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Sample records for automatic high-order shimming

  1. Automatic Resonance Alignment of High-Order Microring Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Jason C C; Xue, Tianyuan; Mikkelsen, Jared C; Yong, Zheng; Poon, Joyce K S

    2015-01-01

    Automatic resonance alignment tuning is performed in high-order series coupled microring filters using a feedback system. By inputting only a reference wavelength, a filter is tuned such that passband ripples are dramatically reduced compared to the initial detuned state and the passband becomes centered at the reference. The method is tested on 5th order microring filters fabricated in a standard silicon photonics foundry process. Repeatable tuning is demonstrated for filters on multiple dies from the wafer and for arbitrary reference wavelengths within the free spectral range of the microrings.

  2. Magnet shimming made easier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A function minimising method embodied in an available standard computer library routine VA04A applied to the normally tedious business of magnet shimming has been shown to hold great promise in saving time and effort. Application of the method to the overall problem of magnet design will make the process almost automatic. (UK)

  3. Installation of Shimming Bars for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV; Yin-long; WANG; Zhen-hui; ZHONG; Jun-qing; LIU; Geng-shou

    2012-01-01

    <正>The 100 MeV high intensity proton cyclotron, CYCIAE-100, is the most critical equipment of the BRIF project at CIAE. The shimming bars are used to get the isochronous magnetic field. In the process of magnetic mapping and shimming, the bars should be repeated the installed and disassembly for about 10 times. Each time the installation precision must be ensured. The bars installation schedule and quality are directly related to the BRIF project progress.

  4. Intelligent Shimming for Deep Drawing Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Søren; Endelt, Benny Ørtoft; Danckert, Joachim;

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of an intelligent shimming system to compensate for changes in process output due to tool wear. A new tool concept with integrated hydraulic cavities used as actuators in feedback control system is presented. By prescribing a hydraulic pressure in the individual...

  5. A new gradient shimming method based on undistorted field map of B0 inhomogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qingjia; Chen, Fang; Chen, Li; Song, Kan; Liu, Zao; Liu, Chaoyang

    2016-04-01

    Most existing gradient shimming methods for NMR spectrometers estimate field maps that resolve B0 inhomogeneity spatially from dual gradient-echo (GRE) images acquired at different echo times. However, the distortions induced by B0 inhomogeneity that always exists in the GRE images can result in estimated field maps that are distorted in both geometry and intensity, leading to inaccurate shimming. This work proposes a new gradient shimming method based on undistorted field map of B0 inhomogeneity obtained by a more accurate field map estimation technique. Compared to the traditional field map estimation method, this new method exploits both the positive and negative polarities of the frequency encoded gradients to eliminate the distortions caused by B0 inhomogeneity in the field map. Next, the corresponding automatic post-data procedure is introduced to obtain undistorted B0 field map based on knowledge of the invariant characteristics of the B0 inhomogeneity and the variant polarity of the encoded gradient. The experimental results on both simulated and real gradient shimming tests demonstrate the high performance of this new method.

  6. AA, shims and washers on quadrupole ends

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Due to the fact that much of the field of the quadrupoles was outside the iron (in particular with the wide quadrupoles) and that thus the fields of quadrupoles and bending magnets interacted, the lattice properties of the AA could not be predicted with the required accuracy. After a first running period in 1980, during which detailed measurements were made with proton test beams, corrections to the quadrupoles were made in 1981, in the form of laminated shims at the ends of the poles, and with steel washers. With the latter ones, further refinements were made in an iterative procedure with measurements on the circulating beam. This eventually resulted, amongst other things, in a very low chromaticity, with the Q-values being constant to within +- 0.001 over the total momentum range of 6 %. Here we see the shims and washers on a narrow qudrupole (QFN, QDN). See also 8103203, 8103204, 8103205, 8103206.

  7. Dynamic Shimming of the Human Brain at 7 Tesla

    OpenAIRE

    Juchem, Christoph; Nixon, Terence W.; Diduch, Piotr; Rothman, Douglas L.; Starewicz, Piotr; de Graaf, Robin A.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic shim updating (DSU) of the zero- to second-order spherical harmonic field terms has previously been shown to improve the magnetic field homogeneity in the human brain at 4 Tesla. The increased magnetic field inhomogeneity at 7 Tesla can benefit from inclusion of third-order shims during DSU. However, pulsed higher-order shims can generate a multitude of temporally varying magnetic fields arising from eddy-currents that can strongly degrade the magnetic field homogeneity.

  8. SHIMS -- A Spatial Heterodyne Interferometer for Methane Sounding Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project develops the Spatial Heterodyne Interferometer for Methane Sounding (SHIMS), a lightweight, compact, robust spectrometer system for remote sensing of...

  9. Enabling Object Storage via shims for Grid Middleware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadellin Skipsey, Samuel; De Witt, Shaun; Dewhurst, Alastair; Britton, David; Roy, Gareth; Crooks, David

    2015-12-01

    The Object Store model has quickly become the basis of most commercially successful mass storage infrastructure, backing so-called ”Cloud” storage such as Amazon S3, but also underlying the implementation of most parallel distributed storage systems. Many of the assumptions in Object Store design are similar, but not identical, to concepts in the design of Grid Storage Elements, although the requirement for ”POSIX-like” filesystem structures on top of SEs makes the disjunction seem larger. As modern Object Stores provide many features that most Grid SEs do not (block level striping, parallel access, automatic file repair, etc.), it is of interest to see how easily we can provide interfaces to typical Object Stores via plugins and shims for Grid tools, and how well experiments can adapt their data models to them. We present evaluation of, and first-deployment experiences with, (for example) Xrootd-Ceph interfaces for direct object-store access, as part of an initiative within GridPP[1] hosted at RAL. Additionally, we discuss the tradeoffs and experience of developing plugins for the currently-popular Ceph parallel distributed filesystem for the GFAL2 access layer, at Glasgow.

  10. Enabling Object Storage via shims for Grid Middleware

    CERN Document Server

    Skipsey, Samuel Cadellin; Dewhurst, Alastair; Britton, David; Roy, Gareth; Crooks, David

    2015-01-01

    The Object Store model has quickly become the basis of most commercially successful mass storage infrastructure, backing so-called "Cloud" storage such as Amazon S3, but also underlying the implementation of most parallel distributed storage systems. Many of the assumptions in Object Store design are similar, but not identical, to concepts in the design of Grid Storage Elements, although the requirement for "POSIX-like" filesystem structures on top of SEs makes the disjunction seem larger. As modern Object Stores provide many features that most Grid SEs do not (block level striping, parallel access, automatic file repair, etc.), it is of interest to see how easily we can provide interfaces to typical Object Stores via plugins and shims for Grid tools, and how well experiments can adapt their data models to them. We present evaluation of, and first-deployment experiences with, (for example) Xrootd-Ceph interfaces for direct object-store access, as part of an initiative within GridPP\\cite{GridPP} hosted at RAL....

  11. Magnetic field shimming of a permanent magnet using a combination of pieces of permanent magnets and a single-channel shim coil for skeletal age assessment of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Y; Kono, S; Ishizawa, K; Inamura, S; Uchiumi, T; Tamada, D; Kose, K

    2013-05-01

    We adopted a combination of pieces of permanent magnets and a single-channel (SC) shim coil to shim the magnetic field in a magnetic resonance imaging system dedicated for skeletal age assessment of children. The target magnet was a 0.3-T open and compact permanent magnet tailored to the hand imaging of young children. The homogeneity of the magnetic field was first improved by shimming using pieces of permanent magnets. The residual local inhomogeneity was then compensated for by shimming using the SC shim coil. The effectiveness of the shimming was measured by imaging the left hands of human subjects and evaluating the image quality. The magnetic resonance images for the child subject clearly visualized anatomical structures of all bones necessary for skeletal age assessment, demonstrating the usefulness of combined shimming.

  12. 基于X射线衍射仪的PET晶体高阶衍射效率标定%Calibration of High Order Integral Diffraction Coefficient for X-ray PET Flat Crystal on the Automatic X-ray Diffractometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 杨国洪; 韦敏习; 侯立飞; 易涛; 刘慎业

    2013-01-01

    基于实验室X射线衍射仪,利用Cu X射线管作为光源,对PET晶体的高阶衍射效率进行标定。通过选取适宜厚度的滤片,控制X射线管电压,抑制Cu Kβ及轫致辐射,将Cu Kα单能化。实验结果表明,在Cu Kα能点,PET晶体的二阶积分衍射效率是一阶的14.36%,三阶积分衍射效率是一阶的4.07%;Cu Kα1最大峰值比,二阶衍射为一阶的7.7%,三阶衍射为一阶的1.3%。该标定方法快速高效、方便灵活,为X射线光谱的定量化测量提供了数据支撑,是同步辐射晶体标定的有力补充。%On the automatic X-ray diffractometer ( XRD) ,based on the stability and precision control of θand 2θ goniometer , special plane crystal holder was made .Bremsstrahlung and Cu Kβline are attenuated for 5 or-ders by 40 μm-thick pure Nickel filter in 15 kilo-voltage and 20mA supply to X -ray Cu tube, X-ray source of Cu target is to be Cu Kαmonochromatic source ,transmission coefficient of Nickel filter is the criterion of Cu Kαmonochromatic source.For X-ray Pentaerythritol(002) crystal,integral diffraction coefficient of 1-3 order diffraction on Cu Kαenergy were calibrated .The results show that the 2nd order and the 3rd order is only 14.36%and 4.07%, the Cu Kα1 intensity ratio of 2nd order and the 3rd order is only 7.7%and 1.3%, comparing the 1st order diffraction.This kind of calibration is efficient and convenient on XRD in common labo-ratory .

  13. Phase error reduction in superconductive undulators using induction shimming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drayer, Elisabeth; Bernhard, Axel; Afonso Rodriguez, Veronica; Grau, Andreas; Peiffer, Peter; Widmann, Christina; Baumbach, Tilo [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The reduction of field errors in superconductive undulators is more demanding than in room temperature permanent magnet undulators. Various basic concepts exist but most of them have the disadvantage that they require field measurements at liquid-Helium temperature and modifications of the undulator coils at room temperature. Thus one or more thermal cycles are needed for an iterative improvement of the field quality. In order to avoid such a procedure it was proposed to cover the undulator coils with a thin layer of coupled superconductive loops which passively compensate the field errors via induction of persistent correction currents. In previous measurements this concept proved to work in principle and conclusions on an optimised shim configuration and field measurement setup could be drawn. In this paper we present the results of new measurements using one 12-period superconductive undulator short model and applying an optimised induction shim configuration. Due to further improvements of the field measurement setup these experiments for the first time give a quantitative indication of the phase error reduction efficiency of induction shimming.

  14. Polar-drive experiments with shimmed targets on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, F. J.; Radha, P. B.; Bonino, M. J.; Delettrez, J. A.; Epstein, R.; Skupsky, S.; Giraldez, E.

    2012-10-01

    Polar-drive experiments are being performed on OMEGA in preparation for future ignition attempts using the same method on the National Ignition Facility. This work presents results from a series of experiments employing shimmed shells whose shape (thinner at the target equator) is used to further compensate for the oblique illumination present in the polar-drive beam configuration. Implosion experiments were performed with multiple-picket laser pulses from 40 OMEGA beams driving gas-filled, shimmed shells. The implosions were diagnosed with x-ray backlighting, fusion yield, and reaction particle spectra from which the implosion symmetry, areal density, and core conditions are inferred. The compressed shell shape determined from framed x-ray radiography is compared to that predicted by the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO. The benefits of using a shimmed target for polar-drive implosions are less oblique illumination, better low-mode implosion symmetry, and are clearly demonstrated by these experiments. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  15. The use of iron shims to reduce the toroidal field ripple in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was performed to investigate the use of laminated ferromagnetic material, iron shims, to reduce the toroidal field, TF, ripple in Tokamaks. Fixed geometry shims can reduce the TF ripple and will behave linearly for Low Field Tokamaks with central fields under 2 Tesla. For High Field Tokamaks with central fields under 6 Tesla, fixed geometry shims can reduce the TF ripple but will have some non-linear behavior. Variable geometry shims can reduce the field ripple significantly with complete linearity for High Field Tokamaks

  16. High-Order Hamilton's Principle and the Hamilton's Principle of High-Order Lagrangian Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-Jiang; ZHAO Hong-Xia; FANG Jian-Hui; MA Shan-Jun; LU Kai

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, based on the theorem of the high-order velocity energy, integration and variation principle, the high-order Hamilton's principle of general holonomic systems is given. Then, three-order Lagrangian equations and four-order Lagrangian equations are obtained from the high-order Hamilton's principle. Finally, the Hamilton's principle of high-order Lagrangian function is given.

  17. High-order polarization vortex spatial solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the formation of high-order polarization vortex spatial solitons. The high-order polarization vortex solitons have novel polarization states which are different from fundamental polarization vortex solitons and have rotational symmetry only in intensity. It is proved that the polarization vortex solitons cannot carry vortex phase. The existence domain and dynamical characteristic of these high-order polarization vortex solitons in Bessel optical lattices are discussed in detail. -- Highlights: ► It is proved that the polarization vortex solitons cannot carry vortex phase. ► Polarization vortex solitons formed by cylindrical vector beams must be first-order solitons. ► New high-order polarization vortex solitons are investigated in Bessel optical lattices.

  18. MULTISYMPLECTIC COMPOSITION INTEGRATORS OF HIGH ORDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-bo Chen; Meng-zhao Qin

    2003-01-01

    A composition method for constructing high order multisymplectic integrators is pre-sented in this paper. The basic idea is to apply composition method to both the time andthe space directions. We also obtain a general formula for composition method.

  19. Dynamic simulation and study of Mechanical Shim (MSHIM) core control strategy for AP1000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A reactor core fast simulation program RCFSP is developed for AP1000. • A nodal core model and the MSHIM control strategy are implemented in RCFSP. • Load follow results for the original and revised MSHIM strategies are given. • Parameter sensitivity analysis and optimization of MSHIM control system are performed. - Abstract: The advanced Mechanical Shim (MSHIM) core control strategy is implemented in the AP1000 reactor by a digital rod control system. This control system comprises of two separate rod controllers that automatically control the core reactivity and axial power distribution using the gray and black M control banks and the axial offset (AO) control bank respectively. It has been demonstrated that the MSHIM control system can provide superior reactor control capabilities via automatic rod control only, which needs it to take more burdens than many other traditional core control systems during load change transients. This paper presents the dynamic simulation, and the parameter sensitivity analysis and optimization of the MSHIM control system for AP1000 reactor. A nodal core model is used to describe the dynamic behavior of the reactor core first. Then the nodal model and the original and revised MSHIM strategies are implemented in the AP1000 reactor to develop a fast simulation program in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Based on the simulation program, the MSHIM load follow and load regulation operations are simulated, the results of which demonstrate that the core reactivity and axial power distribution can be well-controlled via automatic rod control only. To show the effects of key factors on the control system behavior, the MSHIM load follow simulations with different control parameter values are performed. According to the simulation results and subsequent quantitative analysis, the mechanisms by which the key factors affect the control system behavior are illustrated and the optimum numerical ranges of these parameters are obtained. These

  20. Stages: sub-Fourier dynamic shim updating using nonlinear magnetic field phase preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witschey, Walter R T; Littin, Sebastian; Cocosco, Chris A; Gallichan, Daniel; Schultz, Gerrit; Weber, Hans; Welz, Anna; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneity of the static magnetic field in magnetic resonance imaging may cause image artifacts and degradation in image quality. The field heterogeneity can be reduced by dynamically adjusting shim fields or dynamic shim updating, in which magnetic field homogeneity is optimized for each tomographic slice to improve image quality. A limitation of this approach is that a new magnetic field can be applied only once for each slice, otherwise image quality would improve somewhere to its detriment elsewhere in the slice. The motivation of this work is to overcome this limitation and develop a technique using nonlinear magnetic fields to dynamically shim the static magnetic field within a single Fourier-encoded volume or slice, called sub-Fourier dynamic shim updating. However, the nonlinear magnetic fields are not used as shim fields; instead, they impart a strong spatial dependence to the acquired MR signal by nonlinear phase preparation, which may be exploited to locally improve magnetic field homogeneity during acquisition. A theoretical description of the method is detailed, simulations and a proof-of-principle experiment are performed using a magnet coil with a known field geometry. The method is shown to remove artifacts associated with magnetic field homogeneity in balanced steady-state free-precession pulse sequences. We anticipate that this method will be useful to improve the quality of magnetic resonance images by removing deleterious artifacts associated with a heterogeneous static magnetic field. PMID:23440677

  1. High-Order Adaptive Galerkin Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Canuto; R.H. Nochetto; R. Stevenson; M. Verani

    2014-01-01

    We design adaptive high-order Galerkin methods for the solution of linear elliptic problems and study their performance. We first consider adaptive Fourier-Galerkin methods and Legendre-Galerkin methods, which offer unlimited approximation power only restricted by solution and data regularity. Their

  2. Highly-Ordered Ferroelectric Photonic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naomi Matsuura; Suxia Yang; Ping Sun; Harry E. Ruda

    2003-01-01

    Highly-ordered, ferroelectric, Pb-doped Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3, inverse opal thin films were fabricated using a sol-gel spin coating technique. The excellent crystal quality is evident from the SEM images and the good agreement between the theory and experiments.

  3. ADAPTIVE REGULATION OF HIGH ORDER NONHOLONOMIC SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The problem of adaptive regulation of a class of high-order parametric nonholonomic systems in chained-form was discussed. Using adding a power integrator technique and state scaling with discontinuous projection technique, a discontinuous adaptive dynamic controller was constructed. The controller guarantees the estimated value of unknown parameter is in the prescribed extent.

  4. Mobility Impact on Session Survivability under the SHIM6 Protocol and Enhancement of its Rehoming Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Dhraief

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Multihoming is a solution that enables a fault-tolerant access to the Internet by configuring on each network entity several IP addresses associated with distinct ISPs. IPv6 natively allows end-hosts and end-sites to be multihomed where nodes and routers can have multiple IP addresses. However, a specific support is required to take full advantage of multihoming. The SHIM6 protocol provides such a support.We study in this paper to what extent the mobility impacts the SHIM6 protocol component in general and more specifically the context establishment as it is a \\textit{sine qua none} condition for session survivability. We focus on possible consequences of mobility before, during, and after the context establishment. We find that in some mobility scenarios, the SHIM6 context is never established and the session survivability cannot be ensured.

  5. Prediction of forming limit strains of thin foils using shim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket Vivek; Bade, Rohit A.; Narasimhan, K.

    2013-12-01

    Thin foils of metallic alloys find utility in metallic thermal protection systems, such as honeycomb structures. Understanding the formability of these thin foils becomes imperative so as to design accurate tooling and also to ensure mechanical robustness of the honeycomb structures during service. It has been found that, obtaining the precise limit strains of these foils directly using the conventional limiting dome test tooling is difficult, because of the excessive draw in and wrinkling that occurs during the punch travel, resulting in erroneous measurement or prediction of limit strains. To address this issue, the blank over blank stacking methodology was developed, which helped keep the draw-in and wrinkling at negligible and thus acceptable levels. Although the blank over blank stacking methodology offers a way to predict and measure limit strains, the same may not be accurate enough due to the effect the substrate properties may impose on the thin foil. To avoid this effect, a different methodology has been proposed herein, which uses a shim stacked over the blank to avoid draw in of these foil blanks and thus help accurate clamping of the blank between the die and blank holder. It is thus understood that either a critical local or global increase in the thickness of the blank material in and around the draw bead is essential to obtain effective clamping of foil and to avoid draw-in and wrinkling. Although, miniaturized hemispherical dome tests may be beneficial for obtaining limit strains as far as foils are concerned, the methodologies proposed herein provide a route to obtaining the same using available equipment, thus saving resources and time involved in development of new miniaturized testing devices. The forming limit strains of thin foils of IN 718 (inconel) alloy having a thickness of 50μm, C263 (nimonic) alloy having a thickness of 100μm and CP Ti (commercially pure titanium) having a thickness of 200μm have been predicted using this methodology

  6. Development of Antiwear Shim Inserts Utilizing Segment-Structured DLC Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Mai; Kuroda, Tsuyoshi; Saito, Masanori; Ohtake, Naoto; Matsuo, Makoto; Iwamoto, Yoshinao

    Wear and fretting fatigue are important technological problems in automotive, railway and aerospace fields. The purpose of this study is to find a method of reducing the wear of cast-iron (FCD)/aluminum components, which are often applied to automotives, and thus extend their lifetime. First, a stainless-steel (SUS) shim was designed, which can be inserted between an FCD plate and an aluminum plate. Second, diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were applied to the shim inserts to prevent the FCD and aluminum plates from wear. Then, the tribological and fatigue characteristics of the shim were evaluated by a ball-on-disk (BoD) test and a bending fatigue test of up to 1×106 cycles. Each substrate was coated with DLC by Plasma-Based Ion Implantation and Deposition (PBII&D). A unique feature of our shim is that a segment-structured DLC film (S-DLC) is employed as well as a continuous DLC (C-DLC) film. The effect of the DLC coating on reducing the damage to the Al plate was apparent, because the surface roughness of the Al plate abraded with the DLC-coated shim was significantly smaller than that abraded directly with the FCD plate. Moreover, the average damage fraction to the C-DLC coating is approximately 20-fold larger than that to the S-DLC coating. The C-DLC film suffers severe damage near the bolt hole, whereas the S-DLC film suffered almost no damage even after 1×106 bending cycles. In conclusion, an S-DLC-coated SUS shim has a marked effect on reducing the wear of Al/FCD components and improving their lifetime.

  7. Installation of the Main Magnet and Preliminary Results of Magnetic Mapping and Shimming for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Tian-jue; LV; Yin-long; ZHONG; Jun-qing; XING; Jian-sheng; CAO; Lei; YANG; Jian-jun; WANG; Chuan; YAO; Hong-juan; CUI; Tao; LI; Ming; YIN; Zhi-guo; WANG; Zhen-hui; LIU; Geng-shou; LEI; Yu; ZOU; Jian; ZHAO; Jiang-bin

    2012-01-01

    <正>In 2012, the magnetic mapping and shimming for the main magnet of CYCIAE-100 has been carried out 4 times in the temporary building, realizing the goal of reducing the phase shift of the accelerating proton by 80%. A number of large scale equipments, including the main magnet, main coils, hydraulic elevating system, RF amplifier, magnetic mapper and vacuum chamber, have been in place for installation in the main building. The final stage magnetic mapping and shimming has started out as well.

  8. Effect of shim configuration on internal die flows for non-Newtonian coating liquids in slot coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guang Lin; Ahn, Won-Gi; Kim, See Jo; Nam, Jaewook; Jung, Hyun Wook; Hyun, Jae Chun

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a strategy for designing optimal shim configuration inside a slot die is suggested to assure the uniform coating flow distribution of various non-Newtonian shear-thinning liquids at the die exit in a slot coating system. Flow patterns of non-Newtonian liquids inside the slot die, via three-dimensional computations, have been compared using various shim geometries which can adjust the flow region in a slot manifold. The rather non-uniform (parabolic) velocity distributions of shear-thinning liquids at the die exit under the basic shim condition could be effectively flattened by the modification of shim geometry without the change of die manifold structure. Dimensions of hybrid shims for controlling flow features at edge and center regions within slit channel are positively tuned, according to the shear-thinning level of coating liquids.

  9. High order Poisson Solver for unbounded flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe;

    2015-01-01

    . The method was implemented on a rectangular domain using fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to increase computational efficiency. The Poisson solver was extended to directly solve the derivatives of the solution. This is achieved either by including the differential operator in the integration kernel...... or by performing the differentiation as a multiplication of the Fourier coefficients. In this way, differential operators such as the divergence or curl of the solution field could be solved to the same high order convergence without additional computational effort. The method was applied and validated using...... the equations of fluid mechanics as an example, but can be used in many physical problems to solve the Poisson equation on a rectangular unbounded domain. For the two-dimensional case we propose an infinitely smooth test function which allows for arbitrary high order convergence. Using Gaussian smoothing...

  10. Asymptotics of high order noise corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Sondergaard, N; Pálla, G; Voros, A; Sondergaard, Niels; Vattay, Gabor; Palla, Gergely; Voros, Andre

    1999-01-01

    We consider an evolution operator for a discrete Langevin equation with a strongly hyperbolic classical dynamics and noise with finite moments. Using a perturbative expansion of the evolution operator we calculate high order corrections to its trace in the case of a quartic map and Gaussian noise. The leading contributions come from the period one orbits of the map. The asymptotic behaviour is investigated and is found to be independent up to a multiplicative constant of the distribution of noise.

  11. High order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Qi-Wen; Yuan Lin; Tan Li-Ying; Ma Jing; Wang Qi

    2004-01-01

    We generalize the definition of the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) by extending the new definition proposed by Shih. The generalized FRFT, called the high order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transform (HGPFRFT),is a generalized permutational transform. It is shown to have arbitrary natural number M periodic eigenvalues not only with respect to the order of Hermite-Gaussian functions but also to the order of the transform. This HGPFRFT will be reduced to the original FRFT proposed by Namias and Liu's generalized FRFT and Shih's FRFT at the three limits with M = +∞,M = 4k (k is a natural number), and M = 4, respectively. Therefore the HGPFRFT introduces a comprehensive approach to Shih's FRFT and the original definition. Some important properties of HGPFRFT are discussed. Lastly the results of computer simulations and symbolic representations of the transform are provided.

  12. High order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Qi-Wen; Yuan, Lin; Tan, Li-Ying; Ma, Jing; Wang, Qi

    2004-02-01

    We generalize the definition of the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) by extending the new definition proposed by Shih. The generalized FRFT, called the high order generalized permutational fractional Fourier transform (HGPFRFT), is a generalized permutational transform. It is shown to have arbitrary natural number M periodic eigenvalues not only with respect to the order of Hermite-Gaussian functions but also to the order of the transform. This HGPFRFT will be reduced to the original FRFT proposed by Namias and Liu's generalized FRFT and Shih's FRFT at the three limits with M = +infty, M = 4k (k is a natural number) and M = 4, respectively. Therefore the HGPFRFT introduces a comprehensive approach to Shih's FRFT and the original definition. Some important properties of HGPFRFT are discussed. Lastly the results of computer simulations and symbolic representations of the transform are provided.

  13. High Order Semi-Lagrangian Advection Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaga, Carlos; Mandujano, Francisco; Becerra, Julian

    2014-11-01

    In most fluid phenomena, advection plays an important roll. A numerical scheme capable of making quantitative predictions and simulations must compute correctly the advection terms appearing in the equations governing fluid flow. Here we present a high order forward semi-Lagrangian numerical scheme specifically tailored to compute material derivatives. The scheme relies on the geometrical interpretation of material derivatives to compute the time evolution of fields on grids that deform with the material fluid domain, an interpolating procedure of arbitrary order that preserves the moments of the interpolated distributions, and a nonlinear mapping strategy to perform interpolations between undeformed and deformed grids. Additionally, a discontinuity criterion was implemented to deal with discontinuous fields and shocks. Tests of pure advection, shock formation and nonlinear phenomena are presented to show performance and convergence of the scheme. The high computational cost is considerably reduced when implemented on massively parallel architectures found in graphic cards. The authors acknowledge funding from Fondo Sectorial CONACYT-SENER Grant Number 42536 (DGAJ-SPI-34-170412-217).

  14. High order harmonic generation from plasma mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When an intense laser beam is focused on a solid target, the target's surface is rapidly ionized and forms dense plasma that reflects the incident field. For laser intensities above few 10 to the power of 15 Wcm-2, high order harmonics of the laser frequency, associated in the time domain to a train of atto-second pulses (1 as 10-18 s), can be generated upon this reflection. In this thesis, we developed numerical tools to reveal original aspects of harmonic generation mechanisms in three different interaction regime: the coherent wake emission, the relativistic emission and the resonant absorption. In particular, we established the role of these mechanisms when the target is a very thin foil (thickness of the order of 100 nm). Then we study experimentally the spectral, spatial and coherence properties of the emitted light. We illustrate how to exploit these measurements to get information on the plasma mirror dynamics on the femtosecond and atto-second time scales. Last, we propose a technique for the single-shot complete characterization of the temporal structure of the harmonic light emission from the laser-plasma mirror interaction. (author)

  15. High order harmonic generation in rare gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, K.S.

    1994-05-01

    The process of high order harmonic generation in atomic gases has shown great promise as a method of generating extremely short wavelength radiation, extending far into the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The process is conceptually simple. A very intense laser pulse (I {approximately}10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}) is focused into a dense ({approximately}10{sup l7} particles/cm{sup 3}) atomic medium, causing the atoms to become polarized. These atomic dipoles are then coherently driven by the laser field and begin to radiate at odd harmonics of the laser field. This dissertation is a study of both the physical mechanism of harmonic generation as well as its development as a source of coherent XUV radiation. Recently, a semiclassical theory has been proposed which provides a simple, intuitive description of harmonic generation. In this picture the process is treated in two steps. The atom ionizes via tunneling after which its classical motion in the laser field is studied. Electron trajectories which return to the vicinity of the nucleus may recombine and emit a harmonic photon, while those which do not return will ionize. An experiment was performed to test the validity of this model wherein the trajectory of the electron as it orbits the nucleus or ion core is perturbed by driving the process with elliptically, rather than linearly, polarized laser radiation. The semiclassical theory predicts a rapid turn-off of harmonic production as the ellipticity of the driving field is increased. This decrease in harmonic production is observed experimentally and a simple quantum mechanical theory is used to model the data. The second major focus of this work was on development of the harmonic {open_quotes}source{close_quotes}. A series of experiments were performed examining the spatial profiles of the harmonics. The quality of the spatial profile is crucial if the harmonics are to be used as the source for experiments, particularly if they must be refocused.

  16. Evaluation of two polyurethane resins for injection shimming of the MFTF magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was conducted to support selection of a filler for the injection shimming of the MFTF Magnet (Reference 1). Two candidate polyurethanes (Pplycast RG256-57-3 and Polycast 1009-78 manufactured by CPR Upjohn Co.) were evaluated with respect to their physical and mechanical properties. Physical properties examined include thermal contraction, viscosity, and cure shrinkage. Mechanical properties include thermal shock resistance, compression modulus, and compression strength at LH2 temperature

  17. Dynamic Multi-Coil Shimming of the Human Brain at 7 Tesla

    OpenAIRE

    Juchem, Christoph; Nixon, Terence W.; McIntyre, Scott; Boer, Vincent O.; Rothman, Douglas L.; de Graaf, Robin A.

    2011-01-01

    High quality magnetic field homogenization of the human brain (i.e. shimming) for MR imaging and spectroscopy is a demanding task. The susceptibility differences between air and tissue are a longstanding problem as they induce complex field distortions in the prefrontal cortex and the temporal lobes. To date, the theoretical gains of high field MR have only been realized partially in the human brain due to limited magnetic field homogeneity.

  18. Mitigating the impact of hohlraum asymmetries in National Ignition Facility implosions using capsule shims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. S.; Weber, C. R.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Robey, H. F.; Kritcher, A. L.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.

    2016-07-01

    Current indirect drive implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] are believed to be strongly impacted by long wavelength perturbations driven by asymmetries in the hohlraum x-ray flux. To address this perturbation source, active efforts are underway to develop modified hohlraum designs with reduced asymmetry imprint. An alternative strategy, however, is to modify the capsule design to be more resilient to a given amount of hohlraum asymmetry. In particular, the capsule may be deliberately misshaped, or "shimmed," so as to counteract the expected asymmetries from the hohlraum. Here, the efficacy of capsule shimming to correct the asymmetries in two recent NIF implosion experiments is assessed using two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations. Despite the highly time-dependent character of the asymmetries and the high convergence ratios of these implosions, simulations suggest that shims could be highly effective at counteracting current asymmetries and result in factors of a few enhancements in neutron yields. For higher compression designs, the yield improvement could be even greater.

  19. Development of a minimal kinase ensemble receptor (MKER) for surrogate AutoShim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Prasenjit; Martin, Eric

    2011-10-24

    The target-tailored 3-D virtual screening (VS) method "Surrogate AutoShim" adds pharmacophoric shims to a 16-kinase crystal structure "Universal Kinase Ensemble Receptor" (UKER) to generate highly predictive, target-customized docking models. Predocking a corporate archive of millions of compounds into the 16-structure ensemble takes months. However, since the 16 UKER structures are always the same, docking need only be done once. The predocked results are then "shimmed" to reproduce experimental training data for any number of additional kinases far more accurately than conventional docking. Training new kinase models and predicting activity for millions of predocked compounds against dozens of kinases takes only hours. However reducing the predocking time would make the method even more advantageous. Sequential Floating Forward Search (SFFS) was employed to rationally identify a reduced subset using only 8 of the 16 structures, a "Minimal Kinase Ensemble Receptor" (MKER) that preserved the predictive accuracy for 20 kinase models. Furthermore, a performance evaluation of this subset on an extended set of 52 kinase targets and 100,000 compounds showed statistical model performance comparable to the original UKER. The MKER has halved the time for predocking large databases of internal and commercial compounds. For ad hoc virtual libraries, where predocking is not possible, 2- or 3-kinases "Approximate Kinase Ensemble Receptors" (AKER) were also identified with only a modest loss of prediction accuracy. PMID:21848284

  20. Quantitative Comparison of Minimum Inductance and Minimum Power Algorithms for the Design of Shim Coils for Small Animal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Parisa; Hudson, Stephen D; Handler, William B; Scholl, Timothy J; Chronik, Blaine A

    2010-04-01

    High-performance shim coils are required for high-field magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Complete sets of high-power and high-performance shim coils were designed using two different methods: the minimum inductance and the minimum power target field methods. A quantitative comparison of shim performance in terms of merit of inductance (ML) and merit of resistance (MR) was made for shim coils designed using the minimum inductance and the minimum power design algorithms. In each design case, the difference in ML and the difference in MR given by the two design methods was inductance designs tend to feature oscillations within the current density; while minimum power designs tend to feature less rapidly varying current densities and lower power dissipation. Overall, the differences in coil performance obtained by the two methods are relatively small. For the specific case of shim systems customized for small animal imaging, the reduced power dissipation obtained when using the minimum power method is judged to be more significant than the improvements in switching speed obtained from the minimum inductance method.

  1. Comparison of volume-selective z-shim and conventional EPI in fMRI studies using face stimuli

    CERN Document Server

    Fukunaga, Hu Cheng Srikanth Padmala Rena

    2013-01-01

    Single-shot gradient recalled echo planar imaging (EPI) is the primary tool for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The image often suffers from signal drop near the air-tissue interface, such as the amygdala and regions of the orbitofrontal lobe. An effective way to correct for this type of artifact is by applying multi-shot EPI using different z-shimming. Unfortunately, the scanning efficiency is significantly lowered. More recently, a new technique called volume-selective z-shim was proposed to implement z-shim compensation to only specific slices with large susceptibility effects. The high imaging efficiency of volume selective z-shim makes it possible to substitute conventional EPI for whole brain studies. In this study two fMRI experiments were conducted to compare volume- selective z-shim and conventional EPI while subjects performed tasks on face stimuli. The comparison was focused on three brain regions: amygdala, hippocampus, and fusiform gyrus. Our results indicate that despite fewer volu...

