WorldWideScience

Sample records for automatic readout micrometer

  1. Automatic readout for nuclear emulsions in muon radiography of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, A.; Bozza, C.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Kose, U.; Lauria, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Miyamoto, S.; Montesi, C.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Russo, A.; Sirignano, C.; Stellacci, S. M.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear emulsions are an effective choice in many scenarios of volcano radiography by cosmic-ray muons. They are cheap and emulsion-based detectors require no on-site power supply. Nuclear emulsion films provide sub-micrometric tracking precision and intrinsic angular accuracy better than 1 mrad. Imaging the inner structure of a volcano requires that the cosmic-ray absorption map be measured on wide angular range. High-absorption directions can be probed by allowing for large statistics, which implies a large overall flux, i.e. wide surface for the detector. A total area of the order of a few m2 is nowadays typical, thanks to the automatic readout tools originally developed for high-energy physics experiments such as CHORUS, PEANUT, OPERA. The European Scanning System is now being used to read out nuclear emulsion films exposed to cosmic rays on the side of volcanoes. The structure of the system is described in detail with respect to both hardware and software. Its present scanning speed of 20 cm2/h/side/microscope is suitable to fulfil the needs of the current exposures of nuclear emulsion films for muon radiograph, but it is worth to notice that applications in volcano imaging are among the driving forces pushing to increase the performances of the system. Preliminary results for the Unzen volcano of a joint effort by research groups in Italy and Japan show that the current system is already able to provide signal/background ratio in the range 100÷10000:1, depending on the quality cuts set in the off-line data analysis. The size of the smallest detectable structures in that experimental setup is constrained by the available statistics in the region of highest absorption to about 50 mrad, or 22 m under the top of the mountain. Another exposure is currently taking data at the Stromboli volcano. Readout of the exposed films is expected to begin in March 2012, and preliminary results will be available soon after. An effort by several universities and INFN has

  2. Automatic readout system for superheated emulsion based neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, J.P.; Parihar, A.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Mohan, Anand

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a microcontroller based automatic reader system for neutron measurement using indigenously developed superheated emulsion detector. The system is designed for real time counting of bubbles formed in superheated emulsion detector. A piezoelectric transducer is used for sensing bubble acoustic during the nucleation. The front end of system is mainly consisting of specially designed signal conditioning unit, piezoelectric transducer, an amplifier, a high-pass filter, a differentiator, a comparator and monostable multivibrator. The system is based on PlC 18F6520 microcontroller having large internal SRAM, 10-bit internal ADC, I 2 C interface, UART/USART modules. The paper also describes the design of following microcontroller peripheral units viz temperature monitoring, battery monitoring, LCD display, keypad and a serial communication. The reader system measures and displays neutron dose and dose rate, number of bubble and elapsed time. The developed system can be used for detecting very low neutron leakage in the accelerators, nuclear reactors and nuclear submarines. The important features of system are compact, light weight, cost effective and high neutron sensitivity. The prototype was tested and evaluated by exposing to 241 Am-Be neutron source and results have been reported. (author)

  3. Fully integrated low-noise readout circuit with automatic offset cancellation loop for capacitive microsensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haryong; Park, Yunjong; Kim, Hyungseup; Cho, Dong-Il Dan; Ko, Hyoungho

    2015-10-14

    Capacitive sensing schemes are widely used for various microsensors; however, such microsensors suffer from severe parasitic capacitance problems. This paper presents a fully integrated low-noise readout circuit with automatic offset cancellation loop (AOCL) for capacitive microsensors. The output offsets of the capacitive sensing chain due to the parasitic capacitances and process variations are automatically removed using AOCL. The AOCL generates electrically equivalent offset capacitance and enables charge-domain fine calibration using a 10-bit R-2R digital-to-analog converter, charge-transfer switches, and a charge-storing capacitor. The AOCL cancels the unwanted offset by binary-search algorithm based on 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) logic. The chip is implemented using 0.18 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process with an active area of 1.76 mm². The power consumption is 220 μW with 3.3 V supply. The input parasitic capacitances within the range of -250 fF to 250 fF can be cancelled out automatically, and the required calibration time is lower than 10 ms.

  4. Fully Integrated Low-Noise Readout Circuit with Automatic Offset Cancellation Loop for Capacitive Microsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryong Song

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Capacitive sensing schemes are widely used for various microsensors; however, such microsensors suffer from severe parasitic capacitance problems. This paper presents a fully integrated low-noise readout circuit with automatic offset cancellation loop (AOCL for capacitive microsensors. The output offsets of the capacitive sensing chain due to the parasitic capacitances and process variations are automatically removed using AOCL. The AOCL generates electrically equivalent offset capacitance and enables charge-domain fine calibration using a 10-bit R-2R digital-to-analog converter, charge-transfer switches, and a charge-storing capacitor. The AOCL cancels the unwanted offset by binary-search algorithm based on 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR logic. The chip is implemented using 0.18 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS process with an active area of 1.76 mm2. The power consumption is 220 μW with 3.3 V supply. The input parasitic capacitances within the range of −250 fF to 250 fF can be cancelled out automatically, and the required calibration time is lower than 10 ms.

  5. Study of an automatic readout integrated circuit for the signal shaping of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter; Etude d`un circuit integre de commutation automatique de gain pour le circuit de mise en forme du signal du calorimetre electromagnetique d`ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussat, J.M. [Laboratoire d`Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules, 74 - Annecy-le-Vieux (France)

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the present state of the development of an automatic readout integrated circuit that can be used, connected to the four gain shaper of LAL, at the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter.

  6. Concatenated logic circuits based on a three-way DNA junction: a keypad-lock security system with visible readout and an automatic reset function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhua; Zhou, Shungui; Wen, Junlin

    2015-01-07

    Concatenated logic circuits operating as a biocomputing keypad-lock security system with an automatic reset function have been successfully constructed on the basis of toehold-mediated strand displacement and three-way-DNA-junction architecture. In comparison with previously reported keypad locks, the distinctive advantage of the proposed security system is that it can be reset and cycled spontaneously a large number of times without an external stimulus, thus making practical applications possible. By the use of a split-G-quadruplex DNAzyme as the signal reporter, the output of the keypad lock can be recognized readily by the naked eye. The "lock" is opened only when the inputs are introduced in an exact order. This requirement provides defense against illegal invasion to protect information at the molecular scale. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  8. Moulding of Sub-micrometer Surface Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pranov, Henrik; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2006-01-01

    The experiments strongly suggest that the possibility to injection mould sub-micrometer surface structures in polymers mainly relates to the forces originating from the adhesive energy between polymer and shim.......The experiments strongly suggest that the possibility to injection mould sub-micrometer surface structures in polymers mainly relates to the forces originating from the adhesive energy between polymer and shim....

  9. The IBL Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Dopke, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Flick, T; Gabrielli, A; Kugel, A; Maettig, P; Morettini, P; Polini, A; Schroer, N

    2010-01-01

    The first upgrade for the ATLAS pixel detector will be an additional layer, which is called IBL (Insertable B-Layer). To readout this new layer having new electronics assembled an update of the readout electronics is necessary. The aim is to develop a system which is capable to read out at a higher bandwidth and also compatible with the existing system to be integrated into it. The talk will describe the necessary development to reach a new readout system, concentrating on the requirements of a newly designed Back of Crate card as the optical interface in the counting room.

  10. The IBL Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Dopke, J; Flick, T; Gabrielli, A; Kugel, A; Maettig, P; Morettini, P; Polini, A; Schroer, N

    2011-01-01

    The first upgrade for the ATLAS Pixel Detector will be an additional layer, which is called IBL (Insertable B-Layer). To readout this new layer, having new electronics, an update of the readout electronics is necessary. The aim is to develop a system which is capable to read out at a higher bandwidth, but also compatible with the existing system to be integrated into it. This paper will describe the necessary development to reach a new readout system, concentrating on the requirements of a newly designed Back of Crate card as the optical interface in the counting room.

  11. Readout Architecture for Hybrid Pixel Readout Chips

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)694170; Westerlund, Tomi; Wyllie, Ken

    The original contribution of this thesis to knowledge are novel digital readout architectures for hybrid pixel readout chips. The thesis presents asynchronous bus-based architecture, a data-node based column architecture and a network-based pixel matrix architecture for data transportation. It is shown that the data-node architecture achieves readout efficiency 99 % with half the output rate as a bus-based system. The network-based solution avoids ``broken'' columns due to some manufacturing errors, and it distributes internal data traffic more evenly across the pixel matrix than column-based architectures. An improvement of $>$ 10 % to the efficiency is achieved with uniform and non-uniform hit occupancies. Architectural design has been done using transaction level modeling ($TLM$) and sequential high-level design techniques for reducing the design and simulation time. It has been possible to simulate tens of column and full chip architectures using the high-level techniques. A decrease of $>$ 10 in run-time...

  12. CMOS Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Intensity-Driven Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbacher, Harry T.; Fossum, Eric R.; Kemeny, Sabrina

    1996-01-01

    Proposed complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit image sensor automatically provides readouts from pixels in order of decreasing illumination intensity. Sensor operated in integration mode. Particularly useful in number of image-sensing tasks, including diffractive laser range-finding, three-dimensional imaging, event-driven readout of sparse sensor arrays, and star tracking.

  13. Readout electronic for multichannel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kulibaba, V I; Naumov, S V

    2001-01-01

    Readout electronics based on the 128-channel chip 'Viking' (IDE AS inc., Norway) is considered. The chip 'Viking' integrates 128 low noise charge-sensitive preamplifiers with tunable CR-(RC) sup 2 shapers,analog memory and multiplexed readout to one output. All modules of readout electronics were designed and produced in KIPT taking into account the published recommendations of IDE AS inc.

  14. Readout electronic for multichannel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulibaba, V.I.; Maslov, N.I.; Naumov, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    Readout electronics based on the 128-channel chip 'Viking' (IDE AS inc., Norway) is considered. The chip 'Viking' integrates 128 low noise charge-sensitive preamplifiers with tunable CR-(RC) 2 shapers,analog memory and multiplexed readout to one output. All modules of readout electronics were designed and produced in KIPT taking into account the published recommendations of IDE AS inc

  15. Production and Characterisation of SLID Interconnected n-in-p Pixel Modules with 75 Micrometer Thin Silicon Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Andricek, L; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R.H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of pixel modules built from 75 micrometer thin silicon sensors and ATLAS read-out chips employing the Solid Liquid InterDiffusion (SLID) interconnection technology is presented. This technology, developed by the Fraunhofer EMFT, is a possible alternative to the standard bump-bonding. It allows for stacking of different interconnected chip and sensor layers without destroying the already formed bonds. In combination with Inter-Chip-Vias (ICVs) this paves the way for vertical integration. Both technologies are combined in a pixel module concept which is the basis for the modules discussed in this paper. Mechanical and electrical parameters of pixel modules employing both SLID interconnections and sensors of 75 micrometer thickness are covered. The mechanical features discussed include the interconnection efficiency, alignment precision and mechanical strength. The electrical properties comprise the leakage currents, tunability, charge collection, cluster sizes and hit efficiencies. Targeting at ...

  16. Copper-micrometer-sized diamond nanostructured composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, D; Livramento, V; Fernandes, H; Silva, C; Carvalho, P A; Shohoji, N; Correia, J B

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcement of a copper matrix with diamond enables tailoring the properties demanded for thermal management applications at high temperature, such as the ones required for heat sink materials in low activated nuclear fusion reactors. For an optimum compromise between thermal conductivity and mechanical properties, a novel approach based on multiscale diamond dispersions is proposed: a Cu-nanodiamond composite produced by milling is used as a nanostructured matrix for further dispersion of micrometer-sized diamond (μDiamond). A series of Cu-nanodiamond mixtures have been milled to establish a suitable nanodiamond fraction. A refined matrix with homogeneously dispersed nanoparticles was obtained with 4 at.% μDiamond for posterior mixture with microdiamond and subsequent consolidation. Preliminary consolidation by hot extrusion of a mixture of pure copper and μDiamond has been carried out to define optimal processing parameters. The materials produced were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements.

  17. From nanometer aggregates to micrometer crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Logan Nicholas; Dideriksen, Knud; Lakshtanov, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    Grain size increases when crystals respond to dynamic equilibrium in a saturated solution. The pathway to coarsening is generally thought to be driven by Ostwald ripening, that is, simultaneous dissolution and reprecipitation, but models to describe Ostwald ripening neglect solid-solid interactions...... and crystal shapes. Grain coarsening of calcite, CaCO3, is relevant for biomineralization and commercial products and is an important process in diagenesis of sediments to rock during geological time. We investigated coarsening of pure, synthetic calcite powder of sub-micrometer diameter crystals and aged...... it in saturated solutions at 23, 100, and 200 °C for up to 261 days. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis showed rapid coarsening at 100 and 200 °C. Evidence of particle growth at 23 °C was not visible by SEM, but high resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD) data...

  18. Timing and Readout Contorl in the LHCb Upgraded Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, Federico

    2016-01-01

    In 2019, the LHCb experiment at CERN will undergo a major upgrade where its detectors electronics and entire readout system will be changed to read-out events at the full LHC rate of 40 MHz. In this paper, the new timing, trigger and readout control system for such upgrade is reviewed. Particular attention is given to the distribution of the clock, timing and synchronization information across the entire readout system using generic FTTH technology like Passive Optical Networks. Moreover the system will be responsible to generically control the Front-End electronics by transmitting configuration data and receiving monitoring data, offloading the software control system from the heavy task of manipulating complex protocols of thousands of Front-End electronics devices. The way in which this was implemented is here reviewed with a description of results from first implementations of the system, including usages in test-benches, implementation of techniques for timing distribution and latency control."

  19. Monitoring the CMS strip tracker readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersi, S; Bainbridge, R; Cripps, N; Fulcher, J; Wingham, M; Baulieu, G; Bel, S; Delaere, C; Drouhin, F; Mirabito, L; Cole, J; Giassi, A; Gross, L; Hahn, K; Nikolic, M; Tkaczyk, S

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker at the LHC comprises a sensitive area of approximately 200 m 2 and 10 million readout channels. Its data acquisition system is based around a custom analogue front-end chip. Both the control and the readout of the front-end electronics are performed by off-detector VME boards in the counting room, which digitise the raw event data and perform zero-suppression and formatting. The data acquisition system uses the CMS online software framework to configure, control and monitor the hardware components and steer the data acquisition. The first data analysis is performed online within the official CMS reconstruction framework, which provides many services, such as distributed analysis, access to geometry and conditions data, and a Data Quality Monitoring tool based on the online physics reconstruction. The data acquisition monitoring of the Strip Tracker uses both the data acquisition and the reconstruction software frameworks in order to provide real-time feedback to shifters on the operational state of the detector, archiving for later analysis and possibly trigger automatic recovery actions in case of errors. Here we review the proposed architecture of the monitoring system and we describe its software components, which are already in place, the various monitoring streams available, and our experiences of operating and monitoring a large-scale system

  20. The PAUCam readout electronics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jorge; Illa, José M.; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; de Vicente, Juan; Castilla, Javier; Casas, Ricard

    2016-08-01

    The PAUCam is an optical camera with a wide field of view of 1 deg x 1 deg and up to 46 narrow and broad band filters. The camera is already installed on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in the Canary Islands, Spain and successfully commissioned during the first period of 2015. The paper presents the main results from the readout electronics commissioning tests and include an overview of the whole readout electronics system, its configuration and current performance.

  1. Graphene-Based Flexible Micrometer-Sized Microbial Fuel Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.; Qaisi, Ramy M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells harvest electrical energy produced by bacteria during the natural decomposition of organic matter. We report a micrometer-sized microbial fuel cell that is able to generate nanowatt-scale power from microliters of liquids

  2. The GOTTHARD charge integrating readout detector: design and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozzanica, A; Bergamaschi, A; Dinapoli, R; Greiffenberg, D; Henrich, B; Johnson, I; Valeria, R; Schmitt, B; Xintian, S; Graafsma, H; Lohmann, M

    2012-01-01

    A charge integrating readout ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) for silicon strip sensors has been developed at PSI in collaboration with DESY. The goal of the project is to provide a charge integrating readout system able to cope with the pulsed beam of XFEL machines and at the same time to retain the high dynamic range and single photon resolution performances typical for photon counting systems. The ASIC, designed in IBM 130 nm CMOS technology, takes advantage of its three gain stages with automatic stage selection to achieve a dynamic range of 10000 12 keV photons and a noise better than 300 e.n.c.. The 4 analog outputs of the ASIC are optimized for speed, allowing frame rates higher than 1 MHz, without compromises on linearity and noise performances. This work presents the design features of the ASIC, and reports the characterization results of the chip itself.

  3. Digital column readout architectures for hybrid pixel detector readout chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poikela, T; Plosila, J; Westerlund, T; Buytaert, J; Campbell, M; Gaspari, M De; Llopart, X; Wyllie, K; Gromov, V; Kluit, R; Beuzekom, M van; Zappon, F; Zivkovic, V; Brezina, C; Desch, K; Fu, Y; Kruth, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two digital column architectures suitable for sparse readout of data from a pixel matrix in trigger-less applications are presented. Each architecture reads out a pixel matrix of 256 x 256 pixels with a pixel pitch of 55 μm. The first architecture has been implemented in the Timepix3 chip, and this is presented together with initial measurements. Simulation results and measured data are compared. The second architecture has been designed for Velopix, a readout chip planned for the LHCb VELO upgrade. Unlike Timepix3, this has to be tolerant to radiation-induced single-event effects. Results from post-layout simulations are shown with the circuit architectures

  4. A self-adjusting delay circuit for pixel read-out chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raith, B.

    1997-01-01

    A simple concept for automatic adjustment of important VLSI-circuit properties was proposed in (Fischer and Joens, Nucl. Instr. and. Meth.). As an application, a self-adjusting monoflop is reviewed, and detailed measurements are discussed regarding a possible implementation in the LHC 1 read-out chip for the ATLAS experiment (ATLAS Internal Note, 1995). (orig.)

  5. Hygroscopic growth of sub-micrometer and one-micrometer aerosol particles measured during ACE-Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massling

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles in the sub-micrometer and one-micrometer size ranges were measured during the ACE-Asia study (Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia in spring 2001. The measurements took place off the coasts of Japan, Korea, and China. All instruments contributing to this study were deployed in a container on the forward deck of the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. Air masses with primarily marine influence and air masses from the Asian continent affected by both anthropogenic sources and by the transport of desert dust aerosol were encountered during the cruise.

    Results showed very different hygroscopic behavior in the sub-micrometer size range compared to the one-micrometer size range. In general, for all continentally influenced air masses, the one-micrometer particle population was characterized by two different particle groups – a nearly hydrophobic fraction with growth factors around 1.0 representative of dust particles and a sea salt fraction with hygroscopic growth factors around 2.0. The number fraction of dust particles was generally about 60% independent of long-range air mass origin.

    For sub-micrometer particles, a dominant, more hygroscopic particle fraction with growth factors between 1.5 and 1.9 (depending on dry particle size consistent with ammonium sulfate or non-neutralized sulfates as major component was always found. In marine air masses and for larger sizes within the sub-micrometer range (Dp=250 and 350 nm, a sea salt fraction with growth factors between 2.0 and 2.1 was also observed. For all other air masses, the more hygroscopic particle fraction in the sub-micrometer size range was mostly accompanied by a less hygroscopic particle fraction with growth factors between 1.20 and 1.55 depending on both the continental sources and the dry particle size. Number fractions of this particle group varied between 4 and 39% depending on dry particle size and air mass

  6. Investigation of image distortion due to MCP electronic readout misalignment and correction via customized GUI application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitucci, G.; Minniti, T.; Tremsin, A. S.; Kockelmann, W.; Gorini, G.

    2018-04-01

    The MCP-based neutron counting detector is a novel device that allows high spatial resolution and time-resolved neutron radiography and tomography with epithermal, thermal and cold neutrons. Time resolution is possible by the high readout speeds of ~ 1200 frames/sec, allowing high resolution event counting with relatively high rates without spatial resolution degradation due to event overlaps. The electronic readout is based on a Timepix sensor, a CMOS pixel readout chip developed at CERN. Currently, a geometry of a quad Timepix detector is used with an active format of 28 × 28 mm2 limited by the size of the Timepix quad (2 × 2 chips) readout. Measurements of a set of high-precision micrometers test samples have been performed at the Imaging and Materials Science & Engineering (IMAT) beamline operating at the ISIS spallation neutron source (U.K.). The aim of these experiments was the full characterization of the chip misalignment and of the gaps between each pad in the quad Timepix sensor. Such misalignment causes distortions of the recorded shape of the sample analyzed. We present in this work a post-processing image procedure that considers and corrects these effects. Results of the correction will be discussed and the efficacy of this method evaluated.

  7. Optical readout method for solid-state dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.C.; Eichner, F.N.; Stahl, K.A.; Miller, S.D.

    1986-07-01

    The readout of solid-state dosemeters is usually accomplished by heating to produce thermoluminescence. This technique has several disadvantages including stressing the dosemeter crystals, melting Teflon enclosures, and destroying the thin dosemeters designed for beta particle measurements. An optical readout method is being developed to avoid these difficulties. Standard dosemeters were irradiated to a dose of approximately 0.02 Sv with 137 Cs gamma rays. The dosemeters were then irradiated with light produced by a high-intensity xenon lamp. Various wavelength bands, from the ultraviolet through the visible and to the near-infrared, were used. The degree of trap emptying was found to be proportional to the total optical power incident. With the intensities used in the preliminary experiments, over 90% trap emptying was achieved. This new technique will prove useful for dosemeters that are encased in plastic for automatic processing. The details of this optical readout method, along with some possible applications in neutron and beta dosimetry are described. 7 refs., 3 figs

  8. Synthesis and characterization of micrometer Cu/PVP architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Huajuan; Zhao, Yanbao; Sun, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A simple method for the synthesis of novel micrometer flower-like Cu/PVP architectures was introduced. Highlights: → Micrometer flower-like copper/polyvinylpyrrolidone architectures were obtained by a simple chemical route. → The amount of N 2 H 4 ·H 2 O, the reaction temperature, the molar ratio of CuCl 2 to PVP and different molecular weights of PVP play an important role in the controlling the morphology of the Cu/PVP architectures. → A possible mechanism of the formation of Cu/PVP architectures was discussed. -- Abstract: Micrometer-sized flower-like Cu/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) architectures are synthesized by the reduction of copper (II) salt with hydrazine hydrate in aqueous solution in the presence of PVP capping agent. The resulting Cu/PVP architectures are investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Cu/PVP flowers have uniform morphologies with an average diameter of 10 μm, made of several intercrossing plates. The formation of Cu/PVP flowers is a new kinetic control process, and the factors such as the amount of N 2 H 4 ·H 2 O, reaction temperature, molar ratio of CuCl 2 to PVP and molecular weight of PVP have significant effect on the morphology of Cu/PVP architectures. A possible mechanism of the formation of micrometer Cu/PVP architectures was discussed.

  9. Patterned Electroplating of Micrometer Scale Magnetic Structures on Glass Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.H.B.; Kanger, Johannes S.; Krenn, Bea E.; van Driel, Roel

    2004-01-01

    This paper has developed a new method of micro patterned electroplating that enables the fabrication of micrometer scale magnetic structures on glass substrates. In contrast to other methods, the process as developed here leaves the surrounding substrate area untouched: that is there is no seed

  10. Patterned electroplating of micrometer scale magnetic structures on glass substrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.H.B.; Kanger, S.J.; Krenn, G.E.; van Driel, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper has developed a new method of micro patterned electroplating that enables the fabrication of micrometer scale magnetic structures on glass substrates. In contrast to other methods, the process as developed here leaves the surrounding substrate area untouched: that is there is no seed

  11. BATS, the readout control of UA1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botlo, M.; Dorenbosch, J.; Jimack, M.; Szoncso, F.; Taurok, A.; Walzel, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1991-04-15

    A steadily rising luminosity and different readout architectures for the various detector systems of UA1 required a new data flow control to minimize the dead time. BATS, a finite state machine conceived around two microprocessors in a single VME crate, improved flexibility and reliability. Compatibility with BATS streamlined all readout branches. BATS also proved to be a valuable asset in spotting readout problems and previously undetected data flow bottlenecks. (orig.).

  12. Frequency multiplexing for readout of spin qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornibrook, J. M.; Colless, J. I.; Mahoney, A. C.; Croot, X. G.; Blanvillain, S.; Reilly, D. J., E-mail: david.reilly@sydney.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lu, H.; Gossard, A. C. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate a low loss, chip-level frequency multiplexing scheme for readout of scaled-up spin qubit devices. By integrating separate bias tees and resonator circuits on-chip for each readout channel, we realise dispersive gate-sensing in combination with charge detection based on two radio frequency quantum point contacts. We apply this approach to perform multiplexed readout of a double quantum dot in the few-electron regime and further demonstrate operation of a 10-channel multiplexing device. Limitations for scaling spin qubit readout to large numbers of multiplexed channels are discussed.

  13. Automatic Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  14. Hybrid amplifier for calorimetry with photodiode readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sushkov, V V

    1994-12-31

    A hybrid surface mounted amplifier for the photodiode readout of the EM calorimeter has been developed. The main technical characteristics of the design are presented. The design able to math readout constraints for a high luminosity collider experiment is discussed. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  15. Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... a calorimeter system of a relatively simple construction and moderate costs, however with excellent properties, built upon experience gained with the extensively beam-tested DREAM (Dual REAdout. Module) prototype. The main idea of multiple readout calorimetry is to indepen- dently measure for each hadronic shower ...

  16. Sub-micrometer waveguide for nano-optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Dyndgaard, Morten Glarborg; Andersen, Karin Nordström

    2003-01-01

    With the recent progress within the field of processing nano structures, there is an increasing interest in coupling light into such structures both for characterization of optical properties and new optical components. In this work we propose the use of a sub-micrometer planar waveguide for prob......With the recent progress within the field of processing nano structures, there is an increasing interest in coupling light into such structures both for characterization of optical properties and new optical components. In this work we propose the use of a sub-micrometer planar waveguide...... for probing the reflection of light against a nano structure. The planar waveguide is based on a silicon nitride core layer, surrounded by a silica cladding region. In our design we utilize this waveguide to couple light into a nano-structure....

  17. Common Readout System in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Jubin, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is going for a major physics upgrade in 2018. This upgrade is necessary for getting high statistics and high precision measurement for probing into rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of the condensed phase of QCD. The high interaction rate and the large event size in the upgraded detectors will result in an experimental data flow traffic of about 1 TB/s from the detectors to the on-line computing system. A dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU) is proposed for data concentration, multiplexing, and trigger distribution. CRU, as common interface unit, handles timing, data and control signals between on-detector systems and online-offline computing system. An overview of the CRU architecture is presented in this manuscript.

  18. Drift chamber data readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiladze, S.G.; Lokhonyai, L.

    1980-01-01

    An electronic system for processing drift chamber signals is described. The system consists of 4-channel fast amplifier-discriminators of low threshold, 16-channel time-expanders transforming 0.5 μs time intervals to 10 μs and a 9-bit time-to-digital converter (TDC) recording up to 16 expanded time intervals. If the average track multiplicity is small, TDC is capable to process signals from 4 time-expanders (i.e., 64 drift gaps). In order to record multiple tracks per drift gap discriminator outputs can be connected to a number of time-expander channels. The fast clear input enables the system to be cleared within 0.5 μs. Efficient readout from TDC is facilated by reading only those channels which contain non-zero data (9 bits - drift time; 6 bits - wire number)

  19. Common Readout System in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Jubin, Mitra

    2017-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is going for a major physics upgrade in 2018. This upgrade is necessary for getting high statistics and high precision measurement for probing into rare physics channels needed to understand the dynamics of the condensed phase of QCD. The high interaction rate and the large event size in the upgraded detectors will result in an experimental data flow traffic of about 1 TB/s from the detectors to the on-line computing system. A dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU) is proposed for data concentration, multiplexing, and trigger distribution. CRU, as common interface unit, handles timing, data and control signals between on-detector systems and online-offline computing system. An overview of the CRU architecture is presented in this manuscript.

  20. Digital readout alpha survey instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype solid-state digital readout alpha particle survey instrument has been designed and constructed. The meter incorporates a Ludlum alpha scintillator as a detector, digital logic circuits for control and timing, and a Digilin counting module with reflective liquid crystal display. The device is used to monitor alpha radiation from a surface. Sample counts are totalized over 10-second intervals and displayed digitally in counts per minute up to 19,999. Tests over source samples with counts to 15,600 cpm have shown the device to be rapid, versatile and accurate. The instrument can be fabricated in one man-week and requires about $835 in material costs. A complete set of drawings is included

  1. Central FPGA-based destination and load control in the LHCb MHz event readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, R.

    2012-10-01

    The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz. A set of 320 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at total rate of 24.6 MHz at a bandwidth usage of up to 70 GB/s over a commercial switching network based on Gigabit Ethernet to a distributed event building and high-level trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. An FPGA-based central master module, partly operating at the LHC bunch clock frequency of 40.08 MHz and partly at a double clock speed, is in charge of the entire trigger and readout control from the front-end electronics up to the high-level trigger farm. One FPGA is dedicated to controlling the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load control and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also allows the vital task of fast central monitoring and automatic recovery in-flight of failing nodes while maintaining dead-time and event loss at a minimum. This paper demonstrates the strength and suitability of implementing this real-time task for a very large distributed system in an FPGA where no random delays are introduced, and where extreme reliability and accurate event accounting are fundamental requirements. It was in use during the entire commissioning phase of LHCb and has been in faultless operation during the first two years of physics luminosity data taking.

  2. Central FPGA-based destination and load control in the LHCb MHz event readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, R.

    2012-01-01

    The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz. A set of 320 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at total rate of 24.6 MHz at a bandwidth usage of up to 70 GB/s over a commercial switching network based on Gigabit Ethernet to a distributed event building and high-level trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. An FPGA-based central master module, partly operating at the LHC bunch clock frequency of 40.08 MHz and partly at a double clock speed, is in charge of the entire trigger and readout control from the front-end electronics up to the high-level trigger farm. One FPGA is dedicated to controlling the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load control and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also allows the vital task of fast central monitoring and automatic recovery in-flight of failing nodes while maintaining dead-time and event loss at a minimum. This paper demonstrates the strength and suitability of implementing this real-time task for a very large distributed system in an FPGA where no random delays are introduced, and where extreme reliability and accurate event accounting are fundamental requirements. It was in use during the entire commissioning phase of LHCb and has been in faultless operation during the first two years of physics luminosity data taking.

  3. Calibration of ALIBAVA readout system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trofymov, Artur [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS experiment-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (LH-LHC) is the upgrade of the LHC that foreseen to increase the instantaneous luminosity by a factor ten with a total integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker to operate in the new severe LH-LHC conditions (increasing detector granularity to cope with much higher channel occupancy, designing radiation-hard sensors and electronics to cope with radiation damage). Charge collection efficiency (CCE) of silicon strip sensors for the new ATLAS tracker can be done with ALIBAVA analog readout system (analog system gives more information about signal from all strips than digital). In this work the preliminary results of ALIBAVA calibration using two different methods (with ''source data'' and ''calibration data'') are presented. Calibration constant obtained by these methods is necessary for knowing collected charge on the silicon strip sensors and for having the ability to compare it with measurements done at the test beam.

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Metal Structures at the Micrometer Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Luca; Reiser, Alain; Spolenak, Ralph; Zambelli, Tomaso

    2017-05-01

    Currently, the focus of additive manufacturing (AM) is shifting from simple prototyping to actual production. One driving factor of this process is the ability of AM to build geometries that are not accessible by subtractive fabrication techniques. While these techniques often call for a geometry that is easiest to manufacture, AM enables the geometry required for best performance to be built by freeing the design process from restrictions imposed by traditional machining. At the micrometer scale, the design limitations of standard fabrication techniques are even more severe. Microscale AM thus holds great potential, as confirmed by the rapid success of commercial micro-stereolithography tools as an enabling technology for a broad range of scientific applications. For metals, however, there is still no established AM solution at small scales. To tackle the limited resolution of standard metal AM methods (a few tens of micrometers at best), various new techniques aimed at the micrometer scale and below are presently under development. Here, we review these recent efforts. Specifically, we feature the techniques of direct ink writing, electrohydrodynamic printing, laser-assisted electrophoretic deposition, laser-induced forward transfer, local electroplating methods, laser-induced photoreduction and focused electron or ion beam induced deposition. Although these methods have proven to facilitate the AM of metals with feature sizes in the range of 0.1-10 µm, they are still in a prototype stage and their potential is not fully explored yet. For instance, comprehensive studies of material availability and material properties are often lacking, yet compulsory for actual applications. We address these items while critically discussing and comparing the potential of current microscale metal AM techniques. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of longitudinal fibers, scintillator and quartz respectively, and therefore capable of deter- ... The main idea of multiple readout calorimetry is to indepen- ... in a campaign of R&D and tests (with sources, cosmic rays and beams) through-.

  6. A TDC integrated circuit for drift chamber readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passaseo, M.; Petrolo, E.; Veneziano, S.

    1995-01-01

    A custom integrated circuit for the measurement of the signal drift-time coming from the KLOE chamber developed by INFN Sezione di Roma is presented. The circuit is a multichannel common start/stop TDC, with 32 channels per chip. The TDC integrated circuit will be developed as a full-custom device in 0.5 μm CMOS technology, with 1 ns LSB realized using a Gray counter working at the frequency of 1 GHz. The circuit is capable of detecting rising/falling edges, with a double edge resolution of 8 ns; the hits are recorded as 16 bit words, hits older than a programmable time window are discarded, if not confirmed by a stop signal. The chip has four event-buffers, which are used only if at least one hit is present in one of the 32 channels. The readout of the data passes through the I/O port at a speed of 33 MHz; empty channels are automatically skipped during the readout phase. (orig.)

  7. A TDC integrated circuit for drift chamber readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passaseo, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Petrolo, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Veneziano, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy)

    1995-12-11

    A custom integrated circuit for the measurement of the signal drift-time coming from the KLOE chamber developed by INFN Sezione di Roma is presented. The circuit is a multichannel common start/stop TDC, with 32 channels per chip. The TDC integrated circuit will be developed as a full-custom device in 0.5 {mu}m CMOS technology, with 1 ns LSB realized using a Gray counter working at the frequency of 1 GHz. The circuit is capable of detecting rising/falling edges, with a double edge resolution of 8 ns; the hits are recorded as 16 bit words, hits older than a programmable time window are discarded, if not confirmed by a stop signal. The chip has four event-buffers, which are used only if at least one hit is present in one of the 32 channels. The readout of the data passes through the I/O port at a speed of 33 MHz; empty channels are automatically skipped during the readout phase. (orig.).

  8. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)

  9. Katherine: Ethernet Embedded Readout Interface for Timepix3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, P.; Broulím, P.; Jára, M.; Georgiev, V.; Bergmann, B.

    2017-11-01

    The Timepix3—the latest generation of hybrid particle pixel detectors of Medipix family—yields a lot of new possibilities, i.e. a high hit-rate, a time resolution of 1.56 ns, event data-driven readout mode, and the capability of measuring the Time-over-Threshold (ToT - energy) and the Time-of-Arrival (ToA) simultaneously. This paper introduces a newly developed readout device for the Timepix3, called "Katherine", featuring a Gigabit Ethernet interface. The primary benefit of the Katherine is the operation of Timepix3 at long distance (up to 100 m) from computer or server, which is advantageous for the installation at beam lines, where the access is difficult or where radiation levels are too high for human interventions. The maximal hit-rate is limited by the bandwidth of the Ethernet connection (peer-to-peer connection; up to 16 Mhit/s). Since the Katherine interface is equipped with a processor of high computational power (ARM Cortex-A9 dual-core processor), it permits the use as a stand-alone (autonomous) radiation detector. The key features of the device are described in detail. These are the implemented high voltage power supply offering both polarities of bias voltage (up to ± 300 V), the automatic data sending to a sever via SSH, the automatic compensation of ToA values from columns with shifted matrix clock, etc. A dedicated control software was developed, which can be used for the detector preparation (sensor equalization, the DACs dependency scan, and the THL scan) and measurement control. Measured energy spectra from photon fields are shown.

  10. Study of the spatial resolution for binary readout detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonamine, R., E-mail: ryo.yonamine@ulb.ac.be; Maerschalk, T.; Lentdecker, G. De

    2016-07-11

    Often the binary readout is proposed for high granularity detectors to reduce the generated data volume to be readout at the price of a somewhat reduced spatial resolution compared to an analogue readout. We have been studying single hit resolutions obtained with a binary readout using simulations as well as analytical approaches. In this note we show that the detector geometry could be optimized to offer an equivalent spatial resolution than with an analogue readout.

  11. Readout ASIC for ILC-FPCCD vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takubo, Yosuke; Miyamoto, Akiya; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Itagaki, Kennosuke; Nagamine, Tadashi; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The concept of FPCCD (Fine Pixel CCD) whose pixel size is 5x5μm 2 has been proposed as vertex detector at ILC. Since FPCCD has 128 x20,000 pixels in one readout channel, its readout poses a considerable challenge. We have developed a prototype of readout ASIC to readout the large number of pixels during the inter-train gap of the ILC beam. In this paper, we report the design and performance of the readout ASIC.

  12. LHCb: Fast Readout Control for the upgraded readout architecture of the LHCb experiment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, F

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb experiment at CERN has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity with an upgraded LHCb detector. As a consequence, the various LHCb sub-systems in the readout architecture will be upgraded to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate, and higher readout load. The new architecture, new functionalities, and the first hardware implementation of a new LHCb Readout Control system (commonly referred to as S-TFC) for the upgraded LHCb experiment is here presented. Our attention is focused in describing solutions for the distribution of clock and timing information to control the entire upgraded readout architecture by profiting of a bidirectional optical network and powerful FPGAs, including a real-time mechanism to synchronize the entire system. Solutions and implementations are presented, together with first results on the simulation and the validation of the system.

  13. [Evaluation of Image Quality of Readout Segmented EPI with Readout Partial Fourier Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuuki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyahara, Kanae

    Readout segmented EPI (readout segmentation of long variable echo-trains: RESOLVE) segmented k-space in the readout direction. By using the partial Fourier method in the readout direction, the imaging time was shortened. However, the influence on image quality due to insufficient data sampling is concerned. The setting of the partial Fourier method in the readout direction in each segment was changed. Then, we examined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and distortion ratio for changes in image quality due to differences in data sampling. As the number of sampling segments decreased, SNR and CNR showed a low value. In addition, the distortion ratio did not change. The image quality of minimum sampling segments is greatly different from full data sampling, and caution is required when using it.

  14. Graphene-Based Flexible Micrometer-Sized Microbial Fuel Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.

    2013-10-23

    Microbial fuel cells harvest electrical energy produced by bacteria during the natural decomposition of organic matter. We report a micrometer-sized microbial fuel cell that is able to generate nanowatt-scale power from microliters of liquids. The sustainable design is comprised of a graphene anode, an air cathode, and a polymer-based substrate platform for flexibility. The graphene layer was grown on a nickel thin film by using chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure. Our demonstration provides a low-cost option to generate useful power for lab-on-chip applications and could be promising to rapidly screen and scale up microbial fuel cells for water purification without consuming excessive power (unlike other water treatment technologies).

  15. Imaging achievements with the Vernier readout

    CERN Document Server

    Lapington, J S; Worth, L B C; Tandy, J A

    2002-01-01

    We describe the Vernier anode, a high resolution and charge division image readout for microchannel plate detectors. It comprises a planar structure of insulated electrodes deposited on an insulating substrate. The charge cloud from an event is divided amongst all nine electrodes and the charge ratio uniquely determines the two-dimensional position coordinate of the charge centroid. We discuss the design of the anode pattern and describe the advantages offered by this readout. The cyclic variation of the electrode structure allows the image resolution to exceed the charge measurement resolution and enables the entire active area of the readout to be utilized. In addition, fixed pattern noise is greatly reduced. We present results demonstrating the position resolution and image linearity. A position resolution of 10 mu m FWHM is demonstrated and the overall imaging performance is shown to be limited by the microchannel plate pore spacing. We present measurements of the image distortions and describe techniques...

  16. The NA60 experiment readout architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Floris, M; Usai, G L; David, A; Rosinsky, P; Ohnishi, H

    2004-01-01

    The NA60 experiment was designed to identify signatures of a new state of matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma, in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchroton. The apparatus is composed of four main detectors: a muon spectrometer (MS), a zero degree calorimeter (ZDC), a silicon vertex telescope (VT), and a silicon microstrip beam tracker (BT). The readout of the whole experiment is based on a PCI architecture. The basic unit is a general purpose PCI card, interfaced to the different subdetectors via custom mezzanine cards. This allowed us to successfully implement several completely different readout protocols (from the VME like protocol of the MS to the custom protocol of the pixel telescope). The system was fully tested with proton and ion beams, and several million events were collected in 2002 and 2003. This paper presents the readout architecture of NA60, with particular emphasis on the PCI layer common to all the subdetectors. (16 refs).

  17. D-Zero muon readout electronics design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, B.; Hansen, S.; Los, S.; Matveev, M.; Vaniev, V.

    1996-11-01

    The readout electronics designed for the D null Muon Upgrade are described. These electronics serve three detector subsystems and one trigger system. The front-ends and readout hardware are synchronized by means of timing signals broadcast from the D null Trigger Framework. The front-end electronics have continuously running digitizers and two levels of buffering resulting in nearly deadtimeless operation. The raw data is corrected and formatted by 16- bit fixed point DSP processors. These processors also perform control of the data buffering. The data transfer from the front-end electronics located on the detector platform is performed by serial links running at 160 Mbit/s. The design and test results of the subsystem readout electronics and system interface are discussed

  18. Data readout system utilizing photonic integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopiński, S., E-mail: S.Stopinski@tue.nl [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M. [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands)

    2013-10-11

    We describe a novel optical solution for data readout systems. The core of the system is an Indium-Phosphide photonic integrated circuit performing as a front-end readout unit. It functions as an optical serializer in which the serialization of the input signal is provided by means of on-chip optical delay lines. The circuit employs electro-optic phase shifters to build amplitude modulators, power splitters for signal distribution, semiconductor optical amplifiers for signal amplification as well as on-chip reflectors. We present the concept of the system, the design and first characterization results of the devices that were fabricated in a multi-project wafer run.

  19. Development of a Timepix3 readout system based on the Merlin readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crevatin, G.; Carrato, S.; Horswell, I.; Omar, D.; Tartoni, N.; Cautero, G.

    2015-01-01

    Timepix3 chip is a new ASIC specifically designed to readout hybrid pixel detectors. The main purpose of Timepix3 is to measure the time of arrival of events. This characteristic can be exploited very effectively to develop detectors for time resolved experiments at synchrotron radiation facilities. In order to investigate how the ASIC can be applied to synchrotron experiments the Merlin readout system, developed at Diamond for the Medipix3 ASIC, has been adapted to readout the Timepix3 ASIC. The first tests of the ASIC with pulse injection and with alpha particles show that its behaviour is consistent with its nominal characteristics

  20. High dynamic range low-noise focal plane readout for VLWIR applications implemented with current mode background subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Sun, Chao; Shaw, Timothy; Wrigley, Chris; Peddada, Pavani; Blazejewski, Edward R.; Pain, Bedabrata

    1998-09-01

    Design and operation of a low noise CMOS focal pa;ne readout circuit with ultra-high charge handling capacity is presented. Designed for high-background, VLWIR detector readout, each readout unit cell use an accurate dynamic current memory for automatic subtraction of the dark pedestal in current domain enabling measurement of small signals 85 dB below the dark level. The redout circuit operates with low-power dissipation, high linearity, and is capable of handling pedestal currents up to 300 nA. Measurements indicate an effective charge handling capacity of over 5 X 10(superscript 9) charges/pixel with less than 10(superscript 5) electrons of input referred noise.

  1. Comparison between two possible CMS Barrel Muon Readout Architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Pablos, J.L.; Willmott, C.; Alberdi, J.; Marin, J.; Navarrete, J.; Romero, L.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison between two possible readout arquitectures for the CMS muon barrel readout electronics is presented, including various aspects like costs, reliability, installation, staging and maintenance. A review of the present baseline architecture is given in the appendix. (Author)

  2. Latest generation of ASICs for photodetector readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin-Moreau, N.

    2013-01-01

    The OMEGA microelectronics group has designed a new generation of multichannel integrated circuits, the “ROC” family, in AustrianMicroSystem (AMS) SiGe 0.35 μm technology to read out signals from various families of photodetectors. The chip named MAROC (standing for Multi Anode ReadOut Chip) has been designed to read out MultiAnode Photomultipliers (MAPMT), Photomultiplier ARray In SiGe ReadOut Chip (PARISROC) to read out Photomultipliers (PMTs) and SiPM Integrated ReadOut Chip (SPIROC) to readout Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) detectors and which was the first ASIC to do so. The three of them fulfill the stringent requirements of the future photodetectors, in particular in terms of low noise, radiation hardness, large dynamic range, high density and high speed while keeping low power thanks to the SiGe technology. These multi-channel ASICs are real System on Chip (SoC) as they provide charge, time and photon-counting information which are digitized internally. Their complexity and versatility enable innovative frontier detectors and also cover spin off of these detectors in adjacent fields such as medical or material imaging as well as smart detectors. In this presentation, the three ASIC architectures and test results will be described to give a general panorama of the “ROC” chips

  3. Authenticated communication from quantum readout of PUFs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, Boris; Pinkse, Pepijn Willemszoon Harry; Mosk, Allard

    2016-01-01

    Quantum Readout of Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) is a recently introduced method for remote authentication of objects. We present an extension of the protocol to enable the authentication of data: a verifier can check if received classical data was sent by the PUF holder. We call this

  4. Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 4th concept design is built upon calorimetry criteria that result in the DREAM prototype, read-out via two different types of longitudinal fibers, scintillator and quartz respectively, and therefore capable of determining for each shower the corresponding electromagnetic fraction, thus eliminating the strong effect of ...

  5. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.; ALICE Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb-Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  6. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb–Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  7. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczepankiewicz, A., E-mail: Adam.Szczepankiewicz@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Institute of Computer Science, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-07-11

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb–Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  8. Latest generation of ASICs for photodetector readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin-Moreau, N.

    2013-08-01

    The OMEGA microelectronics group has designed a new generation of multichannel integrated circuits, the "ROC" family, in AustrianMicroSystem (AMS) SiGe 0.35 μm technology to read out signals from various families of photodetectors. The chip named MAROC (standing for Multi Anode ReadOut Chip) has been designed to read out MultiAnode Photomultipliers (MAPMT), Photomultiplier ARray In SiGe ReadOut Chip (PARISROC) to read out Photomultipliers (PMTs) and SiPM Integrated ReadOut Chip (SPIROC) to readout Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) detectors and which was the first ASIC to do so. The three of them fulfill the stringent requirements of the future photodetectors, in particular in terms of low noise, radiation hardness, large dynamic range, high density and high speed while keeping low power thanks to the SiGe technology. These multi-channel ASICs are real System on Chip (SoC) as they provide charge, time and photon-counting information which are digitized internally. Their complexity and versatility enable innovative frontier detectors and also cover spin off of these detectors in adjacent fields such as medical or material imaging as well as smart detectors. In this presentation, the three ASIC architectures and test results will be described to give a general panorama of the "ROC" chips.

  9. Latest generation of ASICs for photodetector readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin-Moreau, N., E-mail: seguin@lal.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire de l’Accélérateur Linéaire, IN2P3-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, Bâtiment 200, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2013-08-01

    The OMEGA microelectronics group has designed a new generation of multichannel integrated circuits, the “ROC” family, in AustrianMicroSystem (AMS) SiGe 0.35 μm technology to read out signals from various families of photodetectors. The chip named MAROC (standing for Multi Anode ReadOut Chip) has been designed to read out MultiAnode Photomultipliers (MAPMT), Photomultiplier ARray In SiGe ReadOut Chip (PARISROC) to read out Photomultipliers (PMTs) and SiPM Integrated ReadOut Chip (SPIROC) to readout Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) detectors and which was the first ASIC to do so. The three of them fulfill the stringent requirements of the future photodetectors, in particular in terms of low noise, radiation hardness, large dynamic range, high density and high speed while keeping low power thanks to the SiGe technology. These multi-channel ASICs are real System on Chip (SoC) as they provide charge, time and photon-counting information which are digitized internally. Their complexity and versatility enable innovative frontier detectors and also cover spin off of these detectors in adjacent fields such as medical or material imaging as well as smart detectors. In this presentation, the three ASIC architectures and test results will be described to give a general panorama of the “ROC” chips.

  10. Rutherford X-ray spectrometer readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1978-07-01

    Rutherford electronic X-ray spectrometer readout is based on the combination of two established techniques (a) the detection and location of soft X-rays by means of multichannel electron multiplier arrays (MCP's), and (b) the electronic readout of charge distributions (generally in multi-wire proportional counters) by means of the delay line techniques. In order for the latter device to function well a charge signal of approximately 10 6 electrons must be available to the delay line wand. This is achieved in the present device by means of two cascaded MCP's which can produce electron gains up to approximately 10 8 , and so operate the delay line from the single electron pulses generated at the front face of an MCP by a soft X-ray. The delay line readout technique was chosen because of its simplicity (both in terms of the necessary hardware and the associated electronics), robustness, and ease of implementation. In order to achieve the target spatial resolution of 50 μm (fwhm) or 20 μm (standard deviation) it was necessary to adapt the charge collection system so that the readout takes place from a length of delay line 200 mm long. The general layout of the system and the functions of the electronic circuits are described. Performance testing, setting up procedures and trouble shooting of the system are discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Very forward calorimeters readout and machine interface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper describes the requirements for the readout electronics and DAQ for the instrumentation of the forward region of the future detector at the international linear collider. The preliminary design is discussed. Author Affiliations. Wojciech Wierba1 on behalf of the FCAL Collaboration. The Henryk Niewodniczański ...

