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Sample records for automatic milking systems

  1. Concentrate composition for Automatic Milking Systems - Effect on milking frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of affecting milking frequency in an Automatic Milking System (AMS) by changing ingredient composition of the concentrate fed in the AMS. In six experiments, six experimental concentrates were tested against a Standard concentrate all...... the Standard concentrate. A marked effect was found on the number of visits of the cows in the AMS and the subsequent milk production in relation to composition of the concentrate. The composition of the concentrates also influenced the composition of the milk and the MR intake. Based on the overall responses...

  2. Automatic milking systems, farm size, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Coiner, C U; Soder, K J

    2003-12-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) offer relief from the demanding routine of milking. Although many AMS are in use in Europe and a few are used in the United States, the potential benefit for American farms is uncertain. A farm-simulation model was used to determine the long-term, whole-farm effect of implementing AMS on farm sizes of 30 to 270 cows. Highest farm net return to management and unpaid factors was when AMS were used at maximal milking capacity. Adding stalls to increase milking frequency and possibly increase production generally did not improve net return. Compared with new traditional milking systems, the greatest potential economic benefit was a single-stall AMS on a farm size of 60 cows at a moderate milk production level (8600 kg/cow). On other farm sizes using single-stall type robotic units, losses in annual net return of 0 dollars to 300 dollars/cow were projected, with the greatest losses on larger farms and at high milk production (10,900 kg/cow). Systems with one robot serving multiple stalls provided a greater net return than single-stall systems, and this net return was competitive with traditional parlors for 50- to 130-cow farm sizes. The potential benefit of AMS was improved by 100 dollars/cow per year if the AMS increased production an additional 5%. A 20% reduction in initial equipment cost or doubling milking labor cost also improved annual net return of an AMS by up to 100 dollars/cow. Annual net return was reduced by 110 dollars/cow, though, if the economic life of the AMS was reduced by 3 yr for a more rapid depreciation than that normally used with traditional milking systems. Thus, under current assumptions, the economic return for an AMS was similar to that of new parlor systems on smaller farms when the milking capacity of the AMS was well matched to herd size and milk production level.

  3. Factors associated with increased milk production for automatic milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marlène; Hess, Justin P; Christenson, Brock M; McIntyre, Kolby K; Smink, Ben; van der Kamp, Arjen J; de Jong, Lisanne G; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-05-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) are increasingly popular throughout the world. Our objective was to analyze 635 North American dairy farms with AMS for (risk) factors associated with increased milk production per cow per day and milk production per robot per day. We used multivariable generalized mixed linear regressions, which identified several significant risk factors and interactions of risk factors associated with milk production. Free traffic was associated with increased production per cow and per robot per day compared with forced systems, and the presence of a single robot per pen was associated with decreased production per robot per day compared with pens using 2 robots. Retrofitted farms had significantly less production in the first 4 yr since installation compared with production after 4 yr of installation. In contrast, newly built farms did not see a significant change in production over time since installation. Overall, retrofitted farms did not produce significantly more or less milk than newly constructed farms. Detailed knowledge of factors associated with increased production of AMS will help guide future recommendations to producers looking to transition to an AMS and maximize their production. PMID:26898275

  4. Effect of concentrate feeding on milking frequency and milk yield in an automatic milking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Calza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of Automatic Milking Systems (AMS represents a substantial innovation in dairy cattle. The introduction of this new technology puts some questions about cow management. A correct and regular flow of animals through the milking unit appears fundamental to improve efficiency of AMS, animal welfare and performances.

  5. Effect of concentrate feeding on milking frequency and milk yield in an automatic milking system

    OpenAIRE

    F. Calza; S. Lolli; M. Speroni; L. Migliorati

    2010-01-01

    The application of Automatic Milking Systems (AMS) represents a substantial innovation in dairy cattle. The introduction of this new technology puts some questions about cow management. A correct and regular flow of animals through the milking unit appears fundamental to improve efficiency of AMS, animal welfare and performances.

  6. Comparing technical efficiency of farms with an automatic milking system and a conventional milking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Tauer, L.W.; Hogeveen, H.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Changing from a conventional milking system (CMS) to an automatic milking system (AMS) necessitates a new management approach and a corresponding change in labor tasks. Together with labor savings, AMS farms have been found to have higher capital costs, primarily because of higher maintenance costs

  7. Differences between primiparous and multiparous cows in voluntary milking frequency in an automatic milking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Coenen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of four feeding experiments were designed to study the response of dairy cows to two different milking systems:a conventional auto-tandem milking parlor, and an automatic milking system (AMS, milking robot. The results were analyzedindependent of the different feeding factors, because they were the same for all animals in both milking systems.The results, separately analyzed for first-lactating and multiparous cows, can be summarized as follows:First-lactating cows visited the automatic milking system more often (2.6 up to 3.5 times per day than multiparous cows(2.5 up to 2.9 times per day, but the increased milking frequency did not positively affect milk yield. Although multiparouscows had a substantially higher FCM-yield (29.4 kg/day on average than heifers (26.0 kg/day on average, they only wentto the automatic milking system on average 2.6 times per day. The amount of time needed for first-lactating and multiparouscows to get used to the automatic milking system did not show a difference. They learned to visit the automaticmilking system voluntarily after one week. During the course of lactation, differences in milking frequency were detectedbetween first-lactating and multiparous cows. The milking frequency of multiparous cows was observed to be almost constantduring the entire lactation, on average 2.5 times per day. However, first-lactating cows increase the milking frequencyfrom the beginning (2.3 times per day to the end of lactation (2.9 times per day, when the lactation is divided into threeperiods of 100 days each. The automatic milking system affects uncorrected milk yield positively. The increase of milk yieldamounted up to 5.7% for primiparous cows in contrast to the multiparous cows with an increase of milk yield up to 3.1%.But all these differences proved not to be significant. The FCM-yield for primiparous cows (25.8 kg/day and 26.0 kg/dayand for multiparous cows (30.3 kg/day and 29.4 kg/day were lower than the

  8. Technical note: variation in daily milk yield calculations for dairy cows milked in an automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, P P; Pettersson, G; Svennersten-Sjaunja, K M; Norell, L

    2010-03-01

    An accurate estimation of the daily milk yield of dairy cows milked in an automatic milking system is not obvious because of variations in milking intervals and frequencies. Daily harvested milk varies substantially, and developing a method to be used for estimating daily milk production is of great importance. Three calculation methods (simple, semiadvanced, and advanced) were used. The simple method calculated rough daily milk production by summing up the yield per day. The semiadvanced used yield in combination with time since last milking to calculate the milk production per hour between milking; an average of the milk production per hour over the day was calculated and multiplied by 24. The advanced method calculated the milk production from midnight to midnight by using information about yield and time since last milking to calculate the exact milk production. The results show a clear preference for the advanced calculation method because the variation [variation for the advanced method=ln(1.79) for first lactation and ln(2.28) for later lactations] between days was reduced significantly (3 to 4 times lower compared with the simple method). Variation in daily harvested milk can be used as a management tool.

  9. Relationships between milking frequency, lactation persistency and milk yield in Sweish Red heifers and cows milked in a voluntary attendance automatic milking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Gunnar; Svvenersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2011-01-01

    A large dataset comprising output from an automatic milking (AM) system between 1999 and 2006 was examined and a total of 172 cow lactation curves and 68 heifer lactation curves were identified for further analysis. Relationships between milking frequency at different stages of lactation and lact...

  10. Comparing technical efficiency of farms with an automatic milking system and a conventional milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, W; Tauer, L W; Hogeveen, H; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2012-12-01

    Changing from a conventional milking system (CMS) to an automatic milking system (AMS) necessitates a new management approach and a corresponding change in labor tasks. Together with labor savings, AMS farms have been found to have higher capital costs, primarily because of higher maintenance costs and depreciation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that AMS farms differ from CMS farms in capital:labor ratio and possibly their technical efficiency, at least during a transition learning period. The current study used actual farm accounting data from dairy farms in the Netherlands with an AMS and a CMS to investigate the empirical substitution of capital for labor in the AMS farms and to determine if the technical efficiency of the AMS farms differed from the CMS farms. The technical efficiency estimates were obtained with data envelopment analysis. The 63 AMS farms and the 337 CMS farms in the data set did not differ in general farm characteristics such as the number of cows, number of hectares, and the amount of milk quota. Farms with AMS have significantly higher capital costs (€12.71 per 100 kg of milk) than CMS farms (€10.10 per 100 kg of milk). Total labor costs and net outputs were not significantly different between AMS and CMS farms. A clear substitution of capital for labor with the adoption of an AMS could not be observed. Although the AMS farms have a slightly lower technical efficiency (0.76) than the CMS farms (0.78), a significant difference in these estimates was not observed. This indicates that the farms were not different in their ability to use inputs (capital, labor, cows, and land) to produce outputs (total farm revenues). The technical efficiency of farms invested in an AMS in 2008 or earlier was not different from the farms invested in 2009 or 2010, indicating that a learning effect during the transition period was not observed. The results indicate that the economic performance of AMS and CMS farms are similar. What these results show is that

  11. Comparing technical efficiency of farms with an automatic milking system and a conventional milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeneveld, W; Tauer, L W; Hogeveen, H; Oude Lansink, A G J M

    2012-12-01

    Changing from a conventional milking system (CMS) to an automatic milking system (AMS) necessitates a new management approach and a corresponding change in labor tasks. Together with labor savings, AMS farms have been found to have higher capital costs, primarily because of higher maintenance costs and depreciation. Therefore, it is hypothesized that AMS farms differ from CMS farms in capital:labor ratio and possibly their technical efficiency, at least during a transition learning period. The current study used actual farm accounting data from dairy farms in the Netherlands with an AMS and a CMS to investigate the empirical substitution of capital for labor in the AMS farms and to determine if the technical efficiency of the AMS farms differed from the CMS farms. The technical efficiency estimates were obtained with data envelopment analysis. The 63 AMS farms and the 337 CMS farms in the data set did not differ in general farm characteristics such as the number of cows, number of hectares, and the amount of milk quota. Farms with AMS have significantly higher capital costs (€12.71 per 100 kg of milk) than CMS farms (€10.10 per 100 kg of milk). Total labor costs and net outputs were not significantly different between AMS and CMS farms. A clear substitution of capital for labor with the adoption of an AMS could not be observed. Although the AMS farms have a slightly lower technical efficiency (0.76) than the CMS farms (0.78), a significant difference in these estimates was not observed. This indicates that the farms were not different in their ability to use inputs (capital, labor, cows, and land) to produce outputs (total farm revenues). The technical efficiency of farms invested in an AMS in 2008 or earlier was not different from the farms invested in 2009 or 2010, indicating that a learning effect during the transition period was not observed. The results indicate that the economic performance of AMS and CMS farms are similar. What these results show is that

  12. Investment appraisal of automatic milking and conventional milking technologies in a pasture-based dairy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, J; Shalloo, L; Foley, C; Sleator, R D; O'Brien, B

    2016-09-01

    The successful integration of automatic milking (AM) systems and grazing has resulted in AM becoming a feasible alternative to conventional milking (CM) in pasture-based systems. The objective of this study was to identify the profitability of AM in a pasture-based system, relative to CM herringbone parlors with 2 different levels of automation, across 2 farm sizes, over a 10-yr period following initial investment. The scenarios which were evaluated were (1) a medium farm milking 70 cows twice daily, with 1 AM unit, a 12-unit CM medium-specification (MS) parlor and a 12-unit CM high-specification (HS) parlor, and (2) a large farm milking 140 cows twice daily with 2 AM units, a 20-unit CM MS parlor and a 20-unit CM HS parlor. A stochastic whole-farm budgetary simulation model combined capital investment costs and annual labor and maintenance costs for each investment scenario, with each scenario evaluated using multiple financial metrics, such as annual net profit, annual net cash flow, total discounted net profitability, total discounted net cash flow, and return on investment. The capital required for each investment was financed from borrowings at an interest rate of 5% and repaid over 10-yr, whereas milking equipment and building infrastructure were depreciated over 10 and 20 yr, respectively. A supporting labor audit (conducted on both AM and CM farms) showed a 36% reduction in labor demand associated with AM. However, despite this reduction in labor, MS CM technologies consistently achieved greater profitability, irrespective of farm size. The AM system achieved intermediate profitability at medium farm size; it was 0.5% less profitable than HS technology at the large farm size. The difference in profitability was greatest in the years after the initial investment. This study indicated that although milking with AM was less profitable than MS technologies, it was competitive when compared with a CM parlor of similar technology.

  13. Investment appraisal of automatic milking and conventional milking technologies in a pasture-based dairy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, J; Shalloo, L; Foley, C; Sleator, R D; O'Brien, B

    2016-09-01

    The successful integration of automatic milking (AM) systems and grazing has resulted in AM becoming a feasible alternative to conventional milking (CM) in pasture-based systems. The objective of this study was to identify the profitability of AM in a pasture-based system, relative to CM herringbone parlors with 2 different levels of automation, across 2 farm sizes, over a 10-yr period following initial investment. The scenarios which were evaluated were (1) a medium farm milking 70 cows twice daily, with 1 AM unit, a 12-unit CM medium-specification (MS) parlor and a 12-unit CM high-specification (HS) parlor, and (2) a large farm milking 140 cows twice daily with 2 AM units, a 20-unit CM MS parlor and a 20-unit CM HS parlor. A stochastic whole-farm budgetary simulation model combined capital investment costs and annual labor and maintenance costs for each investment scenario, with each scenario evaluated using multiple financial metrics, such as annual net profit, annual net cash flow, total discounted net profitability, total discounted net cash flow, and return on investment. The capital required for each investment was financed from borrowings at an interest rate of 5% and repaid over 10-yr, whereas milking equipment and building infrastructure were depreciated over 10 and 20 yr, respectively. A supporting labor audit (conducted on both AM and CM farms) showed a 36% reduction in labor demand associated with AM. However, despite this reduction in labor, MS CM technologies consistently achieved greater profitability, irrespective of farm size. The AM system achieved intermediate profitability at medium farm size; it was 0.5% less profitable than HS technology at the large farm size. The difference in profitability was greatest in the years after the initial investment. This study indicated that although milking with AM was less profitable than MS technologies, it was competitive when compared with a CM parlor of similar technology. PMID:27423956

  14. Evaluation of milk enzymes and electrolytes, plasma metabolites, and oxidative status in twin cows milked in an automatic milking system or twice daily in a conventional milking parlor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, F; Terzano, M G; Speroni, M; Migliorati, L; Capelletti, M; Calza, F; Bianchi, L; Pirlo, G

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of automatic milking (AM) on milk enzymes and minerals related to mammary epithelial integrity in comparison with twice-daily conventional milking (CM). One cow from each of 6 pairs of twins was assigned to be milked with AM or with CM throughout first lactation. Milk production was recorded and milk samples were collected at 4, 11, 18, 25, 32, and 39 wk of lactation (WOL) to determine fat and protein content, somatic cell count, pH, plasminogen (pl) and plasmin (Pl) activities, Na, K, and Cl. Body condition score was monitored; blood samples were collected to determine energy-related metabolites in the first third of lactation (14 WOL), and plasma oxidative status throughout lactation. Overall mean and standard deviation of milking frequency (MF) in AM were 2.69 and 0.88, respectively. Milk production, fat and protein contents, and somatic cell count did not differ between milking systems. The pl and pl+Pl activities were lesser in AM than in CM. Milk pH was greater in AM than in CM. Milk Na, K, Na/K ratio, and Cl did not differ across the whole lactation. Milk pH had a positive correlation with milk Pl activity (r = 0.41), Na (r = 0.37), and Cl (r = 0.40) concentration, and negative correlation with the log(10) of pl/Pl ratio (r = -0.47). The milk Na/K ratio had a positive correlation (r = 0.55) with milk Pl activity. Milking system (MS) did not seem to affect mammary epithelial permeability. The differences in enzymatic (proteolytic) activity due to the MS, probably related to daily MF, lead one to suppose that the quality of the protein fraction for the cheese-making process was preserved better with AM than with CM, even if differences in pH might negatively interfere. No difference was detected in BCS, and in plasma concentration of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, whereas plasma cholesterol concentration during the first 10 WOL was lesser in AM than CM. Oxidative status, measured by plasma

  15. Automatic milking : a better understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijering, A.; Hogeveen, H.; Koning, de C.J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2000 the book Robotic Milking, reflecting the proceedings of an International Symposium which was held in The Netherlands came out. At that time, commercial introduction of automatic milking systems was no longer obstructed by technological inadequacies. Particularly in a few west-European countr

  16. Modelling the adoption of automatic milking systems in Noord-Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floridi, M.; Bartolini, F.; Peerlings, J.H.M.; Polman, N.B.P.; Viaggi, D.

    2013-01-01

    Innovation and new technology adoption represent two central elements for the business and industry development process in agriculture. One of the most relevant innovations in dairy farms is the robotisation of the milking process through the adoption of Automatic Milking Systems (AMS). The purpose

  17. Covariance among milking frequency, milk yield, and milk composition from automatically milked cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Chagunda, G G

    2011-01-01

    Automatic milking systems allow cows voluntary access to milking and concentrates within set limits. This leads to large variation in milking intervals, both within and between cows, which further affects yield per milking and composition of milk. This study aimed to describe the degree to which ...

  18. Relationship between udder health and hygiene on farms with an automatic milking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dohmen, W.; Neijenhuis, F.; Hogeveen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Poor hygiene is an important risk factor for reduced udder health. Because the teat cleaning process is done automatically on farms with an automatic milking system (AMS), hygiene management might differ. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between hygiene and udder health on far

  19. Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J A; Siegford, J M

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 100 yr, the dairy industry has incorporated technology to maximize yield and profit. Pressure to maximize efficiency and lower inputs has resulted in novel approaches to managing and milking dairy herds, including implementation of automatic milking systems (AMS) to reduce labor associated with milking. Although AMS have been used for almost 20 yr in Europe, they have only recently become more popular in North America. Automatic milking systems have the potential to increase milk production by up to 12%, decrease labor by as much as 18%, and simultaneously improve dairy cow welfare by allowing cows to choose when to be milked. However, producers using AMS may not fully realize these anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons. For example, producers may not see a reduction in labor because some cows do not milk voluntarily or because they have not fully or efficiently incorporated the AMS into their management routines. Following the introduction of AMS on the market in the 1990s, research has been conducted examining AMS systems versus conventional parlors focusing primarily on cow health, milk yield, and milk quality, as well as on some of the economic and social factors related to AMS adoption. Additionally, because AMS rely on cows milking themselves voluntarily, research has also been conducted on the behavior of cows in AMS facilities, with particular attention paid to cow traffic around AMS, cow use of AMS, and cows' motivation to enter the milking stall. However, the sometimes contradictory findings resulting from different studies on the same aspect of AMS suggest that differences in management and farm-level variables may be more important to AMS efficiency and milk production than features of the milking system itself. Furthermore, some of the recommendations that have been made regarding AMS facility design and management should be scientifically tested to demonstrate their validity, as not all may work as intended. As updated AMS

  20. Making sense of sensor data : detecting clinical mastitis in automatic milking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Farmers milking dairy cows are obliged to exclude milk with abnormal homogeneity or color for human consumption (e.g., Regulation (EC) No 853/2004), where most abnormal milk is caused by clinical mastitis (CM). With automatic milking (AM), farmers are no longer physically present during the milking

  1. Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, F.W.; Kristensen, T.; Zijpp, van der A.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic dairy farmers in Denmark currently are implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) to save labour costs. As organic agriculture aims at sustainable production, the introduction of a new technology such as AMS should be evaluated regarding its economic viability, environmental impact, and so

  2. Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudshoorn, Frank W; Kristensen, Troels; van der Zijpp, A J;

    2012-01-01

    Organic dairy farmers in Denmark currently are implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) to save labour costs. As organic agriculture aims at sustainable production, the introduction of a new technology such as AMS should be evaluated regarding its economic viability, environmental impact......, and social acceptability, i.e., its contribution to sustainable development. The objective of this research, therefore, was to evaluate sustainability of AMS use on organic dairy farms in Denmark, by comparing results of a set of sustainability indicators for nine farms using AMS with nine farms using...... conventional milking systems (CMS). Sustainability indicators were quantified for economic performance of the farm, on-farm eutrophication, on-farm biodiversity, animal welfare (including health), grazing time, milk composition and labour time. Milk yield per cow per year was higher for AMS farms (9021 kg...

  3. Milking hygiene: new issues and opportunities from automatic milking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Bach Larsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic milking offers the opportunity of in-line measurements of milk components, check of milking and cleaning procedures,and surveillance through the management program. These advantages may directly benefit the milk quality.Diversion of abnormal milk at time of milking is critical to the milk quality. It is proposed to define abnormal milk as milkbeing visibly changed in homogeneity or colour from that of normal milk. Several enzymes and other milk componentsmay be involved in the formation of clots in the milk. Based on reported changes in primarily the milk protein fraction asa response to infection of the mammary gland, different explanations for the generation of precipitates in mastitis milkare discussed. Automatic milking systems (AMS should have sensors to monitor and divert abnormal milk. The managementsystem of AMS provides an excellent opportunity to introduce Hazard Analyses Critical Control Points (HACCPsystems for surveying the milk quality. HACCP-based proposals are given for avoiding contamination of the bulk milk withmilk from cows with clinical mastitis and for ensuring a low bulk milk bacterial count.

  4. Influence of provision of concentrate at milking on voluntary cow traffic in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, V E; Thomson, P C; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2014-03-01

    The success of an automatic milking system is generally reliant upon the voluntary movement of cows around the farm system and the correct management of incentives to achieve a targeted level of cow traffic. The present study investigated the effect of providing a small feed reward as an incentive at milking on the premilking voluntary waiting time of cows milked on a prototype robotic rotary in an Australian pasture-based dairy. The 2 treatments were "feed on" (concentrate offered at milking) and "feed off" (no concentrate offered at milking), with data from a single herd of 168 lactating dairy cows collected over 16d. A survival analysis with time-varying covariates was used to model the voluntary waiting times of cows in the premilking yard. The median time cows spent waiting before milking was 129 min and after 4h just over 70% of the cows had exited the yard (volunteered for milking). When feed was provided, cows were faster to exit the premilking yard (shorter time spent waiting) and waited just over half the time (0.53×) they did during the "feed off" treatment. Heifers exited the premilking yard more rapidly than cows in later lactations, with older cows spending at least 1.40 times longer in the yard before milking. Average daily milk yield along with stage of lactation and fetching cows from the paddock also influenced cow traffic in the premilking yard. As the number of cows in the premilking yard increased, voluntary waiting time also increased. At a queue length of 20 or more cows, the negative effect on waiting time of an additional cow entering the yard was less than that when fewer than 20 cows were present. Results demonstrated that feeding a small reward on the robotic rotary platform can reduce the time cows spend in the premilking yard, leading to a potential reduction in the risk of congestion at the dairy, particularly during times of high demand. Minimizing congestion will likely benefit multiple aspects of the voluntary milking operation

  5. Mastitis diagnosis in ten Galician dairy herds (NW Spain) with automatic milking systems

    OpenAIRE

    Angel de Castro; Pereira, Jose M.; Carlos Amiama; Javier Bueno

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, the adoption of automatic milking systems (AMS) has experienced significant increase. However, hardly any studies have been conducted to investigate the distribution of mastitis pathogens in dairy herds with AMS. Because quick mastitis detection in AMS is very important, the primary objective of this study was to determine operational reliability and sensibility of mastitis detection systems from AMS. Additionally, the frequency of pathogen-specific was determined. Fo...

  6. Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Oudshoorn, F.W.; Kristensen, T.; Zijpp, van der, A.J.; de Boer

    2012-01-01

    Organic dairy farmers in Denmark currently are implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) to save labour costs. As organic agriculture aims at sustainable production, the introduction of a new technology such as AMS should be evaluated regarding its economic viability, environmental impact, and social acceptability, i.e., its contribution to sustainable development. The objective of this research, therefore, was to evaluate sustainability of AMS use on organic dairy farms in Denmark, by com...

  7. Within day variation in fatty acid composition of milk from cows in an automatic milking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Kristensen, Camilla Bjerg;

    2012-01-01

    Milk fatty acid composition is influenced by a range of conditions such as breed, feeding, and stage of lactation. Knowledge of milk fatty acid composition of individual cows would make it possible to sort milk at farm level according to certain fatty acid specifications. In the present study, 22...

  8. Modelling the adoption of automatic milking systems in Noord-Holland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Floridi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation and new technology adoption represent two central elements for the business and industry development process in agriculture. One of the most relevant innovations in dairy farms is the robotisation of the milking process through the adoption of Automatic Milking Systems (AMS. The purpose of this paper is to assess the impact of selected Common Agricultural Policy measures on the adoption of AMS in dairy farms. The model developed is a dynamic farm-household model that is able to simulate the adoption of AMS taking into account the allocation of productive factors between on-farm and off-farm activities. The model simulates the decision to replace a traditional milking system with AMS using a Real Options approach that allows farmers to choose the optimal timing of investments. Results show that the adoption of AMS, and the timing of such a decision, is strongly affected by policy uncertainty and market conditions. The effect of this uncertainty is to postpone the decision to adopt the new technology until farmers have gathered enough information to reduce the negative effects of the technological lock-in. AMS adoption results in an increase in farm size and herd size due to the reduction in the labour required for milking operations.

  9. The influence of the accessibility of concentrate on the behaviour of cows milked in an automatic milking system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar-de Lauwere, C.C.; lpema, A.H.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Noordhuizen, W.P.G.

    1999-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages are discussed of forcing cows to visit the automatic milking parlour regularly by making it the only way for them to obtain supplementary feeds, vs. allowing cows to choose the frequency of their visits to the parlour. An alternative routing method was studied, in wh

  10. Typologies of dairy farms with automatic milking system in northwest Spain and farmers’ satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Castro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the dairy farms that installed an automatic milking system (AMS. A survey of 38 dairy farms with AMS, in Galicia (Spain, collected information on quantitative and qualitative variables. Following elimination of redundant variables, categorical principal component analysis identified 4 factors accounting for 43.7% of the total variance. Using these factors, the farms studied were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis which differentiated 4 types of farms: (A farms with more leisure and quality of life where the AMS covered the expectations of farmers (29%; (B farms that removed cows more often due to AMS and farmers with more stress (34%; (C farms with little leisure and farmers with no successor (21%; (D large farms with many fulltime employees (FTE where the AMS had covered farmer’s expectations the least (11%. Generally the farms were based on a family structure with a high percentage of FTE. With the adoption of AMS these farms sought to increase milk production, save labour and have more flexibility. With 87% of farms with free cow traffic the activity that took the most of the farmer’s time was fetching cows for milking (1 h/day. Nearly 58% of farmers were completely satisfied with their AMS, although this value reached 91% in farms with herd sizes below the average which were better adapted to the use of one AMS.

  11. Behaviour of dairy cows under free or forced cow traffic in a simulated automatic milking system environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwere, de C.C.K.; Hendriks, M.M.B.; Metz, J.H.M.; Schouten, W.G.P.

    1998-01-01

    The introduction of fully automatic milking systems (AMS) on dairy farms can only succeed if cows visit the system more or less voluntarily, at regular intervals. This can be arranged by either forced or free cow traffic. In the case of forced cow traffic, the AMS is the only route from the lying ar

  12. Effects of automatic milking system on teat tissues, intramammary infections and somatic cell counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Migliorati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the impact of automatic milking systems (AMS on the different aspects of milk production a research projectinvolving both commercial and experimental dairy farms with different AMS and different management was started. Thispaper reports the results of a follow-up study on primiparous cows focused on assessing some markers to be used tomonitor udder and teat health. Heifers were included after calving and sampled for at least 12 months. Quarter milk samplesand teat measurements were taken to assess: intramammary infection (IMI frequencies, somatic cell counts (SCC,teat thickness changes, teat skin and apex conditions. The study included 28 cows in herd A and 27 in herd B for a totalnumber of 2344 samples. Overall, teat apex and skin conditions were maintained along the lactation. Teat skin conditionstended to decrease because of the accumulated number of milkings while lactation proceeded, but at a largelyacceptable level in both herds. Teat apex conditions showed a decrease. Teat thickness changes displayed different patternsin the two herds, probably because of the different type of AMS, but in both cases a trend to decrease in thicknesscould be observed. The application of AMS in herd B, free from contagious pathogens, did not influence the frequency ofIMI and the SCC. In herd A, characterized by the presence of Staphylococcus aureus IMI, the frequency of IMI showeda progressive increase, very likely as a consequence of the spread of infections during milking. Teat skin had no associationwith the frequency of IMI. Teat thickness changes outside values considered as physiological proved to be associatedwith decreased conditions in the teat apex score in herd A, but not in herd B. However, a decrease in teat apex scoreproved to be associated with an increase in IMI frequency in both herds. The results of this field trial confirm that AMShave no negative impact on IMI incidence, SCC and teat tissue conditions when the initial cow health

  13. Innovative technology and sustainable development of organic dairy farming : the case of automatic milking systems in Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, F.W.

    2009-01-01

    Development of organic dairy farming in Denmark is characterized by up-scaling, increasing productivity and automation. Increasing discussion on compliance with organic principles and sustainability has been forwarded. Automatic milking systems (AMS) are part of this development and have been implem

  14. Measurement Error Variance of Test-Day Obervations from Automatic Milking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pitkänen, Timo; Mäntysaari, Esa A; Nielsen, Ulrik S;

    2012-01-01

    Automated milking systems (AMS) are becoming more popular in dairy farms. In this paper we present an approach for estimation of residual error covariance matrices for AMS and conventional milking system (CMS) observations. The variances for other random effects are kept as defined...... in the evaluation model. AMS residual variances were found to be 16 to 37 percent smaller for milk and protein yield and 42 to 47 percent larger for fat yield compared to CMS...

  15. Customized recommendations for production management clusters of North American automatic milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marlène; Hess, Justin P; Christenson, Brock M; McIntyre, Kolby K; Smink, Ben; van der Kamp, Arjen J; de Jong, Lisanne G; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-07-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) are implemented in a variety of situations and environments. Consequently, there is a need to characterize individual farming practices and regional challenges to streamline management advice and objectives for producers. Benchmarking is often used in the dairy industry to compare farms by computing percentile ranks of the production values of groups of farms. Grouping for conventional benchmarking is commonly limited to the use of a few factors such as farms' geographic region or breed of cattle. We hypothesized that herds' production data and management information could be clustered in a meaningful way using cluster analysis and that this clustering approach would yield better peer groups of farms than benchmarking methods based on criteria such as country, region, breed, or breed and region. By applying mixed latent-class model-based cluster analysis to 529 North American AMS dairy farms with respect to 18 significant risk factors, 6 clusters were identified. Each cluster (i.e., peer group) represented unique management styles, challenges, and production patterns. When compared with peer groups based on criteria similar to the conventional benchmarking standards, the 6 clusters better predicted milk produced (kilograms) per robot per day. Each cluster represented a unique management and production pattern that requires specialized advice. For example, cluster 1 farms were those that recently installed AMS robots, whereas cluster 3 farms (the most northern farms) fed high amounts of concentrates through the robot to compensate for low-energy feed in the bunk. In addition to general recommendations for farms within a cluster, individual farms can generate their own specific goals by comparing themselves to farms within their cluster. This is very comparable to benchmarking but adds the specific characteristics of the peer group, resulting in better farm management advice. The improvement that cluster analysis allows for is

  16. Customized recommendations for production management clusters of North American automatic milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marlène; Hess, Justin P; Christenson, Brock M; McIntyre, Kolby K; Smink, Ben; van der Kamp, Arjen J; de Jong, Lisanne G; Döpfer, Dörte

    2016-07-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) are implemented in a variety of situations and environments. Consequently, there is a need to characterize individual farming practices and regional challenges to streamline management advice and objectives for producers. Benchmarking is often used in the dairy industry to compare farms by computing percentile ranks of the production values of groups of farms. Grouping for conventional benchmarking is commonly limited to the use of a few factors such as farms' geographic region or breed of cattle. We hypothesized that herds' production data and management information could be clustered in a meaningful way using cluster analysis and that this clustering approach would yield better peer groups of farms than benchmarking methods based on criteria such as country, region, breed, or breed and region. By applying mixed latent-class model-based cluster analysis to 529 North American AMS dairy farms with respect to 18 significant risk factors, 6 clusters were identified. Each cluster (i.e., peer group) represented unique management styles, challenges, and production patterns. When compared with peer groups based on criteria similar to the conventional benchmarking standards, the 6 clusters better predicted milk produced (kilograms) per robot per day. Each cluster represented a unique management and production pattern that requires specialized advice. For example, cluster 1 farms were those that recently installed AMS robots, whereas cluster 3 farms (the most northern farms) fed high amounts of concentrates through the robot to compensate for low-energy feed in the bunk. In addition to general recommendations for farms within a cluster, individual farms can generate their own specific goals by comparing themselves to farms within their cluster. This is very comparable to benchmarking but adds the specific characteristics of the peer group, resulting in better farm management advice. The improvement that cluster analysis allows for is

  17. The profitability of automatic milking on Dutch dariy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, R.; Kooistra, S.R.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the profitability of automatic milking based on different simulation models, but a data-based study using actual farm data has been lacking. The objective of this study was to analyze the profitability of dairy farms having an automatic milking system (AMS) compared

  18. Invited review: udder health of dairy cows in automatic milking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovinen, M; Pyörälä, S

    2011-02-01

    Automatic milking (AM) is increasing in modern dairy farming, and over 8,000 farms worldwide currently use this technology. Automatic milking system is designed to replace conventional milking managed by a milker in a milking parlor or in tie stalls. Cows are generally milked more frequently in AM than in conventional milking, and milking is quarter-based instead of udder-based. Despite improvements in the milking process and often building of a new barn before the introduction of AM, udder health of the cows has not improved; on the contrary, problems may appear following conversion from conventional milking to AM. This review focuses on udder health of dairy cows in AM, and we discuss several aspects of cow and milking management in AM associated with udder health. Finally, adequate management methods in AM are suggested. According to several studies comparing udder health between automatic and conventional milking or comparing udder health before and after the introduction of automatic milking in the same herds, udder health has deteriorated during the first year or more after the introduction of AM. Automatic detection of subclinical and clinical mastitis and cleaning the teats before milking are challenges of AM. Failures in mastitis detection and milking hygiene pose a risk for udder health. These risk factors can partly be controlled by management actions taken by the farmer, but AM also needs further technical development. To maintain good udder health in AM, it is imperative that the barn is properly designed to keep the cows clean and the cow traffic flowing. Milking frequency must be maintained for every cow according to its stage of lactation and milk production. Careful observation of the cows and knowledge of how to use all data gathered from the system are also important. "Automatic" does not mean that the role of a competent herdsman is in any way diminished. PMID:21257025

  19. Welfare assessment based on metabolic and endocrine aspects in primiparous cows milked in a parlor or with an automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, F; Calamari, L; Calza, F; Speroni, M; Bertoni, G; Pirlo, G

    2005-10-01

    An automatic milking system (AMS) was compared with a traditional milking parlor (MP) to evaluate metabolic and psycho-physiological aspects of animal welfare. Twenty Italian Friesian heifers were allocated to 2 groups of 10 cows each after calving and maintained in the same free-stall barn. The first group was milked twice daily in a MP; the second group was milked in a single box AMS. Feed and diet characteristics were analyzed. Health status and body condition score (BCS) were evaluated in each cow. Blood samples were obtained from -14 to 154 d in milk (DIM) to determine metabolic profile and basal concentrations of cortisol in plasma. Data collected from 10 cows per group were processed. No significant difference was detected in milk yield, BCS, and energy-related metabolites (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and triglycerides) from cows in MP or in AMS during the first 22 wk of lactation. These results, jointly with the absence of significant differences in plasma metabolites related to protein metabolism, mineral metabolism, and liver function during the first 22 wk of lactation, indicates that cows in AMS did not suffer metabolically. Greater basal concentrations of plasma cortisol in AMS cows, even if absolute values were considered to be in an acceptable range, might indicate chronic stress in these primiparous cows. Further research is necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  20. Milking Efficiency – A Milkability Trait for Automatically Milked Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Lassen, Jan; Chagunda, M G G

    Data from an experimental herd with automatic milkings from 486 first lactation cows were used to study alternative measures of milkability. One trait was milking efficiency, (kg milk per minute used in robot) the other “residual milking box time” using a linear regression to adjust daily time fo...... efficiency which showed only intermediate correlation. Both traits had weak correlations to somatic cell counts. It is concluded that either trait will be effective in selecting for cows giving more milk per minute occupying the milking robot, without increasing risk of mastitis...

  1. Short communication: Characterizing metabolic and oxidant status of pastured dairy cows postpartum in an automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elischer, M F; Sordillo, L M; Siegford, J M; Karcher, E L

    2015-10-01

    The periparturient period represents a stressful time for dairy cows as they transition from late gestation to early lactation. Undesirable fluctuations in metabolites and impaired immune defense mechanisms near parturition can severely affect cow health and have residual effects on performance and longevity. Metabolic and oxidative stress profiles of multiparous and primiparous dairy cows in traditional parlor and feeding systems are well characterized, but status of these profiles in alternative management systems, such as grazing cows managed with an automatic milking system (AMS), are poorly characterized. Therefore, the objective of this case study was to characterize the metabolic and oxidant status of pastured cows milked with an AMS. It was hypothesized that primiparous and multiparous cows milked with an AMS would experience changes in oxidative and metabolic status after parturition; however, these changes would not impair cow health or production. Blood was collected from 14 multiparous and 8 primiparous Friesian-cross dairy cows at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d relative to calving for concentrations of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, and antioxidant potential. Milk production and milking frequency data were collected postpartum. Milk production differed on d 7 and 14 between primiparous and multiparous cows and frequency was not affected by parity. Primiparous cows had higher levels of glucose than multiparous cows. No differences in insulin, NEFA, or β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were noted between multiparous and primiparous cows postpartum, though days relative to calving significantly affected insulin and NEFA. Primiparous cows also had higher antioxidant potential than multiparous cows during the postpartum period. Results from this study show that, although responses were within expected ranges, periparturient multiparous cows responded differently than periparturient

  2. Training cows to approach the milking unit in response to acoustic signals in an automatic milking system during the grazing season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wredle, E.; Munksgaard, Lene; Sporndly, E.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether cows in a commercially-managed barn with automatic milking can learn to visit the milking unit in response to an acoustic signal during the grazing season. The study included 10 Swedish Red and White dairy cows, randomly selected from a herd of ......% for individual cows. Low levels of reinforcement at the milking unit may have compromised responsiveness....

  3. Offering a forage crop at pasture did not adversely affect voluntary cow traffic or milking visits in a pasture-based automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, V E; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2016-03-01

    Feed is a strong incentive for encouraging cows in automatic milking systems (AMS) to voluntarily move around the farm and achieve milkings distributed across the 24 h day. It has been reported that cows show preferences for some forages over others, and it is possible that offering preferred forages may increase cow traffic. A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine the effect of offering a forage crop for grazing on premilking voluntary waiting times in a pasture-based robotic rotary system. Cows were offered one of two treatments (SOYBEAN or GRASS) in a cross-over design. A restricted maximum likelihood procedure was used to model voluntary waiting times. Mean voluntary waiting time was 45.5±6.0 min, with no difference detected between treatments. High and mid-production cows spent 55 min/milking for low-production cows, whereas waiting time increased as queue length increased. Voluntary waiting time was 23% and 80% longer when cows were fetched from the paddock or had a period of forced waiting before volunteering for milking, respectively. The time it took cows to return to the dairy since last exiting was not affected by treatment, with a mean return time of 13.7±0.6 h. Although offering SOYBEAN did not encourage cows to traffic more readily through the premilking yard, the concept of incorporating forage crops in AMS still remains encouraging if the aim is to increase the volume or quantity of home-grown feed rather than improving cow traffic.

  4. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR THE HEAT PUMP EMBEDDED IN THE MILK PASTEURIZATION AND COOLING INSTALLATION, part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to elaborate the scheme of the disturbance compensation system, which is influencing the level of refrigerant consumption in evaporators and gas coolers of the heat pump embedded in the milk pasteurization and cooling installation, as well as, to design the automatic control system for the heat-exchanger with two output parameters – the water temperature at the outlet of the primary and secondary heat-carrying agent circuits by adjusting the consumption level in the secondary heat-carrying agent circuit and by adjusting the heat exchange surface area. System structures are based on principles of the coordinated control and the multidimensional systems control. The proposed structural scheme of the coordinated system for control of the consumption in evaporators, both water heating and cooling segments, is more accurate in transient processes than alternative systems of non-integrated control of the working agent consumption in each evaporator. The heat exchanger control system with two controls controlling segments (controlling the heat exchange surface area and controlling the consumption level in the secondary coolant circuit has proven to have good transient characteristics.

  5. Cow hair allergen concentrations in dairy farms with automatic and conventional milking systems: From stable to bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlandt, A; Schierl, R; Heizinger, J; Dietrich-Gümperlein, G; Zahradnik, E; Bruckmaier, L; Sültz, J; Raulf, M; Nowak, D

    2016-01-01

    Bovine hair and dander are considered to be a notable risk factor for sensitization and allergic symptoms in occupationally exposed cattle farmers due to various IgE binding proteins. Farmers are suspected not only to be exposed during their work inside the stables but also inside their homes as allergens could be transferred via hair and clothes resulting in continued bovine allergen exposure in private areas. In recent years a new sensitive sandwich ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) test has been developed to measure the cow hair allergen (CHA) concentration in dust. The aim of the present study was to determine the CHA concentration in airborne and settled dust samples in stables and private rooms of dairy cattle farms with automatic milking systems (AM) and conventional milking systems (CM), also with respect to questionnaire data on farming characteristics. For this purpose different sampling techniques were applied, and results and practicability of the techniques were compared. Dust sampling was performed in the stable, computer room (only AM), changing room, living room and bedroom (mattress) of 12 dairy farms with automatic milking systems (AM group) and eight dairy farms with conventional milking systems (CM group). Altogether, 90 samples were taken by ALK filter dust collectors from all locations, while 32 samples were collected by an ion charging device (ICD) and 24 samples by an electronic dust fall collector (EDC) in computer rooms (AM) and/or changing and living rooms (not stables). The dust samples were extracted and analyzed for CHA content with a sandwich ELISA. At all investigated locations, CHA concentrations were above the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 ng/ml dust extract. The median CHA concentrations in dust collected by ALK filters ranged from 63 to 7154 μg/g dust in AM farms and from 121 to 5627 μg/g dust in CM farms with a steep concentration gradient from stables to bedrooms. ICD sampling revealed median CHA contents of 112

  6. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: System Fitness of Grazeable Home-grown Forages, Land Areas and Walking Distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M R; Garcia, S C; Clark, C E F; Kerrisk, K L

    2015-06-01

    To maintain a predominantly pasture-based system, the large herd milked by automatic milking rotary would be required to walk significant distances. Walking distances of greater than 1-km are associated with an increased incidence of undesirably long milking intervals and reduced milk yield. Complementary forages can be incorporated into pasture-based systems to lift total home grown feed in a given area, thus potentially 'concentrating' feed closer to the dairy. The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the total land area required and associated walking distance for large automatic milking system (AMS) herds when incorporating complementary forage rotations (CFR) into the system. Thirty-six scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows), 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as moderate; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as high) and 6 rates of replacement of each of these pastures by grazeable CFR (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) were investigated. Results showed that AMS cows were required to walk greater than 1-km when the farm area was greater than 86 ha. Insufficient pasture could be produced within a 1 km distance (i.e. 86 ha land) with home-grown feed (HGF) providing 43%, 29%, and 22% of the metabolisable energy (ME) required by 400, 600, and 800 cows, respectively from pastures. Introduction of pasture (moderate): CFR in AMS at a ratio of 80:20 can feed a 400 cow AMS herd, and can supply 42% and 31% of the ME requirements for 600 and 800 cows, respectively with pasture (moderate): CFR at 50:50 levels. In contrast to moderate pasture, 400 cows can be managed on high pasture utilisation (provided 57% of the total ME requirements). However, similar to the scenarios conducted with moderate pasture, there was insufficient feed produced within 1-km distance of the dairy for 600 or 800 cows. An 800 cow herd required 140 and 130 ha on moderate and high pasture-based AMS

  7. The profitability of automatic milking on Dutch dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, R; Kooistra, S R; Hogeveen, H

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the profitability of automatic milking based on different simulation models, but a data-based study using actual farm data has been lacking. The objective of this study was to analyze the profitability of dairy farms having an automatic milking system (AMS) compared with farms using a conventional milking system (CMS) based on real accounting data. In total, 62 farms (31 using an AMS and 31 using a CMS) were analyzed for the year 2003 in a case control study. Differences between the years 2002 and 2003 also were analyzed by comparing a subgroup of 16 farms with an AMS and 16 farms with a CMS. Matching was based on the time of investment in a milking system (same year), the total milk production per year, and intensity of land use (kg/ha). Results from 2003 showed that the farms with an AMS used, on average, 29% less labor than farms with a CMS. In contrast, farms using a CMS grew faster (37,132 kg of milk quota and 5 dairy cows) than farms with an AMS (-3,756 kg milk quota and 0.5 dairy cows) between 2002 and 2003. Dairy farmers with a CMS had larger (euro7,899) revenues than those with an AMS. However, no difference in the margin on dairy production was detected, partly because of numerically greater (euro6,822) variable costs on CMS farms. Dairy farms were compared financially based on the amount of money that was available for rent, depreciation, interest, labor, and profit (RDILP). The CMS farms had more money (euro15,566) available for RDILP than the AMS farms. This difference was caused by larger fixed costs (excluding labor) for the AMS farms, larger contractor costs (euro6,422), and larger costs for gas, water, and electricity (euro1,549). Differences in costs for contractors and for gas, water, and electricity were statistically significant. When expressed per full-time employee, AMS farms had greater revenues, margins, and gross margins per full-time employee than did CMS farms. This resulted in a substantially greater

  8. Raw Milk Hygiene at Local Markets and Automatic Milk Dispenser Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, direct sales of raw milk to the final consumer is developed based on the local regulations. These are in accordance to European Regulation that must meet some quality requirements for the total number of germs, somatic cells, without antibiotics, coming from healthy animals who did not suffer from diseases that can be transmitted to humans through milk. Raw milk is sold in Romania in local markets and by automatic milk dispenser machines. Based on these regulations, a study regarding the quality and security to human health of raw milk was conducted on the commercialized milk in local markets and automatic milk dispensers. During May-June 2014 samples of raw milk were collected from Cluj-Napoca local markets and automatic milk dispensers. All samples were kept to refrigeration conditions until the moment of analyze which took place at the sampling day. The following parameters were taken into account: fat content, protein, casein, lactose, nonfat dry matter, pH, milk freezing point, added water, antibiotics residues, milk urea, number of germ cells and somatic cells. All obtained results were verified by the validated methods applied. Our research can be forward conducted in order to verify the hygiene and composition of milk from the whole dairy chain. 

  9. Milk ejection during automatic milking in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Succi, G; Tamburini, A; A. Sandrucci; L. Bava

    2010-01-01

    Tactile stimulation (manual or mechanical) of the mammary gland causes alveolar milk ejection through a neuro-endocrine reflex arc (Dzidic et al., 2004). Oxytocin is the hormone that induces the contraction of the myoepitelial cells surrounding the alveoli.

  10. The association of subclinical hypocalcemia, negative energy balance and disease with bodyweight change during the first 30 days post-partum in dairy cows milked with automatic milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixeta, L S; Ospina, P A; Capel, M B; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    In a prospective cohort study, the daily bodyweight (BW) and milk production of 92 cows were recorded using automatic milking systems. The objectives were to characterize calcium serum concentration variability on days 1-3 post-partum and to evaluate the association between subclinical hypocalcemia (SHPC) and change in BW over the first 30 days in milk (DIM) in Holstein dairy cows, while controlling for concurrent disease and negative energy balance (NEB). SHPC was defined as total serum calcium concentration between 6 and 8 mg/dL, NEB was defined as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) > 0.7 mEq/L or β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) ≥ 1.2 mmol/L. The peak incidence of SHPC was at 1 DIM for all groups (11%, 42% and 60% for parities 1, 2, and ≥3, respectively). All parity groups lost weight (21, 33, and 34 kg) during the first 30 DIM. Parity 1 animals with disease compared with those without disease lost the most weight (2.6 kg/day BW loss vs. 5 kg/day) compared with those in the SHPC group (≤4.5 kg/day). In parity ≥ 3 animals, SHPC was an important factor for BW loss; SHPC animals lost the most weight (>3.7 kg/day) vs. normocalcemic cows (≤3.3 kg/day) regardless of NEB or disease status. Even though all animals lost weight during early lactation the effect of disease, NEB, and SHPC on BW loss was different in each parity group.

  11. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  12. Short communication: Effect of automatic postmilking teat disinfection and cluster flushing on the milking work routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnstad, I; Olde Riekerink, R G M; Hogewerf, P; de Koning, C A J M; Barkema, H W

    2012-05-01

    The importance of a consistent and comprehensive milking routine as a critical component of any mastitis control program is well documented. However, as pressure on time increases, farmers are faced with 3 options: (1) adjust the milking routine to suit the time available, (2) undertake the task less thoroughly, or (3) examine which elements of the milking routine can be automated and substitute capital expenditure for labor. A study was undertaken on 5 farms in the United Kingdom in October and November 2007 to assess the effect on milking time of installing a commercial automatic postmilking teat disinfection and cluster back flushing system (ADF). Two of the farms recruited for the study were intending to purchase the ADF system in the near future and 3 farms had already invested in the technology. The farms ranged in size from 120 to 550 cows and included three 90° rapid exit parlors, a herringbone parlor, and an abreast parlor. All 5 farms were visited for 2 successive milkings before the ADF was installed or disabled, and a detailed time and motion analysis was undertaken. After ADF was installed or the system reactivated, a further 2 milkings were monitored. All monitored farms showed a measurable reduction in milking time after the ADF system was installed. However, the magnitude of the reduction was greater than would be expected by simply removing the elements of postmilking teat disinfection and cluster sanitization. The benefits of ADF are greater than simply disinfecting teats and back flushing clusters and the time saving obtained may allow a more structured milking routine that may have additional benefits in terms of mastitis prevention and control. PMID:22541484

  13. Lying times of lactating cows on dairy farms with automatic milking systems and the relation to lameness, leg lesions, and body condition score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, R; Vaughan, A; de Passillé, A M; DeVries, T J; Pajor, E A; Pellerin, D; Siegford, J M; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J

    2016-01-01

    Lying down and resting are important for optimal cow health, welfare, and production. In comparison with free stall farms with a milking parlor, farms with automated milking systems (AMS) may place less constraint on how long cows can lie down. However, few studies report lying times on AMS farms. The aims of this study were to describe the variation in lying times of dairy cows in AMS farms and to understand how much of the variation in individual lying times is related to cow-level factors, including lameness, the presence of hock and knee lesions, and body condition score (BCS). We visited 36 farms in Canada (Quebec: n = 10; Ontario: n = 10; British Columbia: n = 4; and Alberta: n = 5), and the United States (Michigan: n = 7). Gait scores, presence of hock and knee lesions, and BCS were recorded for 40 Holstein cows from each herd. Parity and days in milk were retrieved from farm records. Lying time was recorded across 4d using accelerometers (n = 1,377). Multivariable analysis was performed. Of scored cows, 15.1% were lame (i.e., obviously limping; 203 of 1,348 cows). Knee lesions were found in 27.1% (340 of 1,256 cows) and hock lesions were found in 30.8% (421 of 1,366 cows) of the animals. Daily lying time varied among cows. Cows spent a median duration of 11.4 h/d lying down (25th-75th percentile = 9.7-12.9 h), with a lying bout frequency of 9.5 bouts/d (25th-75th percentile = 7.5-12 bouts/d) and a median bout duration of 71 min (25th-75th percentile = 58-87 min/bout). Lameness was associated with cows lying down for 0.6 h/d longer in fewer, longer bouts. Increased lying time was also associated with increased parity, later stage of lactation and higher BCS. Older cows (parity ≥ 3) spent about 0.5 h/d more lying down compared with parity 1 cows, and cows with BCS ≥ 3.5 lay down on average 1 h/d longer than cows with BCS ≤ 2.25. Hock lesions were associated with shorter lying times in univariable models, but no associations were found in the

  14. A wireless electronic monitoring system for securing milk from farm to processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womble, Phillip; Hopper, Lindsay; Thompson, Chris; Alexander, Suraj M.; Crist, William; Payne, Fred; Stombaugh, Tim; Paschal, Jon; Moore, Ryan; Luck, Brian; Tabayehnejab, Nasrin

    2008-04-01

    The Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Health and Human Services have targeted bulk food contamination as a focus for attention. The contamination of bulk food poses a high consequence threat to our society. Milk transport falls into three of the 17 targeted NIPP (National Infrastructure Protection Plan) sectors including agriculture-food, public health, and commercial facilities. Minimal security safeguards have been developed for bulk milk transport. The current manual methods of securing milk are paper intensive and prone to errors. The bulk milk transportation sector requires a security enhancement that will both reduce recording errors and enable normal transport activities to occur while providing security against unauthorized access. Milk transportation companies currently use voluntary seal programs that utilize plastic, numbered seals on milk transport tank openings. Our group has developed a Milk Transport Security System which is an electromechanical access control and communication system that assures the secure transport of milk, milk samples, milk data, and security data between locations and specifically between dairy farms, transfer stations, receiving stations, and milk plants. It includes a security monitoring system installed on the milk transport tank, a hand held device, optional printers, data server, and security evaluation software. The system operates automatically and requires minimal or no attention by the bulk milk hauler/sampler. The system is compatible with existing milk transport infrastructure, and has the support of the milk producers, milk transportation companies, milk marketing agencies, and dairy processors. The security protocol developed is applicable for transport of other bulk foods both nationally and internationally. This system adds significantly to the national security infrastructure for bulk food transport. We are currently demonstrating the system in central Kentucky and will report on the results

  15. Fault injection system for automatic testing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜文; 洪炳熔

    2003-01-01

    Considering the deficiency of the means for confirming the attribution of fault redundancy in the re-search of Automatic Testing System(ATS) , a fault-injection system has been proposed to study fault redundancyof automatic testing system through compurison. By means of a fault-imbeded environmental simulation, thefaults injected at the input level of the software are under test. These faults may induce inherent failure mode,thus bringing about unexpected output, and the anticipated goal of the test is attained. The fault injection con-sists of voltage signal generator, current signal generator and rear drive circuit which are specially developed,and the ATS can work regularly by means of software simulation. The experimental results indicate that the faultinjection system can find the deficiency of the automatic testing software, and identify the preference of fault re-dundancy. On the other hand, some soft deficiency never exposed before can be identified by analyzing the tes-ting results.

  16. Economic viability of the third milking in systems of production using closed-circuit mechanical milking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the economic viability of the third milking in production systems using mechanical milking in a closed circuit, aiming to provide technicians and farmers with information to assist them in decision-making. Specifically, it intended: (a to estimate the cost of one milking; (b to estimate the cost of the third milking; (c to develop a mathematical equation to estimate the minimum amount of milk produced with two milkings, from which it would be economically feasible to do the third milking. Data were collected from three dairy farms, from November 2010 to March 2011, keeping a twice-a-day milking frequency, with three data collections in each farm, totalizing nine collections. Considering the average data, it would be feasible to do the third milking if the average milk yield per day of lactating cows in a twice-a-day milking frequency was greater than or equal to 24.43 kg of milk.

  17. Automation in dairy cattle milking: experimental results and considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisanna Speroni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two experimental programs financed to the Istituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnia are presented. The objective of the two Italian programs was the verify if automatic milking is a suitable practice for Italian dairy system. Results are summarised and compared to those obtained in other international projects. Results refer to animal behaviour, milk yield, milk quality an animal welfare. In a trial comparing cows milked with an automatic milking system and cows milked in a milking parlour, we observed that when the temperature and humidity are very high cows reduce their activity, have lower milking frequency and milk yield than in cold seasons. In comparison to milking parlour, automatic milking system did not increase milk yield which was affected significantly by season, stage of lactation, parity, season per treatment and parity per treatment. The causes of the negative results obtained by this group and by other international groups are discussed. We also presented the results obtained in four trials thereby four appetizers or flavourings were tested to improve efficiency of automatic milking system. Comparing the two milking systems, automatic milking determined a worsening of milk quality, but from these data is not possible to exclude the possibility to use automatic milking for Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano-type cheeses. Animal welfare is not negatively influenced by automatic milking system, which has the potentiality to improve the control and care of cows.

  18. ANPS - AUTOMATIC NETWORK PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Development of some of the space program's large simulation projects -- like the project which involves simulating the countdown sequence prior to spacecraft liftoff -- requires the support of automated tools and techniques. The number of preconditions which must be met for a successful spacecraft launch and the complexity of their interrelationship account for the difficulty of creating an accurate model of the countdown sequence. Researchers developed ANPS for the Nasa Marshall Space Flight Center to assist programmers attempting to model the pre-launch countdown sequence. Incorporating the elements of automatic programming as its foundation, ANPS aids the user in defining the problem and then automatically writes the appropriate simulation program in GPSS/PC code. The program's interactive user dialogue interface creates an internal problem specification file from user responses which includes the time line for the countdown sequence, the attributes for the individual activities which are part of a launch, and the dependent relationships between the activities. The program's automatic simulation code generator receives the file as input and selects appropriate macros from the library of software modules to generate the simulation code in the target language GPSS/PC. The user can recall the problem specification file for modification to effect any desired changes in the source code. ANPS is designed to write simulations for problems concerning the pre-launch activities of space vehicles and the operation of ground support equipment and has potential for use in developing network reliability models for hardware systems and subsystems. ANPS was developed in 1988 for use on IBM PC or compatible machines. The program requires at least 640 KB memory and one 360 KB disk drive, PC DOS Version 2.0 or above, and GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The program is written in Turbo Prolog Version 2.0. GPSS/PC is a trademark of Minuteman Software. Turbo Prolog

  19. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  20. An automatic visual analysis system for tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Connaghan, Damien; Moran, Kieran; O''Connor, Noel E.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a novel video analysis system for coaching tennis players of all levels, which uses computer vision algorithms to automatically edit and index tennis videos into meaningful annotations. Existing tennis coaching software lacks the ability to automatically index a tennis match into key events, and therefore, a coach who uses existing software is burdened with time-consuming manual video editing. This work aims to explore the effectiveness of a system to automatically de...

  1. Using mobile milking robots for special quality dairy products based on site-specific grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, F.W.; Philipsen, A.P.; Dufrasne, L.; Pol-van Dasselaar, van den A.

    2013-01-01

    An option for combining grazing and automatic milking is Infield Automatic Milking, with more or less mobile infield automatic milking systems (IAMS), which have been practiced since 2008 in several European countries. This emerging technology can be used to harvest milk from specific areas, giving

  2. Influence of air intake on the concentration of free fatty acids and vacuum fluctuations during automatic milking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Dam; Wiking, Lars; Bjerring, Martin;

    2006-01-01

    and varied from 0.77 to 0.94 mEq/L of milk for the 5 AMS models on the Danish market. Fault detection in 55 herds pointed out that the most frequent faults in conventional herds were air leakages and intake of too much air in the cluster, whereas AMS herds had problems with the cooling and stirring of milk....... Correction of the cooling faults caused FFA to decrease by 0.52 mEq/L in the AMS herds. We concluded that air intake during automatic milking is not the most important factor in reducing FFA, whereas milk yield per milking matters the most. More attention should be paid to the cooling and stirring of milk...

  3. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  4. AUTOMATIC DESIGNING OF POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kirspou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of automatic designing system for power supply of industrial enterprises is considered in the paper. Its complete structure and principle of operation are determined and established. Modern graphical interface and data scheme are developed, software is completely realized. Methodology and software correspond to the requirements of the up-to-date designing, describe a general algorithm of program process and also reveals properties of automatic designing system objects. Automatic designing system is based on module principle while using object-orientated programming. Automatic designing system makes it possible to carry out consistently designing calculations of power supply system and select the required equipment with subsequent output of all calculations in the form of explanatory note. Automatic designing system can be applied by designing organizations under conditions of actual designing.

  5. Adoption of technology, management practices, and production systems in US milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, A R; Gillespie, J; MacDonald, J

    2010-12-01

    The introduction of new technology, management practices, and alternative production systems has resulted in rapid structural change in the US dairy industry. This paper examines adoption rates and adopter characteristics for the following dairy technologies, practices, and systems: holding pen with an udder washer, milking units with automatic take-offs, genetic selection technologies, recombinant bovine somatotropin, membership in the Dairy Herd Improvement Association, computerized feed delivery systems, computerized milking systems, use of a nutritionist to design feed rations, grazing, milking cows 3 times daily, and milking parlors. Four of these were used on a greater percentage of farms in 2005 than in 2000, but increased farm sizes and the interaction of farm size with adoption suggest a greater percentage of milk being produced under each, with the exception of grazing. Except for grazing, technologies were generally complementary.

  6. Adoption of technology, management practices, and production systems in US milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, A R; Gillespie, J; MacDonald, J

    2010-12-01

    The introduction of new technology, management practices, and alternative production systems has resulted in rapid structural change in the US dairy industry. This paper examines adoption rates and adopter characteristics for the following dairy technologies, practices, and systems: holding pen with an udder washer, milking units with automatic take-offs, genetic selection technologies, recombinant bovine somatotropin, membership in the Dairy Herd Improvement Association, computerized feed delivery systems, computerized milking systems, use of a nutritionist to design feed rations, grazing, milking cows 3 times daily, and milking parlors. Four of these were used on a greater percentage of farms in 2005 than in 2000, but increased farm sizes and the interaction of farm size with adoption suggest a greater percentage of milk being produced under each, with the exception of grazing. Except for grazing, technologies were generally complementary. PMID:21094776

  7. DEFINING THE MAGNETIC FIELD FOR THE ELEMENTS OF AIR MOTORS AND DEVICES FOR AUTOMATIC TAKE-OFF OF THE MILKING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koledov R. V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Efficient dairy cattle breeding are largely dependent from technology content and service animals. Most farms use a tethered way content. With this method of milking, the technology requires the introduction of new techniques to increase productivity on the farm and cost reduction of dairy products. The most rational is improving the design of existing milking machines. Regarded device for automatic removal of hanging part of a milking machine, its structure and working principle. The main unit of the device is a pneumatic motor that operates from the vacuum system of the milking plant. In the housing mounted on the shaft of the pneumatic motor rotor with curved vanes, there are magnetic elements. These elements should have the necessary geometrical and force parameters to ensure the normal operation of the device for automatic removal of hanging part of milking machine. The article describes a laboratory research and an analysis of the magnetic elements. In laboratory studies, we have revealed a dependence of the traction capacity of pneumatic motor from linear and power parameters of the magnetic elements, as well as established necessary geometric parameters and the magnetic field strength of the elements for normal operation

  8. The effect of omitted milking on the behaviour of cows in the context of cluster attachment failure during automatic milking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefanowska, J.; Plavsic, M.; Ipema, A.H.; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.

    2000-01-01

    In robotic milking there is always a slight chance of failure to attach the milking cluster. Attachment failure is most likely for cows whose udder conformation is less convenient for robot attachment. In general, after milking failure cows try to revisit the milking robot if they are not sent to a

  9. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  10. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  11. Computer systems for automatic earthquake detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S.W.

    1974-01-01

    U.S Geological Survey seismologists in Menlo park, California, are utilizing the speed, reliability, and efficiency of minicomputers to monitor seismograph stations and to automatically detect earthquakes. An earthquake detection computer system, believed to be the only one of its kind in operation, automatically reports about 90 percent of all local earthquakes recorded by a network of over 100 central California seismograph stations. The system also monitors the stations for signs of malfunction or abnormal operation. Before the automatic system was put in operation, all of the earthquakes recorded had to be detected by manually searching the records, a time-consuming process. With the automatic detection system, the stations are efficiently monitored continuously. 

  12. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  13. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  14. Sensors and management support in high-technology milking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, H.; Ouweltjes, W.

    2003-01-01

    Two directions can be distinguished in the development of high-tech milking equipment: 1) high-capacity milking parlors with a high throughput of cows per person per hour and 2) automatic milking systems in which manual labor is replaced by a milking robot. High-capacity milking parlors are develope

  15. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  16. Automatic program debugging for intelligent tutoring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis explores the process by which student programs can be automatically debugged in order to increase the instructional capabilities of these systems. This research presents a methodology and implementation for the diagnosis and correction of nontrivial recursive programs. In this approach, recursive programs are debugged by repairing induction proofs in the Boyer-Moore Logic. The potential of a program debugger to automatically debug widely varying novice programs in a nontrivial domain is proportional to its capabilities to reason about computational semantics. By increasing these reasoning capabilities a more powerful and robust system can result. This thesis supports these claims by examining related work in automated program debugging and by discussing the design, implementation, and evaluation of Talus, an automatic degugger for LISP programs. Talus relies on its abilities to reason about computational semantics to perform algorithm recognition, infer code teleology, and to automatically detect and correct nonsyntactic errors in student programs written in a restricted, but nontrivial, subset of LISP.

  17. Relations between different objective milking speed recording systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the sources of variation of milking speed assessed through automatic computerised devices included in milking machines, to study the relationships between this trait and milking speed assessed through stopwatch and to develop statistical procedures useful for converting automatic device milking time into stopwatch milking time in order to obtain a fast, simple and cheap collection of milking time records for genetic evaluation purposes. A total of 571 records of stopwatch milking time (SMT, device milking time (DMT and milk yield at milking were collected in 23 herds of the Trentino Alto Adige region in Italy equipped with two types of automatic milking devices. After log-transformation of SMT (lnSMT and DMT (lnDMT and a preliminary analysis of sources of variation of lnDMT, dataset was partitioned into two mutually exclusive subsets: a calibration one, used for statistical analysis, and a validation one, used as test set to validate the prediction models. This procedure was replicated 6 times in order to repeat the cross validation accordingly. Three conversion models have been compared, based on different combinations of the effects of lnDMT, milking device and herd within milking device on lnSMT. Solutions of the models have been applied for each replicate to the validation dataset for estimating lnSMT and the soundness of conversion equations have been evaluated considering the correlation between estimated and actual lnSMT and bias and precision of estimates. Milking time assessed through different procedures resulted in differences between methods for both mean and distribution, and these suggested the need of developing statistical procedures aimed to the conversion of DMT into SMT before their use in sire evaulation. The soundness of the models tended to slightly increase with the increase in the number of effects considered. The correlation between estimated and actual SMT was in the range of 0.80 to 0

  18. Research on an Intelligent Automatic Turning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichong Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Equipment manufacturing industry is the strategic industries of a country. And its core part is the CNC machine tool. Therefore, enhancing the independent research of relevant technology of CNC machine, especially the open CNC system, is of great significance. This paper presented some key techniques of an Intelligent Automatic Turning System and gave a viable solution for system integration. First of all, the integrated system architecture and the flexible and efficient workflow for perfoming the intelligent automatic turning process is illustrated. Secondly, the innovated methods of the workpiece feature recognition and expression and process planning of the NC machining are put forward. Thirdly, the cutting tool auto-selection and the cutting parameter optimization solution are generated with a integrated inference of rule-based reasoning and case-based reasoning. Finally, the actual machining case based on the developed intelligent automatic turning system proved the presented solutions are valid, practical and efficient.

  19. 14 CFR 23.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 23.1329 Section 23...: Installation § 23.1329 Automatic pilot system. If an automatic pilot system is installed, it must meet the following: (a) Each system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be quickly and...

  20. Development of automatic laser welding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser are a new production tool for high speed and low distortion welding and applications to automatic welding lines are increasing. IHI has long experience of laser processing for the preservation of nuclear power plants, welding of airplane engines and so on. Moreover, YAG laser oscillators and various kinds of hardware have been developed for laser welding and automation. Combining these welding technologies and laser hardware technologies produce the automatic laser welding system. In this paper, the component technologies are described, including combined optics intended to improve welding stability, laser oscillators, monitoring system, seam tracking system and so on. (author)

  1. Feedback Improvement in Automatic Program Evaluation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupas, Bronius

    2010-01-01

    Automatic program evaluation is a way to assess source program files. These techniques are used in learning management environments, programming exams and contest systems. However, use of automated program evaluation encounters problems: some evaluations are not clear for the students and the system messages do not show reasons for lost points.…

  2. An automatic hinge system for leg orthoses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietman, J.S.; Goudsmit, J.; Meulemans, D.; Halbertsma, J.P.K.; Geertzen, J.H.B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a new, automatic hinge system for leg orthoses, which provides knee stability in stance, and allows knee-flexion during swing. Indications for the hinge system are a paresis or paralysis of the quadriceps muscles. Instrumented gait analysis was performed in three patients, fitte

  3. Automatic Water Sensor Window Opening System

    KAUST Repository

    Percher, Michael

    2013-12-05

    A system can automatically open at least one window of a vehicle when the vehicle is being submerged in water. The system can include a water collector and a water sensor, and when the water sensor detects water in the water collector, at least one window of the vehicle opens.

  4. Automatic stereoscopic system for person recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murynin, Alexander B.; Matveev, Ivan A.; Kuznetsov, Victor D.

    1999-06-01

    A biometric access control system based on identification of human face is presented. The system developed performs remote measurements of the necessary face features. Two different scenarios of the system behavior are implemented. The first one assumes the verification of personal data entered by visitor from console using keyboard or card reader. The system functions as an automatic checkpoint, that strictly controls access of different visitors. The other scenario makes it possible to identify visitors without any person identifier or pass. Only person biometrics are used to identify the visitor. The recognition system automatically finds necessary identification information preliminary stored in the database. Two laboratory models of recognition system were developed. The models are designed to use different information types and sources. In addition to stereoscopic images inputted to computer from cameras the models can use voice data and some person physical characteristics such as person's height, measured by imaging system.

  5. Automatic Guidance System for Welding Torches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H.; Wall, W.; Burns, M. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Digital system automatically guides welding torch to produce squarebutt, V-groove and lap-joint weldments within tracking accuracy of +0.2 millimeter. Television camera observes and traverses weld joint, carrying welding torch behind. Image of joint digitized, and resulting data used to derive control signals that enable torch to track joint.

  6. Automatic Positioning System of Small Agricultural Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momot, M. V.; Proskokov, A. V.; Natalchenko, A. S.; Biktimirov, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    The present article discusses automatic positioning systems of agricultural robots used in field works. The existing solutions in this area have been analyzed. The article proposes an original solution, which is easy to implement and is characterized by high- accuracy positioning.

  7. Precision laser automatic tracking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, R F; Peters, C J; McGann, E J; Lang, K T

    1966-04-01

    A precision laser tracker has been constructed and tested that is capable of tracking a low-acceleration target to an accuracy of about 25 microrad root mean square. In tracking high-acceleration targets, the error is directly proportional to the angular acceleration. For an angular acceleration of 0.6 rad/sec(2), the measured tracking error was about 0.1 mrad. The basic components in this tracker, similar in configuration to a heliostat, are a laser and an image dissector, which are mounted on a stationary frame, and a servocontrolled tracking mirror. The daytime sensitivity of this system is approximately 3 x 10(-10) W/m(2); the ultimate nighttime sensitivity is approximately 3 x 10(-14) W/m(2). Experimental tests were performed to evaluate both dynamic characteristics of this system and the system sensitivity. Dynamic performance of the system was obtained, using a small rocket covered with retroreflective material launched at an acceleration of about 13 g at a point 204 m from the tracker. The daytime sensitivity of the system was checked, using an efficient retroreflector mounted on a light aircraft. This aircraft was tracked out to a maximum range of 15 km, which checked the daytime sensitivity of the system measured by other means. The system also has been used to track passively stars and the Echo I satellite. Also, the system tracked passively a +7.5 magnitude star, and the signal-to-noise ratio in this experiment indicates that it should be possible to track a + 12.5 magnitude star.

  8. Automatic systems win; Siegeszug der Automaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorg, M

    2001-07-01

    This short article presents figures on the increasing use of modern, automatic wood-fired heating systems in Switzerland that are not only replacing older installations but also starting to replace other forms of heating. The increase of the number of wood-based heating systems installed and the amount of wood used in them is discussed, as are developments in the market for large-scale wood-based heating systems.

  9. Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on bacterial counts, somatic cell counts, freezing point and free fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de C.J.A.M.; Slaghuis, B.A.; Vorst, van der Y.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in milk quality after the introduction of automatic milking systems (AM-systems) on dairy farms in The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark were examined and the data were compared with milk quality results of farms with conventional milking technology. After introduction, a small, but significa

  10. Automatic Irrigation System using WSNs

    OpenAIRE

    Ravinder Singh Dhanoa1; Ravinder Singh

    2014-01-01

    During the entire, I went through various electronics equipment for the project. I learned about Controller 8051, Contact type sensors, Comparator and a little about other electrical equipments. Irrigation systems are as old as man itself since agriculture is the foremost occupation of civilized humanity. To irrigate large areas of plants is an onerous job. In order to overcome this problem many irrigation scheduling techniques have been developed which are mainly based on mon...

  11. Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Kyozaire

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270 were analysed, of which 31.1 % were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3 %, compared with 43.3 % and 36.7 % infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative, were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7 % of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3 % of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16 450 colony forming units (CFU/mℓ compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36 300 CFU/mℓ or handmilking (48 000 CFU/mℓ. No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk. In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.

  12. Automatic remote correcting system for MOOCS

    OpenAIRE

    Rochat, Pierre-Yves

    2014-01-01

    An automatic correcting system was designed to be able to correct the programming exercises during a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) about Microcontrollers, followed by thousands of students. Build around the MSP430G Launchpad, it has corrected more then 30'000 submissions in 7 weeks. This document provides general information about the system, the results obtained during a MOOC on the Coursera.org plateform, extensions done to remote experiences and future projects.

  13. Development of an automatic reactor inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using recent technologies on a mobile robot computer science, we developed an automatic inspection system for weld lines of the reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection of the reactor pressure vessel is currently performed by commercialized robot manipulators. Since, however, the conventional fixed type robot manipulator is very huge, heavy and expensive, it needs long inspection time and is hard to handle and maintain. In order to resolve these problems, we developed a new automatic inspection system using a small mobile robot crawling on the vertical wall of the reactor vessel. According to our conceptual design, we developed the reactor inspection system including an underwater inspection robot, a laser position control subsystem, an ultrasonic data acquisition/analysis subsystem and a main control subsystem. We successfully carried out underwater experiments on the reactor vessel mockup, and real reactor ready for Ulchine nuclear power plant unit 6 at Dusan Heavy Industry in Korea. After this project, we have a plan to commercialize our inspection system. Using this system, we can expect much reduction of the inspection time, performance enhancement, automatic management of inspection history, etc. In the economic point of view, we can also expect import substitution more than 4 million dollars. The established essential technologies for intelligent control and automation are expected to be synthetically applied to the automation of similar systems in nuclear power plants

  14. Development of an automatic pipeline scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Moon, Soon S.; Eom, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R

    1999-11-01

    Pressure pipe inspection in nuclear power plants is one of the mandatory regulation items. Comparing to manual ultrasonic inspection, automatic inspection has the benefits of more accurate and reliable inspection results and reduction of radiation disposal. final object of this project is to develop an automatic pipeline inspection system of pressure pipe welds in nuclear power plants. We developed a pipeline scanning robot with four magnetic wheels and 2-axis manipulator for controlling ultrasonic transducers, and developed the robot control computer which controls the robot to navigate along inspection path exactly. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results. The system developed by this project can be practically used for inspection works after field tests. (author)

  15. Intelligent Storage System Based on Automatic Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolarovszki Peter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes RFID technology in conjunction with warehouse management systems. Article also deals with automatic identification and data capture technologies and each processes, which are used in warehouse management system. It describes processes from entering goods into production to identification of goods and also palletizing, storing, bin transferring and removing goods from warehouse. Article focuses on utilizing AMP middleware in WMS processes in Nowadays, the identification of goods in most warehouses is carried through barcodes. In this article we want to specify, how can be processes described above identified through RFID technology. All results are verified by measurement in our AIDC laboratory, which is located at the University of Žilina, and also in Laboratory of Automatic Identification Goods and Services located in GS1 Slovakia. The results of our research bring the new point of view and indicate the ways using of RFID technology in warehouse management system.

  16. Two Systems for Automatic Music Genre Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2012-01-01

    We re-implement and test two state-of-the-art systems for automatic music genre classification; but unlike past works in this area, we look closer than ever before at their behavior. First, we look at specific instances where each system consistently applies the same wrong label across multiple...... trials of cross-validation. Second, we test the robustness of each system to spectral equalization. Finally, we test how well human subjects recognize the genres of music excerpts composed by each system to be highly genre representative. Our results suggest that neither high-performing system has...... a capacity to recognize music genre....

  17. Automatic TLI recognition system, user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes how to use an automatic target recognition system (version 14). In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a programmer`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, Programmer`s Guide.

  18. Automatic code generation for distributed robotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetero Helix is a software environment which supports relatively large robotic system development projects. The environment supports a heterogeneous set of message-passing LAN-connected common-bus multiprocessors, but the programming model seen by software developers is a simple shared memory. The conceptual simplicity of shared memory makes it an extremely attractive programming model, especially in large projects where coordinating a large number of people can itself become a significant source of complexity. We present results from three system development efforts conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory over the past several years. Each of these efforts used automatic software generation to create 10 to 20 percent of the system

  19. 14 CFR 29.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 29.1329 Section 29... pilot system. (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be sufficiently overpowered by one pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft; and (2) Be readily and...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1329 - Automatic pilot system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic pilot system. 27.1329 Section 27... pilot system. (a) Each automatic pilot system must be designed so that the automatic pilot can— (1) Be sufficiently overpowered by one pilot to allow control of the rotorcraft; and (2) Be readily and...

  1. An Automatic Indirect Immunofluorescence Cell Segmentation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuan Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF with HEp-2 cells has been used for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA in systemic autoimmune diseases. The ANA testing allows us to scan a broad range of autoantibody entities and to describe them by distinct fluorescence patterns. Automatic inspection for fluorescence patterns in an IIF image can assist physicians, without relevant experience, in making correct diagnosis. How to segment the cells from an IIF image is essential in developing an automatic inspection system for ANA testing. This paper focuses on the cell detection and segmentation; an efficient method is proposed for automatically detecting the cells with fluorescence pattern in an IIF image. Cell culture is a process in which cells grow under control. Cell counting technology plays an important role in measuring the cell density in a culture tank. Moreover, assessing medium suitability, determining population doubling times, and monitoring cell growth in cultures all require a means of quantifying cell population. The proposed method also can be used to count the cells from an image taken under a fluorescence microscope.

  2. Shorter sampling periods and accurate estimates of milk volume and components are possible for pasture based dairy herds milked with automated milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Claudia; Burke, Jennie K; Taukiri, Sarah; Petch, Susan-Fay; Turner, Sally-Anne

    2016-08-01

    Dairy cows grazing pasture and milked using automated milking systems (AMS) have lower milking frequencies than indoor fed cows milked using AMS. Therefore, milk recording intervals used for herd testing indoor fed cows may not be suitable for cows on pasture based farms. We hypothesised that accurate standardised 24 h estimates could be determined for AMS herds with milk recording intervals of less than the Gold Standard (48 hs), but that the optimum milk recording interval would depend on the herd average for milking frequency. The Gold Standard protocol was applied on five commercial dairy farms with AMS, between December 2011 and February 2013. From 12 milk recording test periods, involving 2211 cow-test days and 8049 cow milkings, standardised 24 h estimates for milk volume and milk composition were calculated for the Gold Standard protocol and compared with those collected during nine alternative sampling scenarios, including six shorter sampling periods and three in which a fixed number of milk samples per cow were collected. Results infer a 48 h milk recording protocol is unnecessarily long for collecting accurate estimates during milk recording on pasture based AMS farms. Collection of two milk samples only per cow was optimal in terms of high concordance correlation coefficients for milk volume and components and a low proportion of missed cow-test days. Further research is required to determine the effects of diurnal variations in milk composition on standardised 24 h estimates for milk volume and components, before a protocol based on a fixed number of samples could be considered. Based on the results of this study New Zealand have adopted a split protocol for herd testing based on the average milking frequency for the herd (NZ Herd Test Standard 8100:2015). PMID:27600967

  3. MILK PRODUCTION IN INTEGRATED SYSTEMS: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Z. Biavatti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The pasture degradation and thermic stress are in economic trouble for milk producers. The use of silvopastoral system (SSP is an important tool to minimize this loss, since it combines the production and conservation of natural resources, furthermore, provides the producer the potential to diversify the source of income of rural property, it is possible sale or own use of the products generated by the trees as timber, firewood and fruit. With the implementation of the SSP is possible to attenuate the effects of high temperatures caused by direct solar incidence on the animals, providing an ideal thermal comfort zone, resulting in increased production, it will expend less energy so that the animals are able to be as close as possible the necessary thermal comfort. Besides, with the adoption of this system, occurs a minor pasture degradation by promoting the formation of a microclimate favoring their establishment and maintenance, in addition to stabilizing soils, unpacked action of roots and preventing erosion. The purpose of this work was study the main aspects that affect the production of milk, proposing the use of integrated systems to minimize losses from thermal stress and degradation of pastures.

  4. Automatic monitoring system for ''F'' installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and operation procedure of the first part of automatic radiation monitoring system of the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR, (''F'' Installation) are described. The system consists of 50 data measuring lines from which 30 are used to monitor by means of radiation de-- tectors; 12- to control the state of branch circuits, and orhers give auxiliary information on the accelerator performance. The data are handled and registered by a crate controller with built-in microcomputer once in some seconds. The monitoring results are output on a special light panel, a sound signaling and on a print

  5. Short communication: Effect of automatic postmilking teat disinfection and cluster flushing on the milking work routine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohnstad, I.; Riekerink, R.G.M.O.; Hogewerf, P.H.; Koning, de C.J.A.M.; Barkema, H.W.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of a consistent and comprehensive milking routine as a critical component of any mastitis control program is well documented. However, as pressure on time increases, farmers are faced with 3 options: (1) adjust the milking routine to suit the time available, (2) undertake the task les

  6. Automatic focusing system of BSST in Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Peng-Yi; Liu, Jia-Jing; Zhang, Guang-yu; Wang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Automatic focusing (AF) technology plays an important role in modern astronomical telescopes. Based on the focusing requirement of BSST (Bright Star Survey Telescope) in Antarctic, an AF system is set up. In this design, functions in OpenCV is used to find stars, the algorithm of area, HFD or FWHM are used to degree the focus metric by choosing. Curve fitting method is used to find focus position as the method of camera moving. All these design are suitable for unattended small telescope.

  7. Automatic Battery Swap System for Home Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Wu; Guifang Qiao; Jian Ge; Hongtao Sun; Guangming Song

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic battery swap system for the prolonged activities of home robots. A battery swap station is proposed to implement battery off‐line recharging and on‐line exchanging functions. It consists of a loading and unloading mechanism, a shifting mechanism, a locking device and a shell. The home robot is a palm‐sized wheeled robot with an onboard camera and a removable battery case in the front. It communicates with the battery swap stati...

  8. Automatic system for detecting pornographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kevin I. C.; Chen, Tung-Shou; Ho, Jun-Der

    2002-09-01

    Due to the dramatic growth of network and multimedia technology, people can more easily get variant information by using Internet. Unfortunately, it also makes the diffusion of illegal and harmful content much easier. So, it becomes an important topic for the Internet society to protect and safeguard Internet users from these content that may be encountered while surfing on the Net, especially children. Among these content, porno graphs cause more serious harm. Therefore, in this study, we propose an automatic system to detect still colour porno graphs. Starting from this result, we plan to develop an automatic system to search porno graphs or to filter porno graphs. Almost all the porno graphs possess one common characteristic that is the ratio of the size of skin region and non-skin region is high. Based on this characteristic, our system first converts the colour space from RGB colour space to HSV colour space so as to segment all the possible skin-colour regions from scene background. We also apply the texture analysis on the selected skin-colour regions to separate the skin regions from non-skin regions. Then, we try to group the adjacent pixels located in skin regions. If the ratio is over a given threshold, we can tell if the given image is a possible porno graph. Based on our experiment, less than 10% of non-porno graphs are classified as pornography, and over 80% of the most harmful porno graphs are classified correctly.

  9. Comparative analysis of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula using varied milk delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickton Darby

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of human milk for later use is on the rise. Bottle systems are used to deliver the expressed milk. Research has shown that storage of both human milk and artificial baby milk, or infant formula, leads to a loss of ascorbic acid (commonly called Vitamin C. As milk is removed from the bottle during feeding and replaced by ambient air, it is unknown if loss of ascorbic acid occurs during the course of a feeding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the milk delivery system on levels of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula. The objectives are to 1 determine changes in ascorbic acid concentration during a 20 minute "feed," 2 determine if there is a difference in ascorbic acid concentration between delivery systems, and 3 evaluate if any differences are of clinical importance. Methods Commonly available bottles were used for comparison of bottle delivery systems. Mature human milk was standardized to 42 mg/L of ascorbic acid. Infant formula with iron and infant formula with docosahexanoic acid were used for the formula samples. Each sample was analyzed for ascorbic acid concentration at baseline (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes. Each collection of samples was completed in triplicate. Samples were analyzed for ascorbic acid using normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results Ascorbic acid concentration declined in all bottle systems during testing, Differences between the bottle systems were noted. Ascorbic acid concentrations declined to less than 40% of recommended daily intake for infants in 4 of the bottles systems at the 20 minute sampling. Conclusion The bottle systems used in this study had measurable decreases in the mean concentration of ascorbic acid. More research is needed to determine if the observed decreases are related to lower plasma ascorbic acid concentration in infants exclusively bottle fed. The decrease of ascorbic acid concentration observed in both

  10. 21 CFR 866.5170 - Breast milk immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the breast milk proteins. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breast milk immunological test system. 866.5170 Section 866.5170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  11. Cow feeding system versus milk utility for yoghurt manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jasińska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A cow feeding system had a significant effect on the basic parameters characterising milk technological usability. Milk from the Polish Black-and-White variety of the Holstein-Friesland cows kept in the Total Mixed Ration (TMR feeding system or on the traditional feeding regime was compared in terms of its utility for yoghurt manufacture. Material and methods. Milk samples, collected six times a year at about 2-month intervals, were assayed for density, acidity, and contents of fat, protein, and lactose. Dry matter and solid-not-fat (SNF contents were determined, as was the protein/fat ratio. Thermal stability of the milk was assessed with alcohol tests. The yoghurts manufactured (test yoghurts were assayed for acidity, acetaldehyde content, and hardness. The yoghurts were also subjected to sensory evaluation. Results. The cow feeding regime was found to have distinctly affected the composition and physico-chemical parameters of milk. Milk samples collected from cows fed in the traditional system contained more fat and dry matter than the milk yielded by the TMR-fed cattle. The latter produced milk that usually showed higher crude protein and casein contents, as well as higher SNF contents; in addition, the density of that milk was higher. Conclusions. The feeding regime did not affect, in any clear-cut way, the sensory characteristics of the test yoghurts. However, those yoghurts manufactured from the TMR-fed cow milk contained more acetaldehyde and, in most cases, showed higher hardness, compared to the yoghurts made from milk produced by the cows kept on the traditional feeding regime.

  12. Time Synchronization Module for Automatic Identification System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choi Il-heung; Oh Sang-heon; Choi Dae-soo; Park Chan-sik; Hwang Dong-hwan; Lee Sang-jeong

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposed a design and implementation procedure of the Time Synchronization Module (TSM) for the Automatic Identification System (AIS). The proposed TSM module uses a Temperature Compensated Crystal Oscillator (TCXO) as a local reference clock, and consists of a Digitally Controlled Oscillator (DCO), a divider, a phase discriminator, and register blocks. The TSM measures time difference between the 1 PPS from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver and the generated transmitter clock. The measured time difference is compensated by controlling the DCO and the transmit clock is synchronized to the Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). The designed TSM can also be synchronized to the reference time derived from the received message. The proposed module is tested using the experimental AIS transponder set. The experimental results show that the proposed module satisfies the functional and timing specification of the AIS technical standard, ITU-R M.1371.

  13. Automatic TLI recognition system, programmer`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the software of an automatic target recognition system (version 14), from a programmer`s point of view. The intent is to provide information that will help people who wish to modify the software. In separate volumes are a general description of the ATR system, Automatic TLI Recognition System, General Description, and a user`s manual, Automatic TLI Recognition System, User`s Guide. 2 refs.

  14. An efficient automatic firearm identification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuan, Zun Liang; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Jemain, Abdul Aziz; Ghani, Nor Azura Md.

    2014-06-01

    Automatic firearm identification system (AFIS) is highly demanded in forensic ballistics to replace the traditional approach which uses comparison microscope and is relatively complex and time consuming. Thus, several AFIS have been developed for commercial and testing purposes. However, those AFIS are still unable to overcome some of the drawbacks of the traditional firearm identification approach. The goal of this study is to introduce another efficient and effective AFIS. A total of 747 firing pin impression images captured from five different pistols of same make and model are used to evaluate the proposed AFIS. It was demonstrated that the proposed AFIS is capable of producing firearm identification accuracy rate of over 95.0% with an execution time of less than 0.35 seconds per image.

  15. Effects of a single prolonged milking interval in cows

    OpenAIRE

    Lakic, Branislav

    2011-01-01

    A single prolonged milking interval (PMI), such as might be associated with technical failures in automatic milking systems, leads to a subsequent somatic cell count (SCC) peak in bulk tank milk. Increased SCC indicates mastitis in cows. It is generally correlated with reduced milk yield and quality, and is often used as a criterion for milk payment. Whether the transient SCC peak after a single PMI affects yield and quality is not known. The short duration of the inflammatory ...

  16. Human-system Interfaces for Automatic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins,J. (BNL); Fleger, S.; Barnes V. (NRC)

    2010-11-07

    Automation is ubiquitous in modern complex systems, and commercial nuclear- power plants are no exception. Automation is applied to a wide range of functions including monitoring and detection, situation assessment, response planning, and response implementation. Automation has become a 'team player' supporting personnel in nearly all aspects of system operation. In light of its increasing use and importance in new- and future-plants, guidance is needed to conduct safety reviews of the operator's interface with automation. The objective of this research was to develop such guidance. We first characterized the important HFE aspects of automation, including six dimensions: levels, functions, processes, modes, flexibility, and reliability. Next, we reviewed literature on the effects of all of these aspects of automation on human performance, and on the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs). Then, we used this technical basis established from the literature to identify general principles for human-automation interaction and to develop review guidelines. The guidelines consist of the following seven topics: automation displays, interaction and control, automation modes, automation levels, adaptive automation, error tolerance and failure management, and HSI integration. In addition, our study identified several topics for additional research.

  17. SEMI-AUTOMATIC SPEAKER VERIFICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Bulgakova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper presents a semi-automatic speaker verification system based on comparing of formant values, statistics of phone lengths and melodic characteristics as well. Due to the development of speech technology, there is an increased interest now in searching for expert speaker verification systems, which have high reliability and low labour intensiveness because of the automation of data processing for the expert analysis. System Description. We present a description of a novel system analyzing similarity or distinction of speaker voices based on comparing statistics of phone lengths, formant features and melodic characteristics. The characteristic feature of the proposed system based on fusion of methods is a weak correlation between the analyzed features that leads to a decrease in the error rate of speaker recognition. The system advantage is the possibility to carry out rapid analysis of recordings since the processes of data preprocessing and making decision are automated. We describe the functioning methods as well as fusion of methods to combine their decisions. Main Results. We have tested the system on the speech database of 1190 target trials and 10450 non-target trials, including the Russian speech of the male and female speakers. The recognition accuracy of the system is 98.59% on the database containing records of the male speech, and 96.17% on the database containing records of the female speech. It was also experimentally established that the formant method is the most reliable of all used methods. Practical Significance. Experimental results have shown that proposed system is applicable for the speaker recognition task in the course of phonoscopic examination.

  18. Milk miRNAs: simple nutrients or systemic functional regulators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C; Kakulas, Foteini; Geddes, Donna T; Hartmann, Peter E; John, Swen Malte; Carrera-Bastos, Pedro; Cordain, Loren; Schmitz, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Milk is rich in miRNAs that appear to play important roles in the postnatal development of all mammals. Currently, two competing hypotheses exist: the functional hypothesis, which proposes that milk miRNAs are transferred to the offspring and exert physiological regulatory functions, and the nutritional hypothesis, which suggests that these molecules do not reach the systemic circulation of the milk recipient, but merely provide nutrition without conferring active regulatory signals to the offspring. The functional hypothesis is based on indirect evidence and requires further investigation. The nutritional hypothesis is primarily based on three mouse models, which are inherently problematic: 1) miRNA-375 KO mice, 2) miRNA-200c/141 KO mice, and 3) transgenic mice presenting high levels of miRNA-30b in milk. This article presents circumstantial evidence that these mouse models may all be inappropriate to study the physiological traffic of milk miRNAs to the newborn mammal, and calls for new studies using more relevant mouse models or human milk to address the fate and role of milk miRNAs in the offspring and the adult consumer of cow's milk. PMID:27330539

  19. Automatic Extraction of Metadata from Scientific Publications for CRIS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Aleksandar; Ivanovic, Dragan; Milosavljevic, Branko; Konjovic, Zora; Surla, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to develop a system for automatic extraction of metadata from scientific papers in PDF format for the information system for monitoring the scientific research activity of the University of Novi Sad (CRIS UNS). Design/methodology/approach: The system is based on machine learning and performs automatic extraction…

  20. 14 CFR 171.267 - Glide path automatic monitor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glide path automatic monitor system. 171... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.267 Glide path automatic monitor system. (a) The ISMLS glide path equipment... control points when any of the following occurs: (1) A shift of the mean ISMLS glide path angle...

  1. System for Automatic Generation of Examination Papers in Discrete Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridenfalk, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    A system was developed for automatic generation of problems and solutions for examinations in a university distance course in discrete mathematics and tested in a pilot experiment involving 200 students. Considering the success of such systems in the past, particularly including automatic assessment, it should not take long before such systems are…

  2. 2013 International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book examines mechatronics and automatic control systems. The book covers important emerging topics in signal processing, control theory, sensors, mechanic manufacturing systems and automation. The book presents papers from the 2013 International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems held in Hangzhou, China on August 10-11, 2013. .

  3. 3D vision system for intelligent milking robot automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhloufi, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    In a milking robot, the correct localization and positioning of milking teat cups is of very high importance. The milking robots technology has not changed since a decade and is based primarily on laser profiles for teats approximate positions estimation. This technology has reached its limit and does not allow optimal positioning of the milking cups. Also, in the presence of occlusions, the milking robot fails to milk the cow. These problems, have economic consequences for producers and animal health (e.g. development of mastitis). To overcome the limitations of current robots, we have developed a new system based on 3D vision, capable of efficiently positioning the milking cups. A prototype of an intelligent robot system based on 3D vision for real-time positioning of a milking robot has been built and tested under various conditions on a synthetic udder model (in static and moving scenarios). Experimental tests, were performed using 3D Time-Of-Flight (TOF) and RGBD cameras. The proposed algorithms permit the online segmentation of teats by combing 2D and 3D visual information. The obtained results permit the teat 3D position computation. This information is then sent to the milking robot for teat cups positioning. The vision system has a real-time performance and monitors the optimal positioning of the cups even in the presence of motion. The obtained results, with both TOF and RGBD cameras, show the good performance of the proposed system. The best performance was obtained with RGBD cameras. This latter technology will be used in future real life experimental tests.

  4. Automatic Battery Swap System for Home Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic battery swap system for the prolonged activities of home robots. A battery swap station is proposed to implement battery off‐line recharging and on‐line exchanging functions. It consists of a loading and unloading mechanism, a shifting mechanism, a locking device and a shell. The home robot is a palm‐sized wheeled robot with an onboard camera and a removable battery case in the front. It communicates with the battery swap station wirelessly through ZigBee. The influences of battery case deflection and robot docking deflection on the battery swap operations have been investigated. The experimental results show that it takes an average time of 84.2s to complete the battery swap operations. The home robot does not have to wait several hours for the batteries to be fully charged. The proposed battery swap system is proved to be efficient in home robot applications that need the robots to work continuously over a long period.

  5. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanand S .Vaze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detected by optical proximity sensor which is placed on the pallet. A motor controlled elevator is used to lift the cars. Elevator status is indicated by LED which is placed on ground floor. Controlling of the platforms and checking the vacancies is done by PLC. For unparking of car, keyboard is interfaced with the model for selection of required platform. Automation is done to reduce requirement of space and also to reduce human errors, which in-turn results in highest security and greatest flexibility. Due to these advantages, this system can be used in hotels, railway stations, airports where crowding of car is more.

  6. Development of advanced automatic operation system for nuclear ship. 1. Perfect automatic normal operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Toshio; Yabuuti, Noriaki; Takahashi, Hiroki; Shimazaki, Junya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-02-01

    Development of operation support system such as automatic operating system and anomaly diagnosis systems of nuclear reactor is very important in practical nuclear ship because of a limited number of operators and severe conditions in which receiving support from others in a case of accident is very difficult. The goal of development of the operation support systems is to realize the perfect automatic control system in a series of normal operation from the reactor start-up to the shutdown. The automatic control system for the normal operation has been developed based on operating experiences of the first Japanese nuclear ship `Mutsu`. Automation technique was verified by `Mutsu` plant data at manual operation. Fully automatic control of start-up and shutdown operations was achieved by setting the desired value of operation and the limiting value of parameter fluctuation, and by making the operation program of the principal equipment such as the main coolant pump and the heaters. This report presents the automatic operation system developed for the start-up and the shutdown of reactor and the verification of the system using the Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulator System. (author)

  7. The Optimization of Milk Protein Using Different Breeding Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Iancu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to increase the intensive production systems in dairy goat flocks necessity specifications on feeding strategies and housing structures to optimize milk production and animal welfare and to control the impact of animal husbandry on the environment. Milk serves as the most excellent sources of protein with rich quality protein content. It doesn’t contain a large quantity of proteins, but those are containing all the essential amino acids that the body requires. The nutritional and processing properties and there by the market value of milk, largely depends on its protein content.

  8. RESEARCH ON MILK PRODUCTION AT GOATS FROM CARPATHIAN BREED IN RELATION WITH BREEDING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Ion RĂDUCUŢĂ; Călin, Ion; Emilia (RĂDUCUŢĂ) ION; Carmen Georgeta NICOLAE; Monica Paula MARIN; Horia Ion PRISECEANU

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to quantify the qualitative and quantitative parameters of milk production at goats from Carpathian breed in relation with the breeding system (extensive versus semi-intensive). To determine the total quantity of milk, the milk production control it included suckling period of kids and milking period of goats. For determining the quality of milk it was made the analysis of chemical composition of milk in the main constituents, namely water and dry matter, content of fat, prote...

  9. Automatic Arabic Hand Written Text Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Jannoud

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the decent development of the pattern recognition science applications in the last decade of the twentieth century and this century, text recognition remains one of the most important problems in pattern recognition. To the best of our knowledge, little work has been done in the area of Arabic text recognition compared with those for Latin, Chins and Japanese text. The main difficulty encountered when dealing with Arabic text is the cursive nature of Arabic writing in both printed and handwritten forms. An Automatic Arabic Hand-Written Text Recognition (AHTR System is proposed. An efficient segmentation stage is required in order to divide a cursive word or sub-word into its constituting characters. After a word has been extracted from the scanned image, it is thinned and its base line is calculated by analysis of horizontal density histogram. The pattern is then followed through the base line and the segmentation points are detected. Thus after the segmentation stage, the cursive word is represented by a sequence of isolated characters. The recognition problem thus reduces to that of classifying each character. A set of features extracted from each individual characters. A minimum distance classifier is used. Some approaches are used for processing the characters and post processing added to enhance the results. Recognized characters will be appended directly to a word file which is editable form.

  10. A General Method for Module Automatic Testing in Avionics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Automatic Test Equipment (ATE systems are insufficient to cope with the challenges of testing more and more complex avionics systems. In this study, we propose a general method for module automatic testing in the avionics test platform based on PXI bus. We apply virtual instrument technology to realize the automatic testing and the fault reporting of signal performance. Taking the avionics bus ARINC429 as an example, we introduce the architecture of automatic test system as well as the implementation of algorithms in Lab VIEW. The comprehensive experiments show the proposed method can effectively accomplish the automatic testing and fault reporting of signal performance. It greatly improves the generality and reliability of ATE in avionics systems.

  11. Sensors and management support in high-technology milking

    OpenAIRE

    Hogeveen, H.; Ouweltjes, W.

    2003-01-01

    Two directions can be distinguished in the development of high-tech milking equipment: 1) high-capacity milking parlors with a high throughput of cows per person per hour and 2) automatic milking systems in which manual labor is replaced by a milking robot. High-capacity milking parlors are developed in such a way that one operator is able to milk many cows, partly by automation and partly by optimization of available labor. In such parlors, one operator can milk up to 125 cows per hour. This...

  12. Automatic reference level control for an antenna pattern recording system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipin, R., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Automatic gain control system keeps recorder reference levels within 0.2 decibels during operation. System reduces recorder drift during antenna radiation distribution determinations over an eight hour period.

  13. CHLOE: a system for the automatic handling of spark pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system for automatic data handling uses commercially available or state-of-the-art components. The system is flexible enough to accept information from various types of experiments involving photographic data acquisition

  14. Automatic digital photo-book making system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wiley; Teo, Patrick; Muzzolini, Russ

    2010-02-01

    The diversity of photo products has grown more than ever before. A group of photos are not only printed individually, but also can be arranged in specific order to tell a story, such as in a photo book, a calendar or a poster collage. Similar to making a traditional scrapbook, digital photo book tools allow the user to choose a book style/theme, layouts of pages, backgrounds and the way the pictures are arranged. This process is often time consuming to users, given the number of images and the choices of layout/background combinations. In this paper, we developed a system to automatically generate photo books with only a few initial selections required. The system utilizes time stamps, color indices, orientations and other image properties to best fit pictures into a final photo book. The common way of telling a story is to lay the pictures out in chronological order. If the pictures are proximate in time, they will coincide with each other and are often logically related. The pictures are naturally clustered along a time line. Breaks between clusters can be used as a guide to separate pages or spreads, thus, pictures that are logically related can stay close on the same page or spread. When people are making a photo book, it is helpful to start with chronologically grouped images, but time alone wont be enough to complete the process. Each page is limited by the number of layouts available. Many aesthetic rules also apply, such as, emphasis of preferred pictures, consistency of local image density throughout the whole book, matching a background to the content of the images, and the variety of adjacent page layouts. We developed an algorithm to group images onto pages under the constraints of aesthetic rules. We also apply content analysis based on the color and blurriness of each picture, to match backgrounds and to adjust page layouts. Some of our aesthetic rules are fixed and given by designers. Other aesthetic rules are statistic models trained by using

  15. Research on Automatic Target Tracking Based on PTZ System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Zhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies an algorithm of automatic target tracking based on PTZ system. Select the tracking target and set up the target motion trajectory in the video screen. Along the motion trajectory, the system controls the PTZ rotation automatically to track the target real-timely. At the same time, it adjusts the zoom to enlarge or reduce to make sure the target can display on the video screen center clearly at the suitable size. By testing on groups of video, verify the effectiveness of the automatic target tracking algorithm.

  16. Visual appearance and CMT score of foremilk of individual quarters in relation to cell count of cows milked automatically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Morten D; Bjerring, Martin; Skjøth, Flemming

    2005-02-01

    The objectives of the study were: to evaluate the interaction between visual appearance and California mastitis test (CMT) score of the foremilk in relation to the cell count of the milk; to evaluate the consequences of sorting milk according to these criteria; and to explore whether visual appearance and CMT score of foremilk depended on the time interval between milkings. Measuring somatic cell count (SCC) in composite milk only and discarding milk above certain thresholds will not ensure that milk from all cows with visually abnormal foremilk is withheld from delivery. Low thresholds of SCC will reduce the frequency of cows with abnormal milk but increase the discarding of milk from cows with visually normal foremilk. CMT score of foremilk differentiated better between cows with high and low SCC in composite milk than visual inspection of foremilk. CMT scores of foremilk decreased with increasing interval between milkings within cow, whereas the visual appearance was independent of the interval. We propose that visual appearance of the foremilk should be kept as a criterion for sorting milk at time of milking. For test purposes, the use of visual appearance of foremilk for differentiation between normal and abnormal milk has to be done on multiple milkings. Additionally, CMT scoring of foremilk improves correct classification of normal and abnormal quarters and especially when including data from the previous milking. PMID:15747731

  17. An automatic evaluation system for NTA film neutron dosimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, R

    1999-01-01

    At CERN, neutron personal monitoring for over 4000 collaborators is performed with Kodak NTA films, which have been shown to be the most suitable neutron dosimeter in the radiation environment around high-energy accelerators. To overcome the lengthy and strenuous manual scanning process with an optical microscope, an automatic analysis system has been developed. We report on the successful automatic scanning of NTA films irradiated with sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 Pu-Be source neutrons, which results in densely ionised recoil tracks, as well as on the extension of the method to higher energy neutrons causing sparse and fragmentary tracks. The application of the method in routine personal monitoring is discussed. $9 overcome the lengthy and strenuous manual scanning process with an optical microscope, an automatic analysis system has been developed. We report on the successful automatic scanning of NTA films irradiated with /sup 238/Pu-Be source $9 discussed. (10 refs).

  18. Labour organisation on robotic milking dairy farms.

    OpenAIRE

    Sonck, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    1. Research issuesThe research described in this dissertation is focused on the effects of the integration of the milking robot in a dairy farm on the labour organisation at operational and tactical level. Attention was paid to the future requirements concerning human labour and labour (re)organisation with respect to the complex interaction between the cows and an automatic milking system (AMS) on a robotic milking dairy farm. The study was divided in a number of research issues (Chapter 1) ...

  19. An automatic system for elaboration of chip breaking diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory system for fully automatic elaboration of chip breaking diagrams has been developed and tested. The system is based on automatic chip breaking detection by frequency analysis of cutting forces in connection with programming of a CNC-lathe to scan different feeds, speeds and cutting...... depths. An evaluation of the system based on a total of 1671 experiments has shown that unfavourable snarled chips can be detected with 98% certainty which indeed makes the system a valuable tool in chip breakability tests. Using the system, chip breaking diagrams can be elaborated with a previously...

  20. ATIPS: Automatic Travel Itinerary Planning System for Domestic Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hsien-Tsung Chang; Yi-Ming Chang; Meng-Tze Tsai

    2016-01-01

    Leisure travel has become a topic of great interest to Taiwanese residents in recent years. Most residents expect to be able to relax on a vacation during the holidays; however, the complicated procedure of travel itinerary planning is often discouraging and leads them to abandon the idea of traveling. In this paper, we design an automatic travel itinerary planning system for the domestic area (ATIPS) using an algorithm to automatically plan a domestic travel itinerary based on user intention...

  1. Automatic graphene transfer system for improved material quality and efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Boscá; Jorge Pedrós; Javier Martínez; Tomás Palacios; Fernando Calle

    2015-01-01

    In most applications based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, the transfer from the growth to the target substrate is a critical step for the final device performance. Manual procedures are time consuming and depend on handling skills, whereas existing automatic roll-to-roll methods work well for flexible substrates but tend to induce mechanical damage in rigid ones. A new system that automatically transfers CVD graphene to an arbitrary target substrate has been developed. The proce...

  2. JAPS: an automatic parallelizing system based on JAVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜建成; 陈道蓄; 谢立

    1999-01-01

    JAPS is an automatic parallelizing system based on JAVA running on NOW. It implements the automatic process from dependence analysis to parallel execution. The current version of JAPS can exploit functional parallelism and the detection of data parallelism will be incorporated in the new version, which is underway. The framework and key techniques of JAPS are presented. Specific topics discussed are task partitioning, summary information collection, data dependence analysis, pre-scheduling and dynamic scheduling, etc.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of milk production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Gerard; Alig, Martina; Mieleitner, Johanna [Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon ART, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Milk is one of the most important food products in human nutrition. Consequently, the environmental impact of its production is of high relevance. This topic is especially important for Switzerland, where 70 % of the agricultural area is covered by grassland, which can be exploited only by ruminants, and where milk contributes 24 % of the economic output of agriculture (2008). In the present study, the environmental impact of Swiss milk production was assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA). The impact categories as non-renewable energy demand (NRED), global warming potential (GWP), eutrophication potential (EP) as well as terrestrial and aquatic ecotoxicity potential (TEP and AEP) were investigated in detail. Over two years, data from 66 dairy farms of very different sizes and production types with conventional and organic farming systems in different regions were analysed. The environmental impacts per kg milk varied widely. A great number of positions (the most important being purchase of foodstuff, animal emissions - first enteric methane emissions and ammonia emissions in stable, and then by manure spreading, fertilisers, energy carriers, infrastructure - and pesticides) play a role in the environmental impact. With the exception of the non-use of pesticides for the production of feedstuff in organic farming and the significantly higher values for NRED and GWP of farms in the mountain region compared to farms in the plain region, there is no correlation between the farming systems, the production region or the production volume with the environmental impact analysed. Consequently, the present study shows the importance of the individual decisions of the farmers. For the future, we need to investigate in a very detailed way those milk farms which succeeded in all environmental impacts, in order to clearly understand the rationale behind the observed success, rather than try to find better correlations to explain respectively to justify the good or bad

  4. The use of radiolabelled milk proteins to study thermally-induced interactions in milk systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat induced complexes between milk proteins are of considerable importance in determining the heat stability and rennin clottability of milk products. Thiol-disulfide interchange reactions have been suggested as the principal reaction mechanism for complex formation. Studies to data have not adequately established the mechanism and stoichiometry of complex formation in situ in total milk system. Tracer amounts of 14C-β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin were heated under various conditions. After clotting with rennet, radioactivity retained in the curd was counted to estimate extent of interaction of β-lactoglobulin with casein. 14C- and 3H-Methyl labelled proteins were used for the preparation of radiolabelled artificial casein micelles. These micelles with radiolabelled whey proteins were heated and heat-induced complexes were separated on Sephacryl S-300 eluting with 6 M guanidine hydrochloride to break all non-covalent bonds. Further separation of the protein complexes was obtained using CPG-10 or Sephacryl S-1000. The ratios of 3H to 14C labelled proteins in the protein complexes suggested that the stoichiometries of k-, αs2-casein, β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin in the heat-induced complexes varied as a function of the heat treatment

  5. Automatic feed system for ultrasonic machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Noel C.

    1994-01-01

    Method and apparatus for ultrasonic machining in which feeding of a tool assembly holding a machining tool toward a workpiece is accomplished automatically. In ultrasonic machining, a tool located just above a workpiece and vibrating in a vertical direction imparts vertical movement to particles of abrasive material which then remove material from the workpiece. The tool does not contact the workpiece. Apparatus for moving the tool assembly vertically is provided such that it operates with a relatively small amount of friction. Adjustable counterbalance means is provided which allows the tool to be immobilized in its vertical travel. A downward force, termed overbalance force, is applied to the tool assembly. The overbalance force causes the tool to move toward the workpiece as material is removed from the workpiece.

  6. All-optical automatic pollen identification: Towards an operational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzy, Benoît; Stella, Michelle; Konzelmann, Thomas; Calpini, Bertrand; Clot, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    We present results from the development and validation campaign of an optical pollen monitoring method based on time-resolved scattering and fluorescence. Focus is first set on supervised learning algorithms for pollen-taxa identification and on the determination of aerosol properties (particle size and shape). The identification capability provides a basis for a pre-operational automatic pollen season monitoring performed in parallel to manual reference measurements (Hirst-type volumetric samplers). Airborne concentrations obtained from the automatic system are compatible with those from the manual method regarding total pollen and the automatic device provides real-time data reliably (one week interruption over five months). In addition, although the calibration dataset still needs to be completed, we are able to follow the grass pollen season. The high sampling from the automatic device allows to go beyond the commonly-presented daily values and we obtain statistically significant hourly concentrations. Finally, we discuss remaining challenges for obtaining an operational automatic monitoring system and how the generic validation environment developed for the present campaign could be used for further tests of automatic pollen monitoring devices.

  7. Neuro-fuzzy system modeling based on automatic fuzzy clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuangang TANG; Fuchun SUN; Zengqi SUN

    2005-01-01

    A neuro-fuzzy system model based on automatic fuzzy clustering is proposed.A hybrid model identification algorithm is also developed to decide the model structure and model parameters.The algorithm mainly includes three parts:1) Automatic fuzzy C-means (AFCM),which is applied to generate fuzzy rules automatically,and then fix on the size of the neuro-fuzzy network,by which the complexity of system design is reducesd greatly at the price of the fitting capability;2) Recursive least square estimation (RLSE).It is used to update the parameters of Takagi-Sugeno model,which is employed to describe the behavior of the system;3) Gradient descent algorithm is also proposed for the fuzzy values according to the back propagation algorithm of neural network.Finally,modeling the dynamical equation of the two-link manipulator with the proposed approach is illustrated to validate the feasibility of the method.

  8. Automatic calibration system for VENUS lead glass counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic calibration system for VENUS lead glass counters has been constructed. It consists of a moving table, position sensors, control electronics and a master minicomputer, (micro-11 of DEC). The system has been well operated for six months and one third of VENUS lead glass counters have been calibrated. (author)

  9. Development of advanced automatic control system for nuclear ship. 2. Perfect automatic operation after reactor scram events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, Noriaki; Nakazawa, Toshio; Takahashi, Hiroki; Shimazaki, Junya; Hoshi, Tsutao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    An automatic operation system has been developed for the purpose of realizing a perfect automatic plant operation after reactor scram events. The goal of the automatic operation after a reactor scram event is to bring the reactor hot stand-by condition automatically. The basic functions of this system are as follows; to monitor actions of the equipments of safety actions after a reactor scram, to control necessary control equipments to bring a reactor to a hot stand-by condition automatically, and to energize a decay heat removal system. The performance evaluation on this system was carried out by comparing the results using to Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System (NESSY) and the those measured in the scram test of the nuclear ship `Mutsu`. As the result, it was showed that this system had the sufficient performance to bring a reactor to a hot syand-by condition quickly and safety. (author)

  10. Automatic dam concrete placing system; Dam concrete dasetsu sagyo no jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Y.; Hori, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Yoshihara, K.; Hironaka, T. [Okumura Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-11-15

    An automatic concrete placing system was developed for concrete dam construction. This system consists of the following five subsystems: a wireless data transmission system, an automatic dam concrete mixing system, a consistency determination system, an automatic dam concrete loading and transporting system, and a remote concrete bucket opening and closing system. The system includes the following features: mixing amount by mixing ratio and mixing intervals can be instructed from a concrete placing site by using a wireless handy terminal; concrete is mixed automatically in a batcher plant; a transfer car is started, and concrete is charged into a bucket automatically; the mixed concrete is determined of its properties automatically; labor cost can be reduced, the work efficiency improved, and the safety enhanced; and the system introduction has resulted in unattended operation from the aggregate draw-out to a bunker line, manpower saving of five persons, and reduction in cycle time by 10%. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Milk flow traits of buffalo cows in intensive farming system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zucali

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The particular morphology of buffalo udder is associated to milking difficulties. To better understandthe characteristics of milk ejection in buffaloes, a study was conducted in an intensive farm in Lombardy, Italy. Atotal of 184 milk flow profiles were measured with an electronic flow meter. The results showed that during the first3 minutes of milking 73% of total milk yield was milked; lag time of milk ejection (1.94 min ± 1.57 was very longand increased significantly with the increasing of lactation stage. The overmilking phase has also a long duration(33% of total milking time, on average. Administration of oxytocin before milking did not significantly affect milkflow parameters and machine on-time. The results suggested that proper pre-milking stimulation and prompt clustertakeoff could improve milking efficiency, ensuring good milk letdown and protecting teat conditions.

  12. Visual Algorithm Simulation Exercise System with Automatic Assessment: TRAKLA2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri MALMI

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction and feedback are key factors supporting the learning process. Therefore many automatic assessment and feedback systems have been developed for computer science courses during the past decade. In this paper we present a new framework, TRAKLA2, for building interactive algorithm simulation exercises. Exercises constructed in TRAKLA2 are viewed as learning objects in which students manipulate conceptual visualizations of data structures in order to simulate the working of given algorithms. The framework supports randomized input values for the assignments, as well as automatic feedback and grading of students' simulation sequences. Moreover, it supports automatic generation of model solutions as algorithm animations and the logging of statistical data about the interaction process resulting as students solve exercises. The system has been used in two universities in Finland for several courses involving over 1000 students. Student response has been very positive.

  13. Design of automatic leveling and centering system of theodolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-tong; He, Zhen-Xin; Huang, Xian-xiang; Zhan, Ying

    2012-09-01

    To realize the theodolite automation and improve the azimuth Angle measurement instrument, the theodolite automatic leveling and centering system with the function of leveling error compensation is designed, which includes the system solution, key components selection, the mechanical structure of leveling and centering, and system software solution. The redesigned leveling feet are driven by the DC servo motor; and the electronic control center device is installed. Using high precision of tilt sensors as horizontal skew detection sensors ensures the effectiveness of the leveling error compensation. Aiming round mark center is located using digital image processing through surface array CCD; and leveling measurement precision can reach the pixel level, which makes the theodolite accurate centering possible. Finally, experiments are conducted using the automatic leveling and centering system of the theodolite. The results show the leveling and centering system can realize automatic operation with high centering accuracy of 0.04mm.The measurement precision of the orientation angle after leveling error compensation is improved, compared with that of in the traditional method. Automatic leveling and centering system of theodolite can satisfy the requirements of the measuring precision and its automation.

  14. Automatic early warning systems for the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computerized, continuous monitoring environmental early warning systems are complex networks that merge measurements with the information technology. Accuracy, consistency, reliability and data quality are their most important features. Several effects may disturb their characteristics: hostile environment, unreliable communications, poor quality of equipment, non qualified users or service personnel. According to our experiences, a number of measures should be taken to enhance system performances and to maintain them at the desired level. In the paper, we are presenting an analysis of system requirements, possible disturbances and corrective measures that give the main directives for the design, construction and exploitation of the environmental early warning systems. Procedures which ensure data integrity and quality are mentioned. Finally, the contemporary system approach based on the LAN/WAN network topology with Intranet/Internet software is proposed, together with case descriptions of two already operating systems, based on computer-network principle. (author)

  15. Effects of A Simulated Power Cut in AMS on Milk Yield Valued by Statistics Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Gräff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A statistics model was developed in order to be able to determine the effects of a simulated power cut of an Automatic Milking System on the milk output.Measurable and relevant factors, such as power cuts, milk yield, lactation days, average two days digestion and rumination and time were considered in the calculation tool.

  16. AUTOMATIC THEFT SECURITY SYSTEM (SMART SURVEILLANCE CAMERA)

    OpenAIRE

    Veena G.S; Chandrika Prasad; Khaleel K

    2013-01-01

    The proposed work aims to create a smart application camera, with the intention of eliminating the need for a human presence to detect any unwanted sinister activities, such as theft in this case. Spread among the campus, are certain valuable biometric identification systems at arbitrary locations. The application monitosr these systems (hereafter referred to as “object”) using our smart camera system based on an OpenCV platform. By using OpenCV Haar Training, employing the Vio...

  17. Simulation of the TREAT-Upgrade Automatic Reactor Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design of the Automatic Reactor Control System (ARCS) for the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) Upgrade. A simulation was used to facilitate the ARCS design and to completely test and verify its operation before installation at the TREAT facility

  18. Automatic surveillance system using fish-eye lens camera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Yuan; Yongduan Song; Xueye Wei

    2011-01-01

    This letter presents an automatic surveillance system using fish-eye lens camera. Our system achieves wide-area automatic surveillance without a dead angle using only one camera. We propose a new human detection method to select the most adaptive classifier based on the locations of the human candidates.Human regions are detected from the fish-eye image effectively and are corrected for perspective versions.An experiment is performed on indoor video sequences with different illumination and crowded conditions,with results demonstrating the efficiency of our algorithm.%@@ This letter presents an automatic surveillance system using fish-eye lens camera. Our system achieves wide-area automatic surveillance without a dead angle using only one camera. We propose a new human detection method to select the most adaptive classifier based on the locations of the human candidates. Human regions are detected from the fish-eye image effectively and are corrected for perspective versions. An experiment is performed on indoor video sequences with different illumination and crowded conditions, with results demonstrating the efficiency of our algorithm.

  19. Examination techniques of the automatics fire detection monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Yon Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    The variety of the automatic fire detection monitoring systems has been developed because the multistory buildings were constructed and the various structural materials were used. To stop the spread of the fire and minimize the damage of human life and properties of the facility, it should be informed precisely to all the members of the facility. (author). 12 refs., 28 figs.

  20. Liquid scintillation counting system with automatic gain correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic liquid scintillation counting apparatus is described including a scintillating medium in the elevator ram of the sample changing apparatus. An appropriate source of radiation, which may be the external source for standardizing samples, produces reference scintillations in the scintillating medium which may be used for correction of the gain of the counting system

  1. Building an Image-Based System to automatically Score psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G{'o}mez, D. Delgado; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    images. The system is tested on patients with the dermatological disease psoriasis. Temporal series of images are taken for each patient and the lesions are automatically extracted. Results indicate that to the images obtained are a good source for obtaining derived variables to track the lesion....

  2. Auditory signal design for automatic number plate recognition system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydra, C.G.; Jansen, R.J.; Van Egmond, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of an auditory signal for the Automatic Number Plate Recognition system of Dutch national police. The auditory signal is designed to alert police officers of suspicious cars in their proximity, communicating priority level and location of the suspicious car and takin

  3. Automatic control system design of laser interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qingjie; Li, Chunjie; Sun, Hao; Ren, Shaohua; Han, Sen

    2015-10-01

    There are a lot of shortcomings with traditional optical adjustment in interferometry, such as low accuracy, time-consuming, labor-intensive, uncontrollability, and bad repetitiveness, so we treat the problem by using wireless remote control system. Comparing to the traditional method, the effect of vibration and air turbulence will be avoided. In addition the system has some peculiarities of low cost, high reliability and easy operation etc. Furthermore, the switching between two charge coupled devices (CCDs) can be easily achieved with this wireless remote control system, which is used to collect different images. The wireless transmission is achieved by using Radio Frequency (RF) module and programming the controller, pulse width modulation (PWM) of direct current (DC) motor, real-time switching of relay and high-accuracy displacement control of FAULHABER motor are available. The results of verification test show that the control system has good stability with less than 5% packet loss rate, high control accuracy and millisecond response speed.

  4. Automatic calorimetry system monitors RF power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harness, B. W.; Heiberger, E. C.

    1969-01-01

    Calorimetry system monitors the average power dissipated in a high power RF transmitter. Sensors measure the change in temperature and the flow rate of the coolant, while a multiplier computes the power dissipated in the RF load.

  5. Automatic Tracking Evaluation and Development System (ATEDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The heart of the ATEDS network consists of four SGI Octane computers running the IRIX operating system and equipped with V12 hardware graphics to support synthetic...

  6. Automatic Translation of Arabic Sign to Arabic Text (ATASAT) System

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmoty M.Ahmed; Reda Abo Alez; Muhammad Taha; Gamal Tharwat

    2016-01-01

    Sign language continues to be the preferred tool of communication between the deaf and the hearing-impaired. It is a well-structured code by h and gesture, where every gesture has a specific meaning, In this paper has goal to develop a system for automatic translation of Arabic Sign Language. To Arabic Text (ATASAT) System this system is acts as a translator among deaf and dumb with normal people to enhance their commun ication, the...

  7. SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATIC GENERALIZATION OF TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Hao-wen; LI Zhi-lin; AI Ting-hua

    2006-01-01

    With the construction of spatial data infrastructure, automated topographic map generalization becomes an indispensable component in the community of cartography and geographic information science. This paper describes a topographic map generalization system recently developed by the authors. The system has the following characteristics: 1) taking advantage of three levels of automation, i.e. fully automated generalization, batch generalization,and interactive generalization, to undertake two types of processes, i.e. intelligent inference process and repetitive operation process in generalization; 2) making use of two kinds of sources for generalizing rule library, i.e. written specifications and cartographers' experiences, to define a six-element structure to describe the rules; 3) employing a hierarchical structure for map databases, logically and physically; 4) employing a grid indexing technique and undo/redo operation to improve database retrieval and object generalization efficiency. Two examples of topographic map generalization are given to demonstrate the system. It reveals that the system works well. In fact, this system has been used for a number of projects and it has been found that a great improvement in efficiency compared with traditional map generalization process can be achieved.

  8. Automatic polarization control in optical sampling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Yang, Aiying; Feng, Lihui

    2015-08-01

    In an optical sampling system for high-speed optical communications, polarization controlling is one of the most important parts of the system, regardless of nonlinear optical sampling or linear optical sampling. A simple method based on variance calculation of sampled data is proposed in this paper to tune the wave plates in a motor-driven polarization controller. In the experiment, an optical sampling system base on SFG in PPLN is carried for a 10Gbit/s or beyond optical data signal. The results demonstrate that, with the proposed method, the error of estimated Q factor from the sampled data is least, and the tuning time of optimized polarization state is less than 30 seconds with the accuracy of +/-1°.

  9. AUTOMATIC THEFT SECURITY SYSTEM (SMART SURVEILLANCE CAMERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena G.S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposed work aims to create a smart application camera, with the intention of eliminating the need for a human presence to detect any unwanted sinister activities, such as theft in this case. Spread among the campus, are certain valuable biometric identification systems at arbitrary locations. The application monitosr these systems (hereafter referred to as “object” using our smart camera system based on an OpenCV platform. By using OpenCV Haar Training, employing the Viola-Jones algorithm implementation in OpenCV, we teach the machine to identify the object in environmental conditions. An added feature of face recognition is based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA to generate Eigen Faces and the test images are verified by using distance based algorithm against the eigenfaces, like Euclidean distance algorithm or Mahalanobis Algorithm. If the object is misplaced, or an unauthorized user is in the extreme vicinity of the object, an alarm signal is raised.

  10. Automatic speed management systems : great safety potential ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of speed management experiments carried out in The Netherlands on four 2-lane rural roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h. The experiment involved an information campaign, warning signs and a radar camera system. Fixed signs advised a speed of between 60 and 80 km/h and an automati

  11. ATIPS: Automatic Travel Itinerary Planning System for Domestic Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsien-Tsung; Chang, Yi-Ming; Tsai, Meng-Tze

    2016-01-01

    Leisure travel has become a topic of great interest to Taiwanese residents in recent years. Most residents expect to be able to relax on a vacation during the holidays; however, the complicated procedure of travel itinerary planning is often discouraging and leads them to abandon the idea of traveling. In this paper, we design an automatic travel itinerary planning system for the domestic area (ATIPS) using an algorithm to automatically plan a domestic travel itinerary based on user intentions that allows users to minimize the process of trip planning. Simply by entering the travel time, the departure point, and the destination location, the system can automatically generate a travel itinerary. According to the results of the experiments, 70% of users were satisfied with the result of our system, and 82% of users were satisfied with the automatic user preference learning mechanism of ATIPS. Our algorithm also provides a framework for substituting modules or weights and offers a new method for travel planning. PMID:26839529

  12. ATIPS: Automatic Travel Itinerary Planning System for Domestic Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Tsung Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leisure travel has become a topic of great interest to Taiwanese residents in recent years. Most residents expect to be able to relax on a vacation during the holidays; however, the complicated procedure of travel itinerary planning is often discouraging and leads them to abandon the idea of traveling. In this paper, we design an automatic travel itinerary planning system for the domestic area (ATIPS using an algorithm to automatically plan a domestic travel itinerary based on user intentions that allows users to minimize the process of trip planning. Simply by entering the travel time, the departure point, and the destination location, the system can automatically generate a travel itinerary. According to the results of the experiments, 70% of users were satisfied with the result of our system, and 82% of users were satisfied with the automatic user preference learning mechanism of ATIPS. Our algorithm also provides a framework for substituting modules or weights and offers a new method for travel planning.

  13. Development of optical automatic positioning and wafer defect detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data of a wafer with defects can provide engineers with very important information and clues to improve the yield rate and quality in manufacturing. This paper presents a microscope automatic positioning and wafer detection system with human-machine interface based on image processing and fuzzy inference algorithms. In the proposed system, a XY table is used to move the position of each die on 6 inch or 8 inch wafers. Then, a high-resolution CCD and one set of two-axis optical linear encoder are used to accurately measure the position on the wafer. Finally, the developed human-machine interface is used to display the current position of an actual wafer in order to complete automatic positioning, and a wafer map database can be created. In the process of defect detection, CCD is used for image processing, and during preprocessing, it is required to filter noise, acquire the defect characteristics, define the defective template, and then take the characteristic points of the defective template as the reference input for fuzzy inference. A high-accuracy optical automatic positioning and wafer defect detection system is thus constructed. This study focused on automatic detection of spots, scratches, and bruises, and attempted to reduce the time to detect defective die and improve the accuracy of determining the defects of semiconductor devices. (paper)

  14. Automatic control system generation for robot design validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, James A. (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The specification and drawings present a new method, system and software product for and apparatus for generating a robotic validation system for a robot design. The robotic validation system for the robot design of a robotic system is automatically generated by converting a robot design into a generic robotic description using a predetermined format, then generating a control system from the generic robotic description and finally updating robot design parameters of the robotic system with an analysis tool using both the generic robot description and the control system.

  15. Conjugated linoleic acid of dairy foods is affected by cows’ feeding system and processing of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Avilez Ruiz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The distribution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in dairy products commercially available in Chile is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the content of CLA in dairy cow products from Chile and the effect of processing fresh milk into dairy products. Samples of raw milk were categorized into two groups based on the animal feeding system utilized by the dairy farm: 1 grazing based systems (Los Lagos region; and 2 housing systems using total mixed ration (TMR diets (Los Angeles region. Simultaneously, commercial samples of condensed milk, powdered milk, butter and Gouda cheese were analyzed. Furthermore, samples of raw milk and processed products (powdered and sweetened condensed milk were also analyzed. Dairy farms based on grazing systems had higher levels of CLA in raw milk than TMR farms. In addition, average values of CLA were 1.72 g 100 g−1 of total fatty acids, in spring milk in the Los Lagos region, and 0.42 g 100 g−1 in summer milk, in the Los Angeles region. Similarly, the CLA content of dairy products was higher than that of raw milk. Milk processing affected the transferring of CLA from fresh milk into the final products. Sweetened condensed milk presented lower CLA values than raw and powdered milk. In conclusion, this study indicates the importance of the production systems to the CLA content as well as the effects of milk processing into dairy products. To sum up, more research is needed to elucidate the exact effect of the processing conditions of dairy products on the CLA content.

  16. Automatic radiation measuring system connected with GPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most serious nuclear disaster in Japan has broken out at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to Great East Japan Earthquake. Prompt and exact mapping of the contamination is of great importance for radiation protection and for the environment restoration. We have developed radiation survey systems KURAMA and KURAMA-2 for rapid and exact measurement of radiation dose distribution. The system is composed of a mobile radiation monitor and the computer in office which is for the storage and visualization of the data. They are connected with internet and are operated for continuous radiation measurement while the monitor is moving. The mobile part consists of a survey meter, an interface to transform the output of the survey meter for the computer, a global positioning system, a computer to process the data for connecting to the network, and a mobile router. Thus they are effective for rapid mapping of the surface contamination. The operation and the performance of the equipment at the site are presented. (J.P.N.)

  17. Automatic outdoor monitoring system for photovoltaic panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefancich, Marco [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerce, Istituto dei Materiali per l’Elettronica ed il Magnetismo (CNR-IMEM), Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124 Parma, Italy; Simpson, Lin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Chiesa, Matteo [Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 54224, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    2016-05-01

    Long-term acquisition of solar panel performance parameters, for panels operated at maximum power point in their real environment, is of critical importance in the photovoltaic research sector. However, few options exist for the characterization of non-standard panels such as concentrated photovoltaic systems, heavily soiled or shaded panels or those operating under non-standard spectral illumination; certainly, it is difficult to find such a measurement system that is flexible and affordable enough to be adopted by the smaller research institutes or universities. We present here an instrument aiming to fill this gap, autonomously tracking and maintaining any solar panel at maximum power point while continuously monitoring its operational parameters and dissipating the produced energy without connection to the power grid. The instrument allows periodic acquisition of current-voltage curves to verify the employed maximum power point tracking approach. At the same time, with hardware schematics and software code being provided, it provides a flexible open development environment for the monitoring of non-standard generators like concentrator photovoltaic systems and to test novel power tracking approaches. The key issues, and the corresponding solutions, encountered in the design are analyzed in detail and the relevant schematics presented.

  18. Automatic outdoor monitoring system for photovoltaic panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefancich, Marco; Simpson, Lin; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    Long-term acquisition of solar panel performance parameters, for panels operated at maximum power point in their real environment, is of critical importance in the photovoltaic research sector. However, few options exist for the characterization of non-standard panels such as concentrated photovoltaic systems, heavily soiled or shaded panels or those operating under non-standard spectral illumination; certainly, it is difficult to find such a measurement system that is flexible and affordable enough to be adopted by the smaller research institutes or universities. We present here an instrument aiming to fill this gap, autonomously tracking and maintaining any solar panel at maximum power point while continuously monitoring its operational parameters and dissipating the produced energy without connection to the power grid. The instrument allows periodic acquisition of current-voltage curves to verify the employed maximum power point tracking approach. At the same time, with hardware schematics and software code being provided, it provides a flexible open development environment for the monitoring of non-standard generators like concentrator photovoltaic systems and to test novel power tracking approaches. The key issues, and the corresponding solutions, encountered in the design are analyzed in detail and the relevant schematics presented.

  19. Lameness detection challenges in automated milking systems addressed with partial least squares discriminant analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Emanuel; Klaas, Ilka Christine; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel;

    2014-01-01

    . Eighty variables retrieved from AMS were summarized week-wise and used to predict 2 defined classes: nonlame and clinically lame cows. Variables were represented with 2 transformations of the week summarized variables, using 2-wk data blocks before gait scoring, totaling 320 variables (2 × 2 × 80......). The reference gait scoring error was estimated in the first week of the study and was, on average, 15%. Two partial least squares discriminant analysis models were fitted to parity 1 and parity 2 groups, respectively, to assign the lameness class according to the predicted probability of being lame (score 3......Lameness is prevalent in dairy herds. It causes decreased animal welfare and leads to higher production costs. This study explored data from an automatic milking system (AMS) to model on-farm gait scoring from a commercial farm. A total of 88 cows were gait scored once per week, for 2 5-wk periods...

  20. Automatic computer-aided system of simulating solder joint formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiujuan; Wang, Chunqing; Zheng, Guanqun; Wang, Gouzhong; Yang, Shiqin

    1999-08-01

    One critical aspect in electronic packaging is the fatigue/creep-induced failure in solder interconnections, which is found to be highly dependent on the shape of solder joints. Thus predicting and analyzing the solder joint shape is warranted. In this paper, an automatic computer-aided system is developed to simulate the formation of solder joint and analyze the influence of the different process parameters on the solder joint shape. The developed system is capable of visually designing the process parameters and calculating the solder joint shape automatically without any intervention from the user. The automation achieved will enable fast shape estimation with the variation of process parameters without time consuming experiments, and the simulating system provides the design and manufacturing engineers an efficient software tools to design soldering process in design environment. Moreover, a program developed from the system can serve as the preprocessor for subsequent finite element joint analysis program.

  1. Automatic system for driving probes of electron cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automatic system for driving six probes used on electron model of the ring cyclotron is described. This system allows one to move probes one by one or simultaneously. The active forcing of the process of switching on of the current in phase windings is used a driving scheme of step-motors. The shift of probes from one radius to other can be carried out both from the front panel of driving device (autonomous regime), and from the computer

  2. Semi-automatic Story Creation System in Ubiquitous Sensor Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Shohei; Hirano, Yasushi; Kajita, Shoji; Mase, Kenji; Maekawa, Takuya

    This paper proposes an agent system that semi-automatically creates stories about daily events detected by ubiquitous sensors and posts them to a weblog. The story flow is generated from query-answering interaction between sensor room inhabitants and a symbiotic agent. The agent questions the causal relationships among daily events to create the flow of the story. Preliminary experimental results show that the stories created by our system help users understand daily events.

  3. Forced versus free traffic in an automated milking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, Lene; Rushen, J.; de Passillé, A.M.;

    2011-01-01

    Cows in automated milking systems with free access to feeders sometimes show a reduced use of the robotic milkers, while forced traffic where cows have to pass through the robot to reach the feeders may reduce feeding time and frequency. We examined two groups of 35 lactating cows. For 21 d, one...... group had free access to feeders, while the other group had to pass through the robot to reach feed. For a subsequent 21 d period, the treatments were reversed. The behaviour of the cows was observed for 3 periods of 24 h using 10 min scan sampling. Milking data were obtained from the robot milkers....... The average number of visits to the robot, either with or without milking, did not differ between the two types of traffic. On average cows lay down for 12.3 h/d, with no significant difference between free and forced traffic. The type of traffic did not affect the duration of time spent in the feeding area...

  4. Automatic behaviour analysis system for honeybees using computer vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Gang Jun; Hansen, Mikkel Kragh; Kryger, Per;

    2016-01-01

    We present a fully automatic online video system, which is able to detect the behaviour of honeybees at the beehive entrance. Our monitoring system focuses on observing the honeybees as naturally as possible (i.e. without disturbing the honeybees). It is based on the Raspberry Pi that is a low...... demonstrate that this system can be used as a tool to detect the behaviour of honeybees and assess their state in the beehive entrance. Besides, the result of the computation time show that the Raspberry Pi is a viable solution in such real-time video processing system....

  5. Central Nervous System Based Computing Models for Shelf Life Prediction of Soft Mouth Melting Milk Cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Gyanendra Kumar Goyal; Sumit Goyal

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the latency and potential of central nervous system based system intelligent computer engineering system for detecting shelf life of soft mouth melting milk cakes stored at 10o C. Soft mouth melting milk cakes are exquisite sweetmeat cuisine made out of heat and acid thickened solidified sweetened milk. In today’s highly competitive market consumers look for good quality food products. Shelf life is a good and accurate indicator to the food quality and safety. To achieve g...

  6. Intelligent E-Learning Systems: Automatic Construction of Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peso, Jesús del; de Arriaga, Fernando

    2008-05-01

    During the last years a new generation of Intelligent E-Learning Systems (ILS) has emerged with enhanced functionality due, mainly, to influences from Distributed Artificial Intelligence, to the use of cognitive modelling, to the extensive use of the Internet, and to new educational ideas such as the student-centered education and Knowledge Management. The automatic construction of ontologies provides means of automatically updating the knowledge bases of their respective ILS, and of increasing their interoperability and communication among them, sharing the same ontology. The paper presents a new approach, able to produce ontologies from a small number of documents such as those obtained from the Internet, without the assistance of large corpora, by using simple syntactic rules and some semantic information. The method is independent of the natural language used. The use of a multi-agent system increases the flexibility and capability of the method. Although the method can be easily improved, the results so far obtained, are promising.

  7. Automatic programmers for solid set sprinkler irrigation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata Ruiz, Nery; Salvador Esteban, Raquel; Cavero Campo, José; Lecina Brau, Sergio; Playán Jubillar, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The application of new technologies to the control and automation of irrigation processes is becoming very important in the last decade. Although automation of irrigation execution (irrigation programmers) is now widespread the automatic generation and execution of irrigation schedules is receiving growing attention due to the possibilities offered by the telemetry / remote control systems currently being installed in collective pressurized networks. In this paper, a protot...

  8. The TS 600: automatic control system for eddy currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the scope of fabrication and in service inspection of the PWR steam generator tubing bendle, FRAMATOME developed an automatic Eddy Current testing system: TS600. Based on a mini-computer, TS600 allows to digitize, to store and to process data in various ways, so it is possible to perform several kinds of inspection: conventional inservice inspection, roll area profilometry...... TS600 can also be used to develop new methods of examination

  9. Implementation of HACCP system in production of UHT milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jeličić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of the Croatian Food Law (NN 46/07 which demands implementation of food safety management system based on HACCP principles became mandatory at the January 01st 2009. According to that regulation all subjects in food production and retail sector including the dairy industry too are obligant to implement HACCP system in their production processes. In the process of HACCP implementation many problems occur which result in delaying the implementation, scarce performance of assigned monitoring actions and inadequate maintenance and improvement of the system. All of the latter mentioned problems disable proactive functioning and may lead to disturbance of food safety of the end product. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the interpretation of each steps that have to be taken in the process of implementation of HACCP system in the production of UHT milk. Thereby many practical informations and examples have been gathered while reviewing the HACCP system in KIM d.d. Dairy industry, Karlovac, Croatia. This paper contains the examples of all indentified hazards, all assigned control actions, hazard analysis and critical control point determination for the process of UHT milk production in KIM d.d. Dairy industry, Karlovac. Furthermore, also examples and ideas for the traceability, verification and validation, product recall and withdrawal procedures are given.

  10. Automatic Thermal Control System with Temperature Difference or Derivation Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Matiskova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Automatic thermal control systems seem to be non-linear systems with thermal inertias and time delay. A controller is also non-linear because its information and power signals are limited. The application of methods that are available to on-linear systems together with computer simulation and mathematical modelling creates a possibility to acquire important information about the researched system. This paper provides a new look at the heated system model and also designs the structure of the thermal system with temperature derivation feedback. The designed system was simulated by using a special software in Turbo Pascal. Time responses of this system are compared to responses of a conventional thermal system. The thermal system with temperature derivation feedback provides better transients, better quality of regulation and better dynamical properties.

  11. Haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in milk from dairy cows with chronic sub-clinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Grönlund, Ulrika; Sandgren, Charlotte; Waller, Karin

    2005-01-01

    New tools are needed to detect chronic sub-clinical mastitis, especially in automatic milking systems. Haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA) are the two most sensitive bovine acute phase proteins, and their concentrations increase in milk from cows with clinical mastitis and in milk from cows with experimentally induced chronic sub-clinical Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. The aim of this study was to further evaluate the potential for haptoglobin and SAA in milk as indicators of chronic sub-c...

  12. Automatic continuous monitoring system for dangerous sites and cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of creation of automatic comprehensive continuous monitoring system for nuclear and radiation sites and cargoes of Rosatom Corporation, which carries out data collecting, processing, storage and transmission, including informational support to decision-making, as well as support to modelling and forecasting functions, are considered. The system includes components of two levels: site and industry. Currently the system is used to monitor over 8000 integrated parameters, which characterise the status of nuclear and radiation safety on Rosatom sites, environmental and fire safety

  13. ALTERNATIVE FLUID MILK PROCUREMENT SYSTEMS FOR FLORIDA DAIRY FARMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Nubern, Christopher A.; Kilmer, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    This article evaluates the effects of alternative fluid milk procurement strategies on the aggregate net revenue of Florida cooperative members. They are (1) supplemental milk obtained from import sources, (2) supplemental milk obtained from a supply plant, (3) increased supply as a result of an expanded production area, and (4) supplemental milk obtained through pooling arrangements with regional dairy cooperatives. The final ranking of a scenario appears to be dependent primarily on the tot...

  14. Application of MintDrive Automatic Precision Positioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Fengming; Yang Yonggang; Zhao Xiaolong; Zhang Zhiyuan

    2004-01-01

    It is very important to locate batteries accurately and quickly during automatic battery production.Unstable or inaccurate location will negatively influence battery's consistency, quality and finished product rate.A traditional way is using sensor to detect and locate batteries directly , but because of the detecting tolerance, setting them on a fixed point exactly is almost impossible.This problem could be completely solved by the application of mint drive automatic accurate servo locating system.Firstly operating software WorkBench test was applied to collocate the servo locating driver for a most optimized control.Then based on the requirement of real location, program and test the locating action with a programming software and finally upload all the locating information to MicroLogix 1200 PLC, the PLC will control the running on each station telling when to locate, where is the location and how to eliminate bad parts.For this intelligent servo locating system has the advantages of powerful function, simple operation, high controlling and locating accuracy and easy maintenance, it is very suitable to be adopted by automatic battery making line.It is regarded as a very advanced method of control currently for reducing waste material due to inaccurate location and tough adjustment.

  15. Automatic graphene transfer system for improved material quality and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscá, Alberto; Pedrós, Jorge; Martínez, Javier; Palacios, Tomás; Calle, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    In most applications based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, the transfer from the growth to the target substrate is a critical step for the final device performance. Manual procedures are time consuming and depend on handling skills, whereas existing automatic roll-to-roll methods work well for flexible substrates but tend to induce mechanical damage in rigid ones. A new system that automatically transfers CVD graphene to an arbitrary target substrate has been developed. The process is based on the all-fluidic manipulation of the graphene to avoid mechanical damage, strain and contamination, and on the combination of capillary action and electrostatic repulsion between the graphene and its container to ensure a centered sample on top of the target substrate. The improved carrier mobility and yield of the automatically transferred graphene, as compared to that manually transferred, is demonstrated by the optical and electrical characterization of field-effect transistors fabricated on both materials. In particular, 70% higher mobility values, with a 30% decrease in the unintentional doping and a 10% strain reduction are achieved. The system has been developed for lab-scale transfer and proved to be scalable for industrial applications.

  16. Proportional directional valve based automatic steering system for tractors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-yi LIU; Jing-quan TAN; En-rong MAO; Zheng-he SONG; Zhong-xiang ZHU‡

    2016-01-01

    Most automatic steering systems for large tractors are designed with hydraulic systems that run on either constant flow or constant pressure. Such designs are limited in adaptability and applicability. Moreover, their control valves can unload in the neutral position and eventually lead to serious hydraulic leakage over long operation periods. In response to the problems noted above, a multifunctional automatic hydraulic steering circuit is presented. The system design is composed of a 5-way-3-position proportional directional valve, two pilot-controlled check valves, a pressure-compensated directional valve, a pressure-compensated flow regulator valve, a load shuttle valve, and a check valve, among other components. It is adaptable to most open-center systems with constant flow supply and closed-center systems with load feedback. The design maintains the lowest pressure under load feedback and stays at the neutral position during unloading, thus meeting the requirements for steering. The steering controller is based on proportional-integral-derivative (PID) running on a 51-microcontroller-unit master control chip. An experimental platform is developed to establish the basic characteristics of the system subject to stepwise inputs and sinusoi-dal tracking. Test results show that the system design demonstrates excellent control accuracy, fast response, and negligible leak during long operation periods.

  17. Design of automatic thruster assisted mooring systems for ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P. Strand

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the mathematical modelling and controller design of an automatic thruster assisted position mooring system. Such control systems are applied to anchored floating production offloading and storage vessels and semi-subs. The controller is designed using model based control with a LQG feedback controller in conjunction with a Kalman filter. The controller design is in addition to the environmental loads accounting for the mooring forces acting on the vessel. This is reflected in the model structure and in the inclusion of new functionality.

  18. Automatic System for Serving and Deploying Products into Advertising Space

    OpenAIRE

    Lepen, Nejc

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to present the problems of deploying and serving products into advertising space,encountered daily by online marketers,planners and leaseholders of advertising spaces.The aim of the thesis is to solve the problem in question with the help of a novel web application.Therefore,we have designed an automatic system,which consists of three key components:an online store,a surveillance system and websites accommodating advertising space.In the course of this thesis,we h...

  19. Effect of Feeding Intensity and Milking System on Nutritionally Relevant Milk Components in Dairy Farming Systems in the North East of England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stergiadis, Sokratis; Leifert, Carlo; Seal, Chris J.;

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing concern that the intensification of dairy production reduces the concentrations of nutritionally desirable compounds in milk. This study therefore compared important quality parameters (protein and fatty acid profiles; α- tocopherol and carotenoid concentrations) in milk from...... four dairy systems with contrasting production intensities (in terms of feeding regimens and milking systems). The concentrations of several nutritionally desirable compounds (β-lactoglobulin, omega-3 fatty acids, omega-3/omega-6 ratio, conjugated linoleic acid c9t11, and/or carotenoids) decreased...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1103-6 - Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire... Protection § 75.1103-6 Automatic fire sensors; actuation of fire suppression systems. Point-type heat sensors or automatic fire sensor and warning device systems may be used to actuate deluge-type water...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1103-3 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-3 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; minimum requirements; general. Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems installed in belt haulageways...

  2. Automatic Emboli Detection System for the Artificial Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steifer, T.; Lewandowski, M.; Karwat, P.; Gawlikowski, M.

    In spite of the progress in material engineering and ventricular assist devices construction, thromboembolism remains the most crucial problem in mechanical heart supporting systems. Therefore, the ability to monitor the patient's blood for clot formation should be considered an important factor in development of heart supporting systems. The well-known methods for automatic embolus detection are based on the monitoring of the ultrasound Doppler signal. A working system utilizing ultrasound Doppler is being developed for the purpose of flow estimation and emboli detection in the clinical artificial heart ReligaHeart EXT. Thesystem will be based on the existing dual channel multi-gate Doppler device with RF digital processing. A specially developed clamp-on cannula probe, equipped with 2 - 4 MHz piezoceramic transducers, enables easy system setup. We present the issuesrelated to the development of automatic emboli detection via Doppler measurements. We consider several algorithms for the flow estimation and emboli detection. We discuss their efficiency and confront them with the requirements of our experimental setup. Theoretical considerations are then met with preliminary experimental findings from a) flow studies with blood mimicking fluid and b) in-vitro flow studies with animal blood. Finally, we discuss some more methodological issues - we consider several possible approaches to the problem of verification of the accuracy of the detection system.

  3. Study of Digital Management System of Milking Process on Large-Sized Dairy Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This study was to supply the systemic and full milking process data to support the implementation of both dairy herd improvement (DHI) and digital feeding of dairy cattle. This study designed the relational structured database and developed a set of digital management information system on milking process of intensive dairy farm using Visual Basic 6.0, Access databases, and Crystal report combining the milking characteristics of a grown cow, such as quality and sanitation testing indexes of raw milk. The system supplies a series of convenient, intelligent input interfaces of crude datum, and can count, analyze, and graphically show milking datum based on different types and different parities of cows or herds in a specific duration, and can dynamically produce some important derived data, such as days of grown cow, daily average of milk production of grown cow, days of cow milk production, and daily average of milking cow production; and can carry out all-pervasive data mining. With the help of system analysis and software design techniques, it is possible to realize precision farming for a dairy cattle herd based on whole digital management of milking process and real-time prediction on nutrient requirements and ration of dairy cattle, as well as dairy herd improvement.

  4. MAC, A System for Automatically IPR Identification, Collection and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrão, Carlos

    Controlling Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) in the Digital World is a very hard challenge. The facility to create multiple bit-by-bit identical copies from original IPR works creates the opportunities for digital piracy. One of the most affected industries by this fact is the Music Industry. The Music Industry has supported huge losses during the last few years due to this fact. Moreover, this fact is also affecting the way that music rights collecting and distributing societies are operating to assure a correct music IPR identification, collection and distribution. In this article a system for automating this IPR identification, collection and distribution is presented and described. This system makes usage of advanced automatic audio identification system based on audio fingerprinting technology. This paper will present the details of the system and present a use-case scenario where this system is being used.

  5. Automatic Generation of Symbolic Model for Parameterized Synchronous Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Wen Xu

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of making the verification of parameterized system more general and easier, in this paper, a new and intuitive language PSL (Parameterized-system Specification Language) is proposed to specify a class of parameterized synchronous systems. From a PSL script, an automatic method is proposed to generate a constraint-based symbolic model. The model can concisely symbolically represent the collections of global states by counting the number of processes in a given state. Moreover, a theorem has been proved that there is a simulation relation between the original system and its symbolic model. Since the abstract and symbolic techniques are exploited in the symbolic model, state-explosion problem in traditional verification methods is efficiently avoided. Based on the proposed symbolic model, a reachability analysis procedure is implemented using ANSI C++ on UNIX platform. Thus, a complete tool for verifying the parameterized synchronous systems is obtained and tested for some cases. The experimental results show that the method is satisfactory.

  6. Towards a complete Feynman diagrams automatic computation system

    CERN Document Server

    Perret-Gallix, D

    1995-01-01

    Complete Feynman diagram automatic computation systems are now coming of age after many years of development. They are made available to the high energy physics community through user-friendly interfaces. Theorists and experimentalists can benefit from these powerful packages for speeding up time consuming calculations and for preparing event generators. The general architecture of these packages is presented and the current development of the one-loop diagrams extension is discussed. A rapid description of the prominent packages and tools is then proposed. Finally, the necessity for defining a standardization scheme is heavily stressed for the benefit of developers and users.

  7. Robust Fallback Scheme for the Danish Automatic Voltage Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Dmitrova, Evgenia; Lund, Torsten;

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a fallback scheme for the Danish automatic voltage control system. It will be activated in case of the local station loses telecommunication to the control center and/or the local station voltage violates the acceptable operational limits. It cuts in/out switchable and tap......-able shunts to maintain the voltage locally. The fallback scheme is fully selfregulated according to the predefined triggering logic. In order to keep the robustness and avoid many shunts are being triggered in a short term, the inverse time characteristic is used to trigger switching one by one. This scheme...

  8. AROMA: Automatic Generation of Radio Maps for Localization Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eleryan, Ahmed; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    WLAN localization has become an active research field recently. Due to the wide WLAN deployment, WLAN localization provides ubiquitous coverage and adds to the value of the wireless network by providing the location of its users without using any additional hardware. However, WLAN localization systems usually require constructing a radio map, which is a major barrier of WLAN localization systems' deployment. The radio map stores information about the signal strength from different signal strength streams at selected locations in the site of interest. Typical construction of a radio map involves measurements and calibrations making it a tedious and time-consuming operation. In this paper, we present the AROMA system that automatically constructs accurate active and passive radio maps for both device-based and device-free WLAN localization systems. AROMA has three main goals: high accuracy, low computational requirements, and minimum user overhead. To achieve high accuracy, AROMA uses 3D ray tracing enhanced wi...

  9. The Diagnostic System of A – 604 Automatic Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czaban Jaroslaw

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic gearbox gains increasing popularity in Europe. Little interest in diagnosis of such type of transmission in Poland results from the fact of small share in the whole market of operated cars, so there is a lack of availability of special diagnostic devices. These factors cause issues of expensive repairs, often involving a replacement of subassembly to new or aftermarket one. To a small extent some prophylactic diagnostic tests are conducted, which can eliminate future gearbox system failures. In the paper, the proposition of diagnostic system of popular A - 604 gearbox was presented. The authors are seeking for the possibility of using such type of devices to functional elaboration of gearboxes after renovation. The built system pursues the drive of the researched object, connected with simulated load, where special controller, replacing the original one, is responsible for controlling gearbox operation. This way is used to evaluate the mechanic and hydraulic parts' state. Analysis of signal runs, registered during measurements lets conclude about operation correctness, where as comparison with stock data verifies the technical state of an automatic gearbox.

  10. Evaluation of calf milk pasteurization systems on 6 Pennsylvania dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Salazar, J A; Jones, C M; Heinrichs, A J

    2010-11-01

    Waste milk has been fed to calves for many years, but concerns with bacterial contamination as well as possible transmission of diseases have discouraged widespread use of this feed. Pasteurization of waste milk is one option to reduce management risk while utilizing a valuable, low-cost, liquid feed source for calves. However, many farms currently pasteurizing waste milk lack a system to adequately monitor the efficiency of the process. A study was carried out to evaluate 6 on-farm pasteurization systems, including high-temperature, short-time pasteurizers and low-temperature, batch pasteurizers. Milk samples were taken pre- and postpasteurization as well as from the calf buckets and immediately frozen for later bacterial culture. Samples were collected twice daily for 15 d. Milk samples were examined for standard plate count (SPC), coagulase-negative staphylococci count, environmental streptococci count, coliform count, gram-negative noncoliform count, Streptococcus agalactiae count, and Staphylococcus aureus count. Before pasteurization, 68% of the samples had SPC counts counts were significantly reduced by pasteurization, and pasteurized milk contained acceptable numbers of bacteria in >90% of samples. These results indicate that pasteurization can be very effective in lowering bacterial contamination of milk. However, bacteria numbers significantly increased after pasteurization and, in some cases, bacteria counts in milk fed to calves were similar to prepasteurization levels. Milk handling after pasteurization was identified as an important issue on the farms studied.

  11. Automatic convey or System with In–Process Sorting Mechanism using PLC and HMI System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y V Aruna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Programmable logic controllers are widely used in many manufacturing process like machinery packaging material handling automatic assembly. These are special type of microprocessor based controller used for any application that needs any kind of electrical controller including lighting controller and HVAC control system. Automatic conveyor system is a computerized control method of controlling and managing the sorting mechanism at the same time maintaining the efficiency of the industry & quality of the products.HMI for automatic conveyor system is considered the primary way of controlling each operation. Text displays are available as well as graphical touch screens. It is used in touch panels and local monitoring of machines. This paper deals with the efficient use of PLC in automatic conveyor system and also building the accuracy in it.

  12. 30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-4 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements. (a) Effective December 31, 2009, automatic fire sensor and warning...

  13. An investigation of prior knowledge in Automatic Music Transcription systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazau, Dorian; Revillon, Guillaume; Krywyk, Julien; Adam, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    Automatic transcription of music is a long-studied research field with many operational systems available commercially. In this paper, a generic transcription system able to host various prior knowledge parameters has been developed, followed by an in-depth investigation of their impact on music transcription. Explicit links between musical knowledge and algorithmic formalism have been made. Musical knowledge covers classes of timbre, musicology, and playing style of an instrument repertoire. An evaluation sound corpus gathering musical pieces played by human performers from three different instrument repertoires, namely, classical piano, steel-string acoustic guitar, and the marovany zither from Madagascar, has been developed. The different components of musical knowledge have been successively incorporated in a complete transcription system, consisting mainly of a Probabilistic Latent Component Analysis algorithm post-processed with a Hidden Markov Model, and their impact on transcription results have been comparatively evaluated. PMID:26520339

  14. Modeling of a Multiple Digital Automatic Gain Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jingdian; LU Xiuhong; ZHANG Li

    2008-01-01

    Automatic gain control (AGC) has been used in many applications. The key features of AGC, including a steady state output and static/dynamic timing response, depend mainly on key parameters such as the reference and the filter coefficients. A simple model developed to describe AGC systems based on several simple assumptions shows that AGC always converges to the reference and that the timing constant depends on the filter coefficients. Measures are given to prevent oscillations and limit cycle effects. The simple AGC system is adapted to a multiple AGC system for a TV tuner in a much more efficient model. Simulations using the C language are 16 times faster than those with MATLAB, and 10 times faster than those with a mixed register transfer level (RTL)-simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (SPICE) model.

  15. Design and implementation of automatic color information collection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Wenjie; Xie, Kai; Li, Tong

    2015-12-01

    In liquid crystal display (LCD) colorimetric characterization, it needs to convert RGB the device-dependent color space to CIEXYZ or CIELab the device-independent color space. Namely establishing the relationship between RGB and CIE using the data of device color and the corresponding data of CIE. Thus a color automatic message acquisition software is designed. We use openGL to fulfill the full screen display function, write c++ program and call the Eyeone equipment library functions to accomplish the equipment calibration, set the sample types, and realize functions such as sampling and preservation. The software can drive monitors or projectors display the set of sample colors automatically and collect the corresponding CIE values. The sample color of RGB values and the acquisition of CIE values can be stored in a text document, which is convenient for future extraction and analysis. Taking the cubic polynomial as an example, each channel is sampled of 17 sets using this system. And 100 sets of test data are also sampled. Using the least square method we can get the model. The average of color differences are around 2.4874, which is much lower than the CIE2000 commonly required level of 6.00.The successful implementation of the system saves the time of sample color data acquisition, and improves the efficiency of LCD colorimetric characterization.

  16. 14 CFR 25.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... system or in any other automatic or power-operated system which could result in an unsafe condition if...) The design of the stability augmentation system or of any other automatic or power-operated system... exceptional pilot skill or strength, by either the deactivation of the system, or a failed portion thereof,...

  17. 14 CFR 27.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... stability augmentation system or in any other automatic or power-operated system which could result in an... systems. (b) The design of the stability augmentation system or of any other automatic or power-operated system must allow initial counteraction of failures without requiring exceptional pilot skill or...

  18. Automatic Voltage Control (AVC) System under Uncertainty from Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Abildgaard, Hans; Flynn, Damian;

    2016-01-01

    An automatic voltage control (AVC) system maintains the voltage profile of a power system in an acceptable range and minimizes the operational cost by coordinating the regulation of controllable components. Typically, all of the parameters in the optimization problem are assumed to be certain...... and constant in the decision making process. However, for high shares of wind power, uncertainty in the decision process due to wind power variability may result in an infeasible AVC solution. This paper proposes a voltage control approach which considers the voltage uncertainty from wind power productions....... The proposed method improves the performance and the robustness of a scenario based approach by estimating the potential voltage variations due to fluctuating wind power production, and introduces a voltage margin to protect the decision against uncertainty for each scenario. The effectiveness of the proposed...

  19. Human factors in automatic image retrieval system design and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    Image retrieval is a human-centered task: images are created by people and are ultimately accessed and used by people for human-related activities. In designing image retrieval systems and algorithms, or measuring their performance, it is therefore imperative to consider the conditions that surround both the indexing of image content and the retrieval. This includes examining the different levels of interpretation for retrieval, possible search strategies, and image uses. Furthermore, we must consider different levels of similarity and the role of human factors such as culture, memory, and personal context. This paper takes a human-centered perspective in outlining levels of description, types of users, search strategies, image uses, and human factors that affect the construction and evaluation of automatic content-based retrieval systems, such as human memory, context, and subjectivity.

  20. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system based automatic generation control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, S.H.; Etemadi, A.H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-07-15

    Fixed gain controllers for automatic generation control are designed at nominal operating conditions and fail to provide best control performance over a wide range of operating conditions. So, to keep system performance near its optimum, it is desirable to track the operating conditions and use updated parameters to compute control gains. A control scheme based on artificial neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), which is trained by the results of off-line studies obtained using particle swarm optimization, is proposed in this paper to optimize and update control gains in real-time according to load variations. Also, frequency relaxation is implemented using ANFIS. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated via simulations. Compliance of the proposed method with NERC control performance standard is verified. (author)

  1. Automatic Vehicle License Recognition Based on Video Vehicular Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhaoxuan; CHEN Yang; HE Yinghua; WU Jun

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods of license character extraction cannot meet the requirements of recognition accuracy and speed rendered by the video vehicular detection system.Therefore, a license plate localization method based on multi-scale edge detection and a character segmentation algorithm based on Markov random field model is presented.Results of experiments demonstrate that the method yields more accurate license character extraction in contrast to traditional localization method based on edge detection by difference operator and character segmentation based on threshold.The accuracy increases from 90% to 94% under preferable illumination, while under poor condition, it increases more than 5%.When the two improved algorithms are used, the accuracy and speed of automatic license recognition meet the system's requirement even under the noisy circumstance or uneven illumination.

  2. Automatic Meter Reading and Theft Control System by Using GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rakesh Malhotra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with automatic meter reading and theft control system in energy meter. Current transformer is used to measure the total power consumption for house or industrial purpose. This recorded reading is transmitted to the electricity board for every 60 days once. For transmitting the reading of energy meter GSM module is used. To avoid theft, infrared sensor is placed in the screw portion of energy meter seal. If the screw is removed from the meter a message is sent to the electricity board. The measuring of energy meter and monitoring of IR sensor is done with a PIC microcontroller.The informative system will be helpful for the electricity board to monitor the entire supply and the correct billing accordingly without any mishap. This model reduces the manual manipulation work andtheft control.

  3. Entrance C - New Automatic Number Plate Recognition System

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Entrance C (Satigny) is now equipped with a latest-generation Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) system and a fast-action road gate.   During the month of August, Entrance C will be continuously open from 7.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. (working days only). The security guards will open the gate as usual from 7.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m. and from 5.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. For the rest of the working day (9.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.) the gate will operate automatically. Please observe the following points:       Stop at the STOP sign on the ground     Position yourself next to the card reader for optimal recognition     Motorcyclists must use their CERN card     Cyclists may not activate the gate and should use the bicycle turnstile     Keep a safe distance from the vehicle in front of you   If access is denied, please check that your vehicle regist...

  4. Shift Control System of Heavy-duty Vehicle Automatic Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-duty vehicle hydrodynamic mechanical automatic transmission shifting operation system was designed, mathematical model of its simplified hydraulic system was established and simulation model of shifting operation system was established with AMESim, the simulation experiment was carried out, then oil pressure curves of each clutch hydraulic cylinder were obtained when giving forward gear or reverse gear signals. The simulation results show that shifting operating system meets the design requirements, and verify the correctness of the model. The shift timing is correct, and there is no power interruption or gear overlap during the shift transition process. Joint oil pressure of designed system is stable, and shifting shock is small. The research results are providing the basis for further study of shifting operation system and a reasonable platform for the studying of shift schedule and quality. The theoretical design method and dynamic simulation experiment will be feasible for the real industrial applications. The research results can be used in design and optimization of hydraulic system

  5. Importance of Decision Support Systems About Food Safety in Raw Milk Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecem Akan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In raw milk production decision support systems for control of food safety hazards has not been developed but main points of this system are available. The decision support systems’ elements include data identification at critical points in the milk supply chain, an information management system and data exchange. Decision supports systems has been developed on the basis of these elements. In dairy sector decision support systems are significant for controlling of food safety hazards and preferred by producers. When these systems are implemented in the milk supply chain, it can be prevented unnecessary sampling and analysis. In this article it will be underlined effects of decision support system elements on food safety of raw milk.

  6. RESEARCH ON MILK PRODUCTION AT GOATS FROM CARPATHIAN BREED IN RELATION WITH BREEDING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion RĂDUCUŢĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to quantify the qualitative and quantitative parameters of milk production at goats from Carpathian breed in relation with the breeding system (extensive versus semi-intensive. To determine the total quantity of milk, the milk production control it included suckling period of kids and milking period of goats. For determining the quality of milk it was made the analysis of chemical composition of milk in the main constituents, namely water and dry matter, content of fat, protein, lactose and minerals. The biological material studied in this paper was represented by the adult goats from Carpathian breed belonging of two private farms from the south region of country. The size of the control group during the whole lactation was 25 heads for each farm. The research took into account two farms of goats differentiated by breeding system practiced, respectively extensive and semi-intensive. The obtained results showed that regarding the quantitative milk production the best performance was achieved by animals from semi-intensive farm (253.21 liters versus 208.50 liters and in terms of milk quality by the animals from extensive farm.

  7. 14 CFR 29.672 - Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated system is necessary to show compliance with the flight characteristics requirements of this part, the system must comply with § 29.671 of... stability augmentation system or in any other automatic or power-operated system which could result in...

  8. Automatic Alignment System for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhlelmsen, K C; Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W; Horowitz, B; Miller Kamm, V J; Reynolds, C A

    2007-10-04

    The automatic alignment system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large-scale parallel system that directs all 192 laser beams along the 300-m optical path to a 50-micron focus at target chamber in less than 30 minutes. The system commands 9,000 stepping motors to adjust mirrors and other optics. Twenty-two control loops per beamline request image processing services running on a LINUX cluster to analyze high-resolution images of the beam and references. Process-leveling assures the computational load is evenly spread on the cluster. Algorithms also estimate measurement accuracy and reject off-normal images. One challenge to achieving rapid alignment of beams in parallel is the efficient coordination of shared laser devices, such as sensors that are configurable to monitor multiple beams. Contention for shared resources is managed by the Component Mediation System, which precludes deadlocks and optimizes device motions using a hierarchical component structure. A reservation service provided by the software framework prevents interference from competing instances of automated controls or from the actions of system operators. The design, architecture and performance of the system will be discussed.

  9. Automatic Translation of Arabic Sign to Arabic Text (ATASAT System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmoty M.Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sign language continues to be the preferred tool of communication between the deaf and the hearing-impaired. It is a well-structured code by h and gesture, where every gesture has a specific meaning, In this paper has goal to develop a system for automatic translation of Arabic Sign Language. To Arabic Text (ATASAT System this system is acts as a translator among deaf and dumb with normal people to enhance their commun ication, the proposed System consists of five main stages Video and Images capture, Video an d images processing, Hand Signs Construction, Classification finally Text transform ation and interpretation, this system depends on building a two datasets image features for Arabi c sign language gestures alphabets from two resources: Arabic Sign Language dictionary and gest ures from different signer's human, also using gesture recognition techniques, which allows the user to interact with the outside world. This system offers a novel technique of hand detect ion is proposed which detect and extract hand gestures of Arabic Sign from Image or video, i n this paper we use a set of appropriate features in step hand sign construction and class ification of based on different classification algorithms such as KNN, MLP, C4.5, VFI and SMO and compare these results to get better classifier.

  10. Knowledge-based full-automatic control system for a nuclear ship reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant operations aboard nuclear ships require quick judgements and actions due to changing marine conditions such as wind, waves and currents. Furthermore, additional human support is not available for nuclear ship operation at sea, so advanced automatic operations are necessary to reduce the number of operators required finally. Therefore, an advanced automatic operating system has been developed based on operational knowledge of nuclear ship 'Mutsu' plant. The advanced automatic operating system includes both the automatic operation system and the operator-support system which assists operators in completing actions during plant accidents, anomaly diagnosis and plant supervision. These system are largely being developed using artificial intelligent techniques such as neural network, fuzzy logic and knowledge-based expert. The automatic operation system is fundamentally based upon application of an operator's knowledge of both normal (start-up to rated power level) and abnormal (after scram) operations. Comparing plant behaviors from start-up to power level by the automatic operation with by 'Mutsu' manual operation, stable automatic operation was obtained almost same as manual operation within all operating limits. The abnormal automatic system was for hard work of manual operations after scram or LOCA accidents. An integrating system with the normal and the abnormal automatic systems are being developed for interacting smoothly both systems. (author)

  11. Knowledge-based full-automatic control system for a nuclear ship reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazaki, J.; Nakazawa, T.; Yabuuchi, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Plant operations aboard nuclear ships require quick judgements and actions due to changing marine conditions such as wind, waves and currents. Furthermore, additional human support is not available for nuclear ship operation at sea, so advanced automatic operations are necessary to reduce the number of operators required finally. Therefore, an advanced automatic operating system has been developed based on operational knowledge of nuclear ship 'Mutsu' plant. The advanced automatic operating system includes both the automatic operation system and the operator-support system which assists operators in completing actions during plant accidents, anomaly diagnosis and plant supervision. These system are largely being developed using artificial intelligent techniques such as neural network, fuzzy logic and knowledge-based expert. The automatic operation system is fundamentally based upon application of an operator's knowledge of both normal (start-up to rated power level) and abnormal (after scram) operations. Comparing plant behaviors from start-up to power level by the automatic operation with by 'Mutsu' manual operation, stable automatic operation was obtained almost same as manual operation within all operating limits. The abnormal automatic system was for hard work of manual operations after scram or LOCA accidents. An integrating system with the normal and the abnormal automatic systems are being developed for interacting smoothly both systems. (author)

  12. Milking systems and milking robots. Insight in energy consumption; Melksystemen en melkrobots. Inzicht in energiegebruik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wientjes, H.; Rougoor, C. [DLV Rundvee Advies, Uden (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Insight is given in the energy consumption during milking and how much energy can be saved. The goal is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, produce renewable energy and the minimization of energy consumption in the dairy industry [Dutch] Inzicht wordt gegeven in het energieverbruik bij de melkwinning en de vraag welke energiebesparing hierbij nog haalbaar is. Het doel is vermindering van de uitstoot van broeikasgassen, productie van duurzame energie en de minimalisatie van het energieverbruik in de melkveehouderij.

  13. Channel Access Algorithm Design for Automatic Identification System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oh Sang-heon; Kim Seung-pum; Hwang Dong-hwan; Park Chan-sik; Lee Sang-jeong

    2003-01-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a maritime equipment to allow an efficient exchange of the navigational data between ships and between ships and shore stations. It utilizes a channel access algorithm which can quickly resolve conflicts without any intervention from control stations. In this paper, a design of channel access algorithm for the AIS is presented. The input/output relationship of each access algorithm module is defined by drawing the state transition diagram, dataflow diagram and flowchart based on the technical standard, ITU-R M.1371. In order to verify the designed channel access algorithm, the simulator was developed using the C/C++ programming language. The results show that the proposed channel access algorithm can properly allocate transmission slots and meet the operational performance requirements specified by the technical standard.

  14. A system of automatic speaker recognition on a minicomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes a system of automatic speaker recognition using the pitch of the voice. The pre-treatment consists in the extraction of the speakers' discriminating characteristics taken from the pitch. The programme of recognition gives, firstly, a preselection and then calculates the distance between the speaker's characteristics to be recognized and those of the speakers already recorded. An experience of recognition has been realized. It has been undertaken with 15 speakers and included 566 tests spread over an intermittent period of four months. The discriminating characteristics used offer several interesting qualities. The algorithms concerning the measure of the characteristics on one hand, the speakers' classification on the other hand, are simple. The results obtained in real time with a minicomputer are satisfactory. Furthermore they probably could be improved if we considered other speaker's discriminating characteristics but this was unfortunately not in our possibilities. (author)

  15. Development of a System for Automatic Facial Expression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diago, Luis A.; Kitaoka, Tetsuko; Hagiwara, Ichiro

    Automatic recognition of facial expressions can be an important component of natural human-machine interactions. While a lot of samples are desirable for estimating more accurately the feelings of a person (e.g. likeness) about a machine interface, in real world situation, only a small number of samples must be obtained because the high cost in collecting emotions from observed person. This paper proposes a system that solves this problem conforming to individual differences. A new method is developed for facial expression classification based on the combination of Holographic Neural Networks (HNN) and Type-2 Fuzzy Logic. For the recognition of emotions induced by facial expressions, compared with former HNN and Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers, proposed method achieved the best generalization performance using less learning time than SVM classifiers.

  16. Critical mm-wave components for synthetic automatic test systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hrobak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Michael Hrobak studied hybrid integrated front end modules for high frequency measurement equipment and especially for synthetic automatic test systems. Recent developments of innovative, critical millimeter-wave components like frequency multipliers, directional couplers, filters, triple balanced mixers and power detectors are illustrated by the author separately and in combination.  Contents Synthetic Instruments Resistive Diode Frequency Multipliers Planar Directional Couplers and Filters Triple Balanced Mixers Zero Bias Schottky Power Detectors Integrated Front End Assemblies  Target Groups Scientists and students in the field of electrical engineering with main emphasis on high frequency technology Engineers and Practitioners dealing with the development of micro- and millimeter-wave measurement instruments  About the Author Dr. Michael Hrobak is with the Microwave Department of the Ferdinand-Braun-Institut (FBH), Berlin, Germany, where he is involved in the development and measurement of monolithic i...

  17. Robotic milking and milk quality: effects on bacterial counts, somatic cell counts, freezing point and free fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne van der Vorst

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in milk quality after the introduction of automatic milking systems (AM-systems on dairy farms in TheNetherlands, Germany and Denmark were examined and the data were compared with milk quality results of farms withconventional milking technology. After introduction, a small, but significant increase in total bacterial count, somatic cellcount, freezing point and free fatty acids was observed. The highest levels for total plate count and cell count are foundin the first six months after introduction. After this period the milk quality slightly improves to a more stable level.Risk factors related with milk quality concern general farm characteristics, animal health, AM-system, cleaning and cooling,housing, management skills of the farmer and the hygiene on the farm. Total plate count was significantly relatedto milk yield of the herd, cleaning of the area around the AM-system and the overall hygiene on the farm. Bulk milksomatic cell count appeared to be significantly related to milk yield of the herd and the number of milkings before replacementof the liners. An increased milking frequency is not the only explanation of increased free fatty acid levels. Technicalfactors related to free fatty acids mainly concerned the air inlet in the teat cups, bubbling (excessive air inlet and a toolong post run time of the milk pump. However, several questions regarding the causes of increased free fatty acid levelsremained unclear.

  18. Automatic fault detection on BIPV systems without solar irradiation data

    CERN Document Server

    Leloux, Jonathan; Luna, Alberto; Desportes, Adrien

    2014-01-01

    BIPV systems are small PV generation units spread out over the territory, and whose characteristics are very diverse. This makes difficult a cost-effective procedure for monitoring, fault detection, performance analyses, operation and maintenance. As a result, many problems affecting BIPV systems go undetected. In order to carry out effective automatic fault detection procedures, we need a performance indicator that is reliable and that can be applied on many PV systems at a very low cost. The existing approaches for analyzing the performance of PV systems are often based on the Performance Ratio (PR), whose accuracy depends on good solar irradiation data, which in turn can be very difficult to obtain or cost-prohibitive for the BIPV owner. We present an alternative fault detection procedure based on a performance indicator that can be constructed on the sole basis of the energy production data measured at the BIPV systems. This procedure does not require the input of operating conditions data, such as solar ...

  19. Changes in the amino acid composition of buffalo milk after chemical activation of its lactoperoxidase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tsankova

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The amino acid content of bulked buffalo milk, collected from 130 buffaloes reared at a buffalo farm in the settlement of Dimitrievo, Stara Zagora region, was investigated during the period January-April 2006. The activation of the lactoperoxidase system (LPS was done by supplementation of sodium percarbonate, providing 16 ppm active oxygen and 10 ppm thiocyanate to 1 l of milk. The amino acid content was assayed by an amino acid analyzer. It was found out that the total content of amino acids in inactivated milk was insignificantly lower than that in activated one. More considerable increase was established for the amino acids valine, methionine, and lysine, but the differences were not statistically significant. The total amount of essential amino acids was higher in the milk with chemically activated LPS. The limiting essential amino acid in the studied buffalo milk was methionine.

  20. Effects of bovine milk lactoperoxidase system on some bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankaya, M; Sişecioğlu, M; Bariş, O; Güllüce, M; Ozdemir, H

    2010-01-01

    Bovine lactoperoxidase (LPO) was purified from skimmed milk using amberlite CG-50-H+ resin, CM sephadex C-50 ion-exchange chromatography, and sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. Lactoperoxidase was purified 20.45-fold with a yield of 28.8%. Purity of enzyme checked by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method and a single band was observed. Km was 0.25 mM at 20 degrees C, Vmax value was 7.95 micromol/ml min at 20 degrees C (pH 6.0). Antibacterial study was done by disk diffusion method of Kir-by-Bauer using Mueller-Hinton agar medium with slight modification. Bovine LPO showed high antibacterial activity in 100 mM thiocyanate-100 mM H2O2 medium for some bacteria (Brevibacillus centrosaurus, B. choshinensis, B. lyticum, Cedecea davisae, Chryseobacterium indoltheticum, Clavibacter michiganense pv. insidiosum, Kocuria erythromyxa, K. kristinae, K. rosea, K. varians, Paenibacillus validus, Pseudomonas syringae pv. populans, Ralstonia pickettii, Rhodococcus wratislaviensis, Serratia fonticola, Streptomyces violaceusniger, Vibrio cholerae-nonO1) respectively, and compared with well known antibacterial substances (levofloxacin, netilmicin). LPO system has inhibition effects on all type bacteria and concentration is really important such as LPO-100 mM thiocyanate-100 mM H2O2 system was proposed as an effective agent against many factors causing several diseases.

  1. Remanufacturing system based on totally automatic MIG surfacing via robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Sheng; GUO Ying-chun; YANG Pei

    2005-01-01

    Remanufacturing system is a term of green system project which conforms to the national sustainable development strategy. With the demand of the high adaptability of the varieties of waste machining parts, the short product cycle, the low machining cost and the high product quality are offered. Each step of the remanufacturing system from the beginning of the scanning to the accomplishment of the welding was investigted. Aiming at building a remanufacturing system based on totally automatic MIG surfacing via robot, advanced information technology, remanufacturing technology and management, through the control of the pretreatment and the optimization to minimize the time of remanufacturing and realize the remanufacturing on the terminal products of varieties, were applied. The steps mainly include: 1) using the visual sensor which is installed at the end of the Robot to rapidly get the outline data of the machining part and the pretreatment of the data; 2) rebuilding the curved surface based on the outline data and the integrated CAD material object model; 3) building the remanufacturing model based on the CAD material object model and projecting the remanufacturing process; and 4) accomplishing the remanufacture of the machining part by the technology of MIG surfacing.

  2. Automatic exposure system for radioactive source at teaching laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of Compton Scattering experiment, studied by undergraduate students of the Medical Physics course at the Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), takes place in the Medical Physics Teaching Laboratory, belonging to the Gleb Wataghin Physics Institute (IFGW/UNICAMP). The experiment consists of a fixed 137Cs radioactive source, with current activity of 610.5 MBq and a scintillation detector that turns around the center of the system whose function is to detect the scattered photons spectrum by a scatter object (target). The 137Cs source is stored in a lead shield with a collimating window for the gamma radiation emitted with energy of 0.662 MeV. This source is exposed only when an attenuation barrier protecting the collimating window is opened. The process of opening and closing the attenuation barrier may deliver a radiation dose to users when done manually. Considering the stochastic harmful effects of ionizing radiation, the goal of this project was to develop an automatic exposure system of the radioactive source, in order to reduce the radiation dose received during the Compton Scattering experiment. The developed system is micro controlled and performs standard operating routines, responding to emergencies. Furthermore, an electromagnetic lock enables quick closing of the barrier by gravity, in case of interruption of the electrical current circuit. Besides reducing the total dose to lab users, the system adds more security to the routine, since it limits the access to the radioactive source and prevents accidental exposure. (author)

  3. Evaluation of automatic exposure control systems in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the computed tomography (CT) technology has brought wider possibilities on diagnostic medicine. It is a non-invasive method to see the human body in details. As the CT application increases, it raises the concern about patient dose, because the higher dose levels imparted compared to other diagnostic imaging modalities. The radiology community (radiologists, medical physicists and manufacturer) are working together to find the lowest dose level possible, without compromising the diagnostic image quality. The greatest and relatively new advance to lower the patient dose is the automatic exposure control (AEC) systems in CT. These systems are designed to ponder the dose distribution along the patient scanning and between patients taking into account their sizes and irradiated tissue densities. Based on the CT scanning geometry, the AEC-systems are very complex and their functioning is yet not fully understood. This work aims to evaluate the clinical performance of AEC-systems and their susceptibilities to assist on possible patient dose optimizations. The approach to evaluate the AEC-systems of three of the leading CT manufacturers in Brazil, General Electric, Philips and Toshiba, was the extraction of tube current modulation data from the DICOM standard image sequences, measurement and analysis of the image noise of those image sequences and measurement of the dose distribution along the scan length on the surface and inside of two different phantoms configurations. The tube current modulation of each CT scanner associated to the resulted image quality provides the performance of the AECsystem. The dose distribution measurements provide the dose profile due to the tube current modulation. Dose measurements with the AEC-system ON and OFF were made to quantify the impact of these systems regarding patient dose. The results attained give rise to optimizations on the AEC-systems applications and, by consequence, decreases the patient dose without

  4. Techno-economic studies on hybrid energy based cooling system for milk preservation in isolated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Performance studies on biomass and biogas based milk cooling systems in remote areas. • Economic analysis of milk cooling system operated with locally available renewable energy sources. • Payback period for replacing conventional milk cooling systems with renewable energy based cooling system. • Identification of the suitable combination of locally available renewable energy sources for milk cooling. • Hybrid energy based milk cooling system for regions that have rubber and paddy cultivation, in India. - Abstract: In developing countries like India, about 70% of the population is engaged in the production of milk, fruits and vegetables. Due to the lack of proper storage and transit facilities, the agricultural produce, in remote areas loses its value. This spoilage could be prevented at the local village level, by providing cooling units for short term preservation. In this paper, the possibility of a hybrid energy based thermally operated cold storage has been considered to meet the cooling needs of the villages in the southern parts of India, where biomass, biogas and gobar gas are available in abundance. A milk cooling system that uses various combinations of locally available renewable energy sources to operate an aqua ammonia vapour absorption cooling system has been analysed using the Matlab software. The impact of various combinations of renewable energy sources on the Coefficient of Performance (COP), Net Present Value (NPV) and payback period of the total cooling system has been studied. The analysis shows that the COP and payback period of the proposed hybrid renewable energy based milk cooling system are 0.16–0.23 and 4–6 years respectively

  5. Intelligent information retrieval system using automatic thesaurus construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Yang, Jucheng; Li, Chenghua; Park, Sooncheol

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an intelligent information retrieval (IR) system based on automatic thesaurus construction for its applications of document clustering and classification. These two applications are the most influential and widely used fields amongst the IR research community. We apply two biologically inspired algorithms, i.e. genetic algorithm (GA) and neural network (NN), to these two fields. A fuzzy logic controller GA and an adaptive back-propagation NN are proposed in our study, which can validly overcome the problems existing in their archetypes, e.g. slow evolution and being prone to trap into a local optimum. Furthermore, a well-constructed thesaurus has been recognised as a valuable tool in the effective operation of clustering and classification. It solves the problem in document representation organised by a bag of words, where some important relationships between words, e.g. synonymy and polysemy, are ignored. To investigate how our IR system could be used effectively, we conduct experiments on four data sets from the benchmark Reuter-21578 document collection and 20-newsgroup corpus. The results reveal that our IR system enhances the performance in comparison with k-means, common GA, and conventional back-propagation NN.

  6. Automatic control system for uniformly paving iron ore pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bowen; Qian, Xiaolong

    2014-05-01

    In iron and steelmaking industry, iron ore pellet qualities are crucial to end-product properties, manufacturing costs and waste emissions. Uniform pellet pavements on the grate machine are a fundamental prerequisite to ensure even heat-transfer and pellet induration successively influences performance of the following metallurgical processes. This article presents an automatic control system for uniformly paving green pellets on the grate, via a mechanism mainly constituted of a mechanical linkage, a swinging belt, a conveyance belt and a grate. Mechanism analysis illustrates that uniform pellet pavements demand the frontend of the swinging belt oscillate at a constant angular velocity. Subsequently, kinetic models are formulated to relate oscillatory movements of the swinging belt's frontend to rotations of a crank link driven by a motor. On basis of kinetic analysis of the pellet feeding mechanism, a cubic B-spline model is built for numerically computing discrete frequencies to be modulated during a motor rotation. Subsequently, the pellet feeding control system is presented in terms of compositional hardware and software components, and their functional relationships. Finally, pellet feeding experiments are carried out to demonstrate that the control system is effective, reliable and superior to conventional methods.

  7. Requirements to a Norwegian National Automatic Gamma Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Nielsen, F

    2005-04-01

    An assessment of the overall requirements to a Norwegian gamma-monitoring network is undertaken with special emphasis on the geographical distribution of automatic gamma monitoring stations, type of detectors in such stations and the sensitivity of the system in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate increments above the natural background levels. The study is based upon simplified deterministic calculations of the radiological consequences of generic nuclear accident scenarios. The density of gamma monitoring stations has been estimated from an analysis of the dispersion of radioactive materials over large distances using historical weather data; the minimum density is estimated from the requirement that a radioactive plume may not slip unnoticed in between stations of the monitoring network. The sensitivity of the gamma monitoring system is obtained from the condition that events that may require protective intervention measures should be detected by the system. Action levels for possible introduction of sheltering and precautionary foodstuff restrictions are derived in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate. For emergency situations where particulates contribute with only a small fraction of the total ambient dose equivalent rate from the plume, it is concluded that measurements of dose rate are sufficient to determine the need for sheltering; simple dose rate measurements however, are inadequate to determine the need for foodstuff restrictions and spectral measurements are required. (au)

  8. Optimal Coordination of Automatic Line Switches for Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Cherng Gu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available For the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower, the margins of coordination times between the lateral circuit breakers (LCB of underground 4-way automatic line switches and the protection equipment of high voltage customers are often too small. This could lead to sympathy tripping by the feeder circuit breaker (FCB of the distribution feeder and create difficulties in protection coordination between upstream and downstream protection equipment, identification of faults, and restoration operations. In order to solve the problem, it is necessary to reexamine the protection coordination between LCBs and high voltage customers’ protection equipment, and between LCBs and FCBs, in order to bring forth new proposals for settings and operations. This paper applies linear programming to optimize the protection coordination of protection devices, and proposes new time current curves (TCCs for the overcurrent (CO and low-energy overcurrent (LCO relays used in normally open distribution systems by performing simulations in the Electrical Transient Analyzer Program (ETAP environment. The simulation results show that the new TCCs solve the coordination problems among high voltage customer, lateral, feeder, bus-interconnection, and distribution transformer. The new proposals also satisfy the requirements of Taipower on protection coordination of the distribution feeder automation system (DFAS. Finally, the authors believe that the system configuration, operation experience, and relevant criteria mentioned in this paper may serve as valuable references for other companies or utilities when building DFAS of their own.

  9. AUTOMATIC TOOL-CHANGING WITHIN THE RECONFIGURABLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E.T. Collins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Reconfigurable manufacturing systems were developed as a proposed solution to the varying market and customer requirements present in today’s global market. The systems are designed to offer adaptability in machining functions and processes. This adaptive capability requires access to a selection of tools. The development of reconfigurable manufacturing systems has mainly been focused on the machine tools themselves. Methods of supplying tools to these machines need to be researched. This paper does so, presenting a tool-changing unit that offers a solution to this need. It then discusses the enabling technologies that would allow for automatic integration and diagnostic abilities of the unit.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Herkonfigureerbare vervaardingstelsels is ontwikkel as ’n voorgestelde oplossing vir die varierende mark- en klantbehoeftes in die hedendaagse globale mark. Die stelsels is ontwikkel om aanpasbaarheid te bied ten opsigte van masjineringsfunksies en –prosesse. Hierdie aanpasbare vermoëns vereis egter toegang tot ‘n verskeidenheid van gereedskapstukke. Die ontwikkeling van herkonfigureerbare vervaardigingstelsels het egter hoofsaaklik gefokus op die gereedskapstukke. Die wyse waarop hierdie gereedskapstukke beskikbaar gestel word aan die masjinerie moet egter nagevors word. Hierdie artikel doen juis dit en stel ‘n eenheid voor vir die ruiling van gereedskapstukke. Voorts word die tegnologieë bespreek wat automatiese integrasie moontlik maak en diagnostiese vermoëns verskaf.

  10. Automatic Road Sign Inventory Using Mobile Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilán, M.; Riveiro, B.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Arias, P.

    2016-06-01

    The periodic inspection of certain infrastructure features plays a key role for road network safety and preservation, and for developing optimal maintenance planning that minimize the life-cycle cost of the inspected features. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) use laser scanner technology in order to collect dense and precise three-dimensional point clouds that gather both geometric and radiometric information of the road network. Furthermore, time-stamped RGB imagery that is synchronized with the MMS trajectory is also available. In this paper a methodology for the automatic detection and classification of road signs from point cloud and imagery data provided by a LYNX Mobile Mapper System is presented. First, road signs are detected in the point cloud. Subsequently, the inventory is enriched with geometrical and contextual data such as orientation or distance to the trajectory. Finally, semantic content is given to the detected road signs. As point cloud resolution is insufficient, RGB imagery is used projecting the 3D points in the corresponding images and analysing the RGB data within the bounding box defined by the projected points. The methodology was tested in urban and road environments in Spain, obtaining global recall results greater than 95%, and F-score greater than 90%. In this way, inventory data is obtained in a fast, reliable manner, and it can be applied to improve the maintenance planning of the road network, or to feed a Spatial Information System (SIS), thus, road sign information can be available to be used in a Smart City context.

  11. Automatic construction system for high RC buildings; Koso RC zukuri takemono no jidoka kensetsu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishikawa, K.; Inoue, Y. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technical Research Inst.

    1997-05-25

    In the Obayashi-gumi, a new construction product system for a purpose to enhance total productivity was made, and the development and the practical use of a fully automatic building construction system made by steel frames in the framework and training of the multi-skilled workers have been advanced. In this paper, as one of the steps in this development, development detail, system characteristics and application results of the developed high RC building automatic construction system (the RC automatic construction system) were described. The main constituent elements of the RC automatic construction system were a synchronous climbing and fully weather type temporary roof, a parallel transport system and the general material management system. The temporary roof frame structure was folded plate thatched roofing with a steel framed truss structure, and the changing hoist type overhead traveling cranes were installed under the roof frame structure, while the traveling jib cranes above the roof frame structure. The parallel transport system was constructed by one goods lift for the vertical transport and three overhead traveling cranes which consiste of a horizontal conveying crane and two constructing cranes. 2 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Comparing milk yield, chemical properties and somatic cell count from organic and conventional mountain farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Bianchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of farming systems (organic vs. conventional, diet (hay/concentrate vs. pasture and their interaction on milk yield, gross composition and fatty acid (FA profile of dairy cows bred in mountainous areas. For this purpose four dairy farms (two organic and two conventional were chosen in the alpine territory of Aosta Valley (NW Italy; individual milk yield was recorded daily and bulk milk samples were collected monthly from February to September 2007 to cover dietary variations. Higher levels of milk production (P<0.05 and lower milk protein amounts (P<0.01 were observed in the organic farms with respect to the conventional ones, while no significant differences were noticed in milk fat and lactose contents and in somatic cell count. Concerning fatty acids, only small differences were detected between organic and conventional milk and such differences seemed to be related mainly to the stabled period. Diet affected almost all variables studied: pasture feeding provided a significant improvement in the fatty acid composition in both organic and conventional systems leading to lower hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids, higher mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid amounts (P<0.001.

  13. Automatic braking system modification for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications were designed for the B-737-100 Research Aircraft autobrake system hardware of the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Program at Langley Research Center. These modifications will allow the on-board flight control computer to control the aircraft deceleration after landing to a continuously variable level for the purpose of executing automatic high speed turn-offs from the runway. A bread board version of the proposed modifications was built and tested in simulated stopping conditions. Test results, for various aircraft weights, turnoff speed, winds, and runway conditions show that the turnoff speeds are achieved generally with errors less than 1 ft/sec.

  14. Audio watermarking technologies for automatic cue sheet generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Giuseppe; Lancini, Rosa C.; Pascarella, Annalisa; Tubaro, Stefano; Vicario, Elena

    2001-08-01

    Usually watermark is used as a way for hiding information on digital media. The watermarked information may be used to allow copyright protection or user and media identification. In this paper we propose a watermarking scheme for digital audio signals that allow automatic identification of musical pieces transmitted in TV broadcasting programs. In our application the watermark must be, obviously, imperceptible to the users, should be robust to standard TV and radio editing and have a very low complexity. This last item is essential to allow a software real-time implementation of the insertion and detection of watermarks using only a minimum amount of the computation power of a modern PC. In the proposed method the input audio sequence is subdivided in frames. For each frame a watermark spread spectrum sequence is added to the original data. A two steps filtering procedure is used to generate the watermark from a Pseudo-Noise (PN) sequence. The filters approximate respectively the threshold and the frequency masking of the Human Auditory System (HAS). In the paper we discuss first the watermark embedding system then the detection approach. The results of a large set of subjective tests are also presented to demonstrate the quality and robustness of the proposed approach.

  15. Automatic Speed Breaker on Time Demand Using Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchit Vashistha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of this research work is to have an automatic speed breaker on time demand according to the requirements. Means when there is no need of the speed breaker on the road, it disappears from the road and the road becomes flat and when there is a need then the breaker comes on the road from ground and it starts its working of slowing speed of the vehicles. In implementation of this concept, we use an iron made hemi-cylindrical speed breaker which is capable of rotating itself using control circuitry of embedded systems. So when needed, it comes on the road by rotating itself from flat position and when not needed, it rotates itself again and gets flat and combines with flat road. In the system, real time clock is used to mention the required time for having the speed breaker on road. When time gets started, breaker comes on the road and remains until the countdown gets zero. In the Embedded system’s clock any time and date can be stored on which the speed breaker is required on the road. So this type of speed breaker is useful before any building for which the time is specified for coming in the building and going out from it e.g. schools, any organization etc.

  16. Fully Automatic Spot Welding System for Application in Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Puschner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A Virtual Machine has led to a fully automatic spot welding system. All necessary parameters are created by measuring systems and algorithms running in the Virtual Machine. A hybrid operating circuit allows the Virtual Machine to read the exact process voltage between the tips of the electrodes every 50 µs. Actual welding voltage and current allow for the first time reading process impedance, electric power and total energy being transferred to the spot weld. Necessary energy input is calculated by a calorimetric model after measuring the total thickness of the materials to be welded as soon as the welding gun is positioned at the workpiece. A precision potentiometer implemented in the gun delivers the total material thickness within the 0.1 mm range during the pre-pressure phases. The internal databank of the Virtual Machine controls all essential parameters to guide the total welding process. Special generator characteristics of the welding power unit are created by the Virtual Machine just during the upslope and the welding phases. So the process will be initialized in differentiating the kind of material, mild steel or high strengthen steel. This will affect the kind of energy input and current decrease during the upslope and downslope phases.

  17. Robust parameter design for automatically controlled systems and nanostructure synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Tirthankar

    2007-12-01

    This research focuses on developing comprehensive frameworks for developing robust parameter design methodology for dynamic systems with automatic control and for synthesis of nanostructures. In many automatically controlled dynamic processes, the optimal feedback control law depends on the parameter design solution and vice versa and therefore an integrated approach is necessary. A parameter design methodology in the presence of feedback control is developed for processes of long duration under the assumption that experimental noise factors are uncorrelated over time. Systems that follow a pure-gain dynamic model are considered and the best proportional-integral and minimum mean squared error control strategies are developed by using robust parameter design. The proposed method is illustrated using a simulated example and a case study in a urea packing plant. This idea is also extended to cases with on-line noise factors. The possibility of integrating feedforward control with a minimum mean squared error feedback control scheme is explored. To meet the needs of large scale synthesis of nanostructures, it is critical to systematically find experimental conditions under which the desired nanostructures are synthesized reproducibly, at large quantity and with controlled morphology. The first part of the research in this area focuses on modeling and optimization of existing experimental data. Through a rigorous statistical analysis of experimental data, models linking the probabilities of obtaining specific morphologies to the process variables are developed. A new iterative algorithm for fitting a Multinomial GLM is proposed and used. The optimum process conditions, which maximize the above probabilities and make the synthesis process less sensitive to variations of process variables around set values, are derived from the fitted models using Monte-Carlo simulations. The second part of the research deals with development of an experimental design methodology, tailor

  18. Development of automatic ultrasonic examination system for heavy section steel forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Steel Works, Ltd. (JSW) has developed a new automatic UT system with the intention to improve reliability and efficiency of UT. The present paper describes the realization and results of a new system of automatic UT of JSW. The results of a preliminary test using a rotating test block with artificial defects and the application for a test material are also presented

  19. Automatic Tuning of PID Controller for a 1-D Levitation System Using a Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Gerulf K.m.

    2006-01-01

    The automatic PID control design for a onedimensional magnetic levitation system is investigated. The PID controller is automatically tuned using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) based on a nonlinear system model. The developed controller is digitally implemented and tested...

  20. Guidance for Human-system Interfaces to Automatic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Stephen Fleger; Valerie Barnes

    2010-09-27

    Automation is ubiquitous in modern complex systems, and commercial nuclear- power plants are no exception. Automation is applied to a wide range of functions, including monitoring and detection, situation assessment, response planning, and response implementation. Automation has become a 'team player' supporting personnel in nearly all aspects of system operation. In light of its increasing use and importance in new- and future-plants, guidance is needed to conduct safety reviews of the operator's interface with automation. The objective of this research was to develop such guidance. We first characterized the important HFE aspects of automation, including six dimensions: Levels, functions, processes, modes, flexibility, and reliability. Next, we reviewed literature on the effects of all of these aspects of automation on human performance, and on the design of human-system interfaces (HSIs). Then, we used this technical basis established from the literature to identify general principles for human-automation interaction and to develop review guidelines. The guidelines consist of the following seven topics: Automation displays, interaction and control, automation modes, automation levels, adaptive automation, error tolerance and failure management, and HSI integration.

  1. 4D measurement system for automatic location of anatomical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Sitnik, Robert; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Rapp, Walter; Kowalski, Marcin; Haex, Bart; Mooshake, Sven

    2006-04-01

    Orthopedics and neurosciences are fields of medicine where the analysis of objective movement parameters is extremely important for clinical diagnosis. Moreover, as there are significant differences between static and dynamic parameters, there is a strong need of analyzing the anatomical structures under functional conditions. In clinical gait analysis the benefits of kinematical methods are undoubted. In this paper we present a 4D (3D + time) measurement system capable of automatic location of selected anatomical structures by locating and tracing the structures' position and orientation in time. The presented system is designed to help a general practitioner in diagnosing selected lower limbs' dysfunctions (e.g. knee injuries) and also determine if a patient should be directed for further examination (e.g. x-ray or MRI). The measurement system components are hardware and software. For the hardware part we adapt the laser triangulation method. In this way we can evaluate functional and dynamic movements in a contact-free, non-invasive way, without the use of potentially harmful radiation. Furthermore, opposite to marker-based video-tracking systems, no preparation time is required. The software part consists of a data acquisition module, an image processing and point clouds (point cloud, set of points described by coordinates (x, y, z)) calculation module, a preliminary processing module, a feature-searching module and an external biomechanical module. The paper briefly presents the modules mentioned above with the focus on the feature-searching module. Also we present some measurement and analysis results. These include: parameters maps, landmarks trajectories in time sequence and animation of a simplified model of lower limbs.

  2. Evaluation of a portable test system for assessing endotoxin activity in raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yohko; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Shimamori, Toshio; Tsuchiya, Masakazu; Niehaus, Andrew; Lakritz, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare endotoxin activities detected in raw milk samples obtained from cattle by a commercially available portable test system (PTS) and traditional microplate limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-based assay, which determined activities using a kinetic turbidimetric (KT) assay. Raw milk samples were obtained from 53 and 12 dairy cattle without and with clinical mastitis, respectively. Comparison between the KT and PTS was performed by the Friedman test. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate associations between any two continuous variables. Linear regression model analysis was also performed to obtain the equation describing the relationship between PTS and KT assay. The endotoxin activities detected in 200- or 400-fold diluted milk samples were similar between PTS and KT assay, whereas a significant difference was observed in 100-fold diluted milk (P<0.001). The results obtained from 200- (r(2)=0.778, P<0.001) and 400-fold diluted milk samples (r(2)=0.945, P<0.001) using PTS correlated with those using KT assay. The median milk endotoxin activities in Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical mastitis cows were 0.655 and 11,523.5 EU/ml, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that PTS as a simple and easy test to assess endotoxin activity in raw milk is efficient, simple and reproducible. PMID:26279135

  3. Automatic Vehicle Speed Reduction System Using Rf Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa B Chavan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For vehicle safety and safety for passengers in vehicle is an important parameter. Most of the vehicles get accident because no proper safety measures are taken especially at curves and hair pin bends humps and any obstacles in front of the vehicle. This system can be used for the prevention of such a problem by indicating a pre indication and also reducing the speed of vehicles by reducing the fuel rate of vehicle. As the action is in terms of fuel rate so the vehicle automatically goes to control and avoids the accidents. At curves and hair pin bends the line of sight is not possible for the drivers so the special kind of transmitter which is tuned at a frequency of 433MHZ are mounted as these transmitters continuously radiate a RF signal for some particular area. As the vehicle come within this radiation the receiver in the vehicle gets activate. The transmitter used here is a coded transmitter which is encoded with encoder. The encoder provides a 4 bit binary data which is serially transmitted to transmitter. The transmitter used here is ASK type (amplitude shift keying which emits the RF radiation.

  4. Test of an automatic precision guidance system for cultivation implements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By guiding implements accurately various field activities can be performed very precisely, such as row crumbling, band fertilizing, row spraying, drilling and hoeing. This means that no inputs are applied at places where they are not needed or would cause undue pollution of the environment. In the work reported here, the accuracy of a laser guidance system was examined when a hoe was used. On a level and slightly pressed band of soil approximately 1 m wide and full-field length, three paper sheets were spread with dimensions of approximately 15 m × 1 m. These pieces of paper were placed at approximately 35, 120 and 220 m from the laser transmitter. The centre element of the hoe carried a writing device, suspended to allow free vertical movement, which produced traces on the paper of the true path followed by the implement. Automatic guidance of an agricultural implement mounted on a vehicle by means of a side-shift facility, proved to be accurate within an average of ±6 mm on a track length of 220 m on arable land. (author)

  5. Automatic system of welding for nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The welding process of nuclear fuel must be realized in an inert gas environment (He) and constant flow of this. In order to reach these conditions it is necessary to do vacuum at the chamber and after it is pressurized with the noble gas (purge) twice in the welding chamber. The purge eliminates impurities that can provoke oxidation in the weld. Once the conditions for initiating the welding are gotten, it is necessary to draw a graph of the flow parameters, pressure, voltage and arc current and to analyse those conditions in which have been carried out the weld. The rod weld must be free of possible pores or cracks which could provoke rod leaks, so reducing the probability of these failures should intervene mechanical and metallurgical factors. Automatizing the process it allows to do reliable welding assuring that conditions have been performed, reaching a high quality welding. Visually it can be observed the welding process by means of a mimic which represents the welding system. There are the parameters acquired such as voltage, current, pressure and flow during the welding arc to be analysed later. (Author)

  6. Organochlorine pesticide distribution in an organic production system for cow's milk in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga, María N; Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Pérez, José J; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamasaki, Alberto; Ruíz, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides in samples of forage, soil, water, and milk in four units of an organic production system for cow´s milk (samples of forage, milk, soil, and water) in Tecpatan, Chiapas, Mexico. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from forage, soil and water based on the USEPA (2005) guideline and from milk based on the IDF 1991 guideline. The pesticides were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (CG-ECD). In general, the highest average concentration of total pesticides was found in the samples of milk and forage (311 ± 328 and 116.5 ±77 ng g(-1) respectively). Although, the production systems analyzed are organic, organochlorine pesticides were detected in all environmental samples (forage, soil, water, and organic milk). Although no values surpassed the defined limits of Mexican and International regulation it is advisable that a monitoring program of contaminants in these production systems is continued.

  7. Organochlorine pesticide distribution in an organic production system for cow's milk in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga, María N; Gutiérrez, Rey; Vega, Salvador; Pérez, José J; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Yamasaki, Alberto; Ruíz, Jorge L

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of organochlorine pesticides in samples of forage, soil, water, and milk in four units of an organic production system for cow´s milk (samples of forage, milk, soil, and water) in Tecpatan, Chiapas, Mexico. The organochlorine pesticides were extracted from forage, soil and water based on the USEPA (2005) guideline and from milk based on the IDF 1991 guideline. The pesticides were identified and quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector (CG-ECD). In general, the highest average concentration of total pesticides was found in the samples of milk and forage (311 ± 328 and 116.5 ±77 ng g(-1) respectively). Although, the production systems analyzed are organic, organochlorine pesticides were detected in all environmental samples (forage, soil, water, and organic milk). Although no values surpassed the defined limits of Mexican and International regulation it is advisable that a monitoring program of contaminants in these production systems is continued. PMID:27228789

  8. The behaviour of green tea catechins in a full-fat milk system under conditions mimicking the cheesemaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidinejad, Ali; Birch, E John; Everett, David W

    2016-09-01

    Due to their well-known health benefits, green tea catechins have received recent attention as natural additives in foods such as dairy products. However, they may present some irreversible associations with milk components (e.g. protein and milk fat globules). To investigate the behaviour of two important green tea catechins, (+)-catechin (C) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), in a standard whole milk system under the conditions of cheesemaking, 250 and 500 ppm of each catechin were added to whole milk (3.3% fat). Although both C and EGCG at either concentration increased both total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of the subnatants obtained from the milk system, there was a less linear increase when the concentration of the catechins was doubled, whereas C or EGCG were recovered (measured by HPLC) differently. Overall, these results suggest a degree of associations between green tea catechins with milk proteins and milk fat. PMID:27282241

  9. An automatic identification and monitoring system for coral reef fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Joseph; Tonde, Chetan; Sundar, Ganesh; Huang, Ning; Barinov, Lev; Baxi, Jigesh; Bibby, James; Rapport, Andrew; Pavoni, Edward; Tsang, Serena; Garcia, Eri; Mateo, Felix; Lubansky, Tanya M.; Russell, Gareth J.

    2012-10-01

    To help gauge the health of coral reef ecosystems, we developed a prototype of an underwater camera module to automatically census reef fish populations. Recognition challenges include pose and lighting variations, complicated backgrounds, within-species color variations and within-family similarities among species. An open frame holds two cameras, LED lights, and two `background' panels in an L-shaped configuration. High-resolution cameras send sequences of 300 synchronized image pairs at 10 fps to an on-shore PC. Approximately 200 sequences containing fish were recorded at the New York Aquarium's Glover's Reef exhibit. These contained eight `common' species with 85-672 images, and eight `rare' species with 5-27 images that were grouped into an `unknown/rare' category for classification. Image pre-processing included background modeling and subtraction, and tracking of fish across frames for depth estimation, pose correction, scaling, and disambiguation of overlapping fish. Shape features were obtained from PCA analysis of perimeter points, color features from opponent color histograms, and `banding' features from DCT of vertical projections. Images were classified to species using feedforward neural networks arranged in a three-level hierarchy in which errors remaining after each level are targeted by networks in the level below. Networks were trained and tested on independent image sets. Overall accuracy of species-specific identifications typically exceeded 96% across multiple training runs. A seaworthy version of our system will allow for population censuses with high temporal resolution, and therefore improved statistical power to detect trends. A network of such devices could provide an `early warning system' for coral ecosystem collapse.

  10. ATCOM: Automatically Tuned Collective Communication System for SMP Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meng-Shiou [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Conventional implementations of collective communications are based on point-to-point communications, and their optimizations have been focused on efficiency of those communication algorithms. However, point-to-point communications are not the optimal choice for modern computing clusters of SMPs due to their two-level communication structure. In recent years, a few research efforts have investigated efficient collective communications for SMP clusters. This dissertation is focused on platform-independent algorithms and implementations in this area. There are two main approaches to implementing efficient collective communications for clusters of SMPs: using shared memory operations for intra-node communications, and overlapping inter-node/intra-node communications. The former fully utilizes the hardware based shared memory of an SMP, and the latter takes advantage of the inherent hierarchy of the communications within a cluster of SMPs. Previous studies focused on clusters of SMP from certain vendors. However, the previously proposed methods are not portable to other systems. Because the performance optimization issue is very complicated and the developing process is very time consuming, it is highly desired to have self-tuning, platform-independent implementations. As proven in this dissertation, such an implementation can significantly out-perform the other point-to-point based portable implementations and some platform-specific implementations. The dissertation describes in detail the architecture of the platform-independent implementation. There are four system components: shared memory-based collective communications, overlapping mechanisms for inter-node and intra-node communications, a prediction-based tuning module and a micro-benchmark based tuning module. Each component is carefully designed with the goal of automatic tuning in mind.

  11. Toward an Automatic Calibration of Dual Fluoroscopy Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Durgham, Kaleel; Lichti, Derek; Kuntze, Gregor; Sharma, Gulshan; Ronsky, Janet

    2016-06-01

    High-speed dual fluoroscopy (DF) imaging provides a novel, in-vivo solution to quantify the six-degree-of-freedom skeletal kinematics of humans and animals with sub-millimetre accuracy and high temporal resolution. A rigorous geometric calibration of DF system parameters is essential to ensure precise bony rotation and translation measurements. One way to achieve the system calibration is by performing a bundle adjustment with self-calibration. A first-time bundle adjustment-based system calibration was recently achieved. The system calibration through the bundle adjustment has been shown to be robust, precise, and straightforward. Nevertheless, due to the inherent absence of colour/semantic information in DF images, a significant amount of user input is needed to prepare the image observations for the bundle adjustment. This paper introduces a semi-automated methodology to minimise the amount of user input required to process calibration images and henceforth to facilitate the calibration task. The methodology is optimized for processing images acquired over a custom-made calibration frame with radio-opaque spherical targets. Canny edge detection is used to find distinct structural components of the calibration images. Edge-linking is applied to cluster the edge pixels into unique groups. Principal components analysis is utilized to automatically detect the calibration targets from the groups and to filter out possible outliers. Ellipse fitting is utilized to achieve the spatial measurements as well as to perform quality analysis over the detected targets. Single photo resection is used together with a template matching procedure to establish the image-to-object point correspondence and to simplify target identification. The proposed methodology provided 56,254 identified-targets from 411 images that were used to run a second-time bundle adjustment-based DF system calibration. Compared to a previous fully manual procedure, the proposed methodology has

  12. Automatic Checkout System for Ground Electronics of a Weapon System (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ashok Kumar

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available An automatic checkout system (ACOS designed and developed for a surface-to-air missile system is described. The system has a built-in self-check and has been extensively used for checking faults in the subsystems of ground electronics. It has resulted in saving a lot of effort in quickly diagnosing and rectifying faults. The salient features of the ACOS have been described and the scope for further work in this area has been outline.

  13. RESEARCH ON EXPERT SYSTEM OF FAULT DETECTION AND DIAGNOSING FOR PNEUMATIC SYSTEM OF AUTOMATIC PRODUCTION LINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fault detection and diagnosis for pneumatic system of automatic production line are studied. An expert system using fuzzy-neural network and pneumatic circuit fault diagnosis instrument are designed. The mathematical model of various pneumatic faults and experimental device are built. In the end, some experiments are done, which shows that the expert system using fuzzy-neural network can diagnose fast and truly fault of pneumatic circuit.

  14. A Study of Applications of Multiagent System Specificaitons and the Key Techniques in Automatic Abstracts System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUShun-geng; ZHONGYi-xin

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, multiagent system specifications, multiagent system architectures, agent communica-tion languages and agent communication protocols, automatic abstracting based on multiagent technolo-gies are studied.Some concerned problems of de-signs and realization of automatic abstracting sys-tems based on multiagent technologies are strdied, too.Chapter 1 shows the significance and objectives of the thesis, its main contents are summarized, and innovations of the thesis are showed.Some basic concepts of agents and multiagent systems are stud-ied in Chapter2.The definitions of agents and mul-tiagent systems are given, and the theory, technolo-gies and applications of multiagent systems are sum-marized .Furthermore, some important studying trends of multiagent systems are set forward.Multi-agent system specifications are strdied in Chapter30MAS/KIB-a multiagent system specification is built using mental states such as K(Know), B(Be-lief), and I(Intention), its grammar and seman-teme are discussed, axioms and inference rules are given, and some properties are researched.We also compare MAS/KIB with other existing specifica-tions.MAS/KIB has the following characteristicsL1)each agent has its own world outlood;(2)no global data in the system;(3)processes of state changes are used as indexes to systems;(4)it has the characteristics of not only time series logic but also dynamic logic;and (5) interactive actions are included.The architectures of multiagent systems are studied in Chapter 4.First, we review some typical architecture of multiagent systems, agent network architecture, agent federated architecture, agent blackboard architenture ,and Foundation of Intelligent Physical Agent(FIPA) architecture.For the first time, we set forward and study the layering and partitioning models of the architectures of multi-agent systems,organizing architecture models, and interoperability architecture model of multiagent sys-tems .Chapter 5 studies agent communication lan

  15. The method of measurement system software automatic validation using business rules management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawistowski, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    The method of measurement system software automatic validation using business rules management system (BRMS) is discussed in this paper. The article contains a description of the new approach to measurement systems execution validation, a description of the implementation of the system that supports mentioned validation and examples documenting the correctness of the approach. In the new approach BRMS are used for measurement systems execution validation. Such systems have not been used for software execution validation nor for measurement systems. The benefits of using them for the listed purposes are discussed as well.

  16. An Automatic Number Plate Recognition System under Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjit Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Number Plate Recognition system is an application of computer vision and image processing technology that takes photograph of vehicles as input image and by extracting their number plate from whole vehicle image , it display the number plate information into text. Mainly the ANPR system consists of 4 phases: - Acquisition of Vehicle Image and Pre-Processing, Extraction of Number Plate Area, Character Segmentation and Character Recognition. The overall accuracy and efficiency of whole ANPR system depends on number plate extraction phase as character segmentation and character recognition phases are also depend on the output of this phase. Further the accuracy of Number Plate Extraction phase depends on the quality of captured vehicle image. Higher be the quality of captured input vehicle image more will be the chances of proper extraction of vehicle number plate area. The existing methods of ANPR works well for dark and bright/light categories image but it does not work well for Low Contrast, Blurred and Noisy images and the detection of exact number plate area by using the existing ANPR approach is not successful even after applying existing filtering and enhancement technique for these types of images. Due to wrong extraction of number plate area, the character segmentation and character recognition are also not successful in this case by using the existing method. To overcome these drawbacks I proposed an efficient approach for ANPR in which the input vehicle image is pre-processed firstly by iterative bilateral filtering , adaptive histogram equalization and number plate is extracted from pre-processed vehicle image using morphological operations, image subtraction, image binarization/thresholding, sobel vertical edge detection and by boundary box analysis. Sometimes the extracted plate area also contains noise, bolts, frames etc. So the extracted plate area is enhanced by using morphological operations to improve the quality of

  17. Automatic power distribution system for Okinawa Electric Power Co.; Okinawa Denryoku (kabu) nonyu haiden jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-29

    The open distributed automatic power distribution systems were delivered to Naha and Gushikawa branches of Okinawa Electric Power Co. This system adopts such latest technologies as object-oriented design. Its features are as follows: (1) Possible parallel operation by every branch and business office by switching an operation priority between the branch and business office in the case of multi- accidents, (2) Possible free console operation for any businesses regardless of the other console conditions, (3) Automatic decision of power supply by mobile power vehicle for precise power interruption control, (4) Immediate display of the work planning system including data maintenance and operation procedures until the prearranged working date, and (5) Possible manned backup operation at system down of the server. (translated by NEDO)

  18. Hand to Mouth: Automatic Imitation across Effector Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Jane; Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The effector dependence of automatic imitation was investigated using a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) procedure during which participants were required to make an open or closed response with their hand or their mouth. The correct response for each trial was indicated by a pair of letters in Experiments 1 and 2 and by a colored square in…

  19. Automatic control system of the radiometric system for inspection of large-scale vehicles and cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automatic control system (ACS) is intended to control the equipment of the radiometric inspection system in the normal operating modes as well as during the preventive maintenance, maintenance/repair and adjustment works; for acquisition of the data on the status of the equipment, reliable protection of the personnel and equipment, acquisition, storage and processing of the results of operation and to ensure service maintenance.

  20. Analysis and Application of Whey Protein Depleted Skim Milk Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hanne

    Food structure is essential both for the consumer perception of dairy products and for the producer to produce high quality products. A desired structure in a dairy product can be obtained with the right combination of raw materials, unit operations and added ingredients. Interactions between...... compromising the sensory quality of low fat products or increasing yield. Understanding how a desired structure is formed demands for a better comprehension of microstructure. In this study, unit operations were in focus, with special emphasis on a combination of microfiltration and ultra-high pressure...... homogenisation (UHPH). The microfiltration will result in a milk fraction more or less depleted from whey protein, and could probably in combination with UHPH treatment contribute to milk fractions and cheeses with novel micro and macrostructures. These novel fractions could be used as new ingredients to improve...

  1. Automatic Meal Inspection System Using LBP-HF Feature for Central Kitchen

    OpenAIRE

    Yue-Min Jiang; Ho-Hsin Lee; Cheng-Chang Lien; Chun-Feng Tai; Pi-Chun Chu; Ting-Wei Yang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an intelligent and automatic meal inspection system which can be applied to the meal inspection for the application of central kitchen automation. The diet specifically designed for the patients are required with providing personalized diet such as low sodium intake or some necessary food. Hence, the proposed system can benefit the inspection process that is often performed manually. In the proposed system, firstly, the meal box can be detected and located automatically wi...

  2. Antioxidant activity of whey protein hydrolysates in milk beverage system

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Bimlesh; Kumari, Anuradha; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Rajan; Prajapati, Kishore; Mahboob, Shaik; Athira, S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of flavoured milk enriched with antioxidative whey protein hydrolysates (WPHs) by radical scavenging method. Whey protein concentrate (WPC) was hydrolyzed by using three commercial proteases; flavouzyme, alcalase and corolase PP and these WPHs were analyzed for degree of hydrolysis and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activities of these WPHs were evaluated using ABTS method. Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity of a...

  3. Central Nervous System Based Computing Models for Shelf Life Prediction of Soft Mouth Melting Milk Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyanendra Kumar Goyal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the latency and potential of central nervous system based system intelligent computer engineering system for detecting shelf life of soft mouth melting milk cakes stored at 10o C. Soft mouth melting milk cakes are exquisite sweetmeat cuisine made out of heat and acid thickened solidified sweetened milk. In today’s highly competitive market consumers look for good quality food products. Shelf life is a good and accurate indicator to the food quality and safety. To achieve good quality of food products, detection of shelf life is important. Central nervous system based intelligent computing model was developed which detected 19.82 days shelf life, as against 21 days experimental shelf life.

  4. A proficiency test system to improve performance of milk analysis methods and produce reference values for component calibration samples for infrared milk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Melilli, Caterina; Barbano, David M

    2016-08-01

    Our goal was to determine the feasibility of combining proficiency testing, analytical method quality-assurance system, and production of reference samples for calibration of infrared milk analyzers to achieve a more efficient use of resources and reduce costs while maximizing analytical accuracy within and among milk payment-testing laboratories. To achieve this, we developed and demonstrated a multilaboratory combined proficiency testing and analytical method quality-assurance system as an approach to evaluate and improve the analytical performance of methods. A set of modified milks was developed and optimized to serve multiple purposes (i.e., proficiency testing, quality-assurance and method improvement, and to provide reference materials for calibration of secondary testing methods). Over a period of years, the approach has enabled the group of laboratories to document improved analytical performance (i.e., reduced within- and between-laboratory variation) of chemical reference methods used as the primary reference for calibration of high-speed electronic milk-testing equipment. An annual meeting of the laboratory technicians allows for review of results and discussion of each method and provides a forum for communication of experience and techniques that are of value to new analysts in the group. The monthly proficiency testing sample exchanges have the added benefit of producing all-laboratory mean reference values for a set of 14 milks that can be used for calibration, evaluation, and troubleshooting of calibration adjustment issues on infrared milk analyzers.

  5. A proficiency test system to improve performance of milk analysis methods and produce reference values for component calibration samples for infrared milk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Melilli, Caterina; Barbano, David M

    2016-08-01

    Our goal was to determine the feasibility of combining proficiency testing, analytical method quality-assurance system, and production of reference samples for calibration of infrared milk analyzers to achieve a more efficient use of resources and reduce costs while maximizing analytical accuracy within and among milk payment-testing laboratories. To achieve this, we developed and demonstrated a multilaboratory combined proficiency testing and analytical method quality-assurance system as an approach to evaluate and improve the analytical performance of methods. A set of modified milks was developed and optimized to serve multiple purposes (i.e., proficiency testing, quality-assurance and method improvement, and to provide reference materials for calibration of secondary testing methods). Over a period of years, the approach has enabled the group of laboratories to document improved analytical performance (i.e., reduced within- and between-laboratory variation) of chemical reference methods used as the primary reference for calibration of high-speed electronic milk-testing equipment. An annual meeting of the laboratory technicians allows for review of results and discussion of each method and provides a forum for communication of experience and techniques that are of value to new analysts in the group. The monthly proficiency testing sample exchanges have the added benefit of producing all-laboratory mean reference values for a set of 14 milks that can be used for calibration, evaluation, and troubleshooting of calibration adjustment issues on infrared milk analyzers. PMID:27209129

  6. A complete discrimination system for polynomials with complex coefficients and its automatic generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁松新; 张景中

    1999-01-01

    By establishing a complete discrimination system for polynomials, the problem of complete root classification for polynomials with complex coefficients is utterly solved, furthermore, the algorithm obtained is made into a general program in Maple, which enables the complete discrimination system and complete root classification of a polynomial to be automatically generated by computer, without any human intervention. Besides, by using the automatic generation of root classification, a method to determine the positive definiteness of a polynomial in one or two indeterminates is automatically presented.

  7. A Wireless Framework for Lecturers' Attendance System with Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emammer Khamis Shafter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI technology is one type of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID method which can be used to significantly improve the efficiency of lecturers' attendance system. It provides the capability of automatic data capture for attendance records using mobile device equipped in users’ vehicle. The intent of this article is to propose a framework for automatic lecturers' attendance system using AVI technology. The first objective of this work involves gathering of requirements for Automatic Lecturers' Attendance System and to represent them using UML diagrams. The second objective is to put forward a framework that will provide guidelines for developing the system. A prototype has also been created as a pilot project.

  8. Automatic neutron PSD transmission from a process computer to a timeshare system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for automatically telephoning, connecting, and transmitting neutron power-spectral density data from a CDC-1700 process control computer to a PDP-10 time-share system is described. Detailed program listings and block diagrams are included

  9. Intelligent buildings, automatic fire alarm and fire-protection control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes in brief the intelligent buildings, and the automatic fire alarm and fire-protection control system. On the basis of the four-bus, three-bus and two-bus, a new transfer technique was developed

  10. Development of an automatic sample changer and a data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic electro-pneumatic sample changer with a rotating sample holder is described. The changer is coupled through an electronic interface with the data acquisition station. The software to automate the system has been designed. (author)

  11. Automatic system of dam grouting in Tenjin dam construction works; Tenjin damu kensetsu koji ni okeru gurauchingu no jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaga, K.

    1996-03-01

    Since construction management of grouting is controlled by many factors like operators` technical skill and experience, grouting quality is not expected to be good and random and deteriorated quality is feared. Reduction of random quality with different operating individuals and prevention of simple miss due to human errors are expected to be necessary factors to ensure stable quality. Automatic system for Tenjin dam`s grouting quality is developed and its outline is reported in this research study. Considering grouting system`s flow and system`s drawing, grouting automatic system`s summary is explained. Again present grouting automatic system is compared with past systems reported in literature. Then operating personnel cut down in automation of grouting, artificial miss prevention in automatic supplement judgement system, needed time reduction in supplement decision and labor saving are made it possible. Details of above mentioned points are illustrated clearly. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Optimal Coordination of Automatic Line Switches for Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jyh-Cherng Gu; Ming-Ta Yang

    2012-01-01

    For the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower), the margins of coordination times between the lateral circuit breakers (LCB) of underground 4-way automatic line switches and the protection equipment of high voltage customers are often too small. This could lead to sympathy tripping by the feeder circuit breaker (FCB) of the distribution feeder and create difficulties in protection coordination between upstream and downstream protection equipment, identification of faults, and restoration operations....

  13. NASA MSFC hardware in the loop simulations of automatic rendezvous and capture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Naumann, Charles B.; Sutton, William; Bryan, Thomas C.

    1991-01-01

    Two complementary hardware-in-the-loop simulation facilities for automatic rendezvous and capture systems at MSFC are described. One, the Flight Robotics Laboratory, uses an 8 DOF overhead manipulator with a work volume of 160 by 40 by 23 feet to evaluate automatic rendezvous algorithms and range/rate sensing systems. The other, the Space Station/Station Operations Mechanism Test Bed, uses a 6 DOF hydraulic table to perform docking and berthing dynamics simulations.

  14. Milk Yield of Primiparous Beef Cows From Three Calving Systems and Varied Weaning Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a 2-yr study, primiparous beef cows produced in 3 calving systems were used to study milk yield throughout a 190-d lactation (2002, n = 20; 2003, n = 24 per calving system). Calving occurred in late winter (average calving date = February 4 ± 2 d), early spring (average calving date = March 30 ± ...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined...

  16. The Influence of hygiene monitoring systems on the harmlessness of food of animal origin (meat, milk)

    OpenAIRE

    Svobodová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the influence of hygiene monitoring systems on health safety of food of animal origin (meat, milk). It mainly focuses on the characteristics of selected hygiene control systems of food production supervised by Regional Veterinary Administration in České Budějovice in years 2007 to 2011. For our purposes an overview of selected data concerning the safety of meat and milk was set. Based on the results of the inspection led by Regional Veterinary Administration during the ...

  17. Factors that influence in the technology adoption in the production system: Potato - grasses - milk in the east of Antioquia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of knowing the factors that influence in the technology adoption in the system of production potato-grass-milk in the east of Antioquia, it was carried out a study with producing of this system. The study is exploratory, of descriptive type. As study population they took 4.119 producers, of which a sample of 249 producers was selected, using sampling for conglomerates. By means of visits to properties, they were applied a questionnaire, which contained information related with the main variable that is production potato-grass-milk and their different components. Statistical analysis was used as tests of Z for averages and percentages. In accordance with the obtained results, it could settle down that the producers manage 2 very defined systems of production of milk: potato-grass-milk with 45 percent of the producers; alone potato, they exploit it 1 percent of the producers. The producers were changed to the system potato-grass-milk, in the study area for more profitability and with the purpose of improving the herdsmen; on the contrary, those that left the system and they spent to the system grass-milk, they made it for the high costs of potato production and the manpower shortage required for the handling of the system; also, the search of more revenues. The readiness of the manpower is lower for those who manage the system grass-milk that for those of the system potato-grass-milk

  18. 14 CFR 23.672 - Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provided for any failure in the stability augmentation system or in any other automatic or power-operated system that could result in an unsafe condition if the pilot was not aware of the failure. Warning systems must not activate the control system. (b) The design of the stability augmentation system or...

  19. Utilization of microfiltration or lactoperoxidase system or both for manufacture of Cheddar cheese from raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornkul, Y; Henning, D R

    2007-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if application of microfiltration (MF) or raw milk lactoperoxidase system (LP) could reduce the risk of foodborne illness from Escherichia coli in raw milk cheeses, without adversely affecting the overall sensory acceptability of the cheeses. Escherichia coli K12 was added to raw milk to study its survival as a non-pathogenic surrogate organism for pathogenic E. coli. Five replications of 6 treatments of Cheddar cheese were manufactured. The 6 treatments included cheeses made from pasteurized milk (PM), raw milk (RM), raw milk inoculated with E. coli K12 (RME), raw milk inoculated with E. coli K12 + LP activation (RMELP), raw milk inoculated with E. coli K12 + MF (MFE), and raw milk inoculated with E. coli K12 + MF + LP activation (MFELP). The population of E. coli K12 was enumerated in the cheese milks, in whey/curds during cheese manufacture, and in final Cheddar cheeses during ripening. Application of LP, MF, and a combination of MF and LP led to an average percentage reduction of E. coli K12 counts in cheese milk by 72, 88, and 96%, respectively. However, E. coli K12 populations significantly increased during the manufacture of Cheddar cheese for the reasons not related to contamination. The number of E. coli K12, however, decreased by 1.5 to 2 log cycles during 120 d of ripening, irrespective of the treatments. The results suggest that MF with or without LP significantly lowers E. coli count in raw milk. Hence, if reactivation of E. coli during cheese making could be prevented, MF with or without LP would be an effective technique for reducing the counts of E. coli in raw milk cheeses. The cheeses were also analyzed for proteolysis, starter and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), and sensory characteristics during ripening. The concentration of pH 4.6 soluble nitrogen at 120 d was greater in PM cheese compared with the other treatments. The level of 12% trichloroacetic acid-soluble nitrogen at 120 d was

  20. Automatic Boat Identification System for VIIRS Low Light Imaging Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Elvidge

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability for satellite sensors to detect lit fishing boats has been known since the 1970s. However, the use of the observations has been limited by the lack of an automatic algorithm for reporting the location and brightness of offshore lighting features arising from boats. An examination of lit fishing boat features in Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS day/night band (DNB data indicates that the features are essentially spikes. We have developed a set of algorithms for automatic detection of spikes and characterization of the sharpness of spike features. A spike detection algorithm generates a list of candidate boat detections. A second algorithm measures the height of the spikes for the discard of ionospheric energetic particle detections and to rate boat detections as either strong or weak. A sharpness index is used to label boat detections that appear blurry due to the scattering of light by clouds. The candidate spikes are then filtered to remove features on land and gas flares. A validation study conducted using analyst selected boat detections found the automatic algorithm detected 99.3% of the reference pixel set. VIIRS boat detection data can provide fishery agencies with up-to-date information of fishing boat activity and changes in this activity in response to new regulations and enforcement regimes. The data can provide indications of illegal fishing activity in restricted areas and incursions across Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ boundaries. VIIRS boat detections occur widely offshore from East and Southeast Asia, South America and several other regions.

  1. MFM Automatic Control System Development for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO; Lei; YIN; Zhi-guo; LV; Yin-long; ZHONG; Jun-qing

    2012-01-01

    <正>In order to do the magnetic field measurement (MFM) work for CYCIAE-100, a set of MFM automatic facility has been developed by the cyclotron team at CIAE. 1 Design of project The MFM facility for CYCIAE-100 adopts the method of circular and radial motion to complete the measurement. In circular direction, an open loop control is adopted at hardware level. A kind of arithmetic is compensated to form a virtual closed loop control based on the position signal by angle encoder

  2. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  3. MM98.19 An automatic system for elaboration of chip breaking diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Chiffre, Leonardo De

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory system for fully automatic elaboration of chip breaking diagrams has been developed and tested. The system is based on automatic chip breaking detection by frequency analysis of cutting forces in connection with programming of a CNC-lathe to scan different feeds, speeds and cutting...... depths. An evaluation of the system based on a total of 1671 experiments has shown that unfavourable snarled chips can be detected with 98% certainty which indeed makes the system a valuable tool in chip breakability tests. Using the system, chip breaking diagrams can be elaborated with a previously...

  4. A bar-code reader for an alpha-beta automatic counting system - FAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bar-code laser system for sample number reading was integrated into the FAG Alpha-Beta automatic counting system. The sample identification by means of an attached bar-code label enables unmistakable and reliable attribution of results to the counted sample. Installation of the bar-code reader system required several modifications: Mechanical changes in the automatic sample changer, design and production of new sample holders, modification of the sample planchettes, changes in the electronic system, update of the operating software of the system (authors)

  5. Effect of an automatic feeding system on growth performance and feeding behaviour of pigs reared outdoors

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Fortina; Salvatore Barbera; Paolo Cornale

    2009-01-01

    Nine Mora Romagnola and 10 Large White x Mora Romagnola growing pigs were reared outdoors. In both groups ad libitum feed was provided. Conventional pigs received it twice a day, distributed in two long troughs. Inside the corral of the second group, an automatic station was set up for: feed distribution, pigs weighing, and control by an analog camera. Thus the self-feeders received feed ad libitum individually by the automatic system, divided into small quantities at meal times. During the e...

  6. The automatic liquid nitrogen filling system for GDA detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rakesh Kumar; A J Malyadri; S Muralithar; Ruby Shanti; S K Saini Kusum Rani; B P Ajith Kumar; Rajesh Kumar; R K Bhowmik

    2001-07-01

    An indigenously developed automatic liquid nitrogen (LN2) filling system has been installed in gamma detector array (GDA) facility at Nuclear Science Centre. Electro-pneumatic valves are used for filling the liquid nitrogen into the high purity germanium detector cryostat. The temperature of the out-flowing gas/liquid from the cryostat is monitored using platinum resistor thermometer. The program allows for automatic filling at regular intervals with temperature monitoring from a remote terminal.

  7. Effect of dairy farming system, herd, season, parity, and days in milk on modeling of the coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittante, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Malchiodi, F; Sturaro, E; Tagliapietra, F; Schiavon, S; Cecchinato, A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the variation in curd firmness model parameters obtained from coagulating bovine milk samples, and to investigate the effects of the dairy system, season, individual farm, and factors related to individual cows (days in milk and parity). Individual milk samples (n = 1,264) were collected during the evening milking of 85 farms representing different environments and farming systems in the northeastern Italian Alps. The dairy herds were classified into 4 farming system categories: traditional system with tied animals (29 herds), modern dairy systems with traditional feeding based on hay and compound feed (30 herds), modern dairy system with total mixed ration (TMR) that included silage as a large proportion of the diet (9 herds), and modern dairy system with silage-free TMR (17 herds). Milk samples were analyzed for milk composition and coagulation properties, and parameters were modeled using curd firmness measures (CFt) collected every 15 s from a lacto-dynamographic analysis of 90 min. When compared with traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), the curd firming measures showed greater variability and yielded a more accurate description of the milk coagulation process: the model converged for 93.1% of the milk samples, allowing estimation of 4 CFt parameters and 2 derived traits [maximum CF (CF(max)) and time from rennet addition to CF(max) (t(max))] for each sample. The milk samples whose CFt equations did not converge showed longer rennet coagulation times obtained from the model (RCT(eq)) and higher somatic cell score, and came from less-productive cows. Among the sources of variation tested for the CFt parameters, dairy herd system yielded the greatest differences for the contrast between the traditional farm and the 3 modern farms, with the latter showing earlier coagulation and greater instant syneresis rate constant (k(SR)). The use of TMR yielded a greater tmax because of a higher instant curd

  8. The influence of milking procedures on cow’s teat tissue, milk yield and milking time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Špoljar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different milking procedures on teat length and diameter, milk yield and milking time. During the first milking procedure the milker decides when to remove the milking cluster from the udder, while in the second an automatic cluster removal, when milk flow was lower than 200 g/min, was performed. Measurements were made on two commercial farms B and A on 15 randomly chosen cows without any clinical sign of mastitis. There were no significant differencesbetween those farms in teat length and diameter differences before and after the milking. Average milking time on farm A was 6 min and 58 s, while on farm B was 5 min and 3 s. Average milk yield was 12.9 kg on farm B and 13.4 kg on farm A. Milking time was considerably shorter on farm B compared to farm A, while milk yield was almost equal on both farms. Automatic cluster weighting 2 kg removal was performed when milk flow was lower than 200 g/min in order to shorten the time needed to milk the cow, ensuring good udder health.

  9. Automatic operation systems for the coke oven top; Cokes ro rojo sagyo no jidoka tachiage jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, T.; Kitayama, Y. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-10-13

    This paper describes an outline of automatic operation on the coke oven top, which has been conducted at the Kashima Steel Works, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. For the automatic operation on the oven top, unmanned operation of the charging car, mechanization of works on the oven top, centralized control, and simplification of the system were introduced. This automatic system consists of the charging car, central station, charging car station, and quenching car automation system. For the automatic travel motion control, braking by the electric regenerative brake and disk brake was adopted. The oven center standing control is carried out by using the position and distance information of interlock cable and the oven center sensor. Standing accuracy of the oven center of charging car was designed to be up to {plus_minus}10 mm. High detection accuracy can be obtained through the optical cutting image processing. The carbon removing apparatus for inlet port, oven top cleaner dust treatment apparatus, and charging level measurement apparatus were added to the charging car, which were required for the automatic operation on the oven top. As a result, the automatic ratio more than 99% could be achieved. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. ANALYSIS OF EXISTING AND PROSPECTIVE TECHNICAL CONTROL SYSTEMS OF NUMERIC CODES AUTOMATIC BLOCKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Beznarytnyy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify the characteristic features of the engineering control measures system of automatic block of numeric code, identifying their advantages and disadvantages, to analyze the possibility of their use in the problems of diagnosing status of the devices automatic block and setting targets for the development of new diagnostic systems. Methodology. In order to achieve targets the objective theoretical and analytical method and the method of functional analysis have been used. Findings. The analysis of existing and future facilities of the remote control and diagnostics automatic block devices had shown that the existing systems of diagnosis were not sufficiently informative, designed primarily to control the discrete parameters, which in turn did not allow them to construct a decision support subsystem. In developing of new systems of technical diagnostics it was proposed to use the principle of centralized distributed processing of diagnostic data, to include a subsystem support decision-making in to the diagnostics system, it will reduce the amount of work to maintain the devices blocking and reduce recovery time after the occurrence injury. Originality. As a result, the currently existing engineering controls facilities of automatic block can not provide a full assessment of the state distillation alarms and locks. Criteria for the development of new systems of technical diagnostics with increasing amounts of diagnostic information and its automatic analysis were proposed. Practical value. These results of the analysis can be used in practice in order to select the technical control of automatic block devices, as well as the further development of diagnostic systems automatic block that allows for a gradual transition from a planned preventive maintenance service model to the actual state of the monitored devices.

  11. Automated stand-alone flow injection immunoanalysis system for the determination of cephalexin in milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, U.J.; Zhi, Z.L.; Loomans, E.; Spener, F.; Meusel, F.

    1999-01-01

    A fully automated stand-alone flow injection immunoanalysis (FIIA) device for the determination of cephalexin in milk is developed with a main focus on the investigation of the influence of the sample matrix. The system is based on principles of flow-through immunoassays and on sequential addition o

  12. Effect of Disaccharides on Ion Properties in Milk-Based Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, R.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Eisner, M.D.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    The mean spherical approximation (MSA) theory is used to explain the impact of sugars on ion properties in milk-based systems by taking into account electrostatic interactions and volume exclusion effects. This study first focuses on the changes in Ca2+ activity and pH in a solution consisting of Ca

  13. Towards a decision support system for control of multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Sterrenburg, P.; Haasnoot, W.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Decision support systems (DSS) for controlling multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production have not yet been developed, but the underlying components are fragmentarily available. This article presents the state-of-the-art of essential DSS elements for judging food safety compliance of raw mi

  14. Profitability indicators of milk production cost center in intensive systems of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to estimate some profitability indicators of dairy cost center farms with a high volume of daily production in feedlot. The Intended was also to identify the components that had the greatest influence on the operational cost. We used data from three milk systems production, with the origin of the purebred Holsteins. It was considered as a milk cost center production all expenses related in lactating and dry cows. The methodology used total cost and operating cost in profitability analysis. A production system, by presenting gross margin, net positive result, was able to produce short, medium and long term. Another production system had a positive gross margin and net, with conditions to survive in the short and medium term. Finally, the third system of production has shown a negative gross margin presenting decapitalizing and entering into debt, as revenues were not enough to pay operating expenses even effective. The component items of the effective operational cost that exercised higher “impact” cost and income from milk were, in decreasing order, the feeding, labor, miscellaneous expenses, sanitation, energy, milking, reproduction, equipment rental, BST and taxes.

  15. System design of the METC automatic data acquisition and control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, D. R.; Armstrong, D. L.

    1982-02-01

    A system of computer programs and hardware was developed by the Instrumentation Branch of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to provide data acquisition and control features for research projects at the site. The Automatic Data Acquisition and Control System (ADACS) has the capability of servicing up to eight individual projects simultaneously, providing data acquisition, data feedback, and process control where needed. Several novel software features - including a data table driven program, extensive feedback in real time, free format English commands, and high reliability - were incorporated to provide these functions.

  16. Towards Automatic Improvement of Patient Queries in Health Retrieval Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrine KSENTINI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the adoption of health information technology for clinical health, e-health is becoming usual practice today. Users of this technology find it difficult to seek information relevant to their needs due to the increasing amount of the clinical and medical data on the web, and the lack of knowledge of medical jargon. In this regards, a method is described to improve user's needs by automatically adding new related terms to their queries which appear in the same context of the original query in order to improve final search results. This method is based on the assessment of semantic relationships defined by a proposed statistical method between a set of terms or keywords. Experiments were performed on CLEF-eHealth-2015 database and the obtained results show the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  17. A Study of Applications of Multiagent System Specifications and the Key Techniques in Automatic Abstracts System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, multiagent system specifications, multiagent system architecture s , agent communication languages and agent communication protocols, automatic abs tracting based on multiagent technologies are studied. Some concerned problems o f designs and realization of automatic abstracting systems based on multiagent t echnologies are studied, too. Chapter 1 shows the significance and objectives of the thesis, its main contents are summarized, and innovations of the thesis are showed. Some basic concepts of agents and multiagent systems are studied in Cha pter 2. The definitions of agents and multiagent systems are given, and the theo ry, technologies and applications of multiagent systems are summarized. Furtherm ore, some important studying trends of multiagent systems are set forward. Multi agent system specifications are studied in Chapter 3. MAS/KIB—a multiagent syst em specification is built using mental states such as K(Know), B(Belief) , and I(Intention), its grammar and semanteme are discussed, axioms and infe rence rules are given, and some properties are researched. We also compare MAS/K IB with other existing specifications. MAS/KIB has the following characteristics : (1) each agent has its own world outlook; (2) no global data in the system; (3 ) processes of state changes are used as indexes to systems; (4) it has the char acteristics of not only time series logic but also dynamic logic; and (5) intera ctive actions are included. The architectures of multiagent systems are studied in Chapter 4. First, we review some typical architecture of multiagent systems, agent network architecture, agent federated architecture, agent blackboard archi tecture, and Foundation of Intelligent Physical Agent(FIPA) architecture. For th e first time, we set forward and study the layering and partitioning models of t he architectures of multiagent systems, organizing architecture models, and inte roperability architecture model of multiagent

  18. Automatized distribution systems in IBERDROLA. Sistemas de automatizacion de distribucion en Iberdrola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Madariaga, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents the automatized distribution systems in IBERDROLA. These systems permit to improve the Energetical demand management. The optimized distribution system is a applied by the industrial sector and by the small users. Iberdrola has developed a project in order to offer the telemanagement to the energy users.

  19. A System for the Automatic Assembly of Test Questions Using a No-SQL Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sanggyu; Hashimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    We describe a system that automatically assembles test questions from a set of examples. Our system can create test questions appropriate for each user's level at low cost. In particular, when a user review their lesson, our system provides new test questions which are assembled based on their previous test results and past mistakes, rather than a…

  20. Battery-powered transport systems. Possible methods of automatically charging drive batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    In modern driverless transport systems, not only easy maintenance of the drive battery is important but also automatic charging during times of standstill. Some systems are presented; one system is pointed out in particular in which 100 batteries can be charged at the same time.

  1. GPS AUTOMATIC MONITORING SYSTEM FOR OUTSIDE DEFORMATION OF GEHEYAN DAM ON THE QINGJIANG RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the background of developing GPS Automatic Monitoring System for outside deformation of Geheyan Dam is described concisely. The framework, precision and features of the system are stated in detail. Finally, the prospective application of the system is introduced.

  2. Analysis and Design of PLC-based Control System for Automatic Beverage Filling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yundan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic filling system is the main equipment in the food machinery industry. With the development of beverage industry and increasing demand of the filling system. The relay control method in traditional Filling machine has low automation and integration level and cannot satisfy the rapid development of automatic production. PLC control method has advantages of simple programming, strong anti-interference and high working reliability, has gradually replace the relay control method. In this study, hardware and software for the automatic filling system based on PLC control is designed, especially the injection section servo control system which adopts the servo motor driver metering pump is carefully analyzed and the filling precision is highly improved.

  3. Sustainability Aspects of Automatic Milking Systems (AMS) in Organic Dairy Production in Denmark and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, F.W.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Renes, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Use of new technology can contribute to sustainable development, but a careful assessment should be made. Using a theoretical framework, the economical, ecological and societal consequences for sustainability are assessed and translated. Selected sustainability indicators are validated though litera

  4. A Method for Modeling the Virtual Instrument Automatic Test System Based on the Petri Net

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Min; CHEN Guang-ju

    2005-01-01

    Virtual instrument is playing the important role in automatic test system. This paper introduces a composition of a virtual instrument automatic test system and takes the VXIbus based a test software platform which is developed by CAT lab of the UESTC as an example. Then a method to model this system based on Petri net is proposed. Through this method, we can analyze the test task scheduling to prevent the deadlock or resources conflict. At last, this paper analyzes the feasibility of this method.

  5. Design of advanced automatic inspection system for turbine blade FPI analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Xie, W. F.; Viens, M.; Birglen, L.; Mantegh, I.

    2013-01-01

    Aircraft engine turbine blade is the most susceptible part to discontinuities as it works in the extremely high pressure and temperature. Among various types of NDT method, Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection (FPI) is comparably cheap and efficient thus suitable for detecting turbine blade surface discontinuities. In this paper, we have developed an Advanced Automatic Inspection System (AAIS) with Image Processing and Pattern Recognition techniques to aid human inspector. The system can automatically detect, measure and classify the discontinuities from turbine blade FPI images. The tests on the sample images provided by industrial partner have been performed to evaluate the system.

  6. Design and Implementation of a Modern Automatic Deformation Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Philipp; Schweimler, Björn

    2016-03-01

    The deformation monitoring of structures and buildings is an important task field of modern engineering surveying, ensuring the standing and reliability of supervised objects over a long period. Several commercial hardware and software solutions for the realization of such monitoring measurements are available on the market. In addition to them, a research team at the University of Applied Sciences in Neubrandenburg (NUAS) is actively developing a software package for monitoring purposes in geodesy and geotechnics, which is distributed under an open source licence and free of charge. The task of managing an open source project is well-known in computer science, but it is fairly new in a geodetic context. This paper contributes to that issue by detailing applications, frameworks, and interfaces for the design and implementation of open hardware and software solutions for sensor control, sensor networks, and data management in automatic deformation monitoring. It will be discussed how the development effort of networked applications can be reduced by using free programming tools, cloud computing technologies, and rapid prototyping methods.

  7. AUTOMATIC PATENT DOCUMFNT SUMMARIZATION FOR COLLABORATIVE KNOWLEDGE SYSTEMS AND SERVICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy J.C.TRAPPEY; Charles V.TRAPPEY; Chun-Yi WU

    2009-01-01

    Engineering and research teams often develop new products and technologies by referring to inventions described in patent databases. Efficient patent analysis builds R&D knowledge, reduces new product development time, increases market success, and reduces potential patent infringement. Thus, it is beneficial to automatically and systematically extract information from patent documents in order to improve knowledge sharing and collaboration among R&D team members. In this research, patents are summarized using a combined ontology based and TF-IDF concept clustering approach. The ontology captures the general knowledge and core meaning of patents in a given domain. Then, the proposed methodology extracts, clusters, and integrates the content of a patent to derive a summary and a cluster tree diagram of key terms. Patents from the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes B25C, B25D, B25F (categories for power hand tools) and B24B, C09G and H011 (categories for chemical mechanical polishing) are used as case studies to evaluate the compression ratio, retention ratio, and classification accuracy of the summarization results. The evaluation uses statistics to represent the summary generation and its compression ratio, the ontology based keyword extraction retention ratio, and the summary classification accuracy. The results show that the ontology based approach yields about the same compression ratio as previous non-ontology based research but yields on average an 11% improvement for the retention ratio and a 14% improvement for classification accuracy.

  8. Automatic measuring system of zirconium thickness for zirconium liner cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic measuring system of pure zirconium liner thickness for Zirconium-Zircaloy cladding tubes has been successfully developed. The system consists of three parts. An ultrasonic thickness measuring method for mother tubes before cold rolling; an electromagnetic thickness measuring method for the manufactured tubes, and, an image processing method for the cross sectional view of the manufactured cut tube samples

  9. Automatic ultrasonic system for flaw detection and dimensional measurement of precision tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a system, which is installed at Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. It is a tube rotation fixed probe type of system designed for fully automatic operation at high speed using immersion technique for ultrasonic flaw detection and dimensional measurement of precision of zirconium alloy seamless tubes used in fuel bundles for nuclear reactors

  10. A system for automatic aorta sections measurements on chest CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Yitzchak; Mayer, Arnaldo; Zholkover, Adi; Konen, Eli

    2016-03-01

    A new method is proposed for caliber measurement of the ascending aorta (AA) and descending aorta (DA). A key component of the method is the automatic detection of the carina, as an anatomical landmark around which an axial volume of interest (VOI) can be defined to observe the aortic caliber. For each slice in the VOI, a linear profile line connecting the AA with the DA is found by pattern matching on the underlying intensity profile. Next, the aortic center position is found using Hough transform on the best linear segment candidate. Finally, region growing around the center provides an accurate segmentation and caliber measurement. We evaluated the algorithm on 113 sequential chest CT scans, slice thickness of 0.75 - 3.75mm, 90 with contrast agent injected. The algorithm success rates were computed as the percentage of scans in which the center of the AA was found. Automated measurements of AA caliber were compared with independent measurements of two experienced chest radiologists, comparing the absolute difference between the two radiologists with the absolute difference between the algorithm and each of the radiologists. The measurement stability was demonstrated by computing the STD of the absolute difference between the radiologists, and between the algorithm and the radiologists. Results: Success rates of 93% and 74% were achieved, for contrast injected cases and non-contrast cases, respectively. These results indicate that the algorithm can be robust in large variability of image quality, such as the cases in a realworld clinical setting. The average absolute difference between the algorithm and the radiologists was 1.85mm, lower than the average absolute difference between the radiologists, which was 2.1mm. The STD of the absolute difference between the algorithm and the radiologists was 1.5mm vs 1.6mm between the two radiologists. These results demonstrate the clinical relevance of the algorithm measurements.

  11. Automatic Learning of Fine Operating Rules for Online Power System Security Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongbin; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Kang; Jiang, Weiyong; Guo, Qinglai; Zhang, Boming; Wehenkel, Louis

    2016-08-01

    Fine operating rules for security control and an automatic system for their online discovery were developed to adapt to the development of smart grids. The automatic system uses the real-time system state to determine critical flowgates, and then a continuation power flow-based security analysis is used to compute the initial transfer capability of critical flowgates. Next, the system applies the Monte Carlo simulations to expected short-term operating condition changes, feature selection, and a linear least squares fitting of the fine operating rules. The proposed system was validated both on an academic test system and on a provincial power system in China. The results indicated that the derived rules provide accuracy and good interpretability and are suitable for real-time power system security control. The use of high-performance computing systems enables these fine operating rules to be refreshed online every 15 min. PMID:25680217

  12. Improvement of remote control system of automatic ultrasonic equipment for inspection of reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the important issues related to the nuclear safety is in-service inspection of reactor pressure vessel (RPV). A remote controlled automatic ultrasonic method is applied to the inspection. At present the automatic ultrasonic inspection system owned by KAERI is interrupted due to degradation of parts. In order to resume field inspection new remote control system for the equipment was designed and installed to the existing equipment. New ultrasonic sensors and their modules for RPV inspection were designed and fabricated in accordance with the new requirements of the inspection codes. Ultrasonic sensors were verified for the use in the RPV inspection. (author)

  13. Improvement of remote control system of automatic ultrasonic equipment for inspection of reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Yong Moo; Jung, H. K.; Joo, Y. S.; Koo, K. M.; Hyung, H.; Sim, C. M.; Gong, U. S.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, J. P.; Rhoo, H. C.; Kim, M. S.; Ryoo, S. K.; Choi, C. H.; Oh, K. I

    1999-12-01

    One of the important issues related to the nuclear safety is in-service inspection of reactor pressure vessel (RPV). A remote controlled automatic ultrasonic method is applied to the inspection. At present the automatic ultrasonic inspection system owned by KAERI is interrupted due to degradation of parts. In order to resume field inspection new remote control system for the equipment was designed and installed to the existing equipment. New ultrasonic sensors and their modules for RPV inspection were designed and fabricated in accordance with the new requirements of the inspection codes. Ultrasonic sensors were verified for the use in the RPV inspection. (autho0008.

  14. Master Automatic Control System for the Power Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Białecki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The MASTER Automation System is an entirely Polish system developed in the Institute of Power Systems Automation Ltd. It is currently being updated and optimized in the range of hardware and software. Apart from an unlimited ability to extend the amount of standard communication links it will enable application of protocols of any company. It ensures sufficient resources and mechanisms for complex plant automation as well as for creating heterogeneous installations through easy integration with other producers’ systems.

  15. Evaluation of raw milk quality in different production systems and periods of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Inácio Marcondes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of raw milk in different production systems and its variation throughout the year. The data were collected from 943 dairy farms in the South, Central-West and Central regions of the state of Minas Gerais, and in Vale do Paraíba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected in the period from January 2009 to September 2011, in a total of 18,206 samples. The properties were divided into confinement, semi-confinement and extensive production systems. The evaluated factors were somatic cell count (SCC, total bacterial count (TBC and protein and fat contents. There was no effect of production system on the contents of protein, fat and SCC. Total bacterial count, however, was affected by production. Seasonal variations were found for SCC, TBC, protein and fat; the highest protein values were found from March to June; the highest fat contents were obtained from May to August; and TBC and SCC, from December to March. The production system does not interfere with the percentage of fat and protein and SCC of the milk. However, confinement systems present a better TBC content. Both month and year are factors that interfere with TBC, SCC, protein and milk fat, and the best patterns are found in the coldest periods of the year.

  16. A Survey on Automatic Fall Detection in the Context of Ambient Assisted Living Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velislava Spasova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Assisted Living (AAL systems are a relatively new and expanding area of research. Due to current demographic trends towards gentrification of the population AAL systems are bound to become more important in todays and near future’s societies. Fall detection is an important component of AAL systems which could provide better safety and higher independency of the elderly. This paper presents a survey on automatic fall detection in the context of AAL systems.

  17. System optimisation of automatic wood-fired heating systems; Systemoptimierung automatischer Holzheizungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, J.; Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Jenni, A. [Ardens GmbH, Liestal (Switzerland); Buehler, R. [Umwelt und Energie, Maschwanden (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses a system optimisation method that is being offered to operators of automatic wood-fired heating systems with ratings between 300 kW and 1 MW. The results of a survey covering 30 Swiss installations are presented and the measures recommended for improvements in performance are discussed. The report reviews the state of the installations as far as technology and financial feasibility are concerned and also takes a look at various methods of determining the annual operating efficiency of wood-fired installations as well as the limits posed on such methods. Commercial considerations that should be taken into account when planning and operating such installations are discussed. Extensive recommendations are made to manufacturers, purchasers and operators of the installations.

  18. DELIVERY AND PICK-UP PROBLEM TRANSPORTATION - MILK RUN AND CONVENTIONAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmo Alves de Moura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of inventory and transportation in the supply system of parts adopted by most of the Brazilian automotive companies to feed their assembly lines. It is a system for programmed collection of pieces called Milk Run that aims, within a window of time, to collect parts from suppliers, fulfilling established routes in order to minimize the cost of transport operations and reducing inventory in the supply chain. Milk Run, a scheduled collection system of parts can be carried out by automotive industry itself: the automaker manage the best route for its collector vehicle, determining the quantity of parts required to collect at each supplier within a given route, aiming to best utilize the capacity of the vehicle. Another way to work within the Milk Run system is the automaker to find the best routing and determines the amount of parts needed to be collected from each supplier on each trip. The collection, however, is held by a third carrier. As a third way of working, the assembler can determine the quantity of parts to collect and when it will require them. A logistics carrier determines the best routing for the collection of pieces in order to meet the production plan so that there is not a lack of parts or components on the assembly line, which would lead to a stop. In this case, the logistics carrier transports parts on its own fleet of vehicles or transfer the transport operation to a carrier.

  19. Recent advances in automatic alignment system for the National Iginition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmsen, K; Awwal, A; Kalantar, D; Leach, R; Lowe-Webb, R; McGuigan, D; Kamm, V

    2010-12-08

    The automatic alignment system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large-scale parallel system that directs all 192 laser beams along the 300-m optical path to a 50-micron focus at target chamber in less than 50 minutes. The system automatically commands 9,000 stepping motors to adjust mirrors and other optics based upon images acquired from high-resolution digital cameras viewing beams at various locations. Forty-five control loops per beamline request image processing services running on a LINUX cluster to analyze these images of the beams and references, and automaticallys teer the beams toward the target. This paper discusses the upgrades to the NIF automatic alignment system to handle new alignment needs and evolving requirements as related to various types of experiments performed. As NIF becomes a continuously-operated system and more experiments are performed, performance monitoring is increasingly important for maintenance and commissioning work. Data, collected during operations, is analyzed for tuning of the laser and targeting maintenance work. handling evolving alignment and maintenance needs is expected for the planned 30-year operational life of NIF.

  20. Fully Automatic System for Accurate Localisation and Analysis of Cephalometric Landmarks in Lateral Cephalograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Claudia; Wang, Ching-Wei; Huang, Cheng-Ta; Li, Chung-Hsing; Chang, Sheng-Wei; Cootes, Tim F

    2016-01-01

    Cephalometric tracing is a standard analysis tool for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a fully automatic landmark annotation (FALA) system for finding cephalometric landmarks in lateral cephalograms and its application to the classification of skeletal malformations. Digital cephalograms of 400 subjects (age range: 7-76 years) were available. All cephalograms had been manually traced by two experienced orthodontists with 19 cephalometric landmarks, and eight clinical parameters had been calculated for each subject. A FALA system to locate the 19 landmarks in lateral cephalograms was developed. The system was evaluated via comparison to the manual tracings, and the automatically located landmarks were used for classification of the clinical parameters. The system achieved an average point-to-point error of 1.2 mm, and 84.7% of landmarks were located within the clinically accepted precision range of 2.0 mm. The automatic landmark localisation performance was within the inter-observer variability between two clinical experts. The automatic classification achieved an average classification accuracy of 83.4% which was comparable to an experienced orthodontist. The FALA system rapidly and accurately locates and analyses cephalometric landmarks in lateral cephalograms, and has the potential to significantly improve the clinical work flow in orthodontic treatment. PMID:27645567

  1. Automatically-focusing microscope system for live tissue observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, M. N.; Chapman, C. P.; Wayland, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    System includes focus-sensing arrangement which controls servo to keep microscope constantly focused on target. Microscope objective is moved along optical axis. System includes two video cameras that are used as transducers for sensing focus. Incoming visual image is split by beam splitter so that one-half of information is fed to each camera.

  2. Automatic Voltage Control (AVC) of Danish Transmission System - Concept design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Abildgaard, Hans; Lund, P.;

    2014-01-01

    . Another consequence is the public way of generally thinking green which have led to a national decision of undergrounding not only all of the Danish distribution system but also the future transmission system. These issues initiate the infrastructure constructions of the transmission system i.e. a large...... amount of overhead lines over 100 kV as well as the new planed transmission lines will be undergrounded; the transfer capacities will be enlarged by upgrading the interconnections. Large amounts of reactive power components will be placed in the system partly for cable compensation and partly for voltage...... the substation loses the telecommunications to the control center. RPCs will be integrated to the AVC system as normative regulators in the later stage. Distributed generation units can be organized as virtual power plants and participate in voltage control at transmission level. Energinet.dk as the Danish TSO...

  3. Review: Milking robot utilization, a successful precision livestock farming evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, A J; Clark, C E F; Freeman, M J; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C; Halachmi, I

    2016-09-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS), one of the earliest precision livestock farming developments, have revolutionized dairy farming around the world. While robots control the milking process, there have also been numerous changes to how the whole farm system is managed. Milking is no longer performed in defined sessions; rather, the cow can now choose when to be milked in AMS, allowing milking to be distributed throughout a 24 h period. Despite this ability, there has been little attention given to milking robot utilization across 24 h. In order to formulate relevant research questions and improve farm AMS management there is a need to determine the current knowledge gaps regarding the distribution of robot utilization. Feed, animal and management factors and their interplay on levels of milking robot utilization across 24 h for both indoor and pasture-based systems are here reviewed. The impact of the timing, type and quantity of feed offered and their interaction with the distance of feed from the parlour; herd social dynamics, climate and various other management factors on robot utilization through 24 h are provided. This novel review draws together both the opportunities and challenges that exist for farm management to use these factors to improved system efficiency and those that exist for further research.

  4. Review: Milking robot utilization, a successful precision livestock farming evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, A J; Clark, C E F; Freeman, M J; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C; Halachmi, I

    2016-09-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS), one of the earliest precision livestock farming developments, have revolutionized dairy farming around the world. While robots control the milking process, there have also been numerous changes to how the whole farm system is managed. Milking is no longer performed in defined sessions; rather, the cow can now choose when to be milked in AMS, allowing milking to be distributed throughout a 24 h period. Despite this ability, there has been little attention given to milking robot utilization across 24 h. In order to formulate relevant research questions and improve farm AMS management there is a need to determine the current knowledge gaps regarding the distribution of robot utilization. Feed, animal and management factors and their interplay on levels of milking robot utilization across 24 h for both indoor and pasture-based systems are here reviewed. The impact of the timing, type and quantity of feed offered and their interaction with the distance of feed from the parlour; herd social dynamics, climate and various other management factors on robot utilization through 24 h are provided. This novel review draws together both the opportunities and challenges that exist for farm management to use these factors to improved system efficiency and those that exist for further research. PMID:27052004

  5. Semi-automatic beam-based alignment algorithm for the LHC collimation system

    CERN Document Server

    Valentino, G; Redaelli, S; Sammut, N; Wollmann, D

    2011-01-01

    Full beam-based alignment of the LHC collimation system was a lengthy procedure as the collimators were setup manually. A yearly alignment campaign has been sufficient for now, although in future this may lead to a decrease in the cleaning efficiency if machine parameters such as the beam orbit drift over time. Automating the collimator setup procedure can allow for more frequent alignments, therefore reducing this risk. This paper describes the design and testing of a semi-automatic algorithmas a first step towards a fully automatic setup. Its implementation in the collimator control software and future plans are described.

  6. Automatic Discharge system from dewatering bin; Sekitantaki boira niokeru dassuiso karano kurinka haraidashi shisutemu no jidoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Atsushi; Kawakami, Masamichi; Ito, Takayoshi [Chugoku Electric Powers, Co., Inc., Hiroshima (Japan); Kinoshita, Tetsuhiro; Enomoto, Masayuki [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-03-15

    At present, discharge of clinker ash from dewatering bins is done by an operator near the mesh conveyor, based on past experience, as the operator observes the discharged ash condition on the mesh conveyor. We have precious data relating to automatic operation with the sensor signal (current of the mesh conveyor motor, moisture of the clinker ash, image processing data, open ratio of the ash discharge gate, etc.). We studied the relation between the clinker ash condition and actual operation. Using the data, we were able to construct the [Automatic discharge system from dewatering bin]. (author)

  7. Programs for the automatic gamma-ray measurement with CANBERRA 8100/QUANTA system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some programs have been prepared for the automatic operation of the CANBERRA 8100/QUANTA System for the gamma-ray spectrum measurement. The main parts of these programs are: (1) to collect and record on magnetic disks the data of gamma-ray spectra automatically, while the recorded data are analyzed to estimate the nuclides which generate photopeaks of spectra and to calculate those concentrations; (2) to draw plotted diagrams of pulse height distributions of gamma-ray spectra data and other data by the additional digital plotter; and etc. (author)

  8. Human and Automatic Evaluation of English to Hindi Machine Translation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Nisheeth; Darbari, Hemant; Mathur, Iti

    2012-01-01

    Machine Translation Evaluation is the most formidable activity in Machine Translation Development. We present the MT evaluation results of some of the machine translators available online for English-Hindi machine translation. The systems are measured on automatic evaluation metrics and human subjectivity measures.

  9. Using an Automatic Retrieval System in the Web To Assist Co-operative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badue, Claudine; Vaz, Wesley; Albuquerque, Eduardo

    This paper presents an information agent and latent semantic-based indexing architecture to retrieve documents on the Internet. The system optimizes the search for documents in the Internet by automatically retrieving relevant links. The information used for the search can be obtained, for instance, from Internet browser caches and from grades of…

  10. Evaluating Automatic Speech Recognition-Based Language Learning Systems: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doremalen, Joost; Boves, Lou; Colpaert, Jozef; Cucchiarini, Catia; Strik, Helmer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate a prototype of an automatic speech recognition (ASR)-based language learning system that provides feedback on different aspects of speaking performance (pronunciation, morphology and syntax) to students of Dutch as a second language. We carried out usability reviews, expert reviews and user tests to…

  11. The Automatic indexing of Grey Literature by Subject Headings of the Polythematic Structured Subject Heading System

    OpenAIRE

    Kocourek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The contribution is devoted to the automatic indexing of grey literature by subject headings of the Polythematic Structured Subject Heading System in the National repository of grey literature. The paper describes the initial situation, previous experience, analysis, stages of implementation and demonstration of indexing.

  12. Automatic Presentation of Sense-Specific Lexical Information in an Intelligent Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Soojeong

    2012-01-01

    Learning vocabulary and understanding texts present difficulty for language learners due to, among other things, the high degree of lexical ambiguity. By developing an intelligent tutoring system, this dissertation examines whether automatically providing enriched sense-specific information is effective for vocabulary learning and reading…

  13. TASK OF FUNCTIONING ALGORITHM SYNTHESIS OF AUTOMATIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF TRAFFIC MOVEMENT IN METROPOLITAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Getsovich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept and structure of automatic management system of traffic movement in metropolitan areas is proposed by the authors, where the parameters of road network and efficient information on traffic streams are used as primary data as well as empirical-stochastic approach to simulation and forecast of development of situation.

  14. A Stochastic Approach for Automatic and Dynamic Modeling of Students' Learning Styles in Adaptive Educational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorça, Fabiano Azevedo; Lima, Luciano Vieira; Fernandes, Márcia Aparecida; Lopes, Carlos Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Considering learning and how to improve students' performances, an adaptive educational system must know how an individual learns best. In this context, this work presents an innovative approach for student modeling through probabilistic learning styles combination. Experiments have shown that our approach is able to automatically detect and…

  15. Performance Modelling of Automatic Identification System with Extended Field of View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauersen, Troels; Mortensen, Hans Peter; Pedersen, Nikolaj Bisgaard;

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with AIS (Automatic Identification System) behavior, to investigate the severity of packet collisions in an extended field of view (FOV). This is an important issue for satellite-based AIS, and the main goal is a feasibility study to find out to what extent an increased FOV...

  16. [Automatic regulator of venous pressure and venous outflow in the perfusion system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, L M; Levinskiĭ, M M; Kharnas, S Sh; Cherniak, V A

    1976-01-01

    A scheme for automatic regulation of the venous pressure and venous blood outflow during extracorporeal circulation is proposed. The system consists of a photoelectric sensor placed on a tube led out of the major venous trunkline, a converter and an electromechanical eccentric clamp that compresses the venous trunkline, all of which secures stabilization of the controlled values.

  17. REALIZATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMME ON THE BASIS OF LINGUISTIC DATABASE FOR AUTOMATIC TEXTS PROCESSING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Makarych

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the constant increasing of electronic textual information, modern society needs for the automatic processing of natural language (NL. The main purpose of NL automatic text processing systems is to analyze and create texts and represent their content. The purpose of the paper is the development of linguistic and software bases of an automatic system for processing English publicistic texts. This article discusses the examples of different approaches to the creation of linguistic databases for processing systems. The author gives a detailed description of basic building blocks for a new linguistic processor: lexical-semantic, syntactical and semantic-syntactical. The main advantage of the processor is using special semantic codes in the alphabetical dictionary. The semantic codes have been developed in accordance with a lexical-semantic classification. It helps to precisely define semantic functions of the keywords that are situated in parsing groups and allows the automatic system to avoid typical mistakes. The author also represents the realization of a developed linguistic database in the form of a training computer program.

  18. Automatic humidification system to support the assessment of food drying processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Hernández, B. D.; Carreño Olejua, A. R.; Castellanos Olarte, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    This work shows the main features of an automatic humidification system to provide drying air that match environmental conditions of different climate zones. This conditioned air is then used to assess the drying process of different agro-industrial products at the Automation and Control for Agro-industrial Processes Laboratory of the Pontifical Bolivarian University of Bucaramanga, Colombia. The automatic system allows creating and improving control strategies to supply drying air under specified conditions of temperature and humidity. The development of automatic routines to control and acquire real time data was made possible by the use of robust control systems and suitable instrumentation. The signals are read and directed to a controller memory where they are scaled and transferred to a memory unit. Using the IP address is possible to access data to perform supervision tasks. One important characteristic of this automatic system is the Dynamic Data Exchange Server (DDE) to allow direct communication between the control unit and the computer used to build experimental curves.

  19. On the question of the necessity of implementation of automatic control systems in timber industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanov, E. R.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Petrosyan, M. O.; Murygin, A. V.; Laptenor, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    The paper considers the necessity of implementation of automatic control systems on the level of forest farms management and timber industry. Main areas of activity, which currently subjected to automation, are revealed. Objectives, which solved by implementation of APCS, are identified.

  20. Automatic Synchronization as the Element of a Power System's Anti-Collapse Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkāns, J.; Žalostība, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the work, a new universal technical solution is proposed for blackout prevention in a power system, which combines the means for its optimal short-term sectioning and automatic self-restoration to normal conditions. The key element of self-restoration is automatic synchronization. The authors show that for this purpose it is possible to use automatic re-closing with a device for synchronism-check. The results of computations, with simplified formulas and a relevant mathematical model employed, indicate the area of application for this approach. The proposed solution has been created based on many-year experience in the liquidation of emergencies and on the potentialities of equipment, taking into account new features of blackout development that have come into being recently.

  1. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE DRUM BOILER SUPERHEATED STEAM TEMPERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravliov A.A.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The control system of the temperature of the superheated steam of the drum boiler is examined. Main features of the system are the PI-controller in the external control loop and introduction of the functional component of the error signal of the external control loop with the negative feedback of the error signal between the prescribed value of steam flowrate and the signal of the steam flowrate in the exit of the boiler in the internal control loop.

  2. A machine learning-based automatic currency trading system

    OpenAIRE

    Brvar, Anže

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to develop an automated trading system for Forex trading, which would use machine learning methods and their prediction models for deciding about trading actions. A training data set was obtained from exchange rates and values of technical indicators, which describe conditions on currency market. We estimated selected machine learning algorithms and their parameters with validation with sampling. We have prepared a set of automated trading systems with various...

  3. AROMA: Automatic Generation of Radio Maps for Localization Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Eleryan, Ahmed; Elsabagh, Mohamed; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    WLAN localization has become an active research field recently. Due to the wide WLAN deployment, WLAN localization provides ubiquitous coverage and adds to the value of the wireless network by providing the location of its users without using any additional hardware. However, WLAN localization systems usually require constructing a radio map, which is a major barrier of WLAN localization systems' deployment. The radio map stores information about the signal strength from different signal stre...

  4. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldonate, J; Mercuri, C; Reta, J; Biurrun, J; Bonell, C; Gentiletti, G; Escobar, S; Acevedo, R [Laboratorio de Ingenieria en Rehabilitacion e Investigaciones Neuromusculares y Sensoriales (Argentina); Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios, Ruta 11 - Km 10, Oro Verde, Entre Rios (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory.

  5. Automatic hearing loss detection system based on auditory brainstem response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldonate, J.; Mercuri, C.; Reta, J.; Biurrun, J.; Bonell, C.; Gentiletti, G.; Escobar, S.; Acevedo, R.

    2007-11-01

    Hearing loss is one of the pathologies with the highest prevalence in newborns. If it is not detected in time, it can affect the nervous system and cause problems in speech, language and cognitive development. The recommended methods for early detection are based on otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and/or auditory brainstem response (ABR). In this work, the design and implementation of an automated system based on ABR to detect hearing loss in newborns is presented. Preliminary evaluation in adults was satisfactory.

  6. Automatic control system for measuring currents produced by ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionization Chambers in current mode operation are usually used in Nuclear Metrology. Activity measurements are quickly performed by Ionization Chambers, with very good precision. For this purpose measurements of very low ionization currents, carried out by high quality instrumentation, are required. Usually, electrometers perform the current integration method under command of signals from an automation system, in order to reduce the measurement uncertainties. Among the measurement systems at the Laboratorio de Metrologia Nuclear (LMN) of IPEN, there are two ionization chamber systems. In the present work, an automation system developed for current integration measurements is described. This automation system is composed by software (graphic interface and control) and an electronic module connected to a microcomputer, by means of a commercial data acquisition card. Several test measurements were performed in order to determine the intrinsic uncertainty, linearity and stability of the system. Using calibrated radioactive solutions, the IG12/A20 chamber calibration factors for 18F and 153Sm were obtained, making possible to determine activities of these radionuclides. (author)

  7. A perception system for accurate automatic control of an articulated bus

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas, Carlota; Montes, Héctor; Armada, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the perception system for an automatic articulated bus where an accurate tracking trajectory is desired. Among the most promising transport infrastructures of the autonomous or semi-autonomous transportation systems, the articulated bus is an interesting low cost and friendly option. This platform involves a mobile vehicle and a private circuit inside CSIC premises. The perception system, presented in this work, based on 2D laser scanner as a prime sensor generates local ...

  8. Automatic quality control system of the installed straws into TRT wheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic quality control system of the installed straws into TRT ATLAS is described. The system provides straw testing for straightness and electrical isolation of the straws during their installation. Testing of the quality of installation of each straw takes 9 s, and the test of one layer of the straws - about 2 hours. The application of this system provides an opportunity of correcting defects in due time, which can influence the detector operation in the future

  9. Automatic calibration and signal switching system for the particle beam fusion research data acquisition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes both the hardware and software components of an automatic calibration and signal system (Autocal) for the data acquisition system for the Sandia particle beam fusion research accelerators Hydra, Proto I, and Proto II. The Autocal hardware consists of off-the-shelf commercial equipment. The various hardware components, special modifications and overall system configuration are described. Special software has been developed to support the Autocal hardware. Software operation and maintenance are described

  10. Anaerobic digestion and milking frequency as mitigation strategies of the environmental burden in the milk production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Lovarelli, Daniela; Sandrucci, Anna; Tamburini, Alberto; Fiala, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, through a cradle to farm gate Life Cycle Assessment, different mitigation strategies of the potential environmental impacts of milk production at farm level. The environmental performances of a conventional intensive dairy farm in Northern Italy (baseline scenario) were compared with the results obtained: from the introduction of the third daily milking and from the adoption of anaerobic digestion (AD) of animal slurry in a consortium AD plant. The AD plant, fed only with animal slurries coming also from nearby farms. Key parameters concerning on-farm activities (forage production, energy consumptions, agricultural machines maintenance, manure and livestock management), off-farm activities (production of fertilizers, pesticides, bedding materials, purchased forages, purchased concentrate feed, replacement animals, agricultural machines manufacturing, electricity, fuel) and transportation were considered. The functional unit was 1kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM) leaving the farm gate. The selected environmental impact categories were: global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and non-renewable energy use. The production of 1kg of FPCM caused, in the baseline scenario, the following environmental impact potentials: global warming potential 1.12kg CO2 eq; acidification 15.5g SO2 eq; eutrophication 5.62g PO4(3-) eq; photochemical oxidation 0.87g C2H4 eq/kg FPCM; energy use 4.66MJeq. The increase of milking frequency improved environmental performances for all impact categories in comparison with the baseline scenario; in particular acidification and eutrophication potentials showed the largest reductions (-11 and -12%, respectively). In anaerobic digestion scenario, compared to the baseline one, most of the impact potentials were strongly reduced. In particular the most important advantages were in terms of acidification (-29%), global warming (-22%) and eutrophication potential (-18

  11. Automatic measurement system for long term LED parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzyński, Łukasz; Zajkowski, Maciej

    2015-09-01

    During the past years significantly increased the number of LED models available on the market. However, not all of them have parameters which allow for use in professional lighting systems. The article discusses the international standards which should be met by modern LEDs. Among them, one of the most important parameters is factor of luminous flux decline in value during the operation of the LEDs. Its value is influenced by many factors, among others, the junction temperature of the diode and average and maximum values of supply current. Other important, for lighting reasons, parameters are stability of correlated color temperature and stability of chromaticity coordinates of the emitted light. The paper presents a system to measure luminous flux and colorimetric parameters of LEDs. Measurement system also allows for measuring a change in these parameters during operation of the LED.

  12. A fully automatic wildlife acoustic monitor and survey system

    OpenAIRE

    Boucher, Neil; Jinnai, Michihiro; Smolders, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    International audience We describe a fully automated, PC based wildlife monitoring and survey system that is used for diverse species studies. The system uses a wide-area recorder that can record over areas of up to several square kilometres. The recorder can run, unattended for more than a month. The recordings can either be analysed in real time to produce a particular response (e.g. send an SMS if a rare parrot is detected), or can be analysed later on a PC. Any number of different spec...

  13. Assessment of Shopping Behavior: Automatic System for Behavioral Cues Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of public places (e.g. cities, schools, transit districts, and public buildings) are deploying CCTV surveillance systems to monitor and protect the people in those areas. Since events like the terrorist attack in Madrid and London, there has been a further increasing demand for

  14. Automatic Weissenberg data collection system for time-resolved protein crystallography

    CERN Document Server

    Sakabe, N; Higashi, T; Igarashi, N; Suzuki, M; Watanabe, N; Sasaki, K

    2001-01-01

    A totally new type of fully automatic Weissenberg data-collection system called 'Galaxy' was developed and was installed at the Photon Factory. This automatic data collection system consists of a rotated-inclined focusing monochromator, a screenless Weissenberg type camera, an image reader, an eraser, a cassette transportation mechanism, a control console and a safety and high-speed computer network system linking a control console, data processing computers and data servers. The special characteristics of this system are a Weissenberg camera with a fully cylindrical cassette which can be rotated to exchange a frame, a maximum number of 36 images to be recorded in an IP cassette, and a very high speed IP reader with five reading heads. Since the frame exchange time is only a few seconds, this system is applicable for time-resolved protein crystallography at seconds or minutes of time-scale.

  15. Improvement and automatization of a proportional alpha-beta counting system - FAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alpha and beta counting system - FAG*, for planchette samples is operated at the Health Physics department's laboratory of the NRCN. The original operation mode of the system was based on manual tasks handled by the FHT1 100 electronics. An option for a basic computer keyboard operation was available too. A computer with an appropriate I/O card was connected to the system and a new operating program was developed which enables full automatic control of the various components. The program includes activity calculations and statistical checks as well as data management. A bar-code laser system for sample number reading was integrated into the Alpha-Beta automatic counting system. The sample identification by means of an attached bar-code label enables unmistakable and reliable attribution of results to the counted sample. authors)

  16. Contribution of supraspinal systems to generation of automatic postural responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G Deliagina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Different species maintain a particular body orientation in space due to activity of the closed-loop postural control system. In this review we discuss the role of neurons of descending pathways in operation of this system as revealed in animal models of differing complexity: lower vertebrate (lamprey and higher vertebrates (rabbit and cat.In the lamprey and quadruped mammals, the role of spinal and supraspinal mechanisms in the control of posture is different. In the lamprey, the system contains one closed-loop mechanism consisting of supraspino-spinal networks. Reticulospinal (RS neurons play a key role in generation of postural corrections. Due to vestibular input, any deviation from the stabilized body orientation leads to activation of a specific population of RS neurons. Each of the neurons activates a specific motor synergy. Collectively, these neurons evoke the motor output necessary for the postural correction. In contrast to lampreys, postural corrections in quadrupeds are primarily based not on the vestibular input but on the somatosensory input from limb mechanoreceptors. The system contains two closed-loop mechanisms – spinal and spino-supraspinal networks, which supplement each other. Spinal networks receive somatosensory input from the limb signaling postural perturbations, and generate spinal postural limb reflexes. These reflexes are relatively weak, but in intact animals they are enhanced due to both tonic supraspinal drive and phasic supraspinal commands. Recent studies of these supraspinal influences are considered in this review. A hypothesis suggesting common principles of operation of the postural systems stabilizing body orientation in a particular plane in the lamprey and quadrupeds, that is interaction of antagonistic postural reflexes, is discussed.

  17. Activation of lactoperoxidase system in milk by glucose oxidase immobilized in electrospun polylactide microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Lim, L-T

    2009-03-01

    In this study, glucose oxidase (GOX) was immobilized in polylactide (PLA) fibers that were used to activate the lactoperoxidase (LP) system in milk. The GOX-containing microfibers were electrospun from emulsions prepared by dispersing aqueous GOX in PLA dissolved in a chloroform and N,N-dimethylformamide blend, using sorbitan monopalmitate as an emulsifier. The enzymatic activity of GOX-in-PLA fibers (1100 +/- 400 nm diameter) was more than 19 times higher than that of the GOX-in-PLA membrane formed by direct casting, due to the larger surface area of the electrospun fibers. The activation of LP in model solutions using GOX-in-PLA fibers provided a more sustained generation of antimicrobial OSCN(-) than direct activation using H(2)O(2). Preliminary evaluation on milk samples showed that the electrospun GOX-in-PLA microfibers are capable of activating the naturally present LP system, indicating that they may be promising for active food packaging applications to extend the shelf life of milk.

  18. Distributed System for Automatic Improvement of Adaptive Website Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Eremić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication with clients is now largely conducted through websites, whether it comes to business, scientific, or educational activities. Considering that a dynamic website contains a growing amount of information, the issue of efficient navigation through websites allowing quick access to desired content is imperative. Adaptive websites can customize their navigation based on knowledge gained from previous user behaviour. Discovering such knowledge is a process that engages significant resources, and it is convenient to have it organized by the use of one or more servers. This paper describes the architecture of distributed systems for improving navigation through a greater number of adaptive websites. High flexibility, efficiency and reliability of the performance, as well as saving user's time and effort, can be obtained as a result of this system's usage.

  19. CAD system for automatic analysis of CT perfusion maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachaj, T.; Ogiela, M. R.

    2011-03-01

    In this article, authors present novel algorithms developed for the computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) system for analysis of dynamic brain perfusion, computer tomography (CT) maps, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV). Those methods perform both quantitative analysis [detection and measurement and description with brain anatomy atlas (AA) of potential asymmetries/lesions] and qualitative analysis (semantic interpretation of visualized symptoms). The semantic interpretation (decision about type of lesion: ischemic/hemorrhagic, is the brain tissue at risk of infraction or not) of visualized symptoms is done by, so-called, cognitive inference processes allowing for reasoning on character of pathological regions based on specialist image knowledge. The whole system is implemented in.NET platform (C# programming language) and can be used on any standard PC computer with.NET framework installed.

  20. Systematic configuration and automatic tuning of neuromorphic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sheik, S.; Stefanini, F.; Neftci, E.; Chicca, Elisabetta; G. Indiveri

    2011-01-01

    In the past recent years several research groups have proposed neuromorphic Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) devices that implement event-based sensors or biophysically realistic networks of spiking neurons. It has been argued that these devices can be used to build event-based systems, for solving real-world applications in real-time, with efficiencies and robustness that cannot be achieved with conventional computing technologies. In order to implement complex event-based neuromorphic sy...

  1. Automatic Verification of Railway Interlocking Systems: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob Lyng

    1998-01-01

    based on the Stålmarck algorithm. While some requirements are easily proved, others are virtually impossible to manage du to a very large potenbtial state space. We present what has been done in order to get, at least, an idea of whether or not such difficult requirements are fulfilled or not, and we...... express thoughts on what is needed in order to be able to successfully verify large real-life systems....

  2. Requirements to a Norwegian national automatic gamma monitoring system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, B.; Jensen, Per Hedemann; Nielsen, F.

    2005-01-01

    increments above the natural background levels. The study is based upon simplified deterministic calculations of the radiological consequences of generic nuclear accident scenarios. The density of gammamonitoring stations has been estimated from an analysis of the dispersion of radioactive materials over...... protective intervention measures should be detected by the system. Action levels for possibleintroduction of sheltering and precautionary foodstuff restrictions are derived in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate. For emergency situations where particulates contribute with only a small fraction of the total...

  3. An Automatic Interference Recognition Method in Spread Spectrum Communication System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-ming; TAO Ran

    2007-01-01

    An algorithm to detect and recognize interferences embedded in a direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) communication system is proposed. Based on Welch's averaging modified periodogram method and fractional Fourier transformation (FRFT), the paper proposes a decision tree-based algorithm in which a set of decision criteria for identifying different types of interferences is developed. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm provides a high recognition rate and is robust for various ISR and SNR.

  4. Value Sharing and Food System Dynamics for Milk, Tomato, and Cereals Food Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Bertazzoli; Rino Ghelfi; Sergio Rivaroli; Antonella Samoggia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse value sharing and food system dynamics of milk, tomato, and cereals food chains, so to explore the agro-food enterprises capacity to be competitive and sustainable. The paper is based on the functionalist approach of Malassis and the notion of the system of the General Systems Theory. The methodology is aimed at creating a consolidated financial statement for each food chain so to re-create the chain value and identify how this is shared among the different ...

  5. Automatic Indexing Framework for Context Aware Personal Document Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.D. Jayaweera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Today managing files in a personal computer has the same magnitude as managing the World Wide Web due to the dynamic nature of the file system [1]. Even searching for files over a file system is time consuming because finding a file on hard disk is a long-running task. Every file on the disk has to be read with dangling pointers to files which no longer exist because they have been changed, moved or deleted. This makes the user frustrated. Personal document management is the activity of managing a collection of digital documents by the owner of the documents. This consists of creation, organization, finding and maintenance of documents. Information, especially digital information, is no longer a scarce resource; information exists in abundance and human time and attention have now become the scarce resource [2]. Information overload is now a recognized problem as people struggle to manage the increasing quantities of information they need to deal with on a daily basis [3]. Therefore, an on demand software agent comes necessary to manage the file system and retrieve information that the User needs. This research proposes a framework that manages semi-structured file collection based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA. Formal Concept Analysis has been applied in document retrieval in different contexts. Solutions like Conceptual Email Manager [4] and DOCCO [5] do not support dynamic insertions of documents (Extents to their concept lattice. These tools require algorithms to re-run in order to rebuild the index which is costly. In this work concept lattice is generated incrementally on a document collection and stored in a database making the hierarchical structure compact to facilitate parallel insert and search. The proposed framework utilizes database queries and functions complemented with inverted index which facilitates fast document retrieval and reduce the downtime of costly updates on the master index.

  6. Automatic Indexing Framework for Context Aware Personal Document Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.D. Jayaweera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today managing files in a personal computer has the same magnitude as managing the World Wide Web due to the dynamic nature of the file system [1]. Even searching for files over a file system is time consuming because finding a file on hard disk is a long-running task. Every file on the disk has to be read with dangling pointers to files which no longer exist because they have been changed, moved or deleted. This makes the user frustrated. Personal document management is the activity of managing a collection of digital documents by the owner of the documents. This consists of creation, organization, finding and maintenance of documents. Information, especially digital information, is no longer a scarce resource; information exists in abundance and human time and attention have now become the scarce resource [2]. Information overload is now a recognized problem as people struggle to manage the increasing quantities of information they need to deal with on a daily basis [3]. Therefore, an on demand software agent comes necessary to manage the file system and retrieve information that the User needs. This research proposes a framework that manages semi-structured file collection based on Formal Concept Analysis (FCA. Formal Concept Analysis has been applied in document retrieval in different contexts. Solutions like Conceptual Email Manager [4] and DOCCO [5] do not support dynamic insertions of documents (Extents to their concept lattice. These tools require algorithms to re-run in order to rebuild the index which is costly. In this work concept lattice is generated incrementally on a document collection and stored in a database making the hierarchical structure compact to facilitate parallel insert and search. The proposed framework utilizes database queries and functions complemented with inverted index which facilitates fast document retrieval and reduce the downtime of costly updates on the master index.

  7. Development of an automatic remote monitoring system for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to implement the recommendations for the remote monitoring of nuclear power stations a task force was organized, which had to propose singular projects and to supervise their completion technically. The crucial points of the field of activity were the technical design of the remote monitoring system, the selection of specific plant and operation parameters, the online calculation of radiation exposure as well as the processing of experimental data and providing the rms-center with the information and data. (orig./DG)

  8. Automatic Carrier Landing System with Gust-rejection Capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹东; 杨一栋; 余勇; 范彦铭

    2004-01-01

    A new direct-lift control carrier landing mode is advanced, and it is proved to be very effective to keep the attitude angle and path angle constant when the aircraft is in the blind area of tracking radar and the guidance system is shut off. The direct-lift control mode is achieved with the symmetric deflection of the flaps and dynamic decoupling for minor disturbance of the angle of attack. This mode changes an aircraft' s model from a short-period oscillation model to a non-oscillation one, which could evidently increase the gust-rejection capability of the aircraft.

  9. Milk yield of cross-bred buffalo under two production systems in the Amazonian region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.V. Batista

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted at the Agroforestry Research Center of EMBRAPA (CPAFRO, Rondônia, Brazil, to determine the effects of various factors on milk yield (MY of crosss-bred buffalo (Murrah, Mediterranean and Jafarabadi under two production systems. Production system one (PS1 corresponded to the period from 1984 to 1998 where animals (4471 observation were milked once a day and received only pasture without supplementation. Production system two (PS2 corresponded to the period from 1999 to 2002 where animals (458 observations were milked once or twice daily with concentrate supplementation to pasture. Fixed variables were contemporary group (CG, genetic group (GG, Sire (S and Dam (D. Age (days at calving (AC, weight at calving (WC and tast day (TD were included as linear covariates. Data were analyzed using PROC GLM (SAS, 2005. Results showed that average milk yield for PS1 and PS2 were 3.24 and 4.31 kg/day, respectively. With the exception of WC, in PS2, all other factors significantly affected milk yield in buffalo on two production systems. In PS1, the highest milk yield was for the genetic group 7/8M and the lowest for genetic group 1/2M. For PS2, the highest milk yield was for genetic group 3/4M and the lowest for genetic group 7/8M. Using the significant covariates, the following regression equations were developed to estimate milk yield for buffalo under the two production systems: MY(PS1 = 1.99719578 + 0.00409672WC - 0.00012372AC - 0.00616303DC; MY(PS2 = 3.650977 + 0.000462760AC - 0.010300571DC.

  10. Automatic system for thermographic testing of gas turbine blades; Automatisiertes System zur thermographischen Pruefung von Gasturbinenschaufeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, W. [Siemens PG, Berlin (Germany); Zettner, J.; Schreer, O.; Spellenberg, B.; Peppermueller, C.; Hierl, T. [Siemens Thermosensorik, Erlangen (Germany); Goldammer, M. [Siemens, Muenchen (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Thermography has changed from a qualitative into a quantitative technique for defect detection and for measuring of geometrical parameters. An automatic system for testing of gas turbine blades, which combines several thermographic methods, was developed by Erlanger Thermosensorik GmbH, Siemens Corporate Technology in Munich, and Berliner Gasturbinenwerk by Siemens Power Generation. The key element of the system is a compact thermographic module consisting of a high-resolution IR camera and an annular flashlight. The module is mounted on an industrial robot which can be arrested automatically in different measuring positions and, together with a rotary table, enables high throughput and three-shift operation. The minimum measuring time is 40 seconds per blade in five positions. The system is controlled by a specially developed software. Data acquisition and processing, image processing and data storage are carried out on a scalable network of industrial PCs whic are combined with the quality assurance system of the production department via the internet. [German] In den letzten Jahren hat sich die Thermographie als Pruefmethode von einer qualitativen zu einer quantitativen Messtechnik zur Defekterkennung und Vermessung geometrischer Parameter weiterentwickelt. Ein automatisiertes System zur Pruefung von Gasturbinenschaufeln, das eine Reihe von thermographischen Messmethoden in sich vereint, wurde von der Erlanger Thermosensorik GmbH, Siemens Corporate Technology in Muenchen und dem Berliner Gasturbinenwerk von Siemens Power Generation entwickelt. Den Kern des Systems bildet ein kompaktes Thermographiemodul, bestehend aus einer hochaufloesenden Infrarotkamera und einem Ringblitz. Dieses Modul ist auf einem Industrieroboter montiert, der automatisch mehrere Messpositionen anfahren kann und zusammen mit einem Drehtisch zur Bestueckung einen hohen Durchsatz im Dreischichtbetrieb erlaubt: Die minimale Messzeit betraegt 40 Sekunden pro Schaufel bei 5 Positionen. Die

  11. Type tests to the automatic thermoluminescent dosimetry system acquired by the CPHR for personal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CPHR individual monitoring service acquired an automatic RADOS TLD system to improve its capacities to satisfy the increasing needs of their national customers. The TLD system consists of: two automatic TLD reader, model DOSACUS, a TLD irradiator and personal dosimeters card including slide and holders. The dosimeters were composed by this personal dosimeters card and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (model GR-200) detectors. These readers provide to detectors a constant temperature readout cycle using hot nitrogen gas. In order to evaluate the performance characteristics of the system, different performance tests recommended by the IEC 1066 standard were carried out. Important dosimetric characteristics evaluated were batch homogeneity, reproducibility, detection threshold, energy dependence, residual signal and fading. The results of the tests showed good performance characteristics of the system. (Author)

  12. Automatic system for measuring the zirconium liner and Zircaloy-2 thickness of zirconium liner tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on an automatic system to measure the zirconium liner thickness and Zircaloy-2 thickness of Zircaloy tubes with a zirconium liner for nuclear reactors. This system uses an electromagnetic probe connected to a data processing unit for measuring the liner thickness, an ultrasonic inspection system for measuring the wall-thickness, and a computer for calculating the Zircaloy-2 thickness from the liner thickness and wall-thickness. Fully automatic measurements on zirconium liner thickness and Zircaloy-2 thickness are performed with high accuracy to an order of 2 μm. This newly developed system is very useful in assuring the liner layer and Zircaloy-2 thickness in the production of high-quality cladding tubes

  13. Automatic testing technologies for I and C systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of enhancing the global competitiveness of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems for nuclear power plants, Toshiba has been making efforts to reduce the worker hours required for the testing of such systems and improve the quality of the tests. Display screen tests, which include many routine, repetitive tests and manual tests requiring a large number of operators to monitor multiple screen displays of the I and C system, are an essential element of the testing process. The introduction of automatic testing technologies is expected to substantially improve the efficiency of such display screen tests. We have now developed automatic testing technologies for display screen tests that can be applied without the need to change the I and C system. These technologies contribute to both the reduction of worker hours for testing and improvement of the quality of the tests. (author)

  14. Design and implementation of microcontroller-based automatic sequence counting and switching system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua ABOLARINWA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological advancement and its influence on human being have been on the increase in recent time. Major areas of such influence, include monitoring and control activities. In order to keep track of human movement in and out of a particular building, there is the need for an automatic counting system. Therefore, in this paper, we present the design and implementation of a microcontroller-based automatic sequence counting and switching system. This system was designed and developed to save cost, time, energy, and to achieve seamless control in the event of switching on or off of electrical appliances within a building. Top-down modular design approach was used in conjunction with the versatility of microcontroller. The system is able to monitor, sequentially count the number of entry and exit of people through an entrance, afterwards, automatically control any electrical device connected to it. From various tests and measurements obtained, there are comparative benefits derived from the deployment of this system in terms of simplicity and accuracy over similar system that is not microcontroller-based. Therefore, this system can be deployed at commercial quantity with wide range of applications in homes, offices and other public places.

  15. Research on HCI Prototype Design of Ink Automatic Control System for Offset Printer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianyu; GAO Lixin; CUI Lingli; WANG Yingwang; LI Xianghui

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve the low efficiency and poor precision problems of traditional ink control methods on domestic offset printers, developing modern ink automatic control system has become more and more urgent. As an important subsystem, the human computer interface (HCI) is a key function for the wholly automatic control. Once this goal is obtained, all the printing procedures especially the automatic control of ink volume should be finished with human computer interface in different areas. Considering the HCI design theory and structure characteristics of domestic printers comprehensively, the HCI prototype for automatic ink control system has been developed based on Visual Basic platform. As the individual ink key is instead of the integrated key, the division result of ink fountain can be displayed on the interface. Through the interface, the dynamic adjusting functions such as modifying ink volume, locking or unlocking each ink key and real-time displaying the adjusting results etc. can be completed. The simulation test has shown that the opening and practical feature of the prototype is satisfactory.

  16. System for Automatic Detection of Clustered Microcalcifications in Digital Mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzani, A.; Bollini, D.; Brancaccio, R.; Campanini, R.; Lanconelli, N.; Romani, D.; Bevilacqua, A.

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for the detection of clustered microcalcifications in mammograms. Our detection algorithm consists of the combination of two different methods. The first, based on difference-image techniques and gaussianity statistical tests, finds out the most obvious signals. The second, is able to discover more subtle microcalcifications by exploiting a multiresolution analysis by means of the wavelet transform. We can separately tune the two methods, so that each one of them is able to detect signals with similar features. By combining signals coming out from the two parts through a logical OR operation, we can discover microcalcifications with different characteristics. Our algorithm yields a sensitivity of 91.4% with 0.4 false positive cluster per image on the 40 images of the Nijmegen database.

  17. Automatic Calibration and Reconstruction for Active Vision Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Beiwei

    2012-01-01

    In this book, the design of two new planar patterns for camera calibration of intrinsic parameters is addressed and a line-based method for distortion correction is suggested. The dynamic calibration of structured light systems, which consist of a camera and a projector is also treated. Also, the 3D Euclidean reconstruction by using the image-to-world transformation is investigated. Lastly, linear calibration algorithms for the catadioptric camera are considered, and the homographic matrix and fundamental matrix are extensively studied. In these methods, analytic solutions are provided for the computational efficiency and redundancy in the data can be easily incorporated to improve reliability of the estimations. This volume will therefore prove valuable and practical tool for researchers and practioners working in image processing and computer vision and related subjects.

  18. Deliberation on Design Strategies of Automatic Harvesting Systems: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Bachche

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Asia, decreasing farmer and labor populations due to various factors is a serious problem that leads to increases in labor costs, higher harvesting input energy consumption and less resource utilization. To solve these problems, researchers are engaged in providing long term and low-tech alternatives in terms of mechanization and automation of agriculture by way of efficient, low cost and easy to use solutions. This paper reviews various design strategies in recognition and picking systems, as well as developments in fruit harvesting robots during the past 30 years in several countries. The main objectives of this paper are to gather all information on fruit harvesting robots; focus on the technical developments so far achieved in picking devices; highlight the problems still to be solved; and discuss the future prospects of fruit harvesting robots.

  19. Design and Implementation of Automatic Air Flow Rate Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, A.; Saputra, C.; Munir, M. M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    Venturimeter is an apparatus that can be used to measure the air flow rate. In this experiment we designed a venturimeter which equipped with a valve that is used to control the air flow rate. The difference of pressure between the cross sections was measured with the differential pressure sensor GA 100-015WD which can calculate the difference of pressures from 0 to 3737.33 Pa. A 42M048C Z36 stepper motor was used to control the valve. The precision of this motor rotation is about 0.15 °. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) was developed to monitor and set the value of flow rate then an 8-bit microcontroller was used to process the control system In this experiment- the venturimeter has been examined to get the optimal parameter of controller. The results show that the controller can set the stable output air flow rate.

  20. Results of automatic system implementation for Cofrentes power plant detection system LPRM inspection execution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M., E-mail: mpalomo@iqn.upv.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Urrea, M., E-mail: matias.urrea@iberdrola.es [C.N.Cofrentes - Iberdrola Generacion S.A., Valencia (Spain); Curiel, M., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.com [LAINSA, Grupo Dominguis, Valencia (Brazil); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: a.arnaldos@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Teconologicos, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    During this presentation we are going to introduce the results of Cofrentes nuclear power plant automation of the detection system LPRM (Local Power Range Monitor) inspection procedure. An LPRM's test system has been developed and it consists in a software application and data acquisition hardware that performs automatically the complete detection system process: refueling, storage and operation inspection: Ramp voltage generation, measured voltage Plateaux evaluation, qualification report emission; historical analysis to scan burn evolution. The inspections differentiations are developed by the different specifications that it has to fulfil: operation inspection: it is made to check the fission bolt wearing, the detection system functioning and to analyse malfunctioning. From technical specifications and curves analyses it can be determined each LPRM's substitution. Storage inspection: it is made to check the correct functioning and isolation losses before being installed in the core during refueling. Refueling inspection: it is checked that storage LPRM's installation is correct and that they are ready for new fuel cycle. The software application LPRM's Test has been developed by National Instruments LabVIEW, and it performs the following actions: Protocol IEEE-488 (GPIB) control of the source KEITHLEY 237. This source generates the ramp voltage and measure voltage; information acquisition of storage, process and source, identifying LPRM and realization conditions of the same; data analysis and conditions report, historical comparative analysis. (author)

  1. Automatic module system for control of an ion source 'Cryon-S'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automatic module system for control of an ionizer 'Cryon-S' using fiber optics links and PC/XT is described. Brief technical characteristics of basic and service optical systems used in the first run for acceleration of nuclei sulfur on the synchrophasotron of the Laboratory of High Energies (L.H.E.) from the electron beam ion source 'Cryon-S' are presented. 26 refs.; 5 figs

  2. Face Prediction Model for an Automatic Age-invariant Face Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    Automated face recognition and identification softwares are becoming part of our daily life; it finds its abode not only with Facebook's auto photo tagging, Apple's iPhoto, Google's Picasa, Microsoft's Kinect, but also in Homeland Security Department's dedicated biometric face detection systems. Most of these automatic face identification systems fail where the effects of aging come into the picture. Little work exists in the literature on the subject of face prediction that accounts for agin...

  3. Programmable Logic Controllers for Systems of Automatic of the Level Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczyslaw Kornaszewski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The railway crossings are vulnerable to incidence of high number of accidents often deadly. In order to face this problem, the modern systems of automatic of the level crossing have been introduced. These systems are based on Programmable Logic Controllers, which allow the designers to exploit self-control mechanisms, events acquiring, technical diagnostic which in turn enable remote control and acquisition of faults.

  4. A Non-Contact Pulse Automatic Positioning Measurement System for Traditional Chinese Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Ying-Yun Chen; Rong-Seng Chang; Ko-Wen Jwo; Chung-Chi Hsu; Chu-Pang Tsao

    2015-01-01

    This study is to construct a non-contact pulse automatic positioning measurement system for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) using optical triangulation measurements. The system consists of a linear laser, a CMOS image sensor and image analysis software. The linear laser is projected on the pulse beat location on the wrists; the CMOS image sensor records the process and the software analyzes the images. The program mainly uses the optical centroid and fast Fourier transform (FFT) principles...

  5. System for automatic separation of sugar cane top

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, mechanical sugarcane harvesting has been introduced in many regions. It improves the efficiency of sugarcane harvesting, but also brings the cane tops into sugar factories, which decreases the yield and causes economic losses. This study investigated a system that can distinguish cane tops from the mechanically harvested raw sugarcane materials. We used a green He-Ne laser (wavelength 543.5 nm, output 4 mW) to scan the raw sugarcane materials and measured the back-reflected light intensity by a light sensor (avalanche photodiode module). Since the surface roughness is different between cane top and cane stalk, analyzing the different patterns of the distribution of the back reflected light intensity enables the cane top and stalk to be distinguished. In the experiment, 22 cane tops and 32 cane stalks were used as samples. Using kurtosis as a parameter to analyze the patterns, the percentage of correctly identifying cane tops was 90.9, and that of cane stalks was 71.9, and the percentage of correct answers of all samples was 79.6. (author)

  6. The automatic radiation monitor distributed System SRM-256C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Controlled and Supervised Areas (CSA) of UNK proton accelerator built in Protvino (IHEP, Russia), borrows the significant area (more than 15 sq.km). Submitted in work results of accounts show, that by major factors, influencing to a radioecological conditions in region at the expense of work UNK are: 1) the output of pulsing radiation on day-time surface; 2) the radionuclides receipts with drinking water; 3) the pollution of radioactive air from system of ventilation. At normal mode of UNK operation the equivalent dose rates on daytime surface of pulsing radiation will changes in limits from 0.5 mcSv/hours near overmines buildings up to 0.1 mcSv / hour on the CSA border. The average equivalent dose rates per year due to internal irradiation at use (intakes) of drinking water will not exceed 5 - 50 mcSv/years. The Maximum equivalent dose rates on day-time surface, caused by pollution of radioactive air does not exceed 0.01... 0.03 mcSv/hour in limits of CSA, and the average equivalent dose per year caused by internal irradiation does not exceed 0.05 mcSv/years. At emergency-free operation the maximum degree of the UNK influence in limits of CSA is estimated in terms of average equivalent dose per year at levels, not exceeding 0.05... 0.10 mSv/year. For maintenance of integral environmental monitoring of total external radiation levels in limits of CSA network of passive monitor stations will be developed

  7. Automatic balancing of AMB systems using plural notch filter and adaptive synchronous compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangbo; Chen, Shao; Zhang, Yanan

    2016-07-01

    To achieve automatic balancing in active magnetic bearing (AMB) system, a control method with notch filters and synchronous compensators is widely employed. However, the control precision is significantly affected by the synchronous compensation error, which is caused by parameter errors and variations of the power amplifiers. Furthermore, the computation effort may become intolerable if a 4-degree-of-freedom (dof) AMB system is studied. To solve these problems, an adaptive automatic balancing control method in the AMB system is presented in this study. Firstly, a 4-dof radial AMB system is described and analyzed. To simplify the controller design, the 4-dof dynamic equations are transferred into two plural functions related to translation and rotation, respectively. Next, to achieve automatic balancing of the AMB system, two synchronous equations are formed. Solution of them leads to a control strategy based on notch filters and feedforward controllers with an inverse function of the power amplifier. The feedforward controllers can be simplified as synchronous phases and amplitudes. Then, a plural phase-shift notch filter which can identify the synchronous components in 2-dof motions is formulated, and an adaptive compensation method that can form two closed-loop systems to tune the synchronous amplitude of the feedforward controller and the phase of the plural notch filter is proposed. Finally, the proposed control strategy is verified by both simulations and experiments on a test rig of magnetically suspended control moment gyro. The results indicate that this method can fulfill the automatic balancing of the AMB system with a light computational load.

  8. Automatic switching and guidance system to facilitate unassisted uroflowmetry using commercial electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Akito; Ueda, Nobufumi; Utsunomiya, Noriaki; Kohei, Naoki; Aoyama, Teruyoshi; Inoue, Koji

    2006-08-01

    To enable male patients to undergo uroflowmetry in a private condition without medical supervision, we devised an automatic switching and patient guidance system for the spinning disk uroflowmeter Urodyn 1000, using two commercial electronic devices (an infrared motion sensor tap and a memorizable vacuum fluorescent display). Instead of running the uroflowmeter continuously, which shortens the life of the spinning disk due to mechanical wear, an infrared motion sensor turns on the devices each time a patient enters the room. The patient urinates according to the timely instructions on the visible display and voided urine directly flows into a urinal. The devices are automatically turned off 5 min after the patient leaves the room. With the use of our system, men already acquainted with uroflowmetry could perform self-administered uroflowmetry any time in private. The system was considered useful for improving the quality of patient service.

  9. Semi-automatic Annotation System for OWL-based Semantic Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-H. Liu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Current keyword search by Google, Yahoo, and so on gives enormous unsuitable results. A solution to this perhaps is to annotate semantics to textual web data to enable semantic search, rather than keyword search. However, pure manual annotation is very time-consuming. Further, searching high level concept such as metaphor cannot be done if the annotation is done at a low abstraction level. We, thus, present a semi-automatic annotation system, i.e. an automatic annotator and a manual annotator. Against the web ontology language (OWL terms defined by Protégé, the former annotates the textual web data using the Knuth-Morris-Pratt (KMP algorithm, while the latter allows a user to use the terms to annotate metaphors with high abstraction. The resulting semantically-enhanced textual web document can be semantically processed by other web services such as the information retrieval system and the recommendation system shown in our example.

  10. CADLIVE toolbox for MATLAB: automatic dynamic modeling of biochemical networks with comprehensive system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Miyabe, Takaaki; Matsuoka, Yu; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    Mathematical modeling has become a standard technique to understand the dynamics of complex biochemical systems. To promote the modeling, we had developed the CADLIVE dynamic simulator that automatically converted a biochemical map into its associated mathematical model, simulated its dynamic behaviors and analyzed its robustness. To enhance the feasibility by CADLIVE and extend its functions, we propose the CADLIVE toolbox available for MATLAB, which implements not only the existing functions of the CADLIVE dynamic simulator, but also the latest tools including global parameter search methods with robustness analysis. The seamless, bottom-up processes consisting of biochemical network construction, automatic construction of its dynamic model, simulation, optimization, and S-system analysis greatly facilitate dynamic modeling, contributing to the research of systems biology and synthetic biology. This application can be freely downloaded from http://www.cadlive.jp/CADLIVE_MATLAB/ together with an instruction.

  11. A method of applying two-pump system in automatic transmissions for energy conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the hydraulic efficiency, modern automatic transmissions tend to apply electric oil pump in their hydraulic system. The electric oil pump can support the mechanical oil pump for cooling, lubrication, and maintaining the line pressure at low engine speeds. In addition, the start–stop function can be realized by means of the electric oil pump; thus, the fuel consumption can be further reduced. This article proposes a method of applying two-pump system (one electric oil pump and one mechanical oil pump in automatic transmissions based on the forward driving simulation. A mathematical model for calculating the transmission power loss is developed. The power loss transfers to heat which requires oil flow for cooling and lubrication. A leakage model is developed to calculate the leakage of the hydraulic system. In order to satisfy the flow requirement, a flow-based control strategy for the electric oil pump is developed. Simulation results of different driving cycles show that there is a best combination of the size of electric oil pump and the size of mechanical oil pump with respect to the optimal energy conservation. Besides, the two-pump system can also satisfy the requirement of the start–stop function. This research is extremely valuable for the forward design of a two-pump system in automatic transmissions with respect to energy conservation and start–stop function.

  12. Automatic data processing and analysis system for monitoring region around a planned nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortström, Jari; Tiira, Timo; Kaisko, Outi

    2016-03-01

    The Institute of Seismology of University of Helsinki is building a new local seismic network, called OBF network, around planned nuclear power plant in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. The network will consist of nine new stations and one existing station. The network should be dense enough to provide azimuthal coverage better than 180° and automatic detection capability down to ML -0.1 within a radius of 25 km from the site.The network construction work began in 2012 and the first four stations started operation at the end of May 2013. We applied an automatic seismic signal detection and event location system to a network of 13 stations consisting of the four new stations and the nearest stations of Finnish and Swedish national seismic networks. Between the end of May and December 2013 the network detected 214 events inside the predefined area of 50 km radius surrounding the planned nuclear power plant site. Of those detections, 120 were identified as spurious events. A total of 74 events were associated with known quarries and mining areas. The average location error, calculated as a difference between the announced location from environment authorities and companies and the automatic location, was 2.9 km. During the same time period eight earthquakes between magnitude range 0.1-1.0 occurred within the area. Of these seven could be automatically detected. The results from the phase 1 stations of the OBF network indicates that the planned network can achieve its goals.

  13. The influence of age, hearing, and working memory on the speech comprehension benefit derived from an automatic speech recognition system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zekveld, A.A.; Kramer, S.E.; Kessens, J.M.; Vlaming, M.S.M.G.; Houtgast, T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to examine whether partly incorrect subtitles that are automatically generated by an Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) system, improve speech comprehension by listeners with hearing impairment. In an earlier study (Zekveld et al. 2008), we showed that spe

  14. The System of Automatic Parking%自动停车系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菊; 刘银; 李昆; 张伟娟

    2014-01-01

    The number of cars is increasing year by year, so parking has a high claim in the world, the paper put forward and de-signed an automatic parking system. The automatic parking system mainly is mainly used in public parking, which allows owners to instantly find an empty parking space, and automatically stop in with real-time monitoring. Through the system practice prove, this system saves time when the owner looking for parking spaces,and improves the utilization of the parking lot, which reduces the owner's problems, so saves manpower, at last improve the environment.%我国的汽车数量在逐年增加,停车问题异常严峻,该文研究和设计了自动停车系统。在公共停车场中应用停车系统,使车主瞬间找到空车位,并且自动停入,实时监控。通过实践证明,此系统节省了寻找车位的时间,提高了了停车场的使用率,节省了人力,降低了车主的困扰,改善了环境。

  15. Protokol Interchangeable Data pada VMeS (Vessel Messaging System dan AIS (Automatic Identification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Andhika

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available VMeS (Vessel Messaging System merupakan komunikasi berbasis radio untuk mengirimkan pesan antara VMeS terminal kapal di laut dengan VMeS gateway di darat. Dalam perkembangan sistem monitoring kapal di laut umumnya menggunakan AIS (Automatic Identification System yang telah digunakan di seluruh pelabuhan untuk memantau kondisi kapal dan mencegah tabrakan antar kapal. Dalam penelitian ini akan dirancang format data yang sesuai untuk VMeS agar bisa dilakukan proses interchangeable ke AIS sehingga bisa dibaca oleh AIS receiver yang ditujukan untuk kapal dengan ukuran dibawah 30 GT (Gross Tonnage. Format data VmeS dirancang dalam tiga jenis yaitu data posisi, data informasi kapal dan data pesan pendek yang akan dilakukan interchangeable dengan AIS tipe 1,4 dan 8. Pengujian kinerja sistem interchangeable menunjukkan bahwa dengan peningkatan periode pengiriman pesan maka lama delay total meningkat tetapi packet loss menurun. Pada pengiriman pesan setiap 5 detik dengan kecepatan 0-40 km/jam, 96,67 % data dapat diterima dengan baik. Data akan mengalami packet loss jika level daya terima dibawah -112 dBm . Jarak terjauh yang dapat dijangkau modem dengan kondisi bergerak yaitu informatika ITS dengan jarak 530 meter terhadap Laboratorium B406 dengan level daya terima -110 dBm.

  16. General collaboration offer of Johnson Controls regarding the performance of air conditioning automatic control systems and other buildings` automatic control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gniazdowski, J.

    1995-12-31

    JOHNSON CONTROLS manufactures measuring and control equipment (800 types) and is as well a {open_quotes}turn-key{close_quotes} supplier of complete automatic controls systems for heating, air conditioning, ventilation and refrigerating engineering branches. The Company also supplies Buildings` Computer-Based Supervision and Monitoring Systems that may be applied in both small and large structures. Since 1990 the company has been performing full-range trade and contracting activities on the Polish market. We have our own well-trained technical staff and we collaborate with a series of designing and contracting enterprises that enable us to have our projects carried out all over Poland. The prices of our supplies and services correspond with the level of the Polish market.

  17. Progress report on a fully automatic Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daumeyer, G.J. III

    1994-12-01

    A plan to develop a fully automatic gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) system that will utilize a vision-sensing computer (which will provide in-process feedback control) is presently in work. Evaluations of different technological aspects and system design requirements continue. This report summaries major activities in the plan`s successful progress. The technological feasibility of producing the fully automated GTAW system has been proven. The goal of this process development project is to provide a production-ready system within the shortest reasonable time frame.

  18. Automatic stress-relieving music recommendation system based on photoplethysmography-derived heart rate variability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Il-Hyung; Cha, Jaepyeong; Cheon, Gyeong Woo; Lee, Choonghee; Lee, Seung Yup; Yoon, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Hee Chan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic stress-relieving music recommendation system (ASMRS) for individual music listeners. The ASMRS uses a portable, wireless photoplethysmography module with a finger-type sensor, and a program that translates heartbeat signals from the sensor to the stress index. The sympathovagal balance index (SVI) was calculated from heart rate variability to assess the user's stress levels while listening to music. Twenty-two healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. The results have shown that the participants' SVI values are highly correlated with their prespecified music preferences. The sensitivity and specificity of the favorable music classification also improved as the number of music repetitions increased to 20 times. Based on the SVI values, the system automatically recommends favorable music lists to relieve stress for individuals. PMID:25571461

  19. First description of milk flow traits in Tunisian dairy dromedary camels under an intensive farming system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atigui, Moufida; Hammadi, Mohamed; Barmat, Ahmed; Farhat, Mohamed; Khorchani, Touhami; Marnet, Pierre-Guy

    2014-05-01

    In order to evaluate milking ability in dromedary camels, 124 milk flow curves were registered during morning milking of 20 dairy Maghrebi dromedary camels. Animals were in lactations 1-8, were 6-19 years old and were 4-15 months of their current lactation. Milk flow curves were recorded using an electronic milk flow meter (Lactocorder®). Milk flow curves were classified in three typical patterns: type 1 represents curves with one high and short peak of milk flow; type 2 represents curves with a moderate mean milk flow rate during a large plateau phase; and type 3 represents curves with lower mean milk flow rate and a relatively longer milking duration. The ratio of the different milk flow patterns in the population evaluated was 40:38:22% for types 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The highest milk yield per milking, average and peak milk flow were observed in camels with type 1 curves (4·24 kg, 1·49 and 3·54 kg/min, respectively) followed by type 2 animals (3·30 kg, 1·12 and 2·12 kg/min, respectively) and lastly type 3 curves (2·34 kg, 0·65 and 1·23 kg/min, respectively). This study confirmed that a major proportion of dromedary camels have a suitable machine milking ability. Nevertheless, our results suggest that pre-stimulation and improving the milking process may improve milking efficiency and guarantee a more complete and rapid emptying of the udder.

  20. Automatic Docking System with Recharging and Battery Replacement for Surveillance Robot

    OpenAIRE

    M. Meena; Mrs. P. Thilagavathi*

    2012-01-01

    Most of the applications like industrial automation, home automation, hospitals, space exploration, military, etc, the surveillance robot are widely used. For that, continuous functioning of surveillance robot is necessary. In this paper, the development of automatic docking system with recharging and battery replacement process for surveillance robot is proposed. The robot can return to the docking station for recharging operations when the battery is low. The charging duration of the batter...

  1. A Stochastic Approach for Automatic and Dynamic Modeling of Students' Learning Styles in Adaptive Educational Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano Azevedo DORÇA; Luciano Vieira LIMA; Márcia Aparecida FERNANDES; Carlos Roberto LOPES

    2012-01-01

    Considering learning and how to improve students' performances, an adaptive educational system must know how an individual learns best. In this context, this work presents an innovative approach for student modeling through probabilistic learning styles combination. Experiments have shown that our approach is able to automatically detect and precisely adjust students' learning styles, based on the non-deterministic and non-stationary aspects of learning styles. Because of the probabilistic an...

  2. A Novel Automatic Detection System for ECG Arrhythmias Using Maximum Margin Clustering with Immune Evolutionary Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Bohui Zhu; Yongsheng Ding; Kuangrong Hao

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel maximum margin clustering method with immune evolution (IEMMC) for automatic diagnosis of electrocardiogram (ECG) arrhythmias. This diagnostic system consists of signal processing, feature extraction, and the IEMMC algorithm for clustering of ECG arrhythmias. First, raw ECG signal is processed by an adaptive ECG filter based on wavelet transforms, and waveform of the ECG signal is detected; then, features are extracted from ECG signal to cluster different types of ...

  3. Enhancement of the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system using digital technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to develop the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system which can be used in the inspection equipment to assess the integrity of the reactor vessel by enhancing the performance of the ultrasonic signal processing system. Main activities of this study divided into three categories such as the development of the circuits for generating ultrasonic signal and receiving the signal from the inspection equipment, the development of signal processing algorithm and H/W of the data processing system, and the development of the specification for application programs and system S/W for the analysis and evaluation computer. The results of main activities are as follows 1) the design of the ultrasonic detector and the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system by using the investigation of the state-of-the-art technology in the inside and outside of the country. 2) the development of H/W and S/W of the data processing system based on the results. Especially, the H/W of the data processing system, which have both advantages of digital and analog controls through the real-time digital signal processing, was developed using the DSP which can process the digital signal in the real-time, and was developed not only firmware of the data processing system in order for the peripherals but also the test algorithm of specimen for the calibration. The application programs and the system S/W of the analysis/evaluation computer were developed. Developed equipment was verified by the performance test. Based on developed prototype for the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system, the localization of the overall ultrasonic inspection equipment for nuclear industries would be expected through the further studies of the H/W establishment of real applications, developing the S/W specification of the analysis computer. (author)

  4. Enhancement of the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system using digital technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, In Soo; Park, H. Y.; Suh, Y. S.; Kim, D. Hoon; Huh, S.; Sung, S. H.; Jang, G. S.; Ryoo, S. G.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, J. C.; Kim, D. Hyun; Park, H. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Lee, J. P.; Park, C. H.; Kim, M. S

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system which can be used in the inspection equipment to assess the integrity of the reactor vessel by enhancing the performance of the ultrasonic signal processing system. Main activities of this study divided into three categories such as the development of the circuits for generating ultrasonic signal and receiving the signal from the inspection equipment, the development of signal processing algorithm and H/W of the data processing system, and the development of the specification for application programs and system S/W for the analysis and evaluation computer. The results of main activities are as follows 1) the design of the ultrasonic detector and the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system by using the investigation of the state-of-the-art technology in the inside and outside of the country. 2) the development of H/W and S/W of the data processing system based on the results. Especially, the H/W of the data processing system, which have both advantages of digital and analog controls through the real-time digital signal processing, was developed using the DSP which can process the digital signal in the real-time, and was developed not only firmware of the data processing system in order for the peripherals but also the test algorithm of specimen for the calibration. The application programs and the system S/W of the analysis/evaluation computer were developed. Developed equipment was verified by the performance test. Based on developed prototype for the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system, the localization of the overall ultrasonic inspection equipment for nuclear industries would be expected through the further studies of the H/W establishment of real applications, developing the S/W specification of the analysis computer. (author)

  5. Towards an Automatic Ice Navigation Support System in the Arctic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xintao Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional ice navigation in the sea is manually operated by well-trained navigators, whose experiences are heavily relied upon to guarantee the ship’s safety. Despite the increasingly available ice data and information, little has been done to develop an automatic ice navigation support system to better guide ships in the sea. In this study, using the vector-formatted ice data and navigation codes in northern regions, we calculate ice numeral and divide sea area into two parts: continuous navigable area and the counterpart numerous separate unnavigable area. We generate Voronoi Diagrams for the obstacle areas and build a road network-like graph for connections in the sea. Based on such a network, we design and develop a geographic information system (GIS package to automatically compute the safest-and-shortest routes for different types of ships between origin and destination (OD pairs. A visibility tool, Isovist, is also implemented to help automatically identify safe navigable areas in emergency situations. The developed GIS package is shared online as an open source project called NavSpace, available for validation and extension, e.g., indoor navigation service. This work would promote the development of ice navigation support system and potentially enhance the safety of ice navigation in the Arctic sea.

  6. PCR verification of microplate phenotypic system identification for LAB from traditional Western Balkan raw milk cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paveljšek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation and ripening specificity of traditional cheeses are predominantly directed by the natural microbial community present in milk selected by the cheese-making environment and technology. Therefore the traditional cheeses are unique products with specific microbiota biodiversity. There are several approaches for the identification of microbial population, however all of them have certain advantages and disadvantages. In this study the eligibility and performance of the Biolog phenotypic identification system (Biolog, Inc. with GEN III microplates was tested. Parallel to this method, polymerase chain reaction with genus- and species-specific primers was performed. One hundred sixty-five isolates from nine types of artisan cheeses were isolated and analysed. Cheeses were produced from raw ewe’s milk in Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The Biolog phenotypic identification system identified 90 isolates, but only 55 identifications acquired by the Biolog system were supported by polymerase chain reaction at a genus level and 28 at a species level. The obtained results showed that the reliability of commercial phenotypic identification systems was inadequate when analysing lactic acid bacteria isolates from natural, spontaneous fermentations and needs to be additionally corroborated by genotypic identification methods.

  7. The effect of activation of the lactoperoxidase system and souring on certain potential human pathogens in cows' milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G.K. Kangumba

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methods of ensuring the safety and soundness of cows' milk for human consumption, such as pasteurisation, are not always practical in poor socioeconomic conditions or in rural communities that lack modern amenities. Activation of lactoperoxidase (LP system and souring of milk were investigated as potential alternative methods to sustain the safety of milk by inhibiting certain microorganisms with known pathogenic potential. The activation of the LP-system inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by the order of 2 log values. The inhibition of Brucella abortus was negligible. The replication of Coxiella burnetti in milk was not disturbed even after 17 h of LP-system activation at 20 oC, but the outcome of the LP-system treatment on Mycobacterium bovis could not be determined as the conventional culturing technique used to grow this organism did not allow full recovery. Souring inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. coli also by the order of 2 log values. From the results obtained in this investigation are concluded that the activation of the LP-system and souring can be used to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and E. coli in cows' milk, thereby increasing its safety.

  8. Development of a new automatic incident detection system for freeways using a bi-classifier approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, A.

    1998-12-31

    The development and assessment of a new automatic incident detection (AID) system for traffic management authorities was presented. The AID is designed to provide early response to traffic delays caused by traffic incidents. This newly proposed AID system makes effective use of information obtained from people travelling in the opposite direction of the traffic jam. The method was tested on a stretch of the Trans-Canada Highway and was used to develop a simulation model. A comparison of the new method with two other in-use systems showed that it is possible to reduce the detection time by about 40 per cent.

  9. An automatically controlled system for waste transport in low level nuclear waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobe Steel has developed and manufactured a fully automatic remote-controlled system for the storage of up to 42 000 waste drum packages discharged from nuclear reprocessing facilities. The system includes two forklifts and an elevator both of which are controlled via a remote control center. The forklifts can transport up to 4 ton waste packages. The elevator can transport a forklift carrying a maximum weight package. The system also includes a rescue vehicle that can be manually operated at a distance from a remote station using ITV cameras. (author)

  10. Towards the Availability of the Distributed Cluster Rendering System: Automatic Modeling and Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kemin; Jiang, Zhengtao; Wang, Yongbin;

    2012-01-01

    , whenever the number of node-n and related parameters vary, we can create the PRISM model file rapidly and then we can use PRISM model checker to verify ralated system properties. At the end of this study, we analyzed and verified the availability distributions of the Distributed Cluster Rendering System......In this study, we proposed a Continuous Time Markov Chain Model towards the availability of n-node clusters of Distributed Rendering System. It's an infinite one, we formalized it, based on the model, we implemented a software, which can automatically model with PRISM language. With the tool...

  11. Non-contact and Automatic Measurement of 2D Size with CCD Matrix and Computer System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ye; WANG Wen-sheng; GUO Yang-xue; SONG Hui-ying

    2003-01-01

    A measurement system with the CCD matrix and computer system is designed to test the 2D size of any shape workpieces automatically. In addition, the system adopts the method of the relative measurement which increases the precision and the velocity.More importantly,the precision can't be changed with the conditions of the temperature and air pressure.The experiments show that the relative precision of 0.002 9 and the absolute precision of 2.97 μm are obtained. The instrument may be used in the product line and make the testing on line possible.

  12. Automatic Laser Interferometer And Vision Measurement System For Stripe Rod Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Min

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to calibrate the stripe precision of a leveling rod, an automatic laser interferometer and a vision measurement system were designed by Xi’an University of Technology in China. The rod was driven by a closed-loop control and the data were collected at the stop state to ensure precision. The laser interferometer provided not only the long distance data but also a position feedback signal in the automatic control loop. CCD camera and a vision measurement method were used to inspect the stripe edge position and defect. A pixel-equivalent self-calibration method was designed to improve precision. ROI (regions of interest method and an outline tracing method were designed to quickly extract multiple stripe edges. A combination of the image data with the interferometer data reduces control difficulty and ensures the measurement accuracy. The vision measurement method reached sub-pixel precision and the defective edges were reported. The system can automatically calibrate a stripe leveling rod with a high degree of efficiency and precision.

  13. Automatic Calibration of Frequency Compensation System in Computer-Controlled Patch-Clamp Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xion

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-controlled patch-clamp amplifier is a digitally controlled analog device used to record the cellular ion channel currents in electrophysiology research. The inherent bandwidth and performance of the headstage is limited by the stray capacitance and distributed capacitance across the feedback resistors. In order to effectively improve the performance of the headstage, the paper advanced a simplified automatic calibration method of frequency compensation system in resistor-feedback patch-clamp amplifier. The dynamic model of headstage was approximate as a two poles and one zero system in the transfer function by experience and test results, so the dynamic characteristics of the headstage were obtained employing least squares parameter estimation algorithm. Further more, the compensation parameter of high frequency booster can be estimated by the time constant of main pole of headstage. And automatic adjustment of the parameters in transient response correction stage was performed as a least squares fitting problem. The software routine running on the host computer conducted all operations of frequency compensation. Experimental results demonstrate that the simplified automatic calibration method can substantially extend the bandwidth and minimize step response error of headstage.

  14. Semi-automatic microdrive system for positioning electrodes during electrophysiological recordings from rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, Piotr; Kublik, Ewa; Mozaryn, Jakub

    2015-09-01

    Electrophysiological recording of neuronal action potentials from behaving animals requires portable, precise and reliable devices for positioning of multiple microelectrodes in the brain. We propose a semi-automatic microdrive system for independent positioning of up to 8 electrodes (or tetrodes) in a rat (or larger animals). Device is intended to be used in chronic, long term recording applications in freely moving animals. Our design is based on independent stepper motors with lead screws which will offer single steps of ~ μm semi-automatically controlled from the computer. Microdrive system prototype for one electrode was developed and tested. Because of the lack of the systematic test procedures dedicated to such applications, we propose the evaluation of the prototype similar to ISO norm for industrial robots. To this end we designed and implemented magnetic linear and rotary encoders that provided information about electrode displacement and motor shaft movement. On the basis of these measurements we estimated repeatability, accuracy and backlash of the drive. According to the given assumptions and preliminary tests, the device should provide greater accuracy than hand-controlled manipulators available on the market. Automatic positioning will also shorten the course of the experiment and improve the acquisition of signals from multiple neuronal populations.

  15. New semi-automatic ROI setting system for brain PET images based on elastic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanizaki, Naoaki; Okamura, Tetsuya (Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan). Research and Development Center); Senda, Michio; Toyama, Hinako; Ishii, Kenji

    1994-10-01

    We have developed a semi-automatic ROI setting system for brain PET images. It is based on the elastic network model that fits the standard ROI atlas into individual brain image. The standard ROI atlas is a set of segments that represent each anatomical region. For transformation, the operator needs to set only three kinds of district anatomical features: manually determined midsagittal line, brain contour line determined with SNAKES algorithm semi-automatically, a few manually determined specific ROIs to be used for exact transformation. Improvement of the operation time and the inter-operator variance were demonstrated in the experiment by comparing with the conventional manual ROI setting. The operation time was reduced to 50% in almost all cases. And the inter-operator variance was reduced to one seventh in the maximum case. (author).

  16. Automatic Docking System with Recharging and Battery Replacement for Surveillance Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the applications like industrial automation, home automation, hospitals, space exploration, military, etc, the surveillance robot are widely used. For that, continuous functioning of surveillance robot is necessary. In this paper, the development of automatic docking system with recharging and battery replacement process for surveillance robot is proposed. The robot can return to the docking station for recharging operations when the battery is low. The charging duration of the battery mounted in the robot is an important issue. To overcome this problem, battery replacement is a perfect solution. The battery is automatically exchanged within 30 seconds. So the robot needs not to be turned off for long duration of time while replacing the battery.

  17. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Paik, Joonki

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i) automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii) object depth estimation; and (iii) detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB) camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems. PMID:27347978

  18. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehoon Jung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii object depth estimation; and (iii detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems.

  19. Hardware-software system for the automatic quality evaluation of a welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automatic digital processing of radiographic images has advantages over conventional methods employing x-ray television or x-ray films and an operator as the decision-maker. These advantages are primarily the elimination of subjectivity in the operator evaluation of flaws (so that the result of expert examination is presented to the customer in terms that preclude arbitrary interpretation), the possibilities of using morphological analysis, and the production of a large active data base of flaw images. The authors describe a system that incorporates an optical scanner, a videographic adapter with a graphic monitor, a personal computer, and a software package implementing the functions of automatic analysis of a static-test radiographic image of a welded joint, viz., input and storage of the radiographic image, optimal linear and nonlinear filtering of the primary image to produce a reliable flaw map, and the assignment of weld flaws to four classes: voids, cracks, nonbond flaws, and inclusions. 7 refs

  20. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Paik, Joonki

    2016-06-25

    This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i) automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii) object depth estimation; and (iii) detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB) camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems.

  1. Automatic Clock and Time Signal System of the Astronomical Agency in East Asia Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Sam

    2009-09-01

    We analysed the old automatic clock and time signal system that was used by the national astronomical agency in East Asian Area. Jagyeongnu is a kind of water clock that was operated by the flowing water in Joseon Dynasty. Seowoongwan managed the water clock so as to keep the standard time system in the dynasty from the 16th year (1434) of King Sejong's reign. In 1438 the Okru that was invented in the period. Such kind of clock system already was used in China, which was Shui yun i hsiang t'ai (?) in 1092. During the period Joseon Dynasty, China and Japan had been kept the time system that one day is divided into 12 shin (?2?) or 100 gak (?). However detailed part of the system had a little difference among the three countries. Though the whole system of water clock in Joseon had manufactured on the basis of Chinese, it had been gradually developed by own method and idea. In this study we show the historical records of the standard time keeping system in East Asian history. And then we can inform materials on the structure and functional devises for the purpose of new restoration models about the automatic clock and time system.

  2. Automatic License Plate Recoganization System Based on Image Processing Using LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Chahar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Automatic License plate recognition (ALPR system is one kind of an intelligent transport system and is of considerable interest because of its potential applications in highway electronic toll collection and traffic monitoring systems. This allows traffic fines to be automatically generated and sent to the appropriate violator without the need for human intervention. An ALPR system can be located on the side of or above a roadway, at a toll booth, or at another type of entrance way. All ALPR systems follow a basic high level process. The process starts when a sensor detects the presence of a vehicle and signals the system camera to record an image of the passing vehicle. The image is passed on to a computer where software running on the computer extracts the license plate number from the image. License plate numbers can then be recorded in a database with other information such as time vehicle past and speed of vehicle. And finally, chain code concept with different parameter is used for recognition of the characters. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on real images. The Proposed system has been implemented using Vision Assistant {&} LabVIEW

  3. Application of GA optimization for automatic generation control design in an interconnected power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golpira, H., E-mail: hemin.golpira@uok.ac.i [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, PO Box 416, Kurdistan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bevrani, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, PO Box 416, Kurdistan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golpira, H. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, PO Box 618, Kurdistan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: {yields} A realistic model for automatic generation control (AGC) design is proposed. {yields} The model considers GRC, Speed governor dead band, filters and time delay. {yields} The model provides an accurate model for the digital simulations. -- Abstract: This paper addresses a realistic model for automatic generation control (AGC) design in an interconnected power system. The proposed scheme considers generation rate constraint (GRC), dead band, and time delay imposed to the power system by governor-turbine, filters, thermodynamic process, and communication channels. Simplicity of structure and acceptable response of the well-known integral controller make it attractive for the power system AGC design problem. The Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to compute the decentralized control parameters to achieve an optimum operating point. A 3-control area power system is considered as a test system, and the closed-loop performance is examined in the presence of various constraints scenarios. It is shown that neglecting above physical constraints simultaneously or in part, leads to impractical and invalid results and may affect the system security, reliability and integrity. Taking to account the advantages of GA besides considering a more complete dynamic model provides a flexible and more realistic AGC system in comparison of existing conventional schemes.

  4. Automatic Generation Control in Multi Area Interconnected Power System by using HVDC Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Arya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of HVDC link in parallel with HVAC link on automatic generation control (AGC problem for a multi-area power system taking into consideration system parameter variations. A fuzzy logic controller is proposed for four area power system interconnected via parallel HVAC/HVDC transmission link which is also referred as asynchronous tie-lines. The linear model of HVAC/HVDC link is developed and the system responses to sudden load change are studied. The simulation studies are carried out for a four area interconnected thermal power system. Suitable solution for automatic generation control problem of four area electrical power system is obtained by means of improving the dynamic performance of power system under study. Robustness of controller is also checked by varying parameters. Simulation results indicate that the scheme works well. The dynamic analyses have been done with and without HVDC link using fuzzy logic controller in Matlab-Simulink. Further a comparison between the two is presented and it has been shown that the performance of the proposed scheme is superior in terms of overshoot and settling time.

  5. Electric Drive Discrete Control System with Automatic Switching-On Reserve for Autonomous Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsytovich L.I.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at developing of control the water supply system’s electric drives for autonomous settlement. The system provides automatic switching to a reserve control channel at refusal of any of the functional elements of the working regulation channel. Usually, such systems have a test signal generator and analyzer to system response to their impact. This result to an increase in the structural redundancy of the system, increase its cost and increase the requirements for the staff qualification. A specific feature of the system is its ability to self-diagnosis of catastrophic malfunctions of scheme’s components and an automatic switching-on the reserve control channels, without applying any test signals to the whole complex of electrical equipment. Multi-zone integrating regulator with frequency-pulse-width modulation realizes this technical solution. Control system structure and signals timing diagrams are presented. The construction principle of adaptive interval-code synchronization device with improved noise stability to control the voltage regulators serving for smooth start-up of asynchronous motors of water pumps is considered as well. Such solution allowing increase noise stability and reliability work of the system in conditions of limited power electrical networks, which is characteristic for the autonomous settlements. The article may be of interest to specialists in the field of power electronics and information electronics, electric drives and process automation.

  6. Single-beam water vapor detection system with automatic photoelectric conversion gain control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C. G.; Chang, J.; Wang, P. P.; Wang, Q.; Wei, W.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, S. S.

    2014-11-01

    A single-beam optical sensor system with automatic photoelectric conversion gain control is proposed for doing high reliability water vapor detection under relatively rough environmental conditions. Comparing to a dual-beam system, it can distinguish the finer photocurrent variations caused by the optical power drift and provide timely compensation by automatically adjusting the photoelectric conversion gain. This system can be rarely affected by the optical power drift caused by fluctuating ambient temperature or variation of fiber bending loss. The deviation of the single-beam system is below 1.11% when photocurrent decays due to fiber bending loss for bending radius of 5 mm, which is obviously lower than the dual-beam system (8.82%). We also demonstrate the long-term stability of the single-beam system by monitoring a 660 ppm by volume (ppmv) water vapor sample continuously for 24 h. The maximum deviation of the measured concentration during the whole testing period does not exceed 10 ppmv. Experiments have shown that the new system features better reliability and is more apt for remote sensing application which is often subject to light transmission loss.

  7. Automatic Mapping Of Large Signal Processing Systems To A Parallel Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz, Harry; Kung, H. T.; Mummert, Todd; Scherer, Paul M.

    1989-12-01

    Since the spring of 1988, Carnegie Mellon University and the Naval Air Development Center have been working together to implement several large signal processing systems on the Warp parallel computer. In the course of this work, we have developed a prototype of a software tool that can automatically and efficiently map signal processing systems to distributed-memory parallel machines, such as Warp. We have used this tool to produce Warp implementations of small test systems. The automatically generated programs compare favorably with hand-crafted code. We believe this tool will be a significant aid in the creation of high speed signal processing systems. We assume that signal processing systems have the following characteristics: •They can be described by directed graphs of computational tasks; these graphs may contain thousands of task vertices. • Some tasks can be parallelized in a systolic or data-partitioned manner, while others cannot be parallelized at all. • The side effects of each task, if any, are limited to changes in local variables. • Each task has a data-independent execution time bound, which may be expressed as a function of the way it is parallelized, and the number of processors it is mapped to. In this paper we describe techniques to automatically map such systems to Warp-like parallel machines. We identify and address key issues in gracefully combining different parallel programming styles, in allocating processor, memory and communication bandwidth, and in generating and scheduling efficient parallel code. When iWarp, the VLSI version of the Warp machine, becomes available in 1990, we will extend this tool to generate efficient code for very large applications, which may require as many as 3000 iWarp processors, with an aggregate peak performance of 60 gigaflops.

  8. Economical results of MILK system production AT the municipal district of Itutinga - MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to study the return of a milk-production system situated in the town of Itutinga – MG, identify the components which exercised the greatest influence upon the final costs of the operation and the proportion of each of them related to the total income. The data were colected from January of 2007 and December of 2008. The data processing and the return analysis were performed by the software Cu$to Bovino Leite®, considerating gross margin, net margin and result (profit or loss as economic efficiency indicators. The farm presented, per kg of milk, positive gross margin of US$ 0.03, negative net margin of US$ 0.01 and loss of US$ 0.15, its having, therefore, negative return of 9.29%. It follows that, under these conditions the business will survive only in the short run. With the exploitation of the production system, the business undergoes economic losses leading the dairy farmer to decapitilization.

  9. Evaluation of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS in predicting the nutrient utilization and milk production of buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Botas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System was used to predict the nutrient utilization and milk production of buffaloes under complete confinement system of management. There were 243 lactation records involving the age of the animals, live weight, body condition score (BCS, milk production, % milk fat, % milk protein; climatic conditions and the actual feed ration. Simulation results showed that age, number of lactation, body weight and calving interval had no direct effect on the actual milk production and nutrient utilization of the dairy buffaloes. Significantly higher metabolizable energy (ME and metabolizable protein (MP allowable milk were predicted by the model compared to the actual milk production of the buffaloes. Using the actual ration, the model predicted 91 days for the buffaloes to gain one BCS while 70 days was needed when the CNCPS feed library is used. The model predicted significantly lower DMI (12.8 vs. I6kg/d and forage intake (9.10 vs. I0.3 kg/d with a difference of 21 % and 16 % than the actual ration. Significantly lower ME, (33.85 vs. 36.13 Mcal/ d was supplied by the actual ration but on the contrary, the MP supply (1,655 vs. 1,556 g/d was higher than the CNCPS feed library. Significantly higher ME, MP and mineral (Ca, P, and K balances were observed from the two rations indicating that more nutrients were supplied than what is required by the dairy buffaloes. The estimated manure and urine excretions were not significantly affected by the model predictions.

  10. An Automatic Optic Disk Detection and Segmentation System using Multi-level Thresholding

    OpenAIRE

    KARASULU, B.

    2014-01-01

    Optic disk (OD) boundary localization is a substantial problem in ophthalmic image processing research area. In order to segment the region of OD, we developed an automatic system which involves a multi-level thresholding. The OD segmentation results of the system in terms of average precision, recall and accuracy for DRIVE database are 98.88%, 99.91%, 98.83%, for STARE database are 98.62%, 97.38%, 96.11%, and for DIARETDB1 database are 99.29%, 99.90%, 99.20%, respectively. Th...

  11. AUTOMATIC GENERATION CONTROL OF MULTI AREA POWER SYSTEMS USING ANN CONTROLLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipasha Bhatia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of one of the methods of artificial intelligence to study the automatic generation control of interconnected power systems. In the given paper, a control line of track is established for interconnected three area thermal-thermal-thermal power system using generation rate constraints (GRC &Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The working of the controllers is simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The outputs using both controllers are compared and it is established that ANN based approach is better than GRC for 1% step load conditions.

  12. A Study of the Techniques of Automatic Abstracting and Knowledge Acquisition Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important signs of the information society is the explosion of information. The information in Internet is out-of-order and is mostly written in natural languages which need to be processed by the technology of natural language processing. When you search for some certain information on Internet through a search engine, you might be confused by the huge amount of results which the search engine provides. However, if a search engine is embedded with Automatic Abstracting (AA) processing systems, you could locate the information quickly or you could get more information within a limited time. So, the AA technology is valuable both in science and application. The work of this thesis was begun when we took over a project that is called “The Key Technology Research of Computer Networks Providing Intelligent Information Services” which belongs to the national 863 plan. One of the tasks is “The Key Technology Research of Automatic Abstracting Systems of Chinese Text”. As a member of this research group, I took part in designing and implementing an AA system called Literature Abstract-and-Digest Information Extract System(LADIES). From then on, I have been working in this field and this paper is the conclusion of my work. The main topic of the thesis is AA technology. There are two parts of it. One is about the research of understanding-based AA systems, and the other is about the invcestigation of Automatic Knowledge Acquistion(AKA) in AA systems. In the first part, the contents of AA technology are introduced and an understanding-based AA model is put forward. Based on this model, LADIES is implemented. There are two major features of LADIES: (1) it understands text with the grammar, semantic and pragmatic information of words; (2) it chunks words into a relatively independent entity with chunking rules which are substitutes of syntactic analyzing rules. The results demonstrate that it performs better than those statistical based AA systems

  13. Application of CUSUM charts to detect lameness in a milking robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastell, Matti; Madsen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    In the year 2006 about 4000 farms worldwide used over 6000 milking robots. With increased automation the time that the cattle keeper uses for monitoring animals has decreased. This has created a need for automatic health monitoring systems. Lameness is a crucial welfare and economic issue in mode...

  14. Development of An Automatic Verification Program for Thermal-hydraulic System Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. Y.; Ahn, K. T.; Ko, S. H.; Kim, Y. S.; Kim, D. W. [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Suh, J. S.; Cho, Y. S.; Jeong, J. J. [System Engineering and Technology Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    As a project activity of the capstone design competitive exhibition, supported by the Education Center for Green Industry-friendly Fusion Technology (GIFT), we have developed a computer program which can automatically perform non-regression test, which is needed repeatedly during a developmental process of a thermal-hydraulic system code, such as the SPACE code. A non-regression test (NRT) is an approach to software testing. The purpose of the non-regression testing is to verify whether, after updating a given software application (in this case, the code), previous software functions have not been compromised. The goal is to prevent software regression, whereby adding new features results in software bugs. As the NRT is performed repeatedly, a lot of time and human resources will be needed during the development period of a code. It may cause development period delay. To reduce the cost and the human resources and to prevent wasting time, non-regression tests need to be automatized. As a tool to develop an automatic verification program, we have used Visual Basic for Application (VBA). VBA is an implementation of Microsoft's event-driven programming language Visual Basic 6 and its associated integrated development environment, which are built into most Microsoft Office applications (In this case, Excel)

  15. An automatic dose verification system for adaptive radiotherapy for helical tomotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xiaohu; Chen, Mingli; Parnell, Donald; Olivera, Gustavo; Galmarini, Daniel; Lu, Weiguo

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: During a typical 5-7 week treatment of external beam radiotherapy, there are potential differences between planned patient's anatomy and positioning, such as patient weight loss, or treatment setup. The discrepancies between planned and delivered doses resulting from these differences could be significant, especially in IMRT where dose distributions tightly conforms to target volumes while avoiding organs-at-risk. We developed an automatic system to monitor delivered dose using daily imaging. Methods: For each treatment, a merged image is generated by registering the daily pre-treatment setup image and planning CT using treatment position information extracted from the Tomotherapy archive. The treatment dose is then computed on this merged image using our in-house convolution-superposition based dose calculator implemented on GPU. The deformation field between merged and planning CT is computed using the Morphon algorithm. The planning structures and treatment doses are subsequently warped for analysis and dose accumulation. All results are saved in DICOM format with private tags and organized in a database. Due to the overwhelming amount of information generated, a customizable tolerance system is used to flag potential treatment errors or significant anatomical changes. A web-based system and a DICOM-RT viewer were developed for reporting and reviewing the results. Results: More than 30 patients were analysed retrospectively. Our in-house dose calculator passed 97% gamma test evaluated with 2% dose difference and 2mm distance-to-agreement compared with Tomotherapy calculated dose, which is considered sufficient for adaptive radiotherapy purposes. Evaluation of the deformable registration through visual inspection showed acceptable and consistent results, except for cases with large or unrealistic deformation. Our automatic flagging system was able to catch significant patient setup errors or anatomical changes. Conclusions: We developed an automatic dose

  16. Conversion factors between human and automatic readouts of CDMAM phantom images of CR mammography systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figl, Michael; Homolka, Peter; Osanna-Elliott, Angelika; Semturs, Friedrich; Kaar, Marcus; Hummel, Johann

    2016-09-01

    In mammography screening, profound assessment of technical image quality is imperative. The European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening (EPQCM) suggests using an alternate fixed choice contrast-detail phantom-like CDMAM. For the evaluation of technical image quality, human or automated readouts can be used. For automatic evaluation, a software (cdcom) is provided by EUREF. If the automated readout indicates unacceptable image quality, additional human readout may be performed overriding the automated readout. As the latter systematically results in higher image quality ratings, conversion factors between both methods are regularly applied. Since most image quality issues with mammography systems arise within CR systems, an assessment restricted to CR systems with data from the Austrian Reference Center in the mammography screening program has been conducted. Forty-five CR systems were evaluated. Human readouts were performed with a randomisation software to avoid bias due to learning effects. Additional automatic evaluation allowed for the computation of conversion factors between human and automatic readouts. These factors were substantially lower compared to those suggested by EUREF, namely 1.21 compared to 1.62 (EUREF UK method) and 1.42 (EUREF EU method) for 0.1 mm, and 1.40 compared to 1.83 (EUREF UK) and 1.73 (EUREF EU) for 0.25 mm structure size, respectively. Using either of these factors to adjust patient dose in order to comply with image quality requirements results in differences in the dose increase of up to 90%. This necessitates a consensus on their proper application and limits the validity of the assessment methods. Clear criteria for CR systems based on appropriate studies should be promoted.

  17. Evaluation of the PetrifilmTM EB and TEMPO® EB systems with ISO 21528-2:2004 method for the count of Enterobacteriaceae in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cirolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative microbiological techniques is driven by the necessity to meet the current needs to deliver rapid results in the manufacturing process of foods, but it is important that these methods be evaluated for each application. The objective of the present study was to assess the PetrifilmTM EB and the TEMPO® EB systems with ISO 21528-2:2004 for the count of Enterobacteriaceae in pasteurized and UHT milk samples. We analyzed the microflora of 141 pasteurized milk samples, 15 samples of artificially contaminated pasteurized milk and 15 samples of artificially contaminated UHT milk. Investigation of the method PetrifilmTM EB and ISO 21528:2 regression analysis showed a high correlation in the samples, r = 0.90 for the microflora of pasteurized milk, r = 0.98 for artificially contaminated pasteurized milk and r = 0.99 for the artificially contaminated UHT milk. In evaluating the system TEMPO EB ® method and ISO 21528:2 correlation was also significant in the analyzed samples, with r = 0.86 for the microflora of pasteurized milk, r = 0.96 for artificially contaminated pasteurized milk and r = 0.99 for artificially contaminated UHT milk. No statistically significant differences were observed between the three methods conducted to analyze artificially contaminated pasteurized and UHT milk at three inoculum levels. In conclusion, the PetrifilmTM EB system and the TEMPO® EB system may be an alternative to the ISO 21528-2:2004 for the Enterobacteriaceae assay for milk as because of the ease-of-operation and the time reduction achieved for conducting the microbiological assay using these systems.

  18. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK (WSN) BASED AUTOMATIC FIRING PRACTICE SYSTEM (AFPS) FOR TRAINING OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES (LEAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Imran Jattala; Junaid Farooqi; Shakeel Durrani; Nassar Ikram; Irfan Hussian; Muazzam A. Goraya; Obaid B. Zakria

    2014-01-01

    The critical importance of an efficient infantryman in special operations force, tactical paramilitary and Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs) is insurmountable. One of the many vital aspects of an effective solider is excellent marksmanship which requires extensive training at sophisticated firing ranges. Modern firing ranges are supported by Automatic Firing Practice Systems (AFPS) and this paper presents the design and development of such a system based on WSN. AFPS provide an automatic bullet...

  19. Developing an intelligent control system of automatic window motor with diverse wireless sensor network devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yao-Chiang Kan; Hsueh-Chun Lin; Wen-Pei Sung

    2014-08-01

    This invention system involves hardware, firmware and software to develop an intelligent control system of automatic window motor with diverse wireless sensor network (WSN) devices for health and environmental monitoring. The parts of this invention are improved by implementing the WSN mote into environmental sensors that may detect temperature, humility, toxic gas, smog or aerosol, etc. With embedded system design, these sensors are capable of delivering WSN signal packets based on ZigBee protocol that follows the IEEE 802.14.4 standards. The primary hardware of the system is the window motor with circuit design by integrating micro control unit (MCU), radio frequency (RF) and WSN antenna to receive command. The firmware developed under embedded system can bridge hardware and software to control the window at the specified position. At the back end, the control system software can manage diverse sensor data and provide the interface for remote monitoring.

  20. Design ofor rapid detection system of milk somatic cells%牛乳体细胞快速检测系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付文斌; 王春兴; 孟庆田

    2014-01-01

    牛乳中体细胞含量的快速检测有利于牛乳行业的发展,通过测量荧光的强度反向推出牛乳中体细胞的数目比传统的测量方法更加快捷方便。通对反应环境温度控制模块,试剂加注模块,发光模块,光补偿模块,光电转换模块,光电倍增模块这几个方面的改进,很大程度上提高了牛乳中体细胞含量测量精度。经过计算得到相关系数R为0.9811,发光值Y和白细胞数X的关系式Y=2.4285X+10.001,在测量过程上也比传统的测量方法省时省力。在此设计的产品以便携,操作方便,省时省力,价格便宜等优点,具有一定的市场应用价值。%Rapid detection of somatic cell content in milk is beneficial to the development of the milk industry. A rapid de-tection system for somatic cell quantity in milk was designed in this paper. The exprimental results show that the improved detec-tion equipment can improve the measuring accuracy of the somatic cell content in milk much more than that of other market in-struments. Since experimental reagents is automatically added,the device simplifies the operation process and is easy to operate. The correlation coefficient R obtained by calculating the experimental data is 0.9811. The relational expression of luminescence value Y and leukocyte number X is Y=2.428 5X+10.001. In the measuring process,the method can save both time and labour much more than those of conventional methods.

  1. An Automatic Uav Mapping System for Supporting un (united Nations) Field Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, K.; Cheon, J. W.; Kim, H. Y.; Lee, I.

    2016-06-01

    The United Nations (UN) has performed field operations worldwide such as peacekeeping or rescue missions. When such an operation is needed, the UN dispatches an operation team usually with a GIS (Geographic Information System) customized to a specific operation. The base maps for the GIS are generated mostly with satellite images which may not retain a high resolution and the current situation. To build an up-to-date high resolution map, we propose a UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) based automatic mapping system, which can operate in a fully automatic way from the data acquisition of sensory data to the data processing for the generation of the geospatial products such as a mosaicked orthoimage of a target area. In this study, we analyse the requirements for UN field operations, suggest a UAV mapping system with an operation scenario, and investigate the applicability of the system. With the proposed system, we can construct a tailored GIS with up-to-date and high resolution base maps for a specific operation efficiently.

  2. Design and Implementation of Electrostatic Spraying Automatic Controlling System Based on PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Jia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to improve the spraying efficiency and meet the demand of modern agricultural. A new generation of electrostatic sprayer which we designed realized the goals. The automatic controlling system is successfully designed. PLC (Programmable Logic Controller was taken as the control core of the system and LCD touch screen was employed for human-computer interaction interface. The system integrates kinds of techniques including programming, pressure monitoring and sensor technology, etc. The main structure of this equipment, working principle and control system hardware selection will be also introduced in the study. Human-computer interaction software was programmed by the software of Pro Tool/Pro CS. System controlling software was programmed in form of ladder diagram, which realized kinds of functions including ESD protection, accurate quantification, automatic controlling and humanized operation. Test results show that the effective spraying range is between 5 to 6 m, the Volume Median Diameter (VMD is 47.48 µm and the Ultra-Low Volume spray (ULV is realized. The spray deposition rate and effective availability of pesticide is higher than old sprayer. And also this new sprayer runs steadily.

  3. Design of an Intelligent Interlocking System Based on Automatically Generated Interlocking Table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Y.S. [Namseoul University, Chonan (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an expert system for electronic interlocking which enhances the safety, efficiency and expanability of the existing system by designing real-time interlocking control based on the interlocking table automatically generated using artificial intelligence approach. The expert system consists of two parts; an interlocking table generation part and a real-time interlocking control part. The former generates automatically the interlocking relationship of all possible routes by searching dynamically the station topology which is obtained from station database. On the other hand, the latter controls the status of station facilities in real-time by applying the generated interlocking relationship to the signal facilities such as signal devices, points, track circuits for a given route. The expert system is implemented in C language which is suitable to implement the interlocking table generation part using the dynamic memory allocation technique. Finally, the effectiveness of the expert system is proved by simulating for the typical station model. (author). 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Design of a modern automatic control system for the activated sludge process in wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandros D. Kotzapetros; Panayotis A. Paraskevas; Athanasios S. Stasinakis

    2015-01-01

    The Activated Sludge Process (ASP) exhibits highly nonlinear properties. The design of an automatic control system that is robust against disturbance of inlet wastewater flow rate and has short process settling times is a chal enging matter. The proposed control method is an I-P modified controller automatic control system with state variable feedback and control canonical form simulation diagram for the process. A more stable response is achieved with this type of modern control. Settling times of 0.48 days are achieved for the concentration of microorganisms, (reference value step increase of 50 mg·L−1) and 0.01 days for the concentration of oxygen (reference value step increase of 0.1 mg·L−1). Fluctuations of concentrations of oxygen and microorganisms after an inlet disturbance of 5 × 103m3·d−1 are smal . Changes in the reference values of oxygen and microorganisms (increases by 10%, 20%and 30%) show satisfactory response of the system in al cases. Changes in the value of inlet wastewater flow rate disturbance (increases by 10%, 25%, 50%and 100%) are stabilized by the control system in short time. Maximum percent overshoot is also taken in consideration in all cases and the largest value is 25%which is acceptable. The proposed method with I-P controller is better for disturbance rejection and process settling times compared to the same method using PI control er. This method can substitute optimal control systems in ASP.

  5. Development of an Automatic Frequency Control (AFC) System for RF Electron Linear Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byeong-No; Joo, Youngwoo; Lee, Soo Min; Lee, Byung Cheol; Cha, Hyungki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Dal [Radiation Technology eXcellence, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hyun [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, the design, fabrication, and RF power test of the AFC system for the X-band linac are presented. The main function of the AFC system is automatically matching of the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure and the RF frequency of the magnetron. For the frequency tuning, a fine tuning of 10 kHz is possible by rotating the tuning shaft with a rotation of 0.72 degree per pulse. Therefore, the frequency deviation is about 0.01%, and almost full RF power (2.1 MW) transmission was obtained because the reflected power is minimized. The Radiation Equipment Research Division of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing and upgrading a medical/industrial X-band RF electron linear accelerators. The medical compact RF electron linear accelerator consists of an electron gun, an acceleration tube (accelerating structure), two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, modulator, an automatic frequency control (AFC) system, and an X-ray generating target. The accelerating structure of the component is composed of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the volume of the structure, hence, its resonance frequency can easily be changeable if the ambient temperature and pressure are changed. If the RF frequency of the 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of accelerating structure are not matched, performance of the structure can be degraded. An AFC system is automatically matched with the RF frequency of the magnetron and resonance frequency of the accelerating structure, which obtained a high output power and reliable accelerator operation.

  6. Physical Characteristics of Cocoa Butter and Palm Stearin Mixture in Milk Chocolate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate products for consumption in tropical areas frequently become soft and tend to bloom due to melting and migration of fat contained, the product becomes dully and less interesting. Fat fraction determines chocolate texture, appearance and its handling. Objective of this research is to study the characteristic of mixed fat of cocoa butter, milk fat and stearin; in which the latest was added into a chocolate formula expected to increase its physical characteristic. Response Surface Methodology design was used for the study at stearin concentration of 10–60 g kg-1 and lecithin of 1–7 g kg-1. Parameters of the study were fat melting point, chocolate hardness and preference on chocolate texture and overall acceptance. Result of the study showed that the stearin concentration significantly altered chocolate physical characteristic, where the lecithin concentration did not influence. The presence of stearin in milk chocolate system showed fat eutectic phenomenon. Substitution of cocoa butter with stearin up to concentration of 35 g kg-1 in the formulation showed a clear eutectic; however, at higher concentrations the phenomenon was compensated by the increase in stearin crystal seed which raised melting point and hardness. This result also clearly indicated that cocoa butter substitution with palm stearin to obtain resistant chocolate should be designed in a range of 43–60 g kg-1 in its formulation, equal to 15–18% from cocoa butter added.Key words : chocolate, cocoa butter, stearin, eutectic, solidifier, emulsifier, melting point, texture.

  7. Sequential separation of ultra-trace U, Th, Pb, and lanthanides using a simple automatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yutaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Magara, Masaaki

    2015-07-01

    Uranium, thorium, lead, and the lanthanides were automatically and sequentially separated with a single anion-exchange column. This separation was achieved using eluents consisting of a simple and highly pure acid mixture of HCl, HNO3, acetic acid, and HF. The elements of interest were separated from the major constituents, which included alkaline metal elements, alkaline earth metal elements, and iron. This simple and automatic system is driven with pressurized nitrogen gas and controlled using a computer program. An optimized separation was accomplished under the following conditions: a 50 mm long and 2 mm diameter column, 11 μm diameter anion-exchange resin, and a 35 μL min(-1) flow rate. Using this system, 50 ng of varied elements in a 100 μL feed solution were perfectly separated within 5 h with >400 decontamination factors and >95% yield. In order to evaluate the performance of this system, a reference powdered rock sample was separated using this system. Abundances of objective elements, including 0.23 ng of lutetium, were accurately determined without corrections of chemical recovery yield or subtraction of the process blank. This separation technique saves time and effort for chemical processing, and is useful for ultra-trace quantitative and isotopic analyses of elements in small environmental samples. PMID:25994104

  8. Automatic Meal Inspection System Using LBP-HF Feature for Central Kitchen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Min Jiang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an intelligent and automatic meal inspection system which can be applied to the meal inspection for the application of central kitchen automation. The diet specifically designed for the patients are required with providing personalized diet such as low sodium intake or some necessary food. Hence, the proposed system can benefit the inspection process that is often performed manually. In the proposed system, firstly, the meal box can be detected and located automatically with the vision-based method and then all the food ingredients can be identified by using the color and LBP-HF texture features. Secondly, the quantity for each of food ingredient is estimated by using the image depth information. The experimental results show that the meal inspection accuracy can approach 80%, meal inspection efficiency can reach1200ms, and the food quantity accuracy is about 90%. The proposed system is expected to increase the capacity of meal supply over 50% and be helpful to the dietician in the hospital for saving the time in the diet inspection process.

  9. An improved automatic computer aided tube detection and labeling system on chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Bharath; Brown, Matthew; Goldin, Jonathan; Cagnon, Christopher; Enzmann, Dieter

    2012-03-01

    Tubes like Endotracheal (ET) tube used to maintain patient's airway and the Nasogastric (NG) tube used to feed the patient and drain contents of the stomach are very commonly used in Intensive Care Units (ICU). The placement of these tubes is critical for their proper functioning and improper tube placement can even be fatal. Bedside chest radiographs are considered the quickest and safest method to check the placement of these tubes. Tertiary ICU's typically generate over 250 chest radiographs per day to confirm tube placement. This paper develops a new fully automatic prototype computer-aided detection (CAD) system for tube detection on bedside chest radiographs. The core of the CAD system is the randomized algorithm which selects tubes based on their average repeatability from seed points. The CAD algorithm is designed as a 5 stage process: Preprocessing (removing borders, histogram equalization, anisotropic filtering), Anatomy Segmentation (to identify neck, esophagus, abdomen ROI's), Seed Generation, Region Growing and Tube Selection. The preliminary evaluation was carried out on 64 cases. The prototype CAD system was able to detect ET tubes with a True Positive Rate of 0.93 and False Positive Rate of 0.02/image and NG tubes with a True Positive Rate of 0.84 and False Positive Rate of 0.02/image respectively. The results from the prototype system show that it is feasible to automatically detect both tubes on chest radiographs, with the potential to significantly speed the delivery of imaging services while maintaining high accuracy.

  10. Results of automatic system implementation for the friction control rods execution in Cofrentes nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M., E-mail: mpalomo@iqn.upv.es [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV) (Spain); Urrea, M., E-mail: matias.urrea@iberdrola.es [Iberdrola Generacion S.A. Valencia (Spain). C.N. Cofrentes; Curiel, M., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.com [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales (LAINSA), Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: a.arnaldos@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Teconologicos, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to show the obtained results in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant (Spain) of Control Rods PCC/24 Friction Test Procedure. In order to perform this, a Control Rod Friction Test System has been developed. Principally, this system consists on software and data acquisition hardware that obtains and analyzes the control rod pressure variation on which the test is being made. The PCC/24 Procedure objective is to detect an excessive friction in the control rod movement that could cause a CRD (Control Rod Drive) movement slower than usual. This test is necessary every time that an anomalous alteration is produced in the reactor core that could affect to a fuel rod, and it is executed before the time measure of control rods rapid scram test of the affected rods. This test has to be carried out to all the reactor control rods and takes valuable time during plant refuelling. So, by means of an automatic system to perform the test, we obtain an important time saving during refuelling. On the other hand, the on-line monitoring of the control rod insertion and changes in differential pressure, permits a control rod operation fast and safe validation. Moreover, an automatic individual report of every rod is generated by the system and a final global result report of the entire test developed in refuelling is generated. The mentioned reports can be attached directly to the procedure documents obtaining an office data processing important saving time.(author)

  11. DISTURBANCE ERROR INVARIANCE IN AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR TECHNOLOGICAL OBJECT TRAJECTORY MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Lekareva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider combined control in automatic control systems for technological objects trajectory movements. We present research results of the system disturbance invariance ensuring on the example of the technological manipulator that implements hydrocutting of the oil pipelines. Control is based on the propositions of the fourth modified invariance form with the use of bootstrapping methods. The paper presents analysis of results obtained by two different correction methods. The essence of the first method lies in injection of additional component into the already established control signal and formation of the channel for that component. Control signal correction during the signal synthesis stage in the control device constitutes the basis for the second method. Research results have shown high efficiency of application for both correction methods. Both methods have roughly the same precision. We have shown that the correction in the control device is preferable because it has no influence on the inner contour of the system. We have shown the necessity of the block usage with the variable transmission coefficient, which value is determined by technological trajectory parameters. Research results can be applied in practice for improvement of the precision specifications of automatic control systems for trajectorial manipulators.

  12. Results of automatic system implementation for the friction control rods execution in Cofrentes nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Urrea, M. [Iberdrola Generacion S. A., Central Nuclear Cofrentes, Carretera Almansa Requena s/n, 04662 Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this presentation is to show the obtained results in Cofrentes nuclear power plant (Spain) of control rods Pcc/24 friction test procedure. In order to perform this, a control rod friction test system has been developed. Principally, this system consists on software and data acquisition hardware that obtains and analyzes the control rod pressure variation on which the test is being made. The Pcc/24 procedure objective is to detect an excessive friction in the control rod movement that could cause a control rod drive movement slower than usual. This test is necessary every time that an anomalous alteration is produced in the reactor core that could affect to a fuel rod, and it is executed before the time measure of control rods rapid scram test of the affected rods. This test has to be carried out to all the reactor control rods and takes valuable time during plant refuelling. So, by means of an automatic system to perform the test, we obtain an important time saving during refuelling. On the other hand, the on-line monitoring of the control rod insertion and changes in differential pressure, permits a control rod operation fast and safe validation. Moreover, an automatic individual report of every rod is generated by the system and a final global result report of the entire test developed in refuelling is generated. The mentioned reports can be attached directly to the procedure documents obtaining an office data processing important saving time. (Author)

  13. Opto-mechanical devices for the Antares automatic beam alignment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antares is a 24-beam CO2 laser system for controlled fusion research, under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Rapid automatic alignment of this system is required prior to each experimental shot. Unique opto-mechanical alignment devices, which have been developed specifically for this automatic alignment system, are discussed. A variable focus alignment telescope views point light sources. A beam expander/spatial filter processes both a visible Krypton Ion and a 10.6 μm CO2 alignment laser. The periscope/carousel device provides the means by which the alignment telescope can sequentially view each of twelve optical trains in each power amplifier. The polyhedron alignment device projects a point-light source for both centering and pointing alignment at the polyhedron mirror. The rotating wedge alignment device provides a sequencing point-light source and also compensates for dispersion between visible and 10.6 μm radiation. The back reflector flip in remotely positions point-light sources at the back reflector mirrors. A light source box illuminates optic fibers with high intensity white light which is distributed to the various point-light sources in the system

  14. A Non-Contact Pulse Automatic Positioning Measurement System for Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yun Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is to construct a non-contact pulse automatic positioning measurement system for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM using optical triangulation measurements. The system consists of a linear laser, a CMOS image sensor and image analysis software. The linear laser is projected on the pulse beat location on the wrists; the CMOS image sensor records the process and the software analyzes the images. The program mainly uses the optical centroid and fast Fourier transform (FFT principles to calculate centroid changes (pulse amplitude changes from the images taken by the CMOS image sensor. It returns the positions of cun, guan and chi pulses automatically in terms of the amplitudes and the signals are then transformed from the time domain (time-amplitude into the frequency domain (frequency-amplitude via FFT to obtain the waveforms and frequencies of the cun, guan and chi pulses. It successfully extracts the data from the TCM pulse reading and can be a medical aid system for TCM. Combining the advantages of optical measurement and computer automation, this system provides a non-contact, easy to operate, fast in detection and low-cost equipment design.

  15. INVARIAN AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM, USING THE INTERMEDIATE-FREQUENCY SIGNALS OF HEAT POWER PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of digital micro-processing automatic means allow to use design methods (technique of automatic control systems  more wider, and also to apply optimal ways of control, for example, it is possible to combine the Method of structural-parameter optimization and invariance theory. This method allow to increase essential system speed in processing of task jump and to reduce operation time of outside external disturbance up to two  values of regulated influence, and the usage of invariance principle is based on an additional measuring of the most dangerous perturbation influence and in connection with it the improvement of regulation quality is achieved.In this article the principle of invariance is applied in order to improve greatly external disturbance attack by consumption of over-heated steam. Compensation of disturbance influence on regulated value is achieving by introduction of additional signal on input of correction regulator from output of compensation device, measuring the external disturbance by consumption of over-heated steam.Modeling results of transient processes of cascade system of automatic control (CSAC, on the base of which were realized the unity of these methods, demonstrated the fact that, in processing of external disturbance by consumption of steam, the reduction of maximal dynamic regulation error is six times and cutting of regulation time by 30 % in comparison with CSAC without compensation device of external disturbance. And that is why it leads to the further reduction of maximal dynamic regulation error in processing of external disturbance by consumption of steam, and this allows to improve the quality of control.

  16. New conversion factors between human and automatic readouts of the CDMAM phantom for CR systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Johann; Homolka, Peter; Osanna-Elliot, Angelika; Kaar, Marcus; Semtrus, Friedrich; Figl, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Mammography screenings demand for profound image quality (IQ) assessment to guarantee their screening success. The European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening (EPQCM) suggests a contrast detail phantom such as the CDMAM phantom to evaluate IQ. For automatic evaluation a software is provided by the EUREF. As human and automatic readouts differ systematically conversion factors were published by the official reference organisation (EUREF). As we experienced a significant difference for these factors for Computed Radiography (CR) systems we developed an objectifying analysis software which presents the cells including the gold disks randomly in thickness and rotation. This allows to overcome the problem of an inevitable learning effect where observers know the position of the disks in advance. Applying this software, 45 computed radiography (CR) systems were evaluated and the conversion factors between human and automatic readout determined. The resulting conversion factors were compared with the ones resulting from the two methods published by EUREF. We found our conversion factors to be substantially lower than those suggested by EUREF, in particular 1.21 compared to 1.42 (EUREF EU method) and 1.62 (EUREF UK method) for 0.1 mm, and 1.40 compared to 1.73 (EUREF EU) and 1.83 (EUREF UK) for 0.25 mm disc diameter, respectively. This can result in a dose increase of up to 90% using either of these factors to adjust patient dose in order to fulfill image quality requirements. This suggests the need of an agreement on their proper application and limits the validity of the assessment methods. Therefore, we want to stress the need for clear criteria for CR systems based on appropriate studies.

  17. Immediate systemic allergic reaction in an infant to fish allergen ingested through breast milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Takayasu; Campos-Alberto, Eduardo; Funakoshi, Hiraku; Inoue, Yuzaburo; Tomiita, Minako; Kohno, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    This is a rare case report of systemic allergic reaction to fish allergen ingested through breast milk. Mother ate raw fish more than 3 times a week. Her consumption of fish was associated with urticaria and wheeze in an infant via breast-feeding. Fish-specific IgE antibodies were detected by skin prick test but not by in vitro IgE test. This case demonstrates that fish protein ingested by mother can cause an immediate systemic allergic reaction in offspring through breast-feeding. Although fish intake is generally recommended for prevention of allergy, one should be aware that frequent intake of fish by a lactating mother may sensitize the baby and induce an allergic reaction through breast-feeding. PMID:27803887

  18. A review of automatic exposure control of conventional and digital systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The desirable properties and methods of achieving automatic exposure control in film-screen radiography, fluoroscopy, spot-film fluorography and cinefluorography are discussed. Advantages of certain methods in achieving optimum image quality for minimal patient exposure are considered. In digital subtraction fluorography (DSF) where relatively large exposure levels per image are used, proper set-up of exposure conditions is of particular importance. These systems require a high degree of stability in exposure to maintain a high level of image quality. We have developed test methods for monitoring the set-up and reproducibility of exposure levels in DSF. (author)

  19. Automatic control system of high precision welding of workpieces in mechanical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, I. N.; Zvezdin, V. V.; Israfilov, I. H.; Portnov, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, based on the conducted patent research, the system of laser welding control with different geometry of weld and shapes of parts is developed. The method of monitoring the position of the spot of laser radiation in relation to the curved weld is worked out; it is based on the tracking the edges of the welded parts by low-power laser radiation reflected from the surface of the parts. It allows to make the positioning of the focus of laser radiation in relation to the juncture of the welded parts automatically.

  20. Constraint optimization model of a scheduling problem for a robotic arm in automatic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Ewa; Smith, Stephen F.; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    are characteristics of the painting process application itself. Unlike spot-welding, painting tasks require movement of the entire robot arm. In addition to minimizing intertask duration, the scheduler must strive to maximize painting quality and the problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem....... The scheduling model is implemented as a stand-alone module using constraint programming, and integrated with a larger automatic system. The results of a number of simulation experiments with simple parts are reported, both to characterize the functionality of the scheduler and to illustrate the operation...

  1. Backup system for power distribution automatization system, delivered to Okinawa Electric Power Co., Inc; Okinawa Denryoku (kabu) muke haiden jidoka system backup sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-10

    Meidensha Corporation delivered a backup system to the Gushikawa branch of Okinawa Electric Power Co., Inc., in 1998, prior to the delivery of the main power distribution automatization system. This was the first delivery of the next-generation power distribution automatization system developed by Meidensha Corporation, compact in hardware dimensions, high in performance and function. The main system which is capable of automatic operation is scheduled to be delivered in 1999. Some technical features are stated below. A multiple platform scheme is employed, which is high in portability (UNIX/Windows); a distributed system high in expandability is embodied; Windows is adopted as the operating system with high operationality ensured thereon; and object-oriented technologies are adopted, high in reusability. Furthermore, the check and deployment of data maintenance work hitherto taking much time is accomplished in a trice thanks to the technology developed independently by the corporation, and this exerts a great effect on substation operation. (NEDO)

  2. Automatic Prompt System in the Process of Mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kędzia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Prompt System in the Process of Mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet The paper offers a critical evaluation of the power and usefulness of an automatic prompt system based on the extended Relaxation Labelling algorithm in the process of (manual mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet. To this end the results of manual mapping – that is inter-lingual relations between plWN and PWN synsets – are juxtaposed with the automatic prompts that were generated for the source language synsets to be mapped. We check the number and type of inter-lingual relations introduced on the basis of automatic prompts and the distance of the respective prompt synsets from the actual target language synsets.

  3. Automatic sprinkler system performance and reliability in United States Department of Energy Facilities, 1952 to 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automatic sprinkler system experiences of the United States Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies are analyzed. Based on accident and incident files in the Office of Operational Safety and on supplementary responses, 587 incidents including over 100 fires are analyzed. Tables and figures, with supplementary narratives discuss fire experience by various categories such as number of heads operating, type of system, dollar losses, failures, extinguished vs. controlled, and types of sprinkler heads. Use is made of extreme value projections and frequency-severity plots to compare past experience and predict future experience. Non-fire incidents are analyzed in a similar manner by cause, system types and failure types. Discussion of no-loss incidents and non-fire protection water systems is included. The author's conclusions and recommendations and appendices listing survey methodology, major incidents, and a bibliography are included

  4. Multi-Stage Optimization Based Automatic Voltage Control Systems Considering Wind Power Forecasting Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth; Abildgaard, Hans;

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic voltage control (AVC) system for power systems with limited continuous voltage control capability. The objective is to minimize the operational cost over a period, which consists of the power loss in the grid, the shunt switching cost, the transformer tap change...... cost and the generator reactive power output cost. The problem is formulated in a multi-stage optimal reactive power flow (MORPF) framework, solved by the nonlinear programming techniques via a rolling process. The voltage uncertainty caused by wind power forecasting errors is considered in the optimal...... electricity control center, where study cases based on the western Danish power system demonstrate the superiority of the proposed AVC system in term of the cost minimization. Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to verify the proposed method on the robustness improvements....

  5. AUTOMATIC RECOGNITION OF PIPING SYSTEM FROM LARGE-SCALE TERRESTRIAL LASER SCAN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kawashima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, changes in plant equipment have been becoming more frequent because of the short lifetime of the products, and constructing 3D shape models of existing plants (as-built models from large-scale laser scanned data is expected to make their rebuilding processes more efficient. However, the laser scanned data of the existing plant has massive points, captures tangled objects and includes a large amount of noises, so that the manual reconstruction of a 3D model is very time-consuming and costs a lot. Piping systems especially, account for the greatest proportion of plant equipment. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to propose an algorithm which can automatically recognize a piping system from terrestrial laser scan data of the plant equipment. The straight portion of pipes, connecting parts and connection relationship of the piping system can be recognized in this algorithm. Eigenvalue analysis of the point clouds and of the normal vectors allows for the recognition. Using only point clouds, the recognition algorithm can be applied to registered point clouds and can be performed in a fully automatic way. The preliminary results of the recognition for large-scale scanned data from an oil rig plant have shown the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  6. Evaluating the CO2 Emission of the Milk Supply Chain in Italy: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biancamaria Torquati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, Italian dairy farms, which gather, process and sell milk at the national level, have strengthened their leading market position at the detriment of dairy cooperatives, operating within regional borders. Moreover, decreasing milk prices and increasing production costs have recently induced many farmers to open automatic vending machines, dispensing raw milk for direct sale to local consumers. In order to contribute to the environmental assessment of alternative systems, this study estimated CO2 emissions related to the transport from production farms to point of sale, for three brands of fresh milk currently sold in the Umbria region (Italy, starting from the food miles indicator as a simple concept, easily understood by consumers. These brands differ in the origin of milk (national, regional and local and distribution channels (large-scale retail channels for national and regional brands and vending machines for the local one. Thus, we estimated the emissions generated by the transport of the fresh milk consumed by regional households. In agreement with previous studies about CO2 emissions of foreign milk supply chains, the analysis showed that the production system of regional-branded milk, sold by retail channels, is the most efficient in terms of the environmental impact of transport.

  7. Efficiency of cleaning procedure of milking equipment and bacterial quality of milk

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sandrucci; Lucio Zanini; Milena Brasca; Maddalena Zucali; Luciana Bava

    2010-01-01

    The cleaning and sanitation of milking equipment could be consider a critical point in the milking procedure because a cleaning failure could influence the level of bacteria contamination of bulk tank milk. Aim of the study is to monitor the cleaning procedures of milking systems in 7 dairy cows farms in Lombardy and to find a relation between efficacy of cleaning system and the bacterial quality of bulk tank milk, remaining washing water through milking equipment and teat cup surface. Cleani...

  8. Automatic power distribution backup personal computer system for Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Inc.; Hokuriku Denryoku (kabu) haiden jidoka backup yo pasokon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    Hokuriku Electric Power Co., Inc., and Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., have jointly developed a personal computer system for automatic power distribution system backup which will monitor switches and perform independent operations in case of automatic power distribution system stoppage for example for inspection or maintenance. Under this system, backup operation is easily accomplished by switching the routine business personal computer from the in-house intranet to the automatic power distribution system LAN (local area network). The newly developed system is characterized by (1) its compatibility with a personal computer with Windows NT running thereon, (2) the downloading of data related to facilities that may be done via either intranet or automatic power distribution system, (3) its skeleton display of each power distribution line in the power distribution system chart, and (4) its capability of remote monitoring and control of pole equipment such as switches and SVR (step voltage regulator). (translated by NEDO)

  9. To the question about the states of workability for automatic control systems with complicated structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, P. A.; Kovalev, I. V.; Losev, V. V.; Kalinin, A. O.; Murygin, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    The article discusses the reliability of automated control systems. Analyzes the approach to the classification systems for health States. This approach can be as traditional binary approach, operating with the concept of "serviceability", and other variants of estimation of the system state. This article provides one such option, providing selective evaluation of components for the reliability of the entire system. Introduced description of various automatic control systems and their elements from the point of view of health and risk, mathematical method of determining the transition object from state to state, they differ from each other in the implementation of the objective function. Explores the interplay of elements in different States, the aggregate state of the elements connected in series or in parallel. Are the tables of various logic States and the principles of their calculation in series and parallel connection. Through simulation the proposed approach is illustrated by finding the probability of getting into the system state data in parallel and serially connected elements, with their different probabilities of moving from state to state. In general, the materials of article will be useful for analyzing of the reliability the automated control systems and engineering of the highly-reliable systems. Thus, this mechanism to determine the State of the system provides more detailed information about it and allows a selective approach to the reliability of the system as a whole. Detailed results when assessing the reliability of the automated control systems allows the engineer to make an informed decision when designing means of improving reliability.

  10. A Development Process for Enterprise Information Systems Based on Automatic Generation of the Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian ALEXANDRESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains some ideas concerning the Enterprise Information Systems (EIS development. It combines known elements from the software engineering domain, with original elements, which the author has conceived and experimented. The author has followed two major objectives: to use a simple description for the concepts of an EIS, and to achieve a rapid and reliable EIS development process with minimal cost. The first goal was achieved defining some models, which describes the conceptual elements of the EIS domain: entities, events, actions, states and attribute-domain. The second goal is based on a predefined architectural model for the EIS, on predefined analyze and design models for the elements of the domain and finally on the automatic generation of the system components. The proposed methods do not depend on a special programming language or a data base management system. They are general and may be applied to any combination of such technologies.

  11. An automatic system for acidity determination based on sequential injection titration and the monosegmented flow approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Joanna; Wójtowicz, Marzena; Gawenda, Nadzieja; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2011-06-15

    An automatic sequential injection system, combining monosegmented flow analysis, sequential injection analysis and sequential injection titration is proposed for acidity determination. The system enables controllable sample dilution and generation of standards of required concentration in a monosegmented sequential injection manner, sequential injection titration of the prepared solutions, data collecting, and handling. It has been tested on spectrophotometric determination of acetic, citric and phosphoric acids with sodium hydroxide used as a titrant and phenolphthalein or thymolphthalein (in the case of phosphoric acid determination) as indicators. Accuracy better than |4.4|% (RE) and repeatability better than 2.9% (RSD) have been obtained. It has been applied to the determination of total acidity in vinegars and various soft drinks. The system provides low sample (less than 0.3 mL) consumption. On average, analysis of a sample takes several minutes. PMID:21641455

  12. Automatic layout of ventilation systems by means of electronic data processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altena, H.; Priess, H.; Fries, E.; Hoffmann, G.

    1982-12-09

    A working group developed a mehtod for the automatic projection of ventilation systems by means of electronic data processing. The purpose of this was to increase the information content of this document and to obtain a useful tool for ventilation planning while reducing the efforts required for elaboration of ventilation plans. A program system was developed by means of which ventilation plans can be plotted in consideration of the regulations set by the mining authorities. The program system was applied for the first time at Osterfeld mine. The plan is clearly organized, accurate, and easy to understand. This positive experience suggests that computer-aided plans should be more widely applied. The mining authorities support this view.

  13. Automatic diameter control system applied to the laser heated pedestal growth technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeta M.R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We described an automatic diameter control system (ADC, for the laser heated pedestal growth technique, that reduces the diameter fluctuations in oxide fibers grown from unreacted and non-sinterized pedestals, to less than 2% of the average fiber diameter, and diminishes the average diameter fluctuation, over the entire length of the fiber, to less than 1%. The ADC apparatus is based on an artificial vision system that controls the pulling speed and the height of the molten zone within a precision of 30 mum. We also show that this system can be used for periodic in situ axial doping the fiber. Pure and Cr3+ doped LaAlO3 and pure LiNbO3 were usedas model materials.

  14. Design of a Direction-of-Arrival Estimation Method Used for an Automatic Bearing Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Liu, Huawei; Huang, Jingchang; Zhang, Xin; Zu, Xingshui; Li, Baoqing; Yuan, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a sub-band direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation method suitable for employment within an automatic bearing tracking system. Inspired by the magnitude-squared coherence (MSC), we extend the MSC to the sub-band and propose the sub-band magnitude-squared coherence (SMSC) to measure the coherence between the frequency sub-bands of wideband signals. Then, we design a sub-band DOA estimation method which chooses a sub-band from the wideband signals by SMSC for the bearing tracking system. The simulations demonstrate that the sub-band method has a good tradeoff between the wideband methods and narrowband methods in terms of the estimation accuracy, spatial resolution, and computational cost. The proposed method was also tested in the field environment with the bearing tracking system, which also showed a good performance. PMID:27455267

  15. STUDY ON THE AUTOMATIC REGULATION SYSTEM OF WIND RATE FUZZY CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敬兆; 张崇巍; 周时欢; 王清灵

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the solution of regulating the wind rate automatically by means of fuzzy control technology and implementing it with PLC (programmable logical controller) under the circumstance of many influence factors, which exists in the axial-flow fans wind rate regulation system during the process of mine ventilation, and has difficulty in modifying the mathematic model to obtain the satisfied result by normal control ways. According to this analysis, the intelligent and analytic treatment of fuzzy controller has been made and fuzzy control scheme involving self-regulation divisor and intelligent integral has been deeply proposed. Test result shows that this system based on the scheme above is obviously prior to others in its responsibility such as high-speed, overshoot, control precision and robustness. The system furnishes the great reliability of mine working safety and fans running efficiency.

  16. An Automatic Optic Disk Detection and Segmentation System using Multi-level Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARASULU, B.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Optic disk (OD boundary localization is a substantial problem in ophthalmic image processing research area. In order to segment the region of OD, we developed an automatic system which involves a multi-level thresholding. The OD segmentation results of the system in terms of average precision, recall and accuracy for DRIVE database are 98.88%, 99.91%, 98.83%, for STARE database are 98.62%, 97.38%, 96.11%, and for DIARETDB1 database are 99.29%, 99.90%, 99.20%, respectively. The experimental results show that our system works properly on retinal image databases with diseased retinas, diabetic signs, and a large degree of quality variability.

  17. All-automatic swimmer tracking system based on an optimized scaled composite JTC technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarab, D.; Napoléon, T.; Alfalou, A.; Verney, A.; Hellard, P.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an all-automatic optimized JTC based swimmer tracking system is proposed and evaluated on real video database outcome from national and international swimming competitions (French National Championship, Limoges 2015, FINA World Championships, Barcelona 2013 and Kazan 2015). First, we proposed to calibrate the swimming pool using the DLT algorithm (Direct Linear Transformation). DLT calculates the homography matrix given a sufficient set of correspondence points between pixels and metric coordinates: i.e. DLT takes into account the dimensions of the swimming pool and the type of the swim. Once the swimming pool is calibrated, we extract the lane. Then we apply a motion detection approach to detect globally the swimmer in this lane. Next, we apply our optimized Scaled Composite JTC which consists of creating an adapted input plane that contains the predicted region and the head reference image. This latter is generated using a composite filter of fin images chosen from the database. The dimension of this reference will be scaled according to the ratio between the head's dimension and the width of the swimming lane. Finally, applying the proposed approach improves the performances of our previous tracking method by adding a detection module in order to achieve an all-automatic swimmer tracking system.

  18. Automatic measuring system of zirconium thickness for zirconium liner cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic system of pure zirconium liner thickness for zirconium-zircaloy cladding tubes has been successfully developed. The system consists of three parts. (1) An ultrasonic thickness measuring method for mother tubes before cold rolling. (2) An electromagnetic thickness measuring method for the manufactured tubes. (3) An image processing method for the cross sectional view of the manufactured cut tube samples. In Japanese nuclear industry, zirconium-zircaloy cladding tubes have been tested in order to realize load following operation in the atomic power plant. In order to provide for the practical use in the near future, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. has been studied and established the practical manufacturing process of the zirconium liner cladding tubes. The zirconium-liner cladding tube is a duplex tube comprising an inner layer of pure zirconium bonded to zircaloy metallurgically. The thickness of the pure zirconium is about 10 % of the total wall thickness. Several types of the automatic thickness measuring methods have been investigated instead of the usual microscopic viewing method in which the liner thickness is measured by the microscopic cross sectional view of the cut tube samples

  19. Hardware simulation of automatic braking system based on fuzzy logic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Cholis Basjaruddin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In certain situations, a moving or stationary object can be a barrier for a vehicle. People and vehicles crossing could potentially get hit by a vehicle. Objects around roads as sidewalks, road separator, power poles, and railroad gates are also a potential source of danger when the driver is inattentive in driving the vehicle. A device that can help the driver to brake automatically is known as Automatic Braking System (ABS. ABS is a part of the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS, which is a device designed to assist the driver in driving the process. This device was developed to reduce human error that is a major cause of traffic accidents. This paper presents the design of ABS based on fuzzy logic which is simulated in hardware by using a remote control car. The inputs of fuzzy logic are the speed and distance of the object in front of the vehicle, while the output of fuzzy logic is the intensity of braking. The test results on the three variations of speed: slow-speed, medium-speed, and high-speed shows that the design of ABS can work according to design.

  20. Design, development and evaluation of an automatic fruit-juice pasteurization system using microwave - ultrasonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh Samani, Bahram; Khoshtaghaza, Mohammad Hadi; Minaei, Saeid; Zareifourosh, Hemad; Eshtiaghi, Mohammad Naghi; Rostami, Sajad

    2016-01-01

    Conventional pasteurization treatments often lead to substantial decrease in fruits juice quality. Due to these issues, the objective of this research was to compare the combined effect of a novel thermal (microwave) and non-thermal (ultrasonic) treatments with conventional thermal pasteurization on some qualitative characteristics of sour cherry juice (vitamins, phenolics, anthocyanins, etc.). For this purpose, an automatic control system comprising of ultrasonic generator, ultrasonic transducer, horn, pump, circulator, microwave oven, container, pipe interface, temperature sensor, float, data acquisition card, microwave power control circuit, and reactor was designed and developed. Moreover, in order to optimize the effect of ultrasonic waves on the existing micro-organisms in the sour cherry juice, some preliminary experiments were carried out to optimize the ultrasonic probe and reactor design. The results of evaluations showed that using the combined automatic system, the qualitative properties of sour cherry (vitamin C content 14 %, total phenolics content 1 %, total anthocyanins content 6 %) can be better maintained compared with the conventional thermal method. Based on the results obtained in this study, the following processing conditions: microwave power of 541.7 W, temperature of 41 °C, ultrasonic power of 799.57 W and ultrasonic exposure time of 6 min were recommended for optimum processing of sour cherry juice. PMID:26787934