  2. High-order harmonic generation from eld-distorted orbitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiewanowski, Maciek; Etches, Adam; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    We investigate the eect on high-order harmonic generation of the distortion of molecular orbitals by the driving laser eld. Calculations for high-order harmonic generation including orbital distortion are performed for N2 (high polarizability). Our results allow us to suggest that field...

  3. Experiments towards establishing of design rules for R2R-UV-NIL with polymer working shims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nees, Dieter; Ruttloff, Stephan; Palfinger, Ursula; Stadlober, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Roll-to-Roll-UV-nanoimprint lithography (R2R-UV-NIL) enables high resolution large area patterning of flexible substrates and is therefore of increasing industrial interest. We have set up a custom-made R2R-UV-NIL pilot machine which is able to convert 10 inch wide web with velocities of up to 30 m/min. In addition, we have developed self-replicable UV-curable resins with tunable surface energy and Young's modulus for UV-imprint material as well as for polymer working stamp/shim manufacturing. Now we have designed test patterns for the evaluation of the impact of structure shape, critical dimension, pitch, depth, side wall angle and orientation relative to the web movement onto the imprint fidelity and working shim life time. We have used female (recessed structures) silicon masters of that design with critical dimensions between CD = 200 nm and 1600 nm, and structure depths of d = 500 nm and 1000 nm - all with vertical as well as inclined side walls. These entire master patterns have been transferred onto single male (protruding structures) R2R polymer working shims. The polymer working shims have been used for R2R-UV-NIL runs of several hundred meters and the imprint fidelity and process stability of the various test patterns have been compared. This study is intended as a first step towards establishing of design rules and developing of nanoimprint proximity correction strategies for industrial R2R-UV-NIL processes using polymer working shims.

  4. Testing of Compact Bolted Fasteners with Insulation and Friction-Enhanced Shims for NCSX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. E. Dudek, J.H. Chrzanowski, G. Gettelfinger, P. Heitzenroeder, S. Jurczynski, M. Viola and K. Freudenberg

    2009-02-04

    The fastening of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment's (NCSX) modular coils presented a number of engineering and manufacturing challenges due to the high magnetic forces, need to control induced currents, tight tolerances and restrictive space envelope. A fastening method using high strength studs, jack nuts, insulating spacers, bushings and alumina coated shims was developed which met the requirements. A test program was conducted to verify the design. The tests included measurements of flatness of the spacers, determination of contact area, torque vs. tension of the studs and jack nuts, friction coefficient tests on the alumina and G-10 insulators, electrical tests, and tension relaxation tests due to temperature excursions from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperatures. This paper will describe the design and the results of the test program.

  5. Testing of Compact Bolted Fasteners with Insulation and Friction-Enhanced Shims for NCSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fastening of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment's (NCSX) modular coils presented a number of engineering and manufacturing challenges due to the high magnetic forces, need to control induced currents, tight tolerances and restrictive space envelope. A fastening method using high strength studs, jack nuts, insulating spacers, bushings and alumina coated shims was developed which met the requirements. A test program was conducted to verify the design. The tests included measurements of flatness of the spacers, determination of contact area, torque vs. tension of the studs and jack nuts, friction coefficient tests on the alumina and G-10 insulators, electrical tests, and tension relaxation tests due to temperature excursions from room temperature to liquid nitrogen temperatures. This paper will describe the design and the results of the test program.

  6. Numerical dissipation control in high order shock-capturing schemes for LES of low speed flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, D. V.; Yee, H. C.; Wray, A. A.; Sjögreen, B.; Kritsuk, A. G.

    2016-02-01

    The Yee & Sjögreen adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order scheme (High Order Filter Methods for Wide Range of Compressible Flow Speeds, ICOSAHOM 09, 2009) is further improved for DNS and LES of shock-free turbulence and low speed turbulence with shocklets. There are vastly different requirements in the minimization of numerical dissipation for accurate turbulence simulations of different compressible flow types and flow speeds. Traditionally, the method of choice for shock-free turbulence and low speed turbulence are by spectral, high order central or high order compact schemes with high order linear filters. With a proper control of a local flow sensor, appropriate amount of numerical dissipation in high order shock-capturing schemes can have spectral-like accuracy for compressible low speed turbulent flows. The development of the method includes an adaptive flow sensor with automatic selection on the amount of numerical dissipation needed at each flow location for more accurate DNS and LES simulations with less tuning of parameters for flows with a wide range of flow speed regime during the time-accurate evolution, e.g., time varying random forcing. An automatic selection of the different flow sensors catered to the different flow types is constructed. A Mach curve and high-frequency oscillation indicators are used to reduce the tuning of parameters in controlling the amount of shock-capturing numerical dissipation to be employed for shock-free turbulence, low speed turbulence and turbulence with strong shocks. In Kotov et al. (High Order Numerical Methods for LES of Turbulent Flows with Shocks, ICCFD8, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, July 14-18, 2014) the LES of a turbulent flow with a strong shock by the Yee & Sjögreen scheme indicated a good agreement with the filtered DNS data. A work in progress for the application of the adaptive flow sensor for compressible turbulence with time-varying random forcing is forthcoming. The present study examines the

  7. A High-Order Multiscale Global Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ram

    2016-04-01

    The High-Order Method Modeling Environment (HOMME), developed at NCAR, is a petascale hydrostatic framework, which employs the cubed-sphere grid system and high-order continuous or discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods. Recently, the HOMME framework is being extended to a non-hydrostatic dynamical core, named as the "High-Order Multiscale Atmospheric Model (HOMAM)." The spatial discretization is based on DG or high-order finite-volume methods. Orography is handled by the terrain-following height-based coordinate system. To alleviate the stringent CFL stability requirement resulting from the vertical aspects of the dynamics, an operator-splitting time integration scheme based on the horizontally explicit and vertically implicit (HEVI) philosophy is adopted for HOMAM. Preliminary results with the benchmark test cases proposed in the Dynamical Core Model Intercomparison project (DCMIP) test-suite will be presented in the seminar.

  8. High-order correlation of chaotic bosons and fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Chao

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically study the high-order correlation functions of chaotic bosons and fermions. Based on the different parity of the Stirling number, the products of the first-order correlation functions are well classified and employed to represent the high-order correlation function. The correlation of bosons conduces a bunching effect, which will be enhanced as order N increases. Different from bosons, the anticommutation relation of fermions leads to the parity of the Stirling number, which thereby results in a mixture of bunching and antibunching behaviors in high-order correlation. By further investigating third-order ghost diffraction and ghost imaging, the differences between the high-order correlations of bosons and fermions are discussed in detail. A larger N will dramatically improve the ghost image quality for bosons, but a good strategy should be carefully chosen for the fermionic ghost imaging process due to its complex correlation components.

  9. High-Order Supervised Discriminant Analysis for Visual Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ling Xia; Hang-Hui Huang

    2014-01-01

    In practical applications, we often have to deal with high-order data, for example, a grayscale image and a video clip are intrinsically a 2nd-order tensor and a 3rd-order tensor, respectively. In order to satisty these high-order data, it is conventional to vectorize these data in advance, which often destroys the intrinsic structures of the data and includes the curse of dimensionality. For this reason, we consider the problem of high-order data representation and classification, and propose a tensor based fisher discriminant analysis (FDA), which is a generalized version of FDA, named as GFDA. Experimental results show our GFDA outperforms the existing methods, such as the 2-directional 2-dimensional principal component analysis ((2D)2PCA), 2-directional 2-dimensional linear discriminant analysis ((2D)2LDA), and multilinear discriminant analysis (MDA), in high-order data classification under a lower compression ratio.

  10. Illuminating Molecular Symmetries with Bicircular High-Order-Harmonic Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Reich, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    We present a complete theory of bicircular high-order-harmonic emission from N-fold rotationally symmetric molecules. Using a rotating frame of reference we predict the complete structure of the high-order-harmonic spectra for arbitrary driving frequency ratios and show how molecular symmetries can be directly identified from the harmonic signal. Our findings reveal that a characteristic fingerprint of rotational molecular symmetries can be universally observed in the ultrafast response of molecules to strong bicircular fields.

  11. Determination of rod insertion limits of the AP600'S M-shim bank at low power operating mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of calculation works had been conducted to determine the AP00's M-shim bank insertion limits during low-power operating mode. This activity was a part of the preliminary studies toward the plan on implementation a Rapid Power Reduction System (RPRS) in AP00's control / operating system, that enable it to operate under low power level (below 50% RTP). The calculations were performed for cycle 1 and equilibrium cycle as function of power levels and the fraction of AO-bank insertion. The results show that the M-shim insertion limits for both cycle 1 and equilibrium cycle were determined based on the limiting conditions at low-burn-up level (BOL), and high burn-up level (EOL) respectively

  12. Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in a Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A highly order mesoporous carbon has been synthesized through a strongly acidic, aqueous cooperative assembly route. The structure and morphology of the carbon material were investigated using TEM, SEM and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The carbon was proven to be meso-structural and consisted of graphitic micro-domain with larger interlayer space. AC impedance and electrochemical measurements reveal that the synthesized highly ordered mesoporous carbon exhibits a promoted electrochemical hydrogen insertion process and improved capacitance and hydrogen storage stability. The meso-structure and enlarged interlayer distance within the highly ordered mesoporous carbon are suggested as possible causes for the enhancement in hydrogen storage. Both hydrogen capacity in the carbon and mass diffusion within the matrix were improved.

  13. Dynamic Stability Analysis Using High-Order Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez-Toledo C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A non-linear model with robust precision for transient stability analysis in multimachine power systems is proposed. The proposed formulation uses the interpolation of Lagrange and Newton's Divided Difference. The High-Order Interpolation technique developed can be used for evaluation of the critical conditions of the dynamic system.The technique is applied to a 5-area 45-machine model of the Mexican interconnected system. As a particular case, this paper shows the application of the High-Order procedure for identifying the slow-frequency mode for a critical contingency. Numerical examples illustrate the method and demonstrate the ability of the High-Order technique to isolate and extract temporal modal behavior.

  14. High order multiplication perturbation method for singular perturbation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文志; 黄培彦

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a high order multiplication perturbation method for sin-gularly perturbed two-point boundary value problems with the boundary layer at one end. By the theory of singular perturbations, the singularly perturbed two-point boundary value problems are first transformed into the singularly perturbed initial value problems. With the variable coefficient dimensional expanding, the non-homogeneous ordinary dif-ferential equations (ODEs) are transformed into the homogeneous ODEs, which are then solved by the high order multiplication perturbation method. Some linear and nonlinear numerical examples show that the proposed method has high precision.

  15. Recycler Chromaticities and End Shims for NOvA at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, M

    2013-01-01

    In era of NOvA operation, it is planned to slip-stack six on six Booster proton batches in the Recycler ring for a total intensity of 5 1013 protons/cycle. During the slip-stacking, the chromaticities are required to be jumped from (-2,-2) to (-20,-20). However, they can only be adjusted to (-12,-12) from (-2,-2) using existing 2 families of powered sextupoles. On the other hand, the presently designed Recycler lattice for Nova replaces the 30 straight section with 8 D-D half FODO cells . We use 3 quads in a half-cell to obtain the working point under the limit of the feasible quad strength, and the maximum beta-function in this section cannot be less than 80 m. In this paper, we re-designed the end shims of the permanent magnets in the ring lattice with appropriate quadrupole and sextupole components to meet both chromaticity and tune requirements. We are able to use 2 quads in a half cell in RR30 straight section within feasible quad strength. The maximum beta-functions are also lowered to around 55 m. The ...

  16. High order finite volume methods for singular perturbation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZhongYing; HE ChongNan; WU Bin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we establish a high order finite volume method for the fourth order singular perturbation problems. In conjunction with the optimal meshes, the numerical solutions resulting from the method have optimal convergence order. Numerical experiments are presented to verify our theoretical estimates.

  17. A high order solver for the unbounded Poisson equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Rasmussen, Johannes Tophøj; Chatelain, Philippe;

    In mesh-free particle methods a high order solution to the unbounded Poisson equation is usually achieved by constructing regularised integration kernels for the Biot-Savart law. Here the singular, point particles are regularised using smoothed particles to obtain an accurate solution with an order...

  18. High order finite volume methods for singular perturbation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we establish a high order finite volume method for the fourth order singular perturbation problems.In conjunction with the optimal meshes,the numerical solutions resulting from the method have optimal convergence order.Numerical experiments are presented to verify our theoretical estimates.

  19. Discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khare, A.; Rasmussen, Kim Ø; Salerno, M.;

    2006-01-01

    A class of discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equations with arbitrarily high-order nonlinearities is introduced. These equations are derived from the same Hamiltonian using different Poisson brackets and include as particular cases the saturable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation and the Ablowitz...

  20. Airfoil noise computation use high-order schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    High-order finite difference schemes with at least 4th-order spatial accuracy are used to simulate aerodynamically generated noise. The aeroacoustic solver with 4th-order up to 8th-order accuracy is implemented into the in-house flow solver, EllipSys2D/3D. Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP...

  1. High Order Differential Attack and Trace Attack to Block Ciphers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yupu; CHEN Kai; Xiao Guozhen

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we prove a high or-der differential property of power function, then giverespectively high order differential attack and traceattack to block ciphers. These attacks depend onlyon block cipher's algebraic shape on GF(2n) and haveno relation with its designing structure. The condi-tions are given for both effective attacks and strengthagainst attacks.

  2. High-Order Dispersion Coefficients for Alkali-metal Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Shuai; DING Chi-Kun; CHEN Chang-Yong; WU Xue-Qing

    2013-01-01

    High-order dispersion coefficients C9,C11,C12,and C13 for the ground-state alkali-metals were calculated by combining the l-dependent model potential of alkali-metal atoms and linear variation method based on B-spline basis functions.The results were compared.

  3. High-Order Curvilinear Finite Element Methods for Lagrangian Hydrodynamics [High Order Curvilinear Finite Elements for Lagrangian Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrev, Veselin A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolev, Tzanio V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rieben, Robert N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-09-20

    The numerical approximation of the Euler equations of gas dynamics in a movingLagrangian frame is at the heart of many multiphysics simulation algorithms. Here, we present a general framework for high-order Lagrangian discretization of these compressible shock hydrodynamics equations using curvilinear finite elements. This method is an extension of the approach outlined in [Dobrev et al., Internat. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 65 (2010), pp. 1295--1310] and can be formulated for any finite dimensional approximation of the kinematic and thermodynamic fields, including generic finite elements on two- and three-dimensional meshes with triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral, or hexahedral zones. We discretize the kinematic variables of position and velocity using a continuous high-order basis function expansion of arbitrary polynomial degree which is obtained via a corresponding high-order parametric mapping from a standard reference element. This enables the use of curvilinear zone geometry, higher-order approximations for fields within a zone, and a pointwise definition of mass conservation which we refer to as strong mass conservation. Moreover, we discretize the internal energy using a piecewise discontinuous high-order basis function expansion which is also of arbitrary polynomial degree. This facilitates multimaterial hydrodynamics by treating material properties, such as equations of state and constitutive models, as piecewise discontinuous functions which vary within a zone. To satisfy the Rankine--Hugoniot jump conditions at a shock boundary and generate the appropriate entropy, we introduce a general tensor artificial viscosity which takes advantage of the high-order kinematic and thermodynamic information available in each zone. Finally, we apply a generic high-order time discretization process to the semidiscrete equations to develop the fully discrete numerical algorithm. Our method can be viewed as the high-order generalization of the so-called staggered

  4. Nonlinear filtering and limiting in high order methods for ideal and non-ideal MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee,H. C.; Sjogreen, B.

    2004-01-01

    The various filtering mechanisms and base scheme options of the newly developed adaptive numerical dissipation control in spatially high order filter schemes for the ideal and non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations are investigated. These filter schemes are applicable to complex unsteady MHD high-speed shock/shear/turbulence problems. They also provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of Div(B) numerical error. The type of spatial base scheme to be used in conjunction with our filter idea is very general. For example, spectral, compact and non-compact spatially central finite difference schemes are possible candidates. The adaptive numerical dissipation mechanism consists of automatic detection of different flow features as distinct sensors to signal the appropriate type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter where needed and to leave the rest of the region free from numerical dissipation contamination. The numerical dissipation considered consists of high order linear dissipation for the suppression of high frequency oscillation and the nonlinear dissipative portion of high-resolution shock-capturing methods for discontinuity capturing. The applicable nonlinear dissipative portion of high-resolution shock-capturing methods is also very general. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of using compact and non-compact central base schemes in conjunction with three commonly used types of nonlinear numerical dissipation for both the ideal and non-ideal MHD. This extended abstract shows the performance of three nonlinear filters in conjunction with a sixth-order non-compact spatial central base scheme. In the final paper, the high order compact spatial central base scheme will be illustrated and compared with the non-compact base scheme. The reason for the investigation of the high order compact spatial central base scheme over the non-compact base scheme is to evaluate if additional accuracy can be gained in regions of

  5. Parallel preconditioners and high order elements for microwave imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bonazzoli, M; Rapetti, F; Tournier, P -H

    2016-01-01

    This paper combines the use of high order finite element methods with parallel preconditioners of domain decomposition type for solving electromagnetic problems arising from brain microwave imaging. The numerical algorithms involved in such complex imaging systems are computationally expensive since they require solving the direct problem of Maxwell's equations several times. Moreover, wave propagation problems in the high frequency regime are challenging because a sufficiently high number of unknowns is required to accurately represent the solution. In order to use these algorithms in practice for brain stroke diagnosis, running time should be reasonable. The method presented in this paper, coupling high order finite elements and parallel preconditioners, makes it possible to reduce the overall computational cost and simulation time while maintaining accuracy.

  6. The Observation of Highly Ordered Domains in Membranes with Cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Clare L [McMaster University; Marquardt, Drew [Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada; Dies, Hannah [McMaster University; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Yamani, Zahra [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, National Research Council, Chalk River Laboratorie; Harroun, Thad [Brock University, St. Catharines, ON, Canada; Katsaras, John [ORNL; Shi, A-C [McMaster University; Rheinstadter, Maikel C [McMaster University

    2013-01-01

    Rafts, or functional domains, are transient nano- or mesoscopic structures in the exoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane, and are thought to be essential for many cellular processes. Using neutron diffraction and computer modelling, we present evidence for the existence of highly ordered lipid domains in the cholesterol-rich (32.5 mol%) liquid-ordered (lo) phase of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine membranes. The liquid ordered phase in one-component lipid membranes has previously been thought to be a homogeneous phase. The presence of highly ordered lipid domains embedded in a disordered lipid matrix implies non-uniform distribution of cholesterol between the two phases. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with recent computer simulations of DPPC/cholesterol complexes [Meinhardt, Vink and Schmid (2013). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(12): 4476 4481], which reported the existence of nanometer size lo domains in a liquid disordered lipid environment.

  7. High-order dispersion effects in two-photon interference

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzotta, Z; Cipriani, D; Olivares, S; Paris, M G A

    2016-01-01

    Two-photon interference and Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect are relevant tools for quantum metrology and quantum information processing. In optical coherence tomography, HOM effect is exploited to achieve high-resolution measurements with the width of the HOM dip being the main parameter. On the other hand, applications like dense coding require high-visibility performances. Here we address high-order dispersion effects in two-photon interference and study, theoretically and experimentally, the dependence of the visibility and the width of the HOM dip on both the pump spectrum and the downconverted photon spectrum. In particular, a spatial light modulator is exploited to experimentally introduce and manipulate a custom phase function to simulate the high-order dispersion effects.

  8. Spectral Shifts of Nonadiabatic High-Order Harmonic Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André D. Bandrauk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High-order harmonic generation (HHG is a nonlinear nonperturbative process in ultrashort intense laser-matter interaction. It is the main source of coherent attosecond (1 as = 10−18 s laser pulses to investigate ultrafast electron dynamics. HHG has become an important table-top source covering a spectral range from infrared to extreme ultraviolet (XUV. One way to extend the cutoff energy of HHG is to increase the intensity of the laser pulses. A consequence of HHG in such intense short laser fields is the characteristic nonadiabatic red and blue shifts of the spectrum, which are reviewed in the present work. An example of this nonperturbative light-matter interaction is presented for the one-electron nonsymmetric molecular ion HeH2+, as molecular systems allow for the study of the laser-molecule orientation dependence of such new effects including a four-step model of MHOHG (Molecular High-order Harmonic Generation.

  9. Adaptive IMEX schemes for high-order unstructured methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeire, Brian C.; Nadarajah, Siva

    2015-01-01

    We present an adaptive implicit-explicit (IMEX) method for use with high-order unstructured schemes. The proposed method makes use of the Gerschgorin theorem to conservatively estimate the influence of each individual degree of freedom on the spectral radius of the discretization. This information is used to split the system into implicit and explicit regions, adapting to unsteady features in the flow. We dynamically repartition the domain to balance the number of implicit and explicit elements per core. As a consequence, we are able to achieve an even load balance for each implicit/explicit stage of the IMEX scheme. We investigate linear advection-diffusion, isentropic vortex advection, unsteady laminar flow over an SD7003 airfoil, and turbulent flow over a circular cylinder. Results show that the proposed method consistently yields a stable discretization, and maintains the theoretical order of accuracy of the high-order spatial schemes.

  10. High-order Hamiltonian splitting for Vlasov-Poisson equations

    CERN Document Server

    Casas, Fernando; Faou, Erwan; Mehrenberger, Michel

    2015-01-01

    We consider the Vlasov-Poisson equation in a Hamiltonian framework and derive new time splitting methods based on the decomposition of the Hamiltonian functional between the kinetic and electric energy. Assuming smoothness of the solutions, we study the order conditions of such methods. It appears that these conditions are of Runge-Kutta-Nystr{\\"o}m type. In the one dimensional case, the order conditions can be further simplified, and efficient methods of order 6 with a reduced number of stages can be constructed. In the general case, high-order methods can also be constructed using explicit computations of commutators. Numerical results are performed and show the benefit of using high-order splitting schemes in that context. Complete and self-contained proofs of convergence results and rigorous error estimates are also given.

  11. ACA accelerated high order BEM for Maxwell problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rjasanow, Sergej; Weggler, Lucy

    2013-04-01

    The high order Boundary Element Methods for the system of Maxwell equations are discussed. Due to hierarchical construction of the bases in trial and test spaces, the matrix of the resulting system has a characteristic sub-matrix structure. The Adaptive Cross Approximation is successfully adapted and applied to the sub-matrices and almost linear complexity and memory requirements are achieved. The final system is solved by the iterative method GMRES. Numerical examples are presented.

  12. Influence of circular aperture on high-order harmonic generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingting Liu(刘婷婷); Weixin Lu(陆伟新); Dawei Wang(王大威); Hong Yang(杨宏); Qihuang Gong(龚旗煌)

    2003-01-01

    The influence of circular aperture on the intensity of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) with intense femtosecond laser pulse was studied both experimentally and theoretically. The intensity variety of HHG with the diameter of circular aperture was observed in pulsed Ar gas. The result was discussed and interpreted in terms of the theory of Hankel transform. It is found that using the Gaussian beam truncated by an aperture could enhance the conversion efficiency of HHG at certain conditions.

  13. Tunneling spectroscopy of highly ordered organic thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Törker, Michael

    2003-01-01

    In this work, a Au(100) single crystal was used as substrate for organic molecular beam epitaxy. Highly ordered organic thin films of the molecules 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic-3,4,9,10-dianhydrid (PTCDA) and hexa-peri-hexabenzo-coronene (HBC) as well as organic-organic heterostructures on reconstructed Au(100) were prepared. The molecular arrangement was characterized in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Low Energy Electron Diffraction investigations. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy data...

  14. Controller Design of High Order Nonholonomic System with Nonlinear Drifts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Yun Zheng; Yu-Qiang Wu

    2009-01-01

    A controller design is proposed for a class of high order nonholonomic systems with nonlinear drifts. The purpose is to ensure a solution for the closed-loop system regulated to zero. Adding a power integrator backstepping technique and the switching control strategy are employed to design the controller. The state scaling is applied to the recursive manipulation. The simulation example demonstrates the effectiveness and robust features of the proposed method.

  15. Divergence-free Wavelets and High Order Regularization

    OpenAIRE

    Kadri Harouna, Souleymane; Dérian, Pierre; Héas, Patrick; Mémin, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    International audience Expanding on a wavelet basis the solution of an inverse problem provides several advantages. Wavelet bases yield a natural and efficient multiresolution analysis. The continuous representation of the solution with wavelets enables analytical calculation of regularization integrals over the spatial domain. By choosing differentiable wavelets, high-order derivative regularizers can be designed, either taking advantage of the wavelet differentiation properties or via th...

  16. High-Order Harmonic Generation in the Ionization Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jing; CHEN Shi-Gang; LIU Jie

    2000-01-01

    Based on the nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics scattering theory for multiphoton ionization developed recently, high-order harmonic generated in the ionization process is discussed. The influence of the Coulomb potential is treated as a perturbation in the expansion of the transition matrix. It is deduced that the harmonic photons are emitted in the resonant process during ionization and the width of the harmonic peaks is just the ionization rate of the atom.

  17. High-order topological asymptotic expansion for Stokes equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelwahed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We use the topological sensitivity analysis method to solve various optimization problems. It consists of studying the asymptotic expansion of the objective function relative to a perturbation of the domain topology. This expansion becomes insufficient in some applications when it is limited to the first order topological derivative. We present a new topological sensitivity analysis for the Stokes equations based on a high order asymptotic expansion. The derived result is valid for different class of shape functions.

  18. Double-peak Splitting in High-order Harmonics Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yingsong; LIU Yaqing; YANG Xiaodong; XU Zhizhan

    2000-01-01

    When the intensity of the driving pulse is much higher than the saturation intensity of the media involved, the double-peak splitting in frequency domain emerges in the generated high-order harmonic spectra. The possible origins of this splitting are carefully investigated. The ionization of the gas media and the propagation effect of harmonic field are the main reason for the double-peak splitting observed.

  19. High--order jamming crossovers and density anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Ciamarra, Massimo Pica; Sollich, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of high--order jamming crossovers in systems of particles with repulsive contact interactions, which originate from the collapse of successive coordination shells. At zero temperature, these crossovers induce an anomalous behavior of the bulk modulus, which varies non--monotonically with the density, while at finite temperature they induce density anomalies consisting in an increased diffusivity upon isothermal compression and in a negative thermal expansion coeff...

  20. The influence of high-order dispersion on femesecond solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-bin; Li, Zhong-zhen; Liu, Yang; Chen, Jian-wei; Li, Zhi-quan

    2008-03-01

    In the nonlinear optical fiber, soliton is a pulse envelop that formed under the balance of group velocity dispersion(GVD) and self-phase modulation(SPM). It has the transmission characteristic that the pulse shape and amplitude are steady. The GVD causes the pulse stretch, but the SPM induces the high frequency elements to accumulate step by step, and the soliton pulse change steep. The two kind of opposition factors unit in together, mutually balances can maintain the pulse shape stabilization invariable. Along with the soliton research, it extends from picosecond (ps) to femesecond (fs). High order dispersion, in particular the third order dispersion (TOD) influences the soliton transmission very large. The high order dispersion is studied by the split step Fourier method (SSFM) numerical analysis the modified high order nonlinear Schrödinger equation(HNLSE). The results indicate that the TOD and the fourth order dispersion(FOD) can all affect the quality of the telecommunication. And the TOD plays the main role. It causes the pulse bottom vibration in one side, causes the pulse to stretch and to form vibration belt. The FOD causes the soliton bottom vibration in two sides, it causes the pulse stretch and the spectrum appears side lobe.

  1. Magnetic levitation performance of high-temperature superconductor over three magnetic hills of permanent magnet guideway with iron shims of different thicknesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuming Gong; Gang Liang; Lifeng Zhao; Yong Zhang; Yong Zhao; Xuyong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting magnetic levitation perfor-mance, including levitation force and guidance force, is important for the application of high-temperature super-conducting maglev. Both of them are not only affected by different arrays of superconductors and magnets, but also by the thickness of the iron shim between permanent magnets. In order to obtain the best levitation performance, the magnetic field distribution, levitation force, and guid-ance force of a new type of three magnetic hills of per-manent magnet guideway with iron shim of different thicknesses (4, 6, and 8 mm) are discussed in this paper. Simulation analysis and experiment results show that the guideway with iron shim of 8 mm thickness possesses the strongest magnetic field and levitation performance when the suspension gap is larger than 10 mm. However, with the decreasing of suspension gap, the guideway with iron shim of 4 mm thickness possesses the best levitation per-formance. The phenomena can be attributed to the density distribution of flux and magnetization of iron shim.

  2. Highly Ordered Architecture of MicroRNA Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Shi; Mingxuan Zhu; Shuang Liu; Mandun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Although it is known that the placement of genes in a cluster may be critical for proper expression patterns, it remains largely unclear whether the orders of members in an miRNA cluster have biological insights. By investigating the relationship between expression and orders for miRNAs from the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster, we observed a highly ordered architecture in this cluster. A significant correlation between miRNA expression level and its placement was revealed. More importantly, the p...

  3. Fast calibration of high-order adaptive optics systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Markus; Fedrigo, Enrico; Looze, Douglas P; Bonnet, Henri; Ivanescu, Liviu; Oberti, Sylvain

    2004-06-01

    We present a new method of calibrating adaptive optics systems that greatly reduces the required calibration time or, equivalently, improves the signal-to-noise ratio. The method uses an optimized actuation scheme with Hadamard patterns and does not scale with the number of actuators for a given noise level in the wavefront sensor channels. It is therefore highly desirable for high-order systems and/or adaptive secondary systems on a telescope without a Gregorian focal plane. In the latter case, the measurement noise is increased by the effects of the turbulent atmosphere when one is calibrating on a natural guide star. PMID:15191182

  4. High-Order Sparse Linear Predictors for Audio Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacobello, Daniele; van Waterschoot, Toon; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll;

    2010-01-01

    of interesting features that make the idea of using it in audio processing not far fetched, e.g., the strong ability of modeling the spectral peaks that play a dominant role in perception. In this paper, we provide some preliminary conjectures and experiments on the use of high-order sparse linear predictors......Linear prediction has generally failed to make a breakthrough in audio processing, as it has done in speech processing. This is mostly due to its poor modeling performance, since an audio signal is usually an ensemble of different sources. Nevertheless, linear prediction comes with a whole set...

  5. Enhanced Optomechanical Cooling at High-Order Exceptional Points

    CERN Document Server

    Jing, H; Lü, H; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    We study mechanical cooling in systems of coupled passive (lossy) and active (with gain) optical resonators. We find that for a driving laser which is red-detuned with respect to the cavity frequency, the supermode structure of the system is radically changed, featuring the emergence of genuine high-order exceptional points. This in turn leads to giant enhancement of both the mechanical damping and the spring stiffness, facilitating low-power mechanical cooling in the vicinity of gain-loss balance. This opens up new avenues of steering micromechanical devices with exceptional points beyond the lowest-order two.

  6. Construction of high order balanced multiscaling functions via PTST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shouzhi; PENG Lizhong

    2006-01-01

    The concept of paraunitary two-scale similarity transform (PTST) is introduced. We discuss the property of PTST, and prove that PTST preserves the orthogonal, approximation order and smoothness of the given orthogonal multiscaling functions. What is more, by applying PTST, we present an algorithm of constructing high order balanced multiscaling functions by balancing the already existing orthogonal nonbalanced multi- scaling functions. The corresponding transform matrix is given explicitly. In addition, we also investigate the symmetry of the balanced multiscaling functions. Finally, construction examples are given.

  7. On high-order perturbative calculations at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    Ghisoiu, Ioan; Kurkela, Aleksi; Romatschke, Paul; Säppi, Matias; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the prospects of performing high-order perturbative calculations in systems characterized by a vanishing temperature but finite density. In particular, we show that the determination of generic Feynman integrals containing fermionic chemical potentials can be reduced to the evaluation of three-dimensional phase space integrals over vacuum on-shell amplitudes. Applications of these rules will be discussed in the context of the thermodynamics of cold and dense QCD, where it is argued that they facilitate an extension of the Equation of State of cold quark matter to higher perturbative orders.

  8. Simultaneous bilateral hip joint imaging at 7 Tesla using fast transmit B₁ shimming methods and multichannel transmission - a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellermann, J; Goerke, U; Morgan, P; Ugurbil, K; Tian, J; Schmitter, S; Vaughan, T; Van De Moortele, P-F

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous bilateral hip imaging at 7 Tesla. Hip joint MRI becomes clinically critical since recent advances have made hip arthroscopy an efficacious approach to treat a variety of early hip diseases. The success of these treatments requires a reliable and accurate diagnosis of intraarticular abnormalities at an early stage. Articular cartilage assessment is especially important to guide surgical decisions but is difficult to achieve with current MR methods. Because of gains in tissue contrast and spatial resolution reported at ultra high magnetic fields, there are strong expectations that imaging the hip joint at 7 Tesla will improve diagnostic accuracy. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that the majority of these hip abnormalities occur bilaterally, emphasizing the need for bilateral imaging. However, obtaining high quality images in the human torso, in particular of both hips simultaneously, must overcome a major challenge arising from the damped traveling wave behaviour of RF waves at 7 Tesla that leads to severe inhomogeneities in transmit B1 (B(1) (+) ) phase and magnitude, typically resulting in areas of low signal and contrast, and consequently impairing use for clinical applications. To overcome this problem, a 16-channel stripline transceiver RF coil was used, together with a B1 shimming algorithm aiming at maximizing B(1) (+) in six regions of interest over the hips that were identified on axial scout images. Our successful results demonstrate that this approach effectively reduces inhomogeneities observed before B1 shimming and provides high joint tissue contrast in both hips while reducing the required RF power. Critical to this success was a fast small flip angle B(1) (+) calibration scan that permitted the computation of subject-specific B1 shimming solutions, a necessary step to account for large spatial variations in B(1) (+) phase observed in different subjects. PMID:22311346

  9. Enhancing narrowband high order harmonic generation by Fano resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rothhardt, Jan; Demmler, Stefan; Krebs, Manuel; Fritzsche, Stephan; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Resonances in the photo-absorption spectrum of the generating medium can modify the spectrum of high order harmonics. In particular, window-type Fano resonances can reduce photo-absorption within a narrow spectral region and, consequently, lead to an enhanced emission of high-order harmonics in absorption-limited generation conditions. For high harmonic generation in argon it is shown that the 3s3p6 np 1P1 window resonances (n=4,5,6) give rise to enhanced photon yield. In particular, the 3s3p6 4p 1P1 resonance at 26.6 eV allows a relative enhancement up to a factor of 30 compared to the characteristic photon emission of the neighboring harmonic order. This enhanced, spectrally isolated and coherent photon emission line has a relative energy bandwidth of only {\\Delta}E/E=3*10-3. Therefore, it might be directly applied for precision spectroscopy or coherent diffractive imaging without the need of additional spectral filtering. The presented mechanism can be employed for tailoring and controlling the high harmon...

  10. Shaping Neural Circuits by High Order Synaptic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid Tannenbaum, Neta; Burak, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    Spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is believed to play an important role in shaping the structure of neural circuits. Here we show that STDP generates effective interactions between synapses of different neurons, which were neglected in previous theoretical treatments, and can be described as a sum over contributions from structural motifs. These interactions can have a pivotal influence on the connectivity patterns that emerge under the influence of STDP. In particular, we consider two highly ordered forms of structure: wide synfire chains, in which groups of neurons project to each other sequentially, and self connected assemblies. We show that high order synaptic interactions can enable the formation of both structures, depending on the form of the STDP function and the time course of synaptic currents. Furthermore, within a certain regime of biophysical parameters, emergence of the ordered connectivity occurs robustly and autonomously in a stochastic network of spiking neurons, without a need to expose the neural network to structured inputs during learning. PMID:27517461

  11. High-order finite element methods for cardiac monodomain simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin P Vincent

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Computational modeling of tissue-scale cardiac electrophysiology requires numerically converged solutions to avoid spurious artifacts. The steep gradients inherent to cardiac action potential propagation necessitate fine spatial scales and therefore a substantial computational burden. The use of high-order interpolation methods has previously been proposed for these simulations due to their theoretical convergence advantage. In this study, we compare the convergence behavior of linear Lagrange, cubic Hermite, and the newly proposed cubic Hermite-style serendipity interpolation methods for finite element simulations of the cardiac monodomain equation. The high-order methods reach converged solutions with fewer degrees of freedom and longer element edge lengths than traditional linear elements. Additionally, we propose a dimensionless number, the cell Thiele modulus, as a more useful metric for determining solution convergence than element size alone. Finally, we use the cell Thiele modulus to examine convergence criteria for obtaining clinically useful activation patterns for applications such as patient-specific modeling where the total activation time is known a priori.

  12. Hybrid overlay metrology for high order correction by using CDSEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Halder, Sandip; Lorusso, Gian; Baudemprez, Bart; Inoue, Osamu; Okagawa, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    Overlay control has become one of the most critical issues for semiconductor manufacturing. Advanced lithographic scanners use high-order corrections or correction per exposure to reduce the residual overlay. It is not enough in traditional feedback of overlay measurement by using ADI wafer because overlay error depends on other process (etching process and film stress, etc.). It needs high accuracy overlay measurement by using AEI wafer. WIS (Wafer Induced Shift) is the main issue for optical overlay, IBO (Image Based Overlay) and DBO (Diffraction Based Overlay). We design dedicated SEM overlay targets for dual damascene process of N10 by i-ArF multi-patterning. The pattern is same as device-pattern locally. Optical overlay tools select segmented pattern to reduce the WIS. However segmentation has limit, especially the via-pattern, for keeping the sensitivity and accuracy. We evaluate difference between the viapattern and relaxed pitch gratings which are similar to optical overlay target at AEI. CDSEM can estimate asymmetry property of target from image of pattern edge. CDSEM can estimate asymmetry property of target from image of pattern edge. We will compare full map of SEM overlay to full map of optical overlay for high order correction ( correctables and residual fingerprints).

  13. On controlling nonlinear dissipation in high order filter methods for ideal and non-ideal MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjogreen, B.

    2004-01-01

    The newly developed adaptive numerical dissipation control in spatially high order filter schemes for the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations has been recently extended to the ideal and non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. These filter schemes are applicable to complex unsteady MHD high-speed shock/shear/turbulence problems. They also provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of Div(B) numerical error. The adaptive numerical dissipation mechanism consists of automatic detection of different flow features as distinct sensors to signal the appropriate type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter where needed and leave the rest of the region free from numerical dissipation contamination. The numerical dissipation considered consists of high order linear dissipation for the suppression of high frequency oscillation and the nonlinear dissipative portion of high-resolution shock-capturing methods for discontinuity capturing. The applicable nonlinear dissipative portion of high-resolution shock-capturing methods is very general. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of three commonly used types of nonlinear numerical dissipation for both the ideal and non-ideal MHD.

  14. Adaptive Numerical Dissipation Control in High Order Schemes for Multi-D Non-Ideal MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, B.

    2005-01-01

    The required type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter to accurately resolve all relevant multiscales of complex MHD unsteady high-speed shock/shear/turbulence/combustion problems are not only physical problem dependent, but also vary from one flow region to another. In addition, proper and efficient control of the divergence of the magnetic field (Div(B)) numerical error for high order shock-capturing methods poses extra requirements for the considered type of CPU intensive computations. The goal is to extend our adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order filter schemes and our new divergence-free methods for ideal MHD to non-ideal MHD that include viscosity and resistivity. The key idea consists of automatic detection of different flow features as distinct sensors to signal the appropriate type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter where needed and leave the rest of the region free from numerical dissipation contamination. These scheme-independent detectors are capable of distinguishing shocks/shears, flame sheets, turbulent fluctuations and spurious high-frequency oscillations. The detection algorithm is based on an artificial compression method (ACM) (for shocks/shears), and redundant multiresolution wavelets (WAV) (for the above types of flow feature). These filters also provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of Div(B) numerical error.

  15. Automatic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    Automatic sequences are sequences which are produced by a finite automaton. Although they are not random they may look as being random. They are complicated, in the sense of not being not ultimately periodic, they may look rather complicated, in the sense that it may not be easy to name the rule by which the sequence is generated, however there exists a rule which generates the sequence. The concept automatic sequences has special applications in algebra, number theory, finite automata and formal languages, combinatorics on words. The text deals with different aspects of automatic sequences, in particular:· a general introduction to automatic sequences· the basic (combinatorial) properties of automatic sequences· the algebraic approach to automatic sequences· geometric objects related to automatic sequences.

  16. High-order Wave Propagation Algorithms for Hyperbolic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ketcheson, David I; LeVeque, Randall J

    2011-01-01

    We present a finite volume method that is applicable to hyperbolic PDEs including spatially varying and semilinear nonconservative systems. The spatial discretization, like that of the well-known Clawpack software, is based on solving Riemann problems and calculating fluctuations (not fluxes). The implementation employs weighted essentially non-oscillatory reconstruction in space and strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta integration in time. The method can be extended to arbitrarily high order of accuracy and allows a well-balanced implementation for capturing solutions of balance laws near steady state. This well-balancing is achieved through the $f$-wave Riemann solver and a novel wave-slope WENO reconstruction procedure. The wide applicability and advantageous properties of the method are demonstrated through numerical examples, including problems in nonconservative form, problems with spatially varying fluxes, and problems involving near-equilibrium solutions of balance laws.

  17. High Order Three Part Split Symplectic Integration Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlach, Enrico; Skokos, Charalampos; Bodyfelt, Joshua D; Papamikos, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Symplectic integration methods based on operator splitting are well established in many branches of science. For Hamiltonian systems which split in more than two parts, symplectic methods of higher order have been studied in detail only for a few special cases. In this work, we present and compare different ways to construct high order symplectic schemes for general Hamiltonian systems that can be split in three integrable parts. We use these techniques to numerically solve the equations of motion for a simple toy model, as well as the disordered discrete nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. We thereby compare the efficiency of symplectic and non-symplectic integration methods. Our results show that the new symplectic schemes are superior to the other tested methods, with respect to both long term energy conservation and computational time requirements.

  18. Frequency shift in high order harmonic generation from isotopic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    He, Lixin; Zhai, Chunyang; Wang, Feng; Shi, Wenjing; Zhang, Qingbin; Zhu, Xiaosong; Lu, Peixiang

    2016-01-01

    We report the first experimental observation of frequency shift in high order harmonic generation (HHG) from isotopic molecules H2 and D2 . It is found that harmonics generated from the isotopic molecules exhibit obvious spectral red shift with respect to those from Ar atom. The red shift is further demonstrated to arise from the laser-driven nuclear motion in isotopic molecules. By utilizing the red shift observed in experiment, we successfully retrieve the nuclear vibrations in H2 and D2, which agree well with the theoretical calculations from the time-dependent Schrodinger equation (TDSE) with Non-Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Moreover, we demonstrate that the frequency shift can be manipulated by changing the laser chirp.

  19. Tuning the topological charge of laser high-order harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Gauthier, D; Adhikary, G; Camper, A; Chappuis, C; Cucini, R; Dovillaire, G; Géneaux, R; Poletto, L; Ressel, B; Ruchon, T; Spezzani, C; Stupar, M; De Ninno, G

    2016-01-01

    We report on the generation of optical vortices carrying a controllable amount of orbital angular momentum in laser high-order harmonics in gas. The experiment is based on two-color wave mixing, where a vortex and a Gaussian beam are spatially overlapped in the generation medium. Such a setup allows efficient and robust generation of lower order orbital angular momentum modes. The results constitute the first experimental verification of the conservation rule for orbital angular momentum in high-harmonic generation using two driving beams. Our findings significantly extend the capability of controlling the spatial properties of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses and could lead to entirely new experiments in the field of light-matter interactions.

  20. High-order hydrodynamic algorithms for exascale computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Nathaniel Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Hydrodynamic algorithms are at the core of many laboratory missions ranging from simulating ICF implosions to climate modeling. The hydrodynamic algorithms commonly employed at the laboratory and in industry (1) typically lack requisite accuracy for complex multi- material vortical flows and (2) are not well suited for exascale computing due to poor data locality and poor FLOP/memory ratios. Exascale computing requires advances in both computer science and numerical algorithms. We propose to research the second requirement and create a new high-order hydrodynamic algorithm that has superior accuracy, excellent data locality, and excellent FLOP/memory ratios. This proposal will impact a broad range of research areas including numerical theory, discrete mathematics, vorticity evolution, gas dynamics, interface instability evolution, turbulent flows, fluid dynamics and shock driven flows. If successful, the proposed research has the potential to radically transform simulation capabilities and help position the laboratory for computing at the exascale.

  1. Mechanism of High-Order Harmonic Generation from Periodic Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Tao-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We study numerically the Bloch electron wave-packet dynamics in periodic potentials to simulate laser-solid interactions. We introduce a quasi-classical model in the \\emph{k} space combined with the energy band structure to understand the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) process occurring in a subcycle timescale. This model interprets the multiple plateau structure in HHG spectra well and the linear dependence of cutoff energies on the amplitude of vector potential of the laser fields. It also predicts the emission time of HHG, which agrees well with the results by solving the time-dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation (TDSE). It provides a scheme to reconstruct the energy dispersion relations in Brillouin zone and to control the trajectories of HHG by varying the shape of laser pulses. This model is instructive for experimental measurements.

  2. Role of Rydberg States In High-order Harmonic Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Beaulieu, Samuel; Comby, Antoine; Wanie, Vincent; Petit, Stéphane; Légaré, François; Catoire, Fabrice; Mairesse, Yann

    2016-01-01

    The role of Rydberg states in strong field physics has known a renewed interest in the past few years with the study of resonant high-order harmonic generation. In addition to its fundamental in- terest, this process could create bright sources of coherent vacuum and extreme ultraviolet radiation with controlled polarization state. We investigate the spectral, spatial and temporal characteristics of the radiation produced near the ionization threshold of argon by few-cycle laser pulses. The intensity-dependence of the emission shows that two different pathways interfere to populate the Rydberg states. Furthermore, we show that the population of Rydberg states can lead to different emission mecanisms: either direct emission through XUV Free Induction Decay, or sequentially with absorption of additional photons, in processes similar to resonance-enhanced multiphoton above- threshold ionization. Last, using the attosecond lighthouse technique we show that the resonant emission from Rydberg states is not temporal...

  3. High order source approximation for the EFEN method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flat source approximation in one dimensional Exponential Function Expansion Nodal (EFEN) method is extended to a high order polynomial approximation while maintaining the simplicity of the nodal response matrix. By applying the new method to a one dimensional PWR pin-by-pin problem, it has been observed that quadratic source approximation is good enough for PWR pin-by-pin calculation, while the flat source approximation causes about 5% of relative error to the thermal flux. By applying the new method to a one dimensional assembly homogenized problem, it has been found that the EFEN method with cubic source approximation can be employed to handle PWR core diffusion problems. Numerical results suggest the optimization of source approximation order for different energy groups and different spacial locations to achieve more accurate results with less computing effort. (author)

  4. XAO coronagraphy with the High-Order Test bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Extreme adaptive optics systems dedicated to the search for extra solar planets are currently being developed for 8–10 meter class telescopes. The High-Order Test bench (HOT is a high-contrast imaging adaptive optics bench developed at ESO. Its objective is to test and optimize different techniques and technologies (e.g. wave front sensors, coronagraphs, speckle calibration methods…. It mimics realistic conditions at a telescope (e.g. VLT, including turbulence generator, XAO, and various near-IR coronagraphs. Here we provide a short overview of the system, and present results of recent AO-closed loop coronagraphic runs obtained with an Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph (APLC.

  5. A robust high-order ideal magnetohydrodynamic solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, David; Christlieb, Andrew; Feng, Xiao; Tang, Qi

    In this work we present a robust high-order numerical method for the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. Our method is single-stage and single-step, and hence amenable to adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technology. The numerical robustness of the scheme is realized by accomplishing a total of two unrelated tasks: we retain positivity of the density and pressure by limiting fluxes similar to what happens in a flux corrected transport method, and we obtain divergence free magnetic fields by implementing an unstaggered transport method for the evolution of the magnetic potential. We present numerical results in two and three dimensions that indicate the utility of the scheme. These results include several classical test problems such as Orzag-Tang, cloud shock interactions and blast wave problems.

  6. High-order multiphoton ionization photoelectron spectroscopy of NO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoelectron energy and angular distributions of NO following three different high-order multiphoton ionization (MPI) schemes have been measured. The 3+3 resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) via the A2Σ+ (v=0) level yielded a distribution of electron energies corresponding to all accessible vibrational levels (v+=0--6) of the nascent ion. Angular distributions of electrons corresponding to v+=0 and v+=3 were significantly different. The 3+2 REMPI via the A2Σ+ (v=1) level produced only one low-energy electron peak (v+=1). Nonresonant MPI at 532 nm yielded a distribution of electron energies corresponding to both four- and five-photon ionization. Prominent peaks in the five-photon photoelectron spectrum (PES) suggest contributions from near-resonant states at the three-photon level

  7. High-Order Wave Propagation Algorithms for Hyperbolic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2013-01-22

    We present a finite volume method that is applicable to hyperbolic PDEs including spatially varying and semilinear nonconservative systems. The spatial discretization, like that of the well-known Clawpack software, is based on solving Riemann problems and calculating fluctuations (not fluxes). The implementation employs weighted essentially nonoscillatory reconstruction in space and strong stability preserving Runge--Kutta integration in time. The method can be extended to arbitrarily high order of accuracy and allows a well-balanced implementation for capturing solutions of balance laws near steady state. This well-balancing is achieved through the $f$-wave Riemann solver and a novel wave-slope WENO reconstruction procedure. The wide applicability and advantageous properties of the method are demonstrated through numerical examples, including problems in nonconservative form, problems with spatially varying fluxes, and problems involving near-equilibrium solutions of balance laws.

  8. A New CMOS Current Reference with High Order Temperature Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new high order CMOS temperature compensated current reference is proposed in this paper, which is accomplished by two first order temperature compensation current references. The novel circuit exploits the temperature characteristics of integrated-circuit resistors and gate-source voltage of MOS transistors working in weak inversion. The proposed circuit, designed with a 0.6 (m standard CMOS technology, gives a good temperature coefficient of 31ppm/℃ [(50~100℃] at a 1.8 V supply, and also achieves line regulation of 0.01%/V and (120 dB PSR at 1 MHz. Comparing with other presented work, the proposed circuit shows better temperature coefficient and Line regulation.

  9. High-order jamming crossovers and density anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica Ciamarra, Massimo; Sollich, Peter

    2013-10-28

    We demonstrate that particles interacting via core-softened potentials exhibit a series of successive density anomalies upon isothermal compression, leading to oscillations in the diffusivity and thermal expansion coefficient, with the latter reaching negative values. These finite-temperature density anomalies are then shown to correspond to zero-temperature high-order jamming crossovers. These occur when particles are forced to come into contact with neighbours in successive coordination shells upon increasing the density. The crossovers induce anomalous behavior of the bulk modulus, which oscillates with density. We rationalize the dependence of these crossovers on the softness of the interaction potential, and relate the jamming crossovers and the anomalous diffusivity via the properties of the vibrational spectrum. PMID:26029762

  10. A highly ordered cubic mesoporous silica/graphene nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Wook; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2013-09-01

    A highly ordered cubic mesoporous silica (KIT-6)/graphene nanocomposite and 2D KIT-6 nanoflakes were synthesized using a novel synthesis methodology. The non-ionic triblock copolymer, P123, played a dual role as a structure-directing agent in the formation of the cubic mesoporous structure and as a cross-linking agent between mesoporous silica and graphene. The prepared (KIT-6)/graphene nanocomposite could act as a template for the preparation of mesoporous material/graphene nanocomposites.A highly ordered cubic mesoporous silica (KIT-6)/graphene nanocomposite and 2D KIT-6 nanoflakes were synthesized using a novel synthesis methodology. The non-ionic triblock copolymer, P123, played a dual role as a structure-directing agent in the formation of the cubic mesoporous structure and as a cross-linking agent between mesoporous silica and graphene. The prepared (KIT-6)/graphene nanocomposite could act as a template for the preparation of mesoporous material/graphene nanocomposites. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: S1: TEM images of disordered mesoporous silica/graphene nanocomposite; S2: TEM images of KIT-6/GO nanocomposite; S3: Thermogravimetric analysis of KIT-6/GO and KG-400-700; S4: SEM and TEM images of KIT-6; S5: Low angle XRD, Raman spectra, N2 adsorption isotherms, pore size distribution and photographic images of the prepared samples; S6: TEM image and N2 adsorption isotherms of mesoporous carbon/graphene nanocomposite; S7: XPS C1s spectra of the prepared samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03108j

  11. High-Order Space-Time Methods for Conservation Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, H. T.

    2013-01-01

    Current high-order methods such as discontinuous Galerkin and/or flux reconstruction can provide effective discretization for the spatial derivatives. Together with a time discretization, such methods result in either too small a time step size in the case of an explicit scheme or a very large system in the case of an implicit one. To tackle these problems, two new high-order space-time schemes for conservation laws are introduced: the first is explicit and the second, implicit. The explicit method here, also called the moment scheme, achieves a Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition of 1 for the case of one-spatial dimension regardless of the degree of the polynomial approximation. (For standard explicit methods, if the spatial approximation is of degree p, then the time step sizes are typically proportional to 1/p(exp 2)). Fourier analyses for the one and two-dimensional cases are carried out. The property of super accuracy (or super convergence) is discussed. The implicit method is a simplified but optimal version of the discontinuous Galerkin scheme applied to time. It reduces to a collocation implicit Runge-Kutta (RK) method for ordinary differential equations (ODE) called Radau IIA. The explicit and implicit schemes are closely related since they employ the same intermediate time levels, and the former can serve as a key building block in an iterative procedure for the latter. A limiting technique for the piecewise linear scheme is also discussed. The technique can suppress oscillations near a discontinuity while preserving accuracy near extrema. Preliminary numerical results are shown

  12. The high-order quantum coherence of thermal light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui

    Thermal light, such as sunlight, is usually considered classical light. In a macroscopic picture, classical theory successfully explained the first-order coherence phenomena of thermal light. The macroscopic theory, based on the statistical behavior of light intensity fluctuations, however, can only phenomenologically explain the second- or higher-order coherence phenomena of thermal light. This thesis introduces a microscopic quantum picture, based on the interferences of a large number of randomly distributed and randomly radiated subfields, wavepackets or photons, to the study of high-order coherence of thermal light. This thesis concludes that the second-order intensity fluctuation correlation is caused by nonlocal interference: a pair of wavepackets, which are randomly paired together, interferes with the pair itself at two distant space-time coordinates. This study has the following practical motivations: (1) to simulate N-qbits. Practical quantum computing requires quantum bits(qubits) of N-digit to represent all possible integers from 0 to 2N-1 simultaneously. A large number of independent particles can be prepared to represent a large set of N orthogonal |0> and |1> bits. In fact, based on our recent experiments of simulating the high-order correlation of entangled photons, thermal radiation is suggested as a promising source for quantum information processing. (2) to achieve sunlight ghost imaging. Ghost imaging has three attractive non-classical features: (a) the ghost camera can "see" targets that can never be seen by a classic camera; (2) it is turbulence-free; and (3) its spatial resolution is mainly determined by the angular diameter of the light source. For example, a sunlight ghost image of an object on earth may achieve a spatial resolution of 200 micrometer because the angular diameter of sun is 0.53 degree with respect to Earth. Although ghost imaging has been experimental demonstrated by using entangled photon pairs and "pseudo-thermal light

  13. Highly ordered periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles with controllable pore structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Buyuan; Cui, Yan; Ren, Zhongyuan; Qiao, Zhen-An; Wang, Li; Liu, Yunling; Huo, Qisheng

    2012-09-01

    A general synthetic procedure for highly ordered and well-dispersed periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) nanoparticles is reported based on a single cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and simple silica sources with organic bridging groups via an ammonia-catalyzed sol-gel reaction. By changing the bridging group in the silica sources, the pore structures of the as-made particles with three-dimensional hexagonal (P63/mmc), cubic (Pm3n), two-dimensional hexagonal (P6mm), and wormlike structure were evidenced by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size range of the nanoparticles can be adjusted from 30 nm to 500 nm by variation of the ammonia concentration or the co-solvent content of the reaction medium. The PMO nanoparticles with high concentration of organic groups in the framework offered good thermal stability, good dispersion in low polarity solvent and high adsorption of small hydrophobic molecules. Finally, the dye functionalized PMO nanoparticles show low cytotoxicity and excellent cell permeability, which offers great potential for biomedical applications.A general synthetic procedure for highly ordered and well-dispersed periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) nanoparticles is reported based on a single cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and simple silica sources with organic bridging groups via an ammonia-catalyzed sol-gel reaction. By changing the bridging group in the silica sources, the pore structures of the as-made particles with three-dimensional hexagonal (P63/mmc), cubic (Pm3n), two-dimensional hexagonal (P6mm), and wormlike structure were evidenced by powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size range of the nanoparticles can be adjusted from 30 nm to 500 nm by variation of the ammonia concentration or the co-solvent content of the reaction medium. The PMO nanoparticles with high concentration of organic

  14. Central Command Architecture for High Order Autonomous Unmanned Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Chad Michael

    This dissertation describes a High-Order Central Command (HOCC) architecture and presents a flight demonstration where a single user coordinates 4 unmanned fixed-wing aircraft. HOCC decouples the user from control of individual vehicles, eliminating human limits on the size of the system, and uses a non-iterative sequence of algorithms that permit easy estimation of how computational complexity scales. The Hungarian algorithm used to solve a min-sum assignment with a one-task planning horizon becomes the limiting complexity, scaling at O(x3) where x is the larger number of vehicles or tasks in the assignment. This method is shown to have a unique property of creating non-intersecting routes which is used to drastically reduce the computational cost of deconflicting planned routes. Results from several demonstration flights are presented where a single user commands a system of 4 fixed-wing aircraft. The results confirm that autonomous flight of a large number of UAVs is a bona fide engineering sub-discipline, which is expected to be of interest to engineers who will find its utility in the aviation industry and in other emerging markets.

  15. Mode of conception of triplets and high order multiple pregnancies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Basit, I

    2012-03-01

    A retrospective audit was performed of all high order multiple pregnancies (HOMPs) delivered in three maternity hospitals in Dublin between 1999 and 2008. The mode of conception for each pregnancy was established with a view to determining means of reducing their incidence. A total of 101 HOMPs occurred, 93 triplet, 7 quadruplet and 1 quintuplet. Information regarding the mode of conception was available for 78 (81%) pregnancies. Twenty eight (27.7%) were spontaneous, 34 (33.7%) followedlVF\\/ICSI\\/FET treatment (in-vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, frozen embryo transfer), 16 (15.8%) resulted from Clomiphene Citrate treatment and 6 (6%) followed ovulation induction with gonadotrophins. Triplet and HOMPs are a major cause of maternal, feta land neonatal morbidity. Many are iatrogenic, arising from fertility treatments including Clomiphene. Reducing the numbers of embryos transferred will address IVF\\/ICSI\\/FET-related multiple pregnancy rates and this is currently happening in Ireland. Clomiphene and gonadotrophins should only be prescribed when appropriate resources are available to monitor patients adequately.

  16. High-order accurate dissipative weighted compact nonlinear schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG; Xiaogang(邓小刚)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the method deriving dissipative compact linear schemes (DCS), novel high-order dissipative weighted compact nonlinear schemes (DWCNS) are developed. By Fourier analysis,the dissipative and dispersive features of DWCNS are discussed. In view of the modified wave number, the DWCNS are equivalent to the fifth-order upwind biased explicit schemes in smooth regions and the interpolations at cell-edges dominate the accuracy of DWCNS. Boundary and near boundary schemes are developed and the asymptotic stabilities of DWCNS on both uniform and stretching grids are analyzed. The multi-dimensional implementations for Euler and Navier-Stokes equations are discussed. Several numerical inviscid and viscous results are given which show the good performances of the DWCNS for discontinuities capturing, high accuracy for boundary layer resolutions, good convergent rates (the root-mean-square of residuals approaching machine zero for solutions with strong shocks) and especially the damping effect on the spudous oscillations which were found in the solutions obtained by TVD and ENO schemes.

  17. High Order Differential Frequency Hopping: Design and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers spectrally efficient differential frequency hopping (DFH system design. Relying on time-frequency diversity over large spectrum and high speed frequency hopping, DFH systems are robust against hostile jamming interference. However, the spectral efficiency of conventional DFH systems is very low due to only using the frequency of each channel. To improve the system capacity, in this paper, we propose an innovative high order differential frequency hopping (HODFH scheme. Unlike in traditional DFH where the message is carried by the frequency relationship between the adjacent hops using one order differential coding, in HODFH, the message is carried by the frequency and phase relationship using two-order or higher order differential coding. As a result, system efficiency is increased significantly since the additional information transmission is achieved by the higher order differential coding at no extra cost on either bandwidth or power. Quantitative performance analysis on the proposed scheme demonstrates that transmission through the frequency and phase relationship using two-order or higher order differential coding essentially introduces another dimension to the signal space, and the corresponding coding gain can increase the system efficiency.

  18. Integrated high-order surface diffraction gratings for diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotarev, V. V.; Leshko, A. Yu; Pikhtin, N. A.; Slipchenko, S. O.; Sokolova, Z. N.; Lubyanskiy, Ya V.; Voronkova, N. V.; Tarasov, I. S.

    2015-12-01

    High-order surface diffraction gratings acting as a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) in mesa stripe semiconductor lasers (λ = 1030 nm) have been studied theoretically and experimentally. Higher order interfering radiation modes (IRMs), which propagate off the plane of the waveguide, have been shown to have a crucial effect on the reflection and transmission spectra of the DBR. The decrease in the reflectivity of the DBR in response to the increase in the diffraction efficiency of these modes may reach 80% and more. According to theoretical analysis results, the intensity of the higher order IRMs is determined by the geometry of the DBR groove profile. Experimental data demonstrate that the noncavity modes are responsible for parasitic light leakage losses in the laser cavity. It has been shown that, in the case of nonoptimal geometry of the grating groove profile, the overall external differential quantum efficiency of the parasitic laser emission may exceed 45%, which is more than half of the laser output power. The optimal geometry of the DBR groove profile is trapezoidal, with the smallest possible lower base. Experimental evidence has been presented that this geometry considerably reduces the power of the higher order IRMs and minimises the parasitic light leakage loss.

  19. Nonlinear high-order mode locking in stochastic sensory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Michael; Afghan, Muhammad; Neiman, Alexander

    2004-03-01

    Excitable systems demonstrate various mode locking regimes when driven by periodic external signals. With noise taken into account, such regimes represent complex nonlinear responses which depend crucially on the frequency and amplitude of the periodic drive as well as on the noise intensity. We study this using a computational model of a stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuron in combination with the turtle vestibular sensory system as an experimental model. A bifurcation analysis of the model is performed. Extracellular recordings from primary vestibular afferent neurons with two types of stimuli are used in the experimental study. First, mechanical stimuli applied to the labyrinth allow us to study the responses of the entire system, including transduction by the hair cells and spike generation in the primary afferents. Second, a galvanic stimuli applied directly to an afferent are used to study the responses of afferent spike generator directly. The responses to galvanic stimuli reveal multiple high-order mode locking regimes which are well reproduced in numerical simulation. Responses to mechanical stimulation are characterized by larger variability so that fewer mode-locking regimes can be observed.

  20. A high-order Godunov method for multiple condensed phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.H. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Puckett, E.G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    We present a numerical algorithm for computing strong shock waves in problems involving multiple condensed phases. This method is based on a conservative high-order Godunov method in Eulerian form, similar to those that have been used extensively for gas dynamics computations, with an underlying thermodynamic model based on the Mie-Grueneisen equation of state together with a linear Hugoniot. This thermodynamic model is appropriate for a wide variety of nonporous condensed phases. We model multiple phases by constructing an effective single phase in which the density, specific energy, and elastic properties are given by self-consistent averages of the individual phase properties, including their relative abundances. We use a second-order volume-of-fluid interface reconstruction algorithm to decompose the effective single-phase fluxes back into the appropriate individual component phase quantities. We have coupled a two-dimensional operator-split version of this method to an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm and used it to model problems that arise in experimental shock wave geophysics. Computations from this work are presented. 56 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. A high-order Godunov method for multiple condensed phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a numerical algorithm for computing strong shock waves in problems involving multiple condensed phases. This method is based on a conservative high-order Godunov method in Eulerian form, similar to those that have been used extensively for gas dynamics computations, with an underlying thermodynamic model based on the Mie-Grueneisen equation of state together with a linear Hugoniot. This thermodynamic model is appropriate for a wide variety of nonporous condensed phases. We model multiple phases by constructing an effective single phase in which the density, specific energy, and elastic properties are given by self-consistent averages of the individual phase properties, including their relative abundances. We use a second-order volume-of-fluid interface reconstruction algorithm to decompose the effective single-phase fluxes back into the appropriate individual component phase quantities. We have coupled a two-dimensional operator-split version of this method to an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm and used it to model problems that arise in experimental shock wave geophysics. Computations from this work are presented. 56 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  2. A Novel QAM Technique for High Order QAM Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ozen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a novel spread quadrature amplitude modulation (S-QAM technique with high SNR improvement for high-order QAM channels. Simulated and experimental bit error rate (BER performance analyses of the proposed technique in blind and non-blind equalizers are obtained by using single carrier (SC WiMAX (IEEE 802.16-2004 radio. Instead of using any one particular type of channel profile, this study concentrates on true frequency selective Rayleigh fading channels in the real-time WiMAX radio environment around 3.5 GHz. The Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA blind equalizer has been compared with the popular non-blind equalizers, Recursive Least Squares (RLS and Least Mean Squares (LMS algorithm, as benchmarks. It has been proven in experimental and simulated channels that CMA blind equalizer, using the proposed technique, can be considered as a low complexity, spectrum efficient and high performance time domain equalizations to be embedded in a transceiver for the next generation communications. Furthermore the proposed technique has also reduced approximately till 5 dB and 7.5 dB performance differences between non-blind and blind equalizers for 16-QAM and 64-QAM, respectively. The simulation results have demonstrated that the simulated and experimental studies of the proposed technique are compatible with each other and extremely satisfying.

  3. Exploration of factors influencing shimming and water suppression on hepatic 1H-MR spectroscopy in vivo on 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To characterize the clinical factors which influence water suppression and auto-shimming line width for liver 3.0 T 1H-MRS. Methods: Fifty-seven cases with liver 1H-MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) were retrospectively studied, including chronic type B hepatitis (n=5), fatty liver (n=14), chronic type B hepatitis combining fatty liver (n=3) and normal situation (n=35). Independent t test was used to characterize the difference of general condition (height, weight, body mass index etc.) between different water suppression effect groups and between different shimming effect groups. Using Chi-square test to analyze whether water suppression rate and auto-shimming line width between fatty liver groups and non-fatty liver exist significance difference. Results: By comparing WS ≥90% (n=47) group with WS 2 respectively] and LW [(17.7±3.7) and (24.6±6.3) Hz respectively] than the latter (t=-3.488, -3.415, -4.002 and -3.327, P 20 Hz (n=16) group, the former showed better water suppression rate [(93.0±2.7)% and (86.1±8.5)% respectively] than the latter (t=3.213, P2 respectively] (t=-2.516, -2.024, P2=11.347, P2=28.536, P<0.05). Conclusion: Hepatic steatosis exerts an adverse effect in water suppression and shimming. (authors)

  4. Stability of the high-order finite elements for acoustic or elastic wave propagation with high-order time stepping

    KAUST Repository

    De Basabe, Jonás D.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate the stability of some high-order finite element methods, namely the spectral element method and the interior-penalty discontinuous Galerkin method (IP-DGM), for acoustic or elastic wave propagation that have become increasingly popular in the recent past. We consider the Lax-Wendroff method (LWM) for time stepping and show that it allows for a larger time step than the classical leap-frog finite difference method, with higher-order accuracy. In particular the fourth-order LWM allows for a time step 73 per cent larger than that of the leap-frog method; the computational cost is approximately double per time step, but the larger time step partially compensates for this additional cost. Necessary, but not sufficient, stability conditions are given for the mentioned methods for orders up to 10 in space and time. The stability conditions for IP-DGM are approximately 20 and 60 per cent more restrictive than those for SEM in the acoustic and elastic cases, respectively. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 RAS.

  5. Adaptive Numerical Dissipative Control in High Order Schemes for Multi-D Non-Ideal MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, B.

    2004-01-01

    The goal is to extend our adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order filter schemes and our new divergence-free methods for ideal MHD to non-ideal MHD that include viscosity and resistivity. The key idea consists of automatic detection of different flow features as distinct sensors to signal the appropriate type and amount of numerical dissipation/filter where needed and leave the rest of the region free of numerical dissipation contamination. These scheme-independent detectors are capable of distinguishing shocks/shears, flame sheets, turbulent fluctuations and spurious high-frequency oscillations. The detection algorithm is based on an artificial compression method (ACM) (for shocks/shears), and redundant multi-resolution wavelets (WAV) (for the above types of flow feature). These filter approaches also provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of Div(B) numerical error. The filter scheme consists of spatially sixth order or higher non-dissipative spatial difference operators as the base scheme for the inviscid flux derivatives. If necessary, a small amount of high order linear dissipation is used to remove spurious high frequency oscillations. For example, an eighth-order centered linear dissipation (AD8) might be included in conjunction with a spatially sixth-order base scheme. The inviscid difference operator is applied twice for the viscous flux derivatives. After the completion of a full time step of the base scheme step, the solution is adaptively filtered by the product of a 'flow detector' and the 'nonlinear dissipative portion' of a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme. In addition, the scheme independent wavelet flow detector can be used in conjunction with spatially compact, spectral or spectral element type of base schemes. The ACM and wavelet filter schemes using the dissipative portion of a second-order shock-capturing scheme with sixth-order spatial central base scheme for both the inviscid and viscous MHD flux

  6. High-order distance-based multiview stochastic learning in image classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun; Rui, Yong; Tang, Yuan Yan; Tao, Dacheng

    2014-12-01

    How do we find all images in a larger set of images which have a specific content? Or estimate the position of a specific object relative to the camera? Image classification methods, like support vector machine (supervised) and transductive support vector machine (semi-supervised), are invaluable tools for the applications of content-based image retrieval, pose estimation, and optical character recognition. However, these methods only can handle the images represented by single feature. In many cases, different features (or multiview data) can be obtained, and how to efficiently utilize them is a challenge. It is inappropriate for the traditionally concatenating schema to link features of different views into a long vector. The reason is each view has its specific statistical property and physical interpretation. In this paper, we propose a high-order distance-based multiview stochastic learning (HD-MSL) method for image classification. HD-MSL effectively combines varied features into a unified representation and integrates the labeling information based on a probabilistic framework. In comparison with the existing strategies, our approach adopts the high-order distance obtained from the hypergraph to replace pairwise distance in estimating the probability matrix of data distribution. In addition, the proposed approach can automatically learn a combination coefficient for each view, which plays an important role in utilizing the complementary information of multiview data. An alternative optimization is designed to solve the objective functions of HD-MSL and obtain different views on coefficients and classification scores simultaneously. Experiments on two real world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of HD-MSL in image classification. PMID:25415948

  7. ESP pedagogy: Blending low and high order thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuvienco, Janette Custodio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional teaching of English has followed a gradual and linear procedure of learning –from vocabulary to phrase to sentence to paragraph. We are familiar with classroom situations where the teacher starts with lecturing about the target language: Firstly, going through a list of vocabulary, then translating words; singling out phrases where a word may be used, then, reading a sentence where the words may be used; finally, walking students through paragraphs, slowly and carefully explaining the grammatical and contextual information in them. In the present Techo-Info Age, however, this approach to learning may prove irrelevant given the amount of information we see, read and hear in different parts of the world at varying contexts and at distinct phases of the development of the language. This paper reports a study on Technology-based pedagogy; it describes and defines the elements of Genre-based pedagogical framework, an ICT-supported set of procedures of teaching Business English at Higher Education which includes showcasing, highlighting, transferring, in order for students to notice, compare and integrate - cognitive skills that encompass both low and high order thinking. Adopting Fink’s (2003 instructional procedures and taking into account Schmidt’s (1990 Noticing Hypothesis; the framework identifies three aspects of consciousness within language learning: awareness, intention and knowledge thus, seeking to arrive at significant, deliberate learning. Guided by this principle, the last section of the paper proposes a proto-syllabus (Breen, 1989 which elaborates the components of a Business English course. Intermeshing knowledge and skills into teaching, the proto-syllabus contains the following: (1 authentic materials which include genre-specific resources (e.g., writing training course leaflet, writing press release, etc. and straightforwardly demonstrate the elements of commercial documents and the criteria for evaluating

  8. Automated breast tissue density assessment using high order regional texture descriptors in mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yan Nei; Lieng, Monica Keiko; Li, Jingmei; Khoo, David Aik-Aun

    2014-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer death among women in the US. The relative survival rate is lower among women with a more advanced stage at diagnosis. Early detection through screening is vital. Mammography is the most widely used and only proven screening method for reliably and effectively detecting abnormal breast tissues. In particular, mammographic density is one of the strongest breast cancer risk factors, after age and gender, and can be used to assess the future risk of disease before individuals become symptomatic. A reliable method for automatic density assessment would be beneficial and could assist radiologists in the evaluation of mammograms. To address this problem, we propose a density classification method which uses statistical features from different parts of the breast. Our method is composed of three parts: breast region identification, feature extraction and building ensemble classifiers for density assessment. It explores the potential of the features extracted from second and higher order statistical information for mammographic density classification. We further investigate the registration of bilateral pairs and time-series of mammograms. The experimental results on 322 mammograms demonstrate that (1) a classifier using features from dense regions has higher discriminative power than a classifier using only features from the whole breast region; (2) these high-order features can be effectively combined to boost the classification accuracy; (3) a classifier using these statistical features from dense regions achieves 75% accuracy, which is a significant improvement from 70% accuracy obtained by the existing approaches.

  9. High-Order Bessel-Gaussian Beam and its Propagation Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆璇辉; 陈许敏; 张蕾; 薛大建

    2003-01-01

    A high-order Bessel-Gaussian mode is introduced to describe hollow beams. The results for high-order BesselGaussian beams propagating through lens focusing system and free space are derived in terms of Collins integral formula. The diffraction patterns and profile for high-order Bessel-Gaussian beams propagating through the above-mentioned optical systems are illustrated.

  10. A high order multi-resolution solver for the Poisson equation with application to vortex methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Spietz, Henrik Juul; Walther, Jens Honore

    A high order method is presented for solving the Poisson equation subject to mixed free-space and periodic boundary conditions by using fast Fourier transforms (FFT). The high order convergence is achieved by deriving mollified Green’s functions from a high order regularization function which...

  11. Numerical survey of pressure wave propagation around and inside an underground cavity with high order FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhazy, Sofi; Schneider, Felix; Schöberl, Joachim; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    The research on purely numerical methods for modeling seismic waves has been more and more intensified over last decades. This development is mainly driven by the fact that on the one hand for subsurface models of interest in exploration and global seismology exact analytic solutions do not exist, but, on the other hand, retrieving full seismic waveforms is important to get insides into spectral characteristics and for the interpretation of seismic phases and amplitudes. Furthermore, the computational potential has dramatically increased in the recent past such that it became worthwhile to perform computations for large-scale problems as those arising in the field of computational seismology. Algorithms based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) are becoming increasingly popular for the propagation of acoustic and elastic waves in geophysical models as they provide more geometrical flexibility in terms of complexity as well as heterogeneity of the materials. In particular, we want to demonstrate the benefit of high-order FEMs as they also provide a better control on the accuracy. Our computations are done with the parallel Finite Element Library NGSOLVE ontop of the automatic 2D/3D mesh generator NETGEN (http://sourceforge.net/projects/ngsolve/). Further we are interested in the generation of synthetic seismograms including direct, refracted and converted waves in correlation to the presence of an underground cavity and the detailed simulation of the comprehensive wave field inside and around such a cavity that would have been created by a nuclear explosion. The motivation of this application comes from the need to find evidence of a nuclear test as they are forbidden by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). With this approach it is possible for us to investigate the wave field over a large bandwidth of wave numbers. This again will help to provide a better understanding on the characteristic signatures of an underground cavity, improve the protocols for

  12. Automatic Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迪

    2007-01-01

    <正>Reading is the key to school success and,like any skill,it takes practice.A child learns to walk by practising until he no longer has to think about how to put one foot in front of the other.The great athlete practises until he can play quickly,accurately and without thinking.Ed- ucators call it automaticity.

  13. Wall modeling via function enrichment within a high-order DG method for RANS simulations of incompressible flow

    CERN Document Server

    Krank, Benjamin; Wall, Wolfgang A

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel approach to wall modeling for RANS within the discontinuous Galerkin method. Wall functions are not used to prescribe boundary conditions as usual but they are built into the function space of the numerical method as a local enrichment, in addition to the standard polynomial component. The Galerkin method then automatically finds the optimal solution among all shape functions available. This idea is fully consistent and gives the wall model vast flexibility in separated boundary layers or high adverse pressure gradients. The wall model is implemented in a high-order discontinuous Galerkin solver for incompressible flow complemented by the Spalart-Allmaras closure model. As benchmark examples we present turbulent channel flow starting from $Re_{\\tau}=180$ and up to $Re_{\\tau}=100{,}000$ as well as flow past periodic hills at Reynolds numbers based on the hill height of $Re_H=10{,}595$ and $Re_{H}=19{,}000$.

  14. Linear High-Order Distributed Average Consensus Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Gang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a linear high-order distributed average consensus (DAC algorithm for wireless sensor networks. The average consensus property and the convergence rate of the high-order DAC algorithm are analyzed. In particular, the convergence rate is determined by the spectral radius of a network topology-dependent matrix. Numerical results indicate that this simple linear high-order DAC algorithm can accelerate the convergence without additional communication overhead and reconfiguration of network topology.

  15. A high order energy preserving scheme for the strongly coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high order energy preserving scheme for a strongly coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system is proposed by using the average vector field method. The high order energy preserving scheme is applied to simulate the soliton evolution of the strongly coupled Schrödinger system. Numerical results show that the high order energy preserving scheme can well simulate the soliton evolution, moreover, it preserves the discrete energy of the strongly coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system exactly. (general)

  16. Generation of High-order Group-velocity-locked Vector Solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, X X; Zhang, Q; Li, L; Tang, D Y; Shen, D Y; Fu, S N; Liu, D M; Zhao, L M

    2015-01-01

    We report numerical simulations on the high-order group-velocity-locked vector soliton (GVLVS) generation based on the fundamental GVLVS. The high-order GVLVS generated is characterized with a two-humped pulse along one polarization while a single-humped pulse along the orthogonal polarization. The phase difference between the two humps could be 180 degree. It is found that by appropriate setting the time separation between the two components of the fundamental GVLVS, the high-order GVLVS with different pulse width and pulse intensity could be obtained. 1+2 and 2+2 type high-order GVLVS could be either obtained.

  17. The high order Schwarz-Pick lemma on complex Hilbert balls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we prove a high order Schwarz-Pick lemma for holomorphic mappings between unit balls in complex Hilbert spaces.In addition,a Schwarz-Pick estimate for high order Fréchet derivatives of a holomorphic function f of a Hilbert ball into the right half-plane is obtained.

  18. Convergency analysis of the high-order mimetic finite difference method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipnikov, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veiga Da Beirao, L [UNIV DEGLI STUDI; Manzini, G [NON LANL

    2008-01-01

    We prove second-order convergence of the conservative variable and its flux in the high-order MFD method. The convergence results are proved for unstructured polyhedral meshes and full tensor diffusion coefficients. For the case of non-constant coefficients, we also develop a new family of high-order MFD methods. Theoretical result are confirmed through numerical experiments.

  19. Effects of high-order dispersions on dark-bright vector soliton propagation and interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Li; Dongning Wang

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of dark-bright vector solitons is investigated in a birefringent fiber with the high-order dispersions, and their effects on vector soliton propagation and interaction are analyzed using the numerical method. The combined role of the high-order dispersions, such as the third-order dispersion (TOD) and the fourth-order dispersion (FOD), may cause various deformation of the vector soliton and enhance interaction. These effects depend strictly on the sign of the high-order dispersions. Results indicate that the disadvantageous effects can be reduced effectively via proper mapping of the high-order dispersions.%@@ The dynamics of dark-bright vector solitons is investigated in a birefringent fiber with the high-order dispersions, and their effects on vector soliton propagation and interaction are analyzed using the numerical method.The combined role of the high-order dispersions, such as the third-order dispersion (TOD) and the fourth-order dispersion (FOD), may cause various deformation of the vector soliton and enhance interaction.These effects depend strictly on the sign of the high-order dispersions.Results indicate that the disadvantageous effects can be reduced effectively via proper mapping of the high-order dispersions.

  20. High sensitive detection of high-order partial wave scattering in photoassociation of ultralcold atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yu-Qing; Ma Jie; Wu Ji-Zhou; Zhang Yi-Chi; Zhao Yan-Ting; Wang Li-Rong; Xiao Lian-Tuan; Jia Suo-Tang

    2012-01-01

    We report on the observation of enhanced high-order partial wave scattering from atom-atom interaction via changing the temperature of a magneto-optical trap in the process of photoassociation. The high-order scattering partial wave is directly manifested through the large signal amplitude of the rovibrational resonance levels of trap-loss spectroscopy from photoassociation.

  1. Numerical Study on Turbulent Airfoil Noise with High-Order Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2009-01-01

    High-order finite difference schemes are introduced in the flow/acoustics splitting technique for predicting flow generated noise. The flow equations are solved by a second-order finite volume method whereas the acoustic equations are solved by high-order finite difference schemes. At each time...

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Zero and High Order Laue Zones Effects on the Exit Wave Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Canying CAI; Qibin YANG; Hongrong LIU; Yanguo WANG

    2004-01-01

    The exit wave function including zero and high order Laue zones has been simulated by both multi-slice method and electron dynamic diffraction analytical expression. Coincidence of the simulations by these two methods was achieved. The calculated results showed that the exit wave function highly dominated by zero order Laue zone,while high order ones modify the exit wave function to some extent depending on the situation. High order Laue zone effects become important for the following cases: sample consists of light elements, the thickness is very thin,lattice planar spacing perpendicular to the direction of the incident beam is large, and the electron beam has long wavelength. In these cases the exit wave function should be corrected by adding high order Laue zone effects. The analytical expression is effective and convenient for dealing with high order Laue zone effects.

  3. High-Order Calderón Preconditioned Time Domain Integral Equation Solvers

    KAUST Repository

    Valdes, Felipe

    2013-05-01

    Two high-order accurate Calderón preconditioned time domain electric field integral equation (TDEFIE) solvers are presented. In contrast to existing Calderón preconditioned time domain solvers, the proposed preconditioner allows for high-order surface representations and current expansions by using a novel set of fully-localized high-order div-and quasi curl-conforming (DQCC) basis functions. Numerical results demonstrate that the linear systems of equations obtained using the proposed basis functions converge rapidly, regardless of the mesh density and of the order of the current expansion. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  4. Expanding the plateau of high-order harmonic spectrum by multi-color synthesized laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a scheme to extend the plateau of high-order harmonic spectrum by using multi- color synthesized laser field. Firstly, the two-color and three-color laser fields are synthesized by adding control laser pulse to the 800 nm fundamental pulse. Secondly, the high-order harmonic spectra are presented via numerically solving the one-dimensional time-dependent Schrodinger equation in multi-color synthesized laser field, and the results show that the width can be expended effectively. Finally, the high-order harmonic spectra are explained reasonably by means of classical returning kinetic-energy map and the time-frequency distribution. (authors)

  5. High-order harmonic generation in Xe, Kr, and Ar driven by a 2.1-\\mu m source: high-order harmonic spectroscopy under macroscopic effects

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Kyung-Han; Gkortsas, Vasileios-Marios; Huang, Shu-Wei; Moses, Jeffrey; Granados, Eduardo; Bhardwaj, Siddharth; Kärtner, Franz X

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally and numerically study the atomic response and pulse propagation effects of high-order harmonics generated in Xe, Kr, and Ar driven by a 2.1-\\mu m infrared femtosecond light source. The light source is an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier, and a modified strong-field approximation and 3-dimensional pulse propagation code are used for the numerical simulations. The extended cutoff in the long-wavelength driven high-harmonic generation has revealed the spectral shaping of high-order harmonics due to the atomic structure (or photo-recombination cross-section) and the macroscopic effects, which are the main factors of determining the conversion efficiency besides the driving wavelength. Using precise numerical simulations to determine the macroscopic electron wavepacket, we are able to extract the photo-recombination cross-sections from experimental high-order harmonic spectra in the presence of macroscopic effects. We have experimentally observed that the macroscopic effects shift the o...

  6. High Order Wavelet-Based Multiresolution Technology for Airframe Noise Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An integrated framework is proposed for efficient prediction of rotorcraft and airframe noise. A novel wavelet-based multiresolution technique and high-order...

  7. Optical pulse compression using the combination of phase modulation and high-order dispersion compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Guo; Pan, Wei; Zou, Xihua

    2010-09-01

    Optical pulse compression using high-order dispersion compensation is proposed and theoretically analyzed. Firstly, the required dispersion profile for the high-order dispersion compensation is derived, according to the linear chirp and the nonlinear chirp of a phase-modulated continuous-wave (CW) laser source. With the use of the high-order dispersion compensation, such as the combination compensation of the second order dispersion (SOD) and the fourth order dispersion (FOD), an efficient pulse compression having a less time-bandwidth product and a greater peak power is realized. A sampled fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with both the SOD and the FOD is then designed using the equivalent chirp and the reconstruction algorithm. Finally, in the numerical simulation an optical pulse with a time-bandwidth product of 0.79 is generated via high-order dispersion compensation that is performed by using the sampled FBG.

  8. On the high-order topological asymptotic expansion for shape functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maatoug Hassine

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the topological sensitivity analysis for the Laplace operator with respect to the presence of a Dirichlet geometry perturbation. Two main results are presented in this work. In the first result we discuss the influence of the considered geometry perturbation on the Laplace solution. In the second result we study the high-order topological derivatives. We derive a high-order topological asymptotic expansion for a large class of shape functions.

  9. High-order accurate monotone difference schemes for solving gasdynamic problems by Godunov's method with antidiffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, N. Ya.

    2011-04-01

    An approach to the construction of high-order accurate monotone difference schemes for solving gasdynamic problems by Godunov's method with antidiffusion is proposed. Godunov's theorem on monotone schemes is used to construct a new antidiffusion flux limiter in high-order accurate difference schemes as applied to linear advection equations with constant coefficients. The efficiency of the approach is demonstrated by solving linear advection equations with constant coefficients and one-dimensional gasdynamic equations.

  10. Technical Training on High-Order Spectral Analysis and Thermal Anemometry Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslov, A. A.; Shiplyuk, A. N.; Sidirenko, A. A.; Bountin, D. A.

    2003-01-01

    The topics of thermal anemometry and high-order spectral analyses were the subject of the technical training. Specifically, the objective of the technical training was to study: (i) the recently introduced constant voltage anemometer (CVA) for high-speed boundary layer; and (ii) newly developed high-order spectral analysis techniques (HOSA). Both CVA and HOSA are relevant tools for studies of boundary layer transition and stability.

  11. An adaptive high-order hybrid scheme for compressive, viscous flows with detailed chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Jack L.; Deiterding, Ralf; Shepherd, Joseph E.; Pullin, D. I.

    2011-08-01

    A hybrid weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO)/centered-difference numerical method, with low numerical dissipation, high-order shock-capturing, and structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR), has been developed for the direct numerical simulation of the multicomponent, compressible, reactive Navier-Stokes equations. The method enables accurate resolution of diffusive processes within reaction zones. The approach combines time-split reactive source terms with a high-order, shock-capturing scheme specifically designed for diffusive flows. A description of the order-optimized, symmetric, finite difference, flux-based, hybrid WENO/centered-difference scheme is given, along with its implementation in a high-order SAMR framework. The implementation of new techniques for discontinuity flagging, scheme-switching, and high-order prolongation and restriction is described. In particular, the refined methodology does not require upwinded WENO at grid refinement interfaces for stability, allowing high-order prolongation and thereby eliminating a significant source of numerical diffusion within the overall code performance. A series of one-and two-dimensional test problems is used to verify the implementation, specifically the high-order accuracy of the diffusion terms. One-dimensional benchmarks include a viscous shock wave and a laminar flame. In two-space dimensions, a Lamb-Oseen vortex and an unstable diffusive detonation are considered, for which quantitative convergence is demonstrated. Further, a two-dimensional high-resolution simulation of a reactive Mach reflection phenomenon with diffusive multi-species mixing is presented.

  12. Influence of Misalignment on High-Order Aberration Correction for Normal Human Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hao-Xin; XU Bing; XUE Li-Xia; DAI Yun; LIU Qian; RAO Xue-Jun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Although a compensation device can correct aberrations of human eyes, the effect will be degraded by its misalignment, especially for high-order aberration correction. We caJculate the positioning tolerance of correction device for high-order aberrations, and within what degree the correcting effect is better than low-order aberration (defocus and astigmatism) correction. With fixed certain misalignment within the positioning tolerance, we calculate the residual wavefront rms aberration of the first-6 to first-35 terms along with the 3rd-5th terms of aberrations corrected, and the combined first-13 terms of aberrations are also studied under the same quantity of misalignment. However, the correction effect of high-order aberrations does not meliorate along with the increase of the high-order terms under some misalignment, moreover, some simple combined terms correction can achieve similar result as complex combinations. These results suggest that it is unnecessary to correct too much the terms of high-order aberrations which are diffcult to accomplish in practice, and gives confdence to correct high-order aberrations out of the laboratory.

  13. Simplification of high order polynomial calibration model for fringe projection profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liandong; Zhang, Wei; Li, Weishi; Pan, Chengliang; Xia, Haojie

    2016-10-01

    In fringe projection profilometry systems, high order polynomial calibration models can be employed to improve the accuracy. However, it is not stable to fit a high order polynomial model with least-squares algorithms. In this paper, a novel method is presented to analyze the significance of each polynomial term and simplify the high order polynomial calibration model. Term significance is evaluated by comparing the loading vector elements of the first few principal components which are obtained with the principal component analysis, and trivial terms are identified and neglected from the high order polynomial calibration model. As a result, the high order model is simplified with significant improvement of computation stability and little loss of reconstruction accuracy. An interesting finding is that some terms of 0 and 1st order, as well as some high order terms related to the image direction that is vertical to the phase change direction, are trivial terms for this specific problem. Experimental results are shown to validate of the proposed method.

  14. Tumor Classification Using High-Order Gene Expression Profiles Based on Multilinear ICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-gang Du

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation. Independent Components Analysis (ICA maximizes the statistical independence of the representational components of a training gene expression profiles (GEP ensemble, but it cannot distinguish relations between the different factors, or different modes, and it is not available to high-order GEP Data Mining. In order to generalize ICA, we introduce Multilinear-ICA and apply it to tumor classification using high order GEP. Firstly, we introduce the basis conceptions and operations of tensor and recommend Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier and Multilinear-ICA. Secondly, the higher score genes of original high order GEP are selected by using t-statistics and tabulate tensors. Thirdly, the tensors are performed by Multilinear-ICA. Finally, the SVM is used to classify the tumor subtypes. Results. To show the validity of the proposed method, we apply it to tumor classification using high order GEP. Though we only use three datasets, the experimental results show that the method is effective and feasible. Through this survey, we hope to gain some insight into the problem of high order GEP tumor classification, in aid of further developing more effective tumor classification algorithms.

  15. Macroscopic manipulation of high-order-harmonic generation through bound-state coherent control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Itai; Bahabad, Alon

    2014-12-19

    We propose a paradigm for macroscopic control of high-order harmonic generation by modulating the bound-state population of the medium atoms. A unique result of this scheme is that apart from regular spatial quasi-phase-matching (QPM), also purely temporal QPM of the emitted radiation can be established. Our simulations demonstrate temporal QPM by inducing homogenous Rabi oscillations in the medium and also spatial QPM by creating a grating of population inversion using the process of rapid adiabatic passage. In the simulations a scaled version of high-order harmonic generation is used: a far off-resonance 2.6  μm source generates UV-visible high-order harmonics from alkali-metal-atom vapor, while a resonant near IR source is used to coherently control the medium.

  16. A numerical resolution study of high order essentially non-oscillatory schemes applied to incompressible flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinan, E.; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1992-01-01

    High order essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) schemes, originally designed for compressible flow and in general for hyperbolic conservation laws, are applied to incompressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with periodic boundary conditions. The projection to divergence-free velocity fields is achieved by fourth order central differences through Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) and a mild high-order filtering. The objective of this work is to assess the resolution of ENO schemes for large scale features of the flow when a coarse grid is used and small scale features of the flow, such as shears and roll-ups, are not fully resolved. It is found that high-order ENO schemes remain stable under such situations and quantities related to large-scale features, such as the total circulation around the roll-up region, are adequately resolved.

  17. Unstructured nodal DG-FEM solution of high-order Boussinesq-type equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2007-01-01

    of today, the high-order Boussinesq equations represent the most advanced set of Boussinesq-type equations capable of modelling nonlinear and dispersive waves from shallow to deep water without the practical limitations of classical Boussinesq-type equations. The high-order Boussinesq equations constitute...... time-dependent linear system; and the numerical treatment of high-order and cross-differential derivatives. The suggested solution strategy of the current work is based on a collocation approach where the DG-FEM is used to approximate spatial derivatives and the boundary conditions are imposed weakly...... using a symmetry technique. Since collocation methods are prone to aliasing errors, various anti-aliasing strategies are applied for the stabilization of the models. A practical and relatively straightforward discretization is applied, which is based on a simple treatment of slip boundary conditions...

  18. Giant Faraday rotation of high-order plasmonic modes in graphene-covered nanowires

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmin, Dmitry A; Shavrov, Vladimir G; Temnov, Vasily V

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic Faraday rotation in nanowires manifests itself in the rotation of the spatial intensity distribution of high-order surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes around the nanowire axis. Here we predict theoretically the giant Faraday rotation for SPP propagating on graphene-coated magneto-optically active nanowires. Upon the reversal of the external magnetic field pointing along the nanowire axis some high-order plasmonic modes may be rotated by up to ~ 100 degrees on scale of about 500 nm at mid-infrared frequencies. Tuning carrier concentration in graphene by chemical doping or gate voltage allows for controlling SPP-properties and notably the rotation angle of high-order azimuthal modes. Our results open the door to novel plasmonic applications ranging from nanowire-based Faraday isolators to the magnetic control in quantum-optical applications.

  19. Gravitational waveforms from binary neutron star mergers with high-order WENO schemes in numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Bernuzzi, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    The theoretical modeling of gravitational waveforms from binary neutron star mergers requires precise numerical relativity simulations. Assessing convergence of the numerical data and building the error budget is currently challenging due to the low accuracy of general-relativistic hydrodynamics schemes and to the grid resolutions that can be employed in (3+1)-dimensional simulations. In this work, we explore the use of high-order weighted-essentially-non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes in neutron star merger simulations and investigate the accuracy of the waveforms obtained with such methods. We find that high-order WENO schemes can be robustly employed for simulating the inspiral-merger phase and they significantly improve the assessment of the waveform's error budget with respect to finite-volume methods. High-order WENO schemes can be thus efficiently used for high-quality waveforms production, also in future large-scale investigations of the binary parameter space.

  20. Vibrational resonance: a study with high-order word-series averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Murua, Ander

    2016-01-01

    We study a model problem describing vibrational resonance by means of a high-order averaging technique based on so-called word series. With the tech- nique applied here, the tasks of constructing the averaged system and the associ- ated change of variables are divided into two parts. It is first necessary to build recursively a set of so-called word basis functions and, after that, all the required manipulations involve only scalar coefficients that are computed by means of sim- ple recursions. As distinct from the situation with other approaches, with word- series, high-order averaged systems may be derived without having to compute the associated change of variables. In the system considered here, the construction of high-order averaged systems makes it possible to obtain very precise approxima- tions to the true dynamics.

  1. High order volume-preserving algorithms for relativistic charged particles in general electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yang; Zhang, Ruili; Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We construct high order symmetric volume-preserving methods for the relativistic dynamics of a charged particle by the splitting technique with processing. Via expanding the phase space to include time $t$, we give a more general construction of volume-preserving methods that can be applied to systems with time-dependent electromagnetic fields. The newly derived methods provide numerical solutions with good accuracy and conservative properties over long time of simulation. Furthermore, because of the use of processing technique the high order methods are explicit, and cost less than the methods derived from standard compositions, thus are more efficient. The results are verified by the numerical experiments. Linear stability analysis of the methods show that the high order processed method allows larger time step size during integration.

  2. Consensus Analysis of High-Order Multiagent Systems with General Topology and Asymmetric Time-Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangcui Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the consensus problem for high-order multiagent systems (MAS with directed network and asymmetric time-varying time-delays. It is proved that the high-order multiagent system can reach consensus when the network topology contains a spanning tree and time-delay is bounded. The main contribution of this paper is that a Lyapunov-like design framework for the explicit selection of protocol parameters is provided. The Lyapunov-like design guarantees the robust consensus of the high-order multiagent system with respect to asymmetric time-delays and is independent of the exact knowledge of the topology when the communication linkages among agents are undirected and connected.

  3. High-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules including nuclear motion and a nuclear modes analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Bruun; Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    We present a generic approach for treating the effect of nuclear motion in high-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules. Our procedure relies on a separation of nuclear and electron dynamics where we account for the electronic part using the Lewenstein model and nuclear motion enters as...... a nuclear correlation function. We express the nuclear correlation function in terms of Franck-Condon factors, which allows us to decompose nuclear motion into modes and identify the modes that are dominant in the high-order harmonic generation process. We show results for the isotopes CH4 and CD4...... and thereby provide direct theoretical support for a recent experiment [S. Baker et al., Science 312, 424 (2006)] that uses high-order harmonic generation to probe the ultrafast structural nuclear rearrangement of ionized methane....

  4. Very High Order $\\PNM$ Schemes on Unstructured Meshes for the Resistive Relativistic MHD Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Dumbser, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose the first better than second order accurate method in space and time for the numerical solution of the resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RRMHD) equations on unstructured meshes in multiple space dimensions. The nonlinear system under consideration is purely hyperbolic and contains a source term, the one for the evolution of the electric field, that becomes stiff for low values of the resistivity. For the spatial discretization we propose to use high order $\\PNM$ schemes as introduced in \\cite{Dumbser2008} for hyperbolic conservation laws and a high order accurate unsplit time discretization is achieved using the element-local space-time discontinuous Galerkin approach proposed in \\cite{DumbserEnauxToro} for one-dimensional balance laws with stiff source terms. The divergence free character of the magnetic field is accounted for through the divergence cleaning procedure of Dedner et al. \\cite{Dedneretal}. To validate our high order method we first solve some numerical test c...

  5. Giant Faraday Rotation of High-Order Plasmonic Modes in Graphene-Covered Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Dmitry A; Bychkov, Igor V; Shavrov, Vladimir G; Temnov, Vasily V

    2016-07-13

    Plasmonic Faraday rotation in nanowires manifests itself in the rotation of the spatial intensity distribution of high-order surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes around the nanowire axis. Here we predict theoretically the giant Faraday rotation for SPPs propagating on graphene-coated magneto-optically active nanowires. Upon the reversal of the external magnetic field pointing along the nanowire axis some high-order plasmonic modes may be rotated by up to ∼100° on the length scale of about 500 nm at mid-infrared frequencies. Tuning the carrier concentration in graphene by chemical doping or gate voltage allows for controlling SPP-properties and notably the rotation angle of high-order azimuthal modes. Our results open the door to novel plasmonic applications ranging from nanowire-based Faraday isolators to the magnetic control in quantum-optical applications. PMID:27348746

  6. IAS15: A fast, adaptive, high-order integrator for gravitational dynamics, accurate to machine precision over a billion orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Rein, Hanno

    2014-01-01

    We present IAS15, a 15th-order integrator to simulate gravitational dynamics. The integrator is based on a Gau{\\ss}-Radau quadrature and can handle conservative as well as non-conservative forces. We develop a step-size control that can automatically choose an optimal timestep. The algorithm can handle close encounters and high-eccentricity orbits. The systematic errors are kept well below machine precision and long-term orbit integrations over $10^9$ orbits show that IAS15 is optimal in the sense that it follows Brouwer's law, i.e. the energy error behaves like a random walk. Our tests show that IAS15 is superior to a mixed-variable symplectic integrator (MVS) and other high-order integrators in both speed and accuracy. In fact, IAS15 preserves the symplecticity of Hamiltonian systems better than the commonly-used nominally symplectic integrators to which we compared it. We provide an open-source implementation of IAS15. The package comes with several easy-to-extend examples involving resonant planetary syst...

  7. High-order discontinuous Galerkin methods for coupled thermoconvective flows under gravity modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou, N. C.; Aristotelous, A. C.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we develop a High-Order Symmetric Interior Penalty (SIP) Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) Finite Element Method (FEM) to investigate convective flows in a rectangular cavity subject to both vertical and horizontal temperature gradients. The whole cavity is subject to gravity modulation (g-jitter), simulating a microgravity environment. The sensitivity of the bifurcation problem makes the use of a high-order accurate and efficient technique essential. Our method is validated by solving the plane-parallel flow problem and the results were found to be in good agreement with published results. The numerical method was designed to be easily extendable to even more complex flows.

  8. Neurodynamics-Based Robust Pole Assignment for High-Order Descriptor Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Xinyi; Wang, Jun

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a neurodynamic optimization approach is proposed for synthesizing high-order descriptor linear systems with state feedback control via robust pole assignment. With a new robustness measure serving as the objective function, the robust eigenstructure assignment problem is formulated as a pseudoconvex optimization problem. A neurodynamic optimization approach is applied and shown to be capable of maximizing the robust stability margin for high-order singular systems with guaranteed optimality and exact pole assignment. Two numerical examples and vehicle vibration control application are discussed to substantiate the efficacy of the proposed approach. PMID:26357408

  9. A Rapid Method for the Synthesis of Highly Ordered MCM-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Teymouri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work MCM-41 material was synthesized by a rapid method. The calcined material was characterized using XRD, scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen physisorption. The XRD pattern of calcined sample shows five well-defined peaks that indicates highly ordered MCM-41 material was synthesized. The SEM image reveals that the sample particles are in nanometer range. The isotherm of Nitrogen demonstrates a nearly reversible behavior which implies highly ordered MCM-41 material was synthesized by this method. The BET specific surface area of the sample is about 910 m3g-1. This method is also rapid and simple and results in high quality MCM-41 material.

  10. High Order Centrifugal Distortion Corrections to Energy Levels of Asymmetric Top Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-Yan; LIU Xiao-Yong; LIU Hong-Ping; GUO Yuan-Qing; HUANG Guang-Ming; LIN Jie-Li; GAO Hui

    2000-01-01

    High order centrifugal distortion terms have been derived and added to the effective Hamiltonian of asymmetric top molecules. Based on this Hamiltonian, a program in Fortran 77 has been developed for spectral analysis of asymmetric top molecules. The high order centrifugal distortion terms are found to be non-negligible even for the low-lying rotational transitions of molecules, such as Ha 18O, subjected to severe centrifugal distortion effect,and for the high-lying rotational transitions of molecules, such as 14N16O2 subjected to the moderate centrifugal distortion effect.

  11. Wave-mixing with high-order harmonics in extreme ultraviolet region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dao, Lap Van; Dinh, Khuong Ba; Le, Hoang Vu; Gaffney, Naylyn; Hannaford, Peter [Centre for Quantum and Optical Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia)

    2015-01-12

    We report studies of the wave-mixing process in the extreme ultraviolet region with two near-infrared driving and controlling pulses with incommensurate frequencies (at 1400 nm and 800 nm). A non-collinear scheme for the two beams is used in order to spatially separate and to characterise the properties of the high-order wave-mixing field. We show that the extreme ultraviolet frequency mixing can be treated by perturbative, very high-order nonlinear optics; the modification of the wave-packet of the free electron needs to be considered in this process.

  12. Computational Aero-Acoustic Using High-order Finite-Difference Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a high-order technique to accurately predict flow-generated noise is introduced. The technique consists of solving the viscous incompressible flow equations and inviscid acoustic equations using a incompressible/compressible splitting technique. The incompressible flow equations are solved using the in-house flow solver EllipSys2D/3D which is a second-order finite volume code. The acoustic solution is found by solving the acoustic equations using high-order finite difference sc...

  13. Probing rotational wave-packet dynamics with the structural minimum in high-order harmonic spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Meiyan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Qingbin; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the alignment-dependent high-order harmonic spectrum generated from nonadiabatically aligned molecules around the first half rotational revival. It is found that the evolution of the molecular alignment is encoded in the structural minima. To reveal the relation between the molecular alignment and the structural minimum in the high-order harmonic spectrum, we perform an analysis based on the two-center interference model. Our analysis shows that the structural minimum position depends linearly on the inverse of the alignment parameter $$. This linear relation indicates the possibility of probing the rotational wave-packet dynamics by measuring the spectral minima.

  14. Quasi phase matching for high order harmonic generation induced by the carrier-envelope phase

    OpenAIRE

    Faccio, Daniele; Serrat, Carles; Cela, Jose M.; Di Trapani, Albert Farres Paolo; Biegert, Jens

    2009-01-01

    We report a novel quasi-phase matching technique for high-order harmonic generation in low-density gases. Numerical simulations show that in few-optical cycle pulsed Bessel beams it is possible to control the pulse envelope and phase velocities which in turn allows to control the carrier-envelope phase during propagation. The resulting oscillations in the peak intensity allow to phase-match the high-order harmonic generation process with a nearly two decade enhancement in the XUV power spectrum.

  15. Flat-top phase-matched high-order harmonics in gas-filled cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua Xie(谢新华); Zhinan Zeng(曾志男); Ruxin Li(李儒新); Yunpei Deng(邓蕴沛); Haihe Lu(陆海鹤); Dingjun Yin(印定军); Zhizhan Xu(徐至展)

    2004-01-01

    Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation in Ar gas-filled cell is investigated experimentally. We obtain phase-matched 27th order harmonic driven by a commercially available solid-state femtosecond laser system at 0.55 m J/pulse energy level and 1-kHz repetition rate. Moreover, we find that the spatial distribution of intensity of high-order harmonics is flat-top profile other than a Gaussian one under the condition of optimized conversion efficiency in the static gas cell.

  16. High-Order Entropy Stable Finite Difference Schemes for Nonlinear Conservation Laws: Finite Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Developing stable and robust high-order finite difference schemes requires mathematical formalism and appropriate methods of analysis. In this work, nonlinear entropy stability is used to derive provably stable high-order finite difference methods with formal boundary closures for conservation laws. Particular emphasis is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A newly derived entropy stable weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite difference method is used to simulate problems with shocks and a conservative, entropy stable, narrow-stencil finite difference approach is used to approximate viscous terms.

  17. High order single step time delay compensation algorithm for structural active control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焕定; 耿淑伟; 王伟

    2002-01-01

    The optimal instantaneous high order single step algorithm for active control is first discussed andthen, the n + 1 time step controlling force vector of the instantaneous optimal algorithm is derived from way of ntime state vector. An estimating algorithm, is developed from this to solve the problem of active control withtime delay compensation. The estimating algorithm based on this high order single step β method (HSM) foun-dation, is proven by simulation and experiment analysis, to be a valid solution to problem of active control withtime delay compensation.

  18. Room temperature NO2 sensor based on highly ordered porphyrin nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feifei; Ma, Pan; Chen, Changlong; Jia, Jingna; Wang, Yucheng; Zhu, Peihua

    2016-07-15

    Highly ordered nanotubes of 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl)porphyrin zinc (ZnTAP) are fabricated by using nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane as the template. Electronic absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), low-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques are adopted to characterize these nanotubes. The highly ordered nanotubes of ZnTAP show good conductivity and present an efficient gas sensor platform for the ultrasensitive detection of NO2 under room temperature. The proposed sensor shows high sensitivity, reproducibility and fast response/recovery behavior, and provides a promising avenue for improving the sensing performance. PMID:27100904

  19. High-order inertial phase shifts for time-domain atom interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Bongs, K; Kasevich, M A; Bongs, Kai; Launay, Romain; Kasevich, Mark A.

    2002-01-01

    High-order inertial phase shifts are calculated for time-domain atom interferometers. We obtain closed-form analytic expressions for these shifts in accelerometer, gyroscope, optical clock and photon recoil measurement configurations. Our analysis includes Coriolis, centrifugal, gravitational, and gravity gradient-induced forces. We identify new shifts which arise at levels relevant to current and planned experiments.

  20. Exact Sampling and Decoding in High-Order Hidden Markov Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Carter; M. Dymetman; G. Bouchard

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for exact optimization and sampling from high order Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), which are generally handled by approximation techniques. Motivated by adaptive rejection sampling and heuristic search, we propose a strategy based on sequentially refining a lower-order language mod

  1. Efficient High Order Central Schemes for Multi-Dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi Equations: Talk Slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Brian R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents information on the attempt to produce high-order, efficient, central methods that scale well to high dimension. The central philosophy is that the equations should evolve to the point where the data is smooth. This is accomplished by a cyclic pattern of reconstruction, evolution, and re-projection. One dimensional and two dimensional representational methods are detailed, as well.

  2. High-order harmonics in a quantum dot and metallic nanorod complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Xing

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) and metallic nanorod (MNR) complex driven by a moderate intensity (supercontinuum harmonics (25 eV maximal photon energy) and isolated ultrashort pulses (2.67-4.36 fs FWHM) are achievable. PMID:26512479

  3. Study of high-order energy-stable discretization techniques for compressible flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giangaspero, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The present thesis describes the development of a computational method for the numerical simulation of compressible flows in aerodynamics. The main goal is to study high-order discretization schemes that can potentially deliver a better computational efficiency. The spatial part of the conservation

  4. Developing Student-Centered Learning Model to Improve High Order Mathematical Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, Elvis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop student-centered learning model aiming to improve high order mathematical thinking ability of junior high school students of based on curriculum 2013 in North Sumatera, Indonesia. The special purpose of this research was to analyze and to formulate the purpose of mathematics lesson in high order…

  5. HIGH-ORDER NYSTR(``O)M METHOD FOR THE EFIE OF EM SCATTERING PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaojuan

    2004-01-01

    Nystrom method is a new method for solving electromagnetic scattering problems.This paper gives the detailed description on high-order Nystrom method used for the electric field integral equation of electromagnetic scattering problems. The numerical solutions of two examples are correct compared with Method Of Moment(MOM).

  6. Very high-order finite volume method for one-dimensional convection diffusion problems

    OpenAIRE

    Clain, Stéphane; Diot, Steven; Loubère, Raphaël; Machado, Gaspar; Ralha, Rui; Pereira, Rui

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new finite volume method to provide very high-order accuracy for the convection diffusion problem. The main tool is a polynomial reconstruction baesd on the mean values to provide the optimal order. Numerical examples are proposed to show the method efficiency.

  7. Singular Integral Equations with Cosecant Kernel in Solutions with Singularities of High Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Hui-li; DU Jin-yuan

    2005-01-01

    We have discussed and solved the boundary value problem with period 2aπ and the singular integral equation with kernel csc t-t0/a in solution having singularities of high order, where the smooth contour of integration is in the strip 0<Rez<aπ.

  8. Optimal Design of High-Order Passive-Damped Filters for Grid-Connected Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beres, Remus Narcis; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2016-01-01

    Harmonic stability problems caused by the resonance of high-order filters in power electronic systems are ever increasing. The use of passive damping does provide a robust solution to address these issues, but at the price of reduced efficiency due to the presence of additional passive components...

  9. Elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules within the strong-field approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etches, Adam; Madsen, Christian Bruun; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    A correction term is introduced in the stationary-point analysis on high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from aligned molecules. Arising from a multi-centre expansion of the electron wave function, this term brings our numerical calculations of the Lewenstein model into qualitative agreement with...

  10. A high-order external distributed feedback polymer laser with low working threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenbin; Pu, Donglin; Yang, Xiaofei; Wei, Guojun; Fang, Zongbao; Zhou, Xiaohong; Qiao, Wen; Chen, Linsen

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we report a high-order distributed feedback (DFB) polymer laser with low working threshold. Using the high-order grating increases the lithographic tolerances, providing coherent light sources that are more amenable to mass-manufacturing techniques, such as laser direct writing lithography and roll-to-roll processing. To enable high-order DFB lasing, an unconventional working configuration is designed in which the grating is situated on top of the uniform conjugated polymer film. In addition, a novel Forster energy transfer blend of two conjugated polymers is used as the gain medium. Upon pumping, the device emits lasing around 603.6 nm with a bandwidth of 0.5 nm. The threshold is around 20.5 μJ cm-2 (~2.56 kW cm-2), about to enter the regime of inexpensive LED pumping. A further increase in pump energy results in simultaneous oscillations at the 29th and 30th Bragg orders. Operating principles of the high-order DFB polymer laser, including spectral performance and threshold dependence on pump length, are investigated. This approach represents a step towards low-cost, even ‘disposable’ polymer lasers.

  11. Guided Assemblies of Ferritin Nanocages: Highly Ordered Arrays of Monodisperse Nanoscopic Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Y.; Chen, D; Park, S; Emrick, T; Russell, T

    2010-01-01

    High-density arrays of highly ordered ferritin nanocages are fabricated through the guided assembly of thiol-modified ferritin on prepatterned gold nanodots, which are prepared by block copolymer micelle lithography. One and only one ferritin nanocage is anchored to each gold nanodot, as confirmed by scanning electron and scanning force microscopy.

  12. High Order Finite Difference Methods, Multidimensional Linear Problems and Curvilinear Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Jan; Carpenter, Mark H.

    1999-01-01

    Boundary and interface conditions are derived for high order finite difference methods applied to multidimensional linear problems in curvilinear coordinates. The boundary and interface conditions lead to conservative schemes and strict and strong stability provided that certain metric conditions are met.

  13. A family of high-order targeted ENO schemes for compressible-fluid simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Hu, Xiangyu Y.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2016-01-01

    Although classical WENO schemes have achieved great success and are widely accepted, they exhibit several shortcomings. They are too dissipative for direct simulations of turbulence and lack robustness when very-high-order versions are applied to complex flows. In this paper, we propose a family of high-order targeted ENO schemes which are applicable for compressible-fluid simulations involving a wide range of flow scales. In order to increase the numerical robustness as compared to very-high-order classical WENO schemes, the reconstruction dynamically assembles a set of low-order candidate stencils with incrementally increasing width. While discontinuities and small-scale fluctuations are efficiently separated, the numerical dissipation is significantly diminished by an ENO-like stencil selection, which either applies a candidate stencil with its original linear weight, or removes its contribution when it is crossed by a discontinuity. The background linear scheme is optimized under the constraint of preserving an approximate dispersion-dissipation relation. By means of quasi-linear analyses and practical numerical experiments, a set of case-independent parameters is determined. The general formulation of arbitrarily high-order schemes is presented in a straightforward way. A variety of benchmark-test problems, including broadband waves, strong shock and contact discontinuities are studied. Compared to well-established classical WENO schemes, the present schemes exhibit significantly improved robustness, low numerical dissipation and sharp discontinuity capturing. They are particularly suitable for DNS and LES of shock-turbulence interactions.

  14. Control of high-order harmonic generation with two-colour laser field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Jun; Zeng Zhi-Nan; Li Ru-Xin; Xu Zhi-Zhan

    2010-01-01

    We numerically investigate the high-order harmonic generation with two-colour optical field,taking into consideration the propagation effects.Some harmonics can be dramatically enhanced at a certain delay between the fundamental pulse and its second harmonics.Choice of the enhanced harmonics can be realised by changing the time delay between the two laser pulses.

  15. Guided transmission of slow Ne ions through the nanochannels of highly ordered anodic alumina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.;

    2006-01-01

    A highly ordered hexagonally close-packed nanochannels array was prepared using the self-ordering phenomena during a two-step anodization process of a high purity aluminium foil. The anodized aluminium oxide, with pore diameters of about 280nm and interpore distances of about 450nm was prepared as...

  16. A hierarchy of high-order theories for modes in an elastic layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.; Chapman, C. John

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchy of high-order theories for symmetric and skew-symmetric modes in an infinitely long elastic layer of the constant thickness is derived. For each member of the hierarchy, boundary conditions for layers of the finite length are formulated. The forcing problems at several approximation...

  17. Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. ► MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS–CO–Cys). ► MPCS–CO–Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. ► Heavy metal ions such as Pb2+ and Cd2+ can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.

  18. High-order finite difference solution for 3D nonlinear wave-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter;

    2010-01-01

    This contribution presents our recent progress on developing an efficient fully-nonlinear potential flow model for simulating 3D wave-wave and wave-structure interaction over arbitrary depths (i.e. in coastal and offshore environment). The model is based on a high-order finite difference scheme...

  19. Reaching a consensus in networks of high-order integral agents under switching directed topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Long; Wang, Hanlei; Hou, Zeng-Guang; Tan, Min

    2016-06-01

    Consensus problem of high-order integral multi-agent systems under switching directed topology is considered in this study. Depending on whether the agent's full state is available or not, two distributed protocols are proposed to ensure that states of all agents can be convergent to a same stationary value. In the proposed protocols, the gain vector associated with the agent's (estimated) state and the gain vector associated with the relative (estimated) states between agents are designed in a sophisticated way. By this particular design, the high-order integral multi-agent system can be transformed into a first-order integral multi-agent system. Also, the convergence of the transformed first-order integral agent's state indicates the convergence of the original high-order integral agent's state, if and only if all roots of the polynomial, whose coefficients are the entries of the gain vector associated with the relative (estimated) states between agents, are in the open left-half complex plane. Therefore, many analysis techniques in the first-order integral multi-agent system can be directly borrowed to solve the problems in the high-order integral multi-agent system. Due to this property, it is proved that to reach a consensus, the switching directed topology of multi-agent system is only required to be 'uniformly jointly quasi-strongly connected', which seems the mildest connectivity condition in the literature. In addition, the consensus problem of discrete-time high-order integral multi-agent systems is studied. The corresponding consensus protocol and performance analysis are presented. Finally, three simulation examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. High Order Adjoint Derivatives using ESDIRK Methods for Oil Reservoir Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    and continuous adjoints . The high order integration scheme allows larger time steps and therefore faster solution times. We compare gradient computation by the continuous adjoint method to the discrete adjoint method and the finite-difference method. The methods are implemented for a two phase flow reservoir......In production optimization, computation of the gradients is the computationally expensive step. We improve the computational efficiency of such algorithms by improving the gradient computation using high-order ESDIRK (Explicit Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta) temporal integration methods...... simulator. Computational experiments demonstrate that the accuracy of the sensitivities obtained by the adjoint methods are comparable to the accuracy obtained by the finite difference method. The continuous adjoint method is able to use a different time grid than the forward integration. Therefore, it can...

  1. A Reconstruction Approach to High-Order Schemes Including Discontinuous Galerkin for Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, H. T.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to high-order accuracy for the numerical solution of diffusion problems by solving the equations in differential form using a reconstruction technique. The approach has the advantages of simplicity and economy. It results in several new high-order methods including a simplified version of discontinuous Galerkin (DG). It also leads to new definitions of common value and common gradient quantities at each interface shared by the two adjacent cells. In addition, the new approach clarifies the relations among the various choices of new and existing common quantities. Fourier stability and accuracy analyses are carried out for the resulting schemes. Extensions to the case of quadrilateral meshes are obtained via tensor products. For the two-point boundary value problem (steady state), it is shown that these schemes, which include most popular DG methods, yield exact common interface quantities as well as exact cell average solutions for nearly all cases.

  2. Pricing Exotic Options under a High-Order Markovian Regime Switching Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Ki Ching

    2007-01-01

    by a discrete-time Markovian regime-switching process driven by an observable, high-order Markov model (HOMM. We assume that the market interest rate, the drift, and the volatility of the underlying risky asset's return switch over time according to the states of the HOMM, which are interpreted as the states of an economy. We will then employ the well-known tool in actuarial science, namely, the Esscher transform to determine an equivalent martingale measure for option valuation. Moreover, we will also investigate the impact of the high-order effect of the states of the economy on the prices of some path-dependent exotic options, such as Asian options, lookback options, and barrier options.

  3. High-order aberration control during exposure for leading-edge lithography projection optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Yasuhiro; Tsuge, Yosuke; Hirayama, Toru; Ikezawa, Hironori; Inoue, Daisuke; Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Koizumi, Yukio; Hasegawa, Keisuke; Ishiyama, Satoshi; Nakashima, Toshiharu; Kikuchi, Takahisa; Onda, Minoru; Takase, Yohei; Nagahiro, Akimasa; Isago, Susumu; Kawahara, Hidetaka

    2016-03-01

    High throughput with high resolution imaging has been key to the development of leading-edge microlithography. However, management of thermal aberrations due to lens heating during exposure has become critical for simultaneous achievement of high throughput and high resolution. Thermal aberrations cause CD drift and overlay error, and these errors lead directly to edge placement errors (EPE). Management and control of high order thermal aberrations is a critical requirement. In this paper, we will show practical performance of the lens heating with dipole and other typical illumination conditions for finer patterning. We confirm that our new control system can reduce the high-order aberrations and enable critical-dimension uniformity CDU during the exposure.

  4. A wavelet-optimized, very high order adaptive grid and order numerical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Leland

    1996-01-01

    Differencing operators of arbitrarily high order can be constructed by interpolating a polynomial through a set of data followed by differentiation of this polynomial and finally evaluation of the polynomial at the point where a derivative approximation is desired. Furthermore, the interpolating polynomial can be constructed from algebraic, trigonometric, or, perhaps exponential polynomials. This paper begins with a comparison of such differencing operator construction. Next, the issue of proper grids for high order polynomials is addressed. Finally, an adaptive numerical method is introduced which adapts the numerical grid and the order of the differencing operator depending on the data. The numerical grid adaptation is performed on a Chebyshev grid. That is, at each level of refinement the grid is a Chebvshev grid and this grid is refined locally based on wavelet analysis.

  5. Retrieval of interatomic separations of molecules from laser-induced high-order harmonic spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We illustrate an iterative method for retrieving the internuclear separations of N2, O2 and CO2 molecules using the high-order harmonics generated from these molecules by intense infrared laser pulses. We show that accurate results can be retrieved with a small set of harmonics and with one or few alignment angles of the molecules. For linear molecules the internuclear separations can also be retrieved from harmonics generated using isotropically distributed molecules. By extracting the transition dipole moment from the high-order harmonic spectra, we further demonstrated that it is preferable to retrieve the interatomic separation iteratively by fitting the extracted dipole moment. Our results show that time-resolved chemical imaging of molecules using infrared laser pulses with femtosecond temporal resolutions is possible

  6. A High-Order Finite-Volume Algorithm for Fokker-Planck Collisions in Magnetized Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Z; Cohen, R H; Rognlien, T D; Xu, X Q

    2007-04-18

    A high-order finite volume algorithm is developed for the Fokker-Planck Operator (FPO) describing Coulomb collisions in strongly magnetized plasmas. The algorithm is based on a general fourth-order reconstruction scheme for an unstructured grid in the velocity space spanned by parallel velocity and magnetic moment. The method provides density conservation and high-order-accurate evaluation of the FPO independent of the choice of the velocity coordinates. As an example, a linearized FPO in constant-of-motion coordinates, i.e. the total energy and the magnetic moment, is developed using the present algorithm combined with a cut-cell merging procedure. Numerical tests include the Spitzer thermalization problem and the return to isotropy for distributions initialized with velocity space loss cones. Utilization of the method for a nonlinear FPO is straightforward but requires evaluation of the Rosenbluth potentials.

  7. A multiresolution method for solving the Poisson equation using high order regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel high order multiresolution Poisson solver based on regularized Green's function solutions to obtain exact free-space boundary conditions while using fast Fourier transforms for computational efficiency. Multiresolution is a achieved through local refinement patches and regulari......We present a novel high order multiresolution Poisson solver based on regularized Green's function solutions to obtain exact free-space boundary conditions while using fast Fourier transforms for computational efficiency. Multiresolution is a achieved through local refinement patches...... and regularized Green's functions corresponding to the difference in the spatial resolution between the patches. The full solution is obtained utilizing the linearity of the Poisson equation enabling super-position of solutions. We show that the multiresolution Poisson solver produces convergence rates...... that correspond to the regularization order of the derived Green's functions....

  8. An overset mesh approach for 3D mixed element high-order discretizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazell, Michael J.; Sitaraman, Jayanarayanan; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

    2016-10-01

    A parallel high-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is used to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in an overset mesh framework. The DG solver has many capabilities including: hp-adaption, curved cells, support for hybrid, mixed-element meshes, and moving meshes. Combining these capabilities with overset grids allows the DG solver to be used in problems with bodies in relative motion and in a near-body off-body solver strategy. The overset implementation is constructed to preserve the design accuracy of the baseline DG discretization. Multiple simulations are carried out to validate the accuracy and performance of the overset DG solver. These simulations demonstrate the capability of the high-order DG solver to handle complex geometry and large scale parallel simulations in an overset framework.

  9. Forward-smooth high-order uniform Aharonov–Bohm asymptotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    The Aharonov–Bohm (AB) function, describing a plane wave scattered by a flux line, is expanded asymptotically in a Fresnel-integral based series whose terms are smooth in the forward direction and uniformly valid in angle and flux. Successive approximations are valid for large distance r from the flux (or short wavelength) but are accurate even within one wavelength of it. Coefficients of all the terms are exhibited explicitly for the forward direction, enabling the high-order asymptotics to be understood in detail. The series is factorally divergent, with optimal truncation error exponentially small in r. Systematic resummation gives further exponential improvement. Terms of the series satisfy a resurgence relation: the high orders are related to the low orders. Discontinuities in the backward direction get smaller order by order, with systematic cancellation by successive terms. The relation to an earlier scheme based on the Cornu spiral is discussed.

  10. Stability predictions for high-order ΣΔ modulators based on quasilinear modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risbo, Lars

    1994-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel interpretation of the instability mechanisms in high-order one-bit Sigma-Delta modulators. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how the maximum stable amplitude range can be predicted very well. The results are obtained using an extension of the well known quasilinear mod...... modeling of the one-bit quantizer. The theoretical results are verified by numerical simulations of a number of realistic 4th order modulators designed by means of standard filter design tools. The results are useful for automated design and optimization of loop filters......This paper introduces a novel interpretation of the instability mechanisms in high-order one-bit Sigma-Delta modulators. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how the maximum stable amplitude range can be predicted very well. The results are obtained using an extension of the well known quasilinear...

  11. Stable and high order accurate difference methods for the elastic wave equation in discontinuous media

    KAUST Repository

    Duru, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. In this paper, we develop a stable and systematic procedure for numerical treatment of elastic waves in discontinuous and layered media. We consider both planar and curved interfaces where media parameters are allowed to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions at layer interfaces are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving lower bounds of the penalty strength and constructing discrete energy estimates we prove time stability. We present numerical experiments in two space dimensions to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method for simulations involving typical interface phenomena in elastic materials. The numerical experiments verify high order accuracy and time stability.

  12. A Compressible High-Order Unstructured Spectral Difference Code for Stratified Convection in Rotating Spherical Shells

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Junfeng; Miesch, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel and powerful Compressible High-ORder Unstructured Spectral-difference (CHORUS) code for simulating thermal convection and related fluid dynamics in the interiors of stars and planets. The computational geometries are treated as rotating spherical shells filled with stratified gas. The hydrodynamic equations are discretized by a robust and efficient high-order Spectral Difference Method (SDM) on unstructured meshes. The computational stencil of the spectral difference method is compact and advantageous for parallel processing. CHORUS demonstrates excellent parallel performance for all test cases reported in this paper, scaling up to 12,000 cores on the Yellowstone High-Performance Computing cluster at NCAR. The code is verified by defining two benchmark cases for global convection in Jupiter and the Sun. CHORUS results are compared with results from the ASH code and good agreement is found. The CHORUS code creates new opportunities for simulating such varied phenomena as multi-scale solar co...

  13. High order fluid model for streamer discharges: I. Derivation of model and transport data

    CERN Document Server

    Dujko, S; White, R D; Ebert, U

    2013-01-01

    Streamer discharges pose basic problems in plasma physics, as they are very transient, far from equilibrium and have high ionization density gradients; they appear in diverse areas of science and technology. The present paper focuses on the derivation of a high order fluid model for streamers. Using momentum transfer theory, the fluid equations are obtained as velocity moments of the Boltzmann equation; they are closed in the local mean energy approximation and coupled to the Poisson equation for the space charge generated electric field. The high order tensor in the energy flux equation is approximated by the product of two lower order moments to close the system. The average collision frequencies for momentum and energy transfer in elastic and inelastic collisions for electrons in molecular nitrogen are calculated from a multi term Boltzmann equation solution. We then discuss, in particular, (1) the correct implementation of transport data in streamer models; (2) the accuracy of the two term approximation f...

  14. European Workshop on High Order Nonlinear Numerical Schemes for Evolutionary PDEs

    CERN Document Server

    Beaugendre, Héloïse; Congedo, Pietro; Dobrzynski, Cécile; Perrier, Vincent; Ricchiuto, Mario

    2014-01-01

    This book collects papers presented during the European Workshop on High Order Nonlinear Numerical Methods for Evolutionary PDEs (HONOM 2013) that was held at INRIA Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, Talence, France in March, 2013. The central topic is high order methods for compressible fluid dynamics. In the workshop, and in this proceedings, greater emphasis is placed on the numerical than the theoretical aspects of this scientific field. The range of topics is broad, extending through algorithm design, accuracy, large scale computing, complex geometries, discontinuous Galerkin, finite element methods, Lagrangian hydrodynamics, finite difference methods and applications and uncertainty quantification. These techniques find practical applications in such fields as fluid mechanics, magnetohydrodynamics, nonlinear solid mechanics, and others for which genuinely nonlinear methods are needed.

  15. Highly ordered palladium nanodots and nanowires from switchable block copolymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhoje Gowd, E; Nandan, Bhanu; Vyas, Mukesh Kumar; Stamm, Manfred [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Hohe Strasse 6, 01069, Dresden (Germany); Bigall, Nadja C; Eychmueller, Alexander [Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, TU Dresden, Bergstrasse 66b, 01062, Dresden (Germany); Schloerb, Heike, E-mail: gowd@ipfdd.d, E-mail: nandan@ipfdd.d [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, PO Box 27 00 16, D-01171, Dresden (Germany)

    2009-10-14

    We demonstrate a new approach to fabricate highly ordered arrays of nanoscopic palladium dots and wires using switchable block copolymer thin films. The surface-reconstructed block copolymer templates were directly deposited with palladium nanoparticles from a simple aqueous solution. The preferential interaction of the nanoparticles with one of the blocks is mainly responsible for the lateral arrangement of the nanoparticles inside the pores of the templates in addition to the capillary forces. A subsequent stabilization by UV-irradiation followed by pyrolysis in air at 450 {sup 0}C removes the polymer to produce highly ordered metallic nanostructures. We extended this approach to micellar films to obtain metallic nanostructures. This method is highly versatile as the procedure used here is simple, eco-friendly and provides a simple approach to fabricate a broad range of nanoscaled architectures with tunable lateral spacing, and can be extended to systems with even smaller dimensions.

  16. High-order harmonic spectroscopy for molecular imaging of polyatomic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Negro, M; Faccialà, D; De Silvestri, S; Vozzi, C; Stagira, S

    2014-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation is a powerful and sensitive tool for probing atomic and molecular structures, combining in the same measurement an unprecedented attosecond temporal resolution with a high spatial resolution, of the order of the angstrom. Imaging of the outermost molecular orbital by high-order harmonic generation has been limited for a long time to very simple molecules, like nitrogen. Recently we demonstrated a technique that overcame several of the issues that have prevented the extension of molecular orbital tomography to more complex species, showing that molecular imaging can be applied to a triatomic molecule like carbon dioxide. Here we report on the application of such technique to nitrous oxide (N2O) and acetylene (C2H2). This result represents a first step towards the imaging of fragile compounds, a category which includes most of the fundamental biological molecules.

  17. Retrieval of interatomic separations of molecules from laser-induced high-order harmonic spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Van-Hoang; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ty [Department of Physics, University of Pedagogy, 280 An Duong Vuong, Ward 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Jin, C; Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C D [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2008-04-28

    We illustrate an iterative method for retrieving the internuclear separations of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} molecules using the high-order harmonics generated from these molecules by intense infrared laser pulses. We show that accurate results can be retrieved with a small set of harmonics and with one or few alignment angles of the molecules. For linear molecules the internuclear separations can also be retrieved from harmonics generated using isotropically distributed molecules. By extracting the transition dipole moment from the high-order harmonic spectra, we further demonstrated that it is preferable to retrieve the interatomic separation iteratively by fitting the extracted dipole moment. Our results show that time-resolved chemical imaging of molecules using infrared laser pulses with femtosecond temporal resolutions is possible.

  18. Performance optimization of high-order Lamb wave sensors based on silicon carbide substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Fan, Li; Zhang, Shu-yi; Zhang, Hui

    2016-02-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC), as a new type of material for substrates in micro-electromechanical system (MEMS), was given high consideration in virtue of the properties of high acoustic velocity, low loss, chemical resistance, and etc. In this work, five performance parameters, which are electromechanical coupling coefficients, mass sensitivities, conductivity sensitivities, insert losses and minimum detectable masses, are theoretically investigated in Lamb wave chemical sensors for gas sensing based on SiC substrates. It is presented that higher performance can be achieved based on high-order modes other than fundamental modes, and the abovementioned five parameters can be simultaneously optimized. Then, according to the optimized operating conditions, operating parameters of the SiC-based high-order Lamb wave sensors are designed, which can be easily realized in MEMS technology. Finally, it is demonstrates that the SiC-based sensor exhibits better performance than that of the sensor with a conventional silicon substrate.

  19. High-Order Above-Threshold Ionization of H+ in Intense Laser Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ying-Chun; FU Pan-Ming; WANG Bing-Bing

    2009-01-01

    The nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics method proposed by Fu et al.[Phys.Rev.A 75 (2007) 063419]is employed to study the high-order above-threshold ionization (ATI) of a diatomic molecule. Based on this frequency-domain theory,the high-order ATI process can be regarded as ATI followed by laser-assisted collision,where the total transition amplitude is the coherent summation of the contributions from each ATI channel.The angular-resolved ATI spectrum,which agrees with the results by Becket et al.based on the time-domain method,is obtained by this frequency domain theory.Furthermore,it is demonstrated that the interference characteristics representing the molecular structure in the ATI spectrum originates from the recollision of the electron with two-centre ion in each ATI channel.

  20. Validation of a RANS transition model using a high-order weighted compact nonlinear scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, GuoHua; Deng, XiaoGang; Mao, MeiLiang

    2013-04-01

    A modified transition model is given based on the shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model and an intermittency transport equation. The energy gradient term in the original model is replaced by flow strain rate to saving computational costs. The model employs local variables only, and then it can be conveniently implemented in modern computational fluid dynamics codes. The fifth-order weighted compact nonlinear scheme and the fourth-order staggered scheme are applied to discrete the governing equations for the purpose of minimizing discretization errors, so as to mitigate the confusion between numerical errors and transition model errors. The high-order package is compared with a second-order TVD method on simulating the transitional flow of a flat plate. Numerical results indicate that the high-order package give better grid convergence property than that of the second-order method. Validation of the transition model is performed for transitional flows ranging from low speed to hypersonic speed.

  1. Micro/Nanometer-scale fiber with highly ordered structures by mimicking the spinning process of silkworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Su-Kyoung; Kang, Edward; Khademhosseini, Ali; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2013-06-11

    A new method for the microfluidic spinning of ultrathin fibers with highly ordered structures is proposed by mimicking the spinning mechanism of silkworms. The self-aggregation is driven by dipole-dipole attractions between polar polymers upon contact with a low-polarity solvent to form fibers with nanostrands. The induction of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at the dehydrating interface between two miscible fluids generates multi-scale fibers in a single microchannel.

  2. Computational Aero-Acoustic Using High-order Finite-Difference Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a high-order technique to accurately predict flow-generated noise is introduced. The technique consists of solving the viscous incompressible flow equations and inviscid acoustic equations using a incompressible/compressible splitting technique. The incompressible flow equations are...... discretizations of the acoustic equations. The classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta time scheme is applied to the acoustic equations for time discretization....

  3. High Order Numerical Solution of Integral Transport Equation in Slab Geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈智军; 袁光伟; 沈隆钧

    2002-01-01

    @@ There are some common numerical methods for solving neutron transport equation, which including the well-known discrete ordinates method, PN approximation and integral transport methods[1]. There exists certain singularities in the solution of transport equation near the boundary and interface[2]. It gives rise to the difficulty in the construction of high order accurate numerical methods. The numerical solution obtained by now can not attain the second order convergent accuracy[3,4].

  4. Formation of highly ordered arrays of dimples on tantalum at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Hany; Singh, Sherdeep; Greiner, Mark T; Kruse, Peter

    2006-12-01

    We show that electropolishing of tantalum metal in a single step of about 5 min can reproducibly lead to dimples tens of nanometers in diameter, regular in shape, monodispersed in size, and arranged in highly ordered arrays which even transverse grain boundaries. Dimpled tantalum is ductile, high melting, and chemically inert, which makes it suitable for nanostructure synthesis even under extreme conditions, as demonstrated with a simple sputter coating and flame annealing procedure for gold nanoparticles. PMID:17163747

  5. High-Order Central WENO Schemes for 1D Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Steve; Levy, Doron; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we derive fully-discrete Central WENO (CWENO) schemes for approximating solutions of one dimensional Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations, which combine our previous works. We introduce third and fifth-order accurate schemes, which are the first central schemes for the HJ equations of order higher than two. The core ingredient is the derivation of our schemes is a high-order CWENO reconstructions in space.

  6. A high-order q-difference equation for q-Hahn multiple orthogonal polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvesú, J.; Esposito, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    A high-order linear q-difference equation with polynomial coefficients having q-Hahn multiple orthogonal polynomials as eigenfunctions is given. The order of the equation coincides with the number of orthogonality conditions that these polynomials satisfy. Some limiting situations when are studie....... Indeed, the difference equation for Hahn multiple orthogonal polynomials given in Lee [J. Approx. Theory (2007), ), doi: 10.1016/j.jat.2007.06.002] is obtained as a limiting case....

  7. 10th International Conference on Spectral and High-Order Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Berzins, Martin; Hesthaven, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The book contains a selection of high quality papers, chosen among the best presentations during the International Conference on Spectral and High-Order Methods (2014), and provides an overview of the depth and breadth of the activities within this important research area.  The carefully reviewed selection of papers will provide the reader with a snapshot of the state-of-the-art and help initiate new research directions through the extensive biography.

  8. Application of a High Order Finite Volume Scheme on Unstructured Grids to Fluid Dynamics and Aerothermochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Haider, F.; Bertier, N.; Courbet, B.; Vuillot, F.; Croisille, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a high order finite volume scheme built on a new k-exact reconstruction algorithm for general unstructured grids. The algorithm is capable of computing accurate polynomial approximations using data from adjacent cells only, overcoming a major obstacle to extend classical finite volume schemes beyond 2 nd order spatial accuracy. Moreover, it can easily be integrated in a cell or vertex centered finite volume method that uses the cell averages as the only unknown per grid ce...

  9. High order discontinuous finite-volume/finite-element method for CFD applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezani A; Stipcich G.

    2014-01-01

    The proposed method naturally merges the desirable conservative properties and intuitive physical formulation of the widely used finite-volume (FV) technique, with the capability of local arbitrary high-order accuracy and high-resolution which is distinctive in the discontinuous finite-element (FE) framework. This relatively novel scheme, the discontinuous hybrid control-volume/finite-element method (DCVFEM), has been already applied to the solution of advection-diffusion problems and shallow...

  10. Discontinuous high-order finite-volume/finite-element method for inviscid compressible flows

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezani A; Stipcich G.; Remaki L.

    2015-01-01

    The discontinuous, hybrid control-volume/finite-element method merges the desirable conservative properties and intuitive physical formulation of the finite-volume technique, with the capability of local arbitrary high-order accuracy distinctive of the discontinuous finite-element method. This relatively novel scheme has been previously applied to the solution of advection-diffusion problems and the shallow-water equations, and is in the present work extended to the Euler equations. The deriv...

  11. High-Order Stochastic Adaptive Controller Design with Application to Mechanical System

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Tian; Wei Feng; Yuzhen Wang

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to apply stochastic adaptive controller design to mechanical system. Firstly, by a series of coordinate transformations, the mechanical system can be transformed to a class of special high-order stochastic nonlinear system, based on which, a more general mathematical model is considered, and the smooth state-feedback controller is designed. At last, the simulation for the mechanical system is given to show the effectiveness of the design scheme.

  12. High-order sliding modes and intelligent PID controllers: First steps toward a practical comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Riachy, Samer; Fliess, Michel; Join, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This communication is devoted to a "practical" comparison between high-order sliding modes and the recently introduced model-free control. The perfect knowledge of the relative degree of the output variable, which is a standard assumption for sliding modes, is assumed here. Our comparisons are based on two concrete case-studies and on numerous computer simulations. The smoothness of the input variables, the robustness with respect to noises and the straightforward exte...

  13. MIMO Detection for High-Order QAM Based on a Gaussian Tree Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberger, Jacobb; Leshem, Amir

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new detection algorithm for MIMO communication systems employing high order QAM constellations. The factor graph that corresponds to this problem is very loopy; in fact, it is a complete graph. Hence, a straightforward application of the Belief Propagation (BP) algorithm yields very poor results. Our algorithm is based on an optimal tree approximation of the Gaussian density of the unconstrained linear system. The finite-set constraint is then applied to obtain a loop-fr...

  14. Implementation of the high-order schemes QUICK and LECUSSO in the COMMIX-1C Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, K.; Sun, J.G.; Sha, W.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1995-08-01

    Multidimensional analysis computer programs based on the finite volume method, such as COMMIX-1C, have been commonly used to simulate thermal-hydraulic phenomena in engineering systems such as nuclear reactors. In COMMIX-1C, the first-order schemes with respect to both space and time are used. In many situations such as flow recirculations and stratifications with steep gradient of velocity and temperature fields, however, high-order difference schemes are necessary for an accurate prediction of the fields. For these reasons, two second-order finite difference numerical schemes, QUICK (Quadratic Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinematics) and LECUSSO (Local Exact Consistent Upwind Scheme of Second Order), have been implemented in the COMMIX-1C computer code. The formulations were derived for general three-dimensional flows with nonuniform grid sizes. Numerical oscillation analyses for QUICK and LECUSSO were performed. To damp the unphysical oscillations which occur in calculations with high-order schemes at high mesh Reynolds numbers, a new FRAM (Filtering Remedy and Methodology) scheme was developed and implemented. To be consistent with the high-order schemes, the pressure equation and the boundary conditions for all the conservation equations were also modified to be of second order. The new capabilities in the code are listed. Test calculations were performed to validate the implementation of the high-order schemes. They include the test of the one-dimensional nonlinear Burgers equation, two-dimensional scalar transport in two impinging streams, von Karmann vortex shedding, shear driven cavity flow, Couette flow, and circular pipe flow. The calculated results were compared with available data; the agreement is good.

  15. Wavelet Expansion and High-order Regularization for Multiscale Fluid-motion Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Dérian, Pierre; Héas, Patrick; Herzet, Cédric; Memin, Etienne

    2010-01-01

    We consider a novel optic flow estimation algorithm based on a wavelet expansion of the velocity field. In particular, we propose an efficient gradient-based estimation algorithm which naturally encompasses the estimation process into a multiresolution framework while avoiding most of the drawbacks common to this kind of hierarchical methods. We then emphasize that the proposed methodology is well-suited to the practical implementation of high-order regularizations. The powerfulness of the pr...

  16. Highly Ordered Carbon Nanotube Arrays with Open Ends Grown in Anodic Alumina Nanoholes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Highly ordered multiwalled carbon nanotube arrays were fabricated by pyrolysis of acetylene within anodic alumina templates.Nanotubes are very uniform in diameter and open at both ends. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction analysis show that the carbon nanotubes are well graphitized. These standing and open carbon nanotubes are possible to offer a potential elegant technique for electron emitting devices,chemical functionalization and nanotube composites.

  17. Quasi-phase-matching of high-order-harmonic generation using multimode polarization beating

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lewis Z.; O'Keeffe, Kevin; Hooker, Simon M.

    2013-01-01

    The generalization of quasi-phase-matching using polarization beating and of multimode quasi-phase-matching (MMQPM) for the generation of high-order harmonics is explored, and a method for achieving polarization beating is proposed. If two (and in principle more) modes of a waveguide are excited, modulation of the intensity, phase, and/or polarization of the guided radiation will be achieved. By appropriately matching the period of this modulation to the coherence length, quasi-phase-matching...

  18. Dissipative issue of high-order shock capturing schemes with non-convex equations of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that, closed with a non-convex equation of state (EOS), the Riemann problem for the Euler equations allows non-standard waves, such as split shocks, sonic isentropic compressions or rarefaction shocks, to occur. Loss of convexity then leads to non-uniqueness of entropic or Lax solutions, which can only be resolved via the Liu-Oleinik criterion (equivalent to the existence of viscous profiles for all admissible shock waves). This suggests that in order to capture the physical solution, a numerical scheme must provide an appropriate level of dissipation. A legitimate question then concerns the ability of high-order shock capturing schemes to naturally select such a solution. To investigate this question and evaluate modern as well as future high-order numerical schemes, there is therefore a crucial need for well-documented benchmarks. A thermodynamically consistent C∞ non-convex EOS that can be easily introduced in Eulerian as well as Lagrangian hydrocodes for test purposes is here proposed, along with a reference solution for an initial value problem exhibiting a complex composite wave pattern (the Bizarrium test problem). Two standard Lagrangian numerical approaches, both based on a finite volume method, are then reviewed (vNR and Godunov-type schemes) and evaluated on this Riemann problem. In particular, a complete description of several state-of-the-art high-order Godunov-type schemes applicable to general EOSs is provided. We show that this particular test problem reveals quite severe when working on high-order schemes, and recommend it as a benchmark for devising new limiters and/or next-generation highly accurate schemes

  19. Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, J. L.

    2010-09-17

    A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.

  20. The effect of dressing on high-order harmonic generation in vibrating H$_2$ molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Chirila, C. C.; Lein, M.

    2008-01-01

    We develop the strong-field approximation for high-order harmonic generation in hydrogen molecules, including the vibrational motion and the laser-induced coupling of the lowest two Born-Oppenheimer states in the molecular ion that is created by the initial ionization of the molecule. We show that the field dressing becomes important at long laser wavelengths ($\\approx 2 \\mu$m), leading to an overall reduction of harmonic generation and modifying the ratio of harmonic signals from different i...

  1. Research on Appraisal System of Procurator Performance by Using High-Order CFA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-mao Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosecutor is the main body of procuratorial organs. The performance appraisal system plays an important role in promoting the work efficiency of procurator. In this paper, we establish the performance appraisal system of procurators by high-order confirmatory factor analysis method and evaluate procurators’ performance by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method based on the 360 degrees. The results have some help to performance management of procuratorial organs.

  2. Research on Appraisal System of Procurator Performance by Using High-Order CFA Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-mao Huang

    2014-01-01

    The prosecutor is the main body of procuratorial organs. The performance appraisal system plays an important role in promoting the work efficiency of procurator. In this paper, we establish the performance appraisal system of procurators by high-order confirmatory factor analysis method and evaluate procurators’ performance by fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method based on the 360 degrees. The results have some help to performance management of procuratorial organs.

  3. Narrow-bandwidth high-order harmonics driven by long-duration hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Maxim; Kfir, Ofer; Fleischer, Avner; Kaplan, Alex; Carmon, Tal; Schwefel, Harald G. L.; Bartal, Guy; Cohen, Oren

    2012-06-01

    We predict and investigate the emission of high-order harmonics by atoms that cross intense laser hot spots that last for a nanosecond or longer. An atom that moves through a nanometer-scale hot spot at characteristic thermal velocity can emit high-order harmonics in a similar fashion to an atom that is irradiated by a short-duration (picosecond-scale) laser pulse. We analyze the collective emission from a thermal gas and from a jet of atoms. In both cases, the line shape of a high-order harmonic exhibits a narrow spike with spectral width that is determined by the bandwidth of the driving laser. Finally, we discuss a scheme for producing long-duration laser hot spots with intensity in the range of the intensity threshold for high-harmonic generation. In the proposed scheme, the hot spot is produced by a long laser pulse that is consecutively coupled to a high-quality micro-resonator and a metallic nano-antenna. This system may be used for generating ultra-narrow bandwidth extreme-ultraviolet radiation through frequency up-conversion of a low-cost compact pump laser.

  4. HFVS: An arbitrary high order approach based on flux vector splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yibing; Jiang, Song; Liu, Na

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a new scheme of arbitrary high order accuracy in both space and time is proposed to solve hyperbolic conservative laws. The basic idea in the construction is that, based on the idea of the flux vector splitting (FVS), we split all the spatial and time derivatives in the Taylor expansion of the numerical flux into two parts: one part with positive eigenvalues, another with negative eigenvalues. According to a Lax-Wendroff procedure, all the time derivatives are then replaced by spatial derivatives, which are evaluated by using WENO reconstruction polynomials. One of the most significant advantages of the current scheme is very easy to implement. In addition, it is found that the higher spatial and time derivatives produced in the construction of the numerical flux can be regarded as a building block, in the sense that they can be coupled with any extact/approximate Riemann solvers to extend a first-order scheme to very high order accuracy in both space and time. Numerous numerical tests for linear and nonlinear hyperbolic conservative laws are carried out, and the numerical results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is robust and can be of high order accuracy in both space and time.

  5. Effects of high-order operators in non-relativistic Lifshitz holography

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xinwen; Tian, Miao; Wang, Anzhong; Deng, Yanbin; Cleaver, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of high-order operators on the non-relativistic Lifshitz holography in the framework of the Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz (HL) theory of gravity, which naturally contains high-order operators in order for the theory to be power-counting renormalizble, and provides an ideal place to study these effects. In particular, we show that the Lifshitz space-time is still a solution of the full theory of the HL gravity. The effects of the high-oder operators on the space-time itself is simply to shift the Lifshitz dynamical exponent. However, while in the infrared the asymptotic behavior of a (probe) scalar field near the boundary is similar to that studied in the literature, it gets dramatically modified in the UV limit, because of the presence of the high-order operators in this regime. Then, according to the gauge/gravity duality, this in turn affects the two-point correlation functions.

  6. High order finite difference methods with subcell resolution for advection equations with stiff source terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei [Deprartment of Mathematics. Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Shu, Chi-Wang [Division of Applied Mathematics. Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Yee, H.C. [NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA (United States); Sjögreen, Björn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A new high order finite-difference method utilizing the idea of Harten ENO subcell resolution method is proposed for chemical reactive flows and combustion. In reaction problems, when the reaction time scale is very small, e.g., orders of magnitude smaller than the fluid dynamics time scales, the governing equations will become very stiff. Wrong propagation speed of discontinuity may occur due to the underresolved numerical solution in both space and time. The present proposed method is a modified fractional step method which solves the convection step and reaction step separately. In the convection step, any high order shock-capturing method can be used. In the reaction step, an ODE solver is applied but with the computed flow variables in the shock region modified by the Harten subcell resolution idea. For numerical experiments, a fifth-order finite-difference WENO scheme and its anti-diffusion WENO variant are considered. A wide range of 1D and 2D scalar and Euler system test cases are investigated. Studies indicate that for the considered test cases, the new method maintains high order accuracy in space for smooth flows, and for stiff source terms with discontinuities, it can capture the correct propagation speed of discontinuities in very coarse meshes with reasonable CFL numbers.

  7. Effects of high order deformations on the strength of planar lattice materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wang; Yihui Zhang; Daining Fang

    2008-01-01

    Lattice materials have been attractive over the last decade for use as load-carrying structures, energy absorbing elements and heat exchanging structures because of their excellent mechanical properties and multifunctional charac-ters. However, the quantitative analysis accounting for high order deformations upon the collapse of lattice materials, which is important for their applications, has not been repor-ted. An analytical investigation of yield surfaces with res-pect to the high order deformations was carried out for two typical planar lattice materials: triangular and Kagome lat-tices separately. The analytical results were validated by the finite element method (FEM) simulations. It was found that the effect of high order deformation on the yield strength increases with the relative density. The bending effect of the Kagome lattice is more obvious than that of the triangular one with the same relative density and stress state. The yield strength of the Kagome lattice calculated by neglecting the bending effect overestimates the result by more than 10% when the relative density is higher than about 11.1%, which may not be ignored in engineering applications. The yiel-ding surfaces of the two lattice materials demonstrated in the paper also confirm the analytical results.

  8. Time-Frequency Analysis Using Warped-Based High-Order Phase Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Cornel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-order ambiguity function (HAF was introduced for the estimation of polynomial-phase signals (PPS embedded in noise. Since the HAF is a nonlinear operator, it suffers from noise-masking effects and from the appearance of undesired cross-terms when multicomponents PPS are analyzed. In order to improve the performances of the HAF, the multi-lag HAF concept was proposed. Based on this approach, several advanced methods (e.g., product high-order ambiguity function (PHAF have been recently proposed. Nevertheless, performances of these new methods are affected by the error propagation effect which drastically limits the order of the polynomial approximation. This phenomenon acts especially when a high-order polynomial modeling is needed: representation of the digital modulation signals or the acoustic transient signals. This effect is caused by the technique used for polynomial order reduction, common for existing approaches: signal multiplication with the complex conjugated exponentials formed with the estimated coefficients. In this paper, we introduce an alternative method to reduce the polynomial order, based on the successive unitary signal transformation, according to each polynomial order. We will prove that this method reduces considerably the effect of error propagation. Namely, with this order reduction method, the estimation error at a given order will depend only on the performances of the estimation method.

  9. High order symplectic conservative perturbation method for time-varying Hamiltonian system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Hui Fu; Ke-Lang Lu; Lin-Hua Lan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a high order symplectic conservative perturbation method for linear time-varying Hamiltonian system.Firstly,the dynamic equation of Hamiltonian system is gradually changed into a high order perturbation equation,which is solved approximately by resolving the Hamiltonian coefficient matrix into a "major component" and a "high order small quantity" and using perturbation transformation technique,then the solution to the original equation of Hamiltonian system is determined through a series of inverse transform.Because the transfer matrix determined by the method in this paper is the product of a series of exponential matrixes,the transfer matrix is a symplectic matrix; furthermore,the exponential matrices can be calculated accurately by the precise time integration method,so the method presented in this paper has fine accuracy,efficiency and stability.The examples show that the proposed method can also give good results even though a large time step is selected,and with the increase of the perturbation order,the perturbation solutions tend to exact solutions rapidly.

  10. photon-plasma: A modern high-order particle-in-cell code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugbølle, Troels [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark); Frederiksen, Jacob Trier [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Nordlund, Åke [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-06-15

    We present the photon-plasma code, a modern high order charge conserving particle-in-cell code for simulating relativistic plasmas. The code is using a high order implicit field solver and a novel high order charge conserving interpolation scheme for particle-to-cell interpolation and charge deposition. It includes powerful diagnostics tools with on-the-fly particle tracking, synthetic spectra integration, 2D volume slicing, and a new method to correctly account for radiative cooling in the simulations. A robust technique for imposing (time-dependent) particle and field fluxes on the boundaries is also presented. Using a hybrid OpenMP and MPI approach, the code scales efficiently from 8 to more than 250.000 cores with almost linear weak scaling on a range of architectures. The code is tested with the classical benchmarks particle heating, cold beam instability, and two-stream instability. We also present particle-in-cell simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and new results on radiative collisionless shocks.

  11. photon-plasma: A modern high-order particle-in-cell code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the photon-plasma code, a modern high order charge conserving particle-in-cell code for simulating relativistic plasmas. The code is using a high order implicit field solver and a novel high order charge conserving interpolation scheme for particle-to-cell interpolation and charge deposition. It includes powerful diagnostics tools with on-the-fly particle tracking, synthetic spectra integration, 2D volume slicing, and a new method to correctly account for radiative cooling in the simulations. A robust technique for imposing (time-dependent) particle and field fluxes on the boundaries is also presented. Using a hybrid OpenMP and MPI approach, the code scales efficiently from 8 to more than 250.000 cores with almost linear weak scaling on a range of architectures. The code is tested with the classical benchmarks particle heating, cold beam instability, and two-stream instability. We also present particle-in-cell simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and new results on radiative collisionless shocks

  12. A Novel High Order Time Domain Vector Finite Element Method for the Simulation of Electromagnetic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieben, Robert N. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is two-fold. The first part concerns the development of a numerical method for solving Maxwell's equations on unstructured hexahedral grids that employs both high order spatial and high order temporal discretizations. The second part involves the use of this method as a computational tool to perform high fidelity simulations of various electromagnetic devices such as optical transmission lines and photonic crystal structures to yield a level of accuracy that has previously been computationally cost prohibitive. This work is based on the initial research of Daniel White who developed a provably stable, charge and energy conserving method for solving Maxwell's equations in the time domain that is second order accurate in both space and time. The research presented here has involved the generalization of this procedure to higher order methods. High order methods are capable of yielding far more accurate numerical results for certain problems when compared to corresponding h-refined first order methods , and often times at a significant reduction in total computational cost. The first half of this dissertation presents the method as well as the necessary mathematics required for its derivation. The second half addresses the implementation of the method in a parallel computational environment, its validation using benchmark problems, and finally its use in large scale numerical simulations of electromagnetic transmission devices.

  13. Tunable high-order sideband spectra generation using a photonic molecule optomechanical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Cong; Mi, Si-Chen; Gao, Yong-Pan; He, Ling-Yan; Yang, Daquan; Wang, Tie-Jun; Zhang, Ru; Wang, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    A tunable high-order sideband spectra generation scheme is presented by using a photonic molecule optomechanical system coupled to a waveguide beyond the perturbation regime. The system is coherently driven by a two-tone laser consisting of a continuous-wave control field and a pulsed driving field which propagates through the waveguide. The frequency spectral feature of the output field is analyzed via numerical simulations, and we confirm that under the condition of intense and nanosecond pulse driving, the output spectrum exhibits the properties of high-order sideband frequency spectra. In the experimentally available parameter range, the output spectrum can be efficiently tuned by the system parameters, including the power of the driving pulse and the coupling rate between the cavities. In addition, analysis of the carrier-envelop phase-dependent effect of high-order sideband generation indicates that the system may present dependence upon the phase of the pulse. This may provide a further insight of the properties of cavity optomechanics in the nonlinear and non-perturbative regime, and may have potential applications in optical frequency comb and communication based on the optomechanical platform.

  14. A Novel High Order Time Domain Vector Finite Element Method for the Simulation of Electromagnetic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieben, R N

    2004-07-20

    The goal of this dissertation is twofold. The first part concerns the development of a numerical method for solving Maxwell's equations on unstructured hexahedral grids that employs both high order spatial and high order temporal discretizations. The second part involves the use of this method as a computational tool to perform high fidelity simulations of various electromagnetic devices such as optical transmission lines and photonic crystal structures to yield a level of accuracy that has previously been computationally cost prohibitive. This work is based on the initial research of Daniel White who developed a provably stable, charge and energy conserving method for solving Maxwell's equations in the time domain that is second order accurate in both space and time. The research presented here has involved the generalization of this procedure to higher order methods. High order methods are capable of yielding far more accurate numerical results for certain problems when compared to corresponding h-refined first order methods , and often times at a significant reduction in total computational cost. The first half of this dissertation presents the method as well as the necessary mathematics required for its derivation. The second half addresses the implementation of the method in a parallel computational environment, its validation using benchmark problems, and finally its use in large scale numerical simulations of electromagnetic transmission devices.

  15. Using high-order methods on adaptively refined block-structured meshes - discretizations, interpolations, and filters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lefantzi, Sophia; Najm, Habib N.; Kennedy, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    Block-structured adaptively refined meshes (SAMR) strive for efficient resolution of partial differential equations (PDEs) solved on large computational domains by clustering mesh points only where required by large gradients. Previous work has indicated that fourth-order convergence can be achieved on such meshes by using a suitable combination of high-order discretizations, interpolations, and filters and can deliver significant computational savings over conventional second-order methods at engineering error tolerances. In this paper, we explore the interactions between the errors introduced by discretizations, interpolations and filters. We develop general expressions for high-order discretizations, interpolations, and filters, in multiple dimensions, using a Fourier approach, facilitating the high-order SAMR implementation. We derive a formulation for the necessary interpolation order for given discretization and derivative orders. We also illustrate this order relationship empirically using one and two-dimensional model problems on refined meshes. We study the observed increase in accuracy with increasing interpolation order. We also examine the empirically observed order of convergence, as the effective resolution of the mesh is increased by successively adding levels of refinement, with different orders of discretization, interpolation, or filtering.

  16. A High-Order Accurate Parallel Solver for Maxwell's Equations on Overlapping Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henshaw, W D

    2005-09-23

    A scheme for the solution of the time dependent Maxwell's equations on composite overlapping grids is described. The method uses high-order accurate approximations in space and time for Maxwell's equations written as a second-order vector wave equation. High-order accurate symmetric difference approximations to the generalized Laplace operator are constructed for curvilinear component grids. The modified equation approach is used to develop high-order accurate approximations that only use three time levels and have the same time-stepping restriction as the second-order scheme. Discrete boundary conditions for perfect electrical conductors and for material interfaces are developed and analyzed. The implementation is optimized for component grids that are Cartesian, resulting in a fast and efficient method. The solver runs on parallel machines with each component grid distributed across one or more processors. Numerical results in two- and three-dimensions are presented for the fourth-order accurate version of the method. These results demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the approach.

  17. PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH ORDER LONGITUDINAL MODES IN STEEL STRANDS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zenghua Liu; Su Liu; Bin Wu; Yinong Zhang; Cunfu He

    2008-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of high order longitudinal modes of ultrasonic guided waves in seven-wire steel strands are investigated theoretically and experimentally. According to these analysis results, proper longitudinal modes are selected for defect detection in steel strands.Dispersion curves for helical and central wires in a 17.80 mm nominal diameter seven-wire steel strand are numerically obtained firstly, and propagation characteristics of high-order longitudinal modes, such as wave structures, attenuation and dispersion, are analyzed. In experiments, the signals of ultrasonic guided wave at different high frequencies are excited and received at one end of a steel strand by using the same single piezoelectric transducer. The identification of longitudinal modes in the received signals is achieved based on short time Fourier transform. Furthermore,appropriate L(0, 5) mode at 2.54 MHz is chosen for detecting an artificial defect in a helical wire of the steel strand. Results show that high order longitudinal modes in a high frequency range with low dispersion and attenuation whose energy propagates mainly in the center of the wires can be used for defect detection in long range steel strands.

  18. Minimum in the high-order harmonic generation spectrum from molecules: role of excited states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yong-Chang; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    We model the process of high-order harmonic generation by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for H+2 in the fixed nuclei approximation including full 3D electron motion for nonvanishing angles between the nuclear axis and the linear polarization of the driving pulse. We show that the...... coherent laser coupling induced between the 2Σ+g(1sσg) ground state and the first excited 2Σ+u(2pσu) state leads to two dominating amplitudes for the high-order harmonic generation that may interfere: amplitudes describing recombination back into the σg and σu states, respectively. These two amplitudes may...... interfere destructively or constructively. The effect of a destructive interference is very clear through the occurrence of a minimum in the high-order harmonic spectrum. We show cases where such a minimum in the spectrum is approximately at the position predicted by the simple two-centre interference...

  19. A comparison of high-order polynomial and wave-based methods for Helmholtz problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Alice; Gabard, Gwénaël; Bériot, Hadrien

    2016-09-01

    The application of computational modelling to wave propagation problems is hindered by the dispersion error introduced by the discretisation. Two common strategies to address this issue are to use high-order polynomial shape functions (e.g. hp-FEM), or to use physics-based, or Trefftz, methods where the shape functions are local solutions of the problem (typically plane waves). Both strategies have been actively developed over the past decades and both have demonstrated their benefits compared to conventional finite-element methods, but they have yet to be compared. In this paper a high-order polynomial method (p-FEM with Lobatto polynomials) and the wave-based discontinuous Galerkin method are compared for two-dimensional Helmholtz problems. A number of different benchmark problems are used to perform a detailed and systematic assessment of the relative merits of these two methods in terms of interpolation properties, performance and conditioning. It is generally assumed that a wave-based method naturally provides better accuracy compared to polynomial methods since the plane waves or Bessel functions used in these methods are exact solutions of the Helmholtz equation. Results indicate that this expectation does not necessarily translate into a clear benefit, and that the differences in performance, accuracy and conditioning are more nuanced than generally assumed. The high-order polynomial method can in fact deliver comparable, and in some cases superior, performance compared to the wave-based DGM. In addition to benchmarking the intrinsic computational performance of these methods, a number of practical issues associated with realistic applications are also discussed.

  20. Landing gear noise prediction using high-order finite difference schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, W.; Kim, J. W.; Zhang, X; Angland, D.; BASTIEN, C

    2012-01-01

    Aerodynamic noise from a generic two-wheel landing-gear model is predicted by a CFD/FW-H hybrid approach. The unsteady flow-field is computed using a compressible Navier–Stokes solver based on high-order finite difference schemes and a fully structured grid. The calculated time history of the surface pressure data is used in an FW-H solver to predict the far-field noise levels. Both aerodynamic and aeroacoustic results are compared to wind tunnel measurements and are found to be in good agree...

  1. High-order harmonic generation in Ar and Ne with a 45fs intense laser field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐至展; 王迎松; 翟侃; 李学信; 刘亚青; 杨晓东; 张正泉; 李儒新; 张文琦

    1999-01-01

    Experimental results of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in Ar and Ne gas driven with a 45fs Ti: sapphire laser are presented. The shortest-wavelength harmonic emission corresponding to the 91st order harmonic (8.63nm) is observed in argon. In neon, the harmonics up to order 131 (5.99nm) is also observed. The effects of gas density, laser intensity, free electron and the focusing geometry parameters of the laser beam on the process of harmonic generation are investigated. The direct experimental evidence that an increased electron density causes a degenerated harmonic radiation is obtained.

  2. A truncated implicit high-order finite-difference scheme combined with boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Suo-Liang; Liu, Yang

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, first we calculate finite-difference coefficients of implicit finitedifference methods (IFDM) for the first- and second-order derivatives on normal grids and firstorder derivatives on staggered grids and find that small coefficients of high-order IFDMs exist. Dispersion analysis demonstrates that omitting these small coefficients can retain approximately the same order accuracy but greatly reduce computational costs. Then, we introduce a mirrorimage symmetric boundary condition to improve IFDMs accuracy and stability and adopt the hybrid absorbing boundary condition (ABC) to reduce unwanted reflections from the model boundary. Last, we give elastic wave modeling examples for homogeneous and heterogeneous models to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed scheme.

  3. Free Electron Lasers Seeded by ir Laser Driven High-order Harmonic Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juhao; Bolton, Paul R.; /SLAC; Murphy, James B.; /BNL, NSLS; Zhong, Xinming; /Beijing Normal U.

    2007-03-12

    Coherent x-ray production by a seeded free electron laser (FEL) is important for next generation synchrotron light sources. We examine the feasibility and features of FEL emission seeded by a high-order harmonic of an infrared laser (HHG). In addition to the intrinsic FEL chirp, the longitudinal profile and spectral bandwidth of the HHG seed are modified significantly by the FEL interaction well before saturation. This smears out the original attosecond pulselet structure. We introduce criteria for this smearing effect on the pulselet and the stretching effect on the entire pulse. We discuss the noise issue in such a seeded FEL.

  4. Explicit high-order symplectic integrators for charged particles in general electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Molei

    2016-01-01

    This article considers non-relativistic charged particle dynamics in both static and non-static electromagnetic fields, which are governed by nonseparable, possibly time-dependent Hamiltonians. For the first time, explicit symplectic integrators of arbitrary high-orders are constructed for accurate and efficient simulations of such mechanical systems. Performances superior to the standard non-symplectic method of Runge-Kutta are demonstrated on two examples: the first is on the confined motion of a particle in a static toroidal magnetic field used in tokamak; the second is on how time-periodic perturbations to a magnetic field inject energy into a particle via parametric resonance at a specific frequency.

  5. Alignment dependent ultrafast electron-nuclear dynamics in high-order harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Mu-Zi; Bian, Xue-Bin

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) process of diatomic molecular ion $\\mathrm{H}_2^+$ in non-Born-Oppenheimer approximations. The corresponding three-dimensional time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation is solved with arbitrary alignment angles. It is found that the nuclear motion can lead to spectral modulation of HHG. Redshifts are unique in molecular HHG which decrease with the increase of alignment angles of the molecules and are sensitive to the initial vibrational states. It can be used to extract the ultrafast electron-nuclear dynamics and image molecular structure.

  6. Nodal DG-FEM solution of high-order Boussinesq-type equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Hesthaven, Jan S.; Bingham, Harry B.;

    2006-01-01

    We present a discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) solution to a set of high-order Boussinesq-type equations for modelling highly nonlinear and dispersive water waves in one and two horizontal dimensions. The continuous equations are discretized using nodal polynomial basis...... and convergence of the model with both h (grid size) and p (order) refinement are verified for the linearized equations, and calculations are provided for two nonlinear test cases in one horizontal dimension: harmonic generation over a submerged bar; and reflection of a steep solitary wave from a vertical wall...

  7. High-order exact solutions for pseudo-plane ideal flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Che

    2016-08-01

    A steady pseudo-plane ideal flow (PIF) model is derived from the 3D Euler equations under Boussinesq approximation. The model is solved analytically to yield high-degree polynomial exact solutions. Unlike quadratic flows, the cubic and quartic solutions display reduced geometry in the form of straightline jet, circular vortex, and multipolar strain field. The high-order circular-vortex solutions are vertically aligned and even the non-aligned multipolar strain-field solutions display vertical concentricity. Such geometry reduction is explained by an analytical theorem stating that only straightline jet and circular vortex have functional solutions to the PIF model.

  8. Lucas Polynomial Approach for System of High-Order Linear Differential Equations and Residual Error Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Çetin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximation method based on Lucas polynomials is presented for the solution of the system of high-order linear differential equations with variable coefficients under the mixed conditions. This method transforms the system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs to the linear algebraic equations system by expanding the approximate solutions in terms of the Lucas polynomials with unknown coefficients and by using the matrix operations and collocation points. In addition, the error analysis based on residual function is developed for present method. To demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the method, numerical examples are given with the help of computer programmes written in Maple and Matlab.

  9. Computational performance of a parallelized high-order spectral and mortar element toolbox

    CERN Document Server

    Bouffanais, Roland; Gruber, Ralf; Deville, Michel O

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive performance review of a MPI-based high-order spectral and mortar element method C++ toolbox is presented. The focus is put on the performance evaluation of several aspects with a particular emphasis on the parallel efficiency. The performance evaluation is analyzed and compared to predictions given by a heuristic model, the so-called Gamma model. A tailor-made CFD computation benchmark case is introduced and used to carry out this review, stressing the particular interest for commodity clusters. Conclusions are drawn from this extensive series of analyses and modeling leading to specific recommendations concerning such toolbox development and parallel implementation.

  10. High-order Boussinesq-type modelling of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we start with a review of the development of Boussinesq theory for water waves covering the period from 1872 to date. Previous reviews have been given by Dingemans,1 Kirby,2,3 and Madsen & Schäffer.4 Next, we present our most recent high-order Boussinesq-type formulation valid for f...... from an undular sea bed; (8) Run-up of non-breaking solitary waves on a beach; and (9) Tsunami generation from submerged landslides....

  11. FEA identification of high order generalized equivalent circuits for MF high voltage transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Candolfi, Sylvain; Cros, Jérôme; Aguglia, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a specific methodology to derive high order generalized equivalent circuits from electromagnetic finite element analysis for high voltage medium frequency and pulse transformers by splitting the main windings in an arbitrary number of elementary windings. With this modeling approach, the dynamic model of the transformer over a large bandwidth is improved and the order of the generalized equivalent circuit can be adapted to a specified bandwidth. This efficient tool can be used by the designer to quantify the influence of the local structure of transformers on their dynamic behavior. The influence of different topologies and winding configurations is investigated. Several application examples and an experimental validation are also presented.

  12. High-Order Harmonic Generation by Two Non-collinear Coherent Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆伟新; 刘婷婷; 杨宏; 孙騊亨; 龚旗煌

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the high-order harmonic generated by two coherent pulses in argon gas produced by a gas jet. A loop in the relationship of the harmonic intensity versus the absolute values of relative phase difference was observed for non-collinear arrangement. Compared with the collinear arrangement, increase of 10 times of the conversion efficiency for 17th-order harmonic generation at an appropriate relative phase difference was obtained. The calculation of the intensity and phase for the laser field near the focus gives a simple reason for these phenomena.

  13. HIERtalker: A default hierarchy of high order neural networks that learns to read English aloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Z.G.; Mniszewski, S.M.; Lee, Y.C.; Papcun, G.; Doolen, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    A new learning algorithm based on a default hierarchy of high order neural networks has been developed that is able to generalize as well as handle exceptions. It learns the ''building blocks'' or clusters of symbols in a stream that appear repeatedly and convey certain messages. The default hierarchy prevents a combinatoric explosion of rules. A simulator of such a hierarchy, HIERtalker, has been applied to the conversion of English words to phonemes. Achieved accuracy is 99% for trained words and ranges from 76% to 96% for sets of new words. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etches, Adam; Madsen, Christian Bruun; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    A recent paper reported elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned N2 using a linearly polarized driving field [X. Zhou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009)]. This observation cannot be explained in the standard treatment of the Lewenstein model and has been ascribed to many...... additional contributions, which can be interpreted as quantum orbits in which the active electron is ionized at one atomic center within the molecule and recombines at another. The associated exchange harmonics are responsible for the nonvanishing ellipticity and result from a correlation between the...

  15. An Improved Control Algorithm for High-order Nonlinear Systems with Unmodelled Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Duan; Fu-Nian Hu; Xin Yu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a class of high-order nonlinear systems with unmodelled dynamics from the viewpoint of maintaining the desired control performance (e. g., asymptotical stability) and reducing the control effort. By introducing a new rescaling transformation, adopting an effective reduced-order observer, and choosing an ingenious Lyapunov function and appropriate design parameters, this paper designs an improved output-feedback controller. The output-feedback controller guarantees the globally asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system. Subsequently, taking a concrete system for an example, the smaller critical values for gain parameter and rescaling transformation parameter are obtained to effectively reduce the control effort.

  16. Divergence Free High Order Filter Methods for Multiscale Non-ideal MHD Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern

    2003-01-01

    Low-dissipative high order filter finite difference methods for long time wave propagation of shock/turbulence/combustion compressible viscous MHD flows has been constructed. Several variants of the filter approach that cater to different flow types are proposed. These filters provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of the divergence of the magnetic field (Delta . B) numerical error in the sense that no standard divergence cleaning is required. For certain 2-D MHD test problems, divergence free preservation of the magnetic fields of these filter schemes has been achieved.

  17. High Order Filter Methods for the Non-ideal Compressible MHD Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, H. C.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern

    2003-01-01

    The generalization of a class of low-dissipative high order filter finite difference methods for long time wave propagation of shock/turbulence/combustion compressible viscous gas dynamic flows to compressible MHD equations for structured curvilinear grids has been achieved. The new scheme is shown to provide a natural and efficient way for the minimization of the divergence of the magnetic field numerical error. Standard divergence cleaning is not required by the present filter approach. For certain non-ideal MHD test cases, divergence free preservation of the magnetic fields has been achieved.

  18. Satisfactory PI-P Controller Design for High-order Servo System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian-wei; GUO Zhi; WU Qin

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an output feedback controller design method for high-order servo system with the constraints of multiple indices by using satisfactory control theory. The control strategy is to convert transfer-function form of two-loop servo system into state-space form and assign the system poles in the specified region and H∞ attenuation degree in the given range with the Riccati matrix inequality so that the closed-loop system has good dynamics and robust quality. A numeric example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Unstructured nodal DG-FEM solution of high-order Boussinesq-type equations

    OpenAIRE

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Madsen, Per A.; Bingham, Harry B.; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the present study has been to develop a numerical model and investigate solution techniques for solving the recently derived high-order Boussinesq equations of \\cite{MBL02} in irregular domains in one and two horizontal dimensions. The Boussinesq-type methods are the simplest alternative to solving full three-dimensional wave problems by e.g. Navier-Stokes equations, which can capture all the important wave phenomena such as diffraction, refraction, nonlinear wave-wave i...

  20. High-order averaging schemes with error bounds for thermodynamical properties calculations by molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancès, Eric; Castella, François; Chartier, Philippe; Faou, Erwan; Le Bris, Claude; Legoll, Frédéric; Turinici, Gabriel

    2004-12-01

    We introduce high-order formulas for the computation of statistical averages based on the long-time simulation of molecular dynamics trajectories. In some cases, this allows us to significantly improve the convergence rate of time averages toward ensemble averages. We provide some numerical examples that show the efficiency of our scheme. When trajectories are approximated using symplectic integration schemes (such as velocity Verlet), we give some error bounds that allow one to fix the parameters of the computation in order to reach a given desired accuracy in the most efficient manner.

  1. High-order-harmonic generation driven by pulses with angular spatial chirp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-García, Carlos; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Becker, Andreas; Durfee, Charles G.

    2016-02-01

    We present and analyze a technique to drive high-order harmonics by laser pulses with an angular spatial chirp. Results of our numerical simulations show that each harmonic is emitted with an angular chirp which scales inversely with the harmonic order and leads to additional control of the spatial and temporal resolution of the spectrum. In particular, the use of angular chirp leads to separation of the harmonics in two dimensions where (i) high spectral resolution can be achieved and (ii) the temporal periodicity of the harmonic pulse trains can be controlled. We show that this technique does not require carrier-envelope-phase stabilization when using few-cycle laser pulses.

  2. High order harmonic generation in noble gases using plasmonic field enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Ciappina, M F; Lewenstein, M

    2012-01-01

    We present theoretical studies of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in rare gases driven by plasmonic field enhancement. This kind of fields appears when plasmonic nanostructures are illuminated by an intense few-cycle laser and have a particular spatial dependency, depending on the geometrical shape of the nanostructure. We demonstrate that the strong nonhomogeneous character of the laser enhanced field plays an important role in the HHG process and significantly extends the harmonic cutoff. Our models are based on numerical solution of the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) and supported by classical and semiclassical calculations.

  3. A high-order splitting scheme for the advection-diffusion equation of pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A high-order splitting scheme for the advection-diffusion equation of pollutants is proposed in this paper. The multidimensional advection-diffusion equation is splitted into several one-dimensional equations that are solved by the scheme. Only three spatial grid points are needed in each direction and the scheme has fourth-order spatial accuracy. Several typically pure advection and advection-diffusion problems are simulated. Numerical results show that the accuracy of the scheme is much higher than that of the classical schemes and the scheme can be efficiently solved with little programming effort.

  4. High order numerical methods for the space non-homogeneous Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present accurate methods for the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation of rarefied gas. The methods are based on a time splitting technique. The transport is solved by a third order accurate (in space) positive and flux conservative (PFC) method. The collision step is treated by a Fourier approximation of the collision integral, which guarantees spectral accuracy in velocity, coupled with several high order integrators in time. Strang splitting is used to achieve second order accuracy in space and time. Several numerical tests illustrate the properties of the methods

  5. Focus conditioning effects on molecular field-free alignment observed with high-order harmonic generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴家骏; 尉鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the focus conditioning effects on molecular field-free alignment observed with high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from CO2 molecules.We also experimentally demonstrate that both the spectral shape and alignment signal of HHG significantly vary with changing focus position.A maximal alignment signal is achieved at a given focus position because of the optimal intensity of the driving laser.This intensity is related to the ionization potential of the molecules.These results indicate that a unique focus position provides an optimal alignment signal for practical applications.

  6. High-Order Accurate Solutions to the Helmholtz Equation in the Presence of Boundary Singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Darrell Steven, Jr.

    Problems of time-harmonic wave propagation arise in important fields of study such as geological surveying, radar detection/evasion, and aircraft design. These often involve highfrequency waves, which demand high-order methods to mitigate the dispersion error. We propose a high-order method for computing solutions to the variable-coefficient inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation in two dimensions on domains bounded by piecewise smooth curves of arbitrary shape with a finite number of boundary singularities at known locations. We utilize compact finite difference (FD) schemes on regular structured grids to achieve highorder accuracy due to their efficiency and simplicity, as well as the capability to approximate variable-coefficient differential operators. In this work, a 4th-order compact FD scheme for the variable-coefficient Helmholtz equation on a Cartesian grid in 2D is derived and tested. The well known limitation of finite differences is that they lose accuracy when the boundary curve does not coincide with the discretization grid, which is a severe restriction on the geometry of the computational domain. Therefore, the algorithm presented in this work combines high-order FD schemes with the method of difference potentials (DP), which retains the efficiency of FD while allowing for boundary shapes that are not aligned with the grid without sacrificing the accuracy of the FD scheme. Additionally, the theory of DP allows for the universal treatment of the boundary conditions. One of the significant contributions of this work is the development of an implementation that accommodates general boundary conditions (BCs). In particular, Robin BCs with discontinuous coefficients are studied, for which we introduce a piecewise parameterization of the boundary curve. Problems with discontinuities in the boundary data itself are also studied. We observe that the design convergence rate suffers whenever the solution loses regularity due to the boundary conditions. This is

  7. Electrochemical properties of modified highly ordered pyrolytic graphite by using ambient plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Jun; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Jeong, HaeKyung

    2016-01-01

    Surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is reformed by using ambient plasma. The HOPG film shows various pore structures after the plasma treatment, indicating improved electrochemical properties for supercapacitor applications because of the increase of the surface area. We also compare water effect on the film during the plasma treatment. Water might protect HOPG surface from the plasma and provide oxygen functional groups onto it, resulting in lower infected pores and higher impedance compared with them of HOPG film without water. Ambient plasma, therefore, could be considered as an economic and effective method for sample reformations.

  8. Orbital angular momentum of a high-order Bessel light beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volke-Sepulveda, K [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51/216, Puebla, Pue., Mexico 72000 (Mexico); Garces-Chavez, V [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom); Chavez-Cerda, S [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51/216, Puebla, Pue., Mexico 72000 (Mexico); Arlt, J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom); Dholakia, K [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2002-04-01

    The orbital angular momentum density of Bessel beams is calculated explicitly within a rigorous vectorial treatment. This allows us to investigate some aspects that have not been analysed previously, such as the angular momentum content of azimuthally and radially polarized beams. Furthermore, we demonstrate experimentally the mechanical transfer of orbital angular momentum to trapped particles in optical tweezers using a high-order Bessel beam. We set transparent particles of known dimensions into rotation, where the sense of rotation can be reversed by changing the sign of the singularity. Quantitative results are obtained for rotation rates. This paper's animations are available from the Multimedia Enhancements page.

  9. Nonlinear wave-structure interactions with a high-order Boussinesq model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Bingham, Harry; Madsen, Per A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the extension of a finite difference model based on a recently derived highly accurate Boussinesq formulation to include domains having arbitrary piecewise-rectangular bottom-mounted (surface-piercing) structures. The resulting linearized system is analyzed for stability on a...... system is receptive to dissipation, and these problems can be overcome in practice using high-order filtering techniques. The resulting model is verified through numerical simulations involving classical linear wave diffraction around a semi-infinite breakwater, linear and nonlinear gap diffraction, and...

  10. Photoemission with high-order harmonics: A tool for time-resolved core-level spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke Holl; Raarup, Merete Krog; Balling, Peter

    2010-01-01

    realization allows the sample, located in an ultrahigh-vacuum chamber, to be illuminated by 106 65-eV photons per laser pulse at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The spectral width of a single harmonic is 0.77 eV (FWHM), and a few harmonics are selected by specially designed Mo/Si multi-layer mirrors. Photoelectrons......A setup for femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of solid surfaces is presented. The photon energies for core-level spectroscopy experiments are created by high-order harmonic generation from infrared 120-femtosecond laser pulses focused in a Ne gas jet. The present experimental...

  11. High-Order Non-Reflecting Boundary Scheme for Time-Dependent Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Givoli, Dan; Neta, Beny

    2002-01-01

    A new non-reflecting boundary scheme is proposed for time-dependent wave problems in unbounded domains. The linear time-dependent wave equation, with or without a disper- sive term, is considered outside of an obstacle or in a semi-infinite wave guide. The infinite domain is truncated via an artificial boundary B, and a high-order Non-Reflecting Boundary Condition (NRBC) is imposed on B. Then the problem is solved numerically in the finite domain bounded by B. The new boundary scheme is based...

  12. The Properties of Light Pressure Force with High Order in Laser Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈险峰; 方建兴; 朱士群

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the light pressure force in low and high intensity laser fields is derived. The exact numerical results of forces Fn∥(n=0,1,2,3,4,5,6…) through the matrix continued fraction method are presented. At low intensity field (G=1), the spatially averaged force F0∥ gives a cooling effect at the negative detuning. At high intensity (G=64), the effects of the forces with higher order (n≥2) appear and the contributes of the forces with odd or even order are opposite. It is great different from no high order force at low intensity.

  13. Application of the Arbitrarily High Order Method to Coupled Electron Photon Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the application of the Arbitrary High Order Nodal Method to coupled electron photon transport.A Discrete Ordinates code was enhanced and validated which permited to evaluate the advantages of using variable spatial development order per particle.The results obtained using variable spatial development and adaptive mesh refinement following an a posteriori error estimator are encouraging.Photon spectra for clinical accelerator target and, dose and charge depositio profiles are simulated in one-dimensional problems using cross section generated with CEPXS code.Our results are in good agreement with ONELD and MCNP codes

  14. Finding roots of arbitrary high order polynomials based on neural network recursive partitioning method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Deshuang; CHI Zheru

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel recursive partitioning method based on constrained learning neural networks to find an arbitrary number (less than the order of the polynomial) of (real or complex) roots of arbitrary polynomials. Moreover, this paper also gives a BP network constrained learning algorithm (CLA) used in root-finders based on the constrained relations between the roots and the coefficients of polynomials. At the same time, an adaptive selection method for the parameter δPwith the CLA is also given.The experimental results demonstrate that this method can more rapidly and effectively obtain the roots of arbitrary high order polynomials with higher precision than traditional root-finding approaches.

  15. Propagation evolution of an off-axis high-order cylindrical vector beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhu, Zhuqing; Wang, Xiaolei; Gong, Liping; Wang, Ming; Nie, Shouping

    2014-11-01

    The propagation characteristics of an off-axis high-order cylindrical vector beam (OHCVB) are studied in this paper. The analytic expressions for the electric field and intensity distribution of the OHCVB propagating in free space are presented, to our knowledge for the first time. The transverse intensity of the OHCVB, different from that of the input Gaussian beam, does not have an axially symmetric distribution, owing to a slight dislocation between the polarization singularity located in the vector field generator and the center point of the Gaussian beam. Numerical results show that the intensity distribution during propagation strongly depends on the propagation distance, dislocation displacement, and topological charge. Accompanied by beam expansion, the intensity distribution of the OHCVB tends to eventually become steady, and the dark core of the vector beam will disappear gradually during the process of propagation. Moreover, with the increase of the topological charge, more energy will be transferred from the x axis to the y axis, and the annular intensity is split into two parts along the y-axis direction. The results help us to investigate the dynamic propagation behaviors of the HCVB under the off-axis condition and also guide the calibration of the off-axis high-order cylindrical vector field in practice. PMID:25401345

  16. Domain structure and defects of highly ordered Bi4Si3O12 micro-crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Highly ordered Bi4Si3O12 micro-crystals were prepared at normal atmosphere. Phase identification of the prepared crystals was accomplished by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Domain structure and defects were characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). XRD shows that the obtained micro-crystals are of eulytite structure with chemical formulation of Bi4Si3O12. A highly ordered growth pattern is confirmed due to the faster growth of the {124} faces than that of the {204} faces by ESEM. The growing process of the domain structure is of pollen parent and filial generation pattern. The filial generations of Bi4Si3O12 crystals are generated from the pollen parent. Cracks generate from the defect areas and propagate along the {124} faces due to their lower binding energy under a proper temperature gradient, contributing to the total transcrystalline fracture. It is confirmed that the generation and development of the voids in the crystal grains can be developed when unmatched dimensions of the two opposite faces are formed. And the development of the voids is dependent on the dimensions and orientations of the two opposite faces.

  17. Quantum-optical model for the dynamics of high-order-harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombkötő, Ákos; Czirják, Attila; Varró, Sándor; Földi, Péter

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a two-level atom in the field of a strong laser pulse. The resulting time-dependent polarization is the source of a radiation the frequency components of which are essentially harmonics of the driving field's carrier frequency. The time evolution of this secondary radiation is analyzed in terms of the expectation values of the photon-number operators for a large number of electromagnetic modes that are initially in the vacuum state. Our method is based on a multimode version of the Jaynes-Cummings-Paul model and can be generalized to different radiating systems as well. We show that, after the exciting pulse, the final distribution of the photon numbers is close to the conventional (Fourier-transform-based) power spectrum of the secondary radiation. The details of the high-order-harmonic spectra (HHG spectra) are also analyzed; for many-cycle excitations a clear physical interpretation is given in terms of the Floquet quasienergies. A first step towards the determination of the photon statistics of the high-order-harmonic modes reveals states with slightly super-Poissonian distribution.

  18. Towards high-order modulation using complex modulation of semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Di; Yuan, Feng; Shieh, William

    2016-03-21

    Optical communication using high-speed on-off-keying signal by directly modulated semiconductor lasers (DML) was one of the most significant breakthroughs for telecommunication in 1960s. The wide deployment of 2.5-Gb/s per-channel transoceanic optical fiber links in 1990s drove the internet as a global phenomenon. However, the detrimental frequency chirp of DML prevents its application to the subsequent internet capacity evolution. Today, the state-of-the-art long-haul optical transponder uses external modulators to support high-order complex modulation. In contrast, this paper shows that the "detrimental" chirp effect can be exploited to generate complex modulation with a single DML, which achieves dramatic sensitivity gain of signal-to-noise-ratio compared to the conventional intensity modulation of DML. By using large chirp parameters, complex-modulated DML paves an attractive pathway towards high-order pulse-amplitude modulation with an ultra-low transmitter cost, which has great potential in future medium reach optical communications. PMID:27136852

  19. A unified approach for a posteriori high-order curved mesh generation using solid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poya, Roman; Sevilla, Ruben; Gil, Antonio J.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a unified approach for the a posteriori generation of arbitrary high-order curvilinear meshes via a solid mechanics analogy. The approach encompasses a variety of methodologies, ranging from the popular incremental linear elastic approach to very sophisticated non-linear elasticity. In addition, an intermediate consistent incrementally linearised approach is also presented and applied for the first time in this context. Utilising a consistent derivation from energy principles, a theoretical comparison of the various approaches is presented which enables a detailed discussion regarding the material characterisation (calibration) employed for the different solid mechanics formulations. Five independent quality measures are proposed and their relations with existing quality indicators, used in the context of a posteriori mesh generation, are discussed. Finally, a comprehensive range of numerical examples, both in two and three dimensions, including challenging geometries of interest to the solids, fluids and electromagnetics communities, are shown in order to illustrate and thoroughly compare the performance of the different methodologies. This comparison considers the influence of material parameters and number of load increments on the quality of the generated high-order mesh, overall computational cost and, crucially, the approximation properties of the resulting mesh when considering an isoparametric finite element formulation.

  20. High-order harmonic generation with resonant core excitation by ultra-intense X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that atoms can generate high-order harmonic (HHG) in intense optical laser fields. In this article, HHG is combined with resonant X-ray excitation of a core electron into the transient valence vacancy that is created in the course of the HHG process. To describe this setting, I develop a two-active-electron quantum theory for a single atom assuming no Coulomb interaction among the electrons; one electron performs a typical HHG three-step process whereas another electron is excited (or even Rabi flops) by intense X-rays from the core shell into the valence hole after the first electron has left the atom. Depending on the amplitude to find a vacancy in the valence and the core, the returning continuum electron recombines with the valence and the core, respectively, emitting high-order harmonic (HH) radiation that is characteristic of the combined process. After presenting the theory of X-ray boosted HHG for continuous-wave light fields, I develop a description for X-ray pulses with a time varying amplitude and phase. My prediction offers novel prospects for nonlinear X-ray physics, atto-second X-rays, and HHG-based time-dependent chemical imaging involving core orbitals. (author)

  1. Assessing Percolation Threshold Based on High-Order Non-Backtracking Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Zhongzhi

    2016-01-01

    Percolation threshold of a network is the critical value such that when nodes or edges are randomly selected with probability below the value, the network is fragmented but when the probability is above the value, a giant component connecting large portion of the network would emerge. Assessing the percolation threshold of networks has wide applications in network reliability, information spread, epidemic control, etc. The theoretical approach so far to assess the percolation threshold is mainly based on spectral radius of adjacency matrix or non-backtracking matrix, which is limited to dense graphs or locally treelike graphs, and is less effective for sparse networks with non-negligible amount of triangles and loops. In this paper, we study high-order non-backtracking matrices and their application to assessing percolation threshold. We first define high-order non-backtracking matrices and study the properties of their spectral radii. Then we focus on 2nd-order non-backtracking matrix and demonstrate analyti...

  2. Strong-field ionization via high-order Coulomb corrected strong-field approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Klaiber, Michael; Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z; Keitel, Christoph H

    2016-01-01

    Signatures of the Coulomb corrections in the photoelectron momentum distribution during laser-induced ionization of atoms or ions in tunneling and multiphoton regimes are investigated analytically in the case of an one-dimensional problem. High-order Coulomb corrected strong-field approximation is applied, where the exact continuum state in the S-matrix is approximated by the eikonal Coulomb-Volkov state including the second-order corrections to the eikonal. Although, without high-order corrections our theory coincides with the known analytical R-matrix (ARM) theory, we propose a simplified procedure for the matrix element derivation. Rather than matching the eikonal Coulomb-Volkov wave function with the bound state as in the ARM-theory to remove the Coulomb singularity, we calculate the matrix element via the saddle-point integration method as by time as well as by coordinate, and in this way avoiding the Coulomb singularity. The momentum shift in the photoelectron momentum distribution with respect to the A...

  3. Electrochemical synthesis of highly ordered polypyrrole on copper modified aluminium substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddaramanna, Ashoka [Centre Universitaire de Recherche sur l’Aluminium, University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, Saguenay, Quebec G7H2B1 (Canada); Saleema, N. [Aluminum Technology Centre, National Research Council of Canada, University East, Saguenay, Quebec G7H8C3 (Canada); Sarkar, D.K., E-mail: dsarkar@uqac.ca [Centre Universitaire de Recherche sur l’Aluminium, University of Quebec at Chicoutimi, Saguenay, Quebec G7H2B1 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Fabrication of highly ordered conducting polymers on metal surfaces has received a significant interest owing to their potential applications in organic electronic devices. In this context, we have developed a simple method for the synthesis of highly ordered polypyrrole (PPy) on copper modified aluminium surfaces via electrochemical polymerization process. A series of characteristic peaks of PPy evidenced on the infrared spectra of these surfaces confirm the formation of PPy. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of PPy deposited on copper modified aluminium surfaces also confirmed the deposition of PPy as a sharp and intense peak at 2θ angle of 23° attributable to PPy is observed while this peak is absent on PPy deposited on as-received aluminium surfaces. An atomic model of the interface of PPy/Cu has been presented based on the inter-atomic distance of copper–copper of (1 0 0) plane and the inter-monomer distance of PPy, to describe the ordering of PPy on Cu modified Al surfaces.

  4. Exponential quantum spreading in a class of kicked rotor systems near high-order resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Wang, Jiao; Guarneri, Italo; Casati, Giulio; Gong, Jiangbin

    2013-11-01

    Long-lasting exponential quantum spreading was recently found in a simple but very rich dynamical model, namely, an on-resonance double-kicked rotor model [J. Wang, I. Guarneri, G. Casati, and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.234104 107, 234104 (2011)]. The underlying mechanism, unrelated to the chaotic motion in the classical limit but resting on quasi-integrable motion in a pseudoclassical limit, is identified for one special case. By presenting a detailed study of the same model, this work offers a framework to explain long-lasting exponential quantum spreading under much more general conditions. In particular, we adopt the so-called “spinor” representation to treat the kicked-rotor dynamics under high-order resonance conditions and then exploit the Born-Oppenheimer approximation to understand the dynamical evolution. It is found that the existence of a flat band (or an effectively flat band) is one important feature behind why and how the exponential dynamics emerges. It is also found that a quantitative prediction of the exponential spreading rate based on an interesting and simple pseudoclassical map may be inaccurate. In addition to general interests regarding the question of how exponential behavior in quantum systems may persist for a long time scale, our results should motivate further studies toward a better understanding of high-order resonance behavior in δ-kicked quantum systems.

  5. Adaptive terminal sliding mode control for high-order nonlinear dynamic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄开宇; 苏宏业; 张克勤; 褚健

    2003-01-01

    An adaptive terminal sliding mode control (SMC) technique is proposed to deal with the tracking problem for a class of high-order nonlinear dynamic systems. It is shown that a function augmented sliding hyperplane can be used to develop a new terminal sliding mode for high-order nonlinear systems. A terminal SMC controller based on Lyapunov theory is designed to force the state variables of the closed-loop system to reach and remain on the terminal sliding mode, so that the output tracking error then converges to zero in finite time which can be set arbitrarily. An adaptive mechanism is introduced to estimate the unknown parameters of the upper bounds of system uncertainties. The estimates are then used as controller parameters so that the effects of uncertain dynamics can be eliminated. It is also shown that the stability of the closed-loop system can be guaranteed with the proposed control strategy. The simulation of a numerical example is provided to show the effectiveness of the new method.

  6. Direct Torque Control of Saturated Doubly-Fed Induction Generator using High Order Sliding Mode Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhadj BOUNADJA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work examines a direct torque control strategy using a high order sliding mode controllers of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG incorporated in a wind energy conversion system and working in saturated state. This research is carried out to reach two main objectives. Firstly, in order to introduce some accuracy for the calculation of DFIG performances, an accurate model considering magnetic saturation effect is developed. The second objective is to achieve a robust control of DFIG based wind turbine. For this purpose, a Direct Torque Control (DTC combined with a High Order Sliding Mode Control (HOSMC is applied to the DFIG rotor side converter. Conventionally, the direct torque control having hysteresis comparators possesses major flux and torque ripples at steady-state and moreover the switching frequency varies on a large range. The new DTC method gives a perfect decoupling between the flux and the torque. It also reduces ripples in these grandeurs. Finally, simulated results show, accurate dynamic performances, faster transient responses and more robust control are achieved.

  7. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of highly ordered mesoporous TiO{sub 2}-SBA-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Wenting [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong Institute of Light Industry, Jinan, 250353, Shandong (China); Zhou Guowei, E-mail: guoweizhou@hotmail.com [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong Institute of Light Industry, Jinan, 250353, Shandong (China); Zhang Xiaotong; Li Tianduo [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong Institute of Light Industry, Jinan, 250353, Shandong (China)

    2009-05-05

    TiO{sub 2}-SBA-15 complex materials with highly ordered mesostructures have been prepared by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis method of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in an acidic solution using surfactant P123 (EO{sub 20}PO{sub 70}EO{sub 20}) as structure-directing reagent. The prepared materials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), small-angle X-ray diffraction patterns (SAXRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption experiments. The resulting TiO{sub 2}-SBA-15 complex materials showed highly ordered mesoporous structure with uniform pore sizes of 5.95 and 8.24 nm, high specific surface areas S{sub BET} of 689 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 347 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} at different hydrothermal temperatures (100 deg. C and 130 deg. C). The photocatalytic activity of these TiO{sub 2}-SBA-15 mesoporous materials has been studied by 4-chlorophenol decomposition under UV light irradiation. The TiO{sub 2}-SBA-15 mesoporous materials prepared at the TiO{sub 2}:SiO{sub 2} mass ratios of 25:75, 40:60 and 50:50 showed higher photocatalytic activity than that prepared at the TiO{sub 2}:SiO{sub 2} mass ratio of 75:25.

  8. Accuracy analysis of high-order lattice Boltzmann models for rarefied gas flows

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Jianping

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we have theoretically analyzed and numerically evaluated the accuracy of high-order lattice Boltzmann (LB) models for capturing non-equilibrium effects in rarefied gas flows. In the incompressible limit, the LB equation is proved to be equivalent to the linearized Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation. Therefore, when the same Gauss-Hermite quadrature is used, LB method closely assembles the discrete velocity method (DVM). In addition, the order of Hermite expansion for the equilibrium distribution function is found not to be correlated with the approximation order in terms of the Knudsen number to the BGK equation, which was previously suggested by \\cite{2006JFM...550..413S}. Furthermore, we have numerically evaluated the LB models for a standing-shear-wave problem, which is designed specifically for assessing model accuracy by excluding the influence of gas molecule/surface interactions at wall boundaries. The numerical simulation results confirm that the high-order terms in the discrete equili...

  9. A high-order staggered finite-element vertical discretization for non-hydrostatic atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Jorge E.; Ullrich, Paul A.

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric modeling systems require economical methods to solve the non-hydrostatic Euler equations. Two major differences between hydrostatic models and a full non-hydrostatic description lies in the vertical velocity tendency and numerical stiffness associated with sound waves. In this work we introduce a new arbitrary-order vertical discretization entitled the staggered nodal finite-element method (SNFEM). Our method uses a generalized discrete derivative that consistently combines the discontinuous Galerkin and spectral element methods on a staggered grid. Our combined method leverages the accurate wave propagation and conservation properties of spectral elements with staggered methods that eliminate stationary (2Δx) modes. Furthermore, high-order accuracy also eliminates the need for a reference state to maintain hydrostatic balance. In this work we demonstrate the use of high vertical order as a means of improving simulation quality at relatively coarse resolution. We choose a test case suite that spans the range of atmospheric flows from predominantly hydrostatic to nonlinear in the large-eddy regime. Our results show that there is a distinct benefit in using the high-order vertical coordinate at low resolutions with the same robust properties as the low-order alternative.

  10. Two-Dimensional Hermite Filters Simplify the Description of High-Order Statistics of Natural Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qin; Victor, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Natural image statistics play a crucial role in shaping biological visual systems, understanding their function and design principles, and designing effective computer-vision algorithms. High-order statistics are critical for conveying local features, but they are challenging to study – largely because their number and variety is large. Here, via the use of two-dimensional Hermite (TDH) functions, we identify a covert symmetry in high-order statistics of natural images that simplifies this task. This emerges from the structure of TDH functions, which are an orthogonal set of functions that are organized into a hierarchy of ranks. Specifically, we find that the shape (skewness and kurtosis) of the distribution of filter coefficients depends only on the projection of the function onto a 1-dimensional subspace specific to each rank. The characterization of natural image statistics provided by TDH filter coefficients reflects both their phase and amplitude structure, and we suggest an intuitive interpretation for the special subspace within each rank. PMID:27713838

  11. The effects of molecular vibration on the yield of high-order harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangfan

    2005-05-01

    It is well-accepted that the high-order harmonic spectrum is the results of interference between many attosecond pulses. Each of the attosecond pulse is produced by a three-step process taking place within one laser cycle. For light molecules such as H2, the first step is the ionization of one electron. When the freed electron returns to the H2^+, the internuclear distance is changed. This may cause the electron to miss the ion during its revisit, thus reducing its probability to recombine with the parent ion. As a result, the high harmonic generation yield is lower for H2 than D2, since D2 has a longer vibration period (˜21 fs) than that of H2 (˜15 fs). Here we report, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimental observation of the effects of vibration on the yield of HHG in molecules. We compared the high-order harmonic spectra of H2, HD and D2. The shortest pulses were ˜8 fs, which is almost the same as one half of the vibration period of H2. Using such short pulses assures that the internuclear distances of all three types of molecules are in the increasing phase of a cycle when the harmonics are generated. From the HHG spectra it is evident that the yield of D2 is a factor of two higher than that of H2, while that of HD is in between. This is consistent with the theoretical predictions.

  12. A high-order Godunov-type scheme for shock interactions in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, W.; Woodward, P.R. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-07-01

    A high-order Godunov-type scheme is developed for the shock interactions in ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The scheme is based on a nonlinear Riemann solver and follows the basic procedure in the piecewise parabolic method. The scheme takes into account all the discontinuities in ideal MHD and is in a strict conservation form. The scheme is applied to numerical examples, which include shock-tube problems in ideal MHD and various interactions between strong MHD shocks. All the waves involved in the corresponding Riemann problems are resolved and are correctly displayed in the simulation results. The correctness of the scheme is shown by the comparison between the simulation results and the solutions of the Riemann problems. The robustness of the scheme is demonstrated through the numerical examples. It is shown that the scheme offers the principle advantages of a high-order Godunov-type scheme: robust operation in the presence of very strong waves, thin shock fronts, and thin contact and slip surface discontinuities.

  13. A high-order Godunov-type scheme for shock interactions in ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-order Godunov-type scheme is developed for the shock interactions in ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The scheme is based on a nonlinear Riemann solver and follows the basic procedure in the piecewise parabolic method. The scheme takes into account all the discontinuities in ideal MHD and is in a strict conservation form. The scheme is applied to numerical examples, which include shock-tube problems in ideal MHD and various interactions between strong MHD shocks. All the waves involved in the corresponding Riemann problems are resolved and are correctly displayed in the simulation results. The correctness of the scheme is shown by the comparison between the simulation results and the solutions of the Riemann problems. The robustness of the scheme is demonstrated through the numerical examples. It is shown that the scheme offers the principle advantages of a high-order Godunov-type scheme: robust operation in the presence of very strong waves, thin shock fronts, and thin contact and slip surface discontinuities

  14. Compensation of high-order phase distortions in chirped-pulse amplification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bing; Jiang, Yong-Liang; Leng, Yu-xin; Chen, Xiao-Wei; Li, Ru-Xin; Xu, Zhi-Zhan

    2007-01-01

    Chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) technique has been widely used to generate ultra-intense femto-second pulses. In this scheme the seed pulses from an oscillator are stretched before amplification. The stretched pulses can support more energy extraction and effectively decrease the nonlinear effects in the gain media. The subsequent amplification in a CPA chain will result in a broadening of the output compressed pulses in temporal domain due to the gain narrowing and uncompensated phase distortions. In our experiment, using spectral modulation and phase pre-compensation system (Acoustic-Optics Programmable Dispersive Filter) between the oscillator and the stretcher, the effects of gain narrowing and high-order dispersions on the pulse duration in kHz chirped-pulse amplification system have been pre-compensated, and the spectral FWHM is expanded from 30nm to 50nm. The effects of GDD, TOD and FOD were investigated by scanning the four dispersion parameters respectively. By pre-compensating the high-order phase distortions with the phase measured by SPIDER, we successfully optimize the output duration from 51fs to 30fs, which is 1.07 times Fourier-transform-limitation.

  15. Regularity control of porous anodic alumina and photodegradation activity of highly ordered titania nanostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-zhi; XU Ming-xia; TIAN Yu-ming; SHANG Meng; ZHANG Ping

    2006-01-01

    A two-step anodizing process was used to prepare wide-range highly ordered porous anodic alumina membrane (PAA) in the electrolyte of oxalic acid. The effects of anodic voltage,anodizing time,size of aluminium foil and additives on the regularity of PAA membrane were also studied in the process of two-step anodization. The template method was combined with the sol-electrophoresis deposition and sol-gel method respectively to prepare highly ordered titania nanostructures. The diameter and length of the obtained nanostructures were determined by the pore size and depth of the PAA template. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the morphology and phase structure of the PAA template and the titania nanostructures. The results show that the anodizing time and the additive of ethanol have a great effect on the regularity of PAA template. This can be explained from the self-organized process and the current density theory. A theoretical model based on the self-organized process was established to discuss the formation mechanism of PAA template from the chemical perspective. The titania nanostructures prepared with this method has a high specific surface area. Furthermore,the photocatalytic activity of titania nanostructures on methyl orange were studied. Compared with ordinary titania membranes,the titania nanostructures synthesized with this method have higher photodegradation activity.

  16. High-order moments of spin-orbit energy in a multielectron configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Xieyu; Poirier, M

    2016-07-01

    In order to analyze the energy-level distribution in complex ions such as those found in warm dense plasmas, this paper provides values for high-order moments of the spin-orbit energy in a multielectron configuration. Using second-quantization results and standard angular algebra or fully analytical expressions, explicit values are given for moments up to 10th order for the spin-orbit energy. Two analytical methods are proposed, using the uncoupled or coupled orbital and spin angular momenta. The case of multiple open subshells is considered with the help of cumulants. The proposed expressions for spin-orbit energy moments are compared to numerical computations from Cowan's code and agree with them. The convergence of the Gram-Charlier expansion involving these spin-orbit moments is analyzed. While a spectrum with infinitely thin components cannot be adequately represented by such an expansion, a suitable convolution procedure ensures the convergence of the Gram-Charlier series provided high-order terms are accounted for. A corrected analytical formula for the third-order moment involving both spin-orbit and electron-electron interactions turns out to be in fair agreement with Cowan's numerical computations. PMID:27575229

  17. Experimental study of conversion from atomic high-order harmonics to x-ray emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王骐; 陈建新; 夏元钦; 陈德应

    2003-01-01

    There are two physical phenomena in a strong laser intensity. One is the high-order harmonic emission; the other is x-ray emission from optical-field ionized plasmas. The experiment of conversion from high-order harmonics to x-ray emissions was given with a 105fs Ti:sapphire laser by adjusting laser intensities. The ingredient in plasma was investigated by the numerical simulations. Our experimental results suggested that the free electrons have detrimental effects on harmonic generation but are favourable for x-ray emission from optical-field ionized plasmas. If we want to obtain more intense harmonic signals as a coherent light source in the soft x-ray region, we must avoid the production of free electrons in plasmas. At the same time, if we want to observe x-rays for the development of high-repetition-rate table-top soft x-ray lasers, we should strip all atoms in the plasmas to a necessary ionized stage by the optical-fieldionization in the field of a high-intensity laser pulse.

  18. Scattering of high order guided wave modes around a through-thickness circular hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglini, Christophe; Bescond, Christophe; França, Demartonne Ramos; Kruger, Silvio E.; Viens, Martin; Bélanger, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have the ability to propagate long distances with minimal attenuation, which makes them particularly interesting in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. Using the baseline subtraction approach, the signal from a defect-free structure is compared with the actual monitoring signal to detect and locate defects. There are many scientific publications on low-frequency guided waves for SHM purposes, and the interaction between guided wave fundamental modes and defects is also well documented. There is however a very limited number of studies on high order modes. High-frequency guided waves may enable the detection of smaller cracks related to conventional low-frequency guided wave SHM. The main difficulty at high frequency is the existence of several modes with different velocities. This study investigates the scattering of high order guided wave modes around a through-thickness hole with a view to developing a highly sensitive SHM method. A 3D finite element model of a 305 mm × 305 mm × 1.6 mm aluminium plate was used to determine the scattering of cracks on the circumference of a through-thickness hole in the middle of the plate. Crack properties such as orientation, length and depth were studied. A subset of the finite element simulations were validated against experimental results. The experimental setup comprised a film type PZT actuator bonded on the side of the plate and a laser interferometer detector. An input signal centered at 4 MHz was used in all simulations and experiments.

  19. A high order special relativistic hydrodynamic code with space-time adaptive mesh refinement

    CERN Document Server

    Zanotti, Olindo

    2013-01-01

    We present a high order one-step ADER-WENO finite volume scheme with space-time adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) for the solution of the special relativistic hydrodynamics equations. By adopting a local discontinuous Galerkin predictor method, a high order one-step time discretization is obtained, with no need for Runge-Kutta sub-steps. This turns out to be particularly advantageous in combination with space-time adaptive mesh refinement, which has been implemented following a "cell-by-cell" approach. As in existing second order AMR methods, also the present higher order AMR algorithm features time-accurate local time stepping (LTS), where grids on different spatial refinement levels are allowed to use different time steps. We also compare two different Riemann solvers for the computation of the numerical fluxes at the cell interfaces. The new scheme has been validated over a sample of numerical test problems in one, two and three spatial dimensions, exploring its ability in resolving the propagation of relativ...

  20. Two-voxel spectroscopy with dynamic B0 shimming and flip angle adjustment at 7 T in the human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Clark; Hess, Aaron; Clare, Stuart; Bachtiar, Velicia; Stagg, Charlotte; Jezzard, Peter; Emir, Uzay

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to acquire high-quality in vivo (1) H spectra concurrently from two voxels at ultra-high field (7 T) without specialized hardware. To this end, an acquisition scheme was developed in which first-order shims and flip angles are dynamically updated to acquire spectra from both of the brain's motor cortices in an alternating fashion. To validate this acquisition scheme, separate, static, single-voxel acquisitions were also performed for comparison. Six subjects were examined using semi-LASER spectroscopy at 7 T. Barium titanate pads were used to increase the extent of the effective transmit field (B1 (+) ). Spectra were obtained from the hand area of both motor cortices for both acquisition schemes. LCModel was used to determine neurochemical profiles in order to examine variations between acquisition schemes and volumes of interest. The dynamic two-voxel acquisition protocol produced water linewidths (full width at half-maximum between 11.6 and 12.8 Hz) and signal-to-noise ratios similar to those from static single-voxel measurements. The concentrations of 13 individual and 3 combined metabolites with Cramér-Rao lower bounds below 30% were reliably detected for both acquisition schemes, and agreed well with previous postmortem assay and spectroscopy studies. The results show that high spectral quality from two voxels can be acquired concurrently without specialized hardware. This practical technique can be applied to many neuroscience applications.

  1. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.

  2. Automatic input rectification

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Fan; Ganesh, Vijay; Carbin, Michael James; Sidiroglou, Stelios; Rinard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique, automatic input rectification, and a prototype implementation, SOAP. SOAP learns a set of constraints characterizing typical inputs that an application is highly likely to process correctly. When given an atypical input that does not satisfy these constraints, SOAP automatically rectifies the input (i.e., changes the input so that it satisfies the learned constraints). The goal is to automatically convert potentially dangerous inputs into typical inputs that the ...

  3. Studies on high order mode of bell-shaped prototype cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aluminium and copper prototype cavities were designed to study higher order modes(HOM).An automatic field mapping system was developed with LabVIEW to measure the adiofrequency(RF)charac teristics,such as resonant frequency,Q-value,shunt impedance and electromagnetic field distribution of the higher-order modes in a model RF cavity.Two kinds of the bell-shaped cavities were measured using the field mapping system,their frequencies are 1.5 GHz and 800 MHz respectively.The fields' distributions of the monopole modes and dipole modes,as well the R/Q values,were measured.

  4. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. (comp.)

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  5. Dynamical evolution of space debris on high-elliptical orbits near high-order resonance zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Eduard; Zakharova, Polina

    Orbital evolution of objects on Molniya-type orbits is considered near high-order resonance zones. Initial conditions correspond to high-elliptical orbits with the critical inclination 63.4 degrees. High-order resonances are analyzed. Resonance orders are more than 5 and less than 50. Frequencies of perturbations caused by the effect of sectorial and tesseral harmonics of the Earth's gravitational potential are linear combinations of the mean motion of a satellite, angular velocities of motion of the pericenter and node of its orbit, and the angular velocity of the Earth. Frequencies of perturbations were calculated by taking into account secular perturbations from the Earth oblateness, the Moon, the Sun, and a solar radiation pressure. Resonance splitting effect leads to three sub-resonances. The study of dynamical evolution on long time intervals was performed on the basis of the results of numerical simulation. We used "A Numerical Model of the Motion of Artificial Earth's Satellites", developed by the Research Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics of the Tomsk State University. The model of disturbing forces taken into account the main perturbing factors: the gravitational field of the Earth, the attraction of the Moon and the Sun, the tides in the Earth’s body, the solar radiation pressure, taking into account the shadow of the Earth, the Poynting-Robertson effect, and the atmospheric drag. Area-to-mass ratio varied from small values corresponding to satellites to big ones corresponding to space debris. The locations and sizes of resonance zones were refined from numerical simulation. The Poynting-Robertson effect results in a secular decrease in the semi-major axis of a spherically symmetrical satellite. In resonance regions the effect weakens slightly. Reliable estimates of secular perturbations of the semi-major axis were obtained from the numerical simulation. Under the Poynting-Robertson effect objects pass through the regions of high-order

  6. Three-Dimensional High-Order Spectral Finite Volume Method for Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel; Wang, Z. J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Many areas require a very high-order accurate numerical solution of conservation laws for complex shapes. This paper deals with the extension to three dimensions of the Spectral Finite Volume (SV) method for unstructured grids, which was developed to solve such problems. We first summarize the limitations of traditional methods such as finite-difference, and finite-volume for both structured and unstructured grids. We then describe the basic formulation of the spectral finite volume method. What distinguishes the SV method from conventional high-order finite-volume methods for unstructured triangular or tetrahedral grids is the data reconstruction. Instead of using a large stencil of neighboring cells to perform a high-order reconstruction, the stencil is constructed by partitioning each grid cell, called a spectral volume (SV), into 'structured' sub-cells, called control volumes (CVs). One can show that if all the SV cells are partitioned into polygonal or polyhedral CV sub-cells in a geometrically similar manner, the reconstructions for all the SVs become universal, irrespective of their shapes, sizes, orientations, or locations. It follows that the reconstruction is reduced to a weighted sum of unknowns involving just a few simple adds and multiplies, and those weights are universal and can be pre-determined once for all. The method is thus very efficient, accurate, and yet geometrically flexible. The most critical part of the SV method is the partitioning of the SV into CVs. In this paper we present the partitioning of a tetrahedral SV into polyhedral CVs with one free parameter for polynomial reconstructions up to degree of precision five. (Note that the order of accuracy of the method is one order higher than the reconstruction degree of precision.) The free parameter will be determined by minimizing the Lebesgue constant of the reconstruction matrix or similar criteria to obtain optimized partitions. The details of an efficient, parallelizable code to solve

  7. Further study on the high-order double-Fourier-series spectral filtering on a sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Hyeong-Bin; Kwon, In-Hyuk; Goo, Tae-Young

    2004-01-01

    A high-order harmonic spectral filter (HSF) is further studied using double Fourier series (DFS), which performs filtering in terms of successive inversion of tridiagonal matrices with complex-valued elements. The high-order harmonics filter equation is split into multiple Helmholtz equations. It is found that the filter provides the same order of accuracy as the spectral filter in [J. Comput. Phys. 177 (2002) 313] that consists of the pentadiagonal matrices with real-valued elements. The advantage of the filter over the previous one lies on the simplicity and easiness of numerical implementation or computer coding, just requiring the same complexity as Poisson's equation solver. However, the operation count associated with the filter increases by a factor of about 2. To circumvent the inefficiency while preserving the simplicity, an easy way to construct pentadiagonal matrices associated with the biharmonic equation is presented in which the tridiagonal matrices related with Poisson's equation are manipulated. Computational efficiency of the spectral filter is discussed in terms of the relative computing time to the spectral transform. It is revealed that the computing cost (requiring O( N2) operations with N being the truncation) for the spectral filtering, even with the complex-valued matrices, is not significant in the DFS spectral model that is characterized by O( N2log 2N) operations. Filtering with different DFS expansions is discussed with a focus on the accuracy and pole condition. It is shown that the DFS violating the pole conditions produces a discontinuity at poles in case of wave truncation, and its influence spreads over the globe. The spectral filter is applied to two kinds of uniform-grid data, the regular and the shifted grids, and the results are compared with each other. The operator splitting (or spherical harmonics factorization) makes it feasible to apply the finite difference method to the high-order harmonics filter with ease because only

  8. Three-Dimensional High-Order Spectral Volume Method for Solving Maxwell's Equations on Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel; Wang, Z. J.

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional, high-order, conservative, and efficient discontinuous spectral volume (SV) method for the solutions of Maxwell's equations on unstructured grids is presented. The concept of discontinuous 2nd high-order loca1 representations to achieve conservation and high accuracy is utilized in a manner similar to the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method, but instead of using a Galerkin finite-element formulation, the SV method is based on a finite-volume approach to attain a simpler formulation. Conventional unstructured finite-volume methods require data reconstruction based on the least-squares formulation using neighboring cell data. Since each unknown employs a different stencil, one must repeat the least-squares inversion for every cell at each time step, or to store the inversion coefficients. In a high-order, three-dimensional computation, the former would involve impractically large CPU time, while for the latter the memory requirement becomes prohibitive. In the SV method, one starts with a relatively coarse grid of triangles or tetrahedra, called spectral volumes (SVs), and partition each SV into a number of structured subcells, called control volumes (CVs), that support a polynomial expansion of a desired degree of precision. The unknowns are cell averages over CVs. If all the SVs are partitioned in a geometrically similar manner, the reconstruction becomes universal as a weighted sum of unknowns, and only a few universal coefficients need to be stored for the surface integrals over CV faces. Since the solution is discontinuous across the SV boundaries, a Riemann solver is thus necessary to maintain conservation. In the paper, multi-parameter and symmetric SV partitions, up to quartic for triangle and cubic for tetrahedron, are first presented. The corresponding weight coefficients for CV face integrals in terms of CV cell averages for each partition are analytically determined. These discretization formulas are then applied to the integral form of

  9. Depict noise-driven nonlinear dynamic networks from output data by using high-order correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yang; Chen, Tianyu; Wang, Shihong; Hu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Many practical systems can be described by dynamic networks, for which modern technique can measure their output signals, and accumulate extremely rich data. Nevertheless, the network structures producing these data are often deeply hidden in these data. Depicting network structures by analysing the available data turns to be significant inverse problems. On one hand, dynamics are often driven by various unknown facts, called noises. On the other hand, network structures of practical systems are commonly nonlinear, and different nonlinearities can provide rich dynamic features and meaningful functions of realistic networks. So far, no method, both theoretically or numerically, has been found to systematically treat the both difficulties together. Here we propose to use high-order correlation computations (HOCC) to treat nonlinear dynamics; use two-time correlations to treat noise effects; and use suitable basis and correlator vectors to unifiedly depict all dynamic nonlinearities and topological interaction l...

  10. High-order methods for decaying two-dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    San, Omer; 10.1016/j.compfluid.2012.04.006

    2012-01-01

    Numerical schemes used for the integration of complex flow simulations should provide accurate solutions for the long time integrations these flows require. To this end, the performance of various high-order accurate numerical schemes is investigated for direct numerical simulations (DNS) of homogeneous isotropic two-dimensional decaying turbulent flows. The numerical accuracy of compact difference, explicit central difference, Arakawa, and dispersion-relation-preserving schemes are analyzed and compared with the Fourier-Galerkin pseudospectral scheme. In addition, several explicit Runge-Kutta schemes for time integration are investigated. We demonstrate that the centered schemes suffer from spurious Nyquist signals that are generated almost instantaneously and propagate into much of the field when the numerical resolution is insufficient. We further show that the order of the scheme becomes increasingly important for increasing cell Reynolds number. Surprisingly, the sixth-order schemes are found to be in pe...

  11. Coupling of high order multiplication perturbation method and reduction method for variable coefficient singular perturbation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-zhi ZHANG; Pei-yan HUANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the precise integration method (PIM), a coupling technique of the high order multiplication perturbation method (HOMPM) and the reduction method is proposed to solve variable coefficient singularly perturbed two-point boundary value prob-lems (TPBVPs) with one boundary layer. First, the inhomogeneous ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are transformed into the homogeneous ODEs by variable coefficient dimensional expansion. Then, the whole interval is divided evenly, and the transfer ma-trix in each sub-interval is worked out through the HOMPM. Finally, a group of algebraic equations are given based on the relationship between the neighboring sub-intervals, which are solved by the reduction method. Numerical results show that the present method is highly efficient.

  12. Synchronisation of high-order MIMO nonlinear systems using distributed neuro-adaptive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiti Sarand, Hassan; Karimi, Bahram

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses synchronisation problem of high-order multi-input/multi-output (MIMO) multi-agent systems. Each agent has unknown nonlinear dynamics and is subject to uncertain external disturbances. The agents must follow a reference trajectory. An adaptive distributed controller based on relative information of neighbours of each agent is designed to solve the problem for any undirected connected communication topology. A radial basis function neural network is used to represent the controller's unknown structure. Lyapunov stability analysis is employed to guarantee stability of the overall system. By the theoretical analysis, the closed-loop control system is shown to be uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, simulations are provided to show effectiveness of the proposed control method against uncertainty and disturbances.

  13. High Order Projection Plane Method for Evaluation of Supersingular Curved Boundary Integrals in BEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boundary element method (BEM is a very promising approach for solving various engineering problems, in which accurate evaluation of boundary integrals is required. In the present work, the direct method for evaluating singular curved boundary integrals is developed by considering the third-order derivatives in the projection plane method when expanding the geometry quantities at the field point as Taylor series. New analytical formulas are derived for geometry quantities defined on the curved line/plane, and unified expressions are obtained for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems. For the two-dimensional boundary integrals, analytical expressions for the third-order derivatives are derived and are employed to verify the complex-variable-differentiation method (CVDM which is used to evaluate the high order derivatives for three-dimensional problems. A few numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness and the accuracy of the present method.

  14. A fast high-order finite difference algorithm for pricing American options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangman, D. Y.; Gopaul, A.; Bhuruth, M.

    2008-12-01

    We describe an improvement of Han and Wu's algorithm [H. Han, X.Wu, A fast numerical method for the Black-Scholes equation of American options, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 41 (6) (2003) 2081-2095] for American options. A high-order optimal compact scheme is used to discretise the transformed Black-Scholes PDE under a singularity separating framework. A more accurate free boundary location based on the smooth pasting condition and the use of a non-uniform grid with a modified tridiagonal solver lead to an efficient implementation of the free boundary value problem. Extensive numerical experiments show that the new finite difference algorithm converges rapidly and numerical solutions with good accuracy are obtained. Comparisons with some recently proposed methods for the American options problem are carried out to show the advantage of our numerical method.

  15. Dispersion and optical gradient force from high-order mode coupling between two hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Zhang, Weifeng; Lu, Jiahui; Zhao, Huijun

    2016-08-01

    We analytically study dispersion properties and optical gradient forces of different-order transverse magnetic (TM) modes in two coupled hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides (HMMWs). According to Maxwell's equations, we obtain the dispersion relation of symmetric and antisymmetric modes, and calculate optical gradient forces of different-order modes by using Maxwell stress tensor. Numerical results show that the dispersion properties are dependent on the filling ratio, and the optical gradient forces of high-order TM modes are larger than the fundamental mode when the gap between two HMMWs is very narrow, but they weaken much faster than the case of low-order TM modes with the gap width increasing. In addition, the effects of the dielectric surrounding of waveguides on the coupling effect and optical gradient force are clarified. These properties offer an avenue for various optomechanical applications in optical sensors and actuators.

  16. Probe of Multi-electron Dynamics in Xenon by Caustics in High Order Harmonic Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Faccialà, Davide; Bruner, Barry D; Ciriolo, Anna G; De Silvestri, Sandro; Devetta, Michele; Negro, Matteo; Soifer, Hadas; Stagira, Salvatore; Dudovich, Nirit; Vozzi, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the giant resonance in Xenon by high-order harmonic generation spectroscopy driven by a two-color field. The addition of a non-perturbative second harmonic component parallel to the driving field breaks the symmetry between neighboring sub-cycles resulting in the appearance of spectral caustics at two distinct cut-off energies. By controlling the phase delay between the two color components it is possible to tailor the harmonic emission in order to amplify and isolate the spectral feature of interest. In this paper we demonstrate how this control scheme can be used to investigate the role of electron correlations that give birth to the giant resonance in Xenon. The collective excitations of the giant dipole resonance in Xenon combined with the spectral manipulation associated with the two color driving field allow to see features that are normally not accessible and to obtain a quantitative good agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions.

  17. A High-Order Numerical Method for the Nonlinear Helmholtz Equation in Multidimensional Layered Media

    CERN Document Server

    Baruch, Guy; Tsynkov, Semyon V

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel computational methodology for solving the scalar nonlinear Helmholtz equation (NLH) that governs the propagation of laser light in Kerr dielectrics. The methodology addresses two well-known challenges in nonlinear optics: Singular behavior of solutions when the scattering in the medium is assumed predominantly forward (paraxial regime), and the presence of discontinuities in the % linear and nonlinear optical properties of the medium. Specifically, we consider a slab of nonlinear material which may be grated in the direction of propagation and which is immersed in a linear medium as a whole. The key components of the methodology are a semi-compact high-order finite-difference scheme that maintains accuracy across the discontinuities and enables sub-wavelength resolution on large domains at a tolerable cost, a nonlocal two-way artificial boundary condition (ABC) that simultaneously facilitates the reflectionless propagation of the outgoing waves and forward propagation of the given incoming ...

  18. High-order harmonic generation in polyatomic molecules induced by a bicircular laser field

    CERN Document Server

    Odžak, Senad; Milošević, Dejan B

    2016-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation by a bicircular field, which consists of two coplanar counter-rotating circularly polarized fields of frequency $r\\omega$ and $s\\omega$ ($r$ and $s$ are integers), is investigated for a polyatomic molecule. This field possesses dynamical symmetry, which can be adjusted to the symmetry of the molecular Hamiltonian and used to investigate the molecular symmetry. For polyatomic molecules having the $C_{r+s}$ symmetry only the harmonics $n=q(r+s)\\pm r$, $q=1,2,\\ldots$, are emitted having the ellipticity $\\varepsilon_n=\\pm 1$. We illustrate this using the example of the planar molecules BH$_3$ and BF$_3$, which obey the $C_3$ symmetry. We show that for the BF$_3$ molecule, similarly to atoms with a $p$ ground state, there is a strong asymmetry in the emission of high harmonics with opposite helicities. This asymmetry depends on the molecular orientation.

  19. Electron path control of high-order harmonic generation by a spatially inhomogeneous field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Masoud; Nazarpoor Malaei, Sakineh

    2016-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the control of high-order harmonics cut-off and as-pulse generation by a chirped laser field using a metallic bow tie-shaped nanostructure. The numerical results show that the trajectories of the electron wave packet are strongly modified, the short quantum path is enhanced, the long quantum path is suppressed and the low modulated spectrum of the harmonics can be remarkably extended. Our calculated results also show that, by confining electron motion, a broadband supercontinuum with the width of 1670 eV can be produced which directly generates an isolated 34 as-pulse without phase compensation. To explore the underlying mechanism responsible for the cut-off extension and the quantum path selection, we perform time-frequency analysis and a classical simulation based on the three-step model.

  20. Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, Emeric; Dombi, Peter; Fulop, Jozsef A; Farkas, Gyozo; Hebling, Janos; Tosa, Valer; Varju, Katalin; 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.023806

    2011-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation by few-cycle 800 nm laser pulses in neon gas in the presence of a strong terahertz (THz) field is investigated numerically with propagation effects taken into account. Our calculations show that the combination of THz fields with up to 12 fs laser pulses can be an effective gating technique to generate single attosecond pulses. We show that in the presence of the strong THz field only a single attosecond burst can be phase matched, whereas radiation emitted during other half-cycles disappears during propagation. The cutoff is extended and a wide supercontinuum appears in the near-field spectra, extending the available spectral width for isolated attosecond pulse generation from 23 to 93 eV. We demonstrate that phase matching effects are responsible for the generation of isolated attosecond pulses, even in conditions when single atom response yields an attosecond pulse train.

  1. Double-electron recombination in high-order-harmonic generation driven by spatially inhomogeneous fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Alexis; Ciappina, Marcelo F.; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2016-10-01

    We present theoretical studies of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) driven by plasmonic fields in two-electron atomic systems. Comparing the single- and two-electron active approximation models of the hydrogen negative ion, we provide strong evidence that a nonsequential double-electron recombination mechanism appears to be mainly responsible for the HHG cutoff extension. Our analysis is carried out by means of a reduced one-dimensional numerical integration of the two-electron time-dependent Schrödinger equation, and on investigations of the classical electron trajectories, resulting from the Newton's equation of motion. Additional comparisons between the hydrogen negative ion and the helium atom suggest that the double recombination process depends distinctly on the atomic target. Our research paves the way to the understanding of strong field processes in multielectronic systems driven by spatially inhomogeneous fields.

  2. Influence of high-order nonlinear fluctuations in the multivariate susceptible-infectious-recovered master equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Basil S.; Eckhoff, Philip A.

    2012-12-01

    We perform a high-order analytical expansion of the epidemiological susceptible-infectious-recovered multivariate master equation and include terms up to and beyond single-particle fluctuations. It is shown that higher order approximations yield qualitatively different results than low-order approximations, which is incident to the influence of additional nonlinear fluctuations. The fluctuations can be related to a meaningful physical parameter, the basic reproductive number, which is shown to dictate the rate of divergence in absolute terms from the ordinary differential equations more so than the total number of persons in the system. In epidemiological terms, the effect of single-particle fluctuations ought to be taken into account as the reproductive number approaches unity.

  3. High-order harmonic generation from Rydberg atoms driven by plasmonic-enhanced laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Tikman, Y; Ciappina, M F; Chacon, A; Altun, Z; Lewenstein, M

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically investigate high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in Rydberg atoms driven by spatially inhomogeneous laser fields, induced, for instance, by plasmonic enhancement. It is well known that the laser intensity should to exceed certain threshold in order to generate HHG, when noble gas atoms in their ground state are used as an active medium. One way to enhance the coherent light coming from a conventional laser oscillator is to take advantage of the amplification obtained by the so-called surface plasmon polaritons, created when a low intensity laser field is focused onto a metallic nanostructure. The main limitation of this scheme is the low damage threshold of the materials employed in the nanostructures engineering. In this work we propose to use Rydberg atoms, driven by spatially inhomogeneous, plasmonic-enhanced laser fields, for HHG. We exhaustively discuss the behaviour and efficiency of these systems in the generation of coherent harmonic emission. To this aim we numerically solve the time...

  4. Design of high-order elliptic filter from a versatile mode generic OTA-C structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, K.; Ray, B. N.

    2015-03-01

    A new synthesis methodology for high-order versatile mode programmable Operational transconductance amplifier and capacitor (OTA-C) generic filter structure is proposed. The structure fulfills the three main criteria of high frequency operation i.e it uses (1) less number of components (2) only single ended input OTAs (3) only grounded capacitors. Any nth order transfer function can be realised from it. Elliptic filter is designed from the generic structure using optimisation technique to reduce the number of OTAs. SPICE simulation with BSIM level 53 model and 0.13 μm process confirms the theoretical analysis. Frequency response of third-order and fourth-order elliptic filter is shown as representative set of simulated result. Sensitivity and non-ideal effect of the designed filter are studied.

  5. High-order threshold corrections for top-pair and single-top production

    CERN Document Server

    Kidonakis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    I present results for high-order corrections from threshold resummation to cross sections and differential distributions in top-antitop pair production and in single-top production. I show aN$^3$LO results for the total $t{\\bar t}$ cross section as well as for the top-quark transverse momentum ($p_T$) and rapidity distributions, and the top-quark forward-backward asymmetry in $t{\\bar t}$ production. I compare with the most recent Tevatron and LHC data, including at 13 TeV. I also present aNNLO results for cross sections and $p_T$ distributions in $t$-channel, $s$-channel, and $tW$-channel single-top production.

  6. Effects of High-Order Co-occurrences on Word Semantic Similarities

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaire, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    A computational model of the construction of word meaning through exposure to texts is built in order to simulate the effects of co-occurrence values on word semantic similarities, paragraph by paragraph. Semantic similarity is here viewed as association. It turns out that the similarity between two words W1 and W2 strongly increases with a co-occurrence, decreases with the occurrence of W1 without W2 or W2 without W1, and slightly increases with high-order co-occurrences. Therefore, operationalizing similarity as a frequency of co-occurrence probably introduces a bias: first, there are cases in which there is similarity without co-occurrence and, second, the frequency of co-occurrence overestimates similarity.

  7. An Accurate Image Simulation Method for High-Order Laue Zone Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Can-Ying; ZENG Song-Jun; LIU Hong-Rong; YANG Qi-Bin

    2008-01-01

    A completely different formulation for simulation of the high order Laue zone (HOLZ) diffractions is derived.It refers to the new method,i.e.the Taylor series (TS) method.To check the validity and accuracy of the TS method,we take polyvinglidene fluoride (PVDF) crystal as an example to calculate the exit wavefunction by the conventional multi-slice (CMS) method and the TS method.The calculated results show that the TS method is much more accurate than the CMS method and is independent of the slice thicknesses.Moreover,the pure first order Lane zone wavefunction by the TS method can reflect the major potential distribution of the first reciprocal plane.

  8. Robust cooperative output tracking of networked high-order power integrators systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J. M.; Wang, J. N.; Shan, J. Y.

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on a robust cooperative output tracking problem of networked power integrator systems. The dynamics of each system is considered as a nonlinear high-order power integrator whose linearised model is uncontrollable around its origin. It is proven via Lyapunov Theory that under some mild assumptions and graph structural properties, all agents' outputs in the network can be synchronised to a desired trajectory with a bounded error in the presence of external disturbances as well as model uncertainties. Moreover, the tracking performance can be tuned by appropriately choosing parameters within the controller. The proposed controller for each agent is in the essence constructed via backstepping technique consisting of three components: the state feedback of its own, the outputs of its neighbours and the information of the desired trajectory if connected, and thus in a distributed manner.

  9. A parallel high-order accurate finite element nonlinear Stokes ice sheet model and benchmark experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Wei [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Ju, Lili [University of South Carolina; Gunzburger, Max [Florida State University; Price, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Laboratory,

    2012-01-01

    The numerical modeling of glacier and ice sheet evolution is a subject of growing interest, in part because of the potential for models to inform estimates of global sea level change. This paper focuses on the development of a numerical model that determines the velocity and pressure fields within an ice sheet. Our numerical model features a high-fidelity mathematical model involving the nonlinear Stokes system and combinations of no-sliding and sliding basal boundary conditions, high-order accurate finite element discretizations based on variable resolution grids, and highly scalable parallel solution strategies, all of which contribute to a numerical model that can achieve accurate velocity and pressure approximations in a highly efficient manner. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our model by analytical solution tests, established ice sheet benchmark experiments, and comparisons with other well-established ice sheet models.

  10. High-order conservative reconstruction schemes for finite volume methods in cylindrical and spherical coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Mignone, A

    2014-01-01

    High-order reconstruction schemes for the solution of hyperbolic conservation laws in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are revised in the finite volume approach. The formulation employs a piecewise polynomial approximation to the zone-average values to reconstruct left and right interface states from within a computational zone to arbitrary order of accuracy by inverting a Vandermonde-like linear system of equations with spatially varying coefficients. The approach is general and can be used on uniform and non-uniform meshes although explicit expressions are derived for polynomials from second to fifth degree in cylindrical and spherical geometries with uniform grid spacing. It is shown that, in regions of large curvature, the resulting expressions differ considerably from their Cartesian counterparts and that the lack of such corrections can severely degrade the accuracy of the solution close to the coordinate origin. Limiting techniques and monotonicity constraints are revised for conventional reconstruct...

  11. Multi-dimensional high-order numerical schemes for Lagrangian hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, William W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Woodward, Paul R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    An approximate solver for multi-dimensional Riemann problems at grid points of unstructured meshes, and a numerical scheme for multi-dimensional hydrodynamics have been developed in this paper. The solver is simple, and is developed only for the use in numerical schemes for hydrodynamics. The scheme is truely multi-dimensional, is second order accurate in both space and time, and satisfies conservation laws exactly for mass, momentum, and total energy. The scheme has been tested through numerical examples involving strong shocks. It has been shown that the scheme offers the principle advantages of high-order Codunov schemes; robust operation in the presence of very strong shocks and thin shock fronts.

  12. Impressive electromagnetic shielding effects exhibited by highly ordered, micrometer thick polyaniline films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Ranjini R.; Varma, Sreekanth J.; Sankaran, Jayalekshmi

    2016-04-01

    The present work highlights the remarkably high shielding effectiveness of about 68 dB, exhibited by highly ordered and doped polyaniline films, in the microwave frequency range 4-12 GHz, obtained by self-stabilized dispersion polymerization as the synthesis route. The observed shielding effectiveness is found to depend quite sensitively on the electrical conducting properties, which are predominantly controlled by the nature and concentration of the dopants. The structural and morphological characterization of the films using XRD and TEM techniques reveals surprisingly high extent of crystallinity, which contributes significantly towards enhancing the electrical conductivity of the films. Most of the available reports on the microwave response of conducting polymer film samples deal with much thicker films, compared to the micrometer thick films of the present studies. The shielding effectiveness of acid doped, micrometer thick polyaniline films reported in the present work far exceeds most of the previously reported values and meets the commercial requirements.

  13. Laser plasma as a source of intense attosecond pulses via high-order harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incredible progress in ultrafast laser technology and Ti:sapphire lasers have lead to many important applications, one of them being high-order harmonic generation (HHG). HHG is a source of coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation, which has opened new frontiers in science by extending nonlinear optics and time-resolved spectroscopy to the XUV region, and pushing ultrafast science to the attosecond domain. Progress in attosecond science has revealed many new phenomena that have not been seen with femtosecond pulses. Clearly, the next frontier is to study nonlinear effects at the attosecond timescale and in the XUV. However, a problem with present-day attosecond pulses is that they are just too weak to induce measurable nonlinearities, which severely limits the application of this source. While HHG from solid targets has shown promise for higher conversion efficiency, there is no experiment so far that demonstrates isolated attosecond pulse generation. The generation of isolated, several 100-as pulses with few-µJ energy will enable us to enter a completely new phase in attoscience. In past works, we have demonstrated that high-order harmonics from lowly ionized plasma is a highly efficient method to generate coherent XUV pulses. For example, indium plasma has been shown to generate intense 13th harmonic of the Ti:sapphire laser, with conversion efficiency of 10-4. However, the quasi-monochromatic nature of indium harmonics would make it difficult to generate attosecond pulses. We have also demonstrated that one could increase the harmonic yield by using nanoparticle targets. Specifically, we showed that by using indium oxide nanoparticles or C60 film, we could obtain intense harmonics between wavelengths of 50 to 90 nm. The energy in each of these harmonic orders was measured to be a few µJ, which is sufficient for many applications. However, the problem of using nanoparticle or film targets is the rapid decrease in the harmonic intensity, due to the rapid

  14. High order surface aberration contributions from phase space analysis of differential rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Herkommer, Alois M

    2016-03-21

    Phase space methods are very popular for illumination systems or paraxial system analysis. In this paper it will be shown that it is also a promising tool to visualize and quantify surface aberration contributions, including all orders. The method is based on the calculation and propagation of a differential ray pair. In order to validate the method we compare to Aldis calculus, an exact method to determine high order aberrations in rotational symmetric systems. A triplet lens is used as an example to visualize the results. The analysis indicates that the phase space method is a very good approximation to Aldis calculus and moreover it is not limited to any