energy metabolism (hydrogenases and formate metabolism) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats sequences associated with Cellular apoptosis susceptibility proteins.

  12. Hydrostatic pressure and temperature calibration based on phase diagram of bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Liu, Yonggang; Bi, Yan; Song, Wei; Xie, Hongsen

    2012-06-01

    Under high-temperature and high pressure (HTHP) experiments, materials of small elastic modulus deform easily, and the length of the sample can be hardly predicted which lead to failure of ultrasonic velocity measurement. In this paper, a hydrostatic assembly of the sample for ultrasonic measurements is designed under HPHT, which can prevent plastic deformation. According to the abrupt change of travel time of the sample across the different phase boundaries of bismuth, the correspondent relation of sample pressure and oil pressure of multi-anvil apparatus can be calibrated, and the relation of sample temperature and temperature measured by thermocouple can also be determined. Sample pressure under high temperature is also determined by ultrasonic results. It is believed that the new sample assembly of hydrostatic pressure is valid and feasible for ultrasonic experiments under HTHP.

  13. Soda-lime silicate glass under hydrostatic pressure and indentation: a micro-Raman study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman micro-spectroscopy is used to analyse the plastic behaviour of window glass (a soda-lime silicate glass) under high hydrostatic pressure and Vickers indentation. We show pressure-induced irreversible structural changes, notably an increase of Q2 species at the expense of Q3. For the first time, a very accurate Raman↔pressure calibration curve has been established. Local density variations of a Vickers indented window glass have been characterized by micro-Raman mapping using a high spatial resolution device. The effects of glass depolymerization on indentation and hydrostatic compression are discussed. Differences between window glass and pure SiO2 glass behaviour under high stresses are also highlighted and analysed at a local scale.

  14. Partial alignment and measurement of residual dipolar couplings of proteins under high hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yinan; Wand, A. Joshua, E-mail: wand@mail.med.upenn.edu [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Johnson Research Foundation (United States)

    2013-08-15

    High-pressure NMR spectroscopy has emerged as a complementary approach for investigating various structural and thermodynamic properties of macromolecules. Noticeably absent from the array of experimental restraints that have been employed to characterize protein structures at high hydrostatic pressure is the residual dipolar coupling, which requires the partial alignment of the macromolecule of interest. Here we examine five alignment media that are commonly used at ambient pressure for this purpose. We find that the spontaneous alignment of Pf1 phage, d(GpG) and a C12E5/n-hexnanol mixture in a magnetic field is preserved under high hydrostatic pressure. However, DMPC/DHPC bicelles and collagen gel are found to be unsuitable. Evidence is presented to demonstrate that pressure-induced structural changes can be identified using the residual dipolar coupling.

  15. Influence of the hydrostatic stress component on critical surface expansion in forging compound products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorm, T; Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras

    1974-01-01

    One of the most important process parameters in making compound products is the expansion of the bonding surface. Bonding is not obtained until a critical surface expansion, characteristic of the deformation process, is reached. This paper deals with an experimental investigation of the influence...... of a superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the critical surface expansion during a forging process. The critical surface expansion appears to decrease with increasing hydrostatic pressure. This may be due to the fact that the close contact between the materials necessary to obtain bonding is created by a micro......-extrusion of the surfaces into each other. This may explain why the bond strength achieved by different processes, such as forging and extrusion, is quite different for the same value of the surface expansion....

  16. Effect of hydrostatic pressure and polaronic mass of the binding energy in a spherical quantum dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Rejo Jeice; Sr. Gerardin Jayam; K. S. Joseph Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous effect of hydrostatic pressure and polaronic mass on the binding energies of the ground and excited states of an on-center hydrogenic impurity confined in a GaAs/GaAlAs spherical quantum dot are theoretically investigated by the variational method within the effective mass approximation. The binding energy is calculated as a function of dot radius and pressure. Our findings proved that the hydrostatic pressure led to the decrease of confined energy and the increase of donor binding energy. Conduction band non-parabolicity and the polaron masses are effective in the donor binding energy which is significant for narrow dots not in the confined energy. The maximum donor binding energy achieved by the polaronic mass in the ground and excited states are 2%–19%for the narrow dots. The confined and donor binding energies approach zero as the dot size approaches infinity.

  17. Electronic structure computation and differential capacitance profile in δ-doped FET as a function of hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos-Pinedo, C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C. [Unidad Académica de Física. Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas. Calzada Solidaridad Esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N. C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2014-05-15

    In this work we present the results obtained from the calculation of the level structure of a n-type delta-doped well Field Effect Transistor when is subjected to hydrostatic pressure. We study the energy level structure as a function of hydrostatic pressure within the range of 0 to 6 kbar for different Schottky barrier height (SBH). We use an analytical expression for the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the SBH and the pressure dependence of the basic parameters of the system as the effective mass m(P) and the dielectric constant ε(P) of GaAs. We found that due to the effects of hydrostatic pressure, in addition to electronic level structure alteration, the profile of the differential capacitance per unit area C{sup −2} is affected.

  18. A global non-hydrostatic dynamical core using the spectral element method on a cubed-sphere grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Suk-Jin; Hong, Song-You

    2016-06-01

    A new global model with a non-hydrostatic (NH) dynamical core is developed. It employs the spectral element method (SEM) in the horizontal discretization and the finite difference method (FDM) in the vertical discretization. The solver includes a time-split third-order Runge-Kutta (RK3) time-integration technique. Pursuing the quasi-uniform and pole singularity-free spherical geometry, a cubed-sphere grid is employed. To assess the performance of the developed dynamical solver, the results from a number of idealized benchmark tests for hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic flows are presented and compared. The results indicate that the non-hydrostatic dynamical solver is able to produce solutions with good accuracy and consistency comparable to reference solutions. Further evaluation of the model with a full-physics package demonstrates its capability in reproducing heavy rainfall over the Korean Peninsula, which confirms that coupling of the dynamical solver and full-physics package is robust.

  19. Modernization of the Hydrostatic Drive of Lower Gate Locks in Waterworks Gabcikovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stračár, Karol

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with analysis of the combined load on hydraulic cylinder. Based on measurements of the parameters of the hydraulic cylinder and accurate calculations conclusions were drawn. Measurements were made on the lower hydrostatic drive gate locks at the waterworks Gabcikovo. Method of fixation of the hydraulic cylinder creates added bending torques which causes deformation of piston rod. The results are an effort to find relationship between dimensions, loading and safe operation.

  20. HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE EXTRACTION OF ANTIOXIDANTS FROM MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT – PROCESS PARAMETERS OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    PRAVEEN KUMAR; CHRIS CHU; DUDUKU KRISHNAIAH; AWANG BONO

    2006-01-01

    A modified version of high hydrostatic pressure extraction has been performed for extraction of antioxidants from M. citrifolia fruit at 5, 15, 25 bar and temperature 30° to 70°C for time duration 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by di-phenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The process parameters were optimized for antioxidant activity by central composite design method of response surface methodology using the statistical package, design e...

  1. Model Identification of Hydrostatic Center Frame Control System based on MATLAB

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongwen Wang; Ruizhen Duan; Xiaoqiu Xu

    2013-01-01

    The composition and principle of an electro-hydraulic servo oil film stiffness control system of hydrostatic center frame will be introduced, and the system model identification as well as the verification will be carried out based on semi-physical simulation environment of Real-time Workshop (RTW) and system identification toolbox in MATLAB. A control strategy of fuzzy sliding model variable structure will be presented , and it is applied in the model achieved by identifications, adopting th...

  2. STABILITY OF SYSTEM OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL NON-HYDROSTATIC REVOLVING FLUIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Applying the theory of stratification, it is proved that the system of the two-dimensional non-hydrostatic revolving fluids is unstable in the two-order continuous function class. The construction of solution space is given and the solution approach is offered. The sufficient and necessary conditions of the existence of formal solutions are expressed for some typical initial and boundary value problems and the calculating formulae to formal solutions are presented in detail.

  3. High pressure study of BaFe2As2 - role of hydrostaticity and uniaxial stress

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, W. J.; Welzel, O. P.; Harrison, C; X. F. Wang(Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, P. R. China); Chen, X. H.; F. M. Grosche; Niklowitz, P. G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the electrical resistivity of BaFe2As2 single crystals with pressure. The samples used were from the same batch grown from self flux and showed properties that were highly reproducible. Samples were pressurised using three different pressure media: pentane-isopentane (in a piston cylinder cell), Daphne oil (in an alumina anvil cell) and steatite (in a Bridgman cell). Each pressure medium has its own intrinsic level of hydrostaticity, which dramatically affects ...

  4. Preparation of Inactivated Human Skin Using High Hydrostatic Pressurization for Full-Thickness Skin Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Hieu Liem; Naoki Morimoto; Atsushi Mahara; Chizuru Jinno; Koji Shima; Shuichi Ogino; Michiharu Sakamoto; Natsuko Kakudo; Masukazu Inoie; Kenji Kusumoto; Toshia Fujisato; Shigehiko Suzuki; Tetsuji Yamaoka

    2015-01-01

    We have reported that high-hydrostatic-pressure (HHP) technology is safe and useful for producing various kinds of decellularized tissue. However, the preparation of decellularized or inactivated skin using HHP has not been reported. The objective of this study was thus to prepare inactivated skin from human skin using HHP, and to explore the appropriate conditions of pressurization to inactivate skin that can be used for skin reconstruction. Human skin samples of 8 mm in diameter were packed...

  5. Filtration coefficient of the axon membrane as measured with hydrostatic and osmotic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, F F

    1968-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity of the membranes surrounding the giant axon of the squid, Dosidicus gigas, was measured. In some axons the axoplasm was partially removed by suction. Perfusion was then established by insertion of a second pipette. In other axons the axoplasm was left intact and only one pipette was inserted. In both groups hydrostatic pressure was applied by means of a water column in a capillary manometer. Displacement of the meniscus in time gave the rate of fluid flowing across the axon sheath. In both groups osmotic differences across the membrane were established by the addition of a test molecule to the external medium which was seawater. The hydraulic conductivity determined by application of hydrostatic pressure was 10.6 +/- 0.8.10(-8) cm/sec cm H(2)O in perfused axons and 3.2 +/- 0.6.10(-8) cm/sec cm H(2)O in intact axons. When the driving force was an osmotic pressure gradient the conductivity was 4.5 +/- 0.6 x 10(-10) cm/sec cm H(2)O and 4.8 +/- 0.9 x 10(-10) cm/sec cm H(2)O in perfused and intact axons, respectively. A comparable result was found when the internal solution was made hyperosmotic. The fluid flow was a linear function of the hydrostatic pressure up to 70 cm of water. Glycerol outflux and membrane conductance were increased 1.6 and 1.1 times by the application of hydrostatic pressure. These increments do not give an explanation of the difference between the filtration coefficients. Other possible explanations are suggested and discussed. PMID:5642470

  6. The Effect of Additives on The Performance of HydrostaticThrust Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Abdul Sattar; Albert E. Yousif

    2008-01-01

    The paper is concerned with, the behavior of the hydrostatic thrust bearings lubricated with liquid-solid lubricants using Einstein viscosity formula, and taking into account the centrifugal force resulting from high speed. Also studied is the effect of the bearing dimensions on the pressure, flow rate, load capacity, shear stress, power consumption and stiffness. The theoretical results show an increase in load capacity by (8.3%) in the presence of solid graphite particles with concentration...

  7. A new engineering approach to predict the long-term hydrostatic strength of unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, H.A.; Wolters, M.; Bor, T.C.; Engels, T.A.P.; Govaert, L. E.

    2008-01-01

    Extruded polymer pipes are qualified using pressurized pipe tests. With these tests the long-term hydrostatic strength is determined by subjecting the pipes to an internal pressure, while measuring the time-to-failure. Although these tests can be accelerated (at higher temperatures), they remain time consuming and require a spacious experimental setup. To circumvent this costly method a model based approach is proposed by which the long-term hydrostatic strength is predicted. Using short term...

  8. High hydrostatic pressure increases amino acid requirements in the piezo-hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cario, Anaïs; Lormières, Florence; Xiang, Xiao; Oger, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    We have established a defined growth medium for the piezophilic hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus, which allows growth yields of ca. 10(8) cells/ml under both atmospheric and high hydrostatic pressure. Our results demonstrate a major impact of hydrostatic pressure on amino acid metabolism, with increases from 3 amino acids required at atmospheric pressure to 17 at 40 MPa. We observe in T. barophilus and other Thermococcales a similar discrepancy between the presence/absence of amino acid synthesis pathways and amino acid requirements, which supports the existence of alternate, but yet unknown, amino acid synthesis pathways, and may explain the low number of essential amino acids observed in T. barophilus and other Thermococcales. T. barophilus displays a strong metabolic preference for organic polymers such as polypeptides and chitin, which may constitute a more readily available resource of carbon and energy in situ in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. We hypothesize that the low energy yields of fermentation of organic polymers, together with energetic constraints imposed by high hydrostatic pressure, may render de novo synthesis of amino acids ecologically unfavorable. Induction of this metabolic switch to amino acid recycling can explain the requirement for non-essential amino acids by Thermococcales for efficient growth in defined medium.

  9. Hydrodynamic and hydrostatic modelling of hydraulic journal bearings considering small displacement condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Yin; Chuang, Jen-Chen; Tu, Jia-Ying

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes modified coefficients for the dynamic model of hydraulic journal bearing system that integrates the hydrodynamic and hydrostatic properties. In recent years, design of hydraulic bearing for machine tool attracts worldwide attention, because hydraulic bearings are able to provide higher capacity and accuracy with lower friction, compared to conventional bearing systems. In order to achieve active control of the flow pressure and enhance the operation accuracy, the dynamic model of hydraulic bearings need to be developed. Modified coefficients of hydrostatic stiffness, hydrodynamic stiffness, and squeeze damping of the dynamic model are presented in this work, which are derived referring to small displacement analysis from literature. The proposed modified coefficients and model, which consider the pressure variations, relevant geometry size, and fluid properties of the journal bearings, are able to characterise the hydrodynamic and hydrostatic properties with better precision, thus offering the following pragmatic contribution: (1) on-line prediction of the eccentricity and the position of the shaft in the face of external force that results in vibration; (2) development of active control system to regulate the supply flow pressure and to minimize the eccentricity of the shaft. Theoretical derivation and simulation results with different vibration cases are discussed to verify the proposed techniques.

  10. A 3D unstructured non-hydrostatic ocean model for internal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Congfang; Ding, Weiye

    2016-08-01

    A 3D non-hydrostatic model is developed to compute internal waves. A novel grid arrangement is incorporated in the model. This not only ensures the homogenous Dirichlet boundary condition for the non-hydrostatic pressure can be precisely and easily imposed but also renders the model relatively simple in its discretized form. The Perot scheme is employed to discretize horizontal advection terms in the horizontal momentum equations, which is based on staggered grids and has the conservative property. Based on previous water wave models, the main works of the present paper are to (1) utilize a semi-implicit, fractional step algorithm to solve the Navier-Stokes equations (NSE); (2) develop a second-order flux-limiter method satisfying the max-min property; (3) incorporate a density equation, which is solved by a high-resolution finite volume method ensuring mass conservation and max-min property based on a vertical boundary-fitted coordinate system; and (4) validate the developed model by using four tests including two internal seiche waves, lock-exchange flow, and internal solitary wave breaking. Comparisons of numerical results with analytical solutions or experimental data or other model results show reasonably good agreement, demonstrating the model's capability to resolve internal waves relating to complex non-hydrostatic phenomena.

  11. A novel technique towards deployment of hydrostatic pressure based level sensor in nuclear fuel reprocessing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, K; Rajiniganth, M P; Arun, A D; Sahoo, P; Murty, S A V Satya

    2016-02-01

    A novel approach towards deployment of a hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device is presented for continuous monitoring of liquid level in a reservoir with high resolution and precision. Some of the major drawbacks such as spurious information of measured level due to change in ambient temperature, requirement of high resolution pressure sensor, and bubbling effect by passing air or any gaseous fluid into the liquid are overcome by using such a newly designed hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device. The technique involves precise measurement of hydrostatic pressure exerted by the process liquid using a high sensitive pulsating-type differential pressure sensor (capacitive type differential pressure sensor using a specially designed oil manometer) and correlating it to the liquid level. In order to avoid strong influence of temperature on liquid level, a temperature compensation methodology is derived and used in the system. A wireless data acquisition feature has also been provided in the level monitoring device in order to work in a remote area such as a radioactive environment. At the outset, a prototype level measurement system for a 1 m tank is constructed and its test performance has been well studied. The precision, accuracy, resolution, uncertainty, sensitivity, and response time of the prototype level measurement system are found to be less than 1.1 mm in the entire range, 1%, 3 mm, <1%, 10 Hz/mm, and ∼4 s, respectively. PMID:26931895

  12. Artificial induction of mito-gynogenetic diploids in large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea) by hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mingyi; Wu, Qingming; Liu, Xiande; Yao, Cuiluan; Chen, Qingkai; Wang, Zhiyong

    2010-07-01

    The present study investigated conditions for inducing mito-gynogenetic (endomitosis) diploids by hydrostatic pressure in the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea. In haploid control groups, the development of eggs was activated with ultraviolet radiated semen. All fry presented typical haploid syndrome in the haploid control groups, and were verified as haploids using cytometry. After hydrostatic pressure treatment, morphologically normal fry reappeared at different frequencies according to the intensity and time of pressure shock. Fry with normal appearance in the pressure treated groups were verified as gynogenetic double haploids (GDHs), containing only one allele from the female parent at all four diagnostic microsatellite loci. For a fixed duration of 3 min, the optimal intensity of blocking the first mitosis was determined to be 40 Mpa, which was similar to that of blocking the second meiosis. There was a “window” of starting time, from 36.1 min to 38.1 min post-insemination at 25.0±1.0°C, within which the production of GDHs was not significantly different. Maximum production of morphologically normal fries, 9.36%±2.97% of developed eggs, was found when the eggs were shocked with hydrostatic pressure at 40 Mpa for 3 min, starting from 38.1 min post insemination at 25.0±1.0°C.

  13. A 3D unstructured non-hydrostatic ocean model for internal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Congfang; Ding, Weiye

    2016-10-01

    A 3D non-hydrostatic model is developed to compute internal waves. A novel grid arrangement is incorporated in the model. This not only ensures the homogenous Dirichlet boundary condition for the non-hydrostatic pressure can be precisely and easily imposed but also renders the model relatively simple in its discretized form. The Perot scheme is employed to discretize horizontal advection terms in the horizontal momentum equations, which is based on staggered grids and has the conservative property. Based on previous water wave models, the main works of the present paper are to (1) utilize a semi-implicit, fractional step algorithm to solve the Navier-Stokes equations (NSE); (2) develop a second-order flux-limiter method satisfying the max-min property; (3) incorporate a density equation, which is solved by a high-resolution finite volume method ensuring mass conservation and max-min property based on a vertical boundary-fitted coordinate system; and (4) validate the developed model by using four tests including two internal seiche waves, lock-exchange flow, and internal solitary wave breaking. Comparisons of numerical results with analytical solutions or experimental data or other model results show reasonably good agreement, demonstrating the model's capability to resolve internal waves relating to complex non-hydrostatic phenomena.

  14. Tropical Cyclones in the Non-hydrostatic GFDL HiRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    A new, non-hydrostatic version of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) High-Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) is being developed for tropical cyclone (TC) studies, with a focus on improving the climatology of TC genesis and landfall while maintaining the realism of the large-scale climate. This model marks a radical shift from the hydrostatic dynamics used by previous GFDL climate models. It uses a C384 (25 km) horizontal grid with 63 vertical levels, and includes many updates in the dynamical core, cloud microphysics and cloud convective parameterization. A new land model configuration with the effects of lakes and rivers, as well as many other land-surface process improvements is also tested and included. The long-term TC properties, e.g. storm counts, geographical distribution, and intensity, are examined in several climatology and AMIP(Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project)-type simulations. We compare the results both to observations and to hydrostatic HiRAM which achieved a high prediction skill of Atlantic TCs.

  15. A novel technique towards deployment of hydrostatic pressure based level sensor in nuclear fuel reprocessing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, K; Rajiniganth, M P; Arun, A D; Sahoo, P; Murty, S A V Satya

    2016-02-01

    A novel approach towards deployment of a hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device is presented for continuous monitoring of liquid level in a reservoir with high resolution and precision. Some of the major drawbacks such as spurious information of measured level due to change in ambient temperature, requirement of high resolution pressure sensor, and bubbling effect by passing air or any gaseous fluid into the liquid are overcome by using such a newly designed hydrostatic pressure based level monitoring device. The technique involves precise measurement of hydrostatic pressure exerted by the process liquid using a high sensitive pulsating-type differential pressure sensor (capacitive type differential pressure sensor using a specially designed oil manometer) and correlating it to the liquid level. In order to avoid strong influence of temperature on liquid level, a temperature compensation methodology is derived and used in the system. A wireless data acquisition feature has also been provided in the level monitoring device in order to work in a remote area such as a radioactive environment. At the outset, a prototype level measurement system for a 1 m tank is constructed and its test performance has been well studied. The precision, accuracy, resolution, uncertainty, sensitivity, and response time of the prototype level measurement system are found to be less than 1.1 mm in the entire range, 1%, 3 mm, <1%, 10 Hz/mm, and ∼4 s, respectively.

  16. Toxicity minimization of pipelines hydrostatic tests fluids, stage I: laboratory essays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Jorge A.S.; Penna, Monica de O.; Portela, Daniele B.; Christino, Fernando P.; Silva, Joao L.B. da; Geraldo, Lucia M.L. [Petroleo do Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mota, Vanessa V.C. [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Cravo Junior, Walter [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the laboratory essays stage of the project for toxicity minimization of pipelines hydrostatic tests fluids. The hydrostatic-hibernation fluid composition most used by PETROBRAS in offshore operations is seawater added with sodium bis sulfite, fluorescein, alquildimetilbenzilamonium chloride, and tetrakis-hydroxymethyl-phosphonium sulfate (THPS). In order to reduce the toxicity of the fluid used in hydrostatic tests, the use of lesser concentrations of THPS was attempted with UV radiation application as a disinfection technique prior to the adding of the fluid's components. The compositions were evaluated in different conditions of temperature use of UV radiation or not and oxygen scavenger adding (presence and absence). The fluids were kept hibernating for 120 days. All the parameters tested after hibernation were compared to fresh from preparation samples (zero time samples). The fluid's characteristics were evaluated by microbiological control and toxicity as well as the THPS residual. Results showed that the UV treatment was more effective in the absence of oxygen scavenger. The temperature acts as a microbial growth control agent, as expected. To large scale operations, a water quality monitoring must be performed previously to any field operations, in order to determinate the best treatment to be used in each case. (author)

  17. Compressive Strength of Hydrostatic-Stress-Sensitive Materials at High Strain-Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Q M; LU Y B

    2008-01-01

    Many engineering materials demonstrate dynamic enhancement of their compressive strength with the increase of strain-rate.which have been included in material models to improve the reliability of numerical Simulations of the material and structural responses Under impact and biasl tcads,The strain-rate effects on the dynamic Compressive strength of a range of engineering materials which behave in hydrostatic-stress-sensitive manner were investigated.It is concluded that the dynamic enhancement of the compressive strength of a hydrostatic-stress-sensitive material may include inertia-induced lateral confinement effects,which,as a non-strain-rate factor,may greatly enhance the compressive strength of these materials.Some empirical formulae based on the dynamic stress-strain measurements over-predict the strain-rate effects on the compressive strength of these hydrostatic-stress-sensitive materials,and thus may over-estimate the structural resistance to impact and blast lgads.leading fo non-conservative design of protective structures.

  18. Hydrostatic pressure effect on micro air bubbles deposited on surfaces with a retreating tip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, So Hung; Wang, Jingming; Yu, Yang; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2014-06-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on 6 μL air bubbles formed on micropillar structured PDMS and silicone surfaces using a 2 mm diameter stainless steel tip retreated at 1 mm/s was investigated. Dimensional analysis of the tip retraction process showed the experiments to be conducted in the condition where fluid inertial forces are comparable in magnitude with surface tension forces, while viscous forces were lower. Larger bubbles could be left behind on the structured PDMS surface. For hydrostatic pressures in excess of 20 mm H2O (196 Pa), the volume of bubble deposited was found to decrease progressively with pressure increase. The differences in width of the deposited bubbles (in contact with the substrate) were significant at any particular pressure but marginal in height. The attainable height before rupture reduced with pressure increase, thereby accounting for the reducing dispensed volume characteristic. On structured PDMS, the gaseous bridge width (in contact with the substrate) was invariant with tip retraction, while on silicone it was initially reducing before becoming invariant in the lead up to rupture. With silicone, hence, reductions in the contact width and height were both responsible for reduced volumes with pressure increase. Increased hydrostatic pressure was also found to restrict the growth in contact width on silicone during the stage when air was injected in through the tip. The ability to effect bubble size in such a simple manner may already be harnessed in nature and suggests possibilities in technological applications.