  12. Microwave multiplex readout for superconducting sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri, E., E-mail: elena.ferri@mib.infn.it [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Becker, D.; Bennett, D. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States); Faverzani, M. [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Fowler, J.; Gard, J. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States); Giachero, A. [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Hays-Wehle, J.; Hilton, G. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States); Maino, M. [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Mates, J. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States); Puiu, A.; Nucciotti, A. [Università Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Reintsema, C.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The absolute neutrino mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in both particle physics and cosmology. The calorimetric measurement of the energy released in a nuclear beta decay is a powerful tool to determine the effective electron-neutrino mass. In the last years, the progress on low temperature detector technologies has allowed to design large scale experiments aiming at pushing down the sensitivity on the neutrino mass below 1 eV. Even with outstanding performances in both energy (~ eV on keV) and time resolution (~ 1 μs) on the single channel, a large number of detectors working in parallel is required to reach a sub-eV sensitivity. Microwave frequency domain readout is the best available technique to readout large array of low temperature detectors, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) or Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). In this way a multiplex factor of the order of thousands can be reached, limited only by the bandwidth of the available commercial fast digitizers. This microwave multiplexing system will be used to readout the HOLMES detectors, an array of 1000 microcalorimeters based on TES sensors in which the {sup 163}Ho will be implanted. HOLMES is a new experiment for measuring the electron neutrino mass by means of the electron capture (EC) decay of {sup 163}Ho. We present here the microwave frequency multiplex which will be used in the HOLMES experiment and the microwave frequency multiplex used to readout the MKID detectors developed in Milan as well.

  13. The Design of Phase-Locked-Loop Circuit for Precision Capacitance Micrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shujie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High precision non-contact micrometer is normally divided into three categories: inductance micrometer, capacitance micrometer and optical interferometer micrometer. The capacitance micrometer is widely used because it has high performance to price ratio. With the improvement of automation level, precision of capacitance micrometer is required higher and higher. Generally, capacitance micrometer consists of the capacitance sensor, capacitance/voltage conversion circuit, and modulation and demodulation circuits. However, due to the existing of resistors, capacitors and other components in the circuit, the phase shift of the carrier signal and the modulated signal might occur. In this case, the specific value of phase shift cannot be determined. Therefore, error caused by the phase shift cannot be eliminated. This will reduce the accuracy of micrometer. In this design, in order to eliminate the impact of the phase shift, the phase-locked-loop (PLL circuit is employed. Through the experiment, the function of tracking the input signal phase and frequency is achieved by the phase-locked-loop circuit. This signal processing method can also be applied to tuber electrical resistance tomography system and other precision measurement circuit.

  14. Resistive Plate Chambers for hadron calorimetry: Tests with analog readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, Gary [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Repond, Jose [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: repond@hep.anl.gov; Underwood, David [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Xia, Lei [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-07-21

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) are being developed for use in a hadron calorimeter with very fine segmentation of the readout. The design of the chambers and various tests with cosmic rays are described. This paper reports on the measurements with multi-bit (or analog) readout of either a single larger or multiple smaller readout pads.

  15. Design and Performance of the CMS Pixel Detector Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Kästli, H C; Erdmann, W; Hörmann, C; Horisberger, R P; Kotlinski, D; Meier, B; Hoermann, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    The readout chip for the CMS pixel detector has to deal with an enormous data rate. On-chip zero suppression is inevitable and hit data must be buffered locally during the latency of the first level trigger. Dead-time must be kept at a minimum. It is dominated by contributions coming from the readout. To keep it low an analog readout scheme has been adopted where pixel addresses are analog coded. We present the architecture of the final CMS pixel detector readout chip with special emphasis on the analog readout chain. Measurements of its performance are discussed.

  16. C.C.D. readout of a picosecond streak camera with an intensified C.C.D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemonier, M.; Richard, J.C.; Cavailler, C.; Mens, A.; Raze, G.

    1984-08-01

    This paper deals with a digital streak camera readout device. The device consists in a low light level television camera made of a solid state C.C.D. array coupled to an image intensifier associated to a video-digitizer coupled to a micro-computer system. The streak camera images are picked-up as a video signal, digitized and stored. This system allows the fast recording and the automatic processing of the data provided by the streak tube

  17. LYSO crystal calorimeter readout with silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berra, A., E-mail: alessandro.berra@gmail.com [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Bonvicini, V. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy); Cecchi, C.; Germani, S. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Guffanti, D. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); Lietti, D. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Lubrano, P.; Manoni, E. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Prest, M. [Università degli Studi dell' Insubria (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Rossi, A. [INFN sezione di Perugia (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Large area Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) are the new frontier of the development of readout systems for scintillating detectors. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected silicon micropixels operating in limited Geiger–Muller avalanche mode, and thus working as independent photon counters with a very high gain (∼10{sup 6}). This contribution presents the performance in terms of linearity and energy resolution of an electromagnetic homogeneous calorimeter composed of 9∼18X{sub 0} LYSO crystals. The crystals were readout by 36 4×4 mm{sup 2} SiPMs (4 for each crystal) produced by FBK-irst. This calorimeter was tested at the Beam Test Facility at the INFN laboratories in Frascati with a single- and multi-particle electron beam in the 100–500 MeV energy range.

  18. The pipelined readout for the ZEUS calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervas, L.

    1991-01-01

    The electron-proton storage ring complex HERA under construction at DESY in Hamburg is the first machine of a new generation of colliders. Since physics to be studied at HERA (covered in chapter 2) base on the precise measurement of kinematic variables over a very large range of energies, a foremost emphasis is set in calorimetry. After long studies and an ambitious test program, the ZEUS collaboration has built a high resolution depleted uranium-scintillator calorimeter with photomultiplier readout, the state of the art in detectors of this type. In chapter 3 the principles of calorimetry are reviewed and the construction of the ZEUS calorimeter is described. Mainly due to the large dynamic range and the short bunch crossing times a novel concept for the readout in an analog pipelined fashion had to be designed. This concept is explained in chapter 4. The solid state implementation of the pipeline required two integrated circuits which were developed specially for the ZEUS calorimeter in collaboration with an electronics research institute and produced by industry. The design and construction of these devices and the detailed testing which has been performed for properties critical in the readout is covered in chapters 5 and 6. The whole pipelined readout is a complicated setup with many steps and collaborating systems. Its implementation and the information to operate it are covered in chapter 7. Finally the concepts presented and the applications discussed have been installed and tested on a test beam calibration experiment. There, the modules of the calorimeter have been calibrated. Chapter 8 presents results from these measurements which show excellent performance of the electronics as well as optimal properties of the calorimeter modules. (orig./HSI)

  19. LSST camera readout chip ASPIC: test tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antilogus, P; Bailly, Ph; Juramy, C; Lebbolo, H; Martin, D; Jeglot, J; Moniez, M; Tocut, V; Wicek, F

    2012-01-01

    The LSST camera will have more than 3000 video-processing channels. The readout of this large focal plane requires a very compact readout chain. The correlated ''Double Sampling technique'', which is generally used for the signal readout of CCDs, is also adopted for this application and implemented with the so called ''Dual Slope integrator'' method. We have designed and implemented an ASIC for LSST: the Analog Signal Processing asIC (ASPIC). The goal is to amplify the signal close to the output, in order to maximize signal to noise ratio, and to send differential outputs to the digitization. Others requirements are that each chip should process the output of half a CCD, that is 8 channels and should operate at 173 K. A specific Back End board has been designed especially for lab test purposes. It manages the clock signals, digitizes the analog differentials outputs of ASPIC and stores data into a memory. It contains 8 ADCs (18 bits), 512 kwords memory and an USB interface. An FPGA manages all signals from/to all components on board and generates the timing sequence for ASPIC. Its firmware is written in Verilog and VHDL languages. Internals registers permit to define various tests parameters of the ASPIC. A Labview GUI allows to load or update these registers and to check a proper operation. Several series of tests, including linearity, noise and crosstalk, have been performed over the past year to characterize the ASPIC at room and cold temperature. At present, the ASPIC, Back-End board and CCD detectors are being integrated to perform a characterization of the whole readout chain.

  20. Dual-readout calorimetry with scintillating crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinci, D

    2009-01-01

    The dual-readout approach, which allows an event-by-event measurement of the electromagnetic shower fraction, was originally demonstrated with the DREAM sampling calorimeter. This approach can be extended to homogeneous detectors like crystals if Cherenkov and scintillation light can be separated. In this paper we present several methods we developed for distinguishing the two components in PWO and BGO based calorimeters and the results obtained.

  1. Analog readout for optical reservoir computers

    OpenAIRE

    Smerieri, Anteo; Duport, François; Paquot, Yvan; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir computing is a new, powerful and flexible machine learning technique that is easily implemented in hardware. Recently, by using a time-multiplexed architecture, hardware reservoir computers have reached performance comparable to digital implementations. Operating speeds allowing for real time information operation have been reached using optoelectronic systems. At present the main performance bottleneck is the readout layer which uses slow, digital postprocessing. We have designed a...

  2. LSST camera readout chip ASPIC: test tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antilogus, P.; Bailly, Ph; Jeglot, J.; Juramy, C.; Lebbolo, H.; Martin, D.; Moniez, M.; Tocut, V.; Wicek, F.

    2012-02-01

    The LSST camera will have more than 3000 video-processing channels. The readout of this large focal plane requires a very compact readout chain. The correlated ''Double Sampling technique'', which is generally used for the signal readout of CCDs, is also adopted for this application and implemented with the so called ''Dual Slope integrator'' method. We have designed and implemented an ASIC for LSST: the Analog Signal Processing asIC (ASPIC). The goal is to amplify the signal close to the output, in order to maximize signal to noise ratio, and to send differential outputs to the digitization. Others requirements are that each chip should process the output of half a CCD, that is 8 channels and should operate at 173 K. A specific Back End board has been designed especially for lab test purposes. It manages the clock signals, digitizes the analog differentials outputs of ASPIC and stores data into a memory. It contains 8 ADCs (18 bits), 512 kwords memory and an USB interface. An FPGA manages all signals from/to all components on board and generates the timing sequence for ASPIC. Its firmware is written in Verilog and VHDL languages. Internals registers permit to define various tests parameters of the ASPIC. A Labview GUI allows to load or update these registers and to check a proper operation. Several series of tests, including linearity, noise and crosstalk, have been performed over the past year to characterize the ASPIC at room and cold temperature. At present, the ASPIC, Back-End board and CCD detectors are being integrated to perform a characterization of the whole readout chain.

  3. Performance of MSGC with analog pipeline readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Adeva, B.; Gracia, G.; Lopez, M.A.; Nunez, T.; Pazos, A.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Santamarina, C.; Vazquez, P.

    1997-01-01

    We analyse some of the performance characteristics of a chromium MSGC operated with Ar-DME 50%-50% in a test beam at CERN. Excellent signal-to-noise ratio and efficiency has been achieved with this gas mixture using cathode analog pipeline readout. We also determine optimal parameters for the sampling algorithm in order to work in a random trigger experiment (fixed target). (orig.)

  4. Preliminary Assessment of Microwave Readout Multiplexing Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croce, Mark Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Katrina Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rabin, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, D. A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Mates, J. A. B. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Gard, J. D. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Becker, D. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Schmidt, D. R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Ullom, J. N. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Ultra-high resolution microcalorimeter gamma spectroscopy is a new non-destructive assay technology for measurement of plutonium isotopic composition, with the potential to reduce total measurement uncertainty to a level competitive with destructive analysis methods [1-4]. Achieving this level of performance in practical applications requires not only the energy resolution now routinely achieved with transition-edge sensor microcalorimeter arrays (an order of magnitude better than for germanium detectors) but also high throughput. Microcalorimeter gamma spectrometers have not yet achieved detection efficiency and count rate capability that is comparable to germanium detectors, largely because of limits from existing readout technology. Microcalorimeter detectors must be operated at low temperature to achieve their exceptional energy resolution. Although the typical 100 mK operating temperatures can be achieved with reliable, cryogen-free systems, the cryogenic complexity and heat load from individual readout channels for large sensor arrays is prohibitive. Multiplexing is required for practical systems. The most mature multiplexing technology at present is time-division multiplexing (TDM) [3, 5-6]. In TDM, the sensor outputs are switched by applying bias current to one SQUID amplifier at a time. Transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays as large as 256 pixels have been developed for X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy using TDM technology. Due to bandwidth limits and noise scaling, TDM is limited to a maximum multiplexing factor of approximately 32-40 sensors on one readout line [8]. Increasing the size of microcalorimeter arrays above the kilopixel scale, required to match the throughput of germanium detectors, requires the development of a new readout technology with a much higher multiplexing factor.

  5. Signal processing for distributed readout using TESs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Stephen J.; Whitford, Chris H.; Fraser, George W.

    2006-01-01

    We describe optimal filtering algorithms for determining energy and position resolution in position-sensitive Transition Edge Sensor (TES) Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs). Improved algorithms, developed using a small-signal finite-element model, are based on least-squares minimisation of the total noise power in the correlated dual TES DROID. Through numerical simulations we show that significant improvements in energy and position resolution are theoretically possible over existing methods

  6. Cryogenic readout techniques for germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benato, G. [University of Zurich, (Switzerland); Cattadori, C. [INFN - Milano Bicocca, (Italy); Di Vacri, A. [INFN LNGS, (Italy); Ferri, E. [Universita Milano Bicocca/INFN Milano Bicocca, (Italy); D' Andrea, V.; Macolino, C. [GSSI/INFN LNGS, (Italy); Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano/INFN Milano, (Italy); Salamida, F. [Universita Milano Bicocca/INFN Milano Bicocca, (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    High Purity Germanium detectors are used in many applications, from nuclear and astro-particle physics, to homeland security or environment protection. Although quite standard configurations are often used, with cryostats, charge sensitive amplifiers and analog or digital acquisition systems all commercially available, it might be the case that a few specific applications, e.g. satellites, portable devices, cryogenic physics experiments, etc. also require the development of a few additional or complementary techniques. An interesting case is for sure GERDA, the Germanium Detector Array experiment, searching for neutrino-less double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN - Italy. In GERDA the entire detector array, composed of semi-coaxial and BEGe naked crystals, is operated suspended inside a cryostat filled with liquid argon, that acts not only as cooling medium and but also as an active shield, thanks to its scintillation properties. These peculiar circumstances, together with the additional requirement of a very low radioactive background from all the materials adjacent to the detectors, clearly introduce significant constraints on the design of the Ge front-end readout electronics. All the Ge readout solutions developed within the framework of the GERDA collaboration, for both Phase I and Phase II, will be briefly reviewed, with their relative strength and weakness compared together and with respect to ideal Ge readout. Finally, the digital processing techniques developed by the GERDA collaboration for energy estimation of Ge detector signals will be recalled. (authors)

  7. Comparison of the 3.36 micrometer feature to the ISM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, A.T.; Brooke, T.Y.

    1988-01-01

    It has been noted that the 3.36 micrometer emission feature is not the same as that of any ISM band at 3.4 micrometer. This is documented herein. There is no convincing analog to the cometary 3.36 micrometer emission feature seen in the Interstellar Matter band. This fact suggests that if the carbonaceous material in comets came from the ISM, it was either further processed in the solar nebula or has a different appearance because of the different excitation environment of the sun and ISM

  8. Comparison of the 3.36 micrometer feature to the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Alan T.; Brooke, Timothy Y.

    1988-01-01

    It has been noted that the 3.36 micrometer emission feature is not the same as that of any ISM band at 3.4 micrometer. This is documented herein. There is no convincing analog to the cometary 3.36 micrometer emission feature seen in the Interstellar Matter band. This fact suggests that if the carbonaceous material in comets came from the ISM, it was either further processed in the solar nebula or has a different appearance because of the different excitation environment of the sun and ISM.

  9. High frequency nonlinear scattering from a micrometer to submicrometer sized lipid encapsulated contrast agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goertz, David E.; Frijlink, Martijn E.; de Jong, N.; van der Steen, A.F.W.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental lipid encapsulated contrast agent comprised substantially of micrometer to submicrometer diameter bubbles was evaluated for its capacity to produce nonlinear scattering in response to high transmit frequencies. Agent characterization experiments were conducted at transmit frequencies

  10. The readout system of the new H1 silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, J.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.; Henschel, H.; Haynes, W.J.; Noyes, G.W.; Joensson, L.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Wagener, M.; Eichler, R.; Erdmann, W.; Niggli, H.; Pitzl, D.

    1995-03-01

    The H1 detector at HERA at DESY undergoes presently a major upgrade. In this context silicon strip detectors have been installed at beginning of 1995. The high bunch crossing frequency of HERA (10.4 MHz) demands a novel readout architecture which includes pipelining, signal processing and data reduction at a very early stage. The front end readout is hierarchically organized. The detector elements are read out by the APC chip which contains an analog pipeline and performs first background subtraction. Up to five readout chips are controlled by a Decoder Chip. The readout processor module (OnSiRoC) operates the detectors, controls the Decoder Chips and performs a first level data reduction. The paper describes the readout architecture of the H1 Silicon Detectors and performance data of the complete readout chain. (orig.)

  11. AVME readout module for multichannel ASIC characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkar, S.P.; Lalwani, S.K.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; Kataria, S.K.; Reynaud, Serge; )

    2004-01-01

    Electronics Division, BARC has been working on the development of multi-channel ASIC, called SPAIR (Silicon-strip Pulse Amplifier Integrated Readout). It contains 8 channels of preamplifier, shaper and track-and-hold circuitry. Electronics Division has also actively participated in development of test setup for the front-end ASIC, called PACE, for the preshower detector of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment at CERN, Geneva. PACE is a 32 channel ASIC for silicon strip detector, containing preamplifier, shaper, calibration circuitry, switched capacitor array, readout amplifier per channel and an analog multiplexer. A VME Readout Module, (VRM) is developed which can be utilized in data acquisition from ASICs like PACE and SPAIR. The VRM can also be used as the Detector Dependent Unit for digitally processing the data received from the front-end electronics on the 16-bit LVDS port. The processed, data can be read by the VME system. Thus the VRM is very useful in building an ASIC characterization system and/or the automated ASIC production testing system. It can be used also to build the applications using such ASICs. To cater to various requirements arising in future, variety of VME modules are to be developed like ADCs, DACs and D 1/0. VME interface remains a common part to all these modules. The different functional blocks of these modules can be designed and fabricated on small piggyback boards (called Test Boards) and mounted on the VRM, which provides the common VME interface. The design details and uses of VRM are presented here. (author)

  12. Study on two-dimensional induced signal readout of MRPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yucheng; Yue Qian; Li Yuanjing; Ye Jin; Cheng Jianping; Wang Yi; Li Jin

    2012-01-01

    A kind of two-dimensional readout electrode structure for the induced signal readout of MRPC has been studied in both simulation and experiments. Several MRPC prototypes are produced and a series of test experiments have been done to compare with the result of simulation, in order to verify the simulation model. The experiment results are in good agreement with those of simulation. This method will be used to design the two-dimensional signal readout mode of MRPC in the future work.

  13. Silicon microstrip detectors with SVX chip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, W.; Dropmann, F.; Godbersen, M.; Konorov, I.; Koenigsmann, K.; Masciocchi, S.; Newsom, C.; Paul, S.; Povh, B.; Russ, J.S.; Timm, S.; Vorwalter, K.; Werding, R.

    1995-01-01

    A new silicon strip detector has been designed for the fixed target experiment WA89 at CERN. The system of about 30 000 channels is equipped with SVX chips and read out via a double buffer into a FASTBUS memory. The detector provides a fast readout by offering zero-suppressed data extraction on the chip. The silicon counters are the largest detectors built on a monocrystal so far in order to achieve good transversal acceptance. Construction and performance during the 1993 data taking run are discussed. ((orig.))

  14. Test vehicles for CMS HGCAL readout ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Thienpont, Damien

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents first measurement results of two test vehicles ASIC embedding some building blocks for the future CMS High Granularity CALorimeter (HGCAL) read-out ASIC. They were fabricated in CMOS 130 nm, in order to first design the Analog and Mixed-Signal blocks before going to a complete and complex chip. Such a circuit needs to achieve low noise high dynamic range charge measurement and 20 ps resolution timing capability. The results show good analog performance but with higher noise levels compared to simulations. We present the results of the preamplifiers, shapers and ADCs.

  15. A fast readout system for scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steijger, J.; Kok, E.; Kwakkel, E.; Visschers, J.L.; Zwart, A.N.M.

    1991-01-01

    A system of fast readout electronics for segmented scintillation detectors has been constructed and is now operational. Instead of delaying the analog signals in long coaxial cables, they are digitized immediately and stored in dual-port memories, while the trigger decision is being made. A VMEbus system collects the data from these memories on the data acquisition modules within one crate. Several VME crates are connected via a transputer network to transport the data to an event builder. A separate transputer network is used to perform the VME cycles, needed for the computer-controlled tuning of the experiment. (orig.)

  16. 100 Gbps PCI-Express readout for the LHCb upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, P.; Neufeld, N.; Schwemmer, R.; Balbi, G.; Marconi, U.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new data acquisition system under development for the next upgrade of the LHCb experiment at CERN. We focus in particular on the design of a new generation of readout boards, the PCIe40, and on the viability of PCI-Express as an interconnect technology for high speed readout. We show throughput measurements across the PCI-Express bus, on Altera Stratix 5 devices, using a DMA mechanism and different synchronization schemes between the FPGA and the readout unit. Finally we discuss hardware and software design considerations necessary to achieve a data throughput of 100 Gbps in the final readout board

  17. LHCb: A new Readout Control system for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, F

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity. The entire readout architecture will be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate and higher network load. In this paper, we describe the architecture, functionalities and the first hardware implementation of a new Readout Control system for the LHCb upgrade. The system is based on FPGAs and bi-directional links for the control of the entire readout architecture. First results on the validation of the system are also given.

  18. Waveshifting fiber readout of lanthanum halide scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, G.L.; Cherry, M.L.; Stacy, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Newly developed high-light-yield inorganic scintillators coupled to waveshifting optical fibers provide the capability of efficient X-ray detection and millimeter scale position resolution suitable for high-energy cosmic ray instruments, hard X-ray/gamma ray astronomy telescopes and applications to national security. The CASTER design for NASA's proposed Black Hole Finder Probe mission, in particular, calls for a 6-8 m 2 hard X-ray coded aperture imaging telescope operating in the 20-600 keV energy band, putting significant constraints on cost and readout complexity. The development of new inorganic scintillator materials (e.g., cerium-doped LaBr 3 and LaCl 3 ) provides improved energy resolution and timing performance that is well suited to the requirements for national security and astrophysics applications. LaBr 3 or LaCl 3 detector arrays coupled with waveshifting fiber optic readout represent a significant advance in the performance capabilities of scintillator-based gamma cameras and provide the potential for a feasible approach to affordable, large area, extremely sensitive detectors. We describe some of the applications and present laboratory test results demonstrating the expected scintillator performance

  19. Semiconductor detectors with proximity signal readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asztalos, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor-based radiation detectors are routinely used for the detection, imaging, and spectroscopy of x-rays, gamma rays, and charged particles for applications in the areas of nuclear and medical physics, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear nonproliferation, and homeland security. Detectors used for imaging and particle tracking are more complex in that they typically must also measure the location of the radiation interaction in addition to the deposited energy. In such detectors, the position measurement is often achieved by dividing or segmenting the electrodes into many strips or pixels and then reading out the signals from all of the electrode segments. Fine electrode segmentation is problematic for many of the standard semiconductor detector technologies. Clearly there is a need for a semiconductor-based radiation detector technology that can achieve fine position resolution while maintaining the excellent energy resolution intrinsic to semiconductor detectors, can be fabricated through simple processes, does not require complex electrical interconnections to the detector, and can reduce the number of required channels of readout electronics. Proximity electrode signal readout (PESR), in which the electrodes are not in physical contact with the detector surface, satisfies this need

  20. Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzo, Aldo

    2007-01-01

    Measuring the energy of hadronic jets with high precision is essential at present and future colliders, in particular at ILC. The 4th concept design is built upon calorimetry criteria that result in the DREAM prototype, read-out via two different types of longitudinal fibers, scintillator and quartz respectively, and therefore capable of determining for each shower the corresponding electromagnetic fraction, thus eliminating the strong effect of fluctuations in this fraction on the overall energy resolution. In this respect, 4th is orthogonal to the other three concepts, which rely on particle flow analysis (PFA). The DREAM test-beam results hold promises for excellent performances, coupled with relatively simple construction and moderate costs, making such a solution an interesting alternative to the PFA paradigm. The next foreseen steps are to extend the dual-readout principle to homogeneous calorimeters (with the potential of achieving even better performances) and to tackle another source of, fluctuation in hadronic showers, originating from binding energy losses in nuclear break-up (measuring neutrons of few MeV energy). (author)

  1. MKID digital readout tuning with deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodkins, R.; Mahashabde, S.; O'Brien, K.; Thatte, N.; Fruitwala, N.; Walter, A. B.; Meeker, S. R.; Szypryt, P.; Mazin, B. A.

    2018-04-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) devices offer inherent spectral resolution, simultaneous read out of thousands of pixels, and photon-limited sensitivity at optical wavelengths. Before taking observations the readout power and frequency of each pixel must be individually tuned, and if the equilibrium state of the pixels change, then the readout must be retuned. This process has previously been performed through manual inspection, and typically takes one hour per 500 resonators (20 h for a ten-kilo-pixel array). We present an algorithm based on a deep convolution neural network (CNN) architecture to determine the optimal bias power for each resonator. The bias point classifications from this CNN model, and those from alternative automated methods, are compared to those from human decisions, and the accuracy of each method is assessed. On a test feed-line dataset, the CNN achieves an accuracy of 90% within 1 dB of the designated optimal value, which is equivalent accuracy to a randomly selected human operator, and superior to the highest scoring alternative automated method by 10%. On a full ten-kilopixel array, the CNN performs the characterization in a matter of minutes - paving the way for future mega-pixel MKID arrays.

  2. Control software for the CBM readout chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loizeau, Pierre-Alain [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment, which will be built at FAIR, will use free-streaming readout electronics to acquire high-statistics data-sets of physics probes in fixed target heavy-ion collisions. Since no simple signatures suitable for a hardware trigger are available for most of them, reconstruction and selection of the interesting collisions will be done in software, in a computer farm called First Level Event Selector (FLES). The raw data coming from the detectors is pre-processed, pre-calibrated and aggregated in a FPGA based layer called Data Preprocessing Boards (DPB). IPbus will be used to communicate with the DPBs and through them with the elements of the readout chain closer to detectors. A slow control environment based on this software is developed by CBM to configure in an efficient way the DPBs as well as the Front-End Electronics and monitor their performances. This contribution presents the layout planned for the slow control software, its first implementation and corresponding test results.

  3. MWPC with highly segmented cathode pad readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debbe, R.; Fischer, J.; Lissauer, D.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments being conducted with high energy heavy ion beams at Brookhaven National Laboratory and at CERN have shown the importance of developing position sensitive detectors capable of handling events with high multiplicity in environments of high track density as will also be the case in future high luminosity colliders like SSC and RHIC. In addition, these detectors are required to have a dynamic range wide enough to detect minimum ionizing particles and heavy ions like oxygen or silicon. We present here a description of work being done on a prototype of such a detector at BNL. Results from a similar counter are also presented in this Conference. The ''pad chamber'' is a detector with a cathode area subdivided into a very large number of pixel-like elements such that a charged particle traversing the detector at normal incidence leaves an induced charge on a few localized pads. The pads are interconnected by a resistive strip, and readout amplifiers are connected to the resistive strip at appropriate, carefully determined spacings. The pattern of tracks in a multi-hit event is easily recognized, and a centroid-finding readout system allows position determination to a small fraction of the basic cell size. 5 refs., 9 figs

  4. Auxiliary controller for time-to-digital converter module readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolin, Yu.V.

    1992-01-01

    The KD-225 auxiliary controller for time-to-digital converter module readout in the SUMMA crate is described. After readout and preliminary processing the data are written in the P-140 buffer memory module. The controller is used in the FODS-2 experimental setup data acquisition system. 12 refs.; 1 fig

  5. The Omega Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector readout system user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallewell, G.

    1984-11-01

    The manual describes the electronic readout system of the Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector at the CERN Omega Spectrometer. The system is described in its configuration of September 1984 after the Rich readout system had been used in two Omega experiments. (U.K.)

  6. A reconfigurable image tube using an external electronic image readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapington, J. S.; Howorth, J. R.; Milnes, J. S.

    2005-08-01

    We have designed and built a sealed tube microchannel plate (MCP) intensifier for optical/NUV photon counting applications suitable for 18, 25 and 40 mm diameter formats. The intensifier uses an electronic image readout to provide direct conversion of event position into electronic signals, without the drawbacks associated with phosphor screens and subsequent optical detection. The Image Charge technique is used to remove the readout from the intensifier vacuum enclosure, obviating the requirement for additional electrical vacuum feedthroughs and for the readout pattern to be UHV compatible. The charge signal from an MCP intensifier is capacitively coupled via a thin dielectric vacuum window to the electronic image readout, which is external to the sealed intensifier tube. The readout pattern is a separate item held in proximity to the dielectric window and can be easily detached, making the system easily reconfigurable. Since the readout pattern detects induced charge and is external to the tube, it can be constructed as a multilayer, eliminating the requirement for narrow insulator gaps and allowing it to be constructed using standard PCB manufacturing tolerances. We describe two readout patterns, the tetra wedge anode (TWA), an optimized 4 electrode device similar to the wedge and strip anode (WSA) but with a factor 2 improvement in resolution, and an 8 channel high speed 50 ohm device, both manufactured as multilayer PCBs. We present results of the detector imaging performance, image resolution, linearity and stability, and discuss the development of an integrated readout and electronics device based on these designs.

  7. A Triggerless readout system for the ANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemens, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the physics goals of the future ANDA experiment at FAIR is to research newly discovered exotic states. Because the detector response created by these particles is very similar to the background channels, a new type of data readout had to be developed, called "triggerless" readout. In this

  8. A Fastbus-based silicon strip readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neoustroev, P.; Stepanov, V.; Svoiski, M.; Uvarov, L.; Matthew, P.; Russ, J.; Cooper, P.

    1995-01-01

    The readout system we describe here is built specifically to work with the LBL-designed SVX chip. It is typical of systems using a master sequencer module to direct the trigger and readout cycles of the sparse data source and to push data into a digitization and storage module. (orig.)

  9. Focusing of sub-micrometer particles and bacteria enabled by two-dimensional acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antfolk, M.; Muller, Peter Barkholt; Augustsson, P.

    2014-01-01

    Handling of sub-micrometer bioparticles such as bacteria are becoming increasingly important in the biomedical field and in environmental and food analysis. As a result, there is an increased need for less labor-intensive and time-consuming handling methods. Here, an acoustophoresis-based microfl......Handling of sub-micrometer bioparticles such as bacteria are becoming increasingly important in the biomedical field and in environmental and food analysis. As a result, there is an increased need for less labor-intensive and time-consuming handling methods. Here, an acoustophoresis......-based microfluidic chip that uses ultrasound to focus sub-micrometer particles and bacteria, is presented. The ability to focus sub-micrometer bioparticles in a standing one-dimensional acoustic wave is generally limited by the acoustic-streaming-induced drag force, which becomes increasingly significant the smaller...... particles as small as 0.5 μm in diameter in microchannels of square or rectangular cross sections, is demonstrated. Numerical analysis was used to determine generic transverse particle trajectories in the channels, which revealed spiral-shaped trajectories of the sub-micrometer particles towards the center...

  10. Performance study of large area encoding readout MRPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Chen, G.; Han, D.; Wang, X.; Zeng, M.; Zeng, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Guo, B.

    2018-02-01

    Muon tomography system built by the 2-D readout high spatial resolution Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) detector is a project of Tsinghua University. An encoding readout method based on the fine-fine configuration has been used to minimize the number of the readout electronic channels resulting in reducing the complexity and the cost of the system. In this paper, we provide a systematic comparison of the MRPC detector performance with and without fine-fine encoding readout. Our results suggest that the application of the fine-fine encoding readout leads us to achieve a detecting system with slightly worse spatial resolution but dramatically reduce the number of electronic channels.

  11. MAROC, a generic photomultiplier readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blin, S; Barrillon, P; La Taille, C de

    2010-01-01

    The MAROC ASICs family is dedicated to the readout of 64-channel Multi Anode PMT and similar detectors. Its main roles are to correct the gain spread of MAPMT channels thanks to an individual variable gain preamplifier and to discriminate the input signals (from 50fC i.e 1/3 photo-electron) in order to produce 64 trigger outputs. A multiplexed analog charge output is also available with a dynamic range around 10 pe ( ∼ 1.6 pC) and a 12 bit Wilkinson ADC is embedded. Three versions of this chip have been submitted. MAROC 2 is the production version for the ATLAS luminometer and MAROC3 is a version with lower dissipation and significant improvements concerning the charge (30 pe: ∼ 5 pC) and trigger (discrimination from 10fC). This third version showed very good characteristics that are presented here.

  12. MAROC, a generic photomultiplier readout chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blin, S; Barrillon, P; La Taille, C de, E-mail: blin@lal.in2p3.f [CNRS/IN2p3/LAL-OMEGA, Universite Paris Sud, Bat.200, 91898 Orsay (France)

    2010-12-15

    The MAROC ASICs family is dedicated to the readout of 64-channel Multi Anode PMT and similar detectors. Its main roles are to correct the gain spread of MAPMT channels thanks to an individual variable gain preamplifier and to discriminate the input signals (from 50fC i.e 1/3 photo-electron) in order to produce 64 trigger outputs. A multiplexed analog charge output is also available with a dynamic range around 10 pe ( {approx} 1.6 pC) and a 12 bit Wilkinson ADC is embedded. Three versions of this chip have been submitted. MAROC 2 is the production version for the ATLAS luminometer and MAROC3 is a version with lower dissipation and significant improvements concerning the charge (30 pe: {approx} 5 pC) and trigger (discrimination from 10fC). This third version showed very good characteristics that are presented here.

  13. MAROC, a generic photomultiplier readout chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blin, S.; Barrillon, P.; de La Taille, C.

    2010-12-01

    The MAROC ASICs family is dedicated to the readout of 64-channel Multi Anode PMT and similar detectors. Its main roles are to correct the gain spread of MAPMT channels thanks to an individual variable gain preamplifier and to discriminate the input signals (from 50fC i.e 1/3 photo-electron) in order to produce 64 trigger outputs. A multiplexed analog charge output is also available with a dynamic range around 10 pe ( ~ 1.6 pC) and a 12 bit Wilkinson ADC is embedded. Three versions of this chip have been submitted. MAROC 2 is the production version for the ATLAS luminometer and MAROC3 is a version with lower dissipation and significant improvements concerning the charge (30 pe: ~ 5 pC) and trigger (discrimination from 10fC). This third version showed very good characteristics that are presented here.

  14. On-tip sub-micrometer Hall probes for magnetic microscopy prepared by AFM lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregusova, D.; Martaus, J.; Fedor, J.; Kudela, R.; Kostic, I.; Cambel, V.

    2009-01-01

    We developed a technology of sub-micrometer Hall probes for future application in scanning hall probe microscopy (SHPM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). First, the Hall probes of ∼9-μm dimensions are prepared on the top of high-aspect-ratio GaAs pyramids with an InGaP/AlGaAs/GaAs active layer using wet-chemical etching and non-planar lithography. Then we show that the active area of planar Hall probes can be downsized to sub-micrometer dimensions by local anodic oxidation technique using an atomic force microscope. Such planar probes are tested and their noise and magnetic field sensitivity are evaluated. Finally, the two technologies are combined to fabricate sub-micrometer Hall probes on the top of high-aspect ratio mesa for future SHPM and MFM techniques.

  15. Online readout and control unit for high-speed/high resolution readout of silicon tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, J.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Nowak, T.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    1997-01-01

    We are describing a high speed VME readout and control module developed and presently working at the H1 experiment at DESY in Hamburg. It has the capability to read out 4 x 2048 analogue data channels at sampling rates up to 10 MHz with a dynamic input range of 1 V. The nominal resolution of the A/D converters can be adjusted between 8 and 12 bit. At the latter resolution we obtain signal-to-noise ratio better than 61.4 dB at a conversion rate of 5 MSps. At this data rate all 8192 detector channels can be read out to the internal raw data memory and VME interface within about 410 μs and 510 μs, respectively. The pedestal subtracted signals can be analyzed on-line. At a raw data hit occupation of 10%, the VME readout time is 50 μs per module. Each module provides four complementary CMOS signals to control the front-end electronics and four independent sets of power supplies for analogue and digital voltages (10 V, 100 mA) to drive the front-end electronics and for the bias voltage (100 V, 1.2 mA) to assure the full functionality of the detectors and the readout. (orig.)

  16. Online readout and control unit for high-speed/high resolution readout of silicon tracking detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, J.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Nowak, T.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    1997-02-01

    We are describing a high speed VME readout and control module developed and presently working at the H1 experiment at DESY in Hamburg. It has the capability to read out 4 × 2048 analogue data channels at sampling rates up to 10 MHz with a dynamic input range of 1 V. The nominal resolution of the A/D converters can be adjusted between 8 and 12 bit. At the latter resolution we obtain signal-to-noise ratio better than 61.4 dB at a conversion rate of 5 MSps. At this data rate all 8192 detector channels can be read out to the internal raw data memory and VME interface within about 410 μs and 510 μs, respectively. The pedestal subtracted signals can be analyzed on-line. At a raw data hit occupation of 10%, the VME readout time is 50 μs per module. Each module provides four complementary CMOS signals to control the front-end electronics and four independent sets of power supplies for analogue and digital voltages (10 V, 100 mA) to drive the front-end electronics and for the bias voltage (100 V, 1.2 mA) to assure the full functionality of the detectors and the readout.

  17. Online readout and control unit for high-speed / high resolution readout of silicon tracking detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, J.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Nowak, T.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    1996-09-01

    We are describing a high speed VME readout and control module developed and presently working at the H1 experiment at DESY in Hamburg. It has the capability to read out 4 x 2048 analogue data channels at sampling rates up to 10 MHz with a dynamic input range of 1 V. The nominal resolution of the A/D converters can be adjusted between 8 and 12 bit. At the latter resolution we obtain signal-to-noise ratio better than 61.4 dB at a conversion rate of 5 MSps. At this data rate all 8192 detector channels can be read out to the internal raw data memory and VME interface within about 410 μs and 510 μs, respectively. The pedestal subtracted signals can be analyzed on-line. At a raw data hit occupation of 10%, the VME readout time is 50 μs per module. Each module provides four complementary CMOS signals to control the front-end electronics and four independent sets of power supplies for analogue and digital voltages (10 V, 100 mA) to drive the front-end electronics and for the bias voltage (100 V, 1.2 mA) to assure the full functionality of the detectors and the readout. (orig.)

  18. Design and test of a high resolution plastic scintillating fiber detector with intensified CCD readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebourgeard, P.

    1991-01-01

    We present the design of a particle detector involving a coherent array of 100 000 plastic scintillating microfibers, with an individual core diameter around 50 micrometers, and an intensified bidimensional CCD array. We investigate both theoretically and experimentally the use of polystyrene based scintillators in optical multimodal fibers. The isotropic excitation of modes and the characteristics of energy transfers between the polystyrene matrix and the added fluorescent dyes are of particular interest. An experimental approach is proposed and applied to the development of a new binary scintillator. In order to study the transmission of the signal from the interaction area to the output face, we specify the loss factors, the resolution and the signal to noise ratio within the fiber array. The low light level at the output face of the detector leads us to use image intensifiers in photon counting mode. This requires a detailed analysis of resolutions, gain, noise and detectivity concepts. We propose to describe these strongly correlated notions by the moment generation formalism. Thus, a previous modelisation of the photoelectronic devices allows us to evaluate the performance of the readout chain. A complete detector has been assembled and tested on a high energy hadron beam; the measurements are in good agreement with the modelisation [fr

  19. Spectral Optical Readout of Rectangular-Miniature Hollow Glass Tubing for Refractive Index Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, Giulia; Bello, Valentina; Merlo, Sabina

    2018-02-16

    For answering the growing demand of innovative micro-fluidic devices able to measure the refractive index of samples in extremely low volumes, this paper presents an overview of the performances of a micro-opto-fluidic sensing platform that employs rectangular, miniature hollow glass tubings. The operating principle is described by showing the analytical model of the tubing, obtained as superposition of different optical cavities, and the optical readout method based on spectral reflectivity detection. We have analyzed, in particular, the theoretical and experimental optical features of rectangular tubings with asymmetrical geometry, thus with channel depth larger than the thickness of the glass walls, though all of them in the range of a few tens of micrometers. The origins of the complex line-shape of the spectral response in reflection, due to the different cavities formed by the tubing flat walls and channel, have been investigated using a Fourier transform analysis. The implemented instrumental configuration, based on standard telecom fiberoptic components and a semiconductor broadband optical source emitting in the near infrared wavelength region centered at 1.55 µm, has allowed acquisition of reflectivity spectra for experimental verification of the expected theoretical behavior. We have achieved detection of refractive index variations related to the change of concentration of glucose-water solutions flowing through the tubing by monitoring the spectral shift of the optical resonances.

  20. Spectral Optical Readout of Rectangular–Miniature Hollow Glass Tubing for Refractive Index Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, Giulia; Bello, Valentina

    2018-01-01

    For answering the growing demand of innovative micro-fluidic devices able to measure the refractive index of samples in extremely low volumes, this paper presents an overview of the performances of a micro-opto-fluidic sensing platform that employs rectangular, miniature hollow glass tubings. The operating principle is described by showing the analytical model of the tubing, obtained as superposition of different optical cavities, and the optical readout method based on spectral reflectivity detection. We have analyzed, in particular, the theoretical and experimental optical features of rectangular tubings with asymmetrical geometry, thus with channel depth larger than the thickness of the glass walls, though all of them in the range of a few tens of micrometers. The origins of the complex line-shape of the spectral response in reflection, due to the different cavities formed by the tubing flat walls and channel, have been investigated using a Fourier transform analysis. The implemented instrumental configuration, based on standard telecom fiberoptic components and a semiconductor broadband optical source emitting in the near infrared wavelength region centered at 1.55 µm, has allowed acquisition of reflectivity spectra for experimental verification of the expected theoretical behavior. We have achieved detection of refractive index variations related to the change of concentration of glucose-water solutions flowing through the tubing by monitoring the spectral shift of the optical resonances. PMID:29462907

  1. FASTBUS readout system for the CDF DAQ upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, J.; Areti, H.; Black, D.

    1993-11-01

    The Data Acquisition System (DAQ) at the Collider Detector at Fermilab is currently being upgraded to handle a minimum of 100 events/sec for an aggregate bandwidth that is at least 25 Mbytes/sec. The DAQ System is based on a commercial switching network that has interfaces to VME bus. The modules that readout the front end crates (FASTBUS and RABBIT) have to deliver the data to the VME bus based host adapters of the switch. This paper describes a readout system that has the required bandwidth while keeping the experiment dead time due to the readout to a minimum

  2. The FE-I4 pixel readout integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sciveres, M., E-mail: mgarcia-sciveres@bl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arutinov, D.; Barbero, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Beccherle, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Dube, S.; Elledge, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fleury, J. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, Orsay (France); Fougeron, D.; Gensolen, F. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille (France); Gnani, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gromov, V. [Nationaal Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hemperek, T.; Karagounis, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Kluit, R. [Nationaal Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kruth, A. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Mekkaoui, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Menouni, M. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille (France); Schipper, J.-D. [Nationaal Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-04-21

    A new pixel readout integrated circuit denominated FE-I4 is being designed to meet the requirements of ATLAS experiment upgrades. It will be the largest readout IC produced to date for particle physics applications, filling the maximum allowed reticle area. This will significantly reduce the cost of future hybrid pixel detectors. In addition, FE-I4 will have smaller pixels and higher rate capability than the present generation of LHC pixel detectors. Design features are described along with simulation and test results, including low power and high rate readout architecture, mixed signal design strategy, and yield hardening.

  3. 100 Gbps PCI-Express Readout for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, Paolo; Schwemmer, Rainer; Marconi, Umberto; Balbi, Gabriele; Lax, Ignazio

    2015-01-01

    We present a new data acquisition system under development for the next upgrade of the LHCb experiment at CERN. We focus in particular on the design of a new common readout board, the PCIe40, and on the viability of PCI-Express as an interconnect technology for high speed readout. We describe a new high-performance DMA controller for data acquisition, implemented on an FPGA, coupled with a custom software module for the Linux kernel. Lastly, we describe how these components can be leveraged to achieve a throughput of 100 Gbit/s per readout board.

  4. Micrometer-sized Isolated Patterns of Conductive ZnO derived by Micromoulding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göbel, Ole F.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Blank, David A.H.

    2009-01-01

    We succeeded in the fabrication of large-area patterns with micrometer-sized, isolated features of a simple oxide by a technically simple patterning method. By micromoulding a polymeric precursor solution for ZnO with an elastomeric (PDMS) mould, and a subsequent heat treatment, patterned ZnO films

  5. Injection molding of nanopatterned surfaces in the sub-micrometer range with induction heating aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    . A tool insert having a surface containing functional geometries in the sub-micrometer range was produced using aluminum anodization and nickel electroplating. In order to provide elevated mold temperatures necessary for the complete replica of the pattern, a new mold setup was developed, which allows...

  6. Micrometer sized dust particles in a fr plasma under varying gravity conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, J.; Stoffels, W.W.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Ockenga, T.; Wolter, M.; Kersten, H.

    2009-01-01

    For diagnostic purposes micrometer-sized particles can be used as floating electrostatic probes. Once injected into a complex rf plasma, these particles will become negatively charged and can be trapped in the plasma sheath due to an equilibrium of several forces working on them, e.g. the

  7. A meteorological distribution system for high-resolution terrestrial modeling (MicroMet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen E. Liston; Kelly Elder

    2006-01-01

    An intermediate-complexity, quasi-physically based, meteorological model (MicroMet) has been developed to produce high-resolution (e.g., 30-m to 1-km horizontal grid increment) atmospheric forcings required to run spatially distributed terrestrial models over a wide variety of landscapes. The following eight variables, required to run most terrestrial models, are...

  8. Micrometer and nanometer-scale parallel patterning of ceramic and organic-inorganic hybrid materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Khan, Sajid; Göbel, Ole

    2010-01-01

    This review gives an overview of the progress made in recent years in the development of low-cost parallel patterning techniques for ceramic materials, silica, and organic–inorganic silsesquioxane-based hybrids from wet-chemical solutions and suspensions on the micrometer and nanometer-scale. The

  9. Fast timing readout for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhingan, A.; Saneesh, N.; Kumar, M.

    2016-01-01

    The development and performance of a 16 channel hybrid fast timing amplifier (FTA), for extracting timing information from silicon strip detectors (SSD), is described. The FTA will be used in a time of flight (TOF) measurement, in which one SSD is used to obtain the ion velocity (A) as well as the energy information of a scattered particle. The TOF information with a thin transmission SSD, acting as ΔE detector (Z) in a detector telescope, will provide a unique detection system for the identification of reaction products in the slowed down beam campaign of low energy branch (LEB) at NUSTAR-FAIR. Such a system will also provide large solid angle coverage with ~ 100% detection efficiency, and adequate segmentation for angular information. A good timing resolution (≤ 100 ps) enables to have shorter flight paths, thus a closely packed 4π array should be feasible. Preamplifiers for energy readout in SSD are easily available. A major constraint with SSDs is the missing high density multichannel preamplifiers which can provide both fast timing as well as energy. Provision of both timing and energy processing, generally makes circuit bulky, with higher power consumption, which may not be suitable in SSD arrays. In case of DSSSD, the problem was overcome by using timing from one side and energy from the other side. A custom designed 16 channel FTA has been developed for DSSSD design W from Micron Semiconductors, UK

  10. Readout of the atomtronic quantum interference device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias; Tan, Joel; Theng, Mark; Dumke, Rainer; Kwek, Leong-Chuan; Amico, Luigi

    2018-01-01

    A Bose-Einstein condensate confined in ring shaped lattices interrupted by a weak link and pierced by an effective magnetic flux defines the atomic counterpart of the superconducting quantum interference device: the atomtronic quantum interference device (AQUID). In this paper, we report on the detection of current states in the system through a self-heterodyne protocol. Following the original proposal of the NIST and Paris groups, the ring-condensate many-body wave function interferes with a reference condensate expanding from the center of the ring. We focus on the rf AQUID which realizes effective qubit dynamics. Both the Bose-Hubbard and Gross-Pitaevskii dynamics are studied. For the Bose-Hubbard dynamics, we demonstrate that the self-heterodyne protocol can be applied, but higher-order correlations in the evolution of the interfering condensates are measured to readout of the current states of the system. We study how states with macroscopic quantum coherence can be told apart analyzing the noise in the time of flight of the ring condensate.

  11. The Belle II SVD data readout system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalmeier, R., E-mail: Richard.Thalmeier@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita’ di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technolog y Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); and others

    2017-02-11

    The Belle II Experiment at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Tsukuba, Japan, will explore the asymmetry between matter and antimatter and search for new physics beyond the standard model. 172 double-sided silicon strip detectors are arranged cylindrically in four layers around the collision point to be part of a system which measures the tracks of the collision products of electrons and positrons. A total of 1748 radiation-hard APV25 chips read out 128 silicon strips each and send the analog signals by time-division multiplexing out of the radiation zone to 48 Flash Analog Digital Converter Modules (FADC). Each of them applies processing to the data; for example, it uses a digital finite impulse response filter to compensate line signal distortions, and it extracts the peak timing and amplitude from a set of several data points for each hit, using a neural network. We present an overview of the SVD data readout system, along with front-end electronics, cabling, power supplies and data processing.

  12. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S. W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K.; Coughlin, K. P.; Crowley, K. T.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Duff, S. M.; Dunkley, J.; Dünner, R.; van Engelen, A.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Hasselfield, M.; Hills, F.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Hloẑek, R.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Huffenberger, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Irwin, K. D.; Koopman, B. J.; Kosowsky, A. B.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Munson, C.; Nati, F.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Page, L. A.; Pappas, C. G.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Sehgal, N.; Sherwin, B. D.; Sievers, J. L.; Simon, S. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Thornton, R.; Van Lanen, J.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies—imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution—will enable precision cosmological constraints and also a wide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the Advanced ACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the Advanced ACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  13. Nonlinear parity readout with a microwave photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöndorf, M.; Wilhelm, F. K.

    2018-04-01

    Robust high-fidelity parity measurement is an important operation in many applications of quantum computing. In this work we show how in a circuit QED architecture, one can measure parity in a single shot at very high contrast by taking advantage of the nonlinear behavior of a strongly driven microwave cavity coupled to one or multiple qubits. We work in a nonlinear dispersive regime treated in an exact dispersive transformation. We show that appropriate tuning of experimental parameters leads to very high contrast in the cavity and therefore to a high-efficiency parity readout with a microwave photon counter or another amplitude detector. These tuning conditions are based on nonlinearity and are hence more robust than previously described linear tuning schemes. In the first part of the paper we show in detail how to achieve this for two-qubit parity measurements and extend this to N qubits in the second part of the paper. We also study the quantum nondemolition character of the protocol.

  14. A Meteorological Distribution System for High Resolution Terrestrial Modeling (MicroMet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, G. E.; Elder, K.

    2004-12-01

    Spatially distributed terrestrial models generally require atmospheric forcing data on horizontal grids that are of higher resolution than available meteorological data. Furthermore, the meteorological data collected may not necessarily represent the area of interest's meteorological variability. To address these deficiencies, computationally efficient and physically realistic methods must be developed to take available meteorological data sets (e.g., meteorological tower observations) and generate high-resolution atmospheric-forcing distributions. This poster describes MicroMet, a quasi-physically-based, but simple meteorological distribution model designed to produce high-resolution (e.g., 5-m to 1-km horizontal grid increments) meteorological data distributions required to run spatially distributed terrestrial models over a wide variety of landscapes. The model produces distributions of the seven fundamental atmospheric forcing variables required to run most terrestrial models: air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, incoming solar radiation, incoming longwave radiation, and precipitation. MicroMet includes a preprocessor that analyzes meteorological station data and identifies and repairs potential data deficiencies. The model uses known relationships between meteorological variables and the surrounding area (primarily topography) to distribute those variables over any given landscape. MicroMet performs two kinds of adjustments to available meteorological data: 1) when there are data at more than one location, at a given time, the data are spatially interpolated over the domain using a Barnes objective analysis scheme, and 2) physical sub-models are applied to each MicroMet variable to improve its realism at a given point in space and time with respect to the terrain. The three, 25-km by 25-km, Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) mesoscale study areas (MSAs: Fraser, North Park, and Rabbit Ears) will be used as example MicroMet

  15. A radiation-tolerant electronic readout system for portal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östling, J.; Brahme, A.; Danielsson, M.; Iacobaeus, C.; Peskov, V.

    2004-06-01

    A new electronic portal imaging device, EPID, is under development at the Karolinska Institutet and the Royal Institute of Technology. Due to considerable demands on radiation tolerance in the radiotherapy environment, a dedicated electronic readout system has been designed. The most interesting aspect of the readout system is that it allows to read out ˜1000 pixels in parallel, with all electronics placed outside the radiation beam—making the detector more radiation resistant. In this work we are presenting the function of a small prototype (6×100 pixels) of the electronic readout board that has been tested. Tests were made with continuous X-rays (10-60 keV) and with α particles. The results show that, without using an optimised gas mixture and with an early prototype only, the electronic readout system still works very well.

  16. Readout ASIC of pair-monitor for international linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yutaro; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ito, Kazutoshi; Miyamoto, Akiya; Nagamine, Tadashi; Sasaki, Rei; Takubo, Yosuke; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    The pair-monitor is a beam profile monitor at the interaction point of the international linear collider. A prototype of the readout ASIC for the pair-monitor has been designed and tested. Since the pair-monitor uses the hit distribution of electrons and positrons generated by the beam-crossing to measure the beam profile, the readout ASIC is designed to count the number of hits. In a prototype ASIC, 36 readout cells were implemented by TSMC 0.25-μm CMOS process. Each readout cell is equipped with an amplifier, comparator, 8-bit counter and 16 count-registers. By the operation test, all the ASIC component were confirmed to work correctly. As the next step, we develop the prototype ASIC with the silicon on insulator technology. It is produced with OKI 0.2-μm FD-SOI CMOS process.

  17. Single-Readout High-Density Memristor Crossbar

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, M. A.

    2016-01-07

    High-density memristor-crossbar architecture is a very promising technology for future computing systems. The simplicity of the gateless-crossbar structure is both its principal advantage and the source of undesired sneak-paths of current. This parasitic current could consume an enormous amount of energy and ruin the readout process. We introduce new adaptive-threshold readout techniques that utilize the locality and hierarchy properties of the computer-memory system to address the sneak-paths problem. The proposed methods require a single memory access per pixel for an array readout. Besides, the memristive crossbar consumes an order of magnitude less power than state-of-the-art readout techniques.

  18. An intelligent readout controller for Fastbus, the Fermilab FSCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, M.; Kwarciany, R.; Urish, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Fermilab FASTBUS Smart Crate Controller which is intended as a fast, versatile, and cost effective solution for the readout of FASTBUS crates. The on-board 68020 provides intelligence and a programmable microsequencer controls the main readout path. The FSCC supports communication via serial RS 232, Ethernet, and FASTBUS. The main readout path may be programmed for a variety of protocols. Currently, RS 422, VDAS, ECL line, and fiber-optic interfaces are being developed. Hardware interfacing is via the FASTBUS auxiliary connector using a personality card. Provision is made for some on-board formatting and processing of data. The 68020 may sample the data, also headers and word counts may be inserted into the data stream. Data is buffered by FIFOs to allow asynchronous readout

  19. Readout and triggering of the Soudan 2 nucleon decay experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thron, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The readout and triggering electronics for the Soudan 2 proton decay detector is presented. Pratically all the electronics is implemented in CMOS. The triggering scheme is highly flexible and software controllable

  20. Single-Readout High-Density Memristor Crossbar

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, M. A.; Omran, Hesham; Naous, Rawan; Salem, Ahmed Sultan; Fahmy, H. A. H.; Lu, W. D.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-01-01

    High-density memristor-crossbar architecture is a very promising technology for future computing systems. The simplicity of the gateless-crossbar structure is both its principal advantage and the source of undesired sneak-paths of current. This parasitic current could consume an enormous amount of energy and ruin the readout process. We introduce new adaptive-threshold readout techniques that utilize the locality and hierarchy properties of the computer-memory system to address the sneak-paths problem. The proposed methods require a single memory access per pixel for an array readout. Besides, the memristive crossbar consumes an order of magnitude less power than state-of-the-art readout techniques.

  1. Readout scheme for the Baby-MIND detector

    CERN Document Server

    Noah, Etam; Cadoux, F; Favre, Y; Martinez, B; Nicola, L; Parsa, S; Rayner, M; Antonova, M; Fedotov, S; Izmaylov, A; Kleymenova, A; Khabibullin, M; Khotyantsev, A; Kudenko, Y; Likhacheva, V; Mefodiev, A; Mineev, O; Ovsiannikova, T; Shaykhiev, A; Suvorov, S; Yershov, N; Tsenov, R

    2016-01-01

    A readout scheme has been designed for the plastic scintillator bars of the Baby-MIND detector modules. This spectrometer will measure momentum and identify the charge of 1 GeV/c muons with magnetized iron plates interleaved with detector modules. One challenge the detector aims to address is that of keeping high charge identification efficiencies for momenta below 1 GeV/c where multiple scattering in the iron plates degrades momentum resolution. A front-end board has been developed, with 3 CITIROC readout chips per board and up to 96 channels. Hamamatsu MPPCs type S12571-025C photosensors were chosen for readout of wavelength shifting fibers embedded in plastic scintillators. Procurement of the MPPCs has been carried out to instrument 3000 channels in total. Design choices and first results of this readout scheme are presented.

  2. FAIR: A new fast trigger and readout bus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordine, A.; Boiano, A.; Zaghi, A.

    1998-01-01

    FAIR (FAst Intercrate Readout) is a synchronous ECL bus system dedicated to readout. It is based on a new trigger and readout hardware level protocol and on a new control system that learns how to setup and control modules. The hardware protocol along with the data structure allow both readout and event building at the same time at the rate of 22 ns/longword (1.44 Gbit/s) without the need of CPUs. It performs trigger management and full pipelining by using a multilevel FIFO structure. FAIR provides for a multi-crate front-end environment and uses an embedded serial network to accomplish front-end control and setup. The data transfer measured performances and the control system are presented in some detail

  3. A four gain readout integrated circuit: FRIC 96 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussat, J.M.; Bohner, G.; Lecoq, J.; Colas, J.; Rossetto, O.; Dzahini, D.; Pouxe, J.

    1996-01-01

    The main difficulty for the readout electronics of the ATLAS LARG calorimeter is to handle the 16 bit dynamic range without spoiling the signal to noise ratio. A possible way to split the input. (authors)

  4. Study for the LHCb upgrade read-out board

    CERN Document Server

    Cachemiche, J P; Hachon, F; Le Gac, R; Marin, F; 10.1088/1748-0221/5/12/C12036

    2010-01-01

    The LHCb experiment envisages to upgrade its readout electronics in order to increase the readout rate from 1 MHz to 40 MHz. This electronics upgrade is very challenging, since readout boards will have to handle a higher number of serial links with an increased bandwidth. In addition, the new communication protocol (GBT) developed by the CERN micro-electronics group mixes data acquisition, slow control and clock distribution on the same link. To explore the feasibility of such a readout system, elementary building blocks have been studied. Their goals are multiple: understand signal integrity when using highly integrated high speed serial links running at 8 - 10 Gbits/s; test the implementation of the GBT protocol within FPGAs; understand advantages and limitations of commercial standard with a predefined interconnection topology; validate ideas on how to control easily such a system. We designed two boards compliant with the xTCA standard which meets an increasing interest in the physics community. The first...

  5. A compact readout system for multi-pixel hybrid photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datema, C.P.; Meng, L.J.; Ramsden, D.

    1999-01-01

    Although the first Multi-pixel Hybrid Photodiode (M-HPD) was developed in the early 1990s by Delft Electronic Products, the main obstacle to its application has been the lack of availability of a compact read-out system. A fast, parallel readout system has been constructed for use with the earlier 25-pixel tube with High-energy Physics applications in mind. The excellent properties of the recently developed multi-pixel hybrid photodiodes (M-HPD) will be easier to exploit following the development of the new hybrid read-out circuits described in this paper. This system will enable all of the required read-out functions to be accommodate on a single board into which the M-HPD is plugged. The design and performance of a versatile system is described in which a trigger-signal, derived from the common-side of the silicon anode in the M-HPD, is used to trigger the readout of the 60-anode pixels in the M-HPD. The multi-channel amplifier section is based on the use of a new, commercial VLSI chip, whilst the read-out sequencer uses a chip of its own design. The common anode signal is processed by a fast amplifier and discriminator to provide a trigger signal when a single event is detected. In the prototype version, the serial analogue output data-stream is processed using a PC-mounted, high speed ADC. Results obtained using the new read-out system in a compact gamma-camera and with a small muon tracking-chamber demonstrate the low-noise performance of the system. The application of this read-out system in other position-sensitive or multi-anode photomultiplier tube applications are also described

  6. The Philosophy and Feasibility of Dual Readout Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptman, John

    2006-01-01

    I will discuss the general physical ideas behind dual-readout calorimetry, their implementation in DREAM (Dual REAdout Module) with exact separation of scintillation and Cerenkov light, implementation with mixed light in DREAM fibers, anticipated implementation in PbWO4 crystals with applications to the 4th Concept detector and to CMS, use in high energy gamma-ray and cosmic ray astrophysics with Cerenkov and N2 fluorescent light, and implementation in the 4th Concept detector for muon identification

  7. Strip detectors read-out system user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, G.; Dulinski, W.; Lounis, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Strip Detector Read-out System consists of two VME modules: SDR-Flash and SDR-seq completed by a fast logic SDR-Trig stand alone card. The system is a self-consistent, cost effective and easy use solution for the read-out of analog multiplexed signals coming from some of the front-end electronics chips (Viking/VA chips family, Premus 128 etc...) currently used together with solid (silicon) or gas microstrip detectors. (author)

  8. Readout chip for the CMS pixel detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, Marco, E-mail: marco.rossini@phys.ethz.ch

    2014-11-21

    For the CMS experiment a new pixel detector is planned for installation during the extended shutdown in winter 2016/2017. Among the changes of the detector modified front end electronics will be used for higher efficiency at peak luminosity of the LHC and faster readout. The first prototype versions of the new readout chip have been designed and produced. The results of qualification and calibration for the new chip are presented in this paper.

  9. Soft X-ray imaging with axisymmetry microscope and electronic readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauneuf, A.; Cavailler, C.; Henry, Ph.; Launspach, J.; Mascureau, J. de; Rostaing, M.

    1984-11-01

    An axisymmetric microscope with 10 X magnification has been constructed; its resolution has been measured using severals grids, backlighted by an X-ray source and found to be near 25 μm. So it could be used to make images of laser driven plasmas in the soft X-ray region. In order to see rapidly those images we have associated it with a new detector. It is a small image converter tube with a soft X-ray photocathode and a P20 phosphor deposited on an optic fiber plate. The electronic image appearing on the screen is read by a CCD working in the spectral range. An electronic image readout chain, which is identical to those we use with streak cameras, then processes automatically and immediatly the images given by the microscope

  10. Finding weak points automatically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinger, P.; Wassenberg, M.

    1999-01-01

    Operators of nuclear power stations have to carry out material tests at selected components by regular intervalls. Therefore a full automaticated test, which achieves a clearly higher reproducibility, compared to part automaticated variations, would provide a solution. In addition the full automaticated test reduces the dose of radiation for the test person. (orig.) [de

  11. Infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry of micrometer-sized SiO2 line gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Cordula; Zellmeier, Matthias; Rappich, Jörg; Ketelsen, Helge; Hinrichs, Karsten

    2017-09-01

    For the design and process control of periodic nano-structured surfaces spectroscopic ellipsometry is already established in the UV-VIS spectral regime. The objective of this work is to show the feasibility of spectroscopic ellipsometry in the infrared, exemplarily, on micrometer-sized SiO2 line gratings grown on silicon wafers. The grating period ranges from 10 to about 34 μm. The IR-ellipsometric spectra of the gratings exhibit complex changes with structure variations. Especially in the spectral range of the oxide stretching modes, the presence of a Rayleigh singularity can lead to pronounced changes of the spectrum with the sample geometry. The IR-ellipsometric spectra of the gratings are well reproducible by calculations with the RCWA method (Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis). Therefore, infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry allows the quantitative characterization and process control of micrometer-sized structures.

  12. Upper limits to trace constituents in Jupiter's atmosphere from an analysis of its 5 micrometer spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffers, R. R.; Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Gautier, T. N.

    1978-01-01

    A high-resolution spectrum of Jupiter at 5 micrometers recorded at the Kuiper Airborne Observatory is used to determine upper limits to the column density of 19 molecules. The upper limits to the mixing ratios of SiH4, H2S, HCN, and simple hydrocarbons are discussed with respect to current models of Jupiter's atmosphere. These upper limits are compared to expectations based upon the solar abundance of the elements. This analysis permits upper limit measurements (SiH4), or actual detections (GeH4) of molecules with mixing ratios with hydrogen as low as 10 to the minus 9th power. In future observations at 5 micrometers the sensitivity of remote spectroscopic analyses should permit the study of constituents with mixing ratios as low as 10 to the minus 10th power, which would include the hydrides of such elements as Sn and As as well as numerous organic molecules.

  13. Absorption by airborne and deposited particles in the 8-13 micrometer range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K; Grassl, H

    1975-01-01

    The absorption of radiation by natural aerosol particles was measured in the 8 to 13 micrometer wavelength interval. A comparison was made between an in situ method and measurements of particles of deposited form. The results are in agreement to about 30 percent. The main feature of aerosol absorption within the infrared window is a strong absorption peak near 9 micrometers caused by sulfate or quartz particles present in all continental aerosol types. Consequences for the atmospheric heat balance are clear sky cooling rates growing from about 2 per cent in the tropics to about 20 per cent of the total cooling in arctic regions under normal conditions, additionally increasing with increasing relative humidity.

  14. Micrometer-sized isolated patterns of conductive ZnO derived by micromoulding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, Ole F.; Elshof, Johan E. ten; Blank, Dave A.H. [Inorganic Materials Science, Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    We succeeded in the fabrication of large-area patterns with micrometer-sized, isolated features of a simple oxide by a technically simple patterning method. By micromoulding a polymeric precursor solution for ZnO with an elastomeric (PDMS) mould, and a subsequent heat treatment, patterned ZnO films could be obtained. The features of the various patterns, including parallel or crossed lines and arrangements of dots, were several micrometers in diameter, and so were the spaces between them. The features were nearly isolated from each other, as the micromoulding process left behind a thin residual layer of ZnO of only about 15 nm thickness. By applying a tempering step, the transparent films could be rendered conductive. The process was applied successfully also to other oxide materials such as Bi2212 or CoFe2O4.

  15. On-surface synthesis of covalent coordination polymers on micrometer scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathieu Koudia; Elena Nardi; Olivier Siri; Mathieu Abel

    2017-01-01

    On-surface synthesis under ultrahigh vacuum provides a promising strategy to control matter at the atomic level,with important implications for the design of new two-dimensional materials having remarkable electronic,magnetic,or catalytic properties.This strategy must address the problem of limited extension of the domains due to the irreversible nature of covalent bonds,which prevents the ripening of defects.We show here that extended materials can be produced by a controlled co-deposition process.In particular,co-deposition of quinoid zwitterion molecules with iron atoms on a Ag(111) surface held at 570 K allows the formation of micrometer-sized domains based on covalent coordination bonds.This work opens up the construction of micrometer-scale single-layer covalent coordination materials under vacuum conditions.

  16. Application of ferrofluid density separation to particles in the micrometer-size range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebin, R.S. Jr.; Johnson, J.W.; Robertson, D.M.

    1976-02-01

    A device designed and described by AVCO* as a ''Ferrofluid Density Separator''/sup (1)/ develops an apparent fluid density from nominally 2 to 20 g/cm 3 dependent on the magnitude of an imposed magnetic field gradient. The ferrofluid retains other normal properties of a liquid. One of these devices and a concentration series of ferrofluids were obtained in order to determine the practicality of separating groups of micrometer-size particles into density fractions. Such separations would be of enormous value in the study of various particle burdens because particles of interest are almost always diluted with overwhelming amounts of other particles. The results of a study of separations of micrometer-size particles with the ferrofluid density separator are presented

  17. Sub-micrometer-thick all-solid-state supercapacitors with high power and energy densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fanhui [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Ding, Yi [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Shandong Applied Research Center for Gold Technology (Au-SDARC), Yantai 264005 (China)

    2011-09-15

    A sub-micrometer-thick, flexible, all-solid-state supercapacitor is fabricated. Through simultaneous realization of high dispersity of pseudocapacitance materials and quick electrode response, the hybrid nanostructures show enhanced volumetric capacitance and excellent stability, as well as very high power and energy densities. This suggests their potential as next-generation, high-performance energy conversion and storage devices for wearable electronics. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. FASTBUS Readout Controller card for high speed data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, S.

    1991-10-01

    This article describes a FASTBUS Readout Controller (FRC) for high speed data acquisition in FASTBUS based systems. The controller has two main interfaces: to FASTBUS and to a Readout Port. The FASTBUS interface performs FASTBUS master and slave operations at a maximum transfer rate exceeding 40 MBytes/s. The Readout Port can be adapted for a variety of protocols. Currently, it will be interfaced to a VME bus based processor with a VSB port. The on-board LR33000 embedded processor controls the readout, executing a list of operations download into its memory. It scans the FASTBUS modules and stores the data in a triple port DRAM (TPDRAM), through one of the Serial Access Memory (SAM) ports of the (TPDRAM). Later, it transfers this data to the readout port using the other SAM. The FRC also supports serial communication via RS232 and Ethernet interfaces. This device is intended for use in the data acquisition system at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. 5 refs., 3 figs

  19. Multi-Anode Photomultplier (MAPMT) readout for High Granularity Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Mkrtchyan, Tigran; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadron calorimeter high performance in jet sub-structure measurements can be achieved for objects with $p_{T}$ greater than 1 TeV if the readout geometry is finely segmented in $\\Delta\\eta \\times \\Delta\\phi$. A feasibility study to increase the readout granularity of TileCal, the central hadron calorimeter of the ATLAS detector, is presented. We show a preliminary study exploring the possibility to increase by a factor 4 the present readout granularity of the inner layer cells of TileCal (0.1->0.025 in $\\Delta\\eta$) and to split into two layers the intermediate section of TileCal. The proposed solution is designed to cope with mechanical and readout bandwidth and power constraints. Assuming that the mechanics of the Tile modules cannot be changed, Multi-Anode PMTs with same boundary geometry of the present single-anode PMTs are considered to readout WLS bers, ideally one per pixel, carrying the signals from the individual scintillating tiles of each detector cells. The discussed challenges of the design are: ...

  20. Frequency-chirped readout of spatial-spectral absorption features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tiejun; Mohan, R. Krishna; Harris, Todd L.; Merkel, Kristian D.; Tian Mingzhen; Babbitt, Wm. Randall

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the physical mechanisms of reading out spatial-spectral absorption features in an inhomogeneously broadened medium using linear frequency-chirped electric fields. A Maxwell-Bloch model using numerical calculation for angled beams with arbitrary phase modulation is used to simulate the chirped field readout process. The simulation results indicate that any spatial-spectral absorption feature can be read out with a chirped field with the appropriate bandwidth, duration, and intensity. Mapping spectral absorption features into temporal intensity modulations depends on the chirp rate of the field. However, when probing a spatial-spectral grating with a chirped field, a beat signal representing the grating period can be created by interfering the emitted photon echo chirped field with a reference chirped field, regardless of the chirp rate. Comparisons are made between collinear and angled readout configurations. Readout signal strength and spurious signal distortions are investigated as functions of the grating strength and the Rabi frequency of the readout pulse. Using a collinear readout geometry, distortions from optical nutation on the transmitted field and higher-order harmonics are observed, both of which are avoided in an angled beam geometry

  1. Readout for a large area neutron sensitive microchannel plate detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yiming [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Yang, Yigang, E-mail: yangyigang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Wang, Xuewu; Li, Yuanjing [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

    2015-06-01

    A neutron sensitive microchannel plate (MCP) detector was developed for neutron imaging on the beamline of a compact pulsed hadron source (CPHS). The detector was set up with a Wedge-and-Strip Anode (WSA) and a delay line anode readout to compare the spatial resolution and throughput with these two anodes. Tests show that the WSA readout is suitable for small area imaging with a spatial resolution of 200 μm with low energy X-rays in a 50 mm diameter MCP–WSA assembly. However, the spatial resolution deteriorated to ~2 mm in a 106 mm diameter MCP–WSA assembly because the noise caused by the parasitic capacitance is 10 times larger in the larger assembly than in the 50 mm diameter assembly. A 120 mm by 120 mm delay line anode was then used for the 106 mm MCP readout. The spatial resolution was evaluated for various voltages applied to the MCP V-stack, various readout voltages and various distances between the MCP V-stack rear face and the delay line. The delay line readout had resolutions of 65.6 μm in the x direction and 63.7 μm in the y direction and the throughput was greater than 600 kcps. The MCP was then used to acquire a neutron image of an USAF1951 Gd-mask.

  2. Yarr: A PCIe based readout system for semiconductor tracking systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heim, Timon [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Maettig, Peter [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); Pernegger, Heinz [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    The Yarr readout system is a novel DAQ concept, using an FPGA board connected via PCIe to a computer, to read out semiconductor tracking systems. The system uses the FPGA as a reconfigurable IO interface which, in conjunction with the very high speed of the PCIe bus, enables a focus of processing the data stream coming from the pixel detector in software. Modern computer system could potentially make the need of custom signal processing hardware in readout systems obsolete and the Yarr readout system showcases this for FE-I4 chips, which are state-of-the-art readout chips used in the ATLAS Pixel Insertable B-Layer and developed for tracking in high multiplicity environments. The underlying concept of the Yarr readout system tries to move intelligence from hardware into the software without the loss of performance, which is made possible by modern multi-core processors. The FPGA board firmware acts like a buffer and does no further processing of the data stream, enabling rapid integration of new hardware due to minimal firmware minimisation.

  3. dc readout experiment at the Caltech 40m prototype interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R L; Adhikari, R; Abbott, B; Abbott, R; Bork, R; Fricke, T; Heefner, J; Ivanov, A; Miyakawa, O; Smith, M; Taylor, R; Vass, S; Waldman, S; Weinstein, A; Barron, D; Frolov, V; McKenzie, K; Slagmolen, B

    2008-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) operates a 40m prototype interferometer on the Caltech campus. The primary mission of the prototype is to serve as an experimental testbed for upgrades to the LIGO interferometers and for gaining experience with advanced interferometric techniques, including detuned resonant sideband extraction (i.e. signal recycling) and dc readout (optical homodyne detection). The former technique will be employed in Advanced LIGO, and the latter in both Enhanced and Advanced LIGO. Using dc readout for gravitational wave signal extraction has several technical advantages, including reduced laser and oscillator noise couplings as well as reduced shot noise, when compared to the traditional rf readout technique (optical heterodyne detection) currently in use in large-scale ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors. The Caltech 40m laboratory is currently prototyping a dc readout system for a fully suspended interferometric gravitational wave detector. The system includes an optical filter cavity at the interferometer's output port, and the associated controls and optics to ensure that the filter cavity is optimally coupled to the interferometer. We present the results of measurements to characterize noise couplings in rf and dc readout using this system

  4. A readout buffer prototype for ATLAS high-level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, D; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D; Mur, M

    2001-01-01

    Readout buffers are critical components in the dataflow chain of the ATLAS trigger/data-acquisition system. At up to 75 kHz, after each Level-1 trigger accept signal, these devices receive and store digitized data from groups of front-end electronic channels. Several readout buffers are grouped to form a readout buffer complex that acts as a data server for the high-level trigger selection algorithms and for the final data-collection system. This paper describes a functional prototype of a readout buffer based on a custom-made PCI mezzanine card that is designed to accept input data at up to 160 MB /s, to store up to 8 MB of data, and to distribute data chunks at the desired request rate. We describe the hardware of the card that is based on an Intel 1960 processor and complex programmable logic devices. We present the integration of several of these cards in a readout buffer complex. We measure various performance figures and discuss to which extent these can fulfil ATLAS needs. (5 refs).

  5. Novel concept of TDI readout circuit for LWIR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byunghyuck; Yoon, Nanyoung; Lee, Hee Chul; Kim, Choong-Ki

    2000-07-01

    Noise property is the prime consideration in readout circuit design. The output noise caused by the photon noise, which dominates total noise in BLIP detectors, is limited by the integration time that an element looks at a specific point in the scene. Large integration time leads to a low noise performance. Time-delay integration (TDI) is used to effectively increase the integration time and reduce the photon noise. However, it increases the number of dead pixels and requires large integration capacitors and low noise output stage of the readout circuit. In this paper, to solve these problems, we propose a new concept of readout circuit, which performs background suppression, cell-to-cell background current non-uniformity compensation, and dead pixel correction using memory, ADC, DAC, and current copier cell. In simulation results, comparing with the conventional TDI readout circuit, the integration capacitor size can be reduced to 1/5 and trans-impedance gain can be increased by five times. Therefore, the new TDI readout circuit does not require large area and low noise output stage. And the error of skimming current is less than 2%, and the fixed pattern noise induced by cell-to-cell background current variation is reduced to less than 1%.

  6. CASAGEM: a readout ASIC for micro pattern gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Li; Deng Zhi; Liu Yinong

    2012-01-01

    A readout ASIC for micro pattern gas detectors has been designed This ASIC integrates 16 channels for anode readout and 1 channel for cathode readout which can make use of the signal of detector's cathode to generate a trigger Every channel can provide amplification and shaping of detector signals. The ASIC can also provide adjustable gain which can be adjusted from 2 mV/fC to 40 mV/fC, and adjustable shaping time which can be adjusted from 20 ns to 80 ns; so this ASIC can be applied to detectors with wide range output signal and different counting rate. The ASIC is fabricated with Chartered 0.35 μm CMOS process More circuit design Details and test results will be presented. (authors)

  7. Sub-10ps monolithic and low-power photodetector readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varner, Gary S.; Ruckman, Larry L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in photon detectors have resulted in high-density imaging arrays that offer many performance and cost advantages. In particular, the excellent transit time spread of certain devices show promise to provide tangible benefits in applications such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Meanwhile, high-density, high-performance readout techniques have not kept on pace for exploiting these developments. Photodetector readout for next generation high event rate particle identification and time-resolved PET requires a highly-integrated, low-power, and cost-effective readout technique. We propose fast waveform sampling as a method that meets these criteria and demonstrate that sub-10ps resolution can be obtained for an existing device

  8. Looking at Earth from space: Direct readout from environmental satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Direct readout is the capability to acquire information directly from meteorological satellites. Data can be acquired from NASA-developed, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-operated satellites, as well as from other nations' meteorological satellites. By setting up a personal computer-based ground (Earth) station to receive satellite signals, direct readout may be obtained. The electronic satellite signals are displayed as images on the computer screen. The images can display gradients of the Earth's topography and temperature, cloud formations, the flow and direction of winds and water currents, the formation of hurricanes, the occurrence of an eclipse, and a view of Earth's geography. Both visible and infrared images can be obtained. This booklet introduces the satellite systems, ground station configuration, and computer requirements involved in direct readout. Also included are lists of associated resources and vendors.

  9. Readout Electronics Upgrades of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Anelli, Christopher Ryan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The high-luminosity LHC will provide 5-7 times higher luminosites than the orignal design. An improved readout system of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter is needed to readout the 182,500 calorimeter cells at 40 MHz with 16 bit dynamic range in these conditions. Low-noise, low-power, radiation-tolerant and high-bandwidth electronics components are being developed in 65 and 130 nm CMOS technologies. First prototypes of the front-end electronics components show good promise to match the stringent specifications. The off-detector electronics will make use of FPGAs connected through high-speed links to perform energy reconstruction, data reduction and buffering. Results of tests of the first prototypes of front-end components will be presented, along with design studies on the performance of the off-detector readout system.

  10. The New Readout System of the NA62 LKr Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ceccucci, A; Farthouat, P; Lamanna, G; Rouet, J; Ryjov, V; Venditti, S

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator aims at studying Kaon decays with high precision. The high resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter, built for the NA48 [2] experiment, is a crucial part of the photon-veto system; to cope with the demanding NA62 re- quirements,itsback-endelectron icshadtobecompletelyrenewed. The new readout system is based on the Calorimeter REAdout Module (CREAM) [3], a 6U VME board whose design and pro- duction was sub-contracted to CAEN [4], with CERN NA62 group continuously supervising the de velopment and production phase. The first version of the board was delivered by the manufacturer in March 2013 and, as of June 2014, the full board production is ongoing. In addition to describing the CREAM board, all aspects of the new LKr readout system, including its integration within the NA62 TDAQ scheme, will be treated.

  11. Status of readout integrated circuits for radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, B. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cheng, J. E. and others

    2001-09-01

    In this report, we describe the current status of readout integrated circuits developed for radiation detectors, along with new technologies being applied to this field. The current status of ASCIC chip development related to the readout electronics is also included in this report. Major sources of this report are from product catalogs and web sites of the related industries. In the field of semiconductor process technology in Korea, the current status of the multi-project wafer(MPW) of IDEC, the multi-project chip(MPC) of ISRC and other domestic semiconductor process industries is described. In the case of other countries, the status of the MPW of MOSIS in USA and the MPW of EUROPRACTICE in Europe is studied. This report also describes the technologies and products of readout integrated circuits of industries worldwide

  12. Pad readout for gas detectors using 128-channel integrated preamplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.; Drees, A.; Glassel, P.

    1988-01-01

    A novel two-dimensional readout scheme for gas detectors is presented which uses small metal pads with 2.54 mm pitch as an anode. The pads are read out via 128-channel VLSI low-noise preamplifier/multiplexer chips. These chips are mounted on 2.8x2.8 cm/sup 2/ modules which are directly plugged onto the detector backplane, daisy-chained with jumpers and read out sequentially. The readout has been successfully tested with a low-pressure, two-step, TMAE-filled UV-RICH detector prototype. A single electron efficiently of >90% was observed at moderate chamber gains (<10/sup 6/). The method offers high electronic amplification, low noise, and high readout speed with a very flexible and compact design, suited for space-limited applications

  13. Sub-10ps monolithic and low-power photodetector readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varner, Gary S.; Ruckman, Larry L.

    2009-02-20

    Recent advances in photon detectors have resulted in high-density imaging arrays that offer many performance and cost advantages. In particular, the excellent transit time spread of certain devices show promise to provide tangible benefits in applications such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Meanwhile, high-density, high-performance readout techniques have not kept on pace for exploiting these developments. Photodetector readout for next generation high event rate particle identification and time-resolved PET requires a highly-integrated, low-power, and cost-effective readout technique. We propose fast waveform sampling as a method that meets these criteria and demonstrate that sub-10ps resolution can be obtained for an existing device.

  14. DRM2: the readout board for the ALICE TOF upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Falchieri, Davide

    2018-01-01

    For the upgrade of the ALICE TOF electronics, we have designed a new version of the readout board, named DRM2, a card able to read the data coming from the TDC Readout Module boards via VME. A Microsemi Igloo2 FPGA acts as the VME master and interfaces the GBTx link for transmitting data and receiving triggers and a low-jitter clock. Compared to the old board, the DRM2 is able to cope with faster trigger rates and provides a larger data bandwidth towards the DAQ. The results of the measurements on the received clock jitter and data transmission performances in a full crate are given.

  15. The Retinal Readout System: a status report A Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Litke, A M

    1999-01-01

    The 'Retinal Readout System' is being developed to study the language the eye uses to send information about the visual world to the brain. Its architecture is based on that of silicon microstrip detectors. An array of 512 microscopic electrodes picks up the signals generated by the output neurons of live retinal tissue in response to a dynamic image focused on the input neurons. These signals are amplified, filtered and multiplexed by a set of eight custom-designed VLSI readout chips, and digitized and recorded by a data acquisition system. This report describes the goals, design, and status of the system. (author)

  16. Readout technologies for directional WIMP Dark Matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battat, J.B.R.; Irastorza, I.G.; Aleksandrov, A.; Asada, T.; Baracchini, E.; Billard, J.; Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Bouvier, J.; Buonaura, A.; Burdge, K.; Cebrián, S.

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils is a compelling but technologically challenging strategy to provide an unambiguous signature of the detection of Galactic dark matter. Most directional detectors aim to reconstruct the dark-matter-induced nuclear recoil tracks, either in gas or solid targets. The main challenge with directional detection is the need for high spatial resolution over large volumes, which puts strong requirements on the readout technologies. In this paper we review the various detector readout technologies used by directional detectors. In particular, we summarize the challenges, advantages and drawbacks of each approach, and discuss future prospects for these technologies.

  17. SVX3: A deadtimeless readout chip for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, T.; Huffman, T.; Srage, J.; Stroehmer, R.; Yarema, R.; Garcia-Sciveras, M.; Luo, L.; Milgrome, O.

    1997-12-01

    A new silicon strip readout chip called the SVX3 has been designed for the 720,000 channel CDF silicon upgrade at Fermilab. SVX3 incorporates an integrator, analog delay pipeline, ADC, and data sparsification for each of 128 identical channels. Many of the operating parameters are programmable via a serial bit stream, which allows the chip to be used under a variety of conditions. Distinct features of SVX3 include use of a backside substrate contact for optimal ground referencing, and the capability of simultaneous signal acquisition and digital readout allowing deadtimeless operation in the Fermilab Tevatron

  18. DNA Nanobiosensors: An Outlook on Signal Readout Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Richard Chandrasekaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A suite of functionalities and structural versatility makes DNA an apt material for biosensing applications. DNA-based biosensors are cost-effective and sensitive and have the potential to be used as point-of-care diagnostic tools. Along with robustness and biocompatibility, these sensors also provide multiple readout strategies. Depending on the functionality of DNA-based biosensors, a variety of output strategies have been reported: fluorescence- and FRET-based readout, nanoparticle-based colorimetry, spectroscopy-based techniques, electrochemical signaling, gel electrophoresis, and atomic force microscopy.

  19. Updates on the most recent results in dual readout calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascella, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Dual REAdout Method (DREAM) consists in comparing the scintillation and Cherenkov light generated in the shower development process. By comparing the two, the electromagnetic fraction of the hadronic shower can be measured event-by-event, to eliminate the effects of fluctuations in this fraction. In this paper the DREAM fiber calorimeter and its successor, the newDREAM prototype that is currently under construction, will be described. We will also report on the efforts to study the Cherenkov component of the output of high-Z crystals and to realize a dual-readout electromagnetic section that can achieve outstanding electromagnetic resolution whit out compromising the hadronic resolution.

  20. A New Readout Electronics for the LHCb Muon Detector Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Cadeddu, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    The 2018/2019 upgrade of LHCb Muon System foresees a 40 MHz readout scheme and requires the development of a new Off Detector Electronics (nODE) board that will be based on the nSYNC, a radiation tolerant custom ASIC developed in UMC 130 nm technology. Each nODE board has 192 input channels processed by 4 nSYNCs. The nSYNC is equipped with fully digital TDCs and it implements all the required functionalities for the readout: bunch crossing alignment, data zero suppression, time measurements. Optical interfaces, based on GBT and Versatile link components, are used to communicate with DAQ, TFC and ECS systems.

  1. A time projection chamber with GEM-based readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attié, David [CEA Saclay, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Behnke, Ties [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, A Research Centre of the Helmholtz Association, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Hamburg site) (Germany); Bellerive, Alain [Carleton University, Department of Physics, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1S 5B6 (Canada); Bezshyyko, Oleg [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Street, City of Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Bhattacharya, Deb Sankar [CEA Saclay, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); now at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Sector 1, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhattacharya, Purba [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Sector 1, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); now at National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER) Bhubaneswar, P.O. Jatni, Khurda 752050, Odisha (India); Bhattacharya, Sudeb [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Sector 1, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Caiazza, Stefano [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, A Research Centre of the Helmholtz Association, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Hamburg site) (Germany); now at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Institut für Physik, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Colas, Paul [CEA Saclay, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lentdecker, Gilles De [Inter University ULB-VUB, Av. Fr. Roosevelt 50, B1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Dehmelt, Klaus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, A Research Centre of the Helmholtz Association, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Hamburg site) (Germany); now at State University of New York at Stony Brook, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Desch, Klaus [Universität Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Nußallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); and others

    2017-06-01

    For the International Large Detector concept at the planned International Linear Collider, the use of time projection chambers (TPC) with micro-pattern gas detector readout as the main tracking detector is investigated. In this paper, results from a prototype TPC, placed in a 1 T solenoidal field and read out with three independent Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based readout modules, are reported. The TPC was exposed to a 6 GeV electron beam at the DESY II synchrotron. The efficiency for reconstructing hits, the measurement of the drift velocity, the space point resolution and the control of field inhomogeneities are presented.

  2. Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 (micro)m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 (micro)m 2 pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  3. The readout performance evaluation of PowerPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Yuanping; Zhang Hongyu; Zhao Jingwei; Ye Mei; Tao Ning; Zhu Kejun; Tang Suqiu; Guo Yanan

    2003-01-01

    PowerPC, as a powerful low-cost embedded computer, is one of the very important research objects in recent years in the project of BESIII data acquisition system. The researches on the embedded system and embedded computer have achieved many important results in the field of High Energy Physics especially in the data acquisition system. The one of the key points to design an acquisition system using PowerPC is to evaluate the readout ability of PowerPC correctly. The paper introduce some tests for the PowerPC readout performance. (authors)

  4. Development of a Crosstalk Suppression Algorithm for KID Readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmin; Ishitsuka, H.; Oguri, S.; Suzuki, J.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Won, Eunil; Yoshida, M.

    2018-06-01

    The GroundBIRD telescope aims to detect B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation using the kinetic inductance detector array as a polarimeter. For the readout of the signal from detector array, we have developed a frequency division multiplexing readout system based on a digital down converter method. These techniques in general have the leakage problems caused by the crosstalks. The window function was applied in the field programmable gate arrays to mitigate the effect of these problems and tested it in algorithm level.

  5. Low cost photomultiplier high-voltage readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Kunz, P.F.

    1976-10-01

    The Large Aperture Solenoid Spectrometer (LASS) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires monitoring over 300 voltages. This data is recorded on magnetic tapes along with the event data. It must also be displayed so that operators can easily monitor and adjust the voltages. A low-cost high-voltage readout system has been implemented to offer stand-alone digital readout capability as well as fast data transfer to a host computer. The system is flexible enough to permit use of a DVM or ADC and commercially available analogue multiplexers

  6. Automatic Photoelectric Telescope Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, R.M.; Boyd, L.J.; Kissell, K.E.; Crawford, D.L.; Hall, D.S.; BDM Corp., McLean, VA; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Dyer Observatory, Nashville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    Automatic observatories have the potential of gathering sizable amounts of high-quality astronomical data at low cost. The Automatic Photoelectric Telescope Service (APT Service) has realized this potential and is routinely making photometric observations of a large number of variable stars. However, without observers to provide on-site monitoring, it was necessary to incorporate special quality checks into the operation of the APT Service at its multiple automatic telescope installation on Mount Hopkins. 18 references

  7. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.

  8. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. [comp.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  9. THE PHYSICS OF PROTOPLANETESIMAL DUST AGGLOMERATES. VI. EROSION OF LARGE AGGREGATES AS A SOURCE OF MICROMETER-SIZED PARTICLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schraepler, Rainer; Blum, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Observed protoplanetary disks consist of a large amount of micrometer-sized particles. Dullemond and Dominik pointed out for the first time the difficulty in explaining the strong mid-infrared excess of classical T Tauri stars without any dust-retention mechanisms. Because high relative velocities in between micrometer-sized and macroscopic particles exist in protoplanetary disks, we present experimental results on the erosion of macroscopic agglomerates consisting of micrometer-sized spherical particles via the impact of micrometer-sized particles. We find that after an initial phase, in which an impacting particle erodes up to 10 particles of an agglomerate, the impacting particles compress the agglomerate's surface, which partly passivates the agglomerates against erosion. Due to this effect, the erosion halts for impact velocities up to ∼30 m s -1 within our error bars. For higher velocities, the erosion is reduced by an order of magnitude. This outcome is explained and confirmed by a numerical model. In a next step, we build an analytical disk model and implement the experimentally found erosive effect. The model shows that erosion is a strong source of micrometer-sized particles in a protoplanetary disk. Finally, we use the stationary solution of this model to explain the amount of micrometer-sized particles in the observational infrared data of Furlan et al.

  10. Cell visco-elasticity measured with AFM and optical trapping at sub-micrometer deformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schanila Nawaz

    Full Text Available The measurement of the elastic properties of cells is widely used as an indicator for cellular changes during differentiation, upon drug treatment, or resulting from the interaction with the supporting matrix. Elasticity is routinely quantified by indenting the cell with a probe of an AFM while applying nano-Newton forces. Because the resulting deformations are in the micrometer range, the measurements will be affected by the finite thickness of the cell, viscous effects and even cell damage induced by the experiment itself. Here, we have analyzed the response of single 3T3 fibroblasts that were indented with a micrometer-sized bead attached to an AFM cantilever at forces from 30-600 pN, resulting in indentations ranging from 0.2 to 1.2 micrometer. To investigate the cellular response at lower forces up to 10 pN, we developed an optical trap to indent the cell in vertical direction, normal to the plane of the coverslip. Deformations of up to two hundred nanometers achieved at forces of up to 30 pN showed a reversible, thus truly elastic response that was independent on the rate of deformation. We found that at such small deformations, the elastic modulus of 100 Pa is largely determined by the presence of the actin cortex. At higher indentations, viscous effects led to an increase of the apparent elastic modulus. This viscous contribution that followed a weak power law, increased at larger cell indentations. Both AFM and optical trapping indentation experiments give consistent results for the cell elasticity. Optical trapping has the benefit of a lower force noise, which allows a more accurate determination of the absolute indentation. The combination of both techniques allows the investigation of single cells at small and large indentations and enables the separation of their viscous and elastic components.

  11. Porous micrometer-sized MnO cubes as anode of lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xiaoyong; Li, Siheng; Lu, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, porous micrometer-sized MnO cubes have been designed and synthesized by hydrothermal treatment followed by high temperature annealing. The pore size is controlled by changing annealing temperature in order to achieve good electrochemical performance. The cube edge length is about 10 μm and the pore size changes from mesoporous to macroporous. The presence of pores in the MnO cubes is able to accommodate the volumetric changes during electrochemical cycling, and enables electrolyte easy penetration so that to improve the electrochemical performance. The porous micrometer-sized MnO cubes prepared by hydrothermal treatment at 100 °C followed by annealing at 700 °C delivers the best long-term and rate cyclability owing to its stable porous structure serving as lithium ion rapid transfer channels and enough pore volume to accommodate volumetric changes during electrochemical cycling. The reversible capacity in the first cycle is 615.9 mAh g"−"1at 0.2 A g"−"1, slightly decreases to 404.6 mAh g"−"1 at 1.0 A g"−"1in the 6"t"h cycle and remains at 425.5 mAh g"−"1 at 1.0 A g"−"1 even after 495 cycles. The same porous micrometer-sized MnO cube electrode delivers high rate reversible specific capacities of 201.8 and 50.4 mAh g"−"1 at 5.0 and 10.0 A g"−"1 respectively.

  12. Visualization data on the freezing process of micrometer-scaled aqueous citric acid drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Bogdan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The visualization data (8 movies presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Freezing and glass transitions upon cooling and warming and ice/freeze-concentration-solution morphology of emulsified aqueous citric acid” (A. Bogdan, M.J. Molina, H. Tenhu, 2016 [1]. The movies recorded in-situ with optical cryo-miscroscopy (OC-M demonstrate for the first time freezing processes that occur during the cooling and subsequent warming of emulsified micrometer-scaled aqueous citric acid (CA drops. The movies are made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  13. Positioning of the rf potential minimum line of a linear Paul trap with micrometer precision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Peter Fønss; Dantan, Aurélien; Albert, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a general technique to achieve a precise radial displacement of the nodal line of the radiofrequency (rf) field in a linear Paul trap. The technique relies on the selective adjustment of the load capacitance of the trap electrodes, achieved through the addition of capacitors...... to the basic resonant rf circuit used to drive the trap. Displacements of up to ~100 µm with micrometer precision are measured using a combination of fluorescence images of ion Coulomb crystals and coherent coupling of such crystals to a mode of an optical cavity. The displacements are made without measurable...

  14. New Subarray Readout Patterns for the ACS Wide Field Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golimowski, D.; Anderson, J.; Arslanian, S.; Chiaberge, M.; Grogin, N.; Lim, Pey Lian; Lupie, O.; McMaster, M.; Reinhart, M.; Schiffer, F.; Serrano, B.; Van Marshall, M.; Welty, A.

    2017-04-01

    At the start of Cycle 24, the original CCD-readout timing patterns used to generate ACS Wide Field Channel (WFC) subarray images were replaced with new patterns adapted from the four-quadrant readout pattern used to generate full-frame WFC images. The primary motivation for this replacement was a substantial reduction of observatory and staff resources needed to support WFC subarray bias calibration, which became a new and challenging obligation after the installation of the ACS CCD Electronics Box Replacement during Servicing Mission 4. The new readout patterns also improve the overall efficiency of observing with WFC subarrays and enable the processing of subarray images through stages of the ACS data calibration pipeline (calacs) that were previously restricted to full-frame WFC images. The new readout patterns replace the original 512×512, 1024×1024, and 2048×2046-pixel subarrays with subarrays having 2048 columns and 512, 1024, and 2048 rows, respectively. Whereas the original square subarrays were limited to certain WFC quadrants, the new rectangular subarrays are available in all four quadrants. The underlying bias structure of the new subarrays now conforms with those of the corresponding regions of the full-frame image, which allows raw frames in all image formats to be calibrated using one contemporaneous full-frame "superbias" reference image. The original subarrays remain available for scientific use, but calibration of these image formats is no longer supported by STScI.

  15. READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR A HIGH-RATE CSC DETECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OCONNOR, P.; GRATCHEV, V.; KANDASAMY, A.; POLYCHRONAKOS, V.; TCHERNIATINE, V.; PARSONS, J.; SIPPACH, W.

    1999-01-01

    A readout system for a high-rate muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) is described. The system, planned for use in the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer, uses two custom CMOS integrated circuits to achieve good position resolution at a flux of up to 2,500 tracks/cm 2 /s

  16. Design and prototyping of a readout aggregation ASIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemke, Frank; Schatral, Sven; Bruening, Ulrich [ZITI, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Som, Indranil; Bhattacharyya, Tarun [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    In close collaboration between the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (IITKGP) and the Institute for Computer Engineering (ZITI) at the University of Heidelberg a readout aggregation ASIC was designed. This happened in the context of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). The ASIC is designed in 65nm TSMC technology. Its miniASIC tapeout to verify the analog and high-speed components is scheduled to the first quarter of 2015. This mixed-signal ASIC consists of a full-custom 5Gb/s serializer/deserializer, designed by the IITKGP including design elements such as phase-locked loop, bandgap reference, and clock data recovery, and a digital designed network communication and aggregation part designed by the ZITI. In addition, there are test structures and an I2C readout integrated to ease bring up and monitoring. A specialty of this test ASIC is the aggregation of links featuring different data rates, running with bundles of 500 MB/s LVDS. This enables flexible readout setups of mixed detectors respectively readout of various chips. As communication protocol, a unified link protocol is used including control messages, data messages, and synchronization messages on an identical lane. The design has been simulated, verified, and hardware emulated using Spartan 6 FPGAs.

  17. DS read-out transcription in transgenic tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudenko, George N.; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1994-01-01

    To select for Ds transposition in transgenic tomato plants a phenotypic excision assay, based on restoration of hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT II) gene expression, was employed. Some tomato plants, however, expressed the marker gene even though the Ds had not excised. Read-out transcriptional

  18. Investigation of the readout electronics of DELPHI surround muon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khovanskij, N.; Krumshtejn, Z.; Ol'shevskij, A.; Sadovskij, A.; Sedykh, Yu.; Molnar, J.; Sicho, P.; Tomsa, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristics of the readout electronics of the DELPHI surround muon chambers with various AMPLEX chips (AMPLEX 16 and AMPLEX-SICAL) are presented. This electronics is studied in a cosmic rays test of the real surround muon chamber model. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. One-dimensional position readout from microchannel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, K.A.; Przybylski, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a one-dimensional position readout system with microchannel plates, is described, for heavy ion detectors for use in a particle time-of-flight telescope and as a position sensitive device in front of an ionisation counter at the Nuclear Structure Facility. (U.K.)

  20. The Readout Control Unit of the ALICE TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Lien, J A; Musa, L

    2004-01-01

    The ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector of the central barrel of the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider) Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), being constructed at CERN, Geneva. It is a 88 m$^{3}$ cylinder filled with gas and divided into two drift regions by the central electrode located at its axial center. The readout chambers of the TPC are multi-wire proportional chambers with cathode pad readout. About 570 000 pads are read-out by an electronics chain of amplification, digitalization and pre-processing. One of the challenges in designing the TPC for ALICE is the design of Front End Electronics (FEE) to cope with the data rates and the channel occupancy. The Readout Control Unit (RCU), which is presented in this work, is designed to control and monitor the Front End Electronics, and to collect and ship data to the High Level Trigger and the Data Acquisition System, via the Detector Data Link (DDL - optical fibre). The RCU must be capable of reading out up to 200 Mbytes/s f...

  1. A micromachined surface stress sensor with electronic readout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlen, Edwin; Weinberg, M.S.; Zapata, A.M.; Borenstein, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    A micromachined surface stress sensor has been fabricated and integrated off chip with a low-noise, differential capacitance, electronic readout circuit. The differential capacitance signal is modulated with a high frequency carrier signal, and the output signal is synchronously demodulated and

  2. DOSIMO - an interactive web service of the GSF Readout Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, S.; Lempart, R.

    2002-01-01

    Under the Radiation Protection and X-ray Ordinances, official personnel dosimetry centers are charged with measuring, documenting, and monitoring personnel doses as independent agencies. The GSF Readout Center (AWST) for Personnel Dosimeters and Area Monitors is responsible for monitoring persons occupationally exposed to radiation in the federal states of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bavaria, Hesse, and Schleswig-Holstein. The largest German readout center uses new media in personnel dosimetry in order to simplify and speed up data transfer. In October 1998, AWST in cooperation with ADANAT ENTIRE SYSTEMS implemented an Internet interface. As a result, AWST is the first European readout center to offer not only a possibility to disseminate information through the Internet by means of the DOSIMO (DOSIMETRY On-line) Internet Service, but also enabling the interactive data exchange by electronic means with authorized customers. DOSIMO users enjoy the decisive advantage of having the results of readout of their dosimeters ready for use as soon as they have become available. (orig.) [de

  3. Resonance Frequency Readout Circuit for a 900 MHz SAW Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Zhang, Chun; Weng, Zhaoyang; Guo, Yanshu; Wang, Zhihua

    2017-09-15

    A monolithic resonance frequency readout circuit with high resolution and short measurement time is presented for a 900 MHz RF surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor. The readout circuit is composed of a fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) as the stimulus source to the SAW device and a phase-based resonance frequency detecting circuit using successive approximation (SAR). A new resonance frequency searching strategy has been proposed based on the fact that the SAW device phase-frequency response crosses zero monotonically around the resonance frequency. A dedicated instant phase difference detecting circuit is adopted to facilitate the fast SAR operation for resonance frequency searching. The readout circuit has been implemented in 180 nm CMOS technology with a core area of 3.24 mm². In the experiment, it works with a 900 MHz SAW resonator with a quality factor of Q = 130. Experimental results show that the readout circuit consumes 7 mW power from 1.6 V supply. The frequency resolution is 733 Hz, and the relative accuracy is 0.82 ppm, and it takes 0.48 ms to complete one measurement. Compared to the previous results in the literature, this work has achieved the shortest measurement time with a trade-off between measurement accuracy and measurement time.

  4. Dead Time in the LAr Calorimeter Front-End Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Gingrich, D M

    2002-01-01

    We present readout time, latency, buffering, and dead-time calculations for the switched capacitor array controllers of the LAr calorimeter. The dead time is compared with algorithms for the dead-time generation in the level-1 central trigger processor.

  5. Flexible geometry hodoscope using proportional chamber cathode read-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubret, C.; Bellefon, A. de; Benoit, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Tristram, G.

    1978-01-01

    The construction of a cathode read-out proportional chamber, used as a low mass hodoscope is described. Results on efficiency, time resolution and space resolution are shown. The associative logic, which permits the use of the chamber as a coplanarity chamber is briefly presented

  6. A time projection chamber with microstrip read-out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bootsma, T.M.V.; Van den Brink, A.; De Haas, A.P.; Kamermans, R.; Kuijer, P.G.; De Laat, C.T.A.M.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.J.; Ostendorf, R.; Snellings, R.J.M.; Twenhoefel, C.J.W.; Peghaire, A.

    1994-01-01

    The design and testing of a novel detector for heavy-ion physics in the intermediate-energy regime is described. This detector consists of a large drift chamber with microstrip read-out in combination with thick plastic scintillators. With this system particle identification and energy determination with high spatial resolution and multiple hit capacity is achieved. ((orig.))

  7. Optimised cantilever biosensor with piezoresistive read-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Thaysen, J.; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We present a cantilever-based biochemical sensor with piezoresistive read-out which has been optimised for measuring surface stress. The resistors and the electrical wiring on the chip are encapsulated in low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) silicon nitride, so that the chip is well sui...

  8. Proposed differential-frequency-readout system by hysteretic Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.Z.; Duncan, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    The Josephson relation V=nhν/2e has been verified experimentally to 3 parts in 10 19 [A. K. Jain, J. E. Lukens, and J.-S. Tsai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1165 (1987)]. Motivated by this result, we propose a differential-frequency-readout system by two sets of hysteretic Josephson junctions rf biased at millimeter wavelengths. Because of the Josephson relation, the proposed differential-frequency-readout system is not limited by photon fluctuation, which limits most photon-detection schemes. In the context of the Stewart-McCumber model [W. C. Stewart, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 277 (1968); D. E. McCumber, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3113 (1968)] of Josephson junctions, we show theoretically that the differential frequency of the two milliwave biases can be read out by the proposed system to unprecedented accuracy. The stability of the readout scheme is also discussed. The measurement uncertainty of the readout system resulting from the intrinsic thermal noise in the hysteretic junctions is shown to be insignificant. The study of two single junctions can be extended to two sets of Josephson junctions connected in series (series array) in this measurement scheme provided that junctions are separated by at least 10 μm [D. W. Jillie, J. E. Lukens, and Y. H. Kao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 915 (1977)]. The sensitivity for the differential frequency detection may be increased by biasing both series arrays to a higher constant-voltage step

  9. Neural Bases of Automaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Mathieu; Cassey, Peter; Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2018-01-01

    Automaticity allows us to perform tasks in a fast, efficient, and effortless manner after sufficient practice. Theories of automaticity propose that across practice processing transitions from being controlled by working memory to being controlled by long-term memory retrieval. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies have sought to test this…

  10. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi

    2004-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  11. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...

  12. Automatic differentiation of functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, S.R.

    1990-06-01

    Automatic differentiation is a method of computing derivatives of functions to any order in any number of variables. The functions must be expressible as combinations of elementary functions. When evaluated at specific numerical points, the derivatives have no truncation error and are automatically found. The method is illustrated by simple examples. Source code in FORTRAN is provided

  13. Position readout by charge division in large two-dimensional detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberi, J.L.

    1976-10-01

    The improvement in readout spatial resolution for charge division systems with subdivided readout electrodes has been analyzed. This readout forms the position and sum signals by a linear, unambiguous analogue summation technique. It is shown that the readout resolution is a function of only electrode capacitance and shaping parameters. The line width improves as 1/N/sup 1 / 2 /, where N is the number of electrode subdivisions

  14. First performance results of the ALICE TPC Readout Control Unit 2

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Chengxin; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Appelshäuser, Harald; Bratrud, Lars Karlot Stubberud; Castro, Andrew; Costa, Filippo; David, Ernö; Gunji, Tako; Kirsch, S; Kiss, Tivadar; Langøy, Rune; Lien, Jørgen; Lippmann, C; Oskarsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    - This paper presents the first performance results of the ALICE TPC Readout Control Unit 2 (RCU2). With the upgraded hardware typology and the new readout scheme in FPGA design, the RCU2 is designed to achieve twice the readout speed of the present Readout Control Unit. Design choices such as using the flash-based Microsemi Smartfusion2 FPGA and applying mitigation techniques in interfaces and FPGA design ensure a high degree of radiation tolerance. This paper presents the system level ir...

  15. Optimal CCD readout by digital correlated double sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, C.; Abusleme, A.; Guzman, D.; Passalacqua, I.; Alvarez-Fontecilla, E.; Guarini, M.

    2016-01-01

    Digital correlated double sampling (DCDS), a readout technique for charge-coupled devices (CCD), is gaining popularity in astronomical applications. By using an oversampling ADC and a digital filter, a DCDS system can achieve a better performance than traditional analogue readout techniques at the expense of a more complex system analysis. Several attempts to analyse and optimize a DCDS system have been reported, but most of the work presented in the literature has been experimental. Some approximate analytical tools have been presented for independent parameters of the system, but the overall performance and trade-offs have not been yet modelled. Furthermore, there is disagreement among experimental results that cannot be explained by the analytical tools available. In this work, a theoretical analysis of a generic DCDS readout system is presented, including key aspects such as the signal conditioning stage, the ADC resolution, the sampling frequency and the digital filter implementation. By using a time-domain noise model, the effect of the digital filter is properly modelled as a discrete-time process, thus avoiding the imprecision of continuous-time approximations that have been used so far. As a result, an accurate, closed-form expression for the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the readout system is reached. This expression can be easily optimized in order to meet a set of specifications for a given CCD, thus providing a systematic design methodology for an optimal readout system. Simulated results are presented to validate the theory, obtained with both time- and frequency-domain noise generation models for completeness.

  16. Digital readouts for large microwave low-temperature detector arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazin, Benjamin A.; Day, Peter K.; Irwin, Kent D.; Reintsema, Carl D.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2006-01-01

    Over the last several years many different types of low-temperature detectors (LTDs) have been developed that use a microwave resonant circuit as part of their readout. These devices include microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID), microwave SQUID readouts for transition edge sensors (TES), and NIS bolometers. Current readout techniques for these devices use analog frequency synthesizers and IQ mixers. While these components are available as microwave integrated circuits, one set is required for each resonator. We are exploring a new readout technique for this class of detectors based on a commercial-off-the-shelf technology called software defined radio (SDR). In this method a fast digital to analog (D/A) converter creates as many tones as desired in the available bandwidth. Our prototype system employs a 100MS/s 16-bit D/A to generate an arbitrary number of tones in 50MHz of bandwidth. This signal is then mixed up to the desired detector resonant frequency (∼10GHz), sent through the detector, then mixed back down to baseband. The baseband signal is then digitized with a series of fast analog to digital converters (80MS/s, 14-bit). Next, a numerical mixer in a dedicated integrated circuit or FPGA mixes the resonant frequency of a specified detector to 0Hz, and sends the complex detector output over a computer bus for processing and storage. In this paper we will report on our results in using a prototype system to readout a MKID array, including system noise performance, X-ray pulse response, and cross-talk measurements. We will also discuss how this technique can be scaled to read out many thousands of detectors

  17. Signal collection and position reconstruction of silicon strip detectors with 200 μm readout pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, M.; Pernegger, H.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon strip detectors with large readout pitch and intermediate strips offer an interesting approach to reduce the number of readout channels in the tracking systems of future collider experiments without compromising too much on the spatial resolution. Various detector geometries with a readout pitch of 200 μm have been studied for their signal response and spatial resolution. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of silicon micro strip detectors with large read-out pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyo, K.; Yamamura, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Avrillon, S.; Asano, Y.; Bozek, A.; Natkaniec, Z.; Palka, H.; Rozanska, M.; Rybicki, K.

    1996-01-01

    For the development of the silicon micro-strip detector with the pitch of the readout strips as large as 250 μm on the ohmic side, we made samples with different structures. Charge collection was evaluated to optimize the width of implant strips, aluminum read-out strips, and/or the read-out scheme among strips. (orig.)

  19. An Automatic Baseline Regulation in a Highly Integrated Receiver Chip for JUNO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, P.; Zambanini, A.; Karagounis, M.; Grewing, C.; Liebau, D.; Nielinger, D.; Robens, M.; Kruth, A.; Peters, C.; Parkalian, N.; Yegin, U.; van Waasen, S.

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes the data processing unit and an automatic baseline regulation of a highly integrated readout chip (Vulcan) for JUNO. The chip collects data continuously at 1 Gsamples/sec. The Primary data processing which is performed in the integrated circuit can aid to reduce the memory and data processing efforts in the subsequent stages. In addition, a baseline regulator compensating a shift in the baseline is described.

  20. Supercurrent and multiple Andreev reflections in micrometer-long ballistic graphene Josephson junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengjian; Ben Shalom, Moshe; Mishchsenko, Artem; Fal'ko, Vladimir; Novoselov, Kostya; Geim, Andre

    2018-02-08

    Ballistic Josephson junctions are predicted to support a number of exotic physics processess, providing an ideal system to inject the supercurrent in the quantum Hall regime. Herein, we demonstrate electrical transport measurements on ballistic superconductor-graphene-superconductor junctions by contacting graphene to niobium with a junction length up to 1.5 μm. Hexagonal boron nitride encapsulation and one-dimensional edge contacts guarantee high-quality graphene Josephson junctions with a mean free path of several micrometers and record-low contact resistance. Transports in normal states including the observation of Fabry-Pérot oscillations and Sharvin resistance conclusively witness the ballistic propagation in the junctions. The critical current density J C is over one order of magnitude larger than that of the previously reported junctions. Away from the charge neutrality point, the I C R N product (I C is the critical current and R N the normal state resistance of junction) is nearly a constant, independent of carrier density n, which agrees well with the theory for ballistic Josephson junctions. Multiple Andreev reflections up to the third order are observed for the first time by measuring the differential resistance in the micrometer-long ballistic graphene Josephson junctions.

  1. Absolute distance measurement with micrometer accuracy using a Michelson interferometer and the iterative synthetic wavelength principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Khaled; Burton, David; Lilley, Francis; Gdeisat, Munther; Bezombes, Frederic; Qudeisat, Mohammad

    2012-02-27

    We present a novel system that can measure absolute distances of up to 300 mm with an uncertainty of the order of one micrometer, within a timeframe of 40 seconds. The proposed system uses a Michelson interferometer, a tunable laser, a wavelength meter and a computer for analysis. The principle of synthetic wave creation is used in a novel way in that the system employs an initial low precision estimate of the distance, obtained using a triangulation, or time-of-flight, laser system, or similar, and then iterates through a sequence of progressively smaller synthetic wavelengths until it reaches micrometer uncertainties in the determination of the distance. A further novel feature of the system is its use of Fourier transform phase analysis techniques to achieve sub-wavelength accuracy. This method has the major advantages of being relatively simple to realize, offering demonstrated high relative precisions better than 5 × 10(-5). Finally, the fact that this device does not require a continuous line-of-sight to the target as is the case with other configurations offers significant advantages.

  2. Nanometer-resolution electron microscopy through micrometers-thick water layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonge, Niels de, E-mail: niels.de.jonge@vanderbilt.edu [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Nashville, TN 37232-0615 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6064 (United States); Poirier-Demers, Nicolas; Demers, Hendrix [Universite de Sherbrooke, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1 (Canada); Peckys, Diana B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6064 (United States); University of Tennessee, Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Knoxville, TN 37996-1605 (United States); Drouin, Dominique [Universite de Sherbrooke, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) was used to image gold nanoparticles on top of and below saline water layers of several micrometers thickness. The smallest gold nanoparticles studied had diameters of 1.4 nm and were visible for a liquid thickness of up to 3.3 {mu}m. The imaging of gold nanoparticles below several micrometers of liquid was limited by broadening of the electron probe caused by scattering of the electron beam in the liquid. The experimental data corresponded to analytical models of the resolution and of the electron probe broadening as function of the liquid thickness. The results were also compared with Monte Carlo simulations of the STEM imaging on modeled specimens of similar geometry and composition as used for the experiments. Applications of STEM imaging in liquid can be found in cell biology, e.g., to study tagged proteins in whole eukaryotic cells in liquid and in materials science to study the interaction of solid:liquid interfaces at the nanoscale.

  3. Nano-scale measurement of sub-micrometer MEMS in-plane dynamics using synchronized illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnat, S; Forbrigger, C; Kujath, M; Hubbard, T

    2015-01-01

    A method for measuring the sub-micrometer in-plane dynamics of MEMS devices with nano-scale precision using a CCD camera and synchronized pulsating illumination is presented. Typical MEMS actuators have fast responses (generally in the 1–200 kHz range), much faster than typical cameras which record a time averaged motion. Under constant illumination the average displacement is steady state and independent of dynamic amplitude or phase. Methods such as strobe illumination use short light pulses to freeze the motion. This paper develops the use of longer pulses of illumination that do not freeze the image, but make the average displacement depend on dynamic amplitude and phase; thus allowing both properties to be extracted. The expected signal is derived as a function of light pulse width and delay, and short versus longer pulses are compared. Measurements using a conventional microscope with replacement of the lamp with LEDs confirmed the derived equations. The system was used to measure sub-micrometer motion of MEMS actuators with ∼5 nm precision. The time constant of a thermal actuator was measured and found to be 48 µs. A resonant peak of a MEMS device was measured at 123.30 kHz with an amplitude of 238 nm. (paper)

  4. Development and evaluation of new semi-automatic TLD reader software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, M.S.; Pradhan, S.M.; Palani Selvam, T.; Datta, D.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, all technology advancement is primarily focused on creating the user-friendly environment while operating any machine, also minimizing the human errors by automation of procedures. In the present study development and evaluation of new software for semi-automatic TLD badge reader (TLDBR-7B) is presented. The software provides an interactive interface and is compatible with latest windows OS as well as USB mode of data communication. Important new features of the software are automatic glow curve analysis for identifying any abnormality, event log register, user defined limits on TL count and time of temperature stabilization for readout interruption and auto reading resumption options

  5. A custom readout electronics for the BESIII CGEM detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha Rolo, M.; Alexeev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bianchi, F.; Bugalho, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Canale, N.; Capodiferro, M.; Carassiti, V.; Cerioni, S.; Chai, J. Y.; Chiozzi, S.; Cibinetto, G.; Cossio, F.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Di Francesco, A.; Dong, J.; Evangelisti, F.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Felici, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Gatta, M.; Greco, M.; Lavezzi, L.; Leng, C. Y.; Li, H.; Maggiora, M.; Malaguti, R.; Marcello, S.; Marciniewski, P.; Melchiorri, M.; Mezzadri, G.; Mignone, M.; Morello, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pellegrino, J.; Pelosi, A.; Rivetti, A.; Savrié, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Soldani, E.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Tskhadadze, E.; Varela, J.; Verma, S.; Wheadon, R.; Yan, L.

    2017-07-01

    For the upgrade of the inner tracker of the BESIII spectrometer, planned for 2018, a lightweight tracker based on an innovative Cylindrical Gas Electron Multiplier (CGEM) detector is now under development. The analogue readout of the CGEM enables the use of a charge centroid algorithm to improve the spatial resolution to better than 130 μm while loosening the pitch strip to 650 μm, which allows to reduce the total number of channels to about 10 000. The channels are readout by 160 dedicated integrated 64-channel front-end ASICs, providing a time and charge measurement and featuring a fully-digital output. The energy measurement is extracted either from the time-over-threshold (ToT) or the 10-bit digitisation of the peak amplitude of the signal. The time of the event is generated by quad-buffered low-power TDCs, allowing for rates in excess of 60 kHz per channel. The TDCs are based on analogue interpolation techniques and produce a time stamp (or two, if working in ToT mode) of the event with a time resolution better than 50 ps. The front-end noise, based on a CSA and a two-stage complex conjugated pole shapers, dominate the channel intrinsic time jitter, which is less than 5 ns r.m.s. The time information of the hit can be used to reconstruct the track path, operating the detector as a small TPC and hence improving the position resolution when the distribution of the cloud, due to large incident angle or magnetic field, is very broad. Event data is collected by an off-detector motherboard, where each GEM-ROC readout card handles 4 ASIC carrier FEBs (512 channels). Configuration upload and data readout between the off-detector electronics and the VME-based data collector cards are managed by bi-directional fibre optical links. This paper covers the design of a custom front-end electronics for the readout of the new inner tracker of the BESIII experiment, addressing the relevant design aspects of the detector electronics and the front-end ASIC for the CGEM readout

  6. A custom readout electronics for the BESIII CGEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolo, M. Da Rocha; Alexeev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Bianchi, F.; Cossio, F.; Mori, F. De; Destefanis, M.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Chai, J.Y.; Bertani, M.; Calcaterra, A.; Capodiferro, M.; Cerioni, S.; Bettoni, D.; Canale, N.; Carassiti, V.; Chiozzi, S.; Cibinetto, G.; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Bugalho, R.

    2017-01-01

    For the upgrade of the inner tracker of the BESIII spectrometer, planned for 2018, a lightweight tracker based on an innovative Cylindrical Gas Electron Multiplier (CGEM) detector is now under development. The analogue readout of the CGEM enables the use of a charge centroid algorithm to improve the spatial resolution to better than 130 μm while loosening the pitch strip to 650 μm, which allows to reduce the total number of channels to about 10 000. The channels are readout by 160 dedicated integrated 64-channel front-end ASICs, providing a time and charge measurement and featuring a fully-digital output. The energy measurement is extracted either from the time-over-threshold (ToT) or the 10-bit digitisation of the peak amplitude of the signal. The time of the event is generated by quad-buffered low-power TDCs, allowing for rates in excess of 60 kHz per channel. The TDCs are based on analogue interpolation techniques and produce a time stamp (or two, if working in ToT mode) of the event with a time resolution better than 50 ps. The front-end noise, based on a CSA and a two-stage complex conjugated pole shapers, dominate the channel intrinsic time jitter, which is less than 5 ns r.m.s. The time information of the hit can be used to reconstruct the track path, operating the detector as a small TPC and hence improving the position resolution when the distribution of the cloud, due to large incident angle or magnetic field, is very broad. Event data is collected by an off-detector motherboard, where each GEM-ROC readout card handles 4 ASIC carrier FEBs (512 channels). Configuration upload and data readout between the off-detector electronics and the VME-based data collector cards are managed by bi-directional fibre optical links. This paper covers the design of a custom front-end electronics for the readout of the new inner tracker of the BESIII experiment, addressing the relevant design aspects of the detector electronics and the front-end ASIC for the CGEM

  7. Thai Automatic Speech Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suebvisai, Sinaporn; Charoenpornsawat, Paisarn; Black, Alan; Woszczyna, Monika; Schultz, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    .... We focus on the discussion of the rapid deployment of ASR for Thai under limited time and data resources, including rapid data collection issues, acoustic model bootstrap, and automatic generation of pronunciations...

  8. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  9. Automatic Test Systems Aquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    We are providing this final memorandum report for your information and use. This report discusses the efforts to achieve commonality in standards among the Military Departments as part of the DoD policy for automatic test systems (ATS...

  10. Seasonal variation of aliphatic amines in marine sub-micrometer particles at the Cape Verde islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herrmann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Monomethylamine (MA, dimethylamine (DMA and diethylamine (DEA were detected at non-negligible concentrations in sub-micrometer particles at the Cap Verde Atmospheric Observatory (CVAO located on the island of São Vicente in Cape Verde during algal blooms in 2007. The concentrations of these amines in five stage impactor samples ranged from 0–30 pg m−3 for MA, 130–360 pg m−3 for DMA and 5–110 pg m−3 for DEA during the spring bloom in May 2007 and 2–520 pg m−3 for MA, 100–1400 pg m−3 for DMA and 90–760 pg m−3 for DEA during an unexpected winter algal bloom in December 2007. Anomalously high Saharan dust deposition and intensive ocean layer deepening were found at the Atmospheric Observatory and the associated Ocean Observatory during algal bloom periods. The highest amine concentrations in fine particles (impactor stage 2, 0.14–0.42 μm indicate that amines are likely taken up from the gas phase into the acidic sub-micrometer particles. The contribution of amines to the organic carbon (OC content ranged from 0.2–2.5% C in the winter months, indicating the importance of this class of compounds to the carbon cycle in the marine environment. Furthermore, aliphatic amines originating from marine biological sources likely contribute significantly to the nitrogen content in the marine atmosphere. The average contribution of the amines to the detected nitrogen species in sub-micrometer particles can be non-negligible, especially in the winter months (0.1% N–1.5% N in the sum of nitrate, ammonium and amines. This indicates that these smaller aliphatic amines can be important for the carbon and the nitrogen cycles in the remote marine environment.

  11. Brand and automaticity

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, J.

    2008-01-01

    A presumption of most consumer research is that consumers endeavor to maximize the utility of their choices and are in complete control of their purchasing and consumption behavior. However, everyday life experience suggests that many of our choices are not all that reasoned or conscious. Indeed, automaticity, one facet of behavior, is indispensable to complete the portrait of consumers. Despite its importance, little attention is paid to how the automatic side of behavior can be captured and...

  12. Position automatic determination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This book tells of method of position determination and characteristic, control method of position determination and point of design, point of sensor choice for position detector, position determination of digital control system, application of clutch break in high frequency position determination, automation technique of position determination, position determination by electromagnetic clutch and break, air cylinder, cam and solenoid, stop position control of automatic guide vehicle, stacker crane and automatic transfer control.

  13. Automatic intelligent cruise control

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, NA; Young, MS

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the evaluation of automatic intelligent cruise control (AICC) from a psychological perspective. It was anticipated that AICC would have an effect upon the psychology of driving—namely, make the driver feel like they have less control, reduce the level of trust in the vehicle, make drivers less situationally aware, but might reduce the workload and make driving might less stressful. Drivers were asked to drive in a driving simulator under manual and automatic inte...

  14. TID-dependent current measurements of IBL readout chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dette, Karola [TU Dortmund, Experimentelle Physik IV (Germany); CERN (Switzerland); Collaboration: ATLAS Pixel-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS detector consists of several subsystems with a hybrid pixel detector as the innermost component of the tracking system. The pixel detector has been composed of three layers of silicon sensor assemblies during the first data taking run of the LHC and has been upgraded with a new 4th layer, the so-called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), in summer 2014. Each silicon sensor of the IBL is connected to a Front End readout chip (FE-I4) via bump bonds. During the first year of data taking an increase of the LV current produced by the readout chips was observed. This increase could be traced back to radiation damage inside the silicon. The dependence of the current on the Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and temperature has been tested with X-ray irradiations and will be presented in this talk.

  15. Digital Power Consumption Estimations for CHIPIX65 Pixel Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Marcotulli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    New hybrid pixel detectors with improved resolution capable of dealing with hit rates up to 3 GHz/cm2 will be required for future High Energy Physics experiments in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Given this, the RD53 collaboration works on the design of the next generation pixel readout chip needed for both the ATLAS and CMS detector phase 2 pixel upgrades. For the RD53 demonstrator chip in 65nm CMOS technology, different architectures are considered. In particular the purpose of this work is estimating the power consumption of the digital architecture of the readout ASIC developed by CHIPIX65 project of the INFN National Scientific Committee. This has been done with modern chip design tools integrated with the VEPIX53 simulation framework that has been developed within the RD53 collaboration in order to assess the performance of the system in very high rate, high energy physics experiments.

  16. The universal read-out controller for CBM at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, Sebastian; Abel, Norbert; Gebelein, Jano [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    Since 2007 we design and develop the firmware for the read-out controller (ROC) for data acquisition of the CBM detector at FAIR. While our first implementation solely focused on the nXYTER chip, today we are also designing and implementing readout logic for the GET4 chip which is supposed to be part of the time of flight (TOF) detector. Furthermore, we fully support both Ethernet and Optical transport as two transparent solutions. This addresses the different requirements of a laboratory setup and the final detector setup respectively. The usage of a strict modularization of the Read Out Controller firmware enables us to provide an Universal ROC where front-end specific logic and transport logic can be combined in a very flexible way. Fault tolerance techniques are only required for some of those modules and hence are only implemented there.

  17. A readout system for the wavelength-shifting optical module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foesig, Carl-Christian; Boeser, Sebastian [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The success of IceCube and the plans for an IceCube-Gen2 stimulate the development of new photo sensors. The approach of the Wavelength-shifting Optical Module is to provide a device which has a low dark noise rate combined with a high detection efficiency. A small PMT is used to detect red shifted photons guided in a coated PMMA tube, originally emitted by a wavelength shifting coating that absorbs photons in the UV Region. We have studied several PMTs for their usability with the IceCube-Gen2 readout system. Relevant parameters are the pulse widths in relation to the bandwidth of the IceCube-Gen2 readout electronics and the dark noise rates.

  18. Implementation of the Timepix ASIC in the Scalable Readout System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupberger, M., E-mail: lupberger@physik.uni-bonn.de; Desch, K.; Kaminski, J.

    2016-09-11

    We report on the development of electronics hardware, FPGA firmware and software to provide a flexible multi-chip readout of the Timepix ASIC within the framework of the Scalable Readout System (SRS). The system features FPGA-based zero-suppression and the possibility to read out up to 4×8 chips with a single Front End Concentrator (FEC). By operating several FECs in parallel, in principle an arbitrary number of chips can be read out, exploiting the scaling features of SRS. Specifically, we tested the system with a setup consisting of 160 Timepix ASICs, operated as GridPix devices in a large TPC field cage in a 1 T magnetic field at a DESY test beam facility providing an electron beam of up to 6 GeV. We discuss the design choices, the dedicated hardware components, the FPGA firmware as well as the performance of the system in the test beam.

  19. Test of a PCIe based readout option for PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Simon; Lange, Soeren; Kuehn, Wolfgang [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Engel, Heiko [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The future PANDA detector will achieve an event rate at about 20 MHz resulting in a high data load of up to 200 GB/s. The data acquisition system will be based on a triggerless readout concept, leading to the requirement of large data bandwidths. The data reduction will be guaranteed on the first level by an array of FPGAs running a full on-line reconstruction followed by the second level of a CPU/GPU cluster to achieve a reduction factor more than 1000. The C-RORC (Common Readout Receiver Card), originally developed for ALICE, provides on the one hand 12 optical links with 6.25 Gbps each, and on the other hand a PCIe interface with up to 40 Gbps. The receiver card has been installed and tested, and the firmware has been adjusted for the Panda data format. Test results are presented.

  20. Towards a new generation of pixel detector readout chips

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, M; Ballabriga, R.; Frojdh, E.; Heijne, E.; Llopart, X.; Poikela, T.; Tlustos, L.; Valerio, P.; Wong, W.

    2016-01-01

    The Medipix3 Collaboration has broken new ground in spectroscopic X-ray imaging and in single particle detection and tracking. This paper will review briefly the performance and limitations of the present generation of pixel detector readout chips developed by the Collaboration. Through Silicon Via technology has the potential to provide a significant improvement in the tile- ability and more flexibility in the choice of readout architecture. This has been explored in the context of 3 projects with CEA-LETI using Medipix3 and Timepix3 wafers. The next generation of chips will aim to provide improved spectroscopic imaging performance at rates compatible with human CT. It will also aim to provide full spectroscopic images with unprecedented energy and spatial resolution. Some of the opportunities and challenges posed by moving to a more dense CMOS process will be discussed.

  1. Optical readout and control systems for the CMS tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Troska, Jan K; Faccio, F; Gill, K; Grabit, R; Jareno, R M; Sandvik, A M; Vasey, F

    2003-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment will be installed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007. The readout system for the CMS Tracker consists of 10000000 individual detector channels that are time-multiplexed onto 40000 unidirectional analogue (40 MSample /s) optical links for transmission between the detector and the 65 m distant counting room. The corresponding control system consists of 2500 bi-directional digital (40 Mb/s) optical links based as far as possible upon the same components. The on-detector elements (lasers and photodiodes) of both readout and control links will be distributed throughout the detector volume in close proximity to the silicon detector elements. For this reason, strict requirements are placed on minimal package size, mass, power dissipation, immunity to magnetic field, and radiation hardness. It has been possible to meet the requirements with the extensive use of commercially available components with a minimum of customization. The project has now entered its vol...

  2. Evaluation of an Integrated Read-Out Layer Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Ajamieh, Fayez

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents evaluation results of an Integrated Read-out Layer (IRL), a proposed concept in scintillator-based calorimetry intended to meet the exceptional calorimetric requirements of the envisaged International Linear Collider (ILC). This study presents a full characterization of the prototype IRL, including exploration of relevant parameters, calibration performance, and the uniformity of response. The study represents proof of the IRL concept. Finally, proposed design enhancements are presented.

  3. Resistive-strips micromegas detectors with two-dimensional readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byszewski, M.; Wotschack, J.

    2012-02-01

    Micromegas detectors show very good performance for charged particle tracking in high rate environments as for example at the LHC. It is shown that two coordinates can be extracted from a single gas gap in these detectors. Several micromegas chambers with spark protection by resistive strips and two-dimensional readout have been tested in the context of the R&D work for the ATLAS Muon System upgrade.

  4. Two-dimensional readout in a liquid xenon ionisation chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Solovov, V; Ferreira-Marques, R; Lopes, M I; Pereira, A; Policarpo, Armando

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional readout with metal strips deposited on both sides of a glass plate is investigated aiming to assess the possibility of its use in a liquid xenon ionisation chamber for positron emission tomography. Here, we present results obtained with an alpha-source. It is shown that position resolution of <=1 mm, fwhm, can be achieved for free charge depositions equivalent to those due to gamma-rays with energy from 220 down to 110 keV.

  5. Hexagonal pixel detector with time encoded binary readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedlmoser, H.; Varner, G.; Cooney, M.

    2009-01-01

    The University of Hawaii is developing continuous acquisition pixel (CAP) detectors for vertexing applications in lepton colliding experiments such as SuperBelle or ILC. In parallel to the investigation of different technology options such as MAPS or SOI, both analog and binary readout concepts have been tested. First results with a binary readout scheme in which the hit information is time encoded by means of a signal shifting mechanism have recently been published. This paper explains the hit reconstruction for such a binary detector with an emphasis on fake hit reconstruction probabilities in order to evaluate the rate capability in a high background environment such as the planned SuperB factory at KEK. The results show that the binary concept is at least comparable to any analog readout strategy if not better in terms of occupancy. Furthermore, we present a completely new binary readout strategy in which the pixel cells are arranged in a hexagonal grid allowing the use of three independent output directions to reduce reconstruction ambiguities. The new concept uses the same signal shifting mechanism for time encoding, however, in dedicated transfer lines on the periphery of the detector, which enables higher shifting frequencies. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations of full size pixel matrices including hit and BG generation, signal generation, and data reconstruction show that by means of multiple signal transfer lines on the periphery the pixel can be made smaller (higher resolution), the number of output channels and the data volume per triggered event can be reduced dramatically, fake hit reconstruction is lowered to a minimum and the resulting effective occupancies are less than 10 -4 . A prototype detector has been designed in the AMS 0.35μm Opto process and is currently under fabrication.

  6. Performance of an optical readout GEM-based TPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margato, L.M.S.; Fraga, F.A.F.; Fetal, S.T.G.; Fraga, M.M.F.R.; Balau, E.F.S.; Blanco, A.; Marques, R. Ferreira; Policarpo, A.J.P.L

    2004-01-01

    We report on the operation of a GEM-based small TPC using an optical readout. The detector was operated with a mixture of Ar+CF 4 using 5.48 MeV alpha particles obtained from a 241 Am source and the GEM scintillation was concurrently read by a CCD camera and a photomultiplier. Precision collimators were used to define the track orientation. Qualitative results on the accuracy of the track angle, length and charge deposition measurements are presented

  7. High precision straw tube chamber with cathode readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Golutvin, I.A.; Ershov, Yu.V.

    1992-01-01

    The high precision straw chamber with cathode readout was constructed and investigated. The 10 mm straws were made of aluminized mylar strip with transparent longitudinal window. The X coordinate information has been taken from the cathode strips as induced charges and investigated via centroid method. The spatial resolution σ=120 μm has been obtained with signal/noise ratio about 60. The possible ways for improving the signal/noise ratio have been described. 7 refs.; 8 figs

  8. A high precision straw tube chamber with cathode readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Golutvin, I.A.; Ershov, Yu.V.; Zubarev, E.V.; Ivanov, A.B.; Lysiakov, V.N.; Makhankov, A.V.; Movchan, S.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Preda, T.

    1993-01-01

    The high precision straw chamber with cathode readout was constructed and investigated. The 10 mm diameter straws were made of aluminized Mylar with transparent longitudinal window. The X-coordinate information has been taken from cathode strips as induced charges and investigated with the centroid method. The spatial resolution σ x =103 μm was obtained at a signal-to-noise ratio of about 70. The possible ways to improve the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Dual-Readout Calorimetry with Lead Tungstate Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Akchurin, N.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented of beam tests in which a small electromagnetic calorimeter consisting of lead tungstate crystals was exposed to 50 GeV electrons and pions. This calorimeter was backed up by the DREAM Dual-Readout calorimeter, which measures the scintillation and \\v{C}erenkov light produced in the shower development, using two different media. The signals from the crystal calorimeter were analyzed in great detail in an attempt to determine the contributions from these two types of light ...

  10. 3D, Flash, Induced Current Readout for Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Sherwood I. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2014-06-07

    A new method for silicon microstrip and pixel detector readout using (1) 65 nm-technology current amplifers which can, for the first time with silicon microstrop and pixel detectors, have response times far shorter than the charge collection time (2) 3D trench electrodes large enough to subtend a reasonable solid angle at most track locations and so have adequate sensitivity over a substantial volume of pixel, (3) induced signals in addition to, or in place of, collected charge

  11. Linear and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Micrometer-Scale Gold Nanoplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao-Lan; Peng Xiao-Niu; Yang Zhong-Jian; Li Min; Zhou Li

    2011-01-01

    Micrometer-scale gold nanoplates have been synthesized in high yield through a polyol process. The morphology, crystal structure and linear optical extinction of the gold nanoplates have been characterized. These gold nanoplates are single-crystalline with triangular, truncated triangular and hexagonal shapes, exhibiting strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) extinction in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) region. The linear optical properties of gold nanoplates are also investigated by theoretical calculations. We further investigate the nonlinear optical properties of the gold nanoplates in solution by Z-scan technique. The nonlinear absorption (NLA) coefficient and nonlinear refraction (NLR) index are measured to be 1.18×10 2 cm/GW and −1.04×10 −3 cm 2 /GW, respectively. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  12. Local-Scale Simulations of Nucleate Boiling on Micrometer Featured Surfaces: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitaraman, Hariswaran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dede, Ercan M. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Joshi, Shailesh N. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Zhou, Feng [Toyota Research Institute of North America

    2017-08-03

    A high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model for bubble nucleation of the refrigerant HFE7100 on micrometer-featured surfaces is presented in this work. The single-fluid incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, along with energy transport and natural convection effects are solved on a featured surface resolved grid. An a priori cavity detection method is employed to convert raw profilometer data of a surface into well-defined cavities. The cavity information and surface morphology are represented in the CFD model by geometric mesh deformations. Surface morphology is observed to initiate buoyancy-driven convection in the liquid phase, which in turn results in faster nucleation of cavities. Simulations pertaining to a generic rough surface show a trend where smaller size cavities nucleate with higher wall superheat. This local-scale model will serve as a self-consistent connection to larger device scale continuum models where local feature representation is not possible.

  13. A scanning tunneling microscope with a scanning range from hundreds of micrometers down to nanometer resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Fatih; Zaum, Christopher; Morgenstern, Karina

    2012-10-01

    A beetle type stage and a flexure scanning stage are combined to form a two stages scanning tunneling microscope (STM). It operates at room temperature in ultrahigh vacuum and is capable of scanning areas up to 300 μm × 450 μm down to resolution on the nanometer scale. This multi-scale STM has been designed and constructed in order to investigate prestructured metallic or semiconducting micro- and nano-structures in real space from atomic-sized structures up to the large-scale environment. The principle of the instrument is demonstrated on two different systems. Gallium nitride based micropillars demonstrate scan areas up to hundreds of micrometers; a Au(111) surface demonstrates nanometer resolution.

  14. Local-Scale Simulations of Nucleate Boiling on Micrometer-Featured Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitaraman, Hariswaran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dede, Ercan M. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Joshi, Shailesh N. [Toyota Research Institute of North America; Zhou, Feng [Toyota Research Institute of North America

    2017-07-12

    A high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based model for bubble nucleation of the refrigerant HFE7100 on micrometer-featured surfaces is presented in this work. The single-fluid incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, along with energy transport and natural convection effects are solved on a featured surface resolved grid. An a priori cavity detection method is employed to convert raw profilometer data of a surface into well-defined cavities. The cavity information and surface morphology are represented in the CFD model by geometric mesh deformations. Surface morphology is observed to initiate buoyancy-driven convection in the liquid phase, which in turn results in faster nucleation of cavities. Simulations pertaining to a generic rough surface show a trend where smaller size cavities nucleate with higher wall superheat. This local-scale model will serve as a self-consistent connection to larger device scale continuum models where local feature representation is not possible.

  15. Reaching (sub-)micrometer resolution of photo-immobilized proteins using diffracted light beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Esben; Neves Petersen, Teresa; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2008-01-01

    , with dimensions as small as a few micrometers. The ultimate size of the immobilized spots is dependent on the focal area of the UV beam. The technology involves light induced formation of free, reactive thiol groups in molecules containing aromatic residues nearby disulphide bridges. It is not only limited...... to immobilizing molecules according to conventional patterns like microarrays, as any bitmap motif can virtually be used a template for patterning. We now show that molecules (proteins) can be immobilized on a surface with any arbitrary pattern according to diffraction patterns of light. The pattern of photo......-immobilized proteins reproduces the diffraction pattern of light expected with the optical setup. Immobilising biomolecules according to diffraction patterns of light will allow achievement of smaller patterns with higher resolution. The flexibility of this new technology leads to any patterns of photo...

  16. A novel approach for preparation of micrometer-sized, monodisperse dimple and hemispherical polystyrene particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takuya; Komatsu, Yoshifumi; Fujibayashi, Teruhisa; Minami, Hideto; Okubo, Masayoshi

    2010-03-16

    Micrometer-sized, monodisperse dimple and hemispherical polystyrene (PS) particles were successfully prepared by heating (55-70 degrees C) of spherical PS particles dispersed in methanol/water media (40/60 to 80/20, w/w) in the presence of decane droplets, and subsequent cooling down to room temperature. Decane was absorbed by the PS particles during the heating process. Decane-absorbed PS particles phase-separated into PS and decane phases in the inside during the cooling process, and eventually dimple and/or hemispherical particles were formed by removal of the decane phase from phase-separated PS/decane particles by evaporation. The size of the dimple, which is determined by the volume of decane phase-separated from decane-absorbed PS particles during the cooling process, increased with increases in the heating temperature and the methanol content.

  17. A Convenient and Templated Method for the Fabrication of Monodisperse Micrometer Hollow Titania Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and widely applicable methodology was presented to synthesize monodisperse micrometer hollow titania spheres (HTS based on the templating method. It was performed by using the preformed poly(styrene-acrylic acid (PSA as template spheres which was mixed with tetrabutyltitanate (TBOT in an ethanol solvent under steam treatment. The HTS which were obtained by the calcination of PSA/TiO2 composite core-shell spheres had a narrow particle size distribution and commendable surface topography characterized by SEM. The calcined HTS at 500°C displayed crystalline reflection peaks that were characteristic to the anatase phase by XRD. Moreover, some key influencing factors including TBOT concentration and reaction time were analyzed. As expected, the diameter of HTS could be readily controlled by altering the size of PSA template spheres. In addition, the approach was also applied to fabricate hollow zirconia spheres and other inorganic spheres.

  18. Non-destructive identification of micrometer-scale minerals and their position within a bulk sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henning O.; Hakim, Sepide S.; Pedersen, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    . Crushing or disintegrating a sample annihilates any possibility for gathering information from the texture of the porous media or the mineral assemblage close to the grains in question. A new method using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscopy can be successfully applied to natural...... materials. We combined X-ray microtomography (XMT) and 3DXRD to investigate a sample of very fine-grained chalk containing fracture minerals. The XMT technique provides three-dimensional images of the particles and pore structure at very high resolution (350 nm voxel dimension) on samples less than 500 μm......Using the conventional techniques of mineralogy, it has been a challenge to determine mineral identity, crystal orientation and spatial position of micrometer-sized crystals that are embedded in a rock, sediment or soil. Traditionally, the individual grains must be extracted and analyzed separately...

  19. GOSSIPO-4: Evaluation of a Novel PLL-Based TDC-Technique for the Readout of GridPix-Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Brezina, C; Zappon, F; Van Beuzekom, M; Campbell, M; Desch, K; Van der Graaf, H; Gromov, V; Kluit, R; Llopart, X; Poikela, T; Zivkovic, V

    2014-01-01

    The direct readout of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) with bare pixel chips introduces the need for a new generation of readout electronics featuring a high spatial granularity as well as a highly accurate time measurement in each pixel. GOSSIPO-4, fabricated in a 130 nm CMOS technology, is a demonstrator ASIC investigating the potential of a new TDC-concept that is based on a chip-wide 40 MHz clock which is complemented by an additional 640 MHz clock. The latter is created upon demand by local oscillators distributed across the pixel matrix. PLL tuning of the local oscillators allows for automatic compensation of frequency fluctuations caused by process parameter, supply voltage and temperature variations. The developed PLL locks within s and achieves a duty cycle of 50.75% with a time interval error of only 23.4 ps. Mean DNL and INL of the TDC are less than 20% of the time bin size of 1.56 ns under all anticipated conditions.

  20. ADVANCED READOUT ELECTRONICS FOR MULTIELEMENT CdZnTe SENSORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DE GERONIMO, G.; O CONNOR, P.; KANDASAMY, A.; GROSHOLZ, J.

    2002-01-01

    A generation of high performance front-end and read-out ASICs customized for highly segmented CdZnTe sensors is presented. The ASICs, developed in a multi-year effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory, are targeted to a wide range of applications including medical, safeguards/security, industrial, research, and spectroscopy. The front-end multichannel ASICs provide high accuracy low noise preamplification and filtering of signals, with versions for small and large area CdZnTe elements. They implement a high order unipolar or bipolar shaper, an innovative low noise continuous reset system with self-adapting capability to the wide range of detector leakage currents, a new system for stabilizing the output baseline and high output driving capability. The general-purpose versions include programmable gain and peaking time. The read-out multichannel ASICs provide fully data driven high accuracy amplitude and time measurements, multiplexing and time domain derandomization of the shaped pulses. They implement a fast arbitration scheme and an array of innovative two-phase offset-free rail-to-rail analog peak detectors for buffering and absorption of input rate fluctuations, thus greatly relaxing the rate requirement on the external ADC. Pulse amplitude, hit timing, pulse risetime, and channel address per processed pulse are available at the output in correspondence of an external readout request. Prototype chips have been fabricated in 0.5 and 0.35 (micro)m CMOS and tested. Design concepts and experimental results are discussed

  1. The ALICE Time of Flight Readout System AFRO

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A

    1999-01-01

    The ALICE Time of Flight Detector system comprises more than 100.000 channels and covers an area of more than 100 m2. The timing resolution should be better than 150 ps. This combination of requirements poses a major challenge to the readout system. All detector timing measurements are referenced to a unique start signal t0. This signal is generated at the time an event occurs. Timing measurements are performed using a multichannel TDC chip which requires a 40 MHz reference clock signal. The general concept of the readout system is based on a modular architecture. Detector cells are combined to modules of 1024 channels. Each of these modules can be read out and calibrated independently from each other. By distributing a reference signal, a timing relationship between the modules is established. This reference signal can either be the start signal t0 or the TDC-reference clock. The readout architecture is divided into three steps; the TDC controller, the module controller, and the time of flight controller. Th...

  2. Electronic readout for THGEM detectors based on FPGA TDCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Tobias; Buechele, Maximilian; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Grussenmeyer, Tobias; Herrmann, Florian; Joerg, Philipp; Koenigsmann, Kay; Kremser, Paul; Kunz, Tobias; Michalski, Christoph; Schopferer, Sebastian; Szameitat, Tobias [Physikalisches Institut, Freiburg Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS-II RICH upgrade Group

    2013-07-01

    In the framework of the RD51 programme the characteristics of a new detector design, called THGEM, which is based on multi-layer arrangements of printed circuit board material, is investigated. The THGEMs combine the advantages for covering gains up to 10{sup 6} in electron multiplication at large detector areas and low material budget. Studies are performed by extending the design to a hybrid gas detector by adding a Micromega layer, which significantly improves the ion back flow ratio of the chamber. With the upgrade of the COMPASS experiment at CERN a MWPC plane of the RICH-1 detector will be replaced by installing THGEM chambers. This summarizes to 40k channels of electronic readout, including amplification, discrimination and time-to-digital conversion of the anode signals. Due to the expected hit rate of the detector we design a cost-efficient TDC, based on Artix7 FPGA technology, with time resolution below 100 ps and sufficient hit buffer depth. To cover the large readout area the data is transferred via optical fibres to a central readout system which is part of the GANDALF framework.

  3. Demonstration of Time Domain Multiplexed Readout for Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porst, J.-P.; Adams, J. S.; Balvin, M.; Bandler, S.; Beyer, J.; Busch, S. E.; Drung, D.; Seidel, G. M.; Smith, S. J.; Stevenson, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically coupled calorimeters (MCC) have extremely high potential for x-ray applications due to the inherent high energy resolution capability and being non-dissipative. Although very high energy-resolution has been demonstrated, until now there has been no demonstration of multiplexed read-out. We report on the first realization of a time domain multiplexed (TDM) read-out. While this has many similarities with TDM of transition-edge-sensors (TES), for MGGs the energy resolution is limited by the SQUID read-out noise and requires the well established scheme to be altered in order to minimize degradation due to noise aliasing effects. In cur approach, each pixel is read out by a single first stage SQUID (SQ1) that is operated in open loop. The outputs of the SQ1 s are low-pass filtered with an array of low cross-talk inductors, then fed into a single-stage SQUID TD multiplexer. The multiplexer is addressed from room temperature and read out through a single amplifier channel. We present results achieved with a new detector platform. Noise performance is presented and compared to expectations. We have demonstrated multiplexed X-ray spectroscopy at 5.9keV with delta_FWHM=10eV. In an optimized setup, we show it is possible to multiplex 32 detectors without significantly degrading the Intrinsic detector resolution.

  4. SQUIDs for the readout of metallic magnetic calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferring, Anna; Wegner, Mathias; Fleischmann, Andreas; Gastaldo, Loredana; Kempf, Sebastian; Enss, Christian [Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg University (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are the devices of choice to read out metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs). Here, the temperature change of the detector upon the absorption of an energetic particle is measured as a magnetization change of a paramagnetic temperature sensor that is situated in a weak magnetic field. Driven by the need for devices that allow for the readout of large-scale detector arrays with hundreds or even thousands of individual detectors as well as of single channel detectors with sub-eV energy resolution, we have recently started the development of low-T{sub c} current-sensing SQUIDs. In particular, we are developing cryogenic frequency-domain multiplexers based on non-hysteretic rf-SQUIDs for detector array readout as well as dc-SQUIDs for single channel detector readout. We discuss our SQUID designs and the performance of prototype SQUIDs. We particularly focus on the frequency and temperature dependence of the SQUID noise as well as the reliability of our SQUID fabrication process for Nb/Al-AlO{sub x}/Nb Josephson junctions. Additionally, we demonstrate experimentally that state-of-the-art MMCs can successfully be read out with our current devices. Finally, we discuss different strategies to improve the SQUID and detector performance aiming to reach sub-eV energy resolution for individual detectors as well as for detector arrays.

  5. The read-out chain of the CBM STS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Joerg; Emschermann, David [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will explore the QCD phase diagram at high baryon densities during nucleus-nucleus collisions in a fixed target setup. Its physics goals require interaction rates up to 10 MHz, which can be exploited with fast and radiation hard detectors equipped with free-streaming front-end and readout electronics, connected to a common Data Aquisition (DAQ) system to forward data to the First Level Event Selector (FLES). The core component of the CBM DAQ system is the Data Processing Board (DPB) implementing three important functionalities: - The incoming data via multiple lower-speed, short distance links is preprocessed, concentrated and forwarded to the FLES via higher-speed, long distance links. - The DPBs provide an interface for the Detector Control System (DCS) to configure readout and front-end electronics (FEE). - As part of the Timing and Fast Control (TFC) system the DPBs ensure transmission of the reference clock and synchronous commands necessary to synchronize the FEE. This contribution presents the readout and DAQ chain on the example of the core subdetector, the Silicon Tracking System (STS).

  6. Pose measurement method with six parameters for microassembly based on an optical micrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhi-jing; Sun, Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-feng

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a new pose measurement method of microminiature parts that is capable of transforming one dimension (1D) contour size obtained by optical micrometer to three dimension (3D) data with six parameters for microassembly. Pose measurement is one of the most important processes for microminiature parts' alignment and insertion in microassembly. During the past few years, researchers have developed their microassembly systems focusing on visual identification to obtain two or three dimension data with no more than three parameters. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM), optical microscope, and stereomicroscope are applied in their systems. However, as structures of microminiature parts become increasingly complex, six parameters to represent their position and orientation are specifically needed. Firstly, The pose measurement model is established based on the introduction of measuring objects and measuring principle of optical micrometer. The measuring objects are microminiature parts with complex 3D structure. Two groups of two dimension (2D) data are gathered at two different measurement positions. Then part pose with 6 parameters is calculated, including 3 position parameters of feature point of the part and 3 orientation parameters of the part axis. Secondly, pose measurement process for a small shaft, vertical orientation determination, and position parameters obtaining are presented. 2D data is gathered by scanning the generatrix of the part, and valid data is extracted and saved in arrays. A vertical orientation criterion is proposed to determine whether the part is parallel to the Z-axis of the coordinate. If not, 2D data will be fixed into a linear equation using least square algorithm. Then orientation parameters are calculated. Center of Part End (CPE) is selected as feature point of the part, and its position parameters are extracted form two group of 2D data. Finally, a fast pose measurement device is developed and representative

  7. SPIDR, a general-purpose readout system for pixel ASICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijden, B. van der; Visser, J.; Beuzekom, M. van; Boterenbrood, H.; Munneke, B.; Schreuder, F.; Kulis, S.

    2017-01-01

    The SPIDR (Speedy PIxel Detector Readout) system is a flexible general-purpose readout platform that can be easily adapted to test and characterize new and existing detector readout ASICs. It is originally designed for the readout of pixel ASICs from the Medipix/Timepix family, but other types of ASICs or front-end circuits can be read out as well. The SPIDR system consists of an FPGA board with memory and various communication interfaces, FPGA firmware, CPU subsystem and an API library on the PC . The FPGA firmware can be adapted to read out other ASICs by re-using IP blocks. The available IP blocks include a UDP packet builder, 1 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet MAC's and a 'soft core' CPU . Currently the firmware is targeted at the Xilinx VC707 development board and at a custom board called Compact-SPIDR . The firmware can easily be ported to other Xilinx 7 series and ultra scale FPGAs. The gap between an ASIC and the data acquisition back-end is bridged by the SPIDR system. Using the high pin count VITA 57 FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) connector only a simple chip carrier PCB is required. A 1 and a 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface handle the connection to the back-end. These can be used simultaneously for high-speed data and configuration over separate channels. In addition to the FMC connector, configurable inputs and outputs are available for synchronization with other detectors. A high resolution (≈ 27 ps bin size) Time to Digital converter is provided for time stamping events in the detector. The SPIDR system is frequently used as readout for the Medipix3 and Timepix3 ASICs. Using the 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface it is possible to read out a single chip at full bandwidth or up to 12 chips at a reduced rate. Another recent application is the test-bed for the VeloPix ASIC, which is developed for the Vertex Detector of the LHCb experiment. In this case the SPIDR system processes the 20 Gbps scrambled data stream from the VeloPix and distributes it over four

  8. Use of an axisymmetric microscope with electronic readout for collecting soft X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavailler, C.; Henry, P.; Launspach, J.; De Mascureau, J.; Millerioux, M.; Rostaing, M.; Sauneuf, R.

    1984-08-01

    The axisymmetric microscope, first discussed by Wolter, provides high resolution and sensitivity for investigating the soft X-ray emission of laser-driven plasmas. Such a device having a 10 X magnification has been constructed. We present a comparison between the images of laser-driven plasmas given by this microscope and by a 10 X pinhole camera. Until now these images were recorded on X-ray film. We have shown that film could be replaced by C.C.D. in a pinhole camera when the photon energy lies within the 1-10 keV range. Below 1 keV the quantum yield is too low so we have used an image converter tube made by RTC. It is a diode-inverter tube with a soft X-ray photocathode and a P20 phosphor deposited on an optic fiber plate. The electronic image appearing on the screen is read by a C.C.D. working in the visible spectral fields. An electronic image readout chain, which is identical to those associated with streak cameras, then processes automatically and immediately the images given by the microscope [fr

  9. Time-optimized high-resolution readout-segmented diffusion tensor imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Reishofer

    Full Text Available Readout-segmented echo planar imaging with 2D navigator-based reacquisition is an uprising technique enabling the sampling of high-resolution diffusion images with reduced susceptibility artifacts. However, low signal from the small voxels and long scan times hamper the clinical applicability. Therefore, we introduce a regularization algorithm based on total variation that is applied directly on the entire diffusion tensor. The spatially varying regularization parameter is determined automatically dependent on spatial variations in signal-to-noise ratio thus, avoiding over- or under-regularization. Information about the noise distribution in the diffusion tensor is extracted from the diffusion weighted images by means of complex independent component analysis. Moreover, the combination of those features enables processing of the diffusion data absolutely user independent. Tractography from in vivo data and from a software phantom demonstrate the advantage of the spatially varying regularization compared to un-regularized data with respect to parameters relevant for fiber-tracking such as Mean Fiber Length, Track Count, Volume and Voxel Count. Specifically, for in vivo data findings suggest that tractography results from the regularized diffusion tensor based on one measurement (16 min generates results comparable to the un-regularized data with three averages (48 min. This significant reduction in scan time renders high resolution (1 × 1 × 2.5 mm(3 diffusion tensor imaging of the entire brain applicable in a clinical context.

  10. Automatic Program Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Automatic Program Development is a tribute to Robert Paige (1947-1999), our accomplished and respected colleague, and moreover our good friend, whose untimely passing was a loss to our academic and research community. We have collected the revised, updated versions of the papers published in his...... honor in the Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation Journal in the years 2003 and 2005. Among them there are two papers by Bob: (i) a retrospective view of his research lines, and (ii) a proposal for future studies in the area of the automatic program derivation. The book also includes some papers...... by members of the IFIP Working Group 2.1 of which Bob was an active member. All papers are related to some of the research interests of Bob and, in particular, to the transformational development of programs and their algorithmic derivation from formal specifications. Automatic Program Development offers...

  11. Automatic text summarization

    CERN Document Server

    Torres Moreno, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This new textbook examines the motivations and the different algorithms for automatic document summarization (ADS). We performed a recent state of the art. The book shows the main problems of ADS, difficulties and the solutions provided by the community. It presents recent advances in ADS, as well as current applications and trends. The approaches are statistical, linguistic and symbolic. Several exemples are included in order to clarify the theoretical concepts.  The books currently available in the area of Automatic Document Summarization are not recent. Powerful algorithms have been develop

  12. Automatic Ultrasound Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin

    on the user adjustments on the scanner interface to optimize the scan settings. This explains the huge interest in the subject of this PhD project entitled “AUTOMATIC ULTRASOUND SCANNING”. The key goals of the project have been to develop automated techniques to minimize the unnecessary settings...... on the scanners, and to improve the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in ultrasound by introducing new quantitative measures. Thus, four major issues concerning automation of the medical ultrasound are addressed in this PhD project. They touch upon gain adjustments in ultrasound, automatic synthetic aperture image...

  13. Automatic NAA. Saturation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Grass, F.; Kuhnert, M.

    2008-01-01

    A system for Automatic NAA is based on a list of specific saturation activities determined for one irradiation position at a given neutron flux and a single detector geometry. Originally compiled from measurements of standard reference materials, the list may be extended also by the calculation of saturation activities from k 0 and Q 0 factors, and f and α values of the irradiation position. A systematic improvement of the SRM approach is currently being performed by pseudo-cyclic activation analysis, to reduce counting errors. From these measurements, the list of saturation activities is recalculated in an automatic procedure. (author)

  14. Attenuation on an Earth-space path measured in the wavelength range of 8 to 14 micrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R W

    1970-06-19

    A telescope operating over the wavelength range of 8 to 14 micrometers has been added to the Crawford Hill sun tracker for the purpose of measuring attenuation in that atmospheric window. Over a 9-month period the attenuation (typically from clouds) exceeded 10, 20, and 30 decibels for 48, 43, and 34 percent of the time.

  15. Discovery of natural gain amplification in the 10-micrometer carbon dioxide laser bands on Mars - A natural laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, M. J.; Buhl, D.; Chin, G.; Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Kostiuk, T.; Zipoy, D.

    1981-01-01

    Fully resolved intensity profiles of various lines in the carbon dioxide band at 10.4 micrometers have been measured on Mars with an infrared heterodyne spectrometer. Analysis of the line shapes shows that the Mars atmosphere exhibits positive gain in these lines. The detection of natural optical gain amplification enables identification of these lines as a definite natural laser.

  16. High-Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the 3-micrometers Region: Role of Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this work we report on high-resolution IR absorption studies that provide a detailed view on how the peripheral structure of irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects the shape and position of their 3-micrometers absorption band. To this purpose we present mass-selected, high-resolution absorption spectra of cold and isolated phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]antracene, chrysene, triphenylene, and perylene molecules in the 2950-3150 per cm range. The experimental spectra are compared with standard harmonic calculations, and anharmonic calculations using a modified version of the SPECTRO program that incorporates a Fermi resonance treatment utilizing intensity redistribution. We show that the 3-micrometers region is dominated by the effects of anharmonicity, resulting in many more bands than would have been expected in a purely harmonic approximation. Importantly, we find that anharmonic spectra as calculated by SPECTRO are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Together with previously reported high-resolution spectra of linear acenes, the present spectra provide us with an extensive dataset of spectra of PAHs with a varying number of aromatic rings, with geometries that range from open to highly-condensed structures, and featuring CH groups in all possible edge configurations. We discuss the astrophysical implications of the comparison of these spectra on the interpretation of the appearance of the aromatic infrared 3-micrometers band, and on features such as the two-component emission character of this band and the 3-micrometers emission plateau.

  17. DNA damage on nano- and micrometer scales impacts dicentric induction: computer modelling of ion microbeam experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Werner; Kundrat, Pavel; Schmitt, Elke

    2016-07-01

    Detailed understanding of the enhanced relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of ions, in particular at high linear energy transfer (LET) values, is needed to fully explore the radiation risk of manned space missions. It is generally accepted that the enhanced RBE of high-LET particles results from the DNA lesion patterns, in particular DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), due to the spatial clustering of energy deposits around their trajectories. In conventional experiments on biological effects of radiation types of diverse quality, however, clustering of energy deposition events on nanometer scale that is relevant for the induction and local complexity of DSB is inherently interlinked with regional (sub-)micrometer-scale DSB clustering along the particle tracks. Due to this limitation, the role of both (nano- and micrometer) scales on the induction of diverse biological endpoints cannot be frankly separated. To address this issue in a unique way, experiments at the ion microbeam SNAKE [1] and corresponding track-structure based model calculations of DSB induction and subsequent repair with the biophysical code PARTRAC [2] have been performed. In the experiments, hybrid human-hamster A_{L} cells were irradiated with 20 MeV (2.6 keV/μm) protons, 45 MeV (60 keV/μm) lithium ions or 55 MeV (310 keV/μm) carbon ions. The ions were either quasi-homogeneously distributed or focused to 0.5 x 1 μm^{2} spots on regular matrix patterns of 5.4 μm, 7.6 μm and 10.6 μm grid size, with pre-defined particle numbers per spot so as to deposit a mean dose of 1.7 Gy for all irradiation patterns. As expected, the induction of dicentrics by homogeneous irradiation increased with LET: lithium and carbon ions induced about two- and four-fold higher yields of dicentrics than protons. The induction of dicentrics is, however, affected by µm-scale, too: focusing 20 lithium ions or 451 protons per spot on a 10.6 μm grid induced two or three times more dicentrics, respectively, than a

  18. Infrared readout electronics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 21, 22, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    The present volume on IR readout electronics discusses cryogenic readout using silicon devices, cryogenic readout using III-V and LTS devices, multiplexers for higher temperatures, and focal-plane signal processing electronics. Attention is given to the optimization of cryogenic CMOS processes for sub-10-K applications, cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs, inP-based heterostructure device technology for ultracold readout applications, and a three-terminal semiconductor-superconductor transimpedance amplifier. Topics addressed include unfulfilled needs in IR astronomy focal-plane readout electronics, IR readout integrated circuit technology for tactical missile systems, and radiation-hardened 10-bit A/D for FPA signal processing. Also discussed are the implementation of a noise reduction circuit for spaceflight IR spectrometers, a real-time processor for staring receivers, and a fiber-optic link design for INMOS transputers.

  19. Fabrication of Micrometer- and Nanometer-Scale Polymer Structures by Visible Light Induced Dielectrophoresis (DEP Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen J. Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report in this paper a novel, inexpensive and flexible method for fabricating micrometer- and nanometer-scale three-dimensional (3D polymer structures using visible light sources instead of ultra-violet (UV light sources or lasers. This method also does not require the conventional micro-photolithographic technique (i.e., photolithographic masks for patterning and fabricating polymer structures such as hydrogels. The major materials and methods required for this novel fabrication technology are: (1 any cross-linked network of photoactive polymers (examples of fabricated poly(ethylene glycol (PEG-diacrylate hydrogel structures are shown in this paper; (2 an Optically-induced Dielectrophoresis (ODEP System which includes an “ODEP chip” (i.e., any chip that changes its surface conductivity when exposed to visible light, an optical microscope, a projector, and a computer; and (3 an animator software hosted on a computer that can generate virtual or dynamic patterns which can be projected onto the “ODEP chip” through the use of a projector and a condenser lens. Essentially, by placing a photosensitive polymer solution inside the microfluidic platform formed by the “ODEP chip” bonded to another substrate, and applying an alternating current (a.c. electrical potential across the polymer solution (typically ~20 Vp-p at 10 kHz, solid polymer micro/nano structures can then be formed on the “ODEP chip” surface when visible-light is projected onto the chip. The 2D lateral geometry (x and y dimensions and the thickness (height of the micro/nano structures are dictated by the image geometry of the visible light projected onto the “ODEP chip” and also the time duration of projection. Typically, after an image projection with intensity ranging from ~0.2 to 0.4 mW/cm2 for 10 s, ~200 nm high structures can be formed. In our current system, the thickness of these polymer structures can be controlled to form from ~200 nanometers to ~3

  20. Pixel detector readout electronics with two-level discriminator scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengg, F.

    1998-01-01

    In preparation for a silicon pixel detector with more than 3,000 readout channels per chip for operation at the future large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN the analog front end of the readout electronics has been designed and measured on several test-arrays with 16 by 4 cells. They are implemented in the HP 0.8 microm process but compatible with the design rules of the radiation hard Honeywell 0.8 microm bulk process. Each cell contains bump bonding pad, preamplifier, discriminator and control logic for masking and testing within a layout area of only 50 microm by 140 microm. A new two-level discriminator scheme has been implemented to cope with the problems of time-walk and interpixel cross-coupling. The measured gain of the preamplifier is 900 mV for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP, about 24,000 e - for a 300 microm thick Si-detector) with a return to baseline within 750 ns for a 1 MIP input signal. The full readout chain (without detector) shows an equivalent noise charge to 60e - r.m.s. The time-walk, a function of the separation between the two threshold levels, is measured to be 22 ns at a separation of 1,500 e - , which is adequate for the 40 MHz beam-crossing frequency at the LHC. The interpixel cross-coupling, measured with a 40fF coupling capacitance, is less than 3%. A single cell consumes 35 microW at 3.5 V supply voltage

  1. A novel readout integrated circuit for ferroelectric FPA detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Piji; Li, Lihua; Ji, Yulong; Zhang, Jia; Li, Min; Liang, Yan; Hu, Yanbo; Li, Songying

    2017-11-01

    Uncooled infrared detectors haves some advantages such as low cost light weight low power consumption, and superior reliability, compared with cryogenically cooled ones Ferroelectric uncooled focal plane array(FPA) are being developed for its AC response and its high reliability As a key part of the ferroelectric assembly the ROIC determines the performance of the assembly. A top-down design model for uncooled ferroelectric readout integrated circuit(ROIC) has been developed. Based on the optical thermal and electrical properties of the ferroelectric detector the RTIA readout integrated circuit is designed. The noise bandwidth of RTIA readout circuit has been developed and analyzed. A novel high gain amplifier, a high pass filter and a low pass filter circuits are designed on the ROIC. In order to improve the ferroelectric FPA package performance and decrease of package cost a temperature sensor is designed on the ROIC chip At last the novel RTIA ROIC is implemented on 0.6μm 2P3M CMOS silicon techniques. According to the experimental chip test results the temporal root mean square(RMS)noise voltage is about 1.4mV the sensitivity of the on chip temperature sensor is 0.6 mV/K from -40°C to 60°C the linearity performance of the ROIC chip is better than 99% Based on the 320×240 RTIA ROIC, a 320×240 infrared ferroelectric FPA is fabricated and tested. Test results shows that the 320×240 RTIA ROIC meets the demand of infrared ferroelectric FPA.

  2. Performance of the CAMEX64 silicon strip readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarema, R.J.

    1989-06-01

    The CAMEX64 is a 64 channel full custom CMOS chip designed specifically for the readout of silicon strip detectors. CAMEX which stands for CMOS Multichannel Analog MultiplEXer for Silicon Strip Detectors was designed by members of the Franhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems and the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics. Each CAMEX channel has a switched capacitor charge sensitive amplifier with 4 sampling capacitors and a multiplexing scheme for reading out each of the channels on an analog bus. The device uses multiple sampling capacitors to filter and reduce input noise. Filtering is controlled through sampling techniques using external clocks. The device operates in a double correlated sampling mode and therefore cannot separate detector leakage current from a charge input. Normal operation of this device is similar to all other silicon readout chips designed and built thus far in that there is a data acquisition cycle during which charge is simultaneously accepted on all channels for a short period of time from a detector array, followed by a readout cycle where that charge or hit information is read out. This device works especially well for colliding beam experiments where the time of charge arrival is accurately known. However it can be used in fixed target or asynchronous mode where the time of charge arrival is not well known. In the asynchronous mode it appears that gain is somewhat dependent on the time interval required to decide whether or not to accept charge input information and thus the maximum signal to noise performance found with the synchronous mode may not be achieved in the asynchronous mode. 18 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Design and performance of the new cathode readout proportional chambers in LASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiken, G.; Aston, D.; Dunwoodie, W.

    1980-10-01

    The design and construction of a new proportional chamber system for the LASS spectrometer are discussed. This system consists of planar and cylindrical chambers employing anode wire and cathode strip readout techniques. The good timing characteristics of anode readout combine with the excellent spatial resolution of cathode readout to provide powerful and compact detectors. Preliminary resolution data are presented along with operating characteristics of the various devices

  4. Read-out and calibration of a tile calorimeter for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardell, S.

    1997-06-01

    The read-out and calibration of scintillating tiles hadronic calorimeter for ATLAS is discussed. Tests with prototypes of FERMI, a system of read-out electronics based on a dynamic range compressor reducing the dynamic range from 16 to 10 bits and a 40 MHz 10 bits sampling ADC, are presented. In comparison with a standard charge integrating read-out improvements in the resolution of 1% in the constant term are obtained

  5. Cliff : the automatized zipper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baharom, M.Z.; Toeters, M.J.; Delbressine, F.L.M.; Bangaru, C.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2016-01-01

    It is our strong believe that fashion - more specifically apparel - can support us so much more in our daily life than it currently does. The Cliff project takes the opportunity to create a generic automatized zipper. It is a response to the struggle by elderly, people with physical disability, and

  6. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1989-01-01

    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstract...

  7. Automatic Oscillating Turret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Final Report: February 1978 ZAUTOMATIC OSCILLATING TURRET SYSTEM September 1980 * 6. PERFORMING 01G. REPORT NUMBER .J7. AUTHOR(S) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT...o....e.... *24 APPENDIX P-4 OSCILLATING BUMPER TURRET ...................... 25 A. DESCRIPTION 1. Turret Controls ...Other criteria requirements were: 1. Turret controls inside cab. 2. Automatic oscillation with fixed elevation to range from 20* below the horizontal to

  8. Reactor component automatic grapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  9. Automatic sweep circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input is described. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found

  10. Automatic sweep circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  11. Recursive automatic classification algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, E V; Dorofeyuk, A A

    1982-03-01

    A variational statement of the automatic classification problem is given. The dependence of the form of the optimal partition surface on the form of the classification objective functional is investigated. A recursive algorithm is proposed for maximising a functional of reasonably general form. The convergence problem is analysed in connection with the proposed algorithm. 8 references.

  12. Automatic Commercial Permit Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Paul [Folsom Labs, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Final report for Folsom Labs’ Solar Permit Generator project, which has successfully completed, resulting in the development and commercialization of a software toolkit within the cloud-based HelioScope software environment that enables solar engineers to automatically generate and manage draft documents for permit submission.

  13. Drift chamber readout system of the DIRAC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasiev, L G

    2002-01-01

    A drift chamber readout system of the DIRAC experiment at CERN is presented. The system is intended to read out the signals from planar chambers operating in a high current mode. The sense wire signals are digitized in the 16-channel time-to-digital converter boards which are plugged in the signal plane connectors. This design results in a reduced number of modules, a small number of cables and high noise immunity. The system has been successfully operating in the experiment since 1999.

  14. The STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker PXL detector readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schambach, J.; Contin, G.; Greiner, L.; Stezelberger, T.; Vu, C.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a recently installed micro-vertex detector upgrade to the STAR experiment at RHIC, consisting of three subsystems with various technologies of silicon sensors arranged in 4 concentric cylinders. The two innermost layers of the HFT close to the beam pipe, the Pixel ('PXL') subsystem, employ CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) technology that integrate the sensor, front-end electronics, and zero-suppression circuitry in one silicon die. This paper presents selected characteristics of the PXL detector part of the HFT and the hardware, firmware and software associated with the readout system for this detector

  15. A new electronic read-out for the YAPPET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiani, C.; Ramusino, A.C.A. Cotta; Malaguti, R.; Guerra, A. Del; Domenico, G. Di; Zavattini, G.

    2002-01-01

    A small animal PET-SPECT scanner (YAPPET) prototype was built at the Physics Department of the Ferrara University and is presently being used at the Nuclear Medicine Department for radiopharmaceutical studies on rats. The first YAPPET prototype shows very good performances, but needs some improvements before it can be fully used for intensive radiopharmaceutical research. The main problem of the actual prototype is its heavy electronics, based on NIM and CAMAC standard modules. For this reason a new, compact read-out electronics was developed and tested. The results of a first series of tests made on the first prototype will be presented in the paper

  16. Drift chamber and pulse height readout systems using analog multiplexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisneros, E.L; Kang, H.K.; Hall, J.N.; Larsen, R.S.

    1976-11-01

    Drift chamber and pulse-height readout systems are being developed for use in a new large scale detector at the SPEAR colliding beam facility. The systems are based upon 32 channels of sample-and-hold together with an analog multiplexer in a single-width CAMAC module. The modules within each crate are scanned by an autonomous controller containing a single ADC and memory plus arithmetic capability for offset, gain and linearity corrections. The drift chamber module has a facility for extracting hit wire information for use in trigger decision circuitry

  17. Fabrication of the GLAST Silicon Tracker Readout Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, Luca; Brez, Alessandro; Himel, Thomas; Johnson, R.P.; Latronico, Luca; Minuti, Massimo; Nelson, David; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Sgro, Carmelo; Spandre, Gloria; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Tajima, Hiro; Cohen Tanugi, Johann; Young, Charles; Ziegler, Marcus; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz

    2006-03-03

    A unique electronics system has been built and tested for reading signals from the silicon-strip detectors of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope mission. The system amplifies and processes signals from 884,736 36-cm long silicon strips in a 4 x 4 array of tower modules. An aggressive mechanical design fits the readout electronics in narrow spaces between the tower modules, to minimize dead area. This design and the resulting departures from conventional electronics packaging led to several fabrication challenges and lessons learned. This paper describes the fabrication processes and how the problems peculiar to this design were overcome.

  18. Prototype readout electronics for the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sielewicz, K. M.; Rinella, G. A.; Bonora, M.; Ferencei, Jozef; Giubilato, P.; Rossewij, M. J.; Schambach, J.; Vaňát, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, JAN (2017), č. článku C01008. ISSN 1748-0221. [Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics. Karlsruhe, 26.09.2016-30.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA MŠk(CZ) LG15052; GA MŠk LM2015058 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : digital electronic circuits * electronic detector readout concepts * modlar electronics * radiation-hard electronics Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  19. A new electronic read-out for the YAPPET scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Damiani, C; Malaguti, R; Guerra, A D; Domenico, G D; Zavattini, G

    2002-01-01

    A small animal PET-SPECT scanner (YAPPET) prototype was built at the Physics Department of the Ferrara University and is presently being used at the Nuclear Medicine Department for radiopharmaceutical studies on rats. The first YAPPET prototype shows very good performances, but needs some improvements before it can be fully used for intensive radiopharmaceutical research. The main problem of the actual prototype is its heavy electronics, based on NIM and CAMAC standard modules. For this reason a new, compact read-out electronics was developed and tested. The results of a first series of tests made on the first prototype will be presented in the paper.

  20. HARP: high-pressure argon readout for calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco-Luque, M.; Fabjan, C.W.; Frandsen, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    Steel tubes of approximately 8 mm O.D., filled with Argon gas to approx. 200 bar, are considered as the active element for a charge collecting sampling calorimeter readout system. The tubes are permanently sealed and operated in the ion chamber mode, with the charge collection on a one-millimeter concentric anode. We present the motivation for such a device, including Monte Carlo predictions of performance. The method of construction and signal collection are discussed, with initial results on leakage and ageing of the filling gas. A prototype electromagnetic calorimeter is described

  1. Detection system using scintillating optical fibers and image tube readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alspector, J.; Borenstein, S.

    1979-01-01

    The hodoscope subgroup has studied a detection system consisting of bundles of optical fibers with readout via image tubes. The basic building block is an optical fiber with a scintillator inner core. The inner core has refractive index n/sub o/ (1.58 for plastic scintillator), and the outer sheath has a low index (approx. 1.4). Light is created in the core by passage of a particle track; if the light strikes the sheath at an angle greater than the critical angle phi/sub c/, it is trapped in the fiber until it finds its way to the photon detector

  2. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distenfeld, C.H.; Klemish, J.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector

  3. Fast readout of scintillating fibres using position-sensitive photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agoritsas, V.; Akchurin, N.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Bing, O.; Bravar, A.; Ditta, J.; Dufournaud, J.; Dyachenko, V.A.; Giacomich, R.; Gorin, A.M.; Kuroda, K.; Magaudda, D.; Newsom, C.; Okada, K.; Onel, Y.; Penzo, A.; Rakhmatov, V.Ye.; Rykalin, V.I.; Salvato, G.; Savin, A.A.; Schiavon, P.; Sillou, D.; Solovyov, Yu.A.; Takeutchi, F.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Vasilchenko, V.G.; Yoshida, T.; Zaychenko, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    Major progress has recently been achieved in the fast readout of scintillating fibres using position-sensitive photomultipliers (PSPMs). Experimental results obtained with commercially available PSPMs already show a space resolution better than 200 μm, a time resolution of about 1.5 ns with a detection efficiency higher than 90%, and the possibility of separating double hits with a minimum distance of ∼3 mm. An upgrade of PSPMs based on new dynode structures is also in progress. Results obtained with one new PSPM prototype in a magnetic field are also presented. (orig.)

  4. Radiation effects on the Viking-2 preamplifier-readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallot-Burghardt, W.; Hawblitzel, C.; Hofmann, W.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Seeger, M.; Brenner, R.; Nygaard, E.; Rudge, A.; Toker, O.; Weilhammer, P.; Yoshioka, K.

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the radiation sensitivity of the Viking-2 VLSI circuit which has been designed for the readout of silicon strip detectors and manufactured at Mietec in 1.5 μm CMOS technology. Both biased and unbiased chips have been irradiated with a 137 Cs γ source up to a total dose of 2 kGy (200 krad) after which all tested chips were still fully functional. We report the characteristic changes of device parameters with dose, including equivalent noise charge for different capacitive loads, and determine transistor threshold shifts and change of mobilities. ((orig.))

  5. Study of preamplifier, shaper and peak detector in readout ASIC for particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Zhang Shengjun; Fan Lei; Li Xian

    2014-01-01

    Recently, kinds of particle detectors have used Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) in their electronics readout system and ASICs have been designed in China now. This project designed a multi-channel readout ASIC for general detector. The chip has Preamplifier, Shaper and Peak Detector embedded for easy readout. For each channel, signal which is preprocessed by a low-noise preamplifier is sent to the shaper to form a quasi-Gaussian pulse and keep its peak for readout. This chip and modules of individual Preamplifier, Shaper and Peak Detector have been manufactured, results will be reported in time. (authors)

  6. Comparing interferometry techniques for multi-degree of freedom test mass readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isleif, Katharina-Sophie; Gerberding, Oliver; Mehmet, Moritz; Schwarze, Thomas S; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Laser interferometric readout systems with 1pm/Hz precision over long time scales have successfully been developed for LISA and LISA Pathfinder. Future gravitational physics experiments, for example in the fields of gravitational wave detection and geodesy, will potentially require similar levels of displacement and tilt readouts of multiple test masses in multiple degrees of freedom. In this article we compare currently available classic interferometry schemes with new techniques using phase modulations and complex readout algorithms. Based on a simple example we show that the new techniques have great potential to simplify interferometric readouts. (paper)

  7. Study and optimization of the spatial resolution for detectors with binary readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonamine, R., E-mail: ryo.yonamine@ulb.ac.be; Maerschalk, T.; Lentdecker, G. De

    2016-09-11

    Using simulations and analytical approaches, we have studied single hit resolutions obtained with a binary readout, which is often proposed for high granularity detectors to reduce the generated data volume. Our simulations considering several parameters (e.g. strip pitch) show that the detector geometry and an electronics parameter of the binary readout chips could be optimized for binary readout to offer an equivalent spatial resolution to the one with an analog readout. To understand the behavior as a function of simulation parameters, we developed analytical models that reproduce simulation results with a few parameters. The models can be used to optimize detector designs and operation conditions with regard to the spatial resolution.

  8. Distribution analysis of thermal effusivity for sub-micrometer YBCO thin films using thermal microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, T.; Taketoshi, N.; Kato, H.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal effusivity measurements have been carried out for sub-micrometer YBCO superconducting films using thermal microscope based upon thermoreflectance technique. Two samples were prepared: c-axis aligned YBCO thin films with 800 nm in thickness synthesized on MgO and SrTiO 3 substrates. Measured thermal effusivities perpendicular to the surface, i.e. in parallel with c-axis were determined to be 1770 J/m 2 s 0.5 K on MgO substrate and 1420 J/m 2 s 0.5 K for that on SrTiO 3 substrate, respectively. The scatter of the measurements is estimated to be lower than ±5.2%. These values are consistent with reported values of YBCO single crystal in the direction of c-axis. In addition, 2D profiling image, that is, in-plane distribution of thermal effusivity was well obtained for the YBCO film on MgO substrate by operating this thermal microscope in a scanning mode. Its standard deviation of the in-plane thermal effusivity scattering due to the non-uniformity is evaluated to be ±5.7%

  9. Observations of the 10 micrometer natural laser emission from the mesospheres of Mars and Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Jennings, D.; Kostiuk, T.; Mumma, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    Observations of the total flux and center to limb dependence of the nonthermal emission occurring in the cores of the 9.4 and 10.4 micrometers CO2 bands on Mars are compared to a theoretical model based on this mechanism. The model successfully reproduces the observed center to limb dependence of this emission, to within the limits imposed by the spatial resolution of the observations of Mars and Venus. The observed flux from Mars agrees closely with the prediction of the model the flux observed from Venus is 74% of the flux predicted by the model. This emission is used to obtain the kinetic temperatures of the Martian and Venusian mesospheres. For Mars near 70 km altitude, a rotational temperature analysis using five lines gives T 135 + or - 20 K. The frequency width of the emission is also analyzed to derive a temperature of 126 + or - 6 K. In the case of the Venusian mesosphere near 109 km, the frequency width of the emission gives T 204 + or - 10 K

  10. Molecular Precision at Micrometer Length Scales: Hierarchical Assembly of DNA-Protein Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffels, Daniel; Szalai, Veronika A; Liddle, J Alexander

    2017-07-25

    Robust self-assembly across length scales is a ubiquitous feature of biological systems but remains challenging for synthetic structures. Taking a cue from biology-where disparate molecules work together to produce large, functional assemblies-we demonstrate how to engineer microscale structures with nanoscale features: Our self-assembly approach begins by using DNA polymerase to controllably create double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) sections on a single-stranded template. The single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) sections are then folded into a mechanically flexible skeleton by the origami method. This process simultaneously shapes the structure at the nanoscale and directs the large-scale geometry. The DNA skeleton guides the assembly of RecA protein filaments, which provides rigidity at the micrometer scale. We use our modular design strategy to assemble tetrahedral, rectangular, and linear shapes of defined dimensions. This method enables the robust construction of complex assemblies, greatly extending the range of DNA-based self-assembly methods.

  11. A simple indentation device for measuring micrometer-scale tissue stiffness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levental, I; Levental, K R; Janmey, P A [Institute for Medicine and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Klein, E A; Assoian, R [Department of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Miller, R T [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, Louis Stokes VAMC, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wells, R G, E-mail: janmey@mail.med.upenn.ed [Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2010-05-19

    Mechanical properties of cells and extracellular matrices are critical determinants of function in contexts including oncogenic transformation, neuronal synapse formation, hepatic fibrosis and stem cell differentiation. The size and heterogeneity of biological specimens and the importance of measuring their mechanical properties under conditions that resemble their environments in vivo present a challenge for quantitative measurement. Centimeter-scale tissue samples can be measured by commercial instruments, whereas properties at the subcellular (nm) scale are accessible by atomic force microscopy, optical trapping, or magnetic bead microrheometry; however many tissues are heterogeneous on a length scale between micrometers and millimeters which is not accessible to most current instrumentation. The device described here combines two commercially available technologies, a micronewton resolution force probe and a micromanipulator for probing soft biological samples at sub-millimeter spatial resolution. Several applications of the device are described. These include the first measurement of the stiffness of an intact, isolated mouse glomerulus, quantification of the inner wall stiffness of healthy and diseased mouse aortas, and evaluation of the lateral heterogeneity in the stiffness of mouse mammary glands and rat livers with correlation of this heterogeneity with malignant or fibrotic pathology as evaluated by histology.

  12. Observations of the 10 micrometer natural laser emission from the mesospheres of Mars and Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Jennings, D.; Kostiuk, T.; Mumma, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of the total flux and center to limb dependence of the nonthermal emission occurring in the cores of the 9.4 and 10.4 micrometers CO2 bands on Mars are compared to a theoretical model based on this mechanism. The model successfully reproduces the observed center to limb dependence of this emission, to within the limits imposed by the spatial resolution of the observations of Mars and Venus. The observed flux from Mars agrees closely with the prediction of the model; the flux observed from Venus is 74% of the flux predicted by the model. This emission is used to obtain the kinetic temperatures of the Martian and Venusian mesospheres. For Mars near 70 km altitude, a rotational temperature analysis using five lines gives T = 135 + or - 20 K. The frequency width of the emission is also analyzed to derive a temperature of 126 + or - 6 K. In the case of the Venusian mesosphere near 109 km, the frequency width of the emission gives T = 204 + or - 10 K.

  13. Ballistic magnetoresistance of electrodeposited nanocontacts in thin film and micrometer wire gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, N.; Cheng, H.; Wang, H.; Nikolic, N.D.; Guerrero, C.A.; Papageorgopoulos, A.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we review the recent advances and progress in ballistic magnetoresistance (BMR) in magnetic nanocontacts electrodeposited in thin films and micrometer gaps. We report the influence of magnetostriction in the measurements under different configurations and substrates, as well as the contribution of the magnetic material forming the contacts. To avoid the magnetostriction effect, we have fabricated magnetic nanocontacts in Cu wires and Cu films. Similar BMR results can be observed in these systems. Our results show that the BMR effect should depend on the microproperties of the nanocontacts and should not be related with the macroproperties of the electrodes. The magnetostriction results, measured by an atomic force microscopy system with a built-in electromagnet, clearly show that there is no direct relationship between the displacement (caused by the magnetostriction effect) and the value of BMR. In fact, we present large magnetoresistance values for permalloy, coinciding with displacements in the latter's structure less than 1 nm, which is the smallest clearly observable shift allowed by our atomic force microscope. Repetitions of hundreds of R(H) curves are presented for different materials with different coercive fields. The interpretation of the results is based on the formation of an interfacial transparent layer (non-stoichiometric oxide, sulfur, etc.) at the nanocontact where the theory can explain large magnetoresistance values

  14. Constraints on Exotic Dipole-Dipole Couplings between Electrons at the Micrometer Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Ozeri, Roee; Kimball, Derek F Jackson

    2015-08-21

    New constraints on exotic dipole-dipole interactions between electrons at the micrometer scale are established, based on a recent measurement of the magnetic interaction between two trapped 88Sr(+) ions. For light bosons (mass≤0.1  eV) we obtain a 90% confidence interval for an axial-vector-mediated interaction strength of |g(A)(e)g(A)(e)/4πℏc|≤1.2×10(-17). Assuming CPT invariance, this constraint is compared to that on anomalous electron-positron interactions, derived from positronium hyperfine spectroscopy. We find that the electron-electron constraint is 6 orders of magnitude more stringent than the electron-positron counterpart. Bounds on pseudoscalar-mediated interaction as well as on torsion gravity are also derived and compared with previous work performed at different length scales. Our constraints benefit from the high controllability of the experimental system which contained only two trapped particles. It therefore suggests a useful new platform for exotic particle searches, complementing other experimental efforts.

  15. GAUGE R&R FOR AN OPTICAL MICROMETER INDUSTRIAL TYPE MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia A. Louka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the uncertainty of a metric system, as 'Gauge R&R' and the collation of results between the Xbar & R and the ANOVA method, are extended in this essay. In an academic school laboratory we accomplished a sequence of measurements with the use of an Optical Micrometer Industrial Type Machine (MUL 300. This paper analyzes the measurement system that used in the laboratory and checks the reasons of the variability's provocation that observed in the machine, between the theoretical calculations and measurements. In order to find out this problem, we will use the 'Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility' technique of Measurement System Analysis (M.S.A.. This technique uses analysis of variance. In addition, will use Minitab program in order to find out the factors that we have in the whole experiment as enlarge the problem of measurements. In this paper, a statistical method using the correlation between Gage R&R and process capability indices is proposed for evaluating the adequacy of the acceptance criteria of P/T ratio. Finally, a comparative analysis has also been performed for evaluating the accuracy of Gage R&R between two methods (ANOVA and R- Xbar method. Hopefully, the results of this research can provide a useful reference for quality practitioners in various industries.

  16. Room-Temperature Single-Photon Emission from Micrometer-Long Air-Suspended Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, A.; Uda, T.; Kato, Y. K.

    2017-11-01

    Statistics of photons emitted by mobile excitons in individual carbon nanotubes are investigated. Photoluminescence spectroscopy is used to identify the chiralities and suspended lengths of air-suspended nanotubes, and photon-correlation measurements are performed at room temperature on telecommunication-wavelength nanotube emission with a Hanbury-Brown-Twiss setup. We obtain zero-delay second-order correlation g(2 )(0 ) less than 0.5, indicating single-photon generation. Excitation power dependence of the photon antibunching characteristics is examined for nanotubes with various chiralities and suspended lengths, where we find that the minimum value of g(2 )(0 ) is obtained at the lowest power. The influence of exciton diffusion and end quenching is studied by Monte Carlo simulations, and we derive an analytical expression for the minimum value of g(2 )(0 ). Our results indicate that mobile excitons in micrometer-long nanotubes can in principle produce high-purity single photons, leading to new design strategies for quantum photon sources.

  17. Micrometer sized immobilization of protein molecules onto quartz, silicium and gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Steffen B.; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Klitgaard, Søren; Duroux, Meg Crookshanks

    2006-02-01

    We demonstrate that ultraviolet light can be used to make sterically oriented covalent immobilization of a large variety of protein molecules onto either gold or thiolated quartz or silicium. The reaction mechanism behind the reported new technology involves light induced breakage of disulphide bridges in proteins upon UV illumination of nearby aromatic amino acids, resulting in the formation of free, reactive thiol groups that will form covalent bonds with thiol reactive surfaces. The protein molecules in general retain their function. The size of the immobilization spot is determined by the dimension of the UV beam. In principle, the spot size may be as small as 1 micrometer or less. We have developed the necessary technology for preparing large protein arrays of enzymes and fragments of monoclonal antibodies. Dedicated Image Processing Software has been developed for making quality assessment of the protein arrays. A multitude of important application areas such as drug carriers and drug delivery, bioelectronics, carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles as well as protein glue are discussed.

  18. Micrometer-sized TPM emulsion droplets with surface-mobile binding groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Casper; van de Stolpe, Guido L.; Verweij, Ruben W.; Kraft, Daniela J.

    2018-03-01

    Colloids coated with lipid membranes have been widely employed for fundamental studies of lipid membrane processes, biotechnological applications such as drug delivery and biosensing, and more recently, for self-assembly. The latter has been made possible by inserting DNA oligomers with covalently linked hydrophobic anchors into the membrane. The lateral mobility of the DNA linkers on micrometer-sized droplets and solid particles has opened the door to creating structures with unprecedented structural flexibility. Here, we investigate micro-emulsions of TPM (3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate) as a platform for lipid monolayers and further functionalization with proteins and DNA oligonucleotides. TPM droplets can be produced with a narrow size distribution and are polymerizable, thus providing supports for model lipid membranes with controlled size and curvature. With fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we observed that droplet-attached lipids, NeutrAvidin proteins, as well as DNA oligonucleotides all show mobility on the surface. We explored the assembly of micron-sized particles on TPM-droplets by exploiting either avidin-biotin interactions or double-stranded DNA with complementary single-stranded end groups. While the single molecules are mobile, the particles that are attached to them are not. We propose that this is caused by the heterogeneous nature of emulsified TPM, which forms an oligomer network that limits the collective motion of linkers, but allows the surface mobility of individual molecules.

  19. Correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale crystallographic orientation of monolayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Sik; Chang, Young Jun; Woo, Sungjong; Son, Young-Woo; Park, Yeonggu; Lee, Mi Jung; Byun, Ik-Su; Kim, Jin-Soo; Choi, Choon-Gi; Bostwick, Aaron; Rotenberg, Eli; Park, Bae Ho

    2014-12-01

    Deformation normal to the surface is intrinsic in two-dimensional materials due to phononic thermal fluctuations at finite temperatures. Graphene's negative thermal expansion coefficient is generally explained by such an intrinsic property. Recently, friction measurements on graphene exfoliated on a silicon oxide surface revealed an anomalous anisotropy whose origin was believed to be the formation of ripple domains. Here, we uncover the atomistic origin of the observed friction domains using a cantilever torsion microscopy in conjunction with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We experimentally demonstrate that ripples on graphene are formed along the zigzag direction of the hexagonal lattice. The formation of zigzag directional ripple is consistent with our theoretical model that takes account of the atomic-scale bending stiffness of carbon-carbon bonds and the interaction of graphene with the substrate. The correlation between micrometer-scale ripple alignment and atomic-scale arrangement of exfoliated monolayer graphene is first discovered and suggests a practical tool for measuring lattice orientation of graphene.

  20. Description of the SAltro-16 chip for gas detector readout

    CERN Document Server

    Aspell, P; Garcia Garcia, E; de Gaspari, M; Mager, M; Musa, L; Rehman, A; Trampitsch, G

    2010-01-01

    The S-ALTRO prototype chip is a mixed-signal integrated circuit designed to be one of the building blocks of the readout electronics for gas detectors. Its architecture is based in the ALTRO (ALICE TPC Read Out) chip, being its main difference the integration of the charge shaping amplifier in the same IC. Just like ALTRO chip, the prototype architecture and programmability make it suitable for the readout of a wider class of detectors. In one single chip, 16 analogue signals from the detector are shaped, digitised, processed, compressed and stored in a multi-acquisition memory. The Analogue-to- Digital converters embedded in the chip have a 10-bit dynamic range and a maximum sampling rate up to 40MHz. After digitisation, a pipelined Data Processor is able to remove from the input signal a wide range of perturbations, related to the non- ideal behaviour of the detector, temperature variation of the electronics, environmental noise, etc. Moreover, the Data Processor is able to suppress the pulse tail within 1�...

  1. The readout system for the ALICE zero degree calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Siddhanta, S; De Falco, A; Floris, M; Masoni, A; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Uras, A; Usai, G; Arnaldi, R; Bianchi, L; Bossu, F; Chiavassa, E; De Marco, N; Ferretti, A; Gagliardi, M; Gallio, M; Luparello, G; Musso, A; Oppedisano, C; Piccotti, A; Scomparin, E; Vercellin, E; Cortese, P; Dellacasa, G

    2011-01-01

    ALICE at the CERN LHC will investigate the physics of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy densities where the formation of the Quark Gluon Plasma is expected. Its properties can be studied from observations like the production of mesons w ith charm and beauty quarks. These signals have to be studied as a function of energy density, which is determined by the centrality of collisions. One of the physics observables that is closely related with the centrality of the collision is the number o f spectator nucleons that can be measured by the Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDC). Having a direct geometric interpretation allows to extract the impact parameter with minimal model assumptions. This paper describes the readout system of the ZDC. The ZDC re adout consists of a VME system with a ZDC Readout Card, a VME Processor, Discriminators, a ZDC Trigger Card, scalers, QDCs and TDCs. The system was successfully tested during the 2009 ALICE data taking and is currently operational at the LHC.

  2. Combined readout of a triple-GEM detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antochi, V. C.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Di Marco, E.; Marafini, M.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pinci, D.; Renga, F.; Tomassini, S.; Voena, C.

    2018-05-01

    Optical readout of GEM based devices by means of high granularity and low noise CMOS sensors allows to obtain very interesting tracking performance. Space resolution of the order of tens of μm were measured on the GEM plane along with an energy resolution of 20%÷30%. The main limitation of CMOS sensors is represented by their poor information about time structure of the event. In this paper, the use of a concurrent light readout by means of a suitable photomultiplier and the acquisition of the electric signal induced on the GEM electrode are exploited to provide the necessary timing informations. The analysis of the PMT waveform allows a 3D reconstruction of each single clusters with a resolution on z of 100 μm. Moreover, from the PMT signals it is possible to obtain a fast reconstruction of the energy released within the detector with a resolution of the order of 25% even in the tens of keV range useful, for example, for triggering purpose.

  3. The New APD Based Readout for the Crystal Barrel Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, M; Honisch, Ch; Steinacher, M

    2015-01-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at ELSA measures double polarization observables in meson photoproduction off protons and neutrons. To be able to measure purely neutral reactions off polarized neutrons with high efficiency, the main calorimeter has to be integrated into the first level trigger. This requires to exchange the existing PIN photo diode by a new avalanche photo diode (APD) readout. The newly developed readout electronics will provide an energy resolution compatible to the previous set-up and a fast trigger signal down to 10 MeV energy deposit per crystal. After the successful final tests with a 3x3 CsI crystal matrix in Bonn at ELSA and in Mainz at MAMI all front-end electronics were produced in fall 2013. Automated test routines for the front-end electronics were developed and the characterization measurements of all APDs were successfully accomplished in Bonn. The project is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB/TR16) and Schweizerischer Nationalfonds

  4. Front end readout electronics for the CMS hadron calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Terri M

    2002-01-01

    The front-end electronics for the CMS Hadron Calorimeter provides digitized data at the beam interaction rate of 40 MHz. Analog signals provided by hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) or photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are digitized and the data is sent off board through serialized fiber optic links running at 1600 Mbps. In order to maximize the input signal, the front-end electronics are housed on the detector in close proximity to the scintillating fibers or phototubes. To fit the electronics into available space, custom crates, backplanes and cooling methods have had to be developed. During the expected ten-year lifetime, the front-end readout electronics will exist in an environment where radiation levels approach 330 rads and the neutron fluence will be 1.3E11 n/cm sup 2. For this reason, the design approach relies heavily upon custom radiation tolerant ASICs. This paper will present the system architecture of the front-end readout crates and describe their results with early prototypes.

  5. JPSS Science Data Services for the Direct Readout Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Lutz, Bob

    2014-01-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) High Rate Data (HRD) link provides Direct Broadcast data to users in real-time, utilizing their own remote field terminals. The Field Terminal Support (FTS) provides the resources needed to support the Direct Readout communities by providing software, documentation, and periodic updates to enable them to produce data products from SNPP and JPSS. The FTS distribution server will also provide the necessary ancillary and auxiliary data needed for processing the broadcasts, as well as making orbital data available to assist in locating the satellites of interest. In addition, the FTS provides development support for the algorithm and software through GSFC Direct Readout Laboratory (DRL) International Polar Orbiter Processing Package (IPOPP) and University of Wisconsin (UWISC) Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP), to enable users to integrate the algorithms into their remote terminals. The support the JPSS Program provides to the institutions developing and maintaining these two software packages, will demonstrate the ability to produce ready-to-use products from the HRD link and provide risk reduction effort at a minimal cost. This paper discusses the key functions and system architecture of FTS.

  6. SPAD array chips with full frame readout for crystal characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Peter; Blanco, Roberto; Sacco, Ilaria; Ritzert, Michael [Heidelberg University (Germany); Weyers, Sascha [Fraunhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    We present single photon sensitive 2D camera chips containing 88x88 avalanche photo diodes which can be read out in full frame mode with up to 400.000 frames per second. The sensors have an imaging area of ~5mm x 5mm covered by square pixels of ~56µm x 56µm with a ~55% fill factor in the latest chip generation. The chips contain a self triggering logic with selectable (column) multiplicities of up to >=4 hits within an adjustable coincidence time window. The photon accumulation time window is programmable as well. First prototypes have demonstrated low dark count rates of <50kHz/mm2 (SPAD area) at 10 degree C for 10% masked pixels. One chip version contains an automated readout of the photon cluster position. The readout of the detailed photon distribution for single events allows the characterization of light sharing, optical crosstalk etc., in crystals or crystal arrays as they are used in PET instrumentation. This knowledge could lead to improvements in spatial or temporal resolution.

  7. Fast optical readout for Mu3e experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qinhua [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: Mu3e-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Charged lepton flavour violation is highly suppressed in the Standard Model, which results in a prediction for the branching ratio of μ{sup +}→e{sup +}e{sup +}e{sup -} below O(10{sup -54}). The Mu3e experiment will search for this rare decay with a sensitivity of 10{sup -16}. An observation would be a clear sign for new physics. A high muon stopping rate of 2.10{sup 9} Hz is required so that sufficient statistics can be accumulated in about one year of data taking. The high event rate and the requirement of a full online track reconstruction demand a fast readout system which should provide a bandwidth above 1 Tbit/s. Reconfigurable devices, namely FPGAs, can easily parallelise the data processing, so it becomes possible to sort, merge, pack and route the data with low latency at high throughput. Optical fibres are the only option for the interconnection between different FPGA-based boards. The fibres also reduce the crosstalk and signal attenuation, especially over long distance links. As part of the readout system prototyping, firmware for synchronous merging of different data streams is being developed. In addition, the optical links have been tested and show a bit error rate below O(10{sup -16}) at 6.4 Gbit/s for a single fibre.

  8. New Approach for 2D Readout of GEM Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasell, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    Detectors based on Gas Electron Multiplication (GEM) technology are becoming more and more widely used in nuclear and high energy physics and are being applied in astronomy, medical physics, industry, and homeland security. GEM detectors are thin, low mass, insensitive to magnetic fields, and can currently provide position resolutions down to ∼50 microns. However, the designs for reconstructing the position, in two dimensions (2D), of the charged particles striking a GEM detector are often complicated to fabricate and expensive. The objective of this proposal is to investigate a simpler procedure for producing the two dimensional readout layer of GEM detectors using readily available printed circuit board technology which can be tailored to the detector requirements. We will use the established GEM laboratory and facilities at M.I.T. currently employed in developing GEM detectors for the STAR forward tracking upgrade to simplify the testing and evaluation of the new 2D readout designs. If this new design proves successful it will benefit future nuclear and high energy physics experiments already being planned and will similarly extend and simplify the application of GEM technology to other branches of science, medicine, and industry. These benefits would be not only in lower costs for fabrication but also it increased flexibility for design and application.

  9. The digital readout system for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofstedt, Bo

    2000-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter is a high-precision detector demanding innovative solutions in order to cope with the high dynamic range and the extreme high resolution of the detector as well as with the harsh environment created by the high level of radiation and the 4 T magnetic field. The readout system is partly placed within the detector and partly in the adjacent counting room. As the on-detector electronics must cope with the harsh environment the use of standard components is excluded for this part of the system. This paper describes the solutions adopted for the high-precision analogue stages, the A-D conversion, the optical transfer of the raw data from the on-detector part to the so-called Upper Level Readout, placed in the counting room, and the functionality of the latter. The ECAL is instrumental in providing information to the first-level trigger process and the generation of this information will be described. Also, the problem of reducing the raw data volume (6x10 12 bytes/s) to a level that can be handled by the central DAQ system (10 5 bytes/s) without degrading the physics performance will be discussed

  10. The TOTEM DAQ based on the Scalable Readout System (SRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto, Michele; Cafagna, Francesco S.; Fiergolski, Adrian; Radicioni, Emilio

    2018-02-01

    The TOTEM (TOTal cross section, Elastic scattering and diffraction dissociation Measurement at the LHC) experiment at LHC, has been designed to measure the total proton-proton cross-section and study the elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC energies. In order to cope with the increased machine luminosity and the higher statistic required by the extension of the TOTEM physics program, approved for the LHC's Run Two phase, the previous VME based data acquisition system has been replaced with a new one based on the Scalable Readout System. The system features an aggregated data throughput of 2GB / s towards the online storage system. This makes it possible to sustain a maximum trigger rate of ˜ 24kHz, to be compared with the 1KHz rate of the previous system. The trigger rate is further improved by implementing zero-suppression and second-level hardware algorithms in the Scalable Readout System. The new system fulfils the requirements for an increased efficiency, providing higher bandwidth, and increasing the purity of the data recorded. Moreover full compatibility has been guaranteed with the legacy front-end hardware, as well as with the DAQ interface of the CMS experiment and with the LHC's Timing, Trigger and Control distribution system. In this contribution we describe in detail the architecture of full system and its performance measured during the commissioning phase at the LHC Interaction Point.

  11. A continuous read-out TPC for the ALICE upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, C., E-mail: C.Lippmann@gsi.de

    2016-07-11

    The largest gaseous Time Projection Chamber (TPC) in the world, the ALICE TPC, will be upgraded based on Micro Pattern Gas Detector technology during the second long shutdown of the CERN Large Hadron Collider in 2018/19. The upgraded detector will operate continuously without the use of a triggered gating grid. It will thus be able to read all minimum bias Pb–Pb events that the LHC will deliver at the anticipated peak interaction rate of 50 kHz for the high luminosity heavy-ion era. New read-out electronics will send the continuous data stream to a new online farm at rates up to 1 TByte/s. A fractional ion feedback of below 1% is required to keep distortions due to space charge in the TPC drift volume at a tolerable level. The new read-out chambers will consist of quadruple stacks of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM), combining GEM foils with a different hole pitch. Other key requirements such as energy resolution and operational stability have to be met as well. A careful optimisation of the performance in terms of all these parameters was achieved during an extensive R&D program. A working point well within the design specifications was identified with an ion backflow of 0.63%, a local energy resolution of 11.3% (sigma) and a discharge probability comparable to that of standard triple GEM detectors.

  12. Development of radiation hard readout electronics for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Sexauer, Edgar; Lindenstruth, Volker

    2001-01-01

    The experiment LHCb is under development at CERN and aims to measure CP-violation in the B-Meson system at very high precision. The experiment makes use of a vertex detector that is equipped with silicon microstrip detectors. A chip suitable for the readout of this detector has been developed in a working group at the ASIC-laboratory Heidelberg. This readout chip 'Beetle-1.0' contains 128 analog input stages of a charge sensitive preamplifier, a pulse shaper and a buffer. The analog signal is fed into a comparator, from which a fast trigger signal can be derived. The following pipeline, realized as an array of gate capacitances, can be used to either store the analog output of the input amplifiers or to store the digital comparator output. External trigger signals mark events that have to be read out and the according pipeline location is stored in a derandomizing buffer. Pending events are read out from the pipeline via a charge-sensitive, resetable amplifier and an analog multiplexer, which serializes the s...

  13. Readout system of TPC/MPD NICA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averyanov, A. V.; Bajajin, A. G.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cheremukhina, G. A.; Fateev, O. V.; Korotkova, A. M.; Levchanovskiy, F. V.; Lukstins, J.; Movchan, S. A.; Razin, S. V.; Rybakov, A. A.; Vereschagin, S. V., E-mail: vereschagin@jinr.ru; Zanevsky, Yu. V.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zruyev, V. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The time-projection chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector in the MPD/NICA. The information on charge-particle tracks in the TPC is registered by the MWPG with cathode pad readout. The frontend electronics (FEE) are developed with use of modern technologies such as application specific integrated circuits (ASIC), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), and data transfer to a concentrator via a fast optical interface. The main parameters of the FEE are as follows: total number of channels, ∼95 000; data stream from the whole TPC, 5 GB/s; low power consumption, less than 100 mW/ch; signal to noise ratio (S/N), 30; equivalent noise charge (ENC), <1000e{sup –} (C{sub in} = 10–20 pF); and zero suppression (pad signal rejection ∼90%). The article presents the status of the readout chamber construction and the data acquisition system. The results of testing FEE prototypes are presented.

  14. A new method of readout in radiochromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, Peer Oliver; Gornik, Erich; Ertl, Adolf

    1998-01-01

    Radiochromic film as a dosimetry medium offers several advantages in high-resolution radiography. A new technique of readout was developed to measure the optical density distributions of the film in purely directed light. This technique implements radiochromic film dosimetry near the film's absorption maximum by using a single-mode top-surface emitting laser diode (675.2 nm). The effective sensitivity of the film, compared with a helium-neon laser densitometer (632.8 nm), is increased approximately threefold. Good accuracy, high spatial resolution and simple assembly of the readout system is achieved. Beam profiles of the four final collimator helmets of a Leksell Gamma Knife (Elekta Inc., Sweden) were experimentally determined. Measured profiles and full-widths at half maximum are consistent with the computer generated data of the dose planning system (Kula 4.4, Elekta Inc., Sweden). The output factor of the 4 mm collimator (the smallest collimator with the steepest dose gradient), essential for the application of well defined doses, was checked. The measurements established an output factor of 826±9 that lies 9±1% lower than the adjusted one. (author)

  15. The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor Readout System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusatko, John; Browne, M.; Fisher, A.S.; Kotturi, D.; Norum, S.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2012-07-23

    The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor System is required to detect any loss radiation seen by the FEL undulators. The undulator segments consist of permanent magnets which are very sensitive to radiation damage. The operational goal is to keep demagnetization below 0.01% over the life of the LCLS. The BLM system is designed to help achieve this goal by detecting any loss radiation and indicating a fault condition if the radiation level exceeds a certain threshold. Upon reception of this fault signal, the LCLS Machine Protection System takes appropriate action by either halting or rate limiting the beam. The BLM detector consists of a PMT coupled to a Cherenkov radiator located near the upstream end of each undulator segment. There are 33 BLMs in the system, one per segment. The detectors are read out by a dedicated system that is integrated directly into the LCLS MPS. The BLM readout system provides monitoring of radiation levels, computation of integrated doses, detection of radiation excursions beyond set thresholds, fault reporting and control of BLM system functions. This paper describes the design, construction and operational performance of the BLM readout system.

  16. Front end readout electronics for the CMS hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terri M. Shaw et al.

    2002-01-01

    The front-end electronics for the CMS Hadron Calorimeter provides digitized data at the beam interaction rate of 40 MHz. Analog signals provided by hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) or photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are digitized and the data is sent off board through serialized fiber optic links running at 1600 Mbps. In order to maximize the input signal, the front-end electronics are housed on the detector in close proximity to the scintillating fibers or phototubes. To fit the electronics into available space, custom crates, backplanes and cooling methods have had to be developed. During the expected ten-year lifetime, the front-end readout electronics will exist in an environment where radiation levels approach 330 rads and the neutron fluence will be 1.3E11 n/cm 2 . For this reason, the design approach relies heavily upon custom radiation tolerant ASICs. This paper will present the system architecture of the front-end readout crates and describe their results with early prototypes

  17. Readout electronics development for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borer, K.; Beringer, J.; Anghinolfi, F.; Aspell, P.; Chilingarov, A.; Jarron, P.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Santiard, J.C.; Verweij, H.; Goessling, C.; Lisowski, B.; Reichold, A.; Bonino, R.; Clark, A.G.; Kambara, H.; La Marra, D.; Leger, A.; Wu, X.; Richeux, J.P.; Taylor, G.N.; Fedotov, M.; Kuper, E.; Velikzhanin, Yu.; Campbell, D.; Murray, P.; Seller, P.

    1995-01-01

    We present the status of the development of the readout electronics for the large area silicon tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, carried out by the CERN RD2 project. Our basic readout concept is to integrate a fast amplifier, analog memory, sparse data scan circuit and analog-to-digital convertor (ADC) on a single VLSI chip. This architecture will provide full analog information of charged particle hits associated unambiguously to one LHC beam crossing, which is expected to be at a frequency of 40 MHz. The expected low occupancy of the ATLAS inner silicon detectors allows us to use a low speed (5 MHz) on-chip ADC with a multiplexing scheme. The functionality of the fast amplifier and analog memory have been demonstrated with various prototype chips. Most recently we have successfully tested improved versions of the amplifier and the analog memory. A piecewise linear ADC has been fabricated and performed satisfactorily up to 5 MHz. A new chip including amplifier, analog memory, memory controller, ADC, and data buffer has been designed and submitted for fabrication and will be tested on a prototype of the ATLAS silicon tracker module with realistic electrical and mechanical constraints. (orig.)

  18. Readout and trigger electronics for the TPC vertex chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, M.T.; Jared, R.C.; McGathen, T.K.; Eisner, A.M.; Broeder, W.J.; Godfrey, G.L.

    1987-10-01

    The introduction of the vertex chamber required the addition of new front-end electronics and a new 1024-channel, high-accuracy TDC system. The preamplifier/discriminator should be capable of triggering on the first electrons and the time digitzer should preserve the measurement resolution. For the TDC's, in order to maintain compatibility with the existing TPC readout system, an upgrade of a previous inner drift chamber digitizer system has been chosen. Tests of the accuracy and stability of the original design indicated that the new design specifications would be met. The TPC detector requires a fast pretrigger to turn on its gating grid within 500 ns of the e/sup +/e/sup -/ beam crossing time, to minimize the loss of ionization information. A pretrigger based on the Straw Chamber signals, operating at a rate of about 2 K/sec, will be used for charged particle final states. In addition, in order to reject low mass Two-Photon events at the final trigger level, an accurate transverse momentum cutoff will be made by the Straw Chamber trigger logic. In this paper, we describe the readout and trigger electronics systems which have been built to satisfy the above requirements. 5 refs., 8 figs

  19. Automatic indexing, compiling and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreewsky, Alexandre; Fluhr, Christian.

    1975-06-01

    A review of the principles of automatic indexing, is followed by a comparison and summing-up of work by the authors and by a Soviet staff from the Moscou INFORM-ELECTRO Institute. The mathematical and linguistic problems of the automatic building of thesaurus and automatic classification are examined [fr

  20. Automatization of welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwabuchi, Masashi; Tomita, Jinji; Nishihara, Katsunori.

    1978-01-01

    Automatization of welding is one of the effective measures for securing high degree of quality of nuclear power equipment, as well as for correspondence to the environment at the site of plant. As the latest ones of the automatic welders practically used for welding of nuclear power apparatuses in factories of Toshiba and IHI, those for pipes and lining tanks are described here. The pipe welder performs the battering welding on the inside of pipe end as the so-called IGSCC countermeasure and the succeeding butt welding through the same controller. The lining tank welder is able to perform simultaneous welding of two parallel weld lines on a large thin plate lining tank. Both types of the welders are demonstrating excellent performance at the shops as well as at the plant site. (author)

  1. Automatic structural scene digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Wang, Yuhan; Cosker, Darren; Li, Wenbin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic system for the analysis and labeling of structural scenes, floor plan drawings in Computer-aided Design (CAD) format. The proposed system applies a fusion strategy to detect and recognize various components of CAD floor plans, such as walls, doors, windows and other ambiguous assets. Technically, a general rule-based filter parsing method is fist adopted to extract effective information from the original floor plan. Then, an image-processing based recovery method is employed to correct information extracted in the first step. Our proposed method is fully automatic and real-time. Such analysis system provides high accuracy and is also evaluated on a public website that, on average, archives more than ten thousands effective uses per day and reaches a relatively high satisfaction rate.

  2. Automatic trend estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Vamos¸, C˘alin

    2013-01-01

    Our book introduces a method to evaluate the accuracy of trend estimation algorithms under conditions similar to those encountered in real time series processing. This method is based on Monte Carlo experiments with artificial time series numerically generated by an original algorithm. The second part of the book contains several automatic algorithms for trend estimation and time series partitioning. The source codes of the computer programs implementing these original automatic algorithms are given in the appendix and will be freely available on the web. The book contains clear statement of the conditions and the approximations under which the algorithms work, as well as the proper interpretation of their results. We illustrate the functioning of the analyzed algorithms by processing time series from astrophysics, finance, biophysics, and paleoclimatology. The numerical experiment method extensively used in our book is already in common use in computational and statistical physics.

  3. Automatic food decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    Consumers' food decisions are to a large extent shaped by automatic processes, which are either internally directed through learned habits and routines or externally influenced by context factors and visual information triggers. Innovative research methods such as eye tracking, choice experiments...... and food diaries allow us to better understand the impact of unconscious processes on consumers' food choices. Simone Mueller Loose will provide an overview of recent research insights into the effects of habit and context on consumers' food choices....

  4. Automatic LOD selection

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a method to automatically generate transition distances for LOD, improving image stability and performance is presented. Three different methods were tested all measuring the change between two level of details using the spatial frequency. The methods were implemented as an optional pre-processing step in order to determine the transition distances from multiple view directions. During run-time both view direction based selection and the furthest distance for each direction was ...

  5. Automatic alternative phase-shift mask CAD layout tool for gate shrinkage of embedded DRAM in logic below 0.18 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, Hidetoshi; Kawahira, Hiroichi

    1998-09-01

    An automatic alternative phase shift mask (PSM) pattern layout tool has been newly developed. This tool is dedicated for embedded DRAM in logic device to shrink gate line width with improving line width controllability in lithography process with a design rule below 0.18 micrometers by the KrF excimer laser exposure. The tool can crete Levenson type PSM used being coupled with a binary mask adopting a double exposure method for positive photo resist. By using graphs, this tool automatically creates alternative PSM patterns. Moreover, it does not give any phase conflicts. By adopting it to actual embedded DRAM in logic cells, we have provided 0.16 micrometers gate resist patterns at both random logic and DRAM areas. The patterns were fabricated using two masks with the double exposure method. Gate line width has been well controlled under a practical exposure-focus window.

  6. Modeling Transport of Cesium in Grimsel Granodiorite With Micrometer Scale Heterogeneities and Dynamic Update of Kd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, Mikko; Kekäläinen, Pekka; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Sardini, Paul; Muuri, Eveliina; Timonen, Jussi; Martin, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Transport and retardation of cesium in Grimsel granodiorite taking into account heterogeneity of mineral and pore structure was studied using rock samples overcored from an in situ diffusion test at the Grimsel Test Site. The field test was part of the Long-Term Diffusion (LTD) project designed to characterize retardation properties (diffusion and distribution coefficients) under in situ conditions. Results of the LTD experiment for cesium showed that in-diffusion profiles and spatial concentration distributions were strongly influenced by the heterogeneous pore structure and mineral distribution. In order to study the effect of heterogeneity on the in-diffusion profile and spatial concentration distribution, a Time Domain Random Walk (TDRW) method was applied along with a feature for modeling chemical sorption in geological materials. A heterogeneous mineral structure of Grimsel granodiorite was constructed using X-ray microcomputed tomography (X-μCT) and the map was linked to previous results for mineral specific porosities and distribution coefficients (Kd) that were determined using C-14-PMMA autoradiography and batch sorption experiments, respectively. After this the heterogeneous structure contains information on local porosity and Kd in 3-D. It was found that the heterogeneity of the mineral structure on the micrometer scale affects significantly the diffusion and sorption of cesium in Grimsel granodiorite at the centimeter scale. Furthermore, the modeled in-diffusion profiles and spatial concentration distributions show similar shape and pattern to those from the LTD experiment. It was concluded that the use of detailed structure characterization and quantitative data on heterogeneity can significantly improve the interpretation and evaluation of transport experiments.

  7. Development of readout electronics for monolithic integration with diode strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosticka, B.J.; Wrede, M.; Zimmer, G.; Kemmer, J.; Hofmann, R.; Lutz, G.

    1984-03-01

    Parallel in - serial out analog readout electronics integrated with silicon strip detectors will bring a reduction of two orders of magnitude in external electronics. The readout concept and the chosen CMOS technology solve the basic problem of low noise and low power requirements. A hybrid solution is an intermediate step towards the final goal of monolithic integration of detector and electronics. (orig.)

  8. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Bettarini, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste and INFN Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento e INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); Verzellesi, G [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia and INFN Trento, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Zorzi, N, E-mail: giovanni.verzellesi@unimore.i [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  9. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M; Bettarini, S; Bosisio, L; Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V; Verzellesi, G; Zorzi, N

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  10. Occupancy in the CLIC ILD Time Projection Chamber using Pixelised Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Killenberg, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The occupancy in the CLIC ILD TPC caused by the beam induced background from gamma gamma -> hadrons, e+e- pairs and beam halo muons is very high for conventional pad readout. We show that the occupancy for a pixelised TPC readout is moderate and might be a viable solution to operate a TPC at CLIC.

  11. A review of lyoluminescence dosimetry and a new readout method using liquid scintillation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemer, P.L.; Hanig, R.; Fayerman, L.K.

    1978-01-01

    Lyoluminescence dosimetry is useful as a personnel monitor and also as a neutron dosimeter. A review of lyoluminescence is given including readout systems, the machanisms of light emission, radiometric characteristics of lyoluminescence dosimeters, factor affecting response and liquid scintillation lyoluminscence readout

  12. Development of an external readout electronics for a hybrid photon detector

    CERN Document Server

    Uyttenhove, Simon; Tichon, Jacques; Garcia, Salvador

    The pixel hybrid photon detectors currently installed in the LHCb Cherenkov system encapsulate readout electronics in the vacuum tube envelope. The LHCb upgrade and the new trigger system will require their replacement with new photon detectors. The baseline photon detector candidate is the multi-anode photomultiplier. A hybrid photon detector with external readout electronics has been proposed as a backup option. This master thesis covers a R & D phase to investigate this latter concept. Extensive studies of the initial electronics system underlined the noise contributions from the Beetle chip used as front-end readout ASIC and from the ceramic carrier of the photon detector. New front-end electronic boards have been developed and made fully compatible with the existing LHCb-RICH infrastructure. With this compact readout system, Cherenkov photons have been successfully detected in a real particle beam environment. The proof-of-concept of a hybrid photon detector with external readout electronics was val...

  13. Implementation of a Customisable Readout Sequence for the ALICE ITS Upgrade Explorer Family Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Gazzari, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Within the ALICE ITS upgrade R&D programme the Explorer family chips are developed featuring 11700 pixels which are split into 18 different sectors with different properties. These pixels are read out sequentially leading to a time span of 2.34ms between the first and last pixel. Due to the long readout time, shot noise induced by the leakage currents in the in-pixel analogue memories makes the comparison of different sensor implementations located in distant sectors on the Explorer family chips difficult. In order to reduce this noise contribution a customisable readout sequence is developed to read parts instead of the whole chip which reduces the overall readout time. This readout sequence is integrated in the existing characterisation framework in order to choose the best performing sensor implementation through pixel-by-pixel comparison without readout-induced effects.

  14. A digital Front-End and Readout MIcrosystem for calorimetry at LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-16 A Digital Front-End and Readout Microsystem for Calorimetry at LHC \\\\ \\\\Front-end signal processing for calorimetric detectors is essential in order to achieve adequate selectivity in the trigger function of an LHC experiment, with data identification and compaction before readout being required in the harsh, high rate environment of a high luminosity hadron machine. Other crucial considerations are the extremely wide dynamic range and bandwidth requirements, as well as the volume of data to be transferred to following stages of the trigger and readout system. These requirements are best met by an early digitalization of the detector information, followed by integrated digital signal processing and buffering functions covering the trigger latencies.\\\\ \\\\The FERMI (Front-End Readout MIcrosystem) is a digital implementation of the front-end and readout electronic chain for calorimeters. It is based on dynamic range compression, high speed A to D converters, a fully programmable pipeline/digital filter c...

  15. Superresolution near-field readout in phase-change optical disk data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Chubing

    2001-01-01

    Readout of a phase-change optical disk with a superresolution (SR) near-field structure (Super-RENS) is theoretically examined on the basis of three-dimensional, full-wave vector diffraction theory. Calculations have demonstrated that Super-RENS has a high spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit in readout. The read signal is dependent on the nature of SR, the layer structure of the disk, and the state of polarization of the incident laser beam. For the Super-RENS in which antimony is used for SR readout, the readout signal is quite small, and the estimated carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) is only ∼30 dB for marks of 300 nm. For the Super-RENS in which a metallic region is formed during readout, the read signal is large, and the CNR can be as high as 50 dB in reading 300-nm marks

  16. X-ray imaging using amorphous selenium: photoinduced discharge (PID) readout for digital general radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, J A; Hunter, D M

    1995-12-01

    Digital radiographic systems based on photoconductive layers with the latent charge image readout by photoinduced discharge (PID) are investigated theoretically. Previously, a number of different systems have been proposed using sandwiched photoconductor and insulator layers and readout using a scanning laser beam. These systems are shown to have the general property of being very closely coupled (i.e., optimization of one imaging characteristic usually impacts negatively on others). The presence of a condensed state insulator between the photoconductor surface and the readout electrode does, however, confer a great advantage over systems using air gaps with their relatively low breakdown field. The greater breakdown field of condensed state dielectrics permits the modification of the electric field during the period between image formation and image readout. The trade-off between readout speed and noise makes this system suitable for instant general radiography and even rapid sequence radiography, however, the system is unsuitable for the low exposure rates used in fluoroscopy.

  17. 3 ns single-shot read-out in a quantum dot-based memory structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowozin, T.; Bimberg, D.; Beckel, A.; Lorke, A.; Geller, M.

    2014-01-01

    Fast read-out of two to six charges per dot from the ground and first excited state in a quantum dot (QD)-based memory is demonstrated using a two-dimensional electron gas. Single-shot measurements on modulation-doped field-effect transistor structures with embedded InAs/GaAs QDs show read-out times as short as 3 ns. At low temperature (T = 4.2 K) this read-out time is still limited by the parasitics of the setup and the device structure. Faster read-out times and a larger read-out signal are expected for an improved setup and device structure

  18. Optical readout in a multi-module system test for the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flick, Tobias; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Gerlach, Peter; Kersten, Susanne; Maettig, Peter; Nderitu Kirichu, Simon; Reeves, Kendall; Richter, Jennifer; Schultes, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    The innermost part of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, CERN, will be a pixel detector, which is presently under construction. The command messages and the readout data of the detector are transmitted over an optical data path. The readout chain consists of many components which are produced at several locations around the world, and must work together in the pixel detector. To verify that these parts are working together as expected a system test has been built up. It consists of detector modules, optoboards, optical fibres, Back of Crate cards, Readout Drivers, and control computers. In this paper, the system test setup and the operation of the readout chain are described. Also, some results of tests using the final pixel detector readout chain are given

  19. Studies of avalanche photodiodes for scintillating fibre tracking readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenker, H.; Thomas, J.

    1993-01-01

    Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) operating in ''Geiger Mode'' have been studied in a fibre tracking readout environment. A fast recharge circuit has been developed for high rate data taking, and results obtained from a model fibre tracker in the test beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented. A high rate calibrated light source has been developed using a commercially available laser diode and has been used to measure the efficiency of the devices. The transmission of the light from a 1mm fibre onto a 0.5mm diameter APD surface has been identified as the main problem in the use of these particular devices for scintillating fibre tracking in the Superconducting Supercollider environment. Solutions to this problem are proposed

  20. The 'KATOD-1' strip readout ASIC for cathode strip chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Gorbunov, N.V.; Karzhavin, V.Yu.; Khabarov, V.S.; Movchan, S.A.; Smolin, D.A.; Dvornikov, O.V.; Shumejko, N.M.; Chekhovskij, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The 'KATOD-1', a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2 : +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology

  1. A prototype pixel readout chip for asynchronous detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, D.M.; Hall, G.; Lewis, A.J.; Sharp, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    A two-dimensional array of amplifier cells has been fabricated as a prototype readout system for a matching array of silicon diode detectors. Each cell contains a preamplifier, shaping amplifier, comparator and analogue signal storage in an area of 300 μmx320 μm using 3 μm CMOS technology. Full size chips will be bump bonded to pixel detector arrays. Low noise and asynchronous operation are novel design features. With noise levels of less than 250 rms electrons for input capacitances up to 600 fF, pixel detectors will be suitable for autoradiography, synchrotron X-ray and high energy particle detection applications. The design of the prototype chip is presented and future developments and prospects for applications are discussed. (orig.)

  2. SEU tolerant memory design for the ATLAS pixel readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menouni, M; Barbero, M; Breugnon, P; Fougeron, D; Gensolen, F; Arutinov, D; Backhaus, M; Gonella, L; Hemperek, T; Karagounis, M; Beccherle, R; Darbo, G; Caminada, L; Dube, S; Fleury, J; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gnani, D; Jensen, F; Gromov, V; Kluit, R

    2013-01-01

    The FE-I4 chip for the B-layer upgrade is designed in a 130 nm CMOS process. For this design, configuration memories are based on the DICE latches where layout considerations are followed to improve the tolerance to SEU. Tests have shown that DICE latches for which layout approaches are adopted are 30 times more tolerant to SEU than the standard DICE latches. To prepare for the new pixel readout chip planned for the future upgrades, a prototype chip containing 512 pixels has been designed in a 65 nm CMOS process and a new approach is adopted for SEU tolerant latches. Results in terms of SEU and TID tolerance are presented.

  3. Front-end readout system for PHENIX RICH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Hara, H.; Ebisu, K.; Hibino, M.; Kametani, S.; Kikuchi, J.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Walker, J.W.; Franck, S.; Moscone, C.; Jones, J.P.; Young, G.R.; Matsumoto, T.; Sakaguchi, T.; Oyama, K.; Hamagaki, H.

    2000-01-01

    A front-end readout system with a custom backplane and custom circuit modules has been developed for the RICH subsystem of the PHENIX experiment. The design specifications and test results of the backplane and the modules are presented in this paper. In the module design, flexibility for modification is maximized through the use of Complex Programmable Logic Devices. In the backplane design, a source-synchronous bus architecture is adopted for the data and control bus. The transfer speed of the backplane has reached 640 Mbyte/s with a 128-bit data bus. Total transaction time is estimated to be less than 30 μs per event when this system is used in the experiment. This result indicates that the performance satisfies the data-rate requirement of the PHENIX experiment

  4. Development of a 10-inch HPD with integrated readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Braem, André; Joram, C; Séguinot, Jacques; Weilhammer, Peter; Giunta, M; Malakhov, N; Menzione, A; Pegna, R; Piccioli, A; Raffaelli, F; Sartori, G

    2003-01-01

    A round 10-in. diameter Hybrid Photodiode (HPD) with spherical entrance window is under development for Cherenkov imaging applications in cosmic ray astronomy. The HPD adopts the fountain focusing electron optics, which, as already demonstrated in the 5 inch Pad HPD, allows for a linear demagnification of the image over practically the full tube diameter. Self-triggering front-end electronics providing also sparse readout capability, has been tested. High-efficiency Rb//2Te cathodes have been produced on a UV extended borosilicate glass windows with very thin conductive underlayers of Indium Tin Oxide. We report on the design of the 10- in. HPD, the fabrication procedure and first tests of a 5-in. HPD with Rb//2Te photocathode and 2048 channels.

  5. Feasibility studies for a wireless 60 GHz tracking detector readout

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmeier, Sebastian; Soltveit, Hans Kristian; Wiedner, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The amount of data produced by highly granular silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments poses a major challenge to readout systems. At high collision rates, e.g. at LHC experiments, only a small fraction of data can be read out with currently used technologies. To cope with the requirements of future or upgraded experiments new data transfer techniques are required which offer high data rates at low power and low material budget. Wireless technologies operating in the 60 GHz band or at higher frequencies offer high data rates and are thus a promising upcoming alternative to conventional data transmission via electrical cables or optical fibers. Using wireless technology, the amount of cables and connectors in detectors can be significantly reduced. Tracking detectors profit most from a reduced material budget as fewer secondary particle interactions (multiple Coulomb scattering, energy loss, etc.) improve the tracking performance in general. We present feasibility studies regarding the in...

  6. NIKEL-AMC: readout electronics for the NIKA2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrion, O.; Bouly, J.L.; Bouvier, J.; Bosson, G.; Catalano, A.; Li, C.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Tourres, D.; Ponchant, N.; Vescovi, C.; Benoit, A.; Calvo, M.; Goupy, J.; Monfardini, A.

    2016-01-01

    The New Iram Kid Arrays-2 (NIKA2) instrument has recently been installed at the IRAM 30 m telescope. NIKA2 is a state-of-art instrument dedicated to mm-wave astronomy using microwave kinetic inductance detectors (KID) as sensors. The three arrays installed in the camera, two at 1.25 mm and one at 2.05 mm, feature a total of 3300 KIDs. To instrument these large array of detectors, a specifically designed electronics, composed of 20 readout boards and hosted in three microTCA crates, has been developed. The implemented solution and the achieved performances are presented in this paper. We find that multiplexing factors of up to 400 detectors per board can be achieved with homogeneous performance across boards in real observing conditions, and a factor of more than 3 decrease in volume with respect to previous generations.

  7. Performance of a liquid argon Accordion calorimeter with fast readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Colas, J.; Leflour, T.; Maire, M.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Zolnierowski, Y.P.; Gordon, H.A.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fournier, D.; Franz, A.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Richter, W.; Soderqvist, J.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Lottin, J.P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.F.; Renardy, J.F.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.V.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Cravero, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gianotti, F.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Pessina, G.; Sala, P.; Sciamanna, M.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Jean, P.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Unal, G.; Fuglesang, C.; Lefebvre, M.; Towers, S.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype lead-liquid-argon electromagnetic calorimeter with parallel plates and Accordion geometry has been equipped with high speed readout electronics and tested with electron and muon beams at the CERN SPS. For a response peaking time of about 35 ns, fast enough for operation at the future hadron colliders, the energy resolution for electrons is 9.6%/√E[GeV] with a local constant term of 0.3% and a noise contribution of 0.33/E[GeV]. The spatial accuracy achieved with a detector granularity of 2.7 cm is 3.7 mm/√E[GeV] and the angular resolution 12 mrad at 60 GeV. (orig.)

  8. Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    During the past seven years, the DREAM collaboration has systematically investigated all factors that determine and limit the precision with which the properties of hadrons and jets can be measured in calorimeters. Using simultaneous detection of the deposited energy and the Cerenkov light produced in hadronic shower development ${(dual}$ ${readout}$), the fluctuations in the electromagnetic shower fraction could be measured event by event their effects on signal linearity, response function and energy resolution eliminated. Detailed measurement of the time structure of the signals made it possible to measure the contirbutions of nuclear evaporation neutrons to the signals and thus reduce the effects of fluctuations in "invisible energy". We are now embarking on the construction of a full-scale calorimeter which incorporates all these elements and which should make it possible to measure the four-vectors of both electrons, hadrons and jets with very high precision, in an instrument that can be simply calibrat...

  9. A fast ADC system for silicon μstrips readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inzani, P.; Pedrini, D.; Sala, S.

    1986-01-01

    A new fast ADC module has been designed. It is part of a large readout system for a high resolution vertex detector consisting of 12 silicon microstrip planes with more than 8000 channels. The module employs a set of monolithic gated integrators on input (LeCroy MIQ 401) multiplexed on a single 8 bit FADC (Thompson EFX8308). A built-in preprocessing, performed through look up tables, accomplishes equalization and reduction of the data and makes high level trigger feasible. As an additional feature, fast histogramming of all the channels in parallel has been made possible with an internal memory. Special care has been paid to realize a low cost and low power consumption system

  10. PADI ASIC for straw tube read-out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietraszko, Jerzy; Traeger, Michael; Fruehauf, Jochen; Schmidt, Christian [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Ciobanu, Mircea [ISS, Bucharest (Romania); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    A prototype of the CBM MUCH straw tube detector consisting of six individual straws of 6mm inner diameter and 220 mm length filled with Ar/CO{sub 2} gas mixture has been tested at the COSY accelerator in Juelich. The straw tubes were connected to the FEET-PADI6-HDa PCB equipped with PADI-6 fast amplifier/discriminator ASIC. As a reference counter in this measurement the scCVD diamond detector has been used delivering excellent timing, time resolution below 100 ps (sigma), and very precise position information, below 50 μm. The demonstrated position resolution of about 160 μm of the straw tube read out with PADI-6 ASIC confirms the capability of the PADI chip and puts this development as a very attractive readout option for straw tubes and wire chambers.

  11. Simple optical readout for ethanol-chlorobenzene dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilijas, B.; Razem, D.

    1999-01-01

    Optical readout of the ethanol-chlorobenzene (ECB) or Dvornik dosimetry system is based on the development of the coloured secondary complex of ferric thiocyanate which has a maximum absorption at 485 nm. The applicability of a rugged, hand-held, battery powered filter colorimeter operating at 480 nm has been investigated as a reader for this purpose. This simple reader performs very well within absorbance one displaying an excellent linearity of absorbance with the concentration of Cl - ions. It is shown that by choosing the appropriate dilution factor when preparing the secondary complex solution the entire useful dose range of the dosimeter up to 2 MGy can be covered. The applicability of this reader to some other liquid chemical dosimeters is also discussed. (author)

  12. Simple optical readout for ethanol - chlorobenzene dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilijas, B.; Razem, D.

    1999-01-01

    Optical readout of the ethanol-chlorobenzene (ECB or Dvornik dosimetry system) is based on the development of coloured secondary complex of ferric thiocyanate which has a maximum absorption at 485 nm. The applicability of a rugged, hand-held, battery powered filter colorimeter operating at 480 nm has been investigated as a reader for this purpose. This simple reader performs very well within absorbance displaying an excellent linearity of absorbance with the concentration of Cl - ions. It was shown, by choosing the appropriate dilution factor when preparing the secondary complex solution, the entire useful dose range of the dosimeter up to 2 MGy can be covered. The applicability of the same reader to some other liquid chemical dosimeters is also discussed. (author)

  13. Multi-path interferometric Josephson directional amplifier for qubit readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Baleegh; Bronn, Nicholas T.; Jinka, Oblesh; Olivadese, Salvatore; Brink, Markus; Chow, Jerry M.

    2018-04-01

    We realize and characterize a quantum-limited, directional Josephson amplifier suitable for qubit readout. The device consists of two nondegenerate, three-wave-mixing amplifiers that are coupled together in an interferometric scheme, embedded in a printed circuit board. Nonreciprocity is generated by applying a phase gradient between the same-frequency pumps feeding the device, which plays the role of the magnetic field in a Faraday medium. Directional amplification and reflection-gain elimination are induced via wave interference between multiple paths in the system. We measure and discuss the main figures of merit of the device and show that the experimental results are in good agreement with theory. An improved version of this directional amplifier is expected to eliminate the need for bulky, off-chip isolation stages that generally separate quantum systems and preamplifiers in high-fidelity, quantum-nondemolition measurement setups.

  14. Operation of a GEM-TPC with pixel readout

    CERN Document Server

    Brezina, C; Kaminski, J; Killenberg, M; Krautscheid, T

    2012-01-01

    A prototype time projection chamber with 26 cm drift length was operated with a short-spaced triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) stack in a setup triggering on cosmic muon tracks. A small part of the anode plane is read out with a CMOS pixel application-specified integrated circuit (ASIC) named Timepix, which provides ultimate readout granularity. Pixel clusters of charge depositions corresponding to single primary electrons are observed and analyzed to reconstruct charged particle tracks. A dataset of several weeks of cosmic ray data is analyzed. The number of clusters per track length is well described by simulation. The obtained single point resolution approaches 50 m at short drift distances and is well reproduced by a simple model of single-electron diffusion.

  15. The "KATOD-1" Strip Readout ASIC for Cathode Strip Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Karjavin, V Yu; Khabarov, V S; Movchan, S A; Smolin, D A; Dvornikov, O V; Shumeiko, N M; Tchekhovski, V A

    2001-01-01

    The "KATOD-1", a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with tail cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2\\div +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology.

  16. Scintillating glasses for total absorption dual readout calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvicini, V. [INFN, Trieste; Driutti, A. [Udine U.; Cauz, D. [Udine U.; Pauletta, G. [Udine U.; Rubinov, P. [Fermilab; Santi, L. [Udine U.; Wenzel, H. [Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Scintillating glasses are a potentially cheaper alternative to crystal - based calorimetry with common problems related to light collection, detection and processing. As such, their use and development are part of more extensive R&D aimed at investigating the potential of total absorption, combined with the readout (DR) technique, for hadron calorimetry. A recent series of measurements, using cosmic and particle beams from the Fermilab test beam facility and scintillating glass with the characteristics required for application of the DR technique, serve to illustrate the problems addressed and the progress achieved by this R&D. Alternative solutions for light collection (conventional and silicon photomultipliers) and signal processing are compared, the separate contributions of scintillation and Cherenkov processes to the signal are evaluated and results are compared to simulation.

  17. Cryogenic readout integrated circuits for submillimeter-wave camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, H.; Kobayashi, J.; Matsuo, H.; Akiba, M.; Fujiwara, M.

    2006-01-01

    The development of cryogenic readout circuits for Superconducting Tunneling Junction (Sj) direct detectors for submillimeter wave is presented. A SONY n-channel depletion-mode GaAs Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) is a candidate for circuit elements of the preamplifier. We measured electrical characteristics of the GaAs JFETs in the temperature range between 0.3 and 4.2K, and found that the GaAs JFETs work with low power consumption of a few microwatts, and show good current-voltage characteristics without cryogenic anomalies such as kink phenomena or hysteresis behaviors. Furthermore, measurements at 0.3K show that the input referred noise is as low as 0.6μV/Hz at 1Hz. Based on these results and noise calculations, we estimate that a Capacitive Transimpedance Amplifier with the GaAs JFETs will have low noise and STJ detectors will operate below background noise limit

  18. Cryogenic readout integrated circuits for submillimeter-wave camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan) and National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)]. E-mail: hirohisa.nagata@nao.ac.jp; Kobayashi, J. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Matsuo, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Akiba, M. [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Fujiwara, M. [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan)

    2006-04-15

    The development of cryogenic readout circuits for Superconducting Tunneling Junction (Sj) direct detectors for submillimeter wave is presented. A SONY n-channel depletion-mode GaAs Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) is a candidate for circuit elements of the preamplifier. We measured electrical characteristics of the GaAs JFETs in the temperature range between 0.3 and 4.2K, and found that the GaAs JFETs work with low power consumption of a few microwatts, and show good current-voltage characteristics without cryogenic anomalies such as kink phenomena or hysteresis behaviors. Furthermore, measurements at 0.3K show that the input referred noise is as low as 0.6{mu}V/Hz at 1Hz. Based on these results and noise calculations, we estimate that a Capacitive Transimpedance Amplifier with the GaAs JFETs will have low noise and STJ detectors will operate below background noise limit.

  19. TPC cathode read-out with C-pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janik, R.; Pikna, M.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Szarka, I.

    2009-01-01

    A Time Projection Chamber with 'C' like shaped cathode pads was built and tested. It offers a low gas gain operation, a good pulse shape and a lightweight construction. The Pad Response Function (PRF), the cathode to anode pulse height ratios and the pad pulse shapes of the C-pad structure were measured and compared with planar cathode structures in two different wire geometries. The cathode to anode signal ratio was improved from between 0.2 and 0.4 up to 0.7. The PRF was considerably improved, it has a Gaussian shape and is narrower than in the case of the planar pads. The pulse shape from the C-pad read-out is similar to the pulse shape from a detector with a cylindrical shape of electrodes. A method for aluminum pad mass production based on a precise cold forging was developed and tested.

  20. Precision Instrumentation Amplifiers and Read-Out Integrated Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Rong; Makinwa, Kofi A A

    2013-01-01

    This book presents innovative solutions in the design of precision instrumentation amplifier and read-out ICs, which can be used to boost millivolt-level signals transmitted by modern sensors, to levels compatible with the input ranges of typical Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs).  The discussion includes the theory, design and realization of interface electronics for bridge transducers and thermocouples. It describes the use of power efficient techniques to mitigate low frequency errors, resulting in interface electronics with high accuracy, low noise and low drift. Since this book is mainly about techniques for eliminating low frequency errors, it describes the nature of these errors and the associated dynamic offset cancellation techniques used to mitigate them.  Surveys comprehensively offset cancellation and accuracy improvement techniques applied in precision amplifier designs; Presents techniques in precision circuit design to mitigate low frequency errors in millivolt-level signals transmitted by ...

  1. ROCK: The readout controller for the KLOE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloisio, A.; Cavaliere, S.; Cevenini, F.; Volpe, D. della; Merola, L.; Fiore, D.J.; Parascandolo, P.

    1996-01-01

    A read-out controller (ROCK) has been developed for the Data Acquisition System of the KLOE High Energy Physics experiment, based in Frascati, Italy. The ROCK performs data acquisition in an event-driven fashion on the AUXbus, a custom high speed parallel bus. The AUXbus's main features are data cycles labeled by event number, sparse data scan operations and an asynchronous protocol optimized to achieve data rates up to 15 MHz. On a standard VMEbus, the ROCK allows for data snooping and real-time performance monitoring, without additional overhead on data acquisition. ROCK boards can be linked together via a custom cable bus (Cbus) to build a complex DAQ subsystem. The ROCK board has been designed around three 4.2 K gate XILINX FPGAs. Dual port FIFO banks are used to decouple the asynchronous buses. A preliminary version of the board is presented and test results are briefly discussed

  2. Production Performance of the ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker Readout System

    CERN Document Server

    Mitsou, V A

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) together with the pixel and the transition radiation detectors will form the tracking system of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. It will consist of 20000 single-sided silicon microstrip sensors assembled back-to-back into modules mounted on four concentric barrels and two end-cap detectors formed by nine disks each. The SCT module production and testing has finished while the macro-assembly is well under way. After an overview of the layout and the operating environment of the SCT, a description of the readout electronics design and operation requirements will be given. The quality control procedure and the DAQ software for assuring the electrical functionality of hybrids and modules will be discussed. The focus will be on the electrical performance results obtained during the assembly and testing of the end-cap SCT modules.

  3. A software approach for readout and data acquisition in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G H; Chatellier, S; Cittolin, Sergio; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Gutleber, J; Jacobs, C; Meijers, F; Nicolau, R; Orsini, L; Pollet, Lucien; Rácz, A; Samyn, D; Sinanis, N; Sphicas, Paris

    2000-01-01

    Traditional systems dominated by performance constraints tend to neglect other qualities such as maintainability and configurability. Object-Orientation allows one to encapsulate the technology differences in communication sub-systems and to provide a uniform view of data transport layer to the systems engineer. We applied this paradigm to the design and implementation of intelligent data servers in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) data acquisition system at CERN to easily exploiting the physical communication resources of the available equipment. CMS is a high-energy physics experiment under study that incorporates a highly distributed data acquisition system. This paper outlines the architecture of one part, the so called Readout Unit, and shows how we can exploit the object advantage for systems with specific data rate requirements. A C++ streams communication layer with zero copying functionality has been established for UDP, TCP, DLPI and specific Myrinet and VME bus communication on the VxWorks real-time...

  4. A novel readout concept for multianode photomultiplier tubes with pad matrix anode layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, Vladimir [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)]. E-mail: Popov@jlab.org; Majewski, Stan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Welch, Benjamin L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a new analog readout concept for multianode photomultiplier tubes with a pad matrix anode layout. This new readout technique is the result of a modification of a technique previously developed at the Detector Group of Jefferson Lab (V. Popov, US patent No: 6,747,263 B1) [V. Popov, S. Majewski, A.G. Weisenberger, Readout Electronics for Multianode Photomultiplier Tubes with Pad Matrix Anode Layout, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, IEEE 2003 Medical Imaging Conference Record, November 2003]. The new analog readout circuit provides the same analog conversion of matrix 2-D output into X and Y projective output with a significant reduction of analog outputs. The old readout network consists of resistors' matrix and current collecting amplifiers, and it provides decoupling of each anode output into two directions (one to X and one to Y coordinates), but a decoupling function that is carried out independent of photomultiplier tube gains nonuniformity. A newly developed readout network (US patent pending) also consists of resistors' matrix and current collecting amplifiers, but the new matrix includes an additional dumping resistor that provides an excess current from anode pad grounding. As a result, we subtract an extra current of high-gain pads in order to move the pads gain to an absolute minimum value for a given photomultiplier tube. This gain equalization procedure reduces image distortion related to gain nonuniformity. The new readout technique was used in several new radiation imaging detectors designed in the Detector Group of Jefferson Lab. It shows a visible readout uniformity and linearity improvement. The test results of an initial evaluation of this readout that is applied for data readout of four H8500 Hamamtsu PSPMT are presented.

  5. Design of readout electronics for a scintillating plate calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawley, H.B.; Meyer, W.T.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Thomas, W.D.; Blair, R.E.; Buehring, A.; Dawson, J.; Hill, N.; Noland, R.; Petereit, E.; Price, L.E.; Proudfoot, J.; Spinka, H.; Talaga, R.; Trost, H.J.; Underwood, D.; Wickland, A.B.; Hurlbut, C.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K.; Imlay, R.; McNeil, R.; Metcalf, W.; Bolen, L.; Cremaldi, L.; Reidy, J.; Summers, D.; Fu, P.; Gabriel, T.; Handler, T.; Ficenec, J.R.; Lu, B.; Mo, L.; Piilonen, L.E.; Nunamaker, T.; Burke, M.; Hackworth, D.T.; Porter, T.F.; Ravas, R.J.; Scherbarth, D.; Swensrud, R.; Carlsmith, D.; Foudas, C.; Lackey, J.; Loveless, D.; Reeder, D.; Robb, P.; Smith, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    A scintillator calorimeter produces unique problems for the designer of readout electronics. On the one hand the narrow time structure of scintillator pulses, ∼10 nsec, is well matched to the rf structure of the SSC and gives hope of isolating information from individual beam crossings. On the other hand, the compensation mechanism and the need to broaden the pulse shape for use with analog signal sampling devices gives a somewhat wider time structure, ∼50-100 nsec. Furthermore the granularity of such a device implies that the full energy of an electromagnetic shower may be totally contained within one readout channel. If the resolution of the electronics is not to compromise the intrinsic resolution of the calorimeter, assumed to be σ/E ∼ 15%/√E + 1% (E in Gev), coverage of the full dynamic range (40,000:1) requires at least two 12-bit devices with 7 bits of overlap for a linear front-end electronics chain. The positioning of the electronics also is a critical issue. At luminosities of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 , electronics placed on the calorimeter must withstand doses of at least 10 10 neutron/cm 2 and 2,000 Rad per year at 90 degree. In the past year, the scintillating calorimeter collaboration has begun studying these and related issues. Among the work reported below is: a study related to remote location of the calorimeter electronics, a comprehensive program to evaluate the properties of FADCs capable of operation at 60-80 MHz, design of a analog memory unit and development of a benchmark system to help evaluate components under development both within and outside the authors' collaboration

  6. The CMS silicon strip tracker and its electronic readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, CH) will be the world's biggest accelerator machine when operation starts in 2006. One of its four detector experiments is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), consisting of a large-scale silicon tracker and electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters, all embedded in a solenoidal magnetic field of 4 T, and a muon system surrounding the magnet coil. The Silicon Strip Tracker has a sensitive area of 206m 2 with 10 million analog channels which are read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. The building blocks of the CMS Tracker are the silicon sensors, APV amplifier ASICs, supporting front-end ASICs, analog and digital optical links as well as data processors and control units in the back-end. Radiation tolerance, readout speed and the huge data volume are challenging requirements. The charge collection in silicon detectors was modeled, which is discussed as well as the concepts of readout amplifiers with respect to the LHC requirements, including the deconvolution method of fast pulse shaping, electronic noise constraints and radiation effects. Moreover, extensive measurements on prototype components of the CMS Tracker and different versions of the APV chip in particular were performed. There was a significant contribution to the construction of several detector modules, characterized them in particle beam tests and quantified radiation induced effects on the APV chip and on silicon detectors. In addition, a prototype of the analog optical link and the analog performance of the back-end digitization unit were evaluated. The results are very encouraging, demonstrating the feasibility of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker system and motivating progress towards the construction phase. (author)

  7. Two-dimensional readout system for radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.Y.

    1975-01-01

    A two dimensional readout system has been provided for reading out locations of scintillations produced in a scintillation type radiation detector array wherein strips of scintillator material are arranged in a parallel planar array. Two sets of light guides are placed perpendicular to the scintillator strips, one on the top and one on the bottom to extend in alignment across the strips. Both the top and bottom guides are composed of a number of 90 0 triangular prisms with the lateral side forming the hypotenuse equal to twice the width of a scintillator strip. The prism system reflects light from a scintillation along one of the strips back and forth through adjacent strips to light pipes coupled to the outermost strips of the detector array which transmit light pulses to appropriate detectors to determine the scintillation along one axis. Other light pipes are connected to the end portions of the strips to transmit light from the individual strips to appropriate light detectors to indicate the particular strip activated, thereby determining the position of a scintillation along the other axis. The number of light guide pairs may be equal the number of the scintillation strips when equal spatial resolution for each of the two coordinates is desired. When the scintillator array detects an event which produces a scintillation along one of the strips, the emitted light travels along four different paths, two of which are along the strip, and two of which are through the light guide pair perpendicular to the strips until all four beams reach the outer edges of the array where they may be transmitted to light detectors by means of light pipes connected therebetween according to a binary code for direct digital readout. (U.S.)

  8. Microwave Readout Techniques for Very Large Arrays of Nuclear Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullom, Joel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-05-17

    During this project, we transformed the use of microwave readout techniques for nuclear sensors from a speculative idea to reality. The core of the project consisted of the development of a set of microwave electronics able to generate and process large numbers of microwave tones. The tones can be used to probe a circuit containing a series of electrical resonances whose frequency locations and widths depend on the state of a network of sensors, with one sensor per resonance. The amplitude and phase of the tones emerging from the circuit are processed by the same electronics and are reduced to the sensor signals after two demodulation steps. This approach allows a large number of sensors to be interrogated using a single pair of coaxial cables. We successfully developed hardware, firmware, and software to complete a scalable implementation of these microwave control electronics and demonstrated their use in two areas. First, we showed that the electronics can be used at room temperature to read out a network of diverse sensor types relevant to safeguards or process monitoring. Second, we showed that the electronics can be used to measure large numbers of ultrasensitive cryogenic sensors such as gamma-ray microcalorimeters. In particular, we demonstrated the undegraded readout of up to 128 channels and established a path to even higher multiplexing factors. These results have transformed the prospects for gamma-ray spectrometers based on cryogenic microcalorimeter arrays by enabling spectrometers whose collecting areas and count rates can be competitive with high purity germanium but with 10x better spectral resolution.

  9. Automatic quantitative renal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeyre, J.; Deltour, G.; Delisle, M.J.; Bouchard, A.

    1976-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy data may be analyzed automatically by the use of a processing system coupled to an Anger camera (TRIDAC-MULTI 8 or CINE 200). The computing sequence is as follows: normalization of the images; background noise subtraction on both images; evaluation of mercury 197 uptake by the liver and spleen; calculation of the activity fractions on each kidney with respect to the injected dose, taking into account the kidney depth and the results referred to normal values; edition of the results. Automation minimizes the scattering parameters and by its simplification is a great asset in routine work [fr

  10. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  11. Automatic dipole subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Catani-Seymour dipole subtraction is a general procedure to treat infrared divergences in real emission processes at next-to-leading order in QCD. We automatized the procedure in a computer code. The code is useful especially for the processes with many parton legs. In this talk, we first explain the algorithm of the dipole subtraction and the whole structure of our code. After that we show the results for some processes where the infrared divergences of real emission processes are subtracted. (author)

  12. Automatic programmable air ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubarev, S.P.; Klosovsky, A.V.; Opaleva, G.P.; Taran, V.S.; Zolototrubova, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe a compact, economical, easy to manage auto air ozonator developed at the Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT. It is designed for sanitation, disinfection of premises and cleaning the air from foreign odors. A distinctive feature of the developed device is the generation of a given concentration of ozone, approximately 0.7 maximum allowable concentration (MAC), and automatic maintenance of a specified level. This allows people to be inside the processed premises during operation. The microprocessor controller to control the operation of the ozonator was developed

  13. Application of an automatic cloud tracking technique to Meteosat water vapor and infrared observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endlich, R. M.; Wolf, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    The automatic cloud tracking system was applied to METEOSAT 6.7 micrometers water vapor measurements to learn whether the system can track the motions of water vapor patterns. Data for the midlatitudes, subtropics, and tropics were selected from a sequence of METEOSAT pictures for 25 April 1978. Trackable features in the water vapor patterns were identified using a clustering technique and the features were tracked by two different methods. In flat (low contrast) water vapor fields, the automatic motion computations were not reliable, but in areas where the water vapor fields contained small scale structure (such as in the vicinity of active weather phenomena) the computations were successful. Cloud motions were computed using METEOSAT infrared observations (including tropical convective systems and midlatitude jet stream cirrus).

  14. Direct readout flux locked loop circuit with automatic tuning of bias current and bias flux for high-Tc SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, T.; Nagaishi, T.; Itozaki, H.

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of high-frequency magnetic signals has been required from some SQUID applications. We fabricated a high-T c SQUID magnetic sensor system that can treat high-frequency signals. This system is composed of a SQUID, a preamplifier circuit, a flux locked loop (FLL) circuit with I/O and a personal computer and a PC card. We used the FLL circuit with no modulation to treat the high-frequency signal and to simplify the circuit. This system can treat a signal from dc to 1 MHz. All the sequence from tuning the SQUID to data acquisition can be done by a personal computer. This system successfully realized easy operation of SQUID measurement. (author)

  15. A 0.18 micrometer CMOS Thermopile Readout ASIC Immune to 50 MRAD Total Ionizing Dose (SI) and Single Event Latchup to 174MeV-cm(exp 2)/mg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilligan, Gerard T.; Aslam, Shahid; Lakew, Brook; DuMonthier, Jeffery J.; Katz, Richard B.; Kleyner, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Radiation hardened by design (RHBD) techniques allow commercial CMOS circuits to operate in high total ionizing dose and particle fluence environments. Our radiation hard multi-channel digitizer (MCD) ASIC (Figure 1) is a versatile analog system on a chip (SoC) fabricated in 180nm CMOS. It provides 18 chopper stabilized amplifier channels, a 16- bit sigma-delta analog-digital converter (SDADC) and an on-chip controller. The MCD was evaluated at Goddard Space Flight Center and Texas A&M University's radiation effects facilities and found to be immune to single event latchup (SEL) and total ionizing dose (TID) at 174 MeV-cm(exp 2)/mg and 50 Mrad (Si) respectively.

  16. Optimization of MKID noise performance via readout technique for astronomical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czakon, Nicole G.; Schlaerth, James A.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran P.; Gao, Jiansong; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R.; Hollister, Matt I.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Maloney, Philip R.; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien T.; Sayers, Jack; Siegel, Seth; Vaillancourt, John E.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2010-07-01

    Detectors employing superconducting microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) can be read out by measuring changes in either the resonator frequency or dissipation. We will discuss the pros and cons of both methods, in particular, the readout method strategies being explored for the Multiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC) to be commissioned at the CSO in 2010. As predicted theoretically and observed experimentally, the frequency responsivity is larger than the dissipation responsivity, by a factor of 2-4 under typical conditions. In the absence of any other noise contributions, it should be easier to overcome amplifier noise by simply using frequency readout. The resonators, however, exhibit excess frequency noise which has been ascribed to a surface distribution of two-level fluctuators sensitive to specific device geometries and fabrication techniques. Impressive dark noise performance has been achieved using modified resonator geometries employing interdigitated capacitors (IDCs). To date, our noise measurement and modeling efforts have assumed an onresonance readout, with the carrier power set well below the nonlinear regime. Several experimental indicators suggested to us that the optimal readout technique may in fact require a higher readout power, with the carrier tuned somewhat off resonance, and that a careful systematic study of the optimal readout conditions was needed. We will present the results of such a study, and discuss the optimum readout conditions as well as the performance that can be achieved relative to BLIP.

  17. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, A; Haeseler, F von

    2004-01-01

    Automatic sets D part of Z m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D part of Z m to be a Delone set in R m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples

  18. An optical fiber-based flexible readout system for micro-pattern gas detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Feng, C. Q.; Zhu, D. Y.; Liu, S. B.; An, Q.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an optical fiber-based readout system that is intended to provide a general purpose multi-channel readout solution for various Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs). The proposed readout system is composed of several front-end cards (FECs) and a data collection module (DCM). The FEC exploits the capability of an existing 64-channel generic TPC readout ASIC chip, named AGET, to implement 256 channels readout. AGET offers FEC a large flexibility in gain range (4 options from 120 fC to 10 pC), peaking time (16 options from 50 ns to 1 us) and sampling freqency (100 MHz max.). The DCM contains multiple 1 Gbps optical fiber serial link interfaces that allow the system scaling up to 1536 channels with 6 FECs and 1 DCM. Further scaling up is possible through cascading of multiple DCMs, by configuring one DCM as a master while other DCMs in slave mode. This design offers a rapid readout solution for different application senario. Tests indicate that the nonlinearity of each channel is less than 1%, and the equivalent input noise charge is typically around 0.7 fC in RMS (root mean square), with a noise slope of about 0.01 fC/pF. The system level trigger rate limit is about 700 Hz in all channel readout mode. When in hit channel readout mode, supposing that typically 10 percent of channels are fired, trigger rate can go up to about 7 kHz. This system has been tested with Micromegas detector and GEM detector, confirming its capability in MPGD readout. Details of hardware and FPGA firmware design, as well as system performances, are described in the paper.

  19. Surface characteristics, copper release, and toxicity of nano- and micrometer-sized copper and copper(II) oxide particles: a cross-disciplinary study.

    OpenAIRE

    Midander, Klara; Cronholm, Pontus; Karlsson, Hanna L.; Elihn, Karine; Moller, Lennart; Leygraf, Christofer; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary and multianalytical research effort is undertaken to assess the toxic aspects of thoroughly characterized nano- and micrometer-sized particles of oxidized metallic copper and copper(II) oxide in contact with cultivated lung cells, as well as copper release in relevant media. All particles, except micrometer-sized Cu, release more copper in serum-containing cell medium (supplemented Dulbecco's minimal essential medium) compared to identical exposures in phosphate-buffered ...

  20. Impact of the 'non-destructive' multiple-readout on the Lorentzian noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guazzoni, C.; Gatti, E.; Geraci, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the effect of 'non-destructive' multiple-readout on the Lorentzian noise. To our knowledge, it is the first time that such interaction is investigated. We have studied the peculiarities of the shape of the optimum weighting function for the multiple-readout technique in the presence of Lorentzian noise and other noise sources. The impact of the Lorentzian noise on the resolution achievable with the multiple-readout technique is analyzed in detail with respect to the interaction between the oscillation time and the characteristic time constant of the Lorentzian noise

  1. Evaluation of Fermi read-out of the Atlas Tilecal prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaltouni, Z.; Alifanov, A.

    1998-01-01

    Prototypes of the FERMI system have been used to read out a prototype of the ATLAS hadron calorimeter in a beam test at the CERN SPS. The FERMI read-out system, using a compressor and a sampling ADC, is compared to a standard charge integrating read-out by measuring the energy resolution of the calorimeter separately with the two systems on the same events. Signal processing techniques have been designed to optimize the treatment of FERMI data. The resulting energy resolution is better than the one obtained with the standard read-out. (orig.)

  2. Machine Learning Method Applied in Readout System of Superheated Droplet Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Sullivan, Clair Julia; d'Errico, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    Direct readability is one advantage of superheated droplet detectors in neutron dosimetry. Utilizing such a distinct characteristic, an imaging readout system analyzes image of the detector for neutron dose readout. To improve the accuracy and precision of algorithms in the imaging readout system, machine learning algorithms were developed. Deep learning neural network and support vector machine algorithms are applied and compared with generally used Hough transform and curvature analysis methods. The machine learning methods showed a much higher accuracy and better precision in recognizing circular gas bubbles.

  3. Note: Readout of a micromechanical magnetometer for the ITER fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimminen, H.; Kyynäräinen, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present readout instrumentation for a MEMS magnetometer, placed 30 m away from the MEMS element. This is particularly useful when sensing is performed in high-radiation environment, where the semiconductors in the readout cannot survive. High bandwidth transimpedance amplifiers are used to cancel the cable capacitances of several nanofarads. A frequency doubling readout scheme is used for crosstalk elimination. Signal-to-noise ratio in the range of 60 dB was achieved and with sub-percent nonlinearity. The presented instrument is intended for the steady-state magnetic field measurements in the ITER fusion reactor.

  4. X-ray imaging using amorphous selenium: a photoinduced discharge readout method for digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, J A; Hunter, D M; Araj, N

    1991-01-01

    A new digital image readout method for electrostatic charge images on photoconductive plates is described. The method can be used to read out images on selenium plates similar to those used in xeromammography. The readout method, called the air-gap photoinduced discharge method (PID), discharges the latent image pixel by pixel and measures the charge. The PID readout method, like electrometer methods, is linear. However, the PID method permits much better resolution than scanning electrometers while maintaining quantum limited performance at high radiation exposure levels. Thus the air-gap PID method appears to be uniquely superior for high-resolution digital imaging tasks such as mammography.

  5. LHCb : Clock and timing distribution in the LHCb upgraded detector and readout system

    CERN Multimedia

    Alessio, Federico; Barros Marin, M; Cachemiche, JP; Hachon, F; Jacobsson, Richard; Wyllie, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is upgrading part of its detector and the entire readout system towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity and increase its trigger efficiency. In this paper, the new timing, trigger and control distribution system for such an upgrade is reviewed with particular attention given to the distribution of the clock and timing information across the entire readout system, up to the FE and the on-detector electronics. Current ideas are here presented in terms of reliability, jitter, complexity and implementation.

  6. Clock and timing distribution in the LHCb upgraded detector and readout system

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, F; Barros Marin, M; Cachemiche, JP; Hachon, F; Jacobsson, R; Wyllie, K

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is upgrading part of its detector and the entire readout system towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity and increase its trigger efficiency. In this paper, the new timing, trigger and control distribution system for such an upgrade is reviewed with particular attention given to the distribution of the clock and timing information across the entire readout system, up to the FE and the on-detector electronics. Current ideas are here presented in terms of reliability, jitter, complexity and implementation.

  7. The AMS silicon tracker readout, performance results with minimum ionizing particles

    CERN Document Server

    Alpat, B; Battiston, R; Bourquin, Maurice; Burger, W J; Extermann, Pierre; Chang, Y H; Hou, S R; Pauluzzi, M; Produit, N; Qiu, S; Rapin, D; Ribordy, R; Toker, O; Wu, S X

    2000-01-01

    First results for the AMS silicon tracker readout performance are presented. Small 20.0*20.0*0.300 mm/sup 3/ silicon microstrip detectors were installed in a 50 GeV electron beam at CERN. The detector readout consisted of prototypes of the tracker data reduction card equipped with a 12-bit ADC and the tracker frontend hybrid with VA_hdr readout chips. The system performance is assessed in terms of signal-to-noise, position resolution, and efficiency. (13 refs).

  8. Point-source reconstruction with a sparse light-sensor array for optical TPC readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutter, G; Richards, M; Bennieston, A J; Ramachers, Y A

    2011-01-01

    A reconstruction technique for sparse array optical signal readout is introduced and applied to the generic challenge of large-area readout of a large number of point light sources. This challenge finds a prominent example in future, large volume neutrino detector studies based on liquid argon. It is concluded that the sparse array option may be ruled out for reasons of required number of channels when compared to a benchmark derived from charge readout on wire-planes. Smaller-scale detectors, however, could benefit from this technology.

  9. Automatic identification in mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, D; Patrick, C [Mine Computers and Electronics Inc., Morehead, KY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The feasibility of monitoring the locations and vital statistics of equipment and personnel in surface and underground mining operations has increased with advancements in radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. This paper addresses the use of RFID technology, which is relatively new to the mining industry, to track surface equipment in mine pits, loading points and processing facilities. Specific applications are discussed, including both simplified and complex truck tracking systems and an automatic pit ticket system. This paper concludes with a discussion of the future possibilities of using RFID technology in mining including monitoring heart and respiration rates, body temperatures and exertion levels; monitoring repetitious movements for the study of work habits; and logging air quality via personnel sensors. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Automatic quantitative metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelos, E.J.B.V.; Ambrozio Filho, F.; Cunha, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    The quantitative determination of metallographic parameters is analysed through the description of Micro-Videomat automatic image analysis system and volumetric percentage of perlite in nodular cast irons, porosity and average grain size in high-density sintered pellets of UO 2 , and grain size of ferritic steel. Techniques adopted are described and results obtained are compared with the corresponding ones by the direct counting process: counting of systematic points (grid) to measure volume and intersections method, by utilizing a circunference of known radius for the average grain size. The adopted technique for nodular cast iron resulted from the small difference of optical reflectivity of graphite and perlite. Porosity evaluation of sintered UO 2 pellets is also analyzed [pt

  11. Semi-automatic fluoroscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarpley, M.W.

    1976-10-01

    Extruded aluminum-clad uranium-aluminum alloy fuel tubes must pass many quality control tests before irradiation in Savannah River Plant nuclear reactors. Nondestructive test equipment has been built to automatically detect high and low density areas in the fuel tubes using x-ray absorption techniques with a video analysis system. The equipment detects areas as small as 0.060-in. dia with 2 percent penetrameter sensitivity. These areas are graded as to size and density by an operator using electronic gages. Video image enhancement techniques permit inspection of ribbed cylindrical tubes and make possible the testing of areas under the ribs. Operation of the testing machine, the special low light level television camera, and analysis and enhancement techniques are discussed

  12. Automatic surveying techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, R.

    1976-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of automatic surveying methods in a more systematic manner, the PEP organization signed a contract in late 1975 for TRW Systems Group to undertake a feasibility study. The completion of this study resulted in TRW Report 6452.10-75-101, dated December 29, 1975, which was largely devoted to an analysis of a survey system based on an Inertial Navigation System. This PEP note is a review and, in some instances, an extension of that TRW report. A second survey system which employed an ''Image Processing System'' was also considered by TRW, and it will be reviewed in the last section of this note. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  13. AUTOMATIC ARCHITECTURAL STYLE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mathias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Procedural modeling has proven to be a very valuable tool in the field of architecture. In the last few years, research has soared to automatically create procedural models from images. However, current algorithms for this process of inverse procedural modeling rely on the assumption that the building style is known. So far, the determination of the building style has remained a manual task. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which automates this process through classification of architectural styles from facade images. Our classifier first identifies the images containing buildings, then separates individual facades within an image and determines the building style. This information could then be used to initialize the building reconstruction process. We have trained our classifier to distinguish between several distinct architectural styles, namely Flemish Renaissance, Haussmannian and Neoclassical. Finally, we demonstrate our approach on various street-side images.

  14. Merlin: a fast versatile readout system for Medipix3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plackett, R; Horswell, I; Gimenez, E N; Marchal, J; Omar, D; Tartoni, N

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports on the development of a new high rate readout system for the Medipix3 hybrid pixel ASIC developed by the Detector Group at Diamond Light Source. It details the current functionality of the system and initial results from tests on Diamond's B16 beamline. The Merlin system is based on a National Instruments PXI/FlexRIO system running a Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA. It is capable of recording Medipix3 256 by 256 by 12 bit data frames at over 1 kHz in bursts of 1200 frames and running at over 100 Hz continuously to disk or over a TCP/IP link. It is compatible with the standard Medipix3 single chipboards developed at CERN and is capable of driving them over cable lengths of up to 10 m depending on the data rate required. In addition to a standalone graphical interface, a system of remote TCP/IP control and data transfer has been developed to allow easy integration with third party control systems and scripting languages. Two Merlin systems are being deployed on the B16 and I16 beamlines at Diamond and the system has been integrated with the EPICS/GDA control systems used. Results from trigger synchronisation, fast burst and high rate tests made on B16 in March are reported and demonstrate an encouraging reliability and timing accuracy. In addition to normal high resolution imaging applications of Medipix3, the results indicate the system could profitably be used in 'pump and probe' style experiments, where a very accurate, high frame rate is especially beneficial. In addition to these two systems, Merlin is being used by the Detector Group to test the Excalibur 16 chip hybrid modules, and by the LHCb VELO Pixel Upgrade group in their forthcoming testbeams. Additionally the contribution looks forward to further developments and improvements in the system, including full rate quad chip readout capability, multi-FPGA support, long distance optical communication and further functionality enhancements built on the capabilities of the Medipix3 chips.

  15. Merlin: a fast versatile readout system for Medipix3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackett, R.; Horswell, I.; Gimenez, E. N.; Marchal, J.; Omar, D.; Tartoni, N.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports on the development of a new high rate readout system for the Medipix3 hybrid pixel ASIC developed by the Detector Group at Diamond Light Source. It details the current functionality of the system and initial results from tests on Diamond's B16 beamline. The Merlin system is based on a National Instruments PXI/FlexRIO system running a Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA. It is capable of recording Medipix3 256 by 256 by 12 bit data frames at over 1 kHz in bursts of 1200 frames and running at over 100 Hz continuously to disk or over a TCP/IP link. It is compatible with the standard Medipix3 single chipboards developed at CERN and is capable of driving them over cable lengths of up to 10 m depending on the data rate required. In addition to a standalone graphical interface, a system of remote TCP/IP control and data transfer has been developed to allow easy integration with third party control systems and scripting languages. Two Merlin systems are being deployed on the B16 and I16 beamlines at Diamond and the system has been integrated with the EPICS/GDA control systems used. Results from trigger synchronisation, fast burst and high rate tests made on B16 in March are reported and demonstrate an encouraging reliability and timing accuracy. In addition to normal high resolution imaging applications of Medipix3, the results indicate the system could profitably be used in `pump and probe' style experiments, where a very accurate, high frame rate is especially beneficial. In addition to these two systems, Merlin is being used by the Detector Group to test the Excalibur 16 chip hybrid modules, and by the LHCb VELO Pixel Upgrade group in their forthcoming testbeams. Additionally the contribution looks forward to further developments and improvements in the system, including full rate quad chip readout capability, multi-FPGA support, long distance optical communication and further functionality enhancements built on the capabilities of the Medipix3 chips.

  16. The readout system for the ArTeMis camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumayrou, E.; Lortholary, M.; Dumaye, L.; Hamon, G.

    2014-07-01

    During ArTeMiS observations at the APEX telescope (Chajnantor, Chile), 5760 bolometric pixels from 20 arrays at 300mK, corresponding to 3 submillimeter focal planes at 450μm, 350μm and 200μm, have to be read out simultaneously at 40Hz. The read out system, made of electronics and software, is the full chain from the cryostat to the telescope. The readout electronics consists of cryogenic buffers at 4K (NABU), based on CMOS technology, and of warm electronic acquisition systems called BOLERO. The bolometric signal given by each pixel has to be amplified, sampled, converted, time stamped and formatted in data packets by the BOLERO electronics. The time stamping is obtained by the decoding of an IRIG-B signal given by APEX and is key to ensure the synchronization of the data with the telescope. Specifically developed for ArTeMiS, BOLERO is an assembly of analogue and digital FPGA boards connected directly on the top of the cryostat. Two detectors arrays (18*16 pixels), one NABU and one BOLERO interconnected by ribbon cables constitute the unit of the electronic architecture of ArTeMiS. In total, the 20 detectors for the tree focal planes are read by 10 BOLEROs. The software is working on a Linux operating system, it runs on 2 back-end computers (called BEAR) which are small and robust PCs with solid state disks. They gather the 10 BOLEROs data fluxes, and reconstruct the focal planes images. When the telescope scans the sky, the acquisitions are triggered thanks to a specific network protocol. This interface with APEX enables to synchronize the acquisition with the observations on sky: the time stamped data packets are sent during the scans to the APEX software that builds the observation FITS files. A graphical user interface enables the setting of the camera and the real time display of the focal plane images, which is essential in laboratory and commissioning phases. The software is a set of C++, Labview and Python, the qualities of which are respectively used

  17. Micromanipulation and pick-up system for X-Ray diffraction characterization of micrometer-sized single particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Y; Inami, N; Saito, K; Otori, H; Sagayama, R; Kumai, R; Ono, K; Ueno, T

    2014-01-01

    We describe a micromanipulation and pick-up system for preparing a micrometer-sized single particle for X-ray diffraction characterization. Combining a microgripper based on microelectromechanical systems, piezo-motor-driven linear stages, and a gamepad, the system provides precise and intuitive handling of the object. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements of Sm-Fe-N permanent magnet were performed using this system. We also describe a method to distinguish crystallographically homogeneous particles found in powder-form samples.

  18. New target for high-intensity laser-matter interaction: Gravitational flow of micrometer-sized powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servol, M.; Quere, F.; Bougeard, M.; Monot, P.; Martin, Ph.; Faenov, A.Ya; Pikuz, T.A.; Audebert, P.; Francucci, M.; Petrocelli, G.

    2005-01-01

    The design of efficient targets for high-intensity laser-matter interaction is essential to fully exploit the advantages of laser-induced photons or particles sources. We present an advantageous kind of target, consisting in a free gravitational flow of micrometer-sized powder, and describe its main technical characteristics. We demonstrate a laser-induced keV x-ray source using this target, and show that the photon flux obtained for the Kα line of Si by irradiating different silica powders is comparable to the one obtained with a bulk silica target

  19. Four-channel readout ASIC for silicon pad detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baturitsky, M.A.; Zamiatin, N.I.

    2000-01-01

    A custom front-end readout ASIC has been designed for silicon calorimeters supposed to be used in high-energy physics experiments. The ASIC was produced using BJT-JFET technology. It contains four channels of a fast low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier (CSP) with inverting outputs summed by a linear adder (LA) followed by an RC-CR shaping amplifier (SA) with 30 ns peaking time. Availability of separate outputs of the CSPs and the LA makes it possible to join any number of silicon detector layers to obtain the longitudinal and transversal resolution required using only this ASIC in any silicon calorimeter minitower configuration. Noise performance is ENC=1800e - +18e - /pF at 30 ns peaking time for detector capacitance up to C d =400 pF. Rise time is 8 ns at input capacitance C d =100 pF. Power dissipation is less than 50 mW/ chip at voltage supply 5 V

  20. ASIC Readout Circuit Architecture for Large Geiger Photodiode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Stefan; Lipson, Jerold

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new class of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) arrays to be operated with Geiger avalanche photodiode (GPD) arrays, by integrating multiple functions at the pixel level (smart-pixel or active pixel technology) in 250-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) processes. In order to pack a maximum of functions within a minimum pixel size, the ROIC array is a full, custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design using a mixed-signal CMOS process with compact primitive layout cells. The ROIC array was processed to allow assembly in bump-bonding technology with photon-counting infrared detector arrays into 3-D imaging cameras (LADAR). The ROIC architecture was designed to work with either common- anode Si GPD arrays or common-cathode InGaAs GPD arrays. The current ROIC pixel design is hardwired prior to processing one of the two GPD array configurations, and it has the provision to allow soft reconfiguration to either array (to be implemented into the next ROIC array generation). The ROIC pixel architecture implements the Geiger avalanche quenching, bias, reset, and time to digital conversion (TDC) functions in full-digital design, and uses time domain over-sampling (vernier) to allow high temporal resolution at low clock rates, increased data yield, and improved utilization of the laser beam.

  1. A Radiation Hardened by Design CMOS ASIC for Thermopile Readouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilligan, G.; Aslam, S.; DuMonthier, J.

    2012-01-01

    A radiation hardened by design (RHBD) mixed-signal application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has been designed for a thermopile readout for operation in the harsh Jovian orbital environment. The multi-channel digitizer (MCD) ASIC includes 18 low noise amplifier channels which have tunable gain/filtering coefficients, a 16-bit sigma-delta analog-digital converter (SDADC) and an on-chip controller. The 18 channels, SDADC and controller were designed to operate with immunity to single event latchup (SEL) and to at least 10 Mrad total ionizing dose (TID). The ASIC also contains a radiation tolerant 16-bit 20 MHz Nyquist ADC for general purpose instrumentation digitizer needs. The ASIC is currently undergoing fabrication in a commercial 180 nm CMOS process. Although this ASIC was designed specifically for the harsh radiation environment of the NASA led JEO mission it is suitable for integration into instrumentation payloads 011 the ESA JUICE mission where the radiation hardness requirements are slightly less stringent.

  2. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubilato, P.; Battaglia, M.; Bisello, D.; Caselle, M.; Chalmet, P.; Demaria, L.; Ikemoto, Y.; Kloukinas, K.; Mansuy, S.C.; Mattiazzo, S.; Marchioro, A.; Mugnier, H.; Pantano, D.; Potenza, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rousset, J.; Silvestrin, L.; Snoeys, W.

    2013-01-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV 55 Fe double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10–20 µm pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a completely new compressing architecture has been devised. This architecture departs from the mainstream hybrid pixel sparsification approach, which uses in-pixel logic to reduce data, by using topological compression to minimize pixel area and power consumption

  3. X-ray and gamma ray detector readout system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Tumay O; Clajus, Martin; Visser, Gerard

    2010-10-19

    A readout electronics scheme is under development for high resolution, compact PET (positron emission tomography) imagers based on LSO (lutetium ortho-oxysilicate, Lu.sub.2SiO.sub.5) scintillator and avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays. The key is to obtain sufficient timing and energy resolution at a low power level, less than about 30 mW per channel, including all required functions. To this end, a simple leading edge level crossing discriminator is used, in combination with a transimpedance preamplifier. The APD used has a gain of order 1,000, and an output noise current of several pA/ Hz, allowing bipolar technology to be used instead of CMOS, for increased speed and power efficiency. A prototype of the preamplifier and discriminator has been constructed, achieving timing resolution of 1.5 ns FWHM, 2.7 ns full width at one tenth maximum, relative to an LSO/PMT detector, and an energy resolution of 13.6% FWHM at 511 keV, while operating at a power level of 22 mW per channel. Work is in progress towards integration of this preamplifier and discriminator with appropriate coincidence logic and amplitude measurement circuits in an ASIC suitable for a high resolution compact PET instrument. The detector system and/or ASIC can also be used for many other applications for medical to industrial imaging.

  4. Spectrophotometric readout for an alanine dosimeter for food irradiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebraheem, S.; Beshir, W.B.; Eid, S.; Sobhy, R.; Kovacs, A.

    2003-01-01

    The alanine-electron spin resonance (EPR) readout system is well known as a reference and transfer dosimetry system for the evaluation of high doses in radiation processing. The high cost of an EPR/alanine dosimetry system is a serious handicap for large-scale routine application in irradiation facilities. In this study, the use of a complex produced by dissolving irradiated L-alanine in 1,4-phenyl diammonium dichloride solution was investigated for dosimetry purposes. This complex--having a purple colour--has an increasing absorbance with increasing dose in the range of 1-20 kGy. The applicability of spectrophotometric evaluation was studied by measuring the absorbance intensity of this complex at 360 and 505 nm, respectively. Fluorimetric evaluation was also investigated by measuring the emission of the complex at 435 nm as a function of dose. The present method is easy for routine application. The effect of the dye concentration as well as the suitable amount of irradiated alanine has been studied. With respect to routine application, the stability of the product complex after its formation was also investigated

  5. Development of Digital Readout Electronics for the CMS Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Corrin, E P

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general-purpose detector, based at CERN in Switzerland, designed to look for new physics in high-energy protonproton collisions provided by the Large Hadron Collider. The CMS tracker has 10 million readout channels being sampled at a rate of 40 MHz, then read out at up to 100 kHz, generating huge volumes of data; it is essential that the system can handle these rates without any of the data being lost or corrupted. The CMS tracker FED processes the data, removing pedestal and common mode-noise, and then performing hit and cluster finding. Strips below threshold are discarded, resulting in a significant reduction in data size. These zero suppressed data are stored in a buffer before being sent to the DAQ. The processing on the FEDs is done using FPGAs. Programmable logic was chosen over custom ASICs because of the lower cost, faster design and verification process, and the ability to easily upgrade the firmware at a later date. This thesis is concerned with the digital read...

  6. Low-noise readout circuit for SWIR focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Oguz; Tasdemir, Ferhat; Nuzumlali, Omer Lutfi; Kepenek, Reha; Inceturkmen, Ercihan; Akyurek, Fatih; Tunca, Can; Akbulut, Mehmet

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports a 640x512 SWIR ROIC with 15um pixel pitch that is designed and fabricated using 0.18um CMOS process. Main challenge of SWIR ROIC design is related to input circuit due to pixel area and noise limitations. In this design, CTIA with single stage amplifier is utilized as input stage. The pixel design has three pixel gain options; High Gain (HG), Medium Gain (MG), and Low Gain (LG) with corresponding Full-Well-Capacities of 18.7ké, 190ké and 1.56Mé, respectively. According to extracted simulation results, 5.9é noise is achieved at HG mode and 200é is achieved at LG mode of operation. The ROIC can be programmed through an SPI interface. It supports 1, 2 and 4 output modes which enables the user to configure the detector to work at 30, 60 and 120fps frame rates. In the 4 output mode, the total power consumption of the ROIC is less than 120mW. The ROIC is powered from a 3.3V analog supply and allows for an output swing range in excess of 2V. Anti-blooming feature is added to prevent any unwanted blooming effect during readout.

  7. Test beam studies for the atlas tile calorimeter readout electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Phase II upgrade aims to increase the accelerator luminosity by a factor of 5-10. Due to the expected higher radiation levels and the aging of the current electronics, a new readout system for the Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) of the ATLAS experiment is needed. A prototype of the upgrade TileCal electronics has been tested using the beam from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator at CERN. Data were collected with beams of muons, electrons and hadrons at various incident energies and impact angles. The muon data allow to study the response dependence on the incident point and angle in a cell and inter-calibration of the response between cells. The electron data are used to determine the linearity of the electron energy measurement. The hadron data allow to determined the calorimeter response to pions, kaons and protons and tune the calorimeter simulation to that data. The results of the ongoing data analyses are discussed in the presentation.

  8. Toward a reduced-wire readout system for ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jaemyung; Arkan, Evren F; Degertekin, F Levent; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    We present a system-on-a-chip (SoC) for use in high-frequency capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) imaging systems. This SoC consists of trans-impedance amplifiers (TIA), delay locked loop (DLL) based clock multiplier, quadrature sampler, and pulse width modulator (PWM). The SoC down converts RF echo signal to baseband by quadrature sampling which facilitates modulation. To send data through a 1.6 m wire in the catheter which has limited bandwidth and is vulnerable to noise, the SoC creates a pseudo-digital PWM signal which can be used for back telemetry or wireless readout of the RF data. In this implementation, using a 0.35-μm std. CMOS process, the TIA and single-to-differential (STD) converter had 45 MHz bandwidth, the quadrature sampler had 10.1 dB conversion gain, and the PWM had 5-bit ENoB. Preliminary results verified front-end functionality, and the power consumption of a TIA, STD, quadrature sampler, PWM, and clock multiplier was 26 mW from a 3 V supply.

  9. Characterization of Medipix3 with the MARS readout and software

    CERN Document Server

    Ronaldson, J P; van Leeuwen, D; Doesburg, R M N; Ballabriga, R; Butler, A P H; Donaldson, J; Walsh, M; Nik, S J; Clyne, M N

    2011-01-01

    The Medipix3 x-ray imaging detector has been characterized using the MARS camera. This x-ray camera comprises custom built readout electronics and software libraries designed for the Medipix family of detectors. The performance of the Medipix3 and MARS camera system is being studied prior to use in real-world applications such as the recently developed MARS-CT3 spectroscopic micro-CT scanner. We present the results of characterization measurements, describe methods for optimizing performance and give examples of spectroscopic images acquired with Medipix3 and the MARS camera system. A limited number of operating modes of the Medipix3 chip have been characterized and single-pixel mode has been found to give acceptable performance in terms of energy response, image quality and stability over time. Spectroscopic performance is significantly better in charge-summing mode than single-pixel mode however image quality and stability over time are compromised. There are more modes of operation to be tested and further...

  10. A CMOS smart temperature and humidity sensor with combined readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Clemens; Valente, Virgilio; Donaldson, Nick; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2014-09-16

    A fully-integrated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor for combined temperature and humidity measurements is presented. The main purpose of the device is to monitor the hermeticity of micro-packages for implanted integrated circuits and to ensure their safe operation by monitoring the operating temperature and humidity on-chip. The smart sensor has two modes of operation, in which either the temperature or humidity is converted into a digital code representing a frequency ratio between two oscillators. This ratio is determined by the ratios of the timing capacitances and bias currents in both oscillators. The reference oscillator is biased by a current whose temperature dependency is complementary to the proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) current. For the temperature measurement, this results in an exceptional normalized sensitivity of about 0.77%/°C at the accepted expense of reduced linearity. The humidity sensor is a capacitor, whose value varies linearly with relative humidity (RH) with a normalized sensitivity of 0.055%/% RH. For comparison, two versions of the humidity sensor with an area of either 0.2 mm2 or 1.2 mm2 were fabricated in a commercial 0.18 μm CMOS process. The on-chip readout electronics operate from a 5 V power supply and consume a current of approximately 85 µA.

  11. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Giubilato, P; Snoeys, W; Bisello, D; Marchioro, A; Battaglia, M; Demaria, L; Mansuy, S C; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Mattiazzo, S; Kloukinas, K; Potenza, A; Ikemoto, Y; Rivetti, A; Chalmet, P; Mugnier, H; Silvestrin, L

    2013-01-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV Fe-55 double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10-20 mu m pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a complet...

  12. Performance of monolayer graphene nanomechanical resonators with electrical readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyao; Rosenblatt, Sami; Bolotin, Kirill I; Kalb, William; Kim, Philip; Kymissis, Ioannis; Stormer, Horst L; Heinz, Tony F; Hone, James

    2009-12-01

    The enormous stiffness and low density of graphene make it an ideal material for nanoelectromechanical applications. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication and electrical readout of monolayer graphene resonators, and test their response to changes in mass and temperature. The devices show resonances in the megahertz range, and the strong dependence of resonant frequency on applied gate voltage can be fitted to a membrane model to yield the mass density and built-in strain of the graphene. Following the removal and addition of mass, changes in both density and strain are observed, indicating that adsorbates impart tension to the graphene. On cooling, the frequency increases, and the shift rate can be used to measure the unusual negative thermal expansion coefficient of graphene. The quality factor increases with decreasing temperature, reaching approximately 1 x 10(4) at 5 K. By establishing many of the basic attributes of monolayer graphene resonators, the groundwork for applications of these devices, including high-sensitivity mass detectors, is put in place.

  13. TELL1: development of a common readout board for LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legger, Federica; Bay, Aurelio; Haefeli, Guido; Locatelli, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    LHCb is one of the four experiments currently under construction at LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN, and its aim is the study of b-quark physics (LHCb Collaboration, CERN-LHCC/98-4). LHCb trigger strategy is based on three levels, and will reduce the event rate from 40 MHz to a few hundred Hz (LHCb Collaboration, CERN/LHCC 2003-031, LHCb TDR 10, September 2003). The first two levels (L0 and L1) will use signals from some part of the detector in order to take fast decisions, while the last one, called High Level Trigger (HLT), will have access to the full event data. An 'off detector' readout board (TELL1) has been developed and will be used by the majority of LHCb subdetectors. It takes L0 accepted data as input and, after data processing which includes event synchronization, L1 Trigger pre-processing and zero suppression, L1 buffering, and HLT zero suppression, the output is sent to L1 Trigger and HLT

  14. Performance of a thermal imager employing a hybrid pyroelectric detector array with MOSFET readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watton, R.; Mansi, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    A thermal imager employing a two-dimensional hybrid array of pyroelectric detectors with MOSFET readout has been built. The design and theoretical performance of the detector are discussed, and the results of performance measurements are presented. 8 references

  15. A Front-End Readout Architecture for the CMS Barrel Muon Detector: A Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, P.; Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J.M.; Marin, J.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Pablos, J.L. de; Romero, L.; Willmot, C.

    1995-01-01

    A feasibility study of a possible architecture for the CMS barrel muon detector readout electronics is presented. some aspects of system reliability are discussed. Values for the required FIFO's to store data during the first level trigger latency are given

  16. Ligands, cell-based models, and readouts required for Toll-like receptor action.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dellacasagrande, Jerome

    2012-02-01

    This chapter details the tools that are available to study Toll-like receptor (TLR) biology in vitro. This includes ligands, host cells, and readouts. The use of modified TLRs to circumvent some technical problems is also discussed.

  17. A new TLD badge with machine readable ID for fully automated readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, S. Ratna P.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The TLD badge currently being used for personnel monitoring of more than 40,000 radiation workers has a few drawbacks such as lack of on-badge machine readable ID code, delicate two-point clamping of dosimeters on an aluminium card with the chances of dosimeters falling off during handling or readout, projections on one side making automation of readout difficult etc. A new badge has been designed with a 8-digit identification code in the form of an array of holes and smooth exteriors to enable full automation of readout. The new badge also permits changing of dosimeters when necessary. The new design does not affect the readout time or the dosimetric characteristics. The salient features and the dosimetric characteristics are discussed. (author)

  18. Printed low velocity delay lines for cathode readout of proportional chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosshard, R.; Chase, R.L.; Fischer, J.; Radeka, V.

    1974-01-01

    A readout which simultaneously insures a correct electric field, a satisfactory induced signal, the delay function itself, and low particle scattering is described for multiwire proportional chambers. (U.S.)

  19. Researchers develop CCD image sensor with 20ns per row parallel readout time

    CERN Multimedia

    Bush, S

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in Oxfordshire have developed what they claim is the fastest CCD (charge-coupled device) image sensor, with a readout time which is 20ns per row" (1/2 page)

  20. Front-end module readout and control electronics for the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.N.; Allen, M.D.; Boissevain, J.

    1997-11-01

    Front-end module (FEM) readout and control are implemented as modular, high-density, reprogrammable functions in the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector. FEM control is performed by the heap manager, an FPGA-based circuit in the FEM unit. Each FEM has 256 channels of front-end electronics, readout, and control, all located on an MCM. Data readout, formatting, and control are performed by the heap manager along with 4 interface units that reside outside the MVD detector cylinder. This paper discusses the application of a generic heap manager and the addition of 4 interface module types to meet the specific control and data readout needs of the MVD. Unit functioning, interfaces, timing, data format, and communication rates will be discussed in detail. In addition, subsystem issues regarding mode control, serial architecture and functions, error handling, and FPGA implementation and programming will be presented

  1. Simplification of the DREAM collaboration's “Q/S method” in dual readout calorimetry analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groom, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    The DREAM collaboration has introduced the “Q/S Method” for obtaining the energy estimator from simultaneous Cherenkov and scintillator readouts of individual hadronic events. I show that the algorithm is equivalent to an elementary method.

  2. Data readout system for proportional chambers; Sistema schityvaniya informatsii s proportsional`nykh kamer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravlev, N I; Sidorov, V T

    1996-12-31

    Paper studies data readout system designed for data output from proportional chambers with up to 1000 channel total number. Short descriptions of the above mentioned units made according to CAMAC standard and their main characteristics are presented here. 2 figs.

  3. A Low Power Rad-Hard ADC for the KID Readout Electronics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposal aims to develop a radiation hardened analog-to-digital converter (ADC) required for the Kinetic Inductance Detector (KID) readout electronics. KIDs are...

  4. Development of pixel readout integrated circuits for extreme rate and radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Sciveres, M; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2013-01-01

    Letter of Intent for RD Collaboration Proposal focused on development of a next generation pixel readout integrated circuits needed for high luminosity LHC detector upgrades. Brings together ATLAS and CMS pixel chip design communities.

  5. Application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) readout technologies for future ion beam analytical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, Harry J. E-mail: harry_j.whitlow@nuclear.lu.se

    2000-03-01

    New possibilities for ion beam analysis (IBA) are afforded by recent developments in detector technology which facilitate the parallel collection of data from a large number of channels. Application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) technologies, which have been widely employed for multi-channel readout systems in nuclear and particle physics, are more net-cost effective (160/channel for 1000 channels) and a more rational solution for readout of a large number of channels than afforded by conventional electronics. Based on results from existing and on-going chip designs, the possibilities and issues of ASIC readout technology are considered from the IBA viewpoint. Consideration is given to readout chip architecture and how the stringent resolution, linearity and stability requirements for IBA may be met. In addition the implications of the restrictions imposed by ASIC technology are discussed.

  6. Test of high time resolution MRPC with different readout modes for the BESIII upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Sun, Y.J., E-mail: sunday@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Li, C., E-mail: licheng@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Heng, Y.K.; Qian, S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP), Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Chen, H.F.; Chen, T.X. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Dai, H.L. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP), Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Fan, H.H.; Liu, S.B. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Liu, S.D.; Jiang, X.S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP), Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Shao, M.; Tang, Z.B.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, Z.G. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China)

    2014-11-01

    In order to further enhance the particle identification capability of the Beijing Spectrometer (BESIII), it is proposed to upgrade the current end-cap time-of-flight (eTOF) detector with multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). The prototypes, together with the front end electronics (FEE) and time digitizer (TDIG) module have been tested at the E3 line of Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) to study the difference between the single and double-end readout MRPC designs. The time resolutions (sigma) of the single-end readout MRPC are 47/53 ps obtained by 600 MeV/c proton/pion beam, while that of the double-end readout MRPC is 40 ps (proton beam). The efficiencies of three MRPC modules tested by both proton and pion beam are better than 98%. For the double-end readout MRPC, no incident position dependence is observed.

  7. Readout Unit-FPGA version for link multipexers, DAQ and VELO trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, H; Guirao, A; Bal, F

    2003-01-01

    The FPGA-based Readout Unit (RU) was designed as entry stage to the readout networks of the LHCb data acquisition and L1-VELO topology trigger systems. The RU performs subevent building from up to 16 custom S-link inputs towards a commercial readout network via a PCI interface card. For output to custom links, as required in datalink multiplexer applications, an output S-link transmitter interface is alternatively available. Baseline readout networks for the RU are intelligent Gbit-ethernet NIC cards for the DAQ system and SCI shared memory network for the L1-VELO system. Any new protocols, like 10Gbit ethernet or Infiniband may be adopted as far as proper PCI interfaces and Linux device drivers will become available. The two baseline RU modes of operation are: 1.) link-multiplexer with N*Slink to single-Slink 2.) eventbuilder interface with quad Slink-to-PCI network interface.

  8. Design of readout drivers for ATLAS pixel detectors using field programmable gate arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Sivasubramaniyan, Sriram

    Microstrip detectors are an integral patt of high energy physics research . Special protocols are used to transmit the data from these detectors . To readout the data from such detectors specialized instrumentation have to be designed . To achieve this task, creative and innovative high speed algorithms were designed simulated and implemented in Field Programmable gate arrays, using CAD/CAE tools. The simulation results indicated that these algorithms would be able to perform all the required tasks quickly and efficiently. This thesis describes the design of data acquisition system called the Readout Drivers (ROD) . It focuses on the ROD data path for ATLAS Pixel detectors. The data path will be an integrated part of Readout Drivers setup to decode the data from the silicon micro strip detectors and pixel detectors. This research also includes the design of Readout Driver controller. This Module is used to control the operation of the ROD. This module is responsible for the operation of the Pixel decoders bas...

  9. A new PCI card for readout in high energy physics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Floris, M; Marras, D; Usai, G L; David, A

    2004-01-01

    Recently some high energy physics experiments started to adopt readout systems based on the PCI architecture. In this context a new PCI card that can be adapted to several readout schemes has been designed. The card contains a large 64 MB local buffer, programmable FPGA logic and a PLX PCI bridge. The solution to use a PCI bridge external to the programmable logic allows to greatly simplify projects at the level of the on-board local bus. The card is presently used as the basic readout unit of the NA60 experiment. In this context, coupling it to different mezzanine cards it is possible to create interfaces to VME/CAMAC modules or to custom front-end electronics as for the case of the silicon vertex detector. Moreover, it is used as a readout test system for the ALICE muon chambers. (10 refs).

  10. Study of multi-channel readout ASIC and its discrete module for particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Fan Lei; Zhang Shengjun; Li Xian

    2013-01-01

    Recently, kinds of particle detectors have used Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) in their electronics readout systems, it is the key part for the whole system. This project designed a multi-channel readout ASIC for general detectors. The chip has Preamplifier, Shaper and Peak Detector embedded for easy readout. For each channel, signal which is preprocessed by a low-noise preamplifier is sent to the shaper to form a quasi-Gaussian pulse and keep its peak for readout. This chip and modules of individual Preamplifier, Shaper and Peak Detector have been manufactured and tested. The discrete modules work well, and the 6-channel chip NPRE 6 is ready for test in some particle detection system. (authors)

  11. An encoding readout method used for Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs) for muon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X.; Zeng, M.; Wang, Y.; Wang, X.; Zeng, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Cheng, J.

    2014-09-01

    A muon tomography facility has been built in Tsinghua University. Because of the low flux of cosmic muon, an encoding readout method, based on the fine-fine configuration, was implemented for the 2880 channels induced signals from the Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) detectors. With the encoding method, the number of the readout electronics was dramatically reduced and thus the complexity and the cost of the facility was reduced, too. In this paper, the details of the encoding method, and the overall readout system setup in the muon tomography facility are described. With the commissioning of the facility, the readout method works well. The spatial resolution of all MRPC detectors are measured with cosmic muon and the preliminary imaging result are also given.

  12. An encoding readout method used for Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs) for muon tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, X; Zeng, M; Wang, Y; Wang, X; Zeng, Z; Zhao, Z; Cheng, J

    2014-01-01

    A muon tomography facility has been built in Tsinghua University. Because of the low flux of cosmic muon, an encoding readout method, based on the fine-fine configuration, was implemented for the 2880 channels induced signals from the Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) detectors. With the encoding method, the number of the readout electronics was dramatically reduced and thus the complexity and the cost of the facility was reduced, too. In this paper, the details of the encoding method, and the overall readout system setup in the muon tomography facility are described. With the commissioning of the facility, the readout method works well. The spatial resolution of all MRPC detectors are measured with cosmic muon and the preliminary imaging result are also given

  13. FE-I2 a front-end readout chip designed in a commercial 025- mu m process for the ATLAS pixel detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Blanquart, L; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Fischer, P; Mandelli, E; Meddeler, G; Peric, I

    2004-01-01

    A new front-end chip (FE-I2) has been developed for the ATLAS pixel detector at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator facility of the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). This chip has been submitted in a commercial 0.25- mu m CMOS process using special layout techniques for radiation tolerance. It comprises 2880 pixels arranged into 18 columns of 160 channels. Each pixel element of dimension 50 mu m * 400 mu m is composed of a charge- sensitive amplifier followed by a fast discriminator with a detection threshold adjustable within a range of 0-6000 electrons and slow control logic incorporating a wired-hit-Or, preamplifier-kill, readout mask, and automatic threshold tuning circuitry. There are two single-event- upset (SEU)-tolerant DACs for reducing threshold (7-b) and recovery- time (3-b) mismatches from pixel to pixel along with digital hit emulation and a differential readout circuit aimed at transporting time-stamped data from each pixel to buffers at the bottom of the chip. In c...

  14. Type tests to the automatic thermoluminescent dosimetry system acquired by the CPHR for personal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina P, D.; Pernas S, R.; Martinez G, A.

    2006-01-01

    The CPHR individual monitoring service acquired an automatic RADOS TLD system to improve its capacities to satisfy the increasing needs of their national customers. The TLD system consists of: two automatic TLD reader, model DOSACUS, a TLD irradiator and personal dosimeters card including slide and holders. The dosimeters were composed by this personal dosimeters card and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (model GR-200) detectors. These readers provide to detectors a constant temperature readout cycle using hot nitrogen gas. In order to evaluate the performance characteristics of the system, different performance tests recommended by the IEC 1066 standard were carried out. Important dosimetric characteristics evaluated were batch homogeneity, reproducibility, detection threshold, energy dependence, residual signal and fading. The results of the tests showed good performance characteristics of the system. (Author)

  15. Type tests to the automatic system of thermoluminescent dosimetry acquired by the CPHR for personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina P, D.; Pernas S, R.

    2005-01-01

    The CPHR individual monitoring service acquired an automatic RADOS TLD system to improve its capacities to satisfy the increasing needs of their national customers. The TLD system consists of: two automatic TLD reader, model DOSACUS, a TLD irradiator and personal dosimeters card including slide and holders. The dosimeters were composed by this personal dosimeters card and LiF: Mg,Cu,P (model GR-200) detectors. These readers provide to detectors a constant temperature readout cycle using hot nitrogen gas. In order to evaluate the performance characteristics of the system, different performance tests recommended by the IEC 1066 standard were carried out. Important dosimetric characteristics evaluated were batch homogeneity, reproducibility, detection threshold, energy dependence, residual signal and fading. The results of the tests showed good performance characteristics of the system. (Author)

  16. Electronic zooming TV readout system for an x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, K.; Matsumura, T.; Inagaki, Y.; Hirai, N.; Sugiyama, M.; Kihara, H.; Watanabe, N.; Shimanuki, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The electronic zooming TV readout system using the X-ray zooming tube has been developed for purposes of real-time readout of very high resolution X-ray image, e.g. the output image from an X-ray microscope. The system limiting resolution is 0.2∼0.3 μm and it is easy to operate in practical applications

  17. Characteristics of a delay-line readout in a cylindrical drift chamber system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, R.; Ahmed, M.W.; Dzemidzic, M.; Empl, A.; Hungerford, E.V.; Lan, K.J.; Wilson, J.; Cooper, M.D.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Haim, D.; Kim, G.J.; Koetke, D.D.; Tribble, R.E.; Van Ausdeln, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the design, construction, and operational characteristics of a delay-line readout implemented on the cathode foils of a cylindrical drift chamber system. The readout was used to determine the position of an event along the length of the 1.74 m drift wires in the MEGA detectors used at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The performance of the system is interpreted by comparison to a PSPICE simulation, and to simple analytical models

  18. The prototype readout chain for CBM using the AFCK board and its software components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizeau, Pierre-Alain; Emscherman, David; Lehnert, Jörg; Müller, Walter F. J.; Yang, Junfeng

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a prototype for the readout chain of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment using the AFCK FPGA board as Data Processing Board (DPB). The components of the readout chain are described, followed by some test setups, all based on different flavors of AFCK-DPB. Details about the functional blocks in the different versions of the DPB firmware are given, followed by a description of the corresponding software elements.

  19. Design of a hysteretic SQUID as the readout for a dc SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershenson, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper present a design for an optimal hysteretic SQUID readout circuit for a DC SQUID, thus eliminating the need for bulky output transformers or resonance matching circuits. The hysteretic readout system, which is based in part on standard sampling theory, is compared to another similar system and shown to be superior in terms of slew rate and immunity of electromagnetic interference. The circuit will be useful in optimizing the performance of biomagnetic systems

  20. The Data Merger Readout Controller for the NA48 experiment data acquisition electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galagedera, S.B.; Brierton, B.; Halsall, R.

    1996-01-01

    The NA48 experiment at the CERN SPS offers a four fold improvement in statistical and systematic error over earlier measurements of the magnitude of the direct CP (Charge-Parity) violation of the neutral Kaon system. This requires maximum event readout efficiency, controlled event building and fast monitoring of run time errors. The event data flow in particular must be sustained at 100 Mbyte/s. The Data Merger Readout Controller presented in this paper offers this facility at minimal production cost

  1. Compensated readout for high-density MOS-gated memristor crossbar array

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2015-01-01

    Leakage current is one of the main challenges facing high-density MOS-gated memristor arrays. In this study, we show that leakage current ruins the memory readout process for high-density arrays, and analyze the tradeoff between the array density and its power consumption. We propose a novel readout technique and its underlying circuitry, which is able to compensate for the transistor leakage-current effect in the high-density gated memristor array.

  2. Digital radiography using amorphous selenium: photoconductively activated switch (PAS) readout system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, Nikita; Komljenovic, Philip T; Germann, Stephen; Rowlands, John A

    2008-03-01

    A new amorphous selenium (a-Se) digital radiography detector is introduced. The proposed detector generates a charge image in the a-Se layer in a conventional manner, which is stored on electrode pixels at the surface of the a-Se layer. A novel method, called photoconductively activated switch (PAS), is used to read out the latent x-ray charge image. The PAS readout method uses lateral photoconduction at the a-Se surface which is a revolutionary modification of the bulk photoinduced discharge (PID) methods. The PAS method addresses and eliminates the fundamental weaknesses of the PID methods--long readout times and high readout noise--while maintaining the structural simplicity and high resolution for which PID optical readout systems are noted. The photoconduction properties of the a-Se surface were investigated and the geometrical design for the electrode pixels for a PAS radiography system was determined. This design was implemented in a single pixel PAS evaluation system. The results show that the PAS x-ray induced output charge signal was reproducible and depended linearly on the x-ray exposure in the diagnostic exposure range. Furthermore, the readout was reasonably rapid (10 ms for pixel discharge). The proposed detector allows readout of half a pixel row at a time (odd pixels followed by even pixels), thus permitting the readout of a complete image in 30 s for a 40 cm x 40 cm detector with the potential of reducing that time by using greater readout light intensity. This demonstrates that a-Se based x-ray detectors using photoconductively activated switches could form a basis for a practical integrated digital radiography system.

  3. A two-dimensional detector with delay line readout for slow neutron fields measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheremukhina, G.A.; Chernenko, S.P.; Ivanov, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the description of a two-dimensional detector of slow neutrons together with its readout and data acquisition electronics based on a PC/AT> The detector with a sensitive area of 260x140 mm 2 is based on a high pressure multiwire proportional chamber with delay line readout and gas filling of 3.0 atm. 3 He + propane. 25 refs.; 10 figs.; 2 tabs

  4. First considerations for a readout system for the ILD TPC with the Timepix3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Tobias [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Collaboration: LCTPC-Deutschland-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    For the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) two detectors are proposed. One of them, the International Large Detector (ILD) uses a Time Projektion Chamber (TPC) as the main tracking device. As a readout system for this TPC, pixel chips are one of the considered options. An integrated Micromegas stage is foreseen as gas amplification stage, which is built directly on top of the chip. Since first tests of a Pixel-TPC with 160 Timepix ASICs showed promising results, one is interested in developing a detector using the Timepix3 ASIC. It has several advantages, first of all its feature to measure ToT and a ToA at the same time and its significantly increased readout rate. For this purpose a readout system needs to be developed which fulfils the requirements of the Timpix3 ASIC and also has a high scalability. The main challenges are the high speed readout with a clock of up to 640 MHz and the reliability of the system. Also, the data driven as well as the frame-based readout of the Timepix3 needs to be considered for the implementation. The main goal is to provide a fast and parallel readout of several million channels. An overview and the status of the planning is given. Also, the development challenges are discussed.

  5. General-purpose readout electronics for white neutron source at China Spallation Neutron Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Cao, P; Qi, X; Yu, T; Ji, X; Xie, L; An, Q

    2018-01-01

    The under-construction White Neutron Source (WNS) at China Spallation Neutron Source is a facility for accurate measurements of neutron-induced cross section. Seven spectrometers are planned at WNS. As the physical objectives of each spectrometer are different, the requirements for readout electronics are not the same. In order to simplify the development of the readout electronics, this paper presents a general method for detector signal readout. This method has advantages of expansibility and flexibility, which makes it adaptable to most detectors at WNS. In the WNS general-purpose readout electronics, signals from any kinds of detectors are conditioned by a dedicated signal conditioning module corresponding to this detector, and then digitized by a common waveform digitizer with high speed and high precision (1 GSPS at 12-bit) to obtain the full waveform data. The waveform digitizer uses a field programmable gate array chip to process the data stream and trigger information in real time. PXI Express platform is used to support the functionalities of data readout, clock distribution, and trigger information exchange between digitizers and trigger modules. Test results show that the performance of the WNS general-purpose readout electronics can meet the requirements of the WNS spectrometers.

  6. Readout Distance Enhancement of the Passive Wireless Multi-Parameter Sensing System Using a Repeater Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A repeater coil is used to extend the detection distance of a passive wireless multi-parameter sensing system. The passive wireless sensing system has the ability of simultaneously monitoring three parameters by using backscatter modulation together with channel multiplexing. Two different repeater coils are designed and fabricated for readout distance enhancement of the sensing system: one is a PCB (printed circuit board repeater coil, and the other is a copper wire repeater coil. Under the conditions of fixed voltage and adjustable voltage, the maximum readout distance of the sensing system with and without a repeater coil is measured. Experimental results show that larger power supply voltage can help further increase the readout distance. The maximum readout distance of the sensing system with a PCB repeater coil has been extended 2.3 times, and the one with a copper wire repeater coil has been extended 3 times. Theoretical analysis and experimental results both indicate that the high Q factor repeater coil can extend the readout distance more. With the copper wire repeater coil as well as a higher power supply voltage, the passive wireless multi-parameter sensing system finally achieves a maximum readout distance of 13.5 cm.

  7. Central FPGA-based Destination and Load Control in the LHCb MHz Event Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobsson, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment [1] is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz [2]. Over 300 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at 1 MHz over a commercial 70 Gigabyte/s switching network to a distributed event building and trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes [3]. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a powerful non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. A high-speed FPGA-based central master module controls the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load balancing and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also ...

  8. Accounting for Dark Current Accumulated during Readout of Hubble's ACS/WFC Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryon, Jenna E.; Grogin, Norman A.; Coe, Dan A.; ACS Team

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the properties of excess dark current accumulated during the 100-second full-frame readout of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC) detectors. This excess dark current, called "readout dark", gives rise to ambient background gradients and hot columns in each ACS/WFC image. While readout dark signal is removed from science images during the bias correction step in CALACS, the additional noise from the readout dark is currently not taken into account. We develop a method to estimate the readout dark noise properties in ACS/WFC observations. We update the error (ERR) extensions of superbias images to include the appropriate noise from the ambient readout dark gradient and stable hot columns. In recent data, this amounts to about 5 e-/pixel added variance in the rows farthest from the WFC serial registers, and about 7 to 30 e-/pixel added variance along the stable hot columns. We also flag unstable hot columns in the superbias data quality (DQ) extensions. The new reference file pipeline for ACS/WFC implements these updates to our superbias creation process.

  9. A new readout control system for the LHCb upgrade at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessio, F; Jacobsson, R

    2012-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity. The entire readout architecture will be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate and higher network load. In this paper, we describe the architecture, functionalities and a first hardware implementation of a new fast Readout Control system for the LHCb upgrade, which will be entirely based on FPGAs and bi-directional links. We also outline the real-time implementations of the new Readout Control system, together with solutions on how to handle the synchronous distribution of timing and synchronous information to the complex upgraded LHCb readout architecture. One section will also be dedicated to the control and usage of the newly developed CERN GBT chipset to transmit fast and slow control commands to the upgraded LHCb Front-End electronics. At the end, we outline the plans for the deployment of the system in the global LHCb upgrade readout architecture.

  10. Large-scale, rapid synthesis and application in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of sub-micrometer polyhedral gold nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Shaojun; Wang Yuling; Wang Erkang

    2007-01-01

    Macromolecule-protected sub-micrometer polyhedral gold nanocrystals have been facilely prepared by heating an aqueous solution containing poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) and HAuCl 4 without adding other reducing agents. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectroscopy (UV-vis-NIR), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to characterize the obtained polyhedral gold nanocrystals. It is found that the 10:1 molar ratio of PVP to gold is a key factor for obtaining quasi-monodisperse polyhedral gold nanocrystals. Furthermore, the application of polyhedral gold nanocrystals in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was investigated by using 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) as a probe molecule. The results indicated that the sub-micrometer polyhedral gold nanocrystals modified on the ITO substrate exhibited higher SERS activity compared to the traditional gold nanoparticle modified film. The enhancement factor (EF) on polyhedral gold nanocrystals was about six times larger than that obtained on aggregated gold nanoparticles (∼25 nm)

  11. Automatic EEG spike detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Richard

    2009-10-01

    Since the 1970s advances in science and technology during each succeeding decade have renewed the expectation of efficient, reliable automatic epileptiform spike detection (AESD). But even when reinforced with better, faster tools, clinically reliable unsupervised spike detection remains beyond our reach. Expert-selected spike parameters were the first and still most widely used for AESD. Thresholds for amplitude, duration, sharpness, rise-time, fall-time, after-coming slow waves, background frequency, and more have been used. It is still unclear which of these wave parameters are essential, beyond peak-peak amplitude and duration. Wavelet parameters are very appropriate to AESD but need to be combined with other parameters to achieve desired levels of spike detection efficiency. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and expert-system methods may have reached peak efficiency. Support Vector Machine (SVM) technology focuses on outliers rather than centroids of spike and nonspike data clusters and should improve AESD efficiency. An exemplary spike/nonspike database is suggested as a tool for assessing parameters and methods for AESD and is available in CSV or Matlab formats from the author at brainvue@gmail.com. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) is presented as a graphic method for finding better spike parameters and for the step-wise evaluation of the spike detection process.

  12. Design of a large dynamics fast acquisition device: application to readout of the electromagnetic calorimeter in the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussat, Jean-Marie

    1998-01-01

    The construction of the new particle accelerator, the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN is entails many research and development projects. It is the case in electronics where the problem of the acquisition of large dynamic range signals at high sampling frequencies occurs. Typically, the requirements are a dynamic range of about 65,000 (around 16 bits) at 40 MHz. Some solutions to this problem will be presented. One of them is using a commercial analog-to-digital converter. This case brings up the necessity of a signal conditioning equipment. This thesis describes a way of building such a system that will be called 'multi-gain system'. Then, an application of this method is presented. It involves the realization of an automatic gain switching integrated circuit. It is designed for the readout of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter. The choice and the calculation of the components of this systems are described. They are followed by the results of some measurements done on a prototype made using the AMS 1.2μm BiCMOS foundry. Possible enhancements are also presented. We conclude on the feasibility of such a system and its various applications in a number of fields that are not restricted to particle physics. (author)

  13. Biochemical systems approaches for the analysis of histone modification readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldi, Monica; Bremang, Michael; Bonaldi, Tiziana

    2014-08-01

    Chromatin is the macromolecular nucleoprotein complex that governs the organization of genetic material in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. In chromatin, DNA is packed with histone proteins into nucleosomes. Core histones are prototypes of hyper-modified proteins, being decorated by a large number of site-specific reversible and irreversible post-translational modifications (PTMs), which contribute to the maintenance and modulation of chromatin plasticity, gene activation, and a variety of other biological processes and disease states. The observations of the variety, frequency and co-occurrence of histone modifications in distinct patterns at specific genomic loci have led to the idea that hPTMs can create a molecular barcode, read by effector proteins that translate it into a specific transcriptional state, or process, on the underlying DNA. However, despite the fact that this histone-code hypothesis was proposed more than 10 years ago, the molecular details of its working mechanisms are only partially characterized. In particular, two questions deserve specific investigation: how the different modifications associate and synergize into patterns and how these PTM configurations are read and translated by multi-protein complexes into a specific functional outcome on the genome. Mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a versatile tool to investigate chromatin biology, useful for both identifying and validating hPTMs, and to dissect the molecular determinants of histone modification readout systems. We review here the MS techniques and the proteomics methods that have been developed to address these fundamental questions in epigenetics research, emphasizing approaches based on the proteomic dissection of distinct native chromatin regions, with a critical evaluation of their present challenges and future potential. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Local readout enhancement for detuned signal-recycling interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehbein, Henning; Mueller-Ebhardt, Helge; Schnabel, Roman; Danzmann, Karsten; Somiya, Kentaro; Chen Yanbei; Li Chao

    2007-01-01

    High power detuned signal-recycling interferometers currently planned for second-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (for example Advanced LIGO) are characterized by two resonances in the detection band, an optical resonance and an optomechanical resonance which is upshifted from the suspension pendulum frequency due to the so-called optical-spring effect. The detector's sensitivity is enhanced around these two resonances. However, at frequencies below the optomechanical resonance frequency, the sensitivity of such interferometers is significantly lower than non-optical-spring configurations with comparable circulating power; such a drawback can also compromise high-frequency sensitivity, when an optimization is performed on the overall sensitivity of the interferometer to a class of sources. In this paper, we clarify the reason for such a low sensitivity, and propose a way to fix this problem. Motivated by the optical-bar scheme of Braginsky, Gorodetsky, and Khalili, we propose to add a local readout scheme which measures the motion of the arm-cavity front mirror, which at low frequencies moves together with the arm-cavity end mirror, under the influence of gravitational waves. This scheme improves the low-frequency quantum-noise-limited sensitivity of optical-spring interferometers significantly and can be considered as an incorporation of the optical-bar scheme into currently planned second-generation interferometers. On the other hand it can be regarded as an extension of the optical-bar scheme. Taking compact binary inspiral signals as an example, we illustrate how this scheme can be used to improve the sensitivity of the planned Advanced LIGO interferometer, in various scenarios, using a realistic classical-noise budget. We also discuss how this scheme can be implemented in Advanced LIGO with relative ease

  15. An edge-readout, multilayer detector for positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Maria; Furenlid, Lars R

    2018-04-10

    We present a novel gamma-ray-detector design based on total internal reflection (TIR) of scintillation photons within a crystal that addresses many limitations of traditional PET detectors. Our approach has appealing features, including submillimeter lateral resolution, DOI positioning from layer thickness, and excellent energy resolution. The design places light sensors on the edges of a stack of scintillator slabs separated by small air gaps and exploits the phenomenon that more than 80% of scintillation light emitted during a gamma-ray event reaches the edges of a thin crystal with polished faces due to TIR. Gamma-ray stopping power is achieved by stacking multiple layers, and DOI is determined by which layer the gamma ray interacts in. The concept of edge readouts of a thin slab was verified by Monte Carlo simulation of scintillation light transport. An LYSO crystal of dimensions 50.8 mm × 50.8 mm × 3.0 mm was modeled with five rectangular SiPMs placed along each edge face. The mean-detector-response functions (MDRFs) were calculated by simulating signals from 511 keV gamma-ray interactions in a grid of locations. Simulations were carried out to study the influence of choice of scintillator material and dimensions, gamma-ray photon energies, introduction of laser or mechanically induced optical barriers (LIOBs, MIOBs), and refractive indices of optical-coupling media and SiPM windows. We also analyzed timing performance including influence of gamma-ray interaction position and presence of optical barriers. We also modeled and built a prototype detector, a 27.4 mm × 27.4 mm × 3.0 mm CsI(Tl) crystal with 4 SiPMs per edge to experimentally validate the results predicted by the simulations. The prototype detector used CsI(Tl) crystals from Proteus outfitted with 16 Hamamatsu model S13360-6050PE MPPCs read out by an AiT-16-channel readout. The MDRFs were measured by scanning the detector with a collimated beam of 662-keV photons from a 137 Cs

  16. Influence of Solar-Geomagnetic Disturbances on SABER Measurements of 4.3 Micrometer Emission and the Retrieval of Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Picard, Richard H.; Evans, David S.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Xu, Xiaojing; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III

    2008-01-01

    Thermospheric infrared radiance at 4.3 micrometers is susceptible to the influence of solar-geomagnetic disturbances. Ionization processes followed by ion-neutral chemical reactions lead to vibrationally excited NO(+) (i.e., NO(+)(v)) and subsequent 4.3 micrometer emission in the ionospheric E-region. Large enhancements of nighttime 4.3 m emission were observed by the TIMED/SABER instrument during the April 2002 and October-November 2003 solar storms. Global measurements of infrared 4.3 micrometer emission provide an excellent proxy to observe the nighttime E-region response to auroral dosing and to conduct a detailed study of E-region ion-neutral chemistry and energy transfer mechanisms. Furthermore, we find that photoionization processes followed by ion-neutral reactions during quiescent, daytime conditions increase the NO(+) concentration enough to introduce biases in the TIMED/SABER operational processing of kinetic temperature and CO2 data, with the largest effect at summer solstice. In this paper, we discuss solar storm enhancements of 4.3 micrometer emission observed from SABER and assess the impact of NO(+)(v) 4.3 micrometer emission on quiescent, daytime retrievals of Tk/CO2 from the SABER instrument.

  17. Towards automatic exchange of information

    OpenAIRE

    Oberson, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the various steps that led towards automatic exchange of information as the global standard and the issues that remain to be solved. First, the various competing models of exchange information, such as Double Tax Treaty (DTT), TIEA's, FATCA or UE Directives are described with a view to show how they interact between themselves. Second, the so-called Rubik Strategy is summarized and compared with an automatic exchange of information (AEOI). The third part then describes ...

  18. Feasibility studies for a wireless 60 GHz tracking detector readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmeier, S.; Schöning, A.; Soltveit, H.K.; Wiedner, D.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of data produced by highly granular silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments poses a major challenge to readout systems. At high collision rates, e.g. at LHC experiments, only a small fraction of data can be read out with currently used technologies. To cope with the requirements of future or upgraded experiments new data transfer techniques are required which offer high data rates at low power and low material budget. Wireless technologies operating in the 60 GHz band or at higher frequencies offer high data rates and are thus a promising upcoming alternative to conventional data transmission via electrical cables or optical fibers. Using wireless technology, the amount of cables and connectors in detectors can be significantly reduced. Tracking detectors profit most from a reduced material budget as fewer secondary particle interactions (multiple Coulomb scattering, energy loss, etc.) improve the tracking performance in general. We present feasibility studies regarding the integration of the wireless technology at 60 GHz into a silicon tracking detector. We use spare silicon strip modules of the ATLAS experiment as test samples which are measured to be opaque in the 60 GHz range. The reduction of cross talk between links and the attenuation of reflections is studied. An estimate of the maximum achievable link density is given. It is shown that wireless links can be placed as close as 2 cm next to each other for a layer distance of 10 cm by exploiting one or several of the following measures: highly directive antennas, absorbers like graphite foam, linear polarization and frequency channeling. Combining these measures, a data rate area density of up to 11 Tb/(s·m"2) seems feasible. In addition, two types of silicon sensors are tested under mm-wave irradiation in order to determine the influence of 60 GHz data transmission on the detector performance: an ATLAS silicon strip sensor module and an HV-MAPS prototype for the Mu3e

  19. Feasibility studies for a wireless 60 GHz tracking detector readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmeier, S., E-mail: dittmeier@physi.uni-heidelberg.de; Schöning, A.; Soltveit, H.K.; Wiedner, D.

    2016-09-11

    The amount of data produced by highly granular silicon tracking detectors in high energy physics experiments poses a major challenge to readout systems. At high collision rates, e.g. at LHC experiments, only a small fraction of data can be read out with currently used technologies. To cope with the requirements of future or upgraded experiments new data transfer techniques are required which offer high data rates at low power and low material budget. Wireless technologies operating in the 60 GHz band or at higher frequencies offer high data rates and are thus a promising upcoming alternative to conventional data transmission via electrical cables or optical fibers. Using wireless technology, the amount of cables and connectors in detectors can be significantly reduced. Tracking detectors profit most from a reduced material budget as fewer secondary particle interactions (multiple Coulomb scattering, energy loss, etc.) improve the tracking performance in general. We present feasibility studies regarding the integration of the wireless technology at 60 GHz into a silicon tracking detector. We use spare silicon strip modules of the ATLAS experiment as test samples which are measured to be opaque in the 60 GHz range. The reduction of cross talk between links and the attenuation of reflections is studied. An estimate of the maximum achievable link density is given. It is shown that wireless links can be placed as close as 2 cm next to each other for a layer distance of 10 cm by exploiting one or several of the following measures: highly directive antennas, absorbers like graphite foam, linear polarization and frequency channeling. Combining these measures, a data rate area density of up to 11 Tb/(s·m{sup 2}) seems feasible. In addition, two types of silicon sensors are tested under mm-wave irradiation in order to determine the influence of 60 GHz data transmission on the detector performance: an ATLAS silicon strip sensor module and an HV-MAPS prototype for the Mu3e

  20. High-throughput fabrication of micrometer-sized compound parabolic mirror arrays by using parallel laser direct-write processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Wensheng; Gu, Min; Cumming, Benjamin P

    2015-01-01

    Micrometer-sized parabolic mirror arrays have significant applications in both light emitting diodes and solar cells. However, low fabrication throughput has been identified as major obstacle for the mirror arrays towards large-scale applications due to the serial nature of the conventional method. Here, the mirror arrays are fabricated by using a parallel laser direct-write processing, which addresses this barrier. In addition, it is demonstrated that the parallel writing is able to fabricate complex arrays besides simple arrays and thus offers wider applications. Optical measurements show that each single mirror confines the full-width at half-maximum value to as small as 17.8 μm at the height of 150 μm whilst providing a transmittance of up to 68.3% at a wavelength of 633 nm in good agreement with the calculation values. (paper)

  1. Sub-micrometer-scale patterning on Zr-based metallic glass using focused ion beam irradiation and chemical etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasegi, Noritaka [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Morita, Noboru [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Yamada, Shigeru [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Takano, Noboru [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Oyama, Tatsuo [Department of Mechanical and Intellectual Systems Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Ashida, Kiwamu [Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Momota, Sadao [Department of Intelligent Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, 185 Tosayamada, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Taniguchi, Jun [Department of Applied Electronics, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Miyamoto, Iwao [Department of Applied Electronics, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan); Ofune, Hitoshi [YKK Corporation, 200 Yoshida, Kurobe, Toyama 938-8601 (Japan)

    2007-09-19

    This report describes a method of sub-micrometer-scale rapid patterning on a Zr-based metallic glass surface using a combination of focused ion beam irradiation and wet chemical etching. We found that a Zr-based metallic glass surface irradiated with Ga{sup +} ions could be selectively etched; a concave structure with a width and depth of several tens to hundreds of nanometers rapidly formed in the irradiated area. Moreover, we determined that the etching was enhanced by the presence of Ga{sup +} ions rather than a change in the crystal structure, and the structure could be fabricated while the substrate remained amorphous. The shape of the structure was principally a function of the dose and the etch time.

  2. Improved quality of intrafraction kilovoltage images by triggered readout of unexposed frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Jonassen, Johnny; Jensen, Carsten; Schmidt, Mai Lykkegaard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The gantry-mounted kilovoltage (kV) imager of modern linear accelerators can be used for real-time tumor localization during radiation treatment delivery. However, the kV image quality often suffers from cross-scatter from the megavoltage (MV) treatment beam. This study investigates readout of unexposed kV frames as a means to improve the kV image quality in a series of experiments and a theoretical model of the observed image quality improvements. Methods: A series of fluoroscopic images were acquired of a solid water phantom with an embedded gold marker and an air cavity with and without simultaneous radiation of the phantom with a 6 MV beam delivered perpendicular to the kV beam with 300 and 600 monitor units per minute (MU/min). An in-house built device triggered readout of zero, one, or multiple unexposed frames between the kV exposures. The unexposed frames contained part of the MV scatter, consequently reducing the amount of MV scatter accumulated in the exposed frames. The image quality with and without unexposed frame readout was quantified as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the gold marker and air cavity for a range of imaging frequencies from 1 to 15 Hz. To gain more insight into the observed CNR changes, the image lag of the kV imager was measured and used as input in a simple model that describes the CNR with unexposed frame readout in terms of the contrast, kV noise, and MV noise measured without readout of unexposed frames. Results: Without readout of unexposed kV frames, the quality of intratreatment kV images decreased dramatically with reduced kV frequencies due to MV scatter. The gold marker was only visible for imaging frequencies ≥3 Hz at 300 MU/min and ≥5 Hz for 600 MU/min. Visibility of the air cavity required even higher imaging frequencies. Readout of multiple unexposed frames ensured visibility of both structures at all imaging frequencies and a CNR that was independent of the kV frame rate. The image lag was 12.2%, 2

  3. Design issues of a low cost lock-in amplifier readout circuit for an infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, L.; Schoeman, J.

    2014-06-01

    In the past, high resolution thermal sensors required expensive cooling techniques making the early thermal imagers expensive to operate and cumbersome to transport, limiting them mainly to military applications. However, the introduction of uncooled microbolometers has overcome many of earlier problems and now shows great potential for commercial optoelectric applications. The structure of uncooled microbolometer sensors, especially their smaller size, makes them attractive in low cost commercial applications requiring high production numbers with relatively low performance requirements. However, the biasing requirements of these microbolometers cause these sensors to generate a substantial amount of noise on the output measurements due to self-heating. Different techniques to reduce this noise component have been attempted, such as pulsed biasing currents and the use of blind bolometers as common mode reference. These techniques proved to either limit the performance of the microbolometer or increase the cost of their implementation. The development of a low cost lock-in amplifier provides a readout technique to potentially overcome these challenges. High performance commercial lock-in amplifiers are very expensive. Using this as a readout circuit for a microbolometer will take away from the low manufacturing cost of the detector array. Thus, the purpose of this work was to develop a low cost readout circuit using the technique of phase sensitive detection and customizing this as a readout circuit for microbolometers. The hardware and software of the readout circuit was designed and tested for improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the microbolometer signal. An optical modulation system was also developed in order to effectively identify the desired signal from the noise with the use of the readout circuit. A data acquisition and graphical user interface sub system was added in order to display the signal recovered by the readout circuit. The readout

  4. Integrated microelectronic capacitive readout subsystem for lab-on-a-chip applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spathis, Christos; Georgakopoulou, Konstantina; Petrellis, Nikos; Efstathiou, Konstantinos; Birbas, Alexios

    2014-01-01

    A mixed-signal capacitive biosensor readout system is presented with its main readout functionality embedded in an integrated circuit, compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor-type biosensors. The system modularity allows its usage as a consumable since it eventually leads to a system-on-chip where sensor and readout circuitry are hosted on the same die. In this work, a constant current source is used for measuring the input capacitance. Compared to most capacitive biosensor readout circuits, this method offers the convenience of adjusting both the range and the resolution, depending on the requirements dictated by the application. The chip consumes less than 5 mW of power and the die area is 0.06 mm 2 . It shows a broad input capacitance range (capable of measuring bio-capacitances from 6 pF to 9.8 nF), configurable resolution (down to 1 fF), robustness to various biological experiments and good linearity. The integrated nature of the readout system is proven to be sufficient both for one-time in situ (consumable-type) bio-measurements and its incorporation into a point-of-care system. (paper)

  5. A radiation tolerance study of the ALICE TPC Readout Control Unit 2

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Chengxin; Balk, Helge; Alme, Johan

    2017-11-17

    ALICE is a general-purpose detector that is designed to study the physics of quark-gluon plasma. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is one of the major detectors of ALICE. The TPC electronics consists of 4356 Front-end cards (FECs), which are controlled by 216 Readout Control Units (RCU). Each RCU connects to between 18 and 25 FECs using a multi-drop bus. In LHC Run1, the Readout Control Unit 1 (RCU1) performed even better than specification. However, in Run2 the energy of colliding beams is increased from 8 TeV to 14 TeV (maximum value) and higher luminosity, which leads to larger event size and higher radiation load on the electronics. As a solution, the Readout Control Unit 2 (RCU2) is designed to provide faster readout speed and improved radiation tolerance with respect to the RCU1. The RCU2 is conceptually similar to the RCU1 and it reuses the existing infrastructure and readout architecture of the TPC electronics. However, the multi-drop bus is split into four branches from the two branches and the bandw...

  6. R and D of MPGD-readout TPC for the International Linear Collider experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonamine, R

    2012-01-01

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is chosen for the central tracker of the ILD detector, one of two detector concepts planned for the International Linear Collider (ILC). Physics goals at the ILC will require a TPC with a position resolution of 100 μm and superior track separation, which are not achievable with a conventional Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) readout. A MPGD readout offers improved position resolution and track separation due to measuring the signal at the anode and minimization of E × B effect. For several years, the LC TPC collaboration has been developing a MPGD readout using various small TPC prototypes and the Large Prototype TPC that is operated in a test beam at DESY. The MPGD technologies being tested are GEM and Micromegas with resistive charge broadening, with both traditional pad and CMOS pixel readout. Readout modules with both GEM and Micromegas gas amplification have achieved a position resolution on the order of 100 μm at B = 1 T. In this paper we report on the recent R and D toward the ILD TPC.

  7. An FPGA-based sampling-ADC readout for the crystal barrel calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muellers, Johannes [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Marciniewski, Pawel [Angstroemlaboratoriet, Uppsala (Sweden); Collaboration: CBELSA/TAPS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at the electron accelerator ELSA (Bonn) investigates the photoproduction of mesons off protons and neutrons. Presently the readout of the CsI(Tl)-crystals of the Crystal Barrel calorimeter is being upgraded from a PIN-diode readout to an APD readout to create a fast signal for first-level-triggering. This will increase the trigger efficiency especially for final states with only neutral particles substantially. To increase the possible data readout rate, which is currently limited by the digitization stage (LeCroy QDC 1885F) to ∼ 2 kHz, the implementation of a new Sampling-ADC (SADC) readout is being prepared. Based on the 64-channel PANDA-SADC, the CB-SADC design was modified and adapted to the needs of the CBELSA/TAPS experiment. It offers 64 channels in one NIM module, together with modular analog or FPGA-based digital shaping. The data transfer will be realized by two standard gigabit links. Using an FPGA together with SADCs provides a multitude of possibilities for online feature extraction, such as the determination of the energy deposited in the crystal, TDC capabilities and pile-up detection and recovery.

  8. Development of telescope readout system based on FELIX for testbeam experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Weihao; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Kai; Lacobucci, Giuseppe; Lanni, Francessco; Liu, Hongbin; Barrero Pinto, Mateus Vicente; Xu, Lailin

    2017-01-01

    The High Voltage CMOS (HV-CMOS) sensors are extensively investigated by the ATLAS collaboration in the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade of the Inner Tracker (ITk) detector. A testbeam telescope, based on the ATLAS IBL (Insertable B-Layer) silicon pixel modules, has been built to characterize the HV-CMOS sensor prototypes. The Front-End LInk eXchange (FELIX) system is a new approach to function as the gateway between front-ends and the commodity switched network in the different detectors of the ATLAS upgrade. A FELIX based readout system has been developed for the readout of the testbeam telescope, which includes a Telescope Readout FMC Card as interface between the IBL DC (double-chip) modules and a Xilinx ZC706 evaluation board. The test results show that the FELIX based telescope readout system is capable of sensor calibration and readout of a high-density pixel detector in test beam experiments in an effective way.

  9. A read-out buffer prototype for ATLAS high level triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Calvet, D; Huet, M; Le Dû, P; Mandjavidze, I D; Mur, M

    2000-01-01

    Read-Out Buffers are critical components in the dataflow chain of the ATLAS Trigger/DAQ system. At up to 75 kHz, after each Level-1 trigger accept signal, these devices receive and store digitized data from groups of front-end electronic channels. Several Read-Out Buffers are grouped to form a Read-Out Buffer Complex that acts as a data server for the High Level Triggers selection algorithms and for the final data collection system. This paper describes a functional prototype of a Read-Out Buffer based on a custom made PCI mezzanine card that is designed to accept input data at up to 160 MB/s, to store up to 8 MB of data and to distribute data chunks at the desired request rate. We describe the hardware of the card that is based on an Intel I960 processor and CPLDs. We present the integration of several of these cards in a Read-Out Buffer Complex. We measure various performance figures and we discuss to which extent these can fulfill ATLAS needs. 5 Refs.

  10. A frame simulator for data produced by 'multi-accumulation' readout detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoli, Carlotta; Bortoletto, Favio; Giro, Enrico; Corcione, Leonardo; Ligori, Sebastiano; Nicastro, Luciano

    2010-07-01

    A simulator of data frames produced by 'multi-accumulation' readout detectors has been developed during the feasibility study for the NIS spectrograph, part of the European Euclid mission. The software can emulate various readout strategies, allowing to compare the efficiency of different sampling techniques. Special care is given to two crucial aspects: the minimization of the noise and the effects produced by cosmic hits. The resulting readout noise is analyzed as a function of the background sources, detector native characteristics and readout strategy, while the image deterioration by cosmic rays covers the simulation of hits and their correction efficiency varying the readout modalities. Simulated "multi-accumulation" frames, typical of multiplexer based detectors, are an ideal tool for testing the efficiency of cosmic ray rejection techniques. In the present case cosmic rays are added to each raw frame conforming to the rates and energy expected in the operational L2 region and in the chosen exposure time. Procedures efficiency for cosmic ray identification and correction can also be easily tested in terms of memory occupancy and telemetry rates.

  11. Readout architecture for the Pixel-Strip module of the CMS Outer Tracker Phase-2 upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Caratelli, Alessandro; Jan Kaplon; Kloukinas, Konstantinos; Simone Scarfi

    2017-01-01

    The Outer Tracker upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN introduces new challenges for the front-end readout electronics. In particular, the capability of identifying particles with high transverse momentum using modules with double sensor layers requires high speed real time interconnects between readout ASICs. The Pixel-Strip module combines a pixelated silicon layer with a silicon-strip layer. Consequently, it needs two different readout ASICs, namely the Short Strip ASIC (SSA) for the strip sensor and the Macro Pixel ASIC (MPA) for the pixelated sensor. The architecture proposed in this paper allows for a total data flow between readout ASICs of $\\sim$100\\,Gbps and reduces the output data flow from 1.3\\,Tbps to 30\\,Gbps per module while limiting the total power density to below 100\\,mW/cm$^2$. In addition a system-level simulation framework of all the front-end readout ASICs is developed in order to verify the data processing algorithm and the hardware implementation allowing mult...

  12. Rare-Earth Oxide Ion (Tm3+, Ho3+, and U3+) Doped Glasses and Fibres for 1.8 to 4 Micrometer Coherent and Broadband Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-24

    oxide ( TeO2 ) , fluorine- containing silicate (SiOF2) and germanate (GeOF2) glass hosts for each dopant by characterising the spectroscopic properties...Earth Oxide Ion (Tm3+, Ho3+, And U3+) Doped Glasses And Fibres For 1.8 To 4 Micrometer Coherent And Broadband Sources 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d...Rare-earth oxide ion (Tm3+, Ho3+, and U3+) doped glasses and fibres for 1.8 to 4 micrometer coherent and broadband sources Report prepared

  13. PEP Laser Surveying System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1979-03-01

    A Laser Surveying System has been developed to survey the beam elements of the PEP storage ring. This system provides automatic data acquisition and analysis in order to increase survey speed and to minimize operator error. Two special instruments, the Automatic Readout Micrometer and the Small Automatic Micrometer, have been built for measuring the locations of fiducial points on beam elements with respect to the light beam from a laser. These instruments automatically encode offset distances and read them into the memory of an on-line computer. Distances along the beam line are automatically encoded with a third instrument, the Automatic Readout Tape Unit. When measurements of several beam elements have been taken, the on-line computer analyzes the measured data, compared them with desired parameters, and calculates the required adjustments to beam element support stands

  14. Architecture of a modular, multichannel readout system for dense electrochemical biosensor microarrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramfos, Ioannis; Birbas, Alexios; Blionas, Spyridon

    2015-01-01

    The architecture of a modular, multichannel readout system for dense electrochemical microarrays, targeting Lab-on-a-Chip applications, is presented. This approach promotes efficient component reusability through a hybrid multiplexing methodology, maintaining high levels of sampling performance and accuracy. Two readout modes are offered, which can be dynamically interchanged following signal profiling, to cater for both rapid signal transitions and weak current responses. Additionally, functional extensions to the described architecture are discussed, which provide the system with multi-biasing capabilities. A prototype integrated circuit of the proposed architecture’s analog core and a supporting board were implemented to verify the working principles. The system was evaluated using standard loads, as well as electrochemical sensor arrays. Through a range of operating conditions and loads, the prototype exhibited a highly linear response and accurately delivered the readout of input signals with fast transitions and wide dynamic ranges. (paper)

  15. FEREAD: Front End Readout software for the Fermilab PAN-DA data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorries, T.; Haire, M.; Moore, C.; Pordes, R.; Votava, M.

    1989-05-01

    The FEREAD system provides a multi-tasking framework for controlling the execution of experiment specific front end readout processes. It supports initializing the front end data acquisition hardware, queueing and processing readout activation signals, cleaning up at the end of data acquisition, and transferring configuration parameters and statistical data between a ''Host'' computer and the readout processes. FEREAD is implemented as part of the PAN-DA software system and is designed to run on any Motorola 68k based processor board. It has been ported to the FASTBUS General Purpose Master (GPM) interface board and the VME MVME133A processor board using the pSOS/Microtec environment. 12 refs., 2 figs

  16. The front-end data conversion and readout electronics for the CMS ECAL upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Mazza, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will require a significant upgrade of the readout electronics for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL). The Very Front-End (VFE) output signal will be sampled at 160 MS/s (i.e. four times the current sampling rate) with 13 bit resolution. Therefore, a high-speed, high-resolution ADC is required. Moreover, each readout channel will produce 2.08 Gb/s, thus requiring fast data transmission circuitry. A new readout architecture, based on two 12 bit, 160 MS/s ADCs, lossless data compression algorithms and fast serial links have been developed for the ECAL upgrade. These functions will be integrated in a single ASIC which is currently under design in a commercial CMOS 65 nm technology using radiation damage mitigation techniques.

  17. Development of a new photo-detector readout technique for PET and CT imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Powolny, François; Auffray, Etiennette; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jarron, Pierre; Kaplon, Jan; Lecoq, Paul; Meyer, T C; Trummer, Julia; Velitchko, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the European FP6's BioCare project, we develop a novel photo-detector readout technique to increase sensitivity and timing precision for molecular imaging in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Computer Tomography (CT). Within the Project's work packages, the CERN-BioCare group focuses on the development of a PET detection head suitable to process data from both PET and CT operation in one unit. The detector module consists of a LSO matrix coupled to an APD array. The signal is processed by a fast and low noise readout electronics recently developed for experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The functioning of the individual system components and the performance of the entire readout channel are presented.

  18. The front-end data conversion and readout electronics for the CMS ECAL upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, G.; Cometti, S.

    2018-03-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will require a significant upgrade of the readout electronics for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL). The Very Front-End (VFE) output signal will be sampled at 160 MS/s (i.e. four times the current sampling rate) with a 13 bits resolution. Therefore, a high-speed, high-resolution ADC is required. Moreover, each readout channel will produce 2.08 Gb/s, thus requiring a fast data transmission circuitry. A new readout architecture, based on two 12 bit, 160 MS/s ADCs, lossless data compression algorithms and fast serial links have been developed for the ECAL upgrade. These functions will be integrated in a single ASIC which is currently under design in a commercial CMOS 65 nm technology using radiation damage mitigation techniques.

  19. Single-shot readout of accumulation mode Si/SiGe spin qubits using RF reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Christian; Martins, Frederico; Malinowski, Filip; Marcus, Charles M.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand

    Spin qubits based on gate-defined quantum dots are promising systems for realizing quantum computation. Due to their low concentration of nuclear-spin-carrying isotopes, Si/SiGe heterostructures are of particular interest. While high fidelities have been reported for single-qubit and two-qubit gate operations, qubit initialization and measurement times are relatively slow. In order to develop fast read-out techniques compatible with the operation of spin qubits, we characterize double and triple quantum dots confined in undoped Si/Si0.7Ge0.3 heterostructures using accumulation and depletion gates and a nearby RF charge sensor dot. We implement a RF reflectometry technique that allows single-shot charge read-out at integration times on the order of a few μs. We show our recent advancement towards implementing spin qubits in these structures, including spin-selective single-shot read-out.

  20. R&D Studies of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter Readout Electronics for super-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are high precision, high sensitivity and high granularity detectors designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. 180,000 signals are digitized and processed real-time on detector, to provide energy and time deposited in each detector element at every occurrence of the L1-trigger. A luminosity upgrade (x10) of the LHC will occur around 2016. The current readout electronics will have to be upgraded to sustain the higher radiation levels. A completely innovative readout scheme is being developed. The frontend readout will send out data continuously at each bunch crossing through highspeed radiation resistant optical links. The data (100Gbps each board) will be processed real-time with the possibility of implementing trigger algorithms for clusters and electron/photon identification at a much higher granularity than what currently implemented. We present here an overview of the R&D activities and architectural s...