  19. 30 CFR 56.14115 - Stationary grinding machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary grinding machines. 56.14115 Section 56.14115 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14115 Stationary grinding machines....

  20. 7 CFR 2902.28 - Stationary equipment hydraulic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... designation can be found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. EPA provides recovered... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stationary equipment hydraulic fluids. 2902.28... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.28 Stationary equipment hydraulic fluids. (a) Definition....

  1. Threshold stationary real exchange rates: a nonlinear, multivariate approach

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Shively

    2003-01-01

    Purchasing power parity implies that real exchange rates are stationary. However, the finding of nonstationary real exchange rates has been difficult to dismiss. Using a nonlinear, three-regime structural bivariate threshold model, this paper finds evidence of threshold stationary real exchange rates which is consistent with purchasing power parity adjusted for market frictions such as transaction costs.

  2. Hydrostatic Parameters and Domain Effects in Novel 2-2 Composites Based on PZN-0.12PT Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Yu. Topolov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel 0.88Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3O3-0.12PbTiO3 crystal/polymer composite with 2-2 connectivity is studied at variable orientations of spontaneous polarisation vector of the crystal component. Orientation and volume-fraction dependences of the hydrostatic piezoelectric coefficients dh*, eh*, and gh* and hydrostatic electromechanical coupling factor kh* are related to the important role of the piezoelectric and elastic anisotropy of single-domain layers of the 2-2 composite. The record value of |eh∗|≈77 C/m2 near the absolute-minimum point and the correlation between the hydrostatic (eh* and piezoelectric (e3j* coefficients and between the hydrostatic (gh* and piezoelectric (g3j* coefficients are first established. This discovery is of value for hydrostatic and piezotechnical applications. The hydrostatic performance of the composite based on the single-domain 0.88Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3O3-0.12PbTiO3 crystal is compared to the performance of the 2–2 composites based on either the same polydomain crystal or the related single-domain crystal.

  3. Time reversibility from visibility graphs of non-stationary processes

    CERN Document Server

    Lacasa, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Visibility algorithms are a family of methods to map time series into networks, with the aim of describing the structure of time series and their underlying dynamical properties in graph-theoretical terms. Here we explore some properties of both natural and horizontal visibility graphs associated to several non-stationary processes, and we pay particular attention to their capacity to assess time irreversibility. Non-stationary signals are (infinitely) irreversible by definition (independently of whether the process is Markovian or producing entropy at a positive rate), and thus the link between entropy production and time series irreversibility has only been explored in non-equilibrium stationary states. Here we show that the visibility formalism naturally induces a new working definition of time irreversibility, which allows to quantify several degrees of irreversibility for stationary and non-stationary series, yielding finite values that can be used to efficiently assess the presence of memory and off-equ...

  4. Polarimetric SAR Image Object Segmentation via Level Set with Stationary Global Minimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Yongmin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a level set-based method for object segmentation in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR images. In our method, a modified energy functional via active contour model is proposed based on complex Gaussian/Wishart distribution model for both single-look and multilook PolSAR images. The modified functional has two interesting properties: (1 the curve evolution does not enter into local minimum; (2 the level set function has a unique stationary convergence state. With these properties, the desired object can be segmented more accurately. Besides, the modified functional allows us to set an effective automatic termination criterion and makes the algorithm more practical. The experimental results on synthetic and real PolSAR images demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  5. Automatic Kurdish Dialects Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hassani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Automatic dialect identification is a necessary Lan guage Technology for processing multi- dialect languages in which the dialects are linguis tically far from each other. Particularly, this becomes crucial where the dialects are mutually uni ntelligible. Therefore, to perform computational activities on these languages, the sy stem needs to identify the dialect that is the subject of the process. Kurdish language encompasse s various dialects. It is written using several different scripts. The language lacks of a standard orthography. This situation makes the Kurdish dialectal identification more interesti ng and required, both form the research and from the application perspectives. In this research , we have applied a classification method, based on supervised machine learning, to identify t he dialects of the Kurdish texts. The research has focused on two widely spoken and most dominant Kurdish dialects, namely, Kurmanji and Sorani. The approach could be applied to the other Kurdish dialects as well. The method is also applicable to the languages which are similar to Ku rdish in their dialectal diversity and differences.

  6. The transformed-stationary approach: a generic and simplified methodology for non-stationary extreme value analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Vousdoukas, Michalis; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Sartini, Ludovica; Feyen, Luc; Besio, Giovanni; Alfieri, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Statistical approaches to study extreme events require, by definition, long time series of data. In many scientific disciplines, these series are often subject to variations at different temporal scales that affect the frequency and intensity of their extremes. Therefore, the assumption of stationarity is violated and alternative methods to conventional stationary extreme value analysis (EVA) must be adopted. Using the example of environmental variables subject to climate change, in this study we introduce the transformed-stationary (TS) methodology for non-stationary EVA. This approach consists of (i) transforming a non-stationary time series into a stationary one, to which the stationary EVA theory can be applied, and (ii) reverse transforming the result into a non-stationary extreme value distribution. As a transformation, we propose and discuss a simple time-varying normalization of the signal and show that it enables a comprehensive formulation of non-stationary generalized extreme value (GEV) and generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) models with a constant shape parameter. A validation of the methodology is carried out on time series of significant wave height, residual water level, and river discharge, which show varying degrees of long-term and seasonal variability. The results from the proposed approach are comparable with the results from (a) a stationary EVA on quasi-stationary slices of non-stationary series and (b) the established method for non-stationary EVA. However, the proposed technique comes with advantages in both cases. For example, in contrast to (a), the proposed technique uses the whole time horizon of the series for the estimation of the extremes, allowing for a more accurate estimation of large return levels. Furthermore, with respect to (b), it decouples the detection of non-stationary patterns from the fitting of the extreme value distribution. As a result, the steps of the analysis are simplified and intermediate diagnostics are

  7. The transformed-stationary approach: a generic and simplified methodology for non-stationary extreme value analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Vousdoukas, Michalis; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Sartini, Ludovica; Feyen, Luc; Besio, Giovanni; Alfieri, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Statistical approaches to study extreme events require, by definition, long time series of data. In many scientific disciplines, these series are often subject to variations at different temporal scales that affect the frequency and intensity of their extremes. Therefore, the assumption of stationarity is violated and alternative methods to conventional stationary extreme value analysis (EVA) must be adopted. Using the example of environmental variables subject to climate change, in this study we introduce the transformed-stationary (TS) methodology for non-stationary EVA. This approach consists of (i) transforming a non-stationary time series into a stationary one, to which the stationary EVA theory can be applied, and (ii) reverse transforming the result into a non-stationary extreme value distribution. As a transformation, we propose and discuss a simple time-varying normalization of the signal and show that it enables a comprehensive formulation of non-stationary generalized extreme value (GEV) and generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) models with a constant shape parameter. A validation of the methodology is carried out on time series of significant wave height, residual water level, and river discharge, which show varying degrees of long-term and seasonal variability. The results from the proposed approach are comparable with the results from (a) a stationary EVA on quasi-stationary slices of non-stationary series and (b) the established method for non-stationary EVA. However, the proposed technique comes with advantages in both cases. For example, in contrast to (a), the proposed technique uses the whole time horizon of the series for the estimation of the extremes, allowing for a more accurate estimation of large return levels. Furthermore, with respect to (b), it decouples the detection of non-stationary patterns from the fitting of the extreme value distribution. As a result, the steps of the analysis are simplified and intermediate diagnostics are

  8. Sentence Recognition Prediction for Hearing-impaired Listeners in Stationary and Fluctuation Noise With FADE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Marc René; Warzybok, Anna; Meyer, Bernd T.; Brand, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the individual patient’s hearing impairment as obtained with the matrix sentence recognition test, a simulation Framework for Auditory Discrimination Experiments (FADE) is extended here using the Attenuation and Distortion (A+D) approach by Plomp as a blueprint for setting the individual processing parameters. FADE has been shown to predict the outcome of both speech recognition tests and psychoacoustic experiments based on simulations using an automatic speech recognition system requiring only few assumptions. It builds on the closed-set matrix sentence recognition test which is advantageous for testing individual speech recognition in a way comparable across languages. Individual predictions of speech recognition thresholds in stationary and in fluctuating noise were derived using the audiogram and an estimate of the internal level uncertainty for modeling the individual Plomp curves fitted to the data with the Attenuation (A-) and Distortion (D-) parameters of the Plomp approach. The “typical” audiogram shapes from Bisgaard et al with or without a “typical” level uncertainty and the individual data were used for individual predictions. As a result, the individualization of the level uncertainty was found to be more important than the exact shape of the individual audiogram to accurately model the outcome of the German Matrix test in stationary or fluctuating noise for listeners with hearing impairment. The prediction accuracy of the individualized approach also outperforms the (modified) Speech Intelligibility Index approach which is based on the individual threshold data only. PMID:27604782

  9. Bayesian soft X-ray tomography using non-stationary Gaussian Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a Bayesian based non-stationary Gaussian Process (GP) method for the inference of soft X-ray emissivity distribution along with its associated uncertainties has been developed. For the investigation of equilibrium condition and fast magnetohydrodynamic behaviors in nuclear fusion plasmas, it is of importance to infer, especially in the plasma center, spatially resolved soft X-ray profiles from a limited number of noisy line integral measurements. For this ill-posed inversion problem, Bayesian probability theory can provide a posterior probability distribution over all possible solutions under given model assumptions. Specifically, the use of a non-stationary GP to model the emission allows the model to adapt to the varying length scales of the underlying diffusion process. In contrast to other conventional methods, the prior regularization is realized in a probability form which enhances the capability of uncertainty analysis, in consequence, scientists who concern the reliability of their results will benefit from it. Under the assumption of normally distributed noise, the posterior distribution evaluated at a discrete number of points becomes a multivariate normal distribution whose mean and covariance are analytically available, making inversions and calculation of uncertainty fast. Additionally, the hyper-parameters embedded in the model assumption can be optimized through a Bayesian Occam's Razor formalism and thereby automatically adjust the model complexity. This method is shown to produce convincing reconstructions and good agreements with independently calculated results from the Maximum Entropy and Equilibrium-Based Iterative Tomography Algorithm methods

  10. Stationary point of the radiometric control of cesium contamination of agricultural animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stationary point of the radiometric control of cesium contamination of an agricultural animals. Is intended for vital measurements of the contents of radiocesium in muscular tissue of a cattle. Can be used on cattle-breeding farms, providing points, in meat factories and personal facilities. As a base means for accommodation of the control point the motor-car is used. Design of the car allows to automate operations on deployment of the control point on a place and translation of one to a transport mode. Limits of measured specific activity of cesium contamination of a cattle is up 5*10-9 to 5*10-6 Ci/kg. The basic error on the bottom limit of measurement at confidence coefficient 0,95 is no more than 30%. Measurement time for the bottom limit of determined specific activity is no more than 30 s. There is automatic measurement mode. Type of a power is 220 V, 50 Hz. Range of working temperatures is up -15 to +35 centigrade. Relative humidity is no more than 98% at 25 centigrade. External gamma background is till 0.035 mR/h. Time of installation and dismantle of stationary control point is no more than 1,5 hours. The direct radiometric control in divo allows to fulfil and to use biotechnological process of removing of cesium isotopes from body of animals for decrease of levels of radioactive contamination

  11. Growth of microalgae in autotrophic stationary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cunha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the growth of nine marine microalgae species (Nannochloropsis oculata, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Isochrysis galbana, Tetraselmis suecica, Tetraselmis chuii, Chaetoceros muelleri, Thalassiosira fluviatilis and Isochrysis sp. and one freshwater species (Chlorella vulgaris under stationary autotrophy conditions, using erlenmeyers fl asks with 800mL of culture medium exposed to constant light intensities providing a photon flux density of about 150μmol.m-2.s-1 and 25±2oC temperature and constant air flow. The experiment was carried out in a controlled environment considering a block delineating randomized over time with three replicates. The Nannochloropsis oculata showed the highest value of maximum cellular density, but with a longer period of time and a lower growth rate. This was probably due to its tiny cell size, demanding a large number of cells per volume to attain its optimum conditions for light, nutrients, water and atmospheric carbon dioxide. In addition, in spite of showing one of the lowest values of maximum cellular density, Thalassiosira fluviatilis was the species that reached its maximum in a short period of time at the highest growth rate. Chlorella vulgaris was the only freshwater species tested and it showed the poorest performance for all the variables analyzed in the current study.

  12. Stationary flow conditions in pulsed supersonic beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    We describe a generally applicable method for the experimental determination of stationary flow conditions in pulsed supersonic beams, utilizing time-resolved electron induced fluorescence measurements of high pressure jet expansions of helium. The detection of ultraviolet photons from electronically excited helium emitted very close to the nozzle exit images the valve opening behavior—with the decided advantage that a photon signal is not affected by beam-skimmer and beam-residual gas interactions; it thus allows to conclusively determine those operation parameters of a pulsed valve that yield complete opening. The studies reveal that a "flat-top" signal, indicating constant density and commonly considered as experimental criterion for continuous flow, is insufficient. Moreover, translational temperature and mean terminal flow velocity turn out to be significantly more sensitive in testing for the equivalent behavior of a continuous nozzle source. Based on the widely distributed Even-Lavie valve we demonstrate that, in principle, it is possible to achieve quasi-continuous flow conditions even with fast-acting valves; however, the two prerequisites are a minimum pulse duration that is much longer than standard practice and previous estimates, and a suitable tagging of the appropriate beam segment.

  13. An experimental stationary quadrotor with variable DOF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vasfi Emre Ömürlü; Utku Büyükşahin; Remzi Artar; Ahmet Kirli; M Nurullah Turgut

    2013-04-01

    Unmanned air vehicles (UAV) and especially quadrotors have drawn great attention in recent years because of their maneuverability, ease of design and control. Most of the works concentrate mostly on control; yet, design and communication are also some sub-topics. In this research, a stationary, four rotor air vehicle with limited/controlled degree of freedom is constructed so that various control algorithms and their changing effects with varying vehicle dynamics can be studied on the ground for safety purposes. Ascending/descending, pitch/yaw/roll motions can be limited/controlled by setting the vehicle’s degree of freedom mechanically, resulting better net observability of the control algorithms on the vehicle’s dynamic performance. Design, in terms of mechanics, mechatronics and software is presented and the usability of the system is shown. Parallel self tuning fuzzy PD + PD control is applied to the system for preliminary studies and results are discussed. Inspite of the sensor noise, satisfactory pitch/roll/yaw control is achieved.

  14. Quasi-stationary distributions and population processes

    CERN Document Server

    Méléard, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    This survey concerns the study of quasi-stationary distributions with a specific focus on models derived from ecology and population dynamics. We are concerned with the long time behavior of different stochastic population size processes when 0 is an absorbing point almost surely attained by the process. The hitting time of this point, namely the extinction time, can be large compared to the physical time and the population size can fluctuate for large amount of time before extinction actually occurs. This phenomenon can be understood by the study of quasi-limiting distributions. In this paper, general results on quasi-stationarity are given and examples developed in detail. One shows in particular how this notion is related to the spectral properties of the semi-group of the process killed at 0. Then we study different stochastic population models including nonlinear terms modeling the regulation of the population. These models will take values in countable sets (as birth and death processes) or in continuou...

  15. Model of non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Andrew D.; Kurien, Susan; Clark, Timothy T.

    2016-07-01

    We compare results from a spectral model for non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence (Besnard et al. in Theor Comp Fluid Dyn 8:1-35, 1996) with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a shear-free mixing layer (SFML) (Tordella et al. in Phys Rev E 77:016309, 2008). The SFML is used as a test case in which the efficacy of the model closure for the physical-space transport of the fluid velocity field can be tested in a flow with inhomogeneity, without the additional complexity of mean-flow coupling. The model is able to capture certain features of the SFML quite well for intermediate to long times, including the evolution of the mixing-layer width and turbulent kinetic energy. At short-times, and for more sensitive statistics such as the generation of the velocity field anisotropy, the model is less accurate. We propose two possible causes for the discrepancies. The first is the local approximation to the pressure-transport and the second is the a priori spherical averaging used to reduce the dimensionality of the solution space of the model, from wavevector to wavenumber space. DNS data are then used to gauge the relative importance of both possible deficiencies in the model.

  16. Stationary flow conditions in pulsed supersonic beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Wolfgang

    2013-10-21

    We describe a generally applicable method for the experimental determination of stationary flow conditions in pulsed supersonic beams, utilizing time-resolved electron induced fluorescence measurements of high pressure jet expansions of helium. The detection of ultraviolet photons from electronically excited helium emitted very close to the nozzle exit images the valve opening behavior-with the decided advantage that a photon signal is not affected by beam-skimmer and beam-residual gas interactions; it thus allows to conclusively determine those operation parameters of a pulsed valve that yield complete opening. The studies reveal that a "flat-top" signal, indicating constant density and commonly considered as experimental criterion for continuous flow, is insufficient. Moreover, translational temperature and mean terminal flow velocity turn out to be significantly more sensitive in testing for the equivalent behavior of a continuous nozzle source. Based on the widely distributed Even-Lavie valve we demonstrate that, in principle, it is possible to achieve quasi-continuous flow conditions even with fast-acting valves; however, the two prerequisites are a minimum pulse duration that is much longer than standard practice and previous estimates, and a suitable tagging of the appropriate beam segment.

  17. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  18. Baroclinic stationary waves in aquaplanet models

    CERN Document Server

    Zappa, Giuseppe; Navarra, Antonio; 10.1175/2011JAS3573.1

    2011-01-01

    An aquaplanet model is used to study the nature of the highly persistent low frequency waves that have been observed in models forced by zonally symmetric boundary conditions. Using the Hayashi spectral analysis of the extratropical waves, we find that a quasi-stationary (QS) wave five belongs to a wave packet obeying a well defined dispersion relation with eastward group velocity. The components of the dispersion relation with k>5 baroclinically convert eddy available potential energy into eddy kinetic energy, while those with k<5 are baroclinically neutral. In agreement with the Green's model of baroclinic instability, the wave five is weakly unstable, and the inverse energy cascade, which had been previously proposed as a main forcing for this type of waves, only acts as a positive feedback on its predominantly baroclinic energetics. The QS wave is reinforced by a phase lock to an analogous pattern in the tropical convection, which provides further amplification to the wave. We also find that the Pedlos...

  19. The Parametric Identification Of A Stationary Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu BELEA

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In the problems of identification it is supposed that the process has at least one measurable input size and at least one measurable output size. The identification of a process has three stages: the obtaining of a registration of process measurable sizes; the choice of a proper mathematical model for the process; the extract of the parameter values of the mathematical models from registered data. The parametric identification problem is an optimization problem, in which the best combination of values for the model parameters set is searched. In the paper is presented the parametric identification of a water flow process in a laboratory stand. The identification had the following dims: detailed understanding of how the stand works, finding a new illustrative experiment for the stand, the application of advanced techniques of automat control, and the development of a project of new stand, meant to allow a large variety of experiments.

  20. Electronic amplifiers for automatic compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Polonnikov, D Ye

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Amplifiers for Automatic Compensators presents the design and operation of electronic amplifiers for use in automatic control and measuring systems. This book is composed of eight chapters that consider the problems of constructing input and output circuits of amplifiers, suppression of interference and ensuring high sensitivity.This work begins with a survey of the operating principles of electronic amplifiers in automatic compensator systems. The succeeding chapters deal with circuit selection and the calculation and determination of the principal characteristics of amplifiers, as

  1. The Automatic Telescope Network (ATN)

    CERN Document Server

    Mattox, J R

    1999-01-01

    Because of the scheduled GLAST mission by NASA, there is strong scientific justification for preparation for very extensive blazar monitoring in the optical bands to exploit the opportunity to learn about blazars through the correlation of variability of the gamma-ray flux with flux at lower frequencies. Current optical facilities do not provide the required capability.Developments in technology have enabled astronomers to readily deploy automatic telescopes. The effort to create an Automatic Telescope Network (ATN) for blazar monitoring in the GLAST era is described. Other scientific applications of the networks of automatic telescopes are discussed. The potential of the ATN for science education is also discussed.

  2. Automatic programming of simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

  3. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  4. Automatic Number Plate Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Rajshree Dhruw; Dharmendra Roy

    2014-01-01

    Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) is a mass surveillance system that captures the image of vehicles and recognizes their license number. The objective is to design an efficient automatic authorized vehicle identification system by using the Indian vehicle number plate. In this paper we discus different methodology for number plate localization, character segmentation & recognition of the number plate. The system is mainly applicable for non standard Indian number plates by recognizing...

  5. Hydrostatic pressure cells development for X-ray and neutrons experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passamai Junior, Jose Luis; Pinheiro, Christiano J.G.; Orlando, Marcos Tadeu D.; Passos, Carlos A.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Correa, Hamilton P.S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Rossi, Jesualdo L.; Mazzocchi, Vera L.; Parente, Carlos B.R.; Mestnik Filho, Jose; Martinez, Luis G., E-mail: jelrossi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Melo, Francisco C.L. de, E-mail: frapi@iae.cta.br [Centro Tecnologico da Aeronautica (CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial

    2011-07-01

    A set of hydrostatic pressure cells was specially developed in order to be applied in X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption and neutron diffraction experiments. For the experiments where X-rays are used, the pressure cells are built in a CuBe alloy body with two B{sub 4}C anvils in order to allow the low absorption of the radiation. The B{sub 4}C anvils were specially prepared in CTA - Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial - Sao Jose dos Campos - Brazil, in order to present enhanced X-ray transparency and high hardness. One of the advantage of the CuBe-body cell with B{sub 4}C anvil is that it can be also used under magnetic fields, for instance for measurements of AC magnetic susceptibility under high hydrostatic pressures. The X-ray cells work in transmission mode and present a 2 mm diameter hole for the beam path. The X-ray beam pass through the hole and outgoing to the detector positioned in front of the pressure cell. A second type of pressure cell was developed in order to be used in neutron elastic scattering experiments, especially in neutron diffraction experiments. The neutron cell pressure cell was constructed in Zirconium alloy reinforced with carbon fibers composite in order to improve the mechanical resistance of his cylindrical geometry. The B{sub 4}C pressure cells are available to users of the techniques of X-ray diffraction and absorption in the Brazilian National Synchrotron Laboratory - LNLS, at Campinas City. The neutron pressure cell is available to users at the neutron powder diffraction facility installed at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN, Sao Paulo. In this work will be shown details and drawings of the two types of hydrostatic pressure cells. (author)

  6. Hydrostatic Level Sensors as High Precision Ground Motion Instrumentation for Tevatron and Other Energy Frontier Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle accelerators require very tight tolerances on the alignment and stability of their elements: magnets, accelerating cavities, vacuum chambers, etc. In this article we describe the Hydrostatic Level Sensors (HLS) for very low frequency measurements used in a variety of facilities at Fermilab. We present design features of the sensors, outline their technical parameters, describe their test and calibration procedures, discuss different regimes of operation and give few illustrative examples of the experimental data. Detail experimental results of the ground motion measurements with these detectors will be presented in subsequent papers.

  7. Hydrostatic level sensors as high precision ground motion instrumentation for Tevatron and other energy frontier accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle accelerators require very tight tolerances on the alignment and stability of their elements: magnets, accelerating cavities, vacuum chambers, etc. In this article we describe the Hydrostatic Level Sensors (HLS) for very low frequency measurements used in a variety of facilities at Fermilab. We present design features of the sensors, outline their technical parameters, describe their test and calibration procedures, discuss different regimes of operation and give few illustrative examples of the experimental data. Detail experimental results of the ground motion measurements with these detectors will be presented in subsequent papers.

  8. Effect of bulk modulus on performance of a hydrostatic transmission control system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Volkan Akkaya

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, we examine the performance of PID (proportional integral derivative) and fuzzy controllers on the angular velocity of a hydrostatic transmission system by means of Matlab-Simulink. A very novel aspect is that it includes the analysis of the effect of bulk modulus on system control. Simulation results demonstrates that bulk modulus should be considered as a variable parameter to obtain a more realistic model. Additionally, a PID controller is insufficient in presence of variable bulk modulus, whereas a fuzzy controller provides robust angular velocity control.

  9. The hydrostatic equilibrium and its implications on the mechanical properties of planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CAPUTO

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the hypothesis of hydrostatic equilibrium the planets of the solar system are represented on the plane (J"2, w2 a?/MG (J2 = second term of the gravitational potential, w = rotation rate of the planet, a — equatorial radius, M — mass of the planet, G = gravitational constant. Since the points representing the planets lie on a straight line it is possible to obtain informations on the giration moment and the moment of inertia of Uranus and Pluto.

  10. Influence of layer waviness on the hydrostatic response of thick composite cylinders

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy L Brown

    1992-01-01

    The influence of layer waviness in thick cross-ply composite cylinders subjected to hydrostatic pressure is investigated. The cylinders considered are graphite-epoxy with a 2: 1 ratio of circumferential to axial layers. All cylinders considered contain 104 total layers with a layup of [90/(90/0/90h71s, where a '0° 1 layer is taken to be in the axial direction. The influence of a single isolated group of wavy layers in an otherwise perfect cylinder is evaluated. Layer waviness in only the c...

  11. The hydrostatic pressure indifference point underestimates orthostatic redistribution of blood in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L G; Carlsen, Jonathan F.; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann;

    2014-01-01

    The hydrostatic indifference point (HIP; where venous pressure is unaffected by posture) is located at the level of the diaphragm and is believed to indicate the orthostatic redistribution of blood, but it remains unknown whether HIP coincides with the indifference point for blood volume (VIP...... of pressure and filling of the inferior caval vein as well as fluid distribution, we found HIP located corresponding to the diaphragm while VIP was placed low in the abdomen, and that medical antishock trousers elevated both HIP and VIP. The low indifference point for volume shows that the gravitational...

  12. Validation of a Partially Nonlinear Time Domain Model using instantaneous Froude-Krylov and Hydrostatic Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerinel, Matthieu; Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Alves, Marco;

    2013-01-01

    at the WavEC using an in-house time-domain model. The code, based on the linear potential theory, solves the system of motion equations using state-space representations of the radiation terms and includes nonlinear hydrostatic forces and nonlinear Froude-Krylov excitation terms, which require...... the instantaneous detection of the floating body wetted surface. The idea behind this approach is first to increase the model accuracy (compared to the fully linear model method), but also to keep the computational time relatively low. Results show a good agreement between experimental and numerical data, which...

  13. Tuning of exciton-photon coupling in a planar semiconductor microcavity by applying hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of hydrostatic pressure tuning, we have observed the strong-coupling exciton-polariton mode in a planar microcavity with an InGaAs/GaAs quantum well embedded in it, over a pressure range from 0.37 to 0.41 GPa. The experimental data can be fitted very well to a corresponding theoretical formula with a unique value of the vacuum Rabi splitting equal to 6.0 meV. A comparison between pressure tuning and other tuning methods is made as regards to what extent the intrinsic features of the exciton and cavity will be influenced during the tuning procedure. (author)

  14. Tuning of exciton-photon coupling in a planar semiconductor microcavity by applying hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jidong; Zhang Hao; Chen Jinghao; Deng Yuanming; Hu Chengyong; An Long; Yang Fuhua; Li Guohua; Zheng Houzhi [National Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2002-06-03

    By means of hydrostatic pressure tuning, we have observed the strong-coupling exciton-polariton mode in a planar microcavity with an InGaAs/GaAs quantum well embedded in it, over a pressure range from 0.37 to 0.41 GPa. The experimental data can be fitted very well to a corresponding theoretical formula with a unique value of the vacuum Rabi splitting equal to 6.0 meV. A comparison between pressure tuning and other tuning methods is made as regards to what extent the intrinsic features of the exciton and cavity will be influenced during the tuning procedure. (author)

  15. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on microflora and some quality attributes of grape juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Mecnun; Buzrul, Sencer; Alpas, Hami

    2013-03-01

    Red and white grape juices were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at three different pressures, temperature and time values to investigate the effects of HHP on natural microflora and some quality attributes of the juices. Increased pressure, temperature and time showed significant effect on the microbial reduction and no microbial growth were observed in HHP-treated grape juices up to 90 days. HHP had little or no effect on pH and color of the juices. Although 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation was observed in heat pasteurized samples, no HMF was detected in HHP-treated juices. This study demonstrated that HHP could be used as an alternative to heat treatment.

  16. Vacillations induced by interference of stationary and traveling planetary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salby, Murry L.; Garcia, Rolando R.

    1987-01-01

    The interference pattern produced when a traveling planetary wave propagates over a stationary forced wave is explored, examining the interference signature in a variety of diagnostics. The wave field is first restricted to a diatomic spectrum consisting of two components: a single stationary wave and a single monochromatic traveling wave. A simple barotropic normal mode propagating over a simple stationary plane wave is considered, and closed form solutions are obtained. The wave fields are then restricted spatially, providing more realistic structures without sacrificing the advantages of an analytical solution. Both stationary and traveling wave fields are calculated numerically with the linearized Primitive Equations in a realistic basic state. The mean flow reaction to the fluctuating eddy forcing which results from interference is derived. Synoptic geopotential behavior corresponding to the combined wave and mean flow fields is presented, and the synoptic signature in potential vorticity on isentropic surfaces is examined.

  17. STABLE STATIONARY STATES OF NON-LOCAL INTERACTION EQUATIONS

    KAUST Repository

    FELLNER, KLEMENS

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we are interested in the large-time behaviour of a solution to a non-local interaction equation, where a density of particles/individuals evolves subject to an interaction potential and an external potential. It is known that for regular interaction potentials, stable stationary states of these equations are generically finite sums of Dirac masses. For a finite sum of Dirac masses, we give (i) a condition to be a stationary state, (ii) two necessary conditions of linear stability w.r.t. shifts and reallocations of individual Dirac masses, and (iii) show that these linear stability conditions imply local non-linear stability. Finally, we show that for regular repulsive interaction potential Wε converging to a singular repulsive interaction potential W, the Dirac-type stationary states ρ̄ ε approximate weakly a unique stationary state ρ̄ ∈ L∞. We illustrate our results with numerical examples. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  18. Determination of car on-road black carbon and particle number emission factors and comparison between mobile and stationary measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ježek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We have used two methods for measuring emission factors (EF in real driving conditions on five cars in a controlled environment: the stationary method, where the investigated vehicle drives by the stationary measurement platform and the composition of the plume is measured; and the chasing method, where a mobile measurement platform drives behind the investigated vehicle. We measured EF of black carbon and particle number concentration. The stationary method was tested for repeatability at different speeds and on a slope. The chasing method was tested on a test track and compared to the portable emission measurement system. We further developed the data processing algorithm for both methods, trying to improve consistency, determine the plume duration, limit the background influence and facilitate automatic processing of measurements. The comparison of emission factors determined by the two methods showed good agreement. EFs of a single car measured with either method have a specific distribution with a characteristic value and a long tail of super emissions. Measuring EFs at different speeds or slopes did not significantly influence the EFs of different cars, hence we propose a new description of vehicle emissions that is not related to kinematic or engine parameters, rather we describe the vehicle EF with a characteristic value and a "super emission" tail.

  19. Quasi-Stationary Distributions for Models of Heterogeneous Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Marcelo M.; Dickman, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    We construct the quasi-stationary (QS) distribution for two models of heterogeneous catalysis having two absorbing states: the ZGB model for the oxidation of CO, and a version with noninstantaneous reactions. Using a mean-field-like approximation, we study the quasi-stationary surface coverages, moment ratios and the lifetime of the QS state. We also derive an improved, consistent one-site mean-field theory for the ZGB model.

  20. Tunnelling effect of the non-stationary Kerr black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-Zheng; Chen, De-You

    2008-03-01

    Extending Parikh and Wilczek's work to the non-stationary black hole, we study the Hawking radiation of the non-stationary Kerr black hole by the Hamilton-Jacobi method. The result shows that the radiation spectrum is not purely thermal and the tunnelling probability is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, which gives a correction to the Hawking thermal radiation of the black hole.

  1. Tunnelling effect of the non-stationary Kerr black hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shu-Zheng; Chen De-You

    2008-01-01

    Extending Parikh and Wilezek's work to the non-stationary black hole, we study the Hawking radiation of the non-stationary Kerr black hole by the Hamilton-Jacobi method. The result shows that the radiation spectrum is not purely thermal and the tunnelling probability is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, which gives a correction to the Hawking thermal radiation of the black hole.

  2. Robust Burg estimation of stationary autoregressive mixtures covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decurninge, Alexis; Barbaresco, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Burg estimators are classically used for the estimation of the autocovariance of a stationary autoregressive process. We propose to consider scale mixtures of stationary autoregressive processes, a non-Gaussian extension of the latter. The traces of such processes are Spherically Invariant Random Vectors (SIRV) with a constraint on the scatter matrix due to the autoregressive model. We propose adaptations of the Burg estimators to the considered models and their associated robust versions based on geometrical considerations.

  3. Stationary growth and unique invariant harmonic measure of cylindrical DLA

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Riccardo; Taloni, Alessandro; Caglioti, Emanuele; Loreto, Vittorio; Pietronero, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    We prove that the harmonic measure is stationary, unique and invariant on the interface of DLA growing on a cylinder surface. We provide a detailed theoretical analysis puzzling together multiscaling, multifractality and conformal invariance, supported by extensive numerical simulations of clusters built using conformal mappings and on lattice. The growth properties of the active and frozen zones are clearly elucidated. We show that the unique scaling exponent characterizing the stationary gr...

  4. Almost-stationary motions and gauge conditions in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Bona, C; Palenzuela-Luque, C

    2005-01-01

    An almost-stationary gauge condition is proposed with a view to Numerical Relativity applications. The time lines are defined as the integral curves of the timelike solutions of the harmonic almost-Killing equation. This vector equation is derived by a variational principle, by minimizing the deviations from isometry. The corresponding almost-stationary gauge condition allows to put the field equations in hyperbolic form, both in the free-evolution ADM and in the Z4 formalisms.

  5. Inference for local autocorrelations in locally stationary models

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zhibiao

    2014-01-01

    For non-stationary processes, the time-varying correlation structure provides useful insights into the underlying model dynamics. We study estimation and inferences for local autocorrelation process in locally stationary time series. Our constructed simultaneous confidence band can be used to address important hypothesis testing problems, such as whether the local autocorrelation process is indeed time-varying and whether the local autocorrelation is zero. In particular, our result provides a...

  6. Stationary bootstrapping realized volatility under market microstructure noise

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Eunju; Shin, Dong Wan

    2013-01-01

    Large-sample validity is proved for stationary bootstrapping of a bias-corrected realized volatility under market microstructure noise, which enables us to construct a bootstrap confidence interval of integrated volatility. A finite-sample simulation shows that the stationary bootstrapping confidence interval outperforms existing ones which are constructed ignoring market microstructure noise or using asymptotic normality for the bias-corrected realized volatility.

  7. Pushing concentration of stationary solar concentrators to the limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Zhang, Weiya

    2010-04-26

    We give the theoretical limit of concentration allowed by nonimaging optics for stationary solar concentrators after reviewing sun- earth geometry in direction cosine space. We then discuss the design principles that we follow to approach the maximum concentration along with examples including a hollow CPC trough, a dielectric CPC trough, and a 3D dielectric stationary solar concentrator which concentrates sun light four times (4x), eight hours per day year around. PMID:20607887

  8. Synoptic versus orographic control on stationary convective banding

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Andrew I.; Gray, Suzanne L; Kirshbaum, Daniel J.; Roberts, Nigel M.; Schultz, David M.; Fairman Jr, Jonathan G.

    2015-01-01

    Quasi-stationary convective bands can cause large localised rainfall accumulations and are often anchored by topographic features. Here, the predictability of and mechanisms causing one such band are determined using ensembles of the Met Office Unified Model at convection-permitting resolution (1.5 km grid length). The band was stationary over the UK for 3 h and produced rainfall accumulations of up to 34 mm. The amount and location of the predicted rainfall was highly variable despite only s...

  9. Geophysics-based method of locating a stationary earth object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rohde, Steven B. (Corrales, NM); Novak, James L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-05-20

    A geophysics-based method for determining the position of a stationary earth object uses the periodic changes in the gravity vector of the earth caused by the sun- and moon-orbits. Because the local gravity field is highly irregular over a global scale, a model of local tidal accelerations can be compared to actual accelerometer measurements to determine the latitude and longitude of the stationary object.

  10. Novel stationary phases based on asphaltenes for gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Momotko, Malwina; Chruszczyk, Dorota; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kamiński, Marian

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of investigations on the possibility of the application of the asphaltene fraction isolated from the oxidized residue from vacuum distillation of crude oil as a stationary phase for gas chromatography. The results of the investigation revealed that the asphaltene stationary phases can find use for the separation of a wide range of volatile organic compounds. The experimental values of Rohrschneider/McReynolds constants characterize the asphaltenes as stationary phases of medium polarity and selectivity similar to commercially available phases based on alkyl phthalates. Isolation of asphaltenes from the material obtained under controlled process conditions allows the production of a stationary phase having reproducible sorption properties and chromatographic columns having the same selectivity. Unique selectivity and high thermal stability make asphaltenes attractive as a material for stationary phases for gas chromatography. A low production cost from a readily available raw material (oxidized petroleum bitumens) is an important economic factor in case of application of the asphaltene stationary phases for preparative and process separations. PMID:27144876

  11. Influence of Stationary Crossflow Modulation on Secondary Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Paredes, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    A likely scenario for swept wing transition on subsonic aircraft with natural laminar flow involves the breakdown of stationary crossflow vortices via high frequency secondary instability. A majority of the prior research on this secondary instability has focused on crossflow vortices with a single dominant spanwise wavelength. This paper investigates the effects of the spanwise modulation of stationary crossflow vortices at a specified wavelength by a subharmonic stationary mode. Secondary instability of the modulated crossflow pattern is studied using planar, partial-differential-equation based eigenvalue analysis. Computations reveal that weak modulation by the first subharmonic of the input stationary mode leads to mode splitting that is particularly obvious for Y-type secondary modes that are driven by the wall-normal shear of the basic state. Thus, for each Y mode corresponding to the fundamental wavelength of results in unmodulated train of crossflow vortices, the modulated flow supports a pair of secondary modes with somewhat different amplification rates. The mode splitting phenomenon suggests that a more complex stationary modulation such as that induced by natural surface roughness would yield a considerably richer spectrum of secondary instability modes. Even modest levels of subharmonic modulation are shown to have a strong effect on the overall amplification of secondary disturbances, particularly the Z-modes driven by the spanwise shear of the basic state. Preliminary computations related to the nonlinear breakdown of these secondary disturbances provide interesting insights into the process of crossflow transition in the presence of the first subharmonic of the dominant stationary vortex.

  12. Automatic Bandwidth Adjustment for Content Distribution in MPLS Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Moltchanov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggregates of real-time traffic may experience changes in their statistical characteristics often manifesting non stationary behavior. In multi protocol label switching (MPLS networks this type of the traffic is assigned constant amount of resources. This may result in ineffective usage of resources when the load is below than expected or inappropriate performance when the load is higher. In this paper we propose new algorithm for dynamic resource adaptation to temporarily changing traffic conditions. Assuming that network nodes may reallocate resources on-demand using automatic bandwidth adjustment capability of MPLS framework, the proposed algorithm, implemented at ingress MPLS nodes, dynamically decides which amount of resources is currently sufficient to handle arriving traffic with given performance metrics. This decision is then communicated to interior MPLS nodes along the label switched path. As a basic tool of the algorithm we use change-point statistical test that signals time instants at which statistical characteristics of traffic aggregates change. The major advantage of the proposed approach is that it is fully autonomous, that is, network nodes do not need any support from hosts in terms of resource reservation requests. The proposed algorithm is well suited for traffic patterns experiencing high variability, especially, for non stationary type of the traffic.

  13. HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE CALCULATION AND OPTIMIZATION FOR DESIGN OF BEAM & SLIDE-REST GUIDEWAYS IN HEAVY DUTY CNC VERTICAL TURNING MILL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming; HUANG Zhengdong; LI Bin; CHEN Liping

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the approximate error of commonly used methods on calculation of hydrostatic pressures of closed hydrostatic guideways with multiple pockets, a more accurate solution is proposed. Taking design of beam & slide-rest guideways for a heavy duty CNC vertical turning mill as an example, under an assumption that stiffnesses of guideways and their jointing structure are sufficiently large, the pressures of the pockets can be attained by adding a co-planarity equation that con strains pocket centers. Then, an optimization model is built to minimize the highest pocket pressure under additional constraints that are posed on the highest seal margin pressure, the highest levitating pressure of the pockets, and the maximum deformation of the guideways. The optimization problem is solved sequentially by using the methods of design of experiments and adaptive simulated annealing on iSIGHT software platform. The results show significant improvements to the original design. Optimized maximum hydrostatic pressure meets the requirement of hydraulic system.

  14. Stationary spots and stationary arcs induced by advection in a one-activator, two-inhibitor reactive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenstein, Igal; Bullara, Domenico; De Decker, Yannick

    2014-09-01

    This paper studies the spatiotemporal dynamics of a reaction-diffusion-advection system corresponding to an extension of the Oregonator model, which includes two inhibitors instead of one. We show that when the reaction-diffusion, two-dimensional problem displays stationary patterns the addition of a plug flow can induce the emergence of new types of stationary structures. These patterns take the form of spots or arcs, the size and the spacing of which can be controlled by the flow.

  15. Non-Hydrostatic Modelling of Waves and Currents over Subtle Bathymetric Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, E.; Mulligan, R. P.; McNinch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Localized areas with high rates of shoreline erosion on beaches, referred to as erosional hotspots, can occur near clusters of relict shore-oblique sandbars. Wave transformation and wave-driven currents over these morphological features could provide an understanding of the hydrodynamic-morphologic coupling mechanism that connects them to the occurrence of erosional hotspots. To investigate this, we use the non-hydrostatic SWASH model that phase-resolves the free surface and fluid motions throughout the water column, allowing for high resolution of wave propagation and breaking processes. In this study we apply a coupled system of nested models including SWAN over a large domain of the North Carolina shelf with smaller nested SWASH domains in areas of interest to determine the hydrodynamic processes occurring over shore oblique bars. In this presentation we focus on a high resolution grid (10 vertical layers, 10 m horizontal resolution) applied to the Duck region with model validation from acoustic wave and current data, and observations from the Coastal Lidar And Radar Imaging System (CLARIS). By altering the bathymetry input for each model run based on bathymetric surveys and comparing the predicted and observed wave heights and current profiles, the effects of subtle bathymetric perturbations have on wave refraction, wave breaking, surf zone currents and vorticity are investigated. The ability to predict wave breaking and hydrodynamics with a non-hydrostatic model may improve our understanding of surf zone dynamics in relation to morphologic conditions.

  16. Chondroitin sulphate extracted from antler cartilage using high hydrostatic pressure and enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Tai Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chondroitin sulphate (CS, a major glycosaminoglycan, is an essential component of the extracellular matrix in cartilaginous tissues. Wapiti velvet antlers are a rich source of these molecules. The purpose of the present study was to develop an effective isolation procedure of CS from fresh velvet antlers using a combination of high hydrostatic pressure (100 MPa and enzymatic hydrolysis (papain. High CS extractability (95.1 ± 2.5% of total uronic acid was obtained following incubation (4 h at 50 °C with papain at pH 6.0 in 100 MPa compared to low extractability (19 ± 1.1% in ambient pressure (0.1 MPa. Antler CS fractions were isolated by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography and identified by western blot using an anti-CS monoclonal antibody. The antler CS fraction did not aggregate with hyaluronic acid in CL-2B chromatography and possessed DPPH radical scavenging activity at 78.3 ± 1.5%. The results indicated that high hydrostatic pressure and enzymatic hydrolysis procedure may be a useful tool for the isolation of CS from antler cartilaginous tissues.

  17. Hydrostatic deformation potentials and the question of exciton binding energies and splittings in aluminium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    By comparing a series of optical experiments performed on bulk aluminum nitride crystals and heteroepitaxial films, we determine the hydrostatic excitonic deformation potentials of AlN. The agreement between the whole available experimental data and our analysis consolidates this determination. Using the previously determined values of the valence-band deformation potentials which account for the strain-induced variation in the crystal-field splitting: d3=-8.19eV and d4=4.10eV we obtain values of -6.04 and 2.15 eV for the hydrostatic excitonic deformation potentials a1 and a2 in the context of the quasicubic approximation. This constitutes the first series of values coherent with the whole set of experimental data. The experimental value of 1s-2s splitting disagrees with the theory of excitons in anisotropic semiconductors. This disagreement, we attribute it to our poor knowledge of the valence-band dispersion relations of AlN and to the difficulty we face for including in the calculation plausible values for the anisotropic hole effective mass, dielectric constant.

  18. Failure assessment of aluminum liner based filament-wound hybrid riser subjected to internal hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Vishwesh; Seng, Ong Lin; Maheshwari, Muneesh; Asundi, A.

    2015-03-01

    The present study describes the burst behavior of aluminum liner based prototype filament-wound hybrid riser under internal hydrostatic pressure. The main objective of present study is to developed an internal pressure test rig set-up for filament-wound hybrid riser and investigate the failure modes of filament-wound hybrid riser under internal hydrostatic burst pressure loading. The prototype filament-wound hybrid riser used for burst test consists of an internal aluminum liner and outer composite layer. The carbon-epoxy composites as part of the filament-wound hybrid risers were manufactured with [±55o] lay-up pattern with total composite layer thickness of 1.6 mm using a CNC filament-winding machine. The burst test was monitored by video camera which helps to analyze the failure mechanism of the fractured filament-wound hybrid riser. The Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor was used to monitor and record the strain changes during burst test of prototype filament-wound hybrid riser. This study shows good improvements in burst strength of filament-wound hybrid riser compared to the monolithic metallic riser. Since, strain measurement using FBG sensors has been testified as a reliable method, we aim to further understand in detail using this technique.

  19. Hydrostatically coupled dielectric elastomer actuators for tactile displays and cutaneous stimulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Federico; Frediani, Gabriele; De Rossi, Danilo

    2010-04-01

    Hydrostatic coupling has been recently reported as a means to improve versatility and safety of dielectric elastomer (DE) actuators. Hydrostatically coupled DE actuators rely on an incompressible fluid that mechanically couples a DE-based active part to a passive part interfaced to the load. In this paper, we present ongoing development of bubble-like versions of such transducers, made of silicone and oil. In particular, the paper describes millimeter-scale actuators, currently being developed as soft, light, acoustically silent and cheap devices for two types of applications: tactile displays and cutaneous stimulators. In both cases, the most significant advantages of the proposed technology are represented by high versatility for design (due to the fluid based transmission mechanism), tailorable stiffness perceived by the user (obtained by adjusting the internal fluid pressure), and suitable electrical safety (enabled by both a passive interface with the user and the insulating internal fluid). Millimeter-scale prototypes showed a resonance frequency of about 250 Hz, which represents the value at which Pacinian cutaneous mechanoreceptors exhibit maximum sensitivity; this provides an optimum condition to eventually code tactile information dynamically, either in combination or as an alternative to static driving.

  20. First principles investigation of magnesium antimonite semiconductor compound in two different phases under hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Matin; Nia, Borhan Arghavani; Zarringhalam, Hanif; Moradian, Rostam

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the electronic and the structural properties of Mg 3Sb 2 in cubic and hexagonal phases using the full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the framework of density functional theory. The effects of hydrostatic pressure on band gap, bandwidths of bands under Fermi energy labeled by B1 and B2 from the top, the energy gap between B1 and B2 (anti-symmetry gap) and also effective masses of electrons and holes are studied using optimized lattice parameters. We observe that the hydrostatic pressure decreases the band gap and the anti-symmetry gap while it increases the bandwidths of all bands below the Fermi energy. The effective masses of electrons and holes for the hexagonal phase depend on pressure in the Γ→ Λ direction. In the cubic phase the effective mass of electrons is independent of pressure and the effective mass of holes depend on the pressure in the Γ→ N direction.

  1. Qualitative novelty in seventeenth-century science: Hydrostatics from Stevin to Pascal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Alan F

    2015-06-01

    Two works on hydrostatics, by Simon Stevin in 1586 and by Blaise Pascal in 1654, are analysed and compared. The contrast between the two serves to highlight aspects of the qualitative novelty involved in changes within science in the first half of the seventeenth century. Stevin attempted to derive his theory from unproblematic postulates drawn from common sense but failed to achieve his goal insofar as he needed to incorporate assumptions involved in his engineering practice but not sanctioned by his postulates. Pascal's theory went beyond common sense by introducing a novel concept, pressure. Theoretical reflection on novel experiments was involved in the construction of the new concept and experiment also provided important evidence for the theory that deployed it. The new experimental reasoning was qualitatively different from the Euclidean style of reasoning adopted by Stevin. The fact that a conceptualization of a technical sense of pressure adequate for hydrostatics was far from obvious is evident from the work of those, such as Galileo and Descartes, who did not make significant moves in that direction.

  2. Hydrostatic Simulation of Earth's Atmospheric Gas Using Multi-particle Collision Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattisahusiwa, Asis; Purqon, Acep; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2016-01-01

    Multi-particle collision dynamics (MPCD) is a mesoscopic simulation method to simulate fluid particle-like flows. MPCD has been widely used to simulate various problems in condensed matter. In this study, hydrostatic behavior of gas in the Earth's atmospheric layer is simulated by using MPCD method. The simulation is carried out by assuming the system under ideal state and is affected only by gravitational force. Gas particles are homogeneous and placed in 2D box. Interaction of the particles with the box is applied through implementation of boundary conditions (BC). Periodic BC is applied on the left and the right side, specular reflection on the top side, while bounce-back on the bottom side. Simulation program is executed in Arch Linux and running in notebook with processor Intel i5 @2700 MHz with 10 GB DDR3 RAM. The results show behaviors of the particles obey kinetic theory for ideal gas when gravitational acceleration value is proportional to the particle mass. Density distribution as a function of altitude also meets atmosphere's hydrostatic theory.

  3. Exciton states in GaAs δ-doped systems under magnetic fields and hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Ave. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellín (Colombia); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellín (Colombia)

    2013-04-15

    Excitons in GaAs n-type δ-doped quantum wells are studied taking into account the effects of externally applied magnetic fields as well as of hydrostatic pressure. The one-dimensional potential profile in both the conduction and valence bands is described including Hartree effects via a Thomas–Fermi-based local density approximation. The allowed uncorrelated energy levels are calculated within the effective mass and envelope function approximations by means of an expansion over an orthogonal set of infinite well eigenfunctions and a variational method is used to obtain the exciton states. The results are presented as functions of the two-dimensional doping concentration and the magnetic field strength for zero and finite values of the hydrostatic pressure. In general, it is found that the exciton binding energy is a decreasing function of the doping-density and an increasing function of the magnetic field intensity. A comparison with recent experiments on exciton-related photoluminescence in n-type δ-doped GaAs is made.

  4. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on yeasts isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaud, Gaëtan; Hué, Nguyen Thi Minh; Arzur, Danielle; Coton, Monika; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Jebbar, Mohamed; Barbier, Georges

    2015-11-01

    Hydrostatic pressure plays a significant role in the distribution of life in the biosphere. Knowledge of deep-sea piezotolerant and (hyper)piezophilic bacteria and archaea diversity has been well documented, along with their specific adaptations to cope with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). Recent investigations of deep-sea microbial community compositions have shown unexpected micro-eukaryotic communities, mainly dominated by fungi. Molecular methods such as next-generation sequencing have been used for SSU rRNA gene sequencing to reveal fungal taxa. Currently, a difficult but fascinating challenge for marine mycologists is to create deep-sea marine fungus culture collections and assess their ability to cope with pressure. Indeed, although there is no universal genetic marker for piezoresistance, physiological analyses provide concrete relevant data for estimating their adaptations and understanding the role of fungal communities in the abyss. The present study investigated morphological and physiological responses of fungi to HHP using a collection of deep-sea yeasts as a model. The aim was to determine whether deep-sea yeasts were able to tolerate different HHP and if they were metabolically active. Here we report an unexpected taxonomic-based dichotomic response to pressure with piezosensitve ascomycetes and piezotolerant basidiomycetes, and distinct morphological switches triggered by pressure for certain strains. PMID:26226336

  5. Changes in Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Rice Mutants Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Cheng-ke; LI Gui-shuang; PENG Chang-lian; DUAN Jun

    2003-01-01

    Three mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L. ), Mutant 1, Mutant 2and Mutant 3, which were selected by high hydrostatic pressure (75 MPa), and their parent Yuexiangzhan were used to study the changes in chlorophyll fluorescence during different growth stages. In all the three mutants, the function of PSⅡ was improved, Fy/Fm ratio of mutants increased compared to their parent at tillering and heading stage, and φPS Ⅱ also improved except for Mutant 2 at heading stage. Similar to their parent, the mutants exhibited slight photoinhibition at noon and almost complete recovery to initial levels of 6:00 after 18:00 at heading stage. At milking stage, the photoinhibition in the mutants was obvious, and recovered rapidly compared to the parent. Yields of individual plant and grain/straw ratio were also higher in three mutants than the parent. Results indicated that characteristics of chlorophyll fluorescence in leaves of mutants and their photoinhibition in the field had changed. It is suggested that high hydrostatic pressure induction could be applied as a new effective approach in high-yield rice breeding in the future.

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of duplex stainless steel subjected to hydrostatic extrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maj, P., E-mail: Piotr.maj@inmat.pw.edu.pl [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Adamczyk-Cieślak, B.; Mizera, J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Pachla, W. [High Pressure Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sokołowska 29, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Kurzydłowski, K.J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    The nanostructure and mechanical properties of ferritic-austenitic duplex stainless steel subjected to hydrostatic extrusion were examined. The refinement of the structure in the initial state and in the two deformation states (ε = 1.4 and ε = 3.8) was observed in an optical microscope (OM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results indicate that the structure evolved from microcrystalline with a grain size of about 4 μm to nanocrystalline with a grain size of about 150 nm in ferrite and 70 nm in austenite. The material was characterized mechanically by tensile tests performed in the two deformation states. The ultimate strength appeared to increase significantly compared to that in the initial deformation stages, which can be attributed to the grain refinement and plastic deformation. The heterogeneity observed in microregions results from the dual-phase structure of the steel. The results indicate that hydrostatic extrusion is a highly potential technology suitable for improving the properties of duplex steels. - Highlights: • Duplex stainless steel was hydro extruded to a total strain of 3.8 • After the last stage of deformation heterogeneous structure was obtained in the material • As a result of stresses non-diffusive transformation γ→α’ occurred in the material • Nanometric (sub)grains were obtained in the austenite regions.

  7. B-splines as a Tool to Solve Constraints in Non-Hydrostatic Forecast Model

    CERN Document Server

    Subias, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Finite elements has been proven to be an useful tool to discretize the vertical coordinate in the hydrostatic forecast models allowing to define model variables in full levels so that no staggering is needed. In the non-hydrostatic case a constraint in the vertical operators appears (called C1) that does not allow to reduce the set of semi-implicit linear equations to a single equation in one variable as in the analytic case. Recently vertical finite elements based in B-splines have been used with an iterative method to relax the C1 constraint. In this paper we want to develop properly some representations of vertical operators in terms of B-splines in order to keep the C1-constraint. An invertibility relation between integral and derivative operators between vertical velocity and vertical divergence is also presented. The final scope of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework of development of finite element vertical operators to be implemented in the nh-Harmonie model

  8. Use of pulsed-high hydrostatic pressure treatment to decrease patulin in apple juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsaroglu, M. D.; Bozoglu, F.; Alpas, H.; Largeteau, A.; Demazeau, G.

    2015-04-01

    This study was aimed at reducing patulin content of apple juice using a non-thermal method, namely pulsed-high hydrostatic pressure (p-HHP). Commercially available clear apple juice was contaminated artificially with different concentrations of patulin (5, 50 and 100 ppb). Then, the samples were processed 5 min at different pressure treatments (300-500 MPa) in combination with different temperatures (30-50°C) and pulses (6 pulses × 50 s and 2 pulses × 150 s). To compare the impact of pulses, single pulse of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment was also applied with the same pressure/temperature combinations and holding time. Results indicated that pressure treatment in combination with mild heat and pulses reduced the levels of patulin in clear apple juice up to 62.11%. However, reduction rates did not follow a regular pattern. p-HHP was found to be more effective in low patulin concentrations, whereas HHP was more effective for high patulin concentrations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using p-HHP to investigate the reduction of patulin content in apple juice.

  9. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the stress strain behavior of potassium and lead at liquid nitrogen temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, J.O.

    1975-06-01

    The hypothesis that at low homologous temperature, the pressure effect on the yielding of metals is closely related to the effect of pressure on the elastic constants was tested. An apparatus in which tension tests can be made at liquid nitrogen temperature and high hydrostatic pressure was designed and constructed. Tension tests for potassium and lead were carried out at liquid nitrogen temperature and as a function of pressure up to 5.15 kbars. The results show that the effect of hydrostatic pressure was to raise the stress strain curves of both potassium and lead at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  10. Automatic mapping of monitoring data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophaven, Søren; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Søndergaard, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an approach, based on universal kriging, for automatic mapping of monitoring data. The performance of the mapping approach is tested on two data-sets containing daily mean gamma dose rates in Germany reported by means of the national automatic monitoring network (IMIS......). In the second dataset an accidental release of radioactivity in the environment was simulated in the South-Western corner of the monitored area. The approach has a tendency to smooth the actual data values, and therefore it underestimates extreme values, as seen in the second dataset. However, it is capable...

  11. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Annual Review in Automatic Programming focuses on the techniques of automatic programming used with digital computers. Topics covered range from the design of machine-independent programming languages to the use of recursive procedures in ALGOL 60. A multi-pass translation scheme for ALGOL 60 is described, along with some commercial source languages. The structure and use of the syntax-directed compiler is also considered.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the basic ideas involved in the description of a computing process as a program for a computer, expressed in

  12. Algorithms for skiascopy measurement automatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomins, Sergejs; Trukša, Renārs; KrūmiĆa, Gunta

    2014-10-01

    Automatic dynamic infrared retinoscope was developed, which allows to run procedure at a much higher rate. Our system uses a USB image sensor with up to 180 Hz refresh rate equipped with a long focus objective and 850 nm infrared light emitting diode as light source. Two servo motors driven by microprocessor control the rotation of semitransparent mirror and motion of retinoscope chassis. Image of eye pupil reflex is captured via software and analyzed along the horizontal plane. Algorithm for automatic accommodative state analysis is developed based on the intensity changes of the fundus reflex.

  13. Automatic Construction of Finite Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with model generation for equational theories,i.e.,automatically generating (finite)models of a given set of (logical) equations.Our method of finite model generation and a tool for automatic construction of finite algebras is described.Some examples are given to show the applications of our program.We argue that,the combination of model generators and theorem provers enables us to get a better understanding of logical theories.A brief comparison betwween our tool and other similar tools is also presented.

  14. 40 CFR 60.4305 - Does this subpart apply to my stationary combustion turbine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stationary combustion turbine? 60.4305 Section 60.4305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Applicability § 60.4305 Does this subpart apply to my stationary combustion turbine? (a) If you are the owner or operator of a stationary...

  15. Oil Pocket’s Bearing Capacity Analysis of Liquid Hydrostatic Worktable in Gantry Moving Milling Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jianhua; LIANG Yingna; GAO Dianrong

    2014-01-01

    Durning the design process of hydrostatic rotary worktable, the processing and assembly tolerance, (the offset of worktable and the gap of the oil film’s thickness) is ignored. But it will cause that the real bearing of oil pocket deviates from the initial design value, and then the performance of rotary worktable will be reduced significantly. Up to now, no effort is found toward the research of influence of the processing and assembly tolerance on the performance of the rotary worktable. So the hydrostatic oil film is assumed as the elastomer in this paper, and then the bearing capacity of the oil pocket is studied with and without the mass offset of the worktable by taking an expression between the bearing capacity and the oil film’s thickness of the oil pocket as the deform compatibility equation. The influence of the processing tolerance of the oil sealing belt’s gap on the bearing capacity of the oil pocket is analyzed. In the light of the liquid hydrostatic worktable of Gantry Moving Milling Center using on the scene, the oil pocket’s pressure of the worktable is tested using Rotary Worktable Test System under the circumstance of the mass offset of the worktable and the gap tolerance of the oil sealing belt, and then the equivalent offset of worktable, the average pressure of the oil pocket and the actual thickness of the oil film are analyzed respectively. The test results show that the bearing capacity component of the oil pocket caused by G is consistent, and the component caused by M is relative to the position of the oil pocket. When the oil sealing belt’s gap is larger than the theoretical value, the bearing capacity of the oil pocket is smaller than the others;whereas the bearing capacity of the oil pocket is larger than the others. The maximum and minimum equivalent offsets are 0.256 4 mm and 0.047 5 mm, respectively, and the average oil pocket pressure varies from 0.345 MPa to 0.460 MPa, the maximum and minimum value of the actual oil film

  16. Automatic Radiation Monitoring in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The automatic radiation monitoring system in Slovenia started in early nineties and now it comprises measurements of: 1. External gamma radiation: For the time being there are forty-three probes with GM tubes integrated into a common automatic network, operated at the SNSA. The probes measure dose rate in 30 minute intervals. 2. Aerosol radioactivity: Three automatic aerosol stations measure the concentration of artificial alpha and beta activity in the air, gamma emitting radionuclides, radioactive iodine 131 in the air (in all chemical forms, - natural radon and thoron progeny, 3. Radon progeny concentration: Radon progeny concentration is measured hourly and results are displayed as the equilibrium equivalent concentrations (EEC), 4. Radioactive deposition measurements: As a support to gamma dose rate measurements - the SNSA developed and installed an automatic measuring station for surface contamination equipped with gamma spectrometry system (with 3x3' NaI(Tl) detector). All data are transferred through the different communication pathways to the SNSA. They are collected in 30 minute intervals. Within these intervals the central computer analyses and processes the collected data, and creates different reports. Every month QA/QC analysis of data is performed, showing the statistics of acquisition errors and availability of measuring results. All results are promptly available at the our WEB pages. The data are checked and daily sent to the EURDEP system at Ispra (Italy) and also to the Austrian, Croatian and Hungarian authorities. (author)

  17. Automatic Identification of Metaphoric Utterances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jonathan Edwin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the problem of metaphor identification in linguistic and computational semantics, considering both manual and automatic approaches. It describes a manual approach to metaphor identification, the Metaphoricity Measurement Procedure (MMP), and compares this approach with other manual approaches. The dissertation then…

  18. Automatically Preparing Safe SQL Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Prithvi; Sistla, A. Prasad; Venkatakrishnan, V. N.

    We present the first sound program source transformation approach for automatically transforming the code of a legacy web application to employ PREPARE statements in place of unsafe SQL queries. Our approach therefore opens the way for eradicating the SQL injection threat vector from legacy web applications.

  19. The Automatic Measurement of Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    1997-01-01

    The automatic measurement of targets is demonstrated by means of a theoretical example and by an interactive measuring program for real imagery from a réseau camera. The used strategy is a combination of two methods: the maximum correlation coefficient and the correlation in the subpixel range...

  20. Automatic quantification of iris color

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S.; Harder, Stine; Andersen, J. D.;

    2012-01-01

    An automatic algorithm to quantify the eye colour and structural information from standard hi-resolution photos of the human iris has been developed. Initially, the major structures in the eye region are identified including the pupil, iris, sclera, and eyelashes. Based on this segmentation, the ...

  1. Automatic Association of News Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Christina; Watters, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of electronic news delivery systems and the automatic generation of electronic editions focuses on the association of related items of different media type, specifically photos and stories. The goal is to be able to determine to what degree any two news items refer to the same news event. (Author/LRW)

  2. Automatic milking : a better understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijering, A.; Hogeveen, H.; Koning, de C.J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2000 the book Robotic Milking, reflecting the proceedings of an International Symposium which was held in The Netherlands came out. At that time, commercial introduction of automatic milking systems was no longer obstructed by technological inadequacies. Particularly in a few west-European countr

  3. Non-Stationary Internal Tides Observed with Satellite Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.; Zaron, E. D.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal variability of the internal tide is inferred from a 17-year combined record of Topex/Poseidon and Jason satellite altimeters. A global sampling of along-track sea-surface height wavenumber spectra finds that non-stationary variance is generally 25% or less of the average variance at wavenumbers characteristic of mode-l tidal internal waves. With some exceptions the non-stationary variance does not exceed 0.25 sq cm. The mode-2 signal, where detectable, contains a larger fraction of non-stationary variance, typically 50% or more. Temporal subsetting of the data reveals interannual variability barely significant compared with tidal estimation error from 3-year records. Comparison of summer vs. winter conditions shows only one region of noteworthy seasonal changes, the northern South China Sea. Implications for the anticipated SWOT altimeter mission are briefly discussed.

  4. Simulation of non-stationary ground motion processes (I)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jian-wen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a spectral representation method for simulation of non-stationary ground motion processes on the basis of Priestley's evolutionary spectral theory. Following this method, sample processes can be generated using a cosine series formula. It is shown that, these sample processes accurately reflect the prescribed characteristics of the evolutionary power spectral density function when the number of the terms in the cosine series is large enough; and the ensemble expected value and the ensemble autocorrelation function approach the corresponding target functions, respectively, as the sample size increases; and these sample processes are asymptotically normal as the number of the terms in the series tends to infinity. Finally, a few special cases of the formula are discussed, one of which is non-stationary white noise process, and other one is reduced to the formula for simulation of stationary stochastic processes.

  5. Retention of Halogenated Solutes on Stationary Phases Containing Heavy Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Miwa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of weak intermolecular interactions on solid-phase extraction (SPE and chromatographic separation, we synthesized some novel stationary phases with a heavy atom effect layer by immobilizing halogenated aromatic rings and hydroxyl groups onto the surface of a hydrophilic base polymer. Using SPE cartridges packed with the functionalized materials, we found that the heavy atom stationary phases could selectively retain halophenols in organic solvents, such as 1-propanol which blocks the hydrogen bonding, or acetonitrile which blocks the p-p interaction. The extraction efficiency of the materials toward the halophenols depended on the dipole moments of phenoxy groups present as functional groups. On the other hand, the extraction efficiency of solutes toward the functional group depended on their molar refractions, i.e., induced dipole moments. The retention of the solutes to the stationary phase ultimately depended on not only strong intermolecular interactions, but also the effects of weak interactions such as the dispersion force.

  6. Non-Stationary Dependence Structures for Spatial Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaël

    2016-03-03

    Max-stable processes are natural models for spatial extremes because they provide suitable asymptotic approximations to the distribution of maxima of random fields. In the recent past, several parametric families of stationary max-stable models have been developed, and fitted to various types of data. However, a recurrent problem is the modeling of non-stationarity. In this paper, we develop non-stationary max-stable dependence structures in which covariates can be easily incorporated. Inference is performed using pairwise likelihoods, and its performance is assessed by an extensive simulation study based on a non-stationary locally isotropic extremal t model. Evidence that unknown parameters are well estimated is provided, and estimation of spatial return level curves is discussed. The methodology is demonstrated with temperature maxima recorded over a complex topography. Models are shown to satisfactorily capture extremal dependence.

  7. Simulation of non-stationary ground motion processes (II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jian-wen

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for simulation of non-stationary ground motion processes having the identical statistical feature, time-dependent power spectrum, with a given ground motion record, on the basis of review of simulation of non-stationary ground motion processes. The method has the following advantages: the sample processes are non-stationary both in amplitude and frequency, and both the amplitude and frequency non-stationarity depend on the target power spectrum; the power spectrum of any sample process does not necessarily accord with the target power spectrum, but statistically, it strictly accords with the target power spectrum. Finally, the method is verified by simulation of one acceleration record in Landers earthquake.

  8. A numerical approach to finding general stationary vacuum black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Alexander; Wiseman, Toby

    2011-01-01

    The Harmonic Einstein equation is the vacuum Einstein equation supplemented by a gauge fixing term which we take to be that of DeTurck. For static black holes analytically continued to Riemannian manifolds without boundary at the horizon this equation has previously been shown to be elliptic, and Ricci flow and Newton's method provide good numerical algorithms to solve it. Here we extend these techniques to the arbitrary cohomogeneity stationary case which must be treated in Lorentzian signature. For stationary spacetimes with globally timelike Killing vector the Harmonic Einstein equation is elliptic. In the presence of horizons and ergo-regions it is less obviously so. Motivated by the Rigidity theorem we study a class of stationary black hole spacetimes, considered previously by Harmark, general enough to include the asymptotically flat case in higher dimensions. We argue the Harmonic Einstein equation consistently truncates to this class of spacetimes giving an elliptic problem. The Killing horizons and a...

  9. A simple stationary semi-analytical wake model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    -uniform mean wind field, although the modelling of the individual stationary wake flow fields includes non-linear terms. The simulation of the individual wake contributions are based on an analytical solution of the thin shear layer approximation of the NS equations. The wake flow fields are assumed......We present an idealized simple, but fast, semi-analytical algorithm for computation of stationary wind farm wind fields with a possible potential within a multi-fidelity strategy for wind farm topology optimization. Basically, the model considers wakes as linear perturbations on the ambient non...... rotationally symmetric, and the rotor inflow fields are consistently assumed uniform. Expansion of stationary wake fields is believed to be significantly affected by meandering of wake deficits as e.g. described by the Dynamic Wake Meandering model. In the present context, this effect is approximately...

  10. Large-scale stationary and turbulent flow over topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallis, G. K.; Roads, J. O.

    1984-01-01

    The contributions made to the formation of stationary features of flow over topography by linear and nonlinear dynamics were examined with an integrated quasi-geostrophic model with idealized topographic forcing. The simulation was run out to several months and generated time-averaged values which were compared with those obtained with linear theory. Linear predictions were converted to turbulent features through the addition of stationary, nonlinear thermodynamic and transient vorticity fluxes. The turbulence features matched atmospheric data on energy spectra, the direction and magnitude of energy transfers, and the spatial magnitudes involved. Transient flow transferred the majority of energy absorbed by the upscale flow and, by absorbing energy, reduced the energy of stationary flow while retaining resonance signatures. Instability was a pervasive feature of the topographically forced flow except at high wavenumbers. The results confirm that transient eddies are interactive with both asymmetric and zonal flow and cannot be adequately described by linear theory.

  11. Non-stationary condition monitoring through event alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Larsen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    We present an event alignment framework which enables change detection in non-stationary signals. change detection. Classical condition monitoring frameworks have been restrained to laboratory settings with stationary operating conditions, which are not resembling real world operation....... In this paper we apply the technique for non-stationary condition monitoring of large diesel engines based on acoustical emission sensor signals. The performance of the event alignment is analyzed in an unsupervised probabilistic detection framework based on outlier detection with either Principal Component...... Analysis or Gaussian Processes modeling. We are especially interested in the true performance of the condition monitoring performance with mixed aligned and unaligned data, e.g. detection of fault condition of unaligned examples versus false alarms of aligned normal condition data. Further, we expect...

  12. A new stationary gridline artifact suppression method based on the 2D discrete wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Hui, E-mail: corinna@seu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Image Science and Technology, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Network and Information Integration (Southeast University), Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210000 (China); Centre de Recherche en Information Biomédicale sino-français, Laboratoire International Associé, Inserm, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35000 (France); Southeast University, Nanjing 210000 (China); Tong, Dan; Dong Bao, Xu [Laboratory of Image Science and Technology, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Dillenseger, Jean-Louis [INSERM, U1099, Rennes F-35000 (France); Université de Rennes 1, LTSI, Rennes F-35000 (France); Centre de Recherche en Information Biomédicale sino-français, Laboratoire International Associé, Inserm, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35000 (France); Southeast University, Nanjing 210000 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In digital x-ray radiography, an antiscatter grid is inserted between the patient and the image receptor to reduce scattered radiation. If the antiscatter grid is used in a stationary way, gridline artifacts will appear in the final image. In most of the gridline removal image processing methods, the useful information with spatial frequencies close to that of the gridline is usually lost or degraded. In this study, a new stationary gridline suppression method is designed to preserve more of the useful information. Methods: The method is as follows. The input image is first recursively decomposed into several smaller subimages using a multiscale 2D discrete wavelet transform. The decomposition process stops when the gridline signal is found to be greater than a threshold in one or several of these subimages using a gridline detection module. An automatic Gaussian band-stop filter is then applied to the detected subimages to remove the gridline signal. Finally, the restored image is achieved using the corresponding 2D inverse discrete wavelet transform. Results: The processed images show that the proposed method can remove the gridline signal efficiently while maintaining the image details. The spectra of a 1D Fourier transform of the processed images demonstrate that, compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method has better information preservation after the removal of the gridline artifacts. Additionally, the performance speed is relatively high. Conclusions: The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method can preserve more information within an acceptable execution time.

  13. Coexistence of Dirac and massive carriers in α-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}I{sub 3} under hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarin, Fabien; Tisserond, Emilie [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR 8502, CNRS-Université Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91405 (France); Auban-Senzier, Pascale, E-mail: pascale.senzier@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR 8502, CNRS-Université Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91405 (France); Mézière, Cécile; Batail, Patrick [MOLTECH-Anjou, UMR 6200, CNRS-Université d' Angers, Bat. K, Angers F-49045 (France); Pasquier, Claude; Monteverde, Miguel [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR 8502, CNRS-Université Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91405 (France)

    2015-03-01

    We present magnetotransport measurements of α-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}I{sub 3} crystals under hydrostatic pressure larger than 1.5 GPa where Dirac carriers are present. We show not only the existence of high-mobility Dirac carriers but we also prove experimentally the presence of low-mobility massive carriers, in agreement with band-structure calculations.

  14. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe puree by high hydrostatic pressure with/without added ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate and develop a method for inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe puree (CP) by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). Cantaloupe being the most netted varieties of melons presents a greater risk of pathogen transmission. ...

  15. A three-dimensional spectral element model for the solution of the hydrostatic primitive equations

    CERN Document Server

    Iskandarani, M; Levin, J C

    2003-01-01

    We present a spectral element model to solve the hydrostatic primitive equations governing large-scale geophysical flows. The highlights of this new model include unstructured grids, dual h-p paths to convergence, and good scalability characteristics on present day parallel computers including Beowulf-class systems. The behavior of the model is assessed on three process-oriented test problems involving wave propagation, gravitational adjustment, and nonlinear flow rectification, respectively. The first of these test problems is a study of the convergence properties of the model when simulating the linear propagation of baroclinic Kelvin waves. The second is an intercomparison of spectral element and finite-difference model solutions to the adjustment of a density front in a straight channel. Finally, the third problem considers the comparison of model results to measurements obtained from a laboratory simulation of flow around a submarine canyon. The aforementioned tests demonstrate the good performance of th...

  16. Innovation in the development and improvement of meat products: High hydrostatic pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallardo, Claudia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One focus of interest in the development of products and processes of the food industry is related to the reduction in the use of additives that could have negative effects on consumer health. This view called cleaning nutritional label is aimed at the partial or total substitution of additives by other factors that do not have these negative effects and maintain the safety and quality of the products processed. The high hydrostatic pressure (HHP is one of the new conservation factors used to reduce the content of sodium chloride and nitrites in meat products. HHP technology is increasingly being applied to produce safe with high quality and minimal effects on food sensory and nutritional characteristics. In this context the present review describes the current status in the development of processed meat products, specifically ham, as well as alternative use of high pressure in the product and its future development prospects.

  17. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on structural and electronic properties of TGS crystals (first-principle calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Andriyevsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available First principle calculations of the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the structural and electronic parameters of TGS crystals have been carried out within the framework of density functional theory using the CASTEP code. The volume dependence of total electronic energy E(V of the crystal unit cell satisfies the third-order Birch-Murnaghan isothermal equation of state. For the pressure range of -5...5 GPa, the bulk modulus was found to be equal to K=45 ± 5 GPa. The relative pressure changes of the unit cell parameters were found to be linear in the range of -5...5 GPa. Crossing of the pressure dependencies of enthalpy corresponding to the ferroelectric and non-ferroelectric phases at P=7.7 GPa testifies to the probable pressure induced phase transition in TGS crystal.

  18. Hydrostatic pressure induces conformational and catalytic changes on two alcohol dehydrogenases but no oligomeric dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallet, S; Legoy, M D

    1996-05-01

    A comparison between the pressure effects on the catalysis of Thermoanaerobium brockii alcohol dehydrogenase (TBADH: a thermostable tetrameric enzyme) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH: a mesostable tetrameric enzyme) revealed a different behaviour. YADH activity is continuously inhibited by an increase of pressure, whereas YADH affinity seems less sensitive to pressure. TBADH activity is enhanced by pressure up to 100 MPa. TBADH affinity for alcoholic substrates increases if pressure increases, was TBADH affinity for NADP decreases when pressure increases. Hypothesis has been raised concerning the dissociation of oligomeric enzymes under high hydrostatic pressure ( YADH at all pressures and TBADH for pressures above 100 MPa is not correlated to subunit dissociation. Hence we suggest that enzymes under pressure encounter a molecular rearrangement which can either have a positive or a negative effect on activity. Finally, we have observed that the catalytic behaviour of alcohol dehydrogenases under pressure is connected to their thermostability.

  19. Dynamic behavior of nano-voids in magnesium under hydrostatic tensile stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponga, Mauricio; Ramabathiran, Amuthan A.; Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Ortiz, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the mechanisms responsible for nano-void growth in single crystal magnesium under dynamic hydrostatic tensile stress. A key conclusion derived from our study is that there is no secondary strain hardening near the nano-void. This behavior, which is in remarkable contrast to face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic materials, greatly limits the peak stress and explains the relatively lower spall strength of magnesium. The lack of secondary strain hardening is due to the fact that pyramidal dislocations do not interact with basal or prismatic dislocations. Our analysis also shows that for loads applied at moderate strain rates (\\overset{\\centerdot}{ε} ≤slant {{10}6} s‑1) the peak stress, dislocation velocity and temperature distribution converge asymptotically. However at very high strain rates (\\overset{\\centerdot}{ε} ≥slant {{10}8} s‑1), there is a sharp transition in these quantities.

  20. Peculiarities of Ehrenfest equation for solids strained by uniaxial or hydrostatic pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Moin, Ph B

    2016-01-01

    The Ehrenfest equation is derived rigorously for the case when an 'effective' volume V* = AV of the strained solids is a continuous function of the temperature. The Ehrenfest equation for strained solids is generalized to an arbitrary temperature. Far from 0 K (in contrast to the situation near 0 K) the phase transition temperature derivative with respect to uniaxial pressure depends on the temperature expansion coefficient of an ' effective' volume. For Rochelle salt strained by a uniaxial pressure at room temperature the predominant contribution into this dependence is made by the coefficient A. At the second order phase transition under uniaxial pressure the 'effective' (but not true) volume is the continuous function of the temperature. The Ehrenfest equation for solids strained by hydrostatic pressure can be presented as a sum of three linear parts proportional to the crystal linear thermal expansion coefficients along the axes a, b, c. These parts are equal to the second order transition temperature der...

  1. Optimization of Inactivation Conditions of High Hydrostatic Pressure Using Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yu-long; WANG Yun-xiang; JIANG Han-hu

    2004-01-01

    Response surface methodology(RSM)was employed in the present work and a second order quadratic equation for high hydrostatic pressure(HHP)inactivation was built.The adequacy of the model equation for predicting the optimum response values was verified effectively by the validation data.Effects of temperature,pressure,and pressure holding time on HHP inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 were explored.By analyzing the response surface plots and their corresponding contour plots as well as solving the quadratic equation,the optimum process parameters for inactivation E.coli of six log cycles were obtained as:temperature 32.2℃,pressure 346.4 MPa,and pressure holding time 12.6 min.

  2. Sorbitol counteracts high hydrostatic pressure-induced denaturation of inulin fructotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yungao; Miao, Ming; Liu, Miao; Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Xiangyin

    2014-09-01

    Inulin fructotransferase (IFTase), a novel hydrolase for inulin, was exposed to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at 400 and 600 MPa for 15 min in the presence or absence of sorbitol. Sorbitol protected the enzyme against HHP-induced activity loss. The relative residual activity increased nearly 3.1- and 3.8-fold in the presence of 3 mol/L sorbitol under 400 MPa and 600 MPa for 15 min, respectively. Circular dichroism results indicated that the original chaotic unfolding conformation of the enzyme under HHP shifted toward more ordered and impact with 3 mol/L sorbitol. Fluorescence and UV spectra results suggested that sorbitol prevented partially the unfolding of the enzyme and stabilized the conformation under high pressure. These results might be attributed to the binding of sorbitol on the surface of IFTase to rearrange and strengthen intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  3. Processing of Copper by Hydrostatic Extrusion – Studies of Microstructure and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszczyńska-Madej B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to apply HE to 99.99% pure copper. The microstructure of the samples was investigated by both light microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM. Additionally, the microhardness was measured, the tensile test was made, and statistical analysis of the grains and subgrains was performed. Based on Kikuchi diffraction patterns, misorientation was determined. The obtained results show that microstructure of copper deformed by hydrostatic extrusion (HE is rather inhomogeneous. The regions strongly deformed with high dislocation density exist near cells and grains/subgrains free of dislocations. The measurements of the grain size have revealed that the sample with an initial in annealed-state grain size of about 250 μm had this grain size reduced to below 0.35μm when it was deformed by HE to the strain ε=2.91. The microhardness and UTS are stable within the whole investigated range of deformation.

  4. A system for acoustical and optical analysis of encapsulated microbubbles at ultrahigh hydrostatic pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhushma, Aleksandr; Lebedeva, Natalia; Sen, Pabitra; Rubinstein, Michael; Sheiko, Sergei S.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2013-05-01

    Acoustics are commonly used for borehole (i.e., oil well) imaging applications, under conditions where temperature and pressure reach extremes beyond that of conventional medical ultrasonics. Recently, there has been an interest in the application of encapsulated microbubbles as borehole contrast agents for acoustic assessment of fluid composition and flow. Although such microbubbles are widely studied under physiological conditions for medical imaging applications, to date there is a paucity of information on the behavior of encapsulated gas-filled microbubbles at high pressures. One major limitation is that there is a lack of experimental systems to assess both optical and acoustic data of micrometer-sized particles data at these extremes. In this paper, we present the design and application of a high-pressure cell designed for acoustical and optical studies of microbubbles at hydrostatic pressures up to 27.5 MPa (271 atm).

  5. Enhancing the thermal stability of inulin fructotransferase with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yungao; Miao, Ming; Liu, Miao; Chen, Xiangyin; Jiang, Bo; Feng, Biao

    2015-03-01

    The thermal stability of inulin fructotransferase (IFTase) subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) was studied. The value of inactivation rate of IFTase in the range of 70-80°C decreased under the pressure of 100 or 200 MPa, indicating that the thermostability of IFTase under high temperature was enhanced by HHP. Far-UV CD and fluorescence spectra showed that HHP impeded the unfolding of the conformation of IFTase under high temperature, reflecting the antagonistic effect between temperature and pressure on IFTase. The new intramolecular disulfide bonds in IFTase were formed under a combination of HHP and high temperature. These bonds might be related to the stabilization of IFTase at high temperature. All the above results suggested that HHP had the protective effect on IFTase against high temperature.

  6. Influence of hydrostatic pressure on texture evolution in HPT deformed NiAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tränkner, C.; Chulist, R.; Skrotzki, W.; Lippmann, T.; Horky, J.; Zehetbauer, M.

    2015-04-01

    NiAl is an intermetallic compound with a brittle-to-ductile transition temperature of about 300°C at ambient pressure. At standard conditions, it is very difficult to deform, but fracture stress and fracture strain are increased under hydrostatic pressure (HP). On account of this, deformation at low temperatures is only possible at high HP, as for instance used in high pressure torsion (HPT). In order to study the influence of HP on texture evolution, small discs of polycrystalline NiAl were deformed by HPT at different temperatures ranging from room temperature to 500°C and different HPs. The influence of HP is presented for deformation at room temperature and 500°C. It is found that HP affects the formability of the samples as well as texture and microstructure.

  7. Effect of oscillatory high hydrostatic pressure treatments on Byssochlamys nivea ascospores suspended in fruit juice concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palou, E; López-Malo, A; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Welti-Chanes, J; Davidson, P M; Swanson, B G

    1998-12-01

    The effect of continuous (689 MPa with holding times of 5, 15 or 25 min) and oscillatory (one, three or five cycles at 689 MPa with holding times of 1 s) high hydrostatic pressure treatments on the viability of Byssochlamys nivea ascospores suspended in apple and cranberry juice concentrates adjusted by dilution to water activities (aw) of 0.98 and 0.94 was evaluated at 21 and 60 degrees C. Inactivation of the initial spore inocula was achieved after three or five cycles of oscillatory pressurization at 60 degrees C when the aw was 0.98 in both fruit juices. With aw 0.94, the initial inocula were reduced by less than 1 log-cycle after five pressure cycles. Inactivation was not observed within 25 min with continuous pressurization at 60 degrees C. In treatments at 21 degrees C, no effect on spore viability was observed with continuous or oscillatory treatments. PMID:9871357

  8. Simple Hydrostatic Model of Contact Angle Hysteresis of a Sessile Drop on Rough Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛在砂; 杨超; 陈家镛

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of hysteresis of contact angle is an important topic subject to a long time of argument.A simple hydrostatic model of sessile drops under the gravity in combination with an ideal surface roughness model is used to interpret the process of drop volume increase or decrease of a planar sessile drop and to shed light on the contact angle hysteresis and its relationship with the solid surface roughness. With this model, the advancing and receding contact angles are conceptually explained in terms of equilibrium contact angle and surface roughness only,without invoking the thermodynamic multiplicity. The model is found to be qualitatively consistent to experimental observations on contact angle hysteresis and it suggests a possible way to approach the hysteresis of three-dimensional sessile drops.

  9. Influence of hydrostatic pressure on superconducting properties of niobium thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied superconducting properties of niobium thin films under hydrostatic pressures up to 3 GPa. The films with thickness of 100 nm were prepared in the high vacuum DC magnetron sputtering system (with critical temperature TC = 8.95 K at ambient pressure). The produced high quality films have been characterized using electrical resistivity and magnetization measurements, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscope imaging. We have observed increase of TC with increasing value of applied pressure (dTC/dp = 73 mK/GPa) up to 3 GPa. This observation is different to pressure effect observed on bulk sample of Nb. In this paper we are discussing the origin of this discrepancy. - Highlights: • We have studied superconducting properties of niobium thin films under pressure. • The 100 nm thick films were prepared in DC magnetron sputtering system. • We have observed different behavior of TC for thin film and for bulk sample

  10. Prediction of ship-ship interactions in ports by a non-hydrostatic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明贵; 邹早建

    2015-01-01

    Complicated channel geometry and currents may aggravate the interactions between passing ships and berthed ships, which should be evaluated and taken into account in a port design. A method for predicting the ship-ship interactions, based on a non-hydrostatic shallow water flow model, is presented in this paper and is validated by comparing the numerical results with experimental data. The method is subsequently applied to predict the interaction forces acting on a berthed ship due to a passing ship in ports. The influences of the difference of the water depths between the dock and the main channel, the dock geometry, the current and another berthed ship in the dock on the ship-ship interactions are studied. Analysis based on the numerical results is carried out, which is useful for the port design.

  11. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on conventional hydroxypropylation of maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ei-Hyun; Oh, Seon-Min; Kim, Hui-Yun; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-08-01

    Effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on conventional hydroxypropylation of maize starch was investigated. Three groups, 'Con' group (conventional hydroxypropylation), 'HHP-Con' group (HHP treatment before conventional hydroxypropylation), and 'Con-HHP' group (HHP treatment after conventional hydroxypropylation), were used in this work. The degree of substitution (DS) increased over the reaction time in all groups. Swelling power and solubility were high in HHP treated groups compared to Con group because HHP treatment weakens the binding forces inside starch granule. In the results of RVA, the Con-HHP group showed a lower pasting temperature and a higher breakdown and viscosity than the other groups. Pre- and post HHP-treatments altered the physicochemical properties of hydroxypropylated maize starch. Hydrophilic and bulky hydroxypropyl groups may weaken the bindings in the granule, while the HHP treatment promoted the collapse of granules and accelerated the leaching of intra-soluble materials. PMID:27112881

  12. The phase diagram, under hydrostatic pressure, of the heavy fermion superconductor Ce Cu2 Si2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pressure dependence of the superconducting transition temperature of the heavy fermion compound is re-examined. Measurements are reported in the 0-10 GPa range with special attention paid to the achievement of hydrostatic conditions: natural diamond anvil cells, helium as a pressure transmitting medium and ruby fluorescence for measuring pressure. The geometry for measuring Tc using ac susceptibility in a 3 He refrigerator is described. The main properties of Ce Cu2 Si2 are discussed. The phase diagram of Tc vs p between 0 and 10 GPa is presented together with a theoretical explanation of the behaviour. There are two characteristic pressures (3.1 and 7.6 GPa) where there are abrupt changes in the slope of Tc(p). 32 fig., 86 ref

  13. Modification of the SOI-like structures by annealing under high hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surma, B.; Misiuk, A.; Haertwig, J.; Wnuk, A.; Bukowski, A.; Antonova, I.V

    2004-01-14

    The effect of enhanced hydrostatic pressure during annealing (HP-HT treatment) on creation/transformation of SiO{sub 2} in silicon implanted with oxygen (Si:O, oxygen doses 1x10{sup 14}-1x10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}) was studied by infrared absorption, photoluminescence and X-ray (synchrotron) methods. The redistribution of oxygen atoms at HP-HT in the Si:O structures, prepared by implantation with low doses (down to 1x10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}) of oxygen ions, leads to generation of separated clusters having the structure of a SiO{sub 2-x} network. Enhanced HP stimulates the creation of these clusters. A qualitative explanation of presented results, stressing the role of vacancies in the process of oxygen atoms agglomeration and the influence of compressive stress on the concentration of vacancies, is proposed.

  14. Ultrasound guided hydrostatic reduction of intussusception in children at Korle Bu teaching hospital: an initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intussusceptions is the telescoping or invagination of a portion of intestine (intussusceptum) into an adjacent segment (intussuscipiens). It is one of the common causes of bowel obstruction in infants and toddlers. Sonography has now been accepted as a method for guiding hydrostatic reduction of intussusception with tap water, normal saline or Ringer’s lactate solution. This method is currently being used at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital. It is a very simple, efficient, economical and quick method of managing intussusception. The duration of the procedure ranges between two minutes and thirty minutes, with the majority being under ten minutes. A total of twenty intussusceptions were managed in eighteen patients over a nine month period. In fifteen patients (75%) the intussusception was reduced successfully. In five patients (25%), the procedure failed to reduce the intussusceptions. (author)

  15. Influence of hydrostatic pressure on superconducting properties of niobium thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pristáš, Gabriel; Gabáni, Slavomír; Gažo, Emil [Centre of Low Temperature Physics, Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Komanický, Vladimír; Orendáč, Matúš [Centre of Low Temperature Physics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, SK-04154 Košice (Slovakia); You, Hoydoo [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We have studied superconducting properties of niobium thin films under hydrostatic pressures up to 3 GPa. The films with thickness of 100 nm were prepared in the high vacuum DC magnetron sputtering system (with critical temperature TC = 8.95 K at ambient pressure). The produced high quality films have been characterized using electrical resistivity and magnetization measurements, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscope imaging. We have observed increase of TC with increasing value of applied pressure (dTC/dp = 73 mK/GPa) up to 3 GPa. This observation is different to pressure effect observed on bulk sample of Nb. In this paper we are discussing the origin of this discrepancy. - Highlights: • We have studied superconducting properties of niobium thin films under pressure. • The 100 nm thick films were prepared in DC magnetron sputtering system. • We have observed different behavior of T{sub C} for thin film and for bulk sample.

  16. Diffusive model of pore shrinkage in final-stage sintering under hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.-N., E-mail: kim.byung-nam@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Hiraga, K.; Morita, K.; Yoshida, H.; Zhang, H. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    A grain-boundary-diffusion model is developed to understand the densification behavior of pores in the final stage of sintering under compressive hydrostatic pressure. From analysis of the diffusive model, the bulk viscosity, densification rate and shrinkage rate of pores are predicted for a dense matrix polycrystal containing spherical pores, and compared with the existing experimental results and models. A transition in the sintering mechanism is predicted from the different pore-size dependence of the shrinkage rate between the diffusive and the viscous flow models. The transition effect is experimentally confirmed by the appearance of a downward inflection in the size distribution of pores during sintering. The upward inflection observed experimentally in the cavity-size distribution after superplastic deformation is also explained by the transition of the mechanism.

  17. Fiber optic sensor for hydrostatic pressure and temperature measurement in riverbanks monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenato, Luca; Aneesh, Rajendran; Palmieri, Luca; Galtarossa, Andrea; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    An optical fiber sensor for the simultaneous measurement of hydrostatic pressure and temperature in soil embankments is presented. It exploits the differential strain induced on a fiber in a dual-chamber case, constituting the sensor body. The strain, either induced by the pressure or by the temperature, is optically measured by means of coherent frequency domain reflectometry and variations induced by the two physical phenomena are discriminated because of the different behavior of the two chambers. Characterization of the sensor is presented and discussed. The prototype shows promising performance: temperature and pressure sensitivities are approximately -7 GHz/°C and -3.2 GHz/kPa, respectively, with accuracies of 0.5 °C and 0.3 kPa.

  18. Suppression of first cleavage in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) by heat shock or hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.L.; Armstrong, J.B.

    1981-12-01

    Androgenetic diploid axolotls were produced by ultraviolet inactivation of the egg pronucleus shortly after fertilization, followed by suppression of the first cleavage division by hydrostatic pressure or heat shock. After treatment at 14,000 psi for 8 minutes, diploidy was restored in 74% of the embryos, but only 0.8% survived to hatching. A 36-37 degrees C heat shock of 10-minutes duration, applied 5.5 hours after the eggs were collected, yielded a slightly lower percentage of diploids. However, the proportion surviving to hatching was significantly greater (up to 4.6%). A second generation of androgenetic diploids was produced from one of the oldest of the first generation males with a similar degree of success. The lack of significant improvement suggests that the low survival is due to the heat shock per se and not to the uncovering of recessive lethal genes carried by the parent.

  19. A HIGHER-ORDER NON-HYDROSTATIC MODEL FOR SIMULATING WAVE PROPAGATION OVER IRREGULAR BOTTOMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Cong-fang; XING Yah; JIN Sheng

    2011-01-01

    A higher-order non-hydrostatic model is developed to simulate the wave propagation over irregular bottoms based on a vertical boundary-fitted coordinate system.In the model,an explicit projection method is adopted to solve the unsteady Euler equations.Advection terms are integrated explicitly with the MacCormack's scheme,with a second-order accuracy in both space and time.Two classical examples of surface wave propagation are used to demonstrate the capability of the model.It is found that the model with only two vertical layers could accurately simulate the motion of waves,including wave shoaling,nonlinearity,dispersion,refraction,and diffraction phenomena.

  20. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the structural, elastic and electronic properties of (B3) boron phosphide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Salah Daoud; Kamel Loucif; Nadhira Bloud; Noudjoud Lebgaa; Laarbi Belagraa

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we present the results obtained from first-principles calculations of the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the strucural, elastic and electronic properties of (B3) boron phosphide, using the pseudopotential plane-wave method (PP-PW) based on density functional theory within the Teter and Pade exchange-correlation functional form of the local density approximation (LDA). The lattice parameter, molecular and crystal densities, near-neighbour distances, independent elastic constant, bulk modulus, shear modulus, anisotropy factor and energy bandgaps of (B3) BP under high pressure are presented. The results showed a phase transition pressure from the zinc blende to rock-salt phase at around 1.56 Mbar, which is in good agreement with the theoretical data reported in the literature.

  1. High hydrostatic pressure effects investigated by neutron scattering on lipid multi lamellar vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure on the structure and dynamics of model membrane systems were investigated using neutron scattering. Diffraction experiments show shifts of the pre- and main-phase transitions of multi lamellar vesicles of 1,2-di-myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) to higher temperatures with increased pressure which are close to results observed previously by other techniques, namely (10.4 ± 1.0) K kbar-1 and (20.0 ± 0.5) K kbar-1 for the two transitions. Backscattering spectroscopy reveals that the mean square displacements in the liquid phase are about 10% smaller at 300 bar and about 20% smaller at 600 bar compared to atmospheric pressure, whereas in the gel phase below the main phase transition the mean square displacements show a smaller difference in the dynamics of the three pressure values within the studied pressure range. (authors)

  2. A Petascale Non-Hydrostatic Atmospheric Dynamical Core in the HOMME Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufo, Henry [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The High-Order Method Modeling Environment (HOMME) is a framework for building scalable, conserva- tive atmospheric models for climate simulation and general atmospheric-modeling applications. Its spatial discretizations are based on Spectral-Element (SE) and Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods. These are local methods employing high-order accurate spectral basis-functions that have been shown to perform well on massively parallel supercomputers at any resolution and scale particularly well at high resolutions. HOMME provides the framework upon which the CAM-SE community atmosphere model dynamical-core is constructed. In its current incarnation, CAM-SE employs the hydrostatic primitive-equations (PE) of motion, which limits its resolution to simulations coarser than 0.1 per grid cell. The primary objective of this project is to remove this resolution limitation by providing HOMME with the capabilities needed to build nonhydrostatic models that solve the compressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations.

  3. Surface pressure drag for hydrostatic two-layer flow over axisymmetric mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutbecher, M.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of partial reflections on surface pressure drag is investigated for hydrostatic gravity waves in two-layer flow with piecewise constant buoyancy frequency. The variation of normalized surface pressure drag with interface height is analyzed for axisymmetric mountains. The results are compared with the familiar solution for infinitely long ridges. The drag for the two-layer flow is normalized with the drag of one-layer flow, which has the buoyancy frequency of the lower layer. An analytical expression for the normalized drag of axisymmetric mountains is derived from linear theory of steady flow. Additionally, two-layer flow over finite-height axisymmetric mountains is simulated numerically for flow with higher stability in the upper layer. The temporal evolution of the surface pressure drag is examined in a series of experiments with different interface and mountain heights. The focus is on the linear regime and the nonlinear regime of nonbreaking gravity waves. The dispersion of gravity waves in flow over isolated mountains prevents that the entire wave spectrum is in resonance at the same interface height, which is the case in hydrostatic flow over infinitely long ridges. In consequence, the oscillation of the normalized drag with interface height is smaller for axisymmetric mountains than for infinitely long ridges. However, even for a reflection coefficient as low as 1/3 the drag of an axisymmetric mountain can be amplified by 50% and reduced by 40%. The nonlinear drag becomes steady in the numerical experiments in which no wave breaking occurs. The steady state nonlinear drag agrees quite well with the prediction of linear theory if the linear drag is computed for a slightly lowered interface. (orig.)

  4. A Method of Upgrading a Hydrostatic Model to a Nonhydrostatic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sann Liou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As the sigma-p coordinate under hydrostatic approximation can be interpreted as the mass coordinate with out the hydro static approximation, we propose a method that up grades a hydro static model to a nonhydrostatic model with relatively less effort. The method adds to the primitive equations the extra terms omitted by the hydro static approximation and two prognostic equations for vertical speed w and nonhydrostatic part pres sure _ With properly formulated governing equations, at each time step, the dynamic part of the model is first integrated as that for the original hydro static model and then nonhydrostatic contributions are added as corrections to the hydro static solutions. In applying physical parameterizations after the dynamic part integration, all physics pack ages of the original hydro static model can be directly used in the nonhydrostatic model, since the up graded nonhydrostatic model shares the same vertical coordinates with the original hydro static model. In this way, the majority codes of the nonhydrostatic model come from the original hydro static model. The extra codes are only needed for the calculation additional to the primitive equations. In order to handle sound waves, we use smaller time steps in the nonhydrostatic part dynamic time integration with a split-explicit scheme for horizontal momentum and temperature and a semi-implicit scheme for w and _ Simulations of 2-dimensional mountain waves and density flows associated with a cold bubble have been used to test the method. The idealized case tests demonstrate that the pro posed method realistically simulates the nonhydrostatic effects on different atmospheric circulations that are revealed in the oretical solutions and simulations from other nonhydrostatic models. This method can be used in upgrading any global or mesoscale models from a hydrostatic to nonhydrostatic model.

  5. The NCEP Eulerian Non-hydrostatic Multi-scale Model (NMMB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjic, Z.; Vasic, R.; Djurdjevic, V.; Black, T.; Jovic, D.

    2014-12-01

    The unified Non-hydrostatic Multi-scale Model (NMMB) is being developed at the National Centers for Environmental Predictions. The model dynamics preserve a number of important properties of differential operators and conserve a variety of first order and quadratic quantities. The nonlinear dynamics is controlled by conserving energy and enstrophy in case of non-divergent flow. Over-specification of non-hydrostatic vertical velocity is avoided. The physical package was developed from the WRF NMM's physics, but other physics options are also available. The regional version of the NMMB is run operationally as the main deterministic North American short-range forecasting model (NAM) and in a number of other applications. The global NMMB also has been run over the last few years experimentally in order to assess its capabilities and develop it further. In terms of large scale metrics, the performance of the global NMMB in medium range weather forecasting has been generally comparable to that of other major medium range forecasting systems. Its computational efficiency satisfies and exceeds the current and projected operational requirements. Recently, the transition has started of the operational hurricane forecasting system HWRF from the WRF NMM dynamics to those of the NMMB. This system involves the use of a hierarchy of 2-way interactive telescoping moving nests. The work on developing a unified multi-scale physics package has continued. Extended range forecasts showed large sensitivity to the method for representing clouds. With the clouds represented by optical properties of their microphysics species, the results depend on the microphysics scheme used. Also, taking into account the impact of convective clouds remains a challenge with this approach. Numerous sensitivity studies of physical parameterizations and the dynamical core features have been carried out as well. Relevant results will be presented and discussed, including some results of recent idealized

  6. Limit Cycles near Stationary Points in the Lorenz System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shi-Pu; ZHU Ke-Qin; ZHOU Xiao-Zhou

    2005-01-01

    @@ The limit cycles in the Lorenz system near the stationary points are analysed numerically. A plane in phase space of the linear Lorenz system is used to locate suitable initial points of trajectories near the limit cycles. The numerical results show a stable and an unstable limit cycle near the stationary point. The stable limit cycle is smaller than the unstable one and has not been previously reported in the literature. In addition, all the limit cycles in the Lorenz system are theoretically proven not to be planar.

  7. Stationary Scalar Clouds Around Maximally Rotating Linear Dilaton Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Sakalli, I

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the wave dynamics of a charged massive scalar field propagating in a maximally rotating (extremal) linear dilaton black hole geometry. We prove the existence of a discrete and infinite family of resonances describing non-decaying (stationary) scalar configurations (clouds) enclosing these rapidly rotating black holes. The results obtained signal the potential stationary scalar field distributions (dark matter) around the extremal linear dilaton black holes. In particular, we analytically compute the effective height of those clouds above the center of the black hole.

  8. Non-stationary flow of hydraulic oil in long pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hružík Lumír

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with experimental evaluation and numerical simulation of non-stationary flow of hydraulic oil in a long hydraulic line. Non-stationary flow is caused by a quick closing of valves at the beginning and the end of the pipe. Time dependence of pressure is measured by means of pressure sensors at the beginning and the end of the pipe. A mathematical model of a given circuit is created using Matlab SimHydraulics software. The long line is simulated by means of segmented pipe. The simulation is verified by experiment.

  9. Local polynomial Whittle estimation covering non-stationary fractional processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Frank

    This paper extends the local polynomial Whittle estimator of Andrews & Sun (2004) to fractionally integrated processes covering stationary and non-stationary regions. We utilize the notion of the extended discrete Fourier transform and periodogram to extend the local polynomial Whittle estimator to...... in.ated by a multiplicative constant. We show consistency and asymptotic normality for d ε (-1/2), and if the spectral density of the short-run component is in.nitely smooth near frequency zero we obtain an optimal rate of convergence for this setting, i.e. convergence arbitrarily close to the...

  10. Modeling and Estimation of Stationary and Non-stationary Noises of Rubidium Atomic Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Mishra,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Noise estimation of atomic clock is one of the important research areas in the field of atomic clock development and application. Most of the atomic clocks are having random-stochastic noises and periodic noises due to temperature variation. Random-stochastic noises have a well identified signature in time domain but periodic noises are difficult to analyze in time domain. However, in this paper, an effort is made to identify and analyze the deterministic trends of both random-stochastic noises and periodic noises due to variation in temperature using an alternate approach of least-squares normalized-error (LSNE regression algorithm. A MATLAB based application with graphical user interface (GUI is developed to estimate and analyze random-stochastic noises and periodic noises and re-estimate the stability of rubidium atomic clock after removing these noises from the raw phase data. The estimation of stationary noises are done using Allan variance from time domain data and noise profile is calculated using curve fit method. The estimation of periodic noises due to temperature variation is carried in frequency domain through spurious analysis of the frequency data of atomic clock.

  11. EDITORIAL: CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems CAMOP: Quantum Non-Stationary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodonov, Victor V.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2010-09-01

    Although time-dependent quantum systems have been studied since the very beginning of quantum mechanics, they continue to attract the attention of many researchers, and almost every decade new important discoveries or new fields of application are made. Among the impressive results or by-products of these studies, one should note the discovery of the path integral method in the 1940s, coherent and squeezed states in the 1960-70s, quantum tunneling in Josephson contacts and SQUIDs in the 1960s, the theory of time-dependent quantum invariants in the 1960-70s, different forms of quantum master equations in the 1960-70s, the Zeno effect in the 1970s, the concept of geometric phase in the 1980s, decoherence of macroscopic superpositions in the 1980s, quantum non-demolition measurements in the 1980s, dynamics of particles in quantum traps and cavity QED in the 1980-90s, and time-dependent processes in mesoscopic quantum devices in the 1990s. All these topics continue to be the subject of many publications. Now we are witnessing a new wave of interest in quantum non-stationary systems in different areas, from cosmology (the very first moments of the Universe) and quantum field theory (particle pair creation in ultra-strong fields) to elementary particle physics (neutrino oscillations). A rapid increase in the number of theoretical and experimental works on time-dependent phenomena is also observed in quantum optics, quantum information theory and condensed matter physics. Time-dependent tunneling and time-dependent transport in nano-structures are examples of such phenomena. Another emerging direction of study, stimulated by impressive progress in experimental techniques, is related to attempts to observe the quantum behavior of macroscopic objects, such as mirrors interacting with quantum fields in nano-resonators. Quantum effects manifest themselves in the dynamics of nano-electromechanical systems; they are dominant in the quite new and very promising field of circuit

  12. Surface micro/nanostructuring of titanium under stationary and non-stationary femtosecond laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the surface topography of titanium samples irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses is described. When the fluence is about 0.5 J/cm2 periodic ripples with a period of about 700 nm are formed. For fluences between 0.5 and 2 J/cm2, a microcolumnar surface texture develops in the center of the irradiated spots and ripples are formed in the periphery of the spots. When experiments are performed with a non-stationary sample, the microcolumns exhibit ripples similar to those observed when the radiation fluence is about 0.5 J/cm2 and in the outer regions of the irradiated areas for fluences between 0.5 and 2 J/cm2. Since the energy distribution in the transverse cross-section of the laser beam is Gaussian, we conclude that the ripples form when the microcolumns are subjected to fluences near the melting threshold of the material at the trailing edge of the moving laser beam.

  13. An Automatic Proof of Euler's Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this information age, everything is digitalized. The encoding of functions and the automatic proof of functions are important. This paper will discuss the automatic calculation for Taylor expansion coefficients, as an example, it can be applied to prove Euler's formula automatically.

  14. Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

  15. Automatic schema evolution in Root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROOT version 3 (spring 2001) supports automatic class schema evolution. In addition this version also produces files that are self-describing. This is achieved by storing in each file a record with the description of all the persistent classes in the file. Being self-describing guarantees that a file can always be read later, its structure browsed and objects inspected, also when the library with the compiled code of these classes is missing. The schema evolution mechanism supports the frequent case when multiple data sets generated with many different class versions must be analyzed in the same session. ROOT supports the automatic generation of C++ code describing the data objects in a file

  16. Automatic spikes detection in seismogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海军; 靳平; 刘贵忠

    2003-01-01

    @@ Data processing for seismic network is very complex and fussy, because a lot of data is recorded in seismic network every day, which make it impossible to process these data all by manual work. Therefore, seismic data should be processed automatically to produce a initial results about events detection and location. Afterwards, these results are reviewed and modified by analyst. In automatic processing data quality checking is important. There are three main problem data thatexist in real seismic records, which include: spike, repeated data and dropouts. Spike is defined as isolated large amplitude point; the other two problem datahave the same features that amplitude of sample points are uniform in a interval. In data quality checking, the first step is to detect and statistic problem data in a data segment, if percent of problem data exceed a threshold, then the whole data segment is masked and not be processed in the later process.

  17. Physics of Automatic Target Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, Firooz

    2007-01-01

    Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...

  18. Automatic Schema Evolution in Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ReneBrun; FonsRademakers

    2001-01-01

    ROOT version 3(spring 2001) supports automatic class schema evolution.In addition this version also produces files that are self-describing.This is achieved by storing in each file a record with the description of all the persistent classes in the file.Being self-describing guarantees that a file can always be read later,its structure browsed and objects inspected.also when the library with the compiled code of these classes is missing The schema evolution mechanism supports the frequent case when multiple data sets generated with many different class versions must be analyzed in the same session.ROOT supports the automatic generation of C++ code describing the data objects in a file.

  19. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo;

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...... demonstrate that these techniques suffice for identifying a number of authentication flaws in symmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder, Otway-Rees, Yahalom and Andrew Secure RPC....

  20. The Automaticity of Social Life

    OpenAIRE

    Bargh, John A.; Williams, Erin L.

    2006-01-01

    Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these nonconscious influences to extend beyond the perception and interpretation of the social world to ...

  1. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  2. Automatic Generation of Technical Documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Ehud; Mellish, Chris; Levine, John

    1994-01-01

    Natural-language generation (NLG) techniques can be used to automatically produce technical documentation from a domain knowledge base and linguistic and contextual models. We discuss this application of NLG technology from both a technical and a usefulness (costs and benefits) perspective. This discussion is based largely on our experiences with the IDAS documentation-generation project, and the reactions various interested people from industry have had to IDAS. We hope that this summary of ...

  3. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Halpern, Mark I; Bolliet, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Computer Science and Technology and their Application is an eight-chapter book that first presents a tutorial on database organization. Subsequent chapters describe the general concepts of Simula 67 programming language; incremental compilation and conversational interpretation; dynamic syntax; the ALGOL 68. Other chapters discuss the general purpose conversational system for graphical programming and automatic theorem proving based on resolution. A survey of extensible programming language is also shown.

  4. The Automatic Galaxy Collision Software

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Beverly J; Pfeiffer, Phillip; Perkins, Sam; Barkanic, Jason; Fritts, Steve; Southerland, Derek; Manchikalapudi, Dinikar; Baker, Matt; Luckey, John; Franklin, Coral; Moffett, Amanda; Struck, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    The key to understanding the physical processes that occur during galaxy interactions is dynamical modeling, and especially the detailed matching of numerical models to specific systems. To make modeling interacting galaxies more efficient, we have constructed the `Automatic Galaxy Collision' (AGC) code, which requires less human intervention in finding good matches to data. We present some preliminary results from this code for the well-studied system Arp 284 (NGC 7714/5), and address questions of uniqueness of solutions.

  5. Automatic validation of numerical solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with ``Automatic Validation of Numerical Solutions''. The basic theory of interval analysis and self-validating methods is introduced. The mean value enclosure is applied to discrete mappings for obtaining narrow enclosures of the iterates when applying these mappings...... of an integral operator and uses interval Bernstein polynomials for enclosing the solution. Two numerical examples are given, using two orders of approximation and using different numbers of discretization points....

  6. Robust Forecasting of Non-Stationary Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croux, C.; Fried, R.; Gijbels, I.; Mahieu, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust forecasting method for non-stationary time series. The time series is modelled using non-parametric heteroscedastic regression, and fitted by a localized MM-estimator, combining high robustness and large efficiency. The proposed method is shown to produce reliable foreca

  7. Slow Sphering to Suppress Non-Stationaries in the EEG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, Boris; Farquhar, Jason; Poel, Mannes

    2011-01-01

    Non-stationary signals are ubiquitous in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and pose a problem for robust application of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). These non-stationarities can be caused by changes in neural background activity. We present a dynamic spatial filter based on time local whitenin

  8. Variance-optimal hedging for processes with stationary independent increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubalek, Friedrich; Kallsen, J.; Krawczyk, L.

    We determine the variance-optimal hedge when the logarithm of the underlying price follows a process with stationary independent increments in discrete or continuous time. Although the general solution to this problem is known as backward recursion or backward stochastic differential equation, we...

  9. Stationary axisymmetric spacetimes with a conformally coupled scalar field

    CERN Document Server

    Astorino, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Solution generating techniques for general relativity with a conformally (and minimally) coupled scalar field are pushed forward to build a wide class of asymptotically flat, axisymmetric and stationary spacetimes continuously connected to Kerr. This family contains, amongst other things, rotating extensions of the BBMB black hole and also its angular and mass multipolar generalisations. Further addition of NUT charge is also discussed.

  10. Ceramic stationary gas turbine development. Final report, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Solar Turbines Inc. and its subcontractors during the period September 25, 1992 through April 30, 1993. The objective of the work is to improve the performance of stationary gas turbines in cogeneration through implementation of selected ceramic components.

  11. Stationary Engineering, Environmental Control, Refrigeration. Science I--Teachers Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingress, Frederick M.; And Others

    The document presents lessons for teaching about occupations related to environmental control, stationary engineering, and refrigeration. Intended for use with the assignments in the related science manual for students, each unit provides the teacher with objectives, a list of aids needed, procedures, a summary, and testing questions. There are 18…

  12. Stationary Engineering, Environmental Control, Refrigeration. Science Manual I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingress, Frederick M.; And Others

    The student materials present lessons about occupations related to environmental control, stationary engineering, and refrigeration. Included are 18 units organized by objective, information, reference, procedure, and assignment. Each lesson involves concrete trade experience where science is applied. Unit titles are: safety and housekeeping,…

  13. Unsupervised Segmentation of Hidden Semi-Markov Non Stationary Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapuyade-Lahorgue, Jérôme; Pieczynski, Wojciech

    2006-11-01

    In the classical hidden Markov chain (HMC) model we have a hidden chain X, which is a Markov one and an observed chain Y. HMC are widely used; however, in some situations they have to be replaced by the more general "hidden semi-Markov chains" (HSMC) which are particular "triplet Markov chains" (TMC) T = (X, U, Y), where the auxiliary chain U models the semi-Markovianity of X. Otherwise, non stationary classical HMC can also be modeled by a triplet Markov stationary chain with, as a consequence, the possibility of parameters' estimation. The aim of this paper is to use simultaneously both properties. We consider a non stationary HSMC and model it as a TMC T = (X, U1, U2, Y), where U1 models the semi-Markovianity and U2 models the non stationarity. The TMC T being itself stationary, all parameters can be estimated by the general "Iterative Conditional Estimation" (ICE) method, which leads to unsupervised segmentation. We present some experiments showing the interest of the new model and related processing in image segmentation area.

  14. Hawking radiation via tunnelling from general stationary axisymmetric black holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jing-Yi; Fan Jun-Hui

    2007-01-01

    Hawking radiation is viewed as a tunnelling process. In this way the emission rates of massless particles and massive particles tunnelling across the event horizon of general stationary axisymmetric black holes are calculated,separately. The emission spectra of these two different kinds of outgoing particles have the same functional form and both are consistent with an underlying unitary theory.

  15. Stationary and axisymmetric solutions of higher-dimensional general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study stationary and axisymmetric solutions of General Relativity, i.e., pure gravity, in four or higher dimensions. D-dimensional stationary and axisymmetric solutions are defined as having D-2 commuting Killing vector fields. We derive a canonical form of the metric for such solutions that effectively reduces the Einstein equations to a differential equation on an axisymmetric D-2 by D-2 matrix field living in three-dimensional flat space (apart from a subclass of solutions that instead reduce to a set of equations on a D-2 by D-2 matrix field living in two-dimensional flat space). This generalizes the Papapetrou form of the metric for stationary and axisymmetric solutions in four dimensions, and furthermore generalizes the work on Weyl solutions in four and higher dimensions. We analyze then the sources for the solutions, which are in the form of thin rods along a line in the three-dimensional flat space that the matrix field can be seen to live in. As examples of stationary and axisymmetric solutions, we study the five-dimensional rotating black hole and the rotating black ring, write the metrics in the canonical form and analyze the structure of the rods for each solution

  16. New approach to magnetohydrodynamics spectral theory of stationary plasma flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedbloed, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    While the basic equations of MHD spectral theory date back to 1958 for static plasmas (Bernstein et al 1958 Proc. R. Soc. A 244 17) and to 1960 for stationary plasma flows (Frieman and Rotenberg 1960 Rev. Mod. Phys. 32 898), progress on the latter subject has been slow since it suffers from lack of

  17. Data-stationary Architecture to Execute Quantum Algorithms Classically

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a data stationary architecture in which each word has an attached address field. Address fields massively update in parallel to record data interchanges. Words do not move until memory is read for post processing. A sea of such cells can test large-scale quantum algorithms, although other programming is possible.

  18. Luciferase detection during stationary phase in Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachmann, H.; Santos, dos F.; Kleerebezem, M.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.

    2007-01-01

    The luminescence signal of luxAB-encoded bacterial luciferase strongly depends on the metabolic state of the host cell, which restricts the use of this reporter system to metabolically active bacteria. Here we show that in stationary-phase cells of Lactococcus lactis, detection of luciferase is sign

  19. Stationary point process, Palm measure and collision risk

    OpenAIRE

    D'Estampes, Ludovic; Lezaud, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The classical probability of collision between an aircraft whose the path crosses a flow of aircraft is derived under the assumption that it is described by a Poisson process. Using the so-called Palm measure, we extend the classical result to a stationary point process.

  20. Interdecadal change of atmospheric stationary waves and North China drought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Xin-Gang; Fu Cong-Bin; Wang Ping

    2005-01-01

    The inderdecadal change of atmospheric stationary waves (ATW) has been investigated for the two periods 1956-77 and 1978-99. The trough of ATW in the middle and low layer of the troposphere over the Asian continent has experienced a significant weakening during the past two decades, which exerts a great influence on the North China climate. The ATW in 200 hPa has also exhibited some changes since 1977, as a stationary ridge appeared over the northwestern China while a stationary trough appeared above North China. This leads to an increasing of the upward motion above northwestern China and a decreasing above North China. A west-east section of the stationary waves at 40°N shows that the ATW above North China tilted westward for the period 1956-77, but was almost upright during 1978-99. The composite analysis confirms that the climate mean ATW pattern after 1977 is similar to the dry pattern for North China, while the rainy pattern is similar to that before 1977. In consequence, the North China drought is partly due to the interdecadal change of the ATW over boreal Asia in the recent two decades.

  1. On the generation techniques of axially symmetric stationary metrics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Chaudhuri

    2002-03-01

    In the present paper, a relationship between the method of Gutsunaev–Manko and the soliton technique (for two-soliton solutions) of Belinskii–Zakharov, for generating solutions of axially symmetric stationary space-times in general relativity is discussed.

  2. Porous membrane structures as stationary phase for capillary electrochromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopec, K.K.; Wessling, M.; Stamatialis, D.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the application of membrane technology for the fabrication of stationary phase for CEC columns using the technique based on phase inversion of polymer solution. A blend of polyimide P84 and sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone was processed via immersion precipitation dry-wet spinn

  3. Navigation safety caravan route towing in stationary traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Brazhny A. I.

    2015-01-01

    The questions of navigation safety of restricted sea-going object movement have been considered; the trajectory of a restricted sea-going object as part of tow caravan has been scientifically substantiated; the vector linear equation in stationary traffic has been solved

  4. Stationary flow solution for water levels in open channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opheusden, van J.H.J.; Molenaar, J.; Beltman, W.H.J.; Adriaanse, P.I.

    2010-01-01

    We study stationary flow in open discharge channels. A model is derived from basic principles, which is solved numerically for the water level and discharge as a function of position along the channel. The model describes the effect of external inflow from fields adjacent to the channel. Several sce

  5. New approach to MHD spectral theory of stationary plasma flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedbloed, Hans

    2009-11-01

    The basic equations of MHD spectral theory date back to 1958 for static plasmas (Bernstein et al.) and to 1960 for stationary plasma flows (Frieman and Rotenberg). The number of papers on the two subjects appears to be inversely proportional to their complexity, with the vast majority of contributions to MHD stability of tokamaks being restricted to static equilibria and stationary equilibrium flows mostly being discussed analytically for trivial equilibria or numerically for complicated geometries. The problem with the latter is not that numerical approaches are inaccurate, but that they suffer from lack of analytical guidance concerning the structure of the spectrum. One of the reasons is the usual misnomer of ``non-self adjointness'' of the stationary flow problem. In fact, self-adjointness of the two occurring operators was proved right away. Based on the two quadratic forms corresponding to these operators, (a) we constructed an effective method to compute the eigenvalues in the complex plane, (b) we found the counterpart of the oscillation theorem for eigenvalues of static equilibria (Goedbloed and Sakanaka, 1974) for the eigenvalues of stationary flows, enabling one to map out sequences of eigenvalues in the complex plane. Examples will be given for Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz and magneto-rotational instabilities.

  6. Stationary and oscillatory flow through coarse porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gent, M.R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements in a U-tube tunnel were carried out to study flow through coarse granular material. Tests with stationary flow and tests with oscillatory flow were done to study the differences between both. The coefficients from the extended Forchheimer equation, which is supposed to describe non-stat

  7. Stationary space-periodic structures with equal diffusion coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Peter Ragnar; Bache, Morten; Mosekilde, Erik;

    1999-01-01

    The paper investigates a chemical reaction-diffusion model in an open flow system. It is shown that such a system may, with particular boundary conditions, exhibit stationary space-periodic structures even in the case of equal diffusion coefficients. This is confirmed through numerical simulations....

  8. A method of adaptive wavelet filtering of the peripheral blood flow oscillations under stationary and non-stationary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankanag, Arina V; Chemeris, Nikolay K

    2009-10-01

    The paper describes an original method for analysis of the peripheral blood flow oscillations measured with the laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) technique. The method is based on the continuous wavelet transform and adaptive wavelet theory and applies an adaptive wavelet filtering to the LDF data. The method developed allows one to examine the dynamics of amplitude oscillations in a wide frequency range (from 0.007 to 2 Hz) and to process both stationary and non-stationary short (6 min) signals. The capabilities of the method have been demonstrated by analyzing LDF signals registered in the state of rest and upon humeral occlusion. The paper shows the main advantage of the method proposed, which is the significant reduction of 'border effects', as compared to the traditional wavelet analysis. It was found that the low-frequency amplitudes obtained by adaptive wavelets are significantly higher than those obtained by non-adaptive ones. The method suggested would be useful for the analysis of low-frequency components of the short-living transitional processes under the conditions of functional tests. The method of adaptive wavelet filtering can be used to process stationary and non-stationary biomedical signals (cardiograms, encephalograms, myograms, etc), as well as signals studied in the other fields of science and engineering.

  9. Refolding in high hydrostatic pressure of recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies in Escherichia Coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression of proteins as inclusion bodies in bacteria is a widely used alternative for production of recombinant protein. However, the aggregation is a problem often encountered during refolding of these proteins. High hydrostatic pressure are able to solubilise the inclusion bodies in the presence of low concentrations of denaturant reagents, encouraging refolding protein with high efficiency and reduce costs. This work aims to refolding of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli from inclusion bodies using high hydrostatic pressure. Three toxins, all featuring five or more disulfide bonds were studied: NXH8, Natterin 2 and Bothropstoxin 1. Suspensions of inclusion bodies of the three proteins were pressurized to 2000 bars for 16 hours. The buffers were optimized for refolding of the three proteins. The buffer used in the refolding of NXH8 was 50 mM Tris HCl, pH 9.0 with proportion of 1GSH: 4GSSG at a concentration of 6 mM and 2 M GdnHCl. Inclusion bodies were used in O.D. (A600nm) of 0.5. After refolding process, dialysis was performed at pH 7.0. The final yield of obtaining soluble NXH8 was 40% (28,6 mg of soluble NXH8/L of culture medium). The refolding of Bothropstoxin 1 was obtained in refolding buffer of Tris HCl 50 mM, pH 7,5 with proportion of 2 GSH: GSSG 3 and concentration of 3 mM and 1 M GdnHCl. Use with a suspension of O.D. (A600nm) of 0.5. The final yield of recovery of Bothropstoxin 1 refolded was 32% (9,2 mg of refolded Bothropstoxin 1/L of culture medium). The refolding of Natterin 2 was performed in the refolding buffer: 20 mM Tris HCl pH 9.0 at a ratio of 2 GSH: 3GSSG and concentration of 10 mM and 1 M GdnHCl and inclusion bodies O.D. (A600nm) of 6.0. The yield of Natterin 2 refolded was 20% (3,7 mg/L of culture medium). Physico-chemical and biological analysis were performed by SDS-PAGE, western blot, scanning electron microscopy, biological tests in vivo and in vitro and structural. The analysis conducted in NXH8 did not show

  10. Stationary neutrino radiation transport by maximum entropy closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors obtain the angular distributions that maximize the entropy functional for Maxwell-Boltzmann (classical), Bose-Einstein, and Fermi-Dirac radiation. In the low and high occupancy limits, the maximum entropy closure is bounded by previously known variable Eddington factors that depend only on the flux. For intermediate occupancy, the maximum entropy closure depends on both the occupation density and the flux. The Fermi-Dirac maximum entropy variable Eddington factor shows a scale invariance, which leads to a simple, exact analytic closure for fermions. This two-dimensional variable Eddington factor gives results that agree well with exact (Monte Carlo) neutrino transport calculations out of a collapse residue during early phases of hydrostatic neutron star formation

  11. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  12. Heat-transfer characteristics of flowing and stationary particle-bed-type fusion-reactor blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nietert, R.E.

    1983-02-01

    The following five appendices are included: (1) physical properties of materials, (2) thermal entrance length Nusselt number variations, (3) stationary particle bed temperature variations, (4) falling bed experimental data and calculations, and (5) stationary bed experimental data and calculations. (MOW)

  13. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Annual Review in Automatic Programming, Volume 2 is a collection of papers that discusses the controversy about the suitability of COBOL as a common business oriented language, and the development of different common languages for scientific computation. A couple of papers describes the use of the Genie system in numerical calculation and analyzes Mercury autocode in terms of a phrase structure language, such as in the source language, target language, the order structure of ATLAS, and the meta-syntactical language of the assembly program. Other papers explain interference or an ""intermediate

  14. Unsupervised automatic music genre classification

    OpenAIRE

    Barreira, Luís Filipe Marques

    2010-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado no âmbito do Mestrado em Engenharia Informática, como requisito parcial para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Engenharia Informática In this study we explore automatic music genre recognition and classification of digital music. Music has always been a reflection of culture di erences and an influence in our society. Today’s digital content development triggered the massive use of digital music. Nowadays,digital music is manually labeled without following a universa...

  15. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Annual Review in Automatic Programming, Volume 4 is a collection of papers that deals with the GIER ALGOL compiler, a parameterized compiler based on mechanical linguistics, and the JOVIAL language. A couple of papers describes a commercial use of stacks, an IBM system, and what an ideal computer program support system should be. One paper reviews the system of compilation, the development of a more advanced language, programming techniques, machine independence, and program transfer to other machines. Another paper describes the ALGOL 60 system for the GIER machine including running ALGOL pro

  16. The Automaticity of Social Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargh, John A; Williams, Erin L

    2006-02-01

    Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these nonconscious influences to extend beyond the perception and interpretation of the social world to the actual guidance, over extended time periods, of one's important goal pursuits and social interactions.

  17. Automatic analysis of multiparty meetings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steve Renals

    2011-10-01

    This paper is about the recognition and interpretation of multiparty meetings captured as audio, video and other signals. This is a challenging task since the meetings consist of spontaneous and conversational interactions between a number of participants: it is a multimodal, multiparty, multistream problem. We discuss the capture and annotation of the Augmented Multiparty Interaction (AMI) meeting corpus, the development of a meeting speech recognition system, and systems for the automatic segmentation, summarization and social processing of meetings, together with some example applications based on these systems.

  18. Automatic Inference of DATR Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Barg, P

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for the automatic acquisition of linguistic knowledge from unstructured data. The acquired knowledge is represented in the lexical knowledge representation language DATR. A set of transformation rules that establish inheritance relationships and a default-inference algorithm make up the basis components of the system. Since the overall approach is not restricted to a special domain, the heuristic inference strategy uses criteria to evaluate the quality of a DATR theory, where different domains may require different criteria. The system is applied to the linguistic learning task of German noun inflection.

  19. The Automaticity of Social Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargh, John A; Williams, Erin L

    2006-02-01

    Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these nonconscious influences to extend beyond the perception and interpretation of the social world to the actual guidance, over extended time periods, of one's important goal pursuits and social interactions. PMID:18568084

  20. Automatic Generation of Technical Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, E R; Levine, J; Reiter, Ehud; Mellish, Chris; Levine, John

    1994-01-01

    Natural-language generation (NLG) techniques can be used to automatically produce technical documentation from a domain knowledge base and linguistic and contextual models. We discuss this application of NLG technology from both a technical and a usefulness (costs and benefits) perspective. This discussion is based largely on our experiences with the IDAS documentation-generation project, and the reactions various interested people from industry have had to IDAS. We hope that this summary of our experiences with IDAS and the lessons we have learned from it will be beneficial for other researchers who wish to build technical-documentation generation systems.

  1. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  2. Automatic transcription of polyphonic singing

    OpenAIRE

    Paščinski, Uroš

    2015-01-01

    In this work we focus on automatic transcription of polyphonic singing. In particular we do the multiple fundamental frequency (F0) estimation. From the terrain recordings a test set of Slovenian folk songs with polyphonic singing is extracted and manually transcribed. On the test set we try the general algorithm for multiple F0 detection. An interactive visualization of the main parts of the algorithm is made to analyse how it works and try to detect possible issues. As the data set is ne...

  3. 高精度静压大刀架设计%The design of the high accuracy hydrostatic big carrigae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立强; 姜辉; 付政委

    2012-01-01

    通过研制大刀架阶梯静压导轨结构、X轴静压蜗杆蜗母条进给结构、Z轴滚针/推力圆柱滚子组合轴承定位的滚珠丝杠传动结构,大大提高了数控重型卧式车床大刀架X轴、Z轴的数控精度.%According to study the hydrostatic guideway structure of the big carriage, X axis hydrostatic worm and worm rack feed structure, ballscrew transmission structure of Z axis roller pin/thrust cylindrical roller combination bearing positioning which greatly improve the CNC accuracy of X axis and Z axis of the big carriage of CNC heavy duty horizontal lathe.

  4. Structural changes in single-walled carbon nanotubes under non-hydrostatic pressures: x-ray and Raman studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmakar, Sukanta [Synchrotron Radiation Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sharma, Surinder M [Synchrotron Radiation Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Teredesai, P V [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Muthu, D V S [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Govindaraj, A [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur Campus, Jakkur, Bangalore 560 064 (India); Sikka, S K [Synchrotron Radiation Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sood, A K [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2003-10-01

    Using in situ x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering techniques, we have investigated the behaviour of single-walled carbon nanotubes bundles under non-hydrostatic pressures. It is seen that the diffraction line corresponding to the two-dimensional triangular lattice in the bundles is not reversible for pressures beyond 5-GPa, in sharp contrast to earlier results under hydrostatic pressure conditions. Most interestingly, radial breathing and tangential Raman modes of the pressure-cycled samples from 21 and 30-GPa match very well with those of the starting sample. Raman and x-ray results put together clearly suggest that the ordering of tubes in the bundles is only marginally regained with a very short coherence length on decompression.

  5. Effect of hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field on electromagnetically induced transparency based nonlinear frequency conversion in quantum ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumber, Sukirti; Gambhir, Monica; Jha, Pradip Kumar; Mohan, Man

    2016-10-01

    We study the combined effect of hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field on electromagnetically induced transparency in quantum ring. The high flexibility in size and shape of ring makes it possible to fabricate a nearly perfect two-dimensional quantum structure. We also explore the dependence of frequency conversion, measured in terms of third order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) , on coupling field, hydrostatic pressure and magnetic field. Although, a dip in χ(3) is observed with the introduction of strong coupling field, it renders the ring structure transparent to generated wave thus effectively enhancing the output of nonlinear frequency conversion process. At a fixed coupling strength, the output can be further enhanced by increasing the magnetic field while it shows an inverse relationship with pressure. These parameters, being externally controlled, provide an easy handle to control the output of quantum ring which can be used as frequency converter in communication networks.

  6. Treatment of discharge water from hydrostatic testing of natural gas pipelines. Volume 4. Topical report, January 1989-June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents results developed from bench- and full-scale treatment testing conducted on discharge water from hydrostatic testing of natural gas pipelines. Bench-scale testing examined sedimentation with and without chemical coagulants for reducing iron and total suspended solids, aeration for removal of volatile organics, and activated carbon adsorption for removal of organic constituents. Treatment results are provided for a full-scale treatment process, which utilized a hay bale structure and adsorbent booms for removing suspended solids and oil from the discharge water. Detailed characterization results are presented for test water collected before and after treatment. Results developed from an economic analysis of other potential treatment/disposal alternatives are also presented. A total of eight approaches that may be applied for managing constituents present in hydrostatic test waters are examined. The report is Volume 4 of a five-volume report series

  7. Thermal effect on gravity waves in a compressible liquid layer over a solid half-space under initial hydrostatic stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushil Kumar Addy; Nil Ratan Chakraborty

    2005-02-01

    This paper deals with the effect of temperature on gravity waves in a compressible liquid layer over a solid half-space. It has been assumed that the liquid layer is under the action of gravity, while the solid half-space is under the influence of initial compressive hydrostatic stress. When the temperature of the half-space is altered, gravity waves propagate through the liquid layer along with sub-oceanic Rayleigh waves in the system. A new frequency equation has been derived here for gravity waves and sub-oceanic Rayleigh waves. It has been shown graphically that the phase velocity of gravity waves is influenced significantly by the initial compressive hydrostatic stress present in the solid half-space, for a particular value of the phase velocity of sub-oceanic Rayleigh waves and different coupling co-efficients of the temperature.

  8. Energy balance in the solar transition region. III - Helium emission in hydrostatic, constant-abundance models with diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla, J. M.; Avrett, E. H.; Loeser, R.

    1993-01-01

    In our previous papers we described the mathematical formalism and the computed results for energy-balance hydrostatic models of the solar transition region. In this paper we discuss in some detail the limitations of the hydrostatic and one-dimensional assumptions used. Then we analyze the determination of helium emission when diffusion is included. We use transport coefficients estimated from kinetic theory to determine the helium departures from local ionization balance. We calculate the helium spectra for each of our models and evaluate the role of helium in the energy transport. Also, we investigate the effects of coronal illumination on the structure of the transition region and upper chromosphere, and show how coronal illumination affects various EUV lines and the He I 10830 A line. Comparing with both absolute intensities and detailed line profiles, we show that our models are consistent not only with the observed hydrogen spectra but also with the available helium spectra.

  9. Simultaneous effects of hydrostatic pressure and spin–orbit coupling on linear and nonlinear intraband optical absorption coefficients in a GaAs quantum ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the simultaneous effect of hydrostatic pressure and Rashba spin–orbit interaction on intraband linear and nonlinear light absorption has been investigated in cylindrical quantum ring. The one electron energy spectrum has been found using the effective mass approximation and diagonalization procedure. We have found that the Rashba interaction can lead both to the blue- or to the red-shift of the absorption spectrum depending on the transitions character, while the only red-shift is observed due to the hydrostatic pressure. - Highlights: ► The effects of hydrostatic pressure and spin–orbit coupling are investigated for quantum ring. ► The non-linear absorption coefficient is calculated. ► The hydrostatic pressure leads to the decrease in the absorption coefficient. ► Spin–orbit coupling weakens some transitions and strengthens others.

  10. Temperature-compensated distributed hydrostatic pressure sensor with a thin-diameter polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based on Brillouin dynamic gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Lei; Zhang, Hongying; Dong, Yongkang; Zhou, Dengwang; Jiang, Taofei; Gao, Wei; Lu, Zhiwei; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2016-09-15

    A temperature-compensated distributed hydrostatic pressure sensor based on Brillouin dynamic gratings (BDGs) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The principle is to measure the hydrostatic pressure induced birefringence changes through exciting and probing the BDGs in a thin-diameter pure silica polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber. The temperature cross-talk to the hydrostatic pressure sensing can be compensated through measuring the temperature-induced Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) changes using Brillouin optical time-domain analysis. A distributed measurement of hydrostatic pressure is demonstrated experimentally using a 4-m sensing fiber, which has a high sensitivity, with a maximum measurement error less than 0.03 MPa at a 20-cm spatial resolution. PMID:27628411

  11. Temperature-compensated distributed hydrostatic pressure sensor with a thin-diameter polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based on Brillouin dynamic gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Lei; Zhang, Hongying; Dong, Yongkang; Zhou, Dengwang; Jiang, Taofei; Gao, Wei; Lu, Zhiwei; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2016-09-15

    A temperature-compensated distributed hydrostatic pressure sensor based on Brillouin dynamic gratings (BDGs) is proposed and demonstrated experimentally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The principle is to measure the hydrostatic pressure induced birefringence changes through exciting and probing the BDGs in a thin-diameter pure silica polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber. The temperature cross-talk to the hydrostatic pressure sensing can be compensated through measuring the temperature-induced Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) changes using Brillouin optical time-domain analysis. A distributed measurement of hydrostatic pressure is demonstrated experimentally using a 4-m sensing fiber, which has a high sensitivity, with a maximum measurement error less than 0.03 MPa at a 20-cm spatial resolution.

  12. Enhanced levels of cold shock proteins in Listeria monocytogenes LO28 upon exposure to low temperature and high hydrostatic pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Wemekamp-Kamphuis, H.H.; Karatzas, A.K.; Wouters, J.A.; Abee, T

    2002-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a psychrotrophic food-borne pathogen that is problematic for the food industry because of its ubiquitous distribution in nature and its ability to grow at low temperatures and in the presence of high salt concentrations. Here we demonstrate that the process of adaptation to low temperature after cold shock includes elevated levels of cold shock proteins (CSPs) and that the levels of CSPs are also elevated after treatment with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). Two-dime...

  13. Experimental and calculation-theoretical justifications of design of hydrostatic bearings of MCP in reactor facility with HLMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and calculation and theoretical justification of normal operation of hydrostatic bearings (HSB) is conducted. The consideration is given to the procedures of calculation and recommendations on developing optimal designs of plain bearings in main circulation pumps working with high-temperature lead melt coolant for reactor circuit conditions. It is shown that chosen variants of HSB design after hydrothermal and tribotechnical investigations provide necessary characteristics of HSB on high-temperature lead melt

  14. Numerical Simulation on Process of Hydrostatic Extrusion for Tungsten Alloy through Concave Dies with Equal-strain Contour Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaohui ZHANG; Fuchi WANG

    2001-01-01

    The numerical simulation to the process of hydrostatic extrusion for tungsten alloy through the concave dies with the equal-strain contour lines was carried out in this paper by the large deformation and elasto-plastic finite theory and ANSYS software. Both the pressure in the process of extrusion and the stress-strain distribution in the sample were analyzed, which founds a basis to the engineering application.

  15. Oenological characteristics, amino acids and volatile profiles of Hongqu rice wines during pottery storage: Effects of high hydrostatic pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuting; Huang, Jiamei; Xie, Tingting; Huang, Luqiang; Zhuang, Weijin; Zheng, Yafeng; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-07-15

    Hongqu rice wines were subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments of 200 MPa and 550 MPa at 25 °C for 30 min and effects on wine quality during pottery storage were examined. HHP treatment can significantly (ppottery storage than untreated wines based on principal component analysis. After only 6 months, treated wines had a volatile composition and an organoleptic quality similar to that of untreated wines stored in pottery for 18 months. PMID:26948638

  16. Evaluation of the Growth Environment of a Hydrostatic Force Bioreactor for Preconditioning of Tissue-Engineered Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Reinwald, Yvonne; Leonard, Katherine H.L.; Henstock, James R.; Whiteley, Jonathan P.; Osborne, James M.; Waters, Sarah L.; Levesque, Philippe; El Haj, Alicia J.

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactors have been widely acknowledged as valuable tools to provide a growth environment for engineering tissues and to investigate the effect of physical forces on cells and cell-scaffold constructs. However, evaluation of the bioreactor environment during culture is critical to defining outcomes. In this study, the performance of a hydrostatic force bioreactor was examined by experimental measurements of changes in dissolved oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and pH after mechanical stim...

  17. Changes in microbial diversity of brined green asparagus upon treatment with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo Del Árbol, Julia; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; La Storia, Antonietta; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Lucas, Rosario; Ercolini, Danilo; Gálvez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, 600MPa, 8 min) on brined green asparagus and the changes in bacterial diversity after treatments and during storage at 4 °C (30 days) or 22 °C (10 days) were studied. HHP treatments reduced viable cell counts by 3.6 log cycles. The residual surviving population did not increase during storage at 4 °C. However, bacterial counts significantly increased at 22 °C by day 3, leading to rapid spoilage. The microbiota of green asparagus was composed mainly by Proteobacteria (mainly Pantoea and Pseudomonas), followed by Firmicutes (mainly Lactococcus and Enterococcus) and to a less extent Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. During chill storage of untreated asparagus, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria as well as Enterococcus and Lactococcus decreased while Lactobacillus increased. During storage of untreated asparagus at 22 °C, the abundance of Bacteroidetes decreased while Proteobacteria increased during late storage. The HHP treatment determined a reduction of the Proteobacteria both early after treatment and during chill storage. In the HHP treated samples stored at 22 °C, the relative abundance of Pseudomonas rapidly decreased at day 1, with an increase of Bacteroidetes. This was followed by a marked increase in Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia) simultaneously with increase in viable counts and spoilage. Results from the study indicate that the effect of HHP treatments on the viability ofmicrobial populations in foods also has an impact on the dynamics of microbial populations during the storage of the treated foods.

  18. Elasticity of cerium up to 4.4 GPa by sound velocity measurements under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here the longitudinal and shear sound velocities on polycrystalline cerium under hydrostatic pressure across the iso-structural γ-α phase transition up to 4.4 GPa. Comparing with previous methods, the pressure-density relation of Ce has been calculated by integrating with the initial travel time and pressure without any fitting. The pressure correction of the Grüneisen parameter and linear expansion coefficient are taken into account during the integration process. The sound velocities, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Debye temperature, and vibrational entropy are achieved and have been compared with previous results. The bulk modulus of cerium in α phase agrees with the previous results determined by neutron and x-ray diffraction. The Debye temperature above and below the phase transition are θDγ=130.9 K and θDα=151.9 K, respectively. The difference of the Debye temperature from respective experiment is found and has been expounded. We consider that the vibrational entropy change per atom of 0.44 k B as the Kondo collapse of 17% volume change, and 0.70 k B as the total change from γ phase to complete α phase. (papers)

  19. Hydrostatic pressure induced three-dimensional Dirac semimetal in black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Peng-Lai; Liu, Da-Yong; Yang, Kai-Shuai; Xiang, Zi-Ji; Chen, Xian-Hui; Zeng, Zhi; Shen, Shun-Qing; Zou, Liang-Jian

    2016-05-01

    We present the first-principles studies on the hydrostatic pressure effect of the electronic properties of black phosphorus. We show that the energy bands crossover around the critical pressure Pc=1.23 GPa; with increasing pressure, the band reversal occurs at the Z point and evolves into 4 twofold-degenerate Dirac cones around the Z point, suggesting that pressured black phosphorus is a 3D Dirac semimetal. With further increasing pressure the Dirac cones in the Γ -Z line move toward the Γ point and evolve into two hole-type Fermi pockets, and those in the Z -M lines move toward the M point and evolve into two tiny electron-type Fermi pockets, and a band above the Z -M line sinks below EF and contributes four electron-type pockets. A clear Lifshitz transition occurs at Pc from semiconductor to 3D Dirac semimetal. Such a 3D Dirac semimetal is protected by the nonsymmorphic space symmetry of bulk black phosphorus. These suggest the bright perspective of black phosphorus for optoelectronic and electronic devices due to its easy modulation by pressure.

  20. Hydrostatic pressure effect on charge transport properties of phenacene organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao P; Shim, Ji Hoon

    2016-05-18

    We investigate the charge transport properties of phenacene organic semiconductors including phenanthrene, chrysene and picene using density functional theory (DFT) calculations under hydrostatic pressure. Under compression, the crystal structures of the three materials are altered and thus, a decrease in the intermolecular distances gives changes in charge transport properties while the molecular structures remain stable. As a result of the applied pressure, the mobilities of these materials increase dramatically. Chrysene shows a transition from a p-type semiconductor to an ambipolar semiconductor at around 2.0 GPa. Interestingly, chrysene favors electron transport at above 3.0 GPa. On the other hand, both phenanthrene and picene exhibit hole transport characteristics under high pressure. Between 3.1 and 4.3 GPa, the picene crystal is found to transform from an anisotropic mobility to an isotropic mobility in the ab plane. We also found that, the bulk modulus representing the resistance of the material under pressure compression follows a linear relationship with molecular length. PMID:27146786

  1. Recrystallization characteristics of high hydrostatic pressure gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhao; Tian, Xiaoling; Wang, Peng; Saleh, Ahmed S M; Luo, Qingui; Zheng, Jianmei; Ouyang, Shaohui; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-02-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can lead to starch gelatinization at room temperature, while the retrogradation mechanism of HHP gelatinized starch is not well known. HHP gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches were stored at room temperature for 192 h in order to investigate the retrogradation characteristics. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarised light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis showed that the pressurization of normal and waxy corn starch suspensions with concentration of 30% (w/v) at 600 MPa for 15 min resulted in a complete gelatinization. In addition, the pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch gels were stored and subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, resistant starch content determination, swelling power and pasting behavior. The retrograded normal maize and waxy maize starch showed a substantial loss of A-type crystallinity. Both pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches showed an increase in resistant starch content and relative crystallinity degree with the increase of storage time. In addition, restricted starch swelling power and lower pasting viscosities were observed for these two retrograded starches. The amylose molecule within starch granules has been regarded as the main factor to affect the structural and physicochemical properties during the retrogradation process of HHP-gelatinized starch granules.

  2. High Hydrostatic Pressure Pretreatment of Whey Protein Isolates Improves Their Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle M. Iskandar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Whey proteins have well-established antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. High hydrostatic pressure processing of whey protein isolates increases their in vitro digestibility resulting in enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study compared the effects of different digestion protocols on the digestibility of pressurized (pWPI and native (nWPI whey protein isolates and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the hydrolysates. The pepsin-pancreatin digestion protocol was modified to better simulate human digestion by adjusting temperature and pH conditions, incubation times, enzymes utilized, enzyme-to-substrate ratio and ultrafiltration membrane molecular weight cut-off. pWPI showed a significantly greater proteolysis rate and rate of peptide appearance regardless of digestion protocol. Both digestion methods generated a greater relative abundance of eluting peptides and the appearance of new peptide peaks in association with pWPI digestion in comparison to nWPI hydrolysates. Hydrolysates of pWPI from both digestion conditions showed enhanced ferric-reducing antioxidant power relative to nWPI hydrolysates. Likewise, pWPI hydrolysates from both digestion protocols showed similar enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in a respiratory epithelial cell line as compared to nWPI hydrolysates. These findings indicate that regardless of considerable variations of in vitro digestion protocols, pressurization of WPI leads to more efficient digestion that improves its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  3. Densimetry in compressed fluids by combining hydrostatic weighing and magnetic levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masui, R.; Haynes, W.M.; Chang, R.F.; Davis, H.A.; Sengers, J.M.H.L.

    1984-07-01

    A magnetic suspension densimeter is described that has been built for measuring the density of compressed liquids at pressures up to 15 MPa in the temperature range 20/sup 0/--200/sup 0/C with an uncertainty of 0.1%. The densimeter combines the principle of magnetic levitation of a buoy with that of liquid density determination by hydrostatic weighing. To accomplish this, the support coil is suspended from an electronic balance, and the balance readings are recorded (1) with the buoy at rest, and (2) with the buoy in magnetic suspension. Details are given of the construction of the cell, coil, buoy, and thermostat. The procedure is described by which cell and buoy are aligned so that the suspended buoy does not touch the cell wall. Test data on the densities of seven different liquids were obtained at room temperature. They agree with reliable literature values to within 0.1%. In a separate experiment, the bulk thermal expansion coefficient of the buoy material was determined. This experiment and its results are also given here.

  4. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Water Absorption of Adzuki Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeaki Ueno

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP treatment on dried soybean, adzuki bean, and kintoki kidney bean, which are low-moisture-content cellular biological materials, was investigated from the viewpoint of water absorption. The samples were vacuum-packed with distilled water and pressurized at 200 MPa and 25 °C for 10 min. After the HHP treatment, time courses of the moisture contents of the samples were measured, and the dimensionless moisture contents were estimated. Water absorption in the case of soybean could be fitted well by a simple water diffusion model. High pressures were found to have negligible effects on water absorption into the cotyledon of soybean and kintoki kidney bean. A non-linear least square method based on the Weibull equation was applied for the adzuki beans, and the effective water diffusion coefficient was found to increase significantly from 8.6 × 10−13 to 6.7 × 10−10 m2/s after HHP treatment. Approximately 30% of the testa of the adzuki bean was damaged upon HHP treatment, which was comparable to the surface area of the testa in the partially peeled adzuki bean sample. Thus, HHP was confirmed to promote mass transfer to the cotyledon of legumes with a tight testa.

  5. Hydrostatic Simulation of Earth's Atmospheric Gas Using Multi-particle Collision Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pattisahusiwa, Asis; Virid, Sparisoma

    2015-01-01

    Multi-particle collision dynamics (MPCD) is a mesoscopic simulation method to simulate fluid particle-like flows. MPCD has been widely used to simulate various problems in condensed matter. In this study, hydrostatic behavior of gas in the Earth's atmospheric layer is simulated by using MPCD method. The simulation is carried out by assuming the system under ideal state and is affected only by gravitational force. Gas particles are homogeneous and placed in 2D box. Interaction of the particles with the box is applied through implementation of boundary conditions (BC). Periodic BC is applied on the left and the right side, specular reflection on the top side, while bounce-back on the bottom side. Simulation program is executed in Arch Linux and running in notebook with processor Intel i5 @2700 MHz with 10 GB DDR3 RAM. The results show behaviors of the particles obey kinetic theory for ideal gas when gravitational acceleration value is proportional to the particle mass. Density distribution as a function of alti...

  6. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on secondary structure and emulsifying behavior of sweet potato protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood Khan, Nasir; Mu, Tai-Hua; Sun, Hong-Nan; Zhang, Miao; Chen, Jing-Wang

    2015-04-01

    In this study, secondary structures of sweet potato protein (SPP) after high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (200-600 MPa) were evaluated and emulsifying properties of emulsions with HHP-treated SPP solutions in different pH values (3, 6, and 9) were investigated. Circular dichroism analysis confirmed the modification of the SPP secondary structure. Surface hydrophobicity increased at pH 3 and decreased at 6 and 9. Emulsifying activity index at pH 6 increased with an increase in pressure, whereas emulsifying stability index increased at pH 6 and 9. Oil droplet sizes decreased, while volume frequency distribution of the smaller droplets increased at pH 3 and 6 with the HHP treatment. Emulsion viscosity increased at pH 6 and 9 and pseudo-plastic flow behaviors were not altered for all emulsions produced with HHP-treated SPP. These results suggested that HHP could modify the SPP structure for better emulsifying properties, which could increase the use of SPP emulsion in the food industry.

  7. Microbial diversity and adaptation to high hydrostatic pressure in deep-sea hydrothermal vents prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebbar, Mohamed; Franzetti, Bruno; Girard, Eric; Oger, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Prokaryotes inhabiting in the deep sea vent ecosystem will thus experience harsh conditions of temperature, pH, salinity or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) stress. Among the fifty-two piezophilic and piezotolerant prokaryotes isolated so far from different deep-sea environments, only fifteen (four Bacteria and eleven Archaea) that are true hyper/thermophiles and piezophiles have been isolated from deep-sea hydrothermal vents; these belong mainly to the Thermococcales order. Different strategies are used by microorganisms to thrive in deep-sea hydrothermal vents in which "extreme" physico-chemical conditions prevail and where non-adapted organisms cannot live, or even survive. HHP is known to impact the structure of several cellular components and functions, such as membrane fluidity, protein activity and structure. Physically the impact of pressure resembles a lowering of temperature, since it reinforces the structure of certain molecules, such as membrane lipids, and an increase in temperature, since it will also destabilize other structures, such as proteins. However, universal molecular signatures of HHP adaptation are not yet known and are still to be deciphered.

  8. Nonthermal Pasteurization of Fermented Green Table Olives by means of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthoula A. Argyri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green fermented olives cv. Halkidiki were subjected to different treatments of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP processing (400, 450, and 500 MPa for 15 or 30 min. Total viable counts, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts/moulds, and the physicochemical characteristics of the product (pH, colour, and firmness were monitored right after the treatment and after 7 days of storage at 20°C to allow for recovery of injured cells. The treatments at 400 MPa for 15 and 30 min, 450 MPa for 15 and 30 min, and 500 MPa for 15 min were found insufficient as a recovery of the microbiota was observed. The treatment at 500 MPa for 30 min was effective in reducing the olive microbiota below the detection limit of the enumeration method after the treatment and after 1 week of storage and was chosen as being more appropriate for storing olives for an extended time period (5 months. After 5 months of storage at 20°C, no microbiota was detected in treated samples, while significant changes for both HHP treated and untreated olives were observed for colour parameters only (minor degradation. In conclusion, HHP treatment may introduce a reliable nonthermal pasteurization method to extend the microbiological shelf-life of fermented table olives.

  9. A multi-purpose modular system for high-resolution microscopy at high hydrostatic pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Vass, Hugh; Herzig, Eva M; Ward, F Bruce; Clegg, Paul S; Allen, Rosalind J

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a modular system for high-resolution microscopy at high hydrostatic pressure. The system consists of a pressurised cell of volume ~100 microlitres, a temperature controlled holder, a ram and a piston. We have made each of these components in several versions which can be interchanged to allow a wide range of applications. Here, we report two pressure cells with pressure ranges 0.1-700MPa and 0.1-100MPa, which can be combined with hollow or solid rams and pistons. Our system is designed to work with fluorescent samples (using a confocal or epifluorescence microscope), but also allows for transmitted light microscopy via the hollow ram and piston. The system allows precise control of pressure and temperature [-20-70C], as well as rapid pressure quenching. We demonstrate its performance and versatility with two applications: time-resolved imaging of colloidal phase transitions caused by pressure changes between 0.1MPa and 101MPa, and imaging the growth of Escherichia coli bacteria at 50MPa. We ...

  10. Textures of Superfluid 3He-B in Applied Flow and Comparison with Hydrostatic Theory

    CERN Document Server

    de Graaf, R; Hosio, J J; Heikkinen, P J; Krusius, M

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the order parameter texture of rotating superfluid 3He-B have been performed as a function of the applied azimuthal counterflow velocity down to temperatures of 0.2Tc. The results are compared to the hydrostatic theory of 3He-B. Good agreement is found at all measured temperatures and rotation velocities when the flow anisotropy contribution to the textural free energy is adjusted. This gives a superfluid energy gap Delta(T) which agrees with that measured by Todoshchenko et al., with Delta(0)=1.97kBTc at 29.0 bar. The B-phase susceptibility, longitudinal resonance frequency, and textural phase transition have been extracted from the measurements as a function of temperature and azimuthal counterflow velocity. Owing to decreasing absorption intensities the present measuring method, based on the line shape analysis of the NMR spectrum, loses its sensitivity with decreasing temperature. However, we find that in practice the measurement of vortex numbers and counterflow velocities is still feasib...

  11. Retrogradation of Maize Starch after High Hydrostatic Pressure Gelation: Effect of Amylose Content and Depressurization Rate

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2016-05-24

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been employed to gelatinize or physically modify starch dispersions. In this study, waxy maize starch, normal maize starch, and two high amylose content starch were processed by a HHP of the order of 600 MPa, at 25°C for 15min. The effect of HHP processing on the crystallization of maize starches with various amylose content during storage at 4°C was investigated. Crystallization kinetics of HHP treated starch gels were investigated using rheology and FTIR. The effect of crystallization on the mechanical properties of starch gel network were evaluated in terms of dynamic complex modulus (G*). The crystallization induced increase of short-range helices structures were investigated using FTIR. The pressure releasing rate does not affect the starch retrogradation behaviour. The rate and extent of retrogradation depends on the amylose content of amylose starch. The least retrogradation was observed in HHP treated waxy maize starch. The rate of retrogradation is higher for HHP treated high amylose maize starch than that of normal maize starch. A linear relationship between the extent of retrogradation (phase distribution) measured by FTIR and G* is proposed.

  12. The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on black truffle (tuber melanosporum) flavour compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verret, C; Ballestra, P; Cruz, C; Moueffak, A H E [Equipe de Recherche Agroalimentaire Perigourdine (ERAP) IUT de Perigueux Universite Bordeaux IV site universitaire F24019 Perigueux Cedex France (France); Pardon, P [Laboratoire d' analyses de l' Institut du pin Universite Bordeaux I France (France); Largeteau, A, E-mail: moueffak@u-bordeaux4.fr

    2008-07-15

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), at 4{sup 0}C or -18{sup 0}C, on black truffle flavour compounds, alteration enzymes (lipoxigenase (LOX), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO)) and microbiological qualities were evaluated. The choosen analytes for this study are six alcohols, three aldehydes, one ketone and on sulfur component. The highest flavour stability was observed when samples were pressurized at 300 MPa / 4{sup 0}C / 10 min. All the treatments induced a drastic decrease of LOX activity and a slight decrease of POD activity. On the other hand, the PPO was not inactivated by pressurization at sub-zero (200 MPa / -18{sup 0}C / 10 min) and was strongly increased after the 300 MPa / 4{sup 0}C / 10 min treatment. Pressurization at 300 and 550 MPa lead to an almost complete Pseudomonas fluorescens reduction (6 and 6.5 log destruction, respectively) whereas pressurization at -18{sup 0}C (200MPa) allowed to obtain only 3 log reduction.

  13. Recrystallization characteristics of high hydrostatic pressure gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhao; Tian, Xiaoling; Wang, Peng; Saleh, Ahmed S M; Luo, Qingui; Zheng, Jianmei; Ouyang, Shaohui; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-02-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can lead to starch gelatinization at room temperature, while the retrogradation mechanism of HHP gelatinized starch is not well known. HHP gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches were stored at room temperature for 192 h in order to investigate the retrogradation characteristics. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarised light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis showed that the pressurization of normal and waxy corn starch suspensions with concentration of 30% (w/v) at 600 MPa for 15 min resulted in a complete gelatinization. In addition, the pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch gels were stored and subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, resistant starch content determination, swelling power and pasting behavior. The retrograded normal maize and waxy maize starch showed a substantial loss of A-type crystallinity. Both pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches showed an increase in resistant starch content and relative crystallinity degree with the increase of storage time. In addition, restricted starch swelling power and lower pasting viscosities were observed for these two retrograded starches. The amylose molecule within starch granules has been regarded as the main factor to affect the structural and physicochemical properties during the retrogradation process of HHP-gelatinized starch granules. PMID:26642841

  14. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the supramolecular structure of corn starch with different amylose contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Swedlund, Peter; Hemar, Yacine; Mo, Guang; Wei, Yanru; Li, Zhihong; Wu, Zhonghua

    2016-04-01

    Corn starches with amylose contents ranging from 0 to 80% were suspended in 60 wt% water or ethanol and subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) up to 600 MPa. The impact of HHP treatment on the granule morphology, lamellae structures, and crystalline characteristics were examined with a combination of SAXS, WAXS and optical microscopy. All starch dispersed in water showed a decrease in area of the lamellar peak in the SAXS data at q∼0.6 nm(-1). The lamellae thickness (d) increased for pressurized waxy, normal, and Gelose80 corn starches, suggesting water is forced into starch lamellae during HHP. However, for Gelose50 corn starch, the d remained constant over the whole pressure range and light microscopy showed no obvious granule swelling. WAXS studies demonstrated that HHP partially converted A-type starches (waxy and normal corn) to starches with a faint B-type pattern while starches with a B+V-type pattern (Gelose50 and Gelose80), were not affected by HHP. All corn starches suspended in ethanol showed no detectable changes in either granule morphology, or the fractal, the lamellae, and the crystalline structures. PMID:26778159

  15. A non-hydrostatic global spectral dynamical core using a height-based vertical coordinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Simarro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the dynamical cores of operational global models can be broadly classified according to the spatial discretisation into two categories: spectral models with mass-based vertical coordinate and grid point models with height-based vertical coordinate. This article describes a new non-hydrostatic dynamical core for a global model that uses the spectral transform method for the horizontal directions and a height-based vertical coordinate. Velocity is expressed in the contravariant basis (instead of the geographical orthonormal basis pointing to the East, North and Zenith directions so that the expressions of the boundary conditions and the divergence of the velocity are simpler. Prognostic variables in our model are the contravariant components of the velocity, the logarithm of pressure and the logarithm of temperature. Covariant tensor analysis is used to derive the differential operators of the prognostic equations, such as the curl, gradient, divergence and covariant derivative of the contravariant velocity. A Lorenz type grid is used in the vertical direction, with the vertical contravariant velocity staggered with respect to the other prognostic variables. High-order vertical operators are constructed following the finite difference technique. Time stepping is semi-implicit because it allows for long time steps that compensates the cost of the spectral transformations. A set of experiments reported in the literature is implemented so as to confirm the accuracy and efficiency of the new dynamical core.

  16. Changes in microbial diversity of brined green asparagus upon treatment with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo Del Árbol, Julia; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; La Storia, Antonietta; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Lucas, Rosario; Ercolini, Danilo; Gálvez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, 600MPa, 8 min) on brined green asparagus and the changes in bacterial diversity after treatments and during storage at 4 °C (30 days) or 22 °C (10 days) were studied. HHP treatments reduced viable cell counts by 3.6 log cycles. The residual surviving population did not increase during storage at 4 °C. However, bacterial counts significantly increased at 22 °C by day 3, leading to rapid spoilage. The microbiota of green asparagus was composed mainly by Proteobacteria (mainly Pantoea and Pseudomonas), followed by Firmicutes (mainly Lactococcus and Enterococcus) and to a less extent Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. During chill storage of untreated asparagus, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria as well as Enterococcus and Lactococcus decreased while Lactobacillus increased. During storage of untreated asparagus at 22 °C, the abundance of Bacteroidetes decreased while Proteobacteria increased during late storage. The HHP treatment determined a reduction of the Proteobacteria both early after treatment and during chill storage. In the HHP treated samples stored at 22 °C, the relative abundance of Pseudomonas rapidly decreased at day 1, with an increase of Bacteroidetes. This was followed by a marked increase in Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia) simultaneously with increase in viable counts and spoilage. Results from the study indicate that the effect of HHP treatments on the viability ofmicrobial populations in foods also has an impact on the dynamics of microbial populations during the storage of the treated foods. PMID:26372734

  17. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the structural and magnetic transitions in FeSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothapalli, K.; Böhmer, A. E.; Jayasekara, W. T.; Das, P.; Sapkota, A.; Ueland, B. G.; Taufour, V.; Bud'Ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Xiao, Y.; Goldman, A. I.; Kreyssig, A.

    The phase diagram of FeSe is unique among all the iron-based superconductors. At ambient pressure, FeSe undergoes a tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural phase transition at Ts = 90 K, and becomes superconducting below Tc = 8 K. Unlike other iron-based materials, it does not magnetically order down to the lowest measured temperature (T). However, under the application of hydrostatic pressure (p), a new magnetic phase is stabilized starting from ~1 GPa. Higher pressure increases Tc, whose maximum onset reaches a surprising 37 K at ~7 GPa. We investigate the p- T phase diagram using high-quality vapor-grown single crystals, which shows features not seen previously in powder and mixed-phase samples. Specifically, using high-pressure low-temperature diffraction and synchrotron Mössbauer we elucidate the effect of pressure - evolution of orthorhombic distortion and emergence of magnetic ordering - in the vicinity of the crossover region of the structural, magnetic and superconducting transitions.Work at Ames Lab. was supported by the DOE, BES, Division of Materials Sciences & Engineering, under Contract No. DEAC02-07CH11358. This research used resources at Argonne National Lab.

  18. Development of High Hydrostatic Pressure Applied in Pathogen Inactivation for Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunhui; Bian, Guohui; Yang, Hong; Zhang, Xinmin; Chen, Limin; Wang, Jingxing

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure has been used to inactivate pathogens in foods for decades. There is a great potential to adapt this technology to inactivate pathogens in plasma and derivatives. To better evaluate the potential of this method, pathogen inoculated plasma samples were pressurized under different pressure application modes and temperatures. The inactivation efficacy of pathogens and activities of plasma proteins were monitored after treatment. The CFUs of E.coli was examined as the indicator of the inactivation efficiency. The factor V and VIII were chosen as the indicator of the plasma function. Preliminary experiments identified optimized treatment conditions: 200-250MPa, with 5×1 minute multi-pulsed high pressure at near 0°C (ice-water bath). Under this conditions, the inactivation efficacy of EMCV was >8.5log. The CFUs of E. coli were reduced by 7.5log, B. cereus were 8log. However, PPV and S. aureus cannot be inactivated efficiently. The activities of factor II, VII, IX, X, XI, XII, fibrinogen, IgG, IgM stayed over 95% compared to untreated. Factor V and VIII activity was maintained at 46-63% and 77-82%, respectively. PMID:27561010

  19. Hydrostatic equilibrium of a porous intracluster medium: implications for mass fraction and X-ray luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Nusser, Adi

    2007-01-01

    The presence of dilute hot cavities in the intracluster medium (ICM) at the cores of clusters of galaxies changes the relation between gas temperature and its X-ray emission properties. Using the hydrostatic equations of a porous medium we solve for the ICM density for a given temperature as a function of the filling factor of dilute bubbles. We find that at a given temperature, the core X-ray luminosity increases with the filling factor. If the frequency of AGNs in clusters were higher in the past, then the filling factor is correspondingly affected, with implications for the cluster scaling relations. This is especially important for the core properties, including the temperature-luminosity ($L_X-T$) relation and estimates of the core gas mass. The results imply an epoch-dependent sensitivity of the $L_X-T$ relation in the core to the porosity of the ICM. Detection of such an effect would give new insights into AGN feedback.

  20. The effect of neutron irradiation on oxygen aggregation processes in Si material treated under hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londos, Charalampos A.; Andrianakis, Andreas [Solid State Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, 157 84 Athens (Greece); Misiuk, Andrzej [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-03-15

    Silicon is the dominant material in electronic industry. Its use for various applications requires processing stages, important among them those involving thermal treatments. Such treatments in Si trigger the mechanisms of oxygen aggregation resulting in the formation of oxygen precipitates which have important influence on the quality of the material. In the present work, we have investigated the effect of thermal treatments, with or without the application of high hydrostatic pressure, on the development of oxygen precipitates. We have particularly studied the effect of neutron irradiation on the formation of the various oxygen agglomerates in the course of the above treatments. To this end, Si samples initially irradiated by neutrons were subjected to high temperature or/and high temperature-high pressure treatments at 1000 and 1130 C. Afterwards, infrared (IR) measurements were undertaken to study various precipitate morphologies, in particular those giving rise to an IR band around 1080 cm{sup -1} related to octahedral-shaped precipitates and an IR band at 1225 cm{sup -1} attributed to platelet-shaped precipitates. The obtained results were found to be consistent with reports cited in the literature. It was confirmed that the application of pressure during treatments as well as the irradiation with neutrons before these treatments enhance substantially the oxygen aggregation process. Comparisons of the results between treatments at 1000 and 1130 C are presented and discussed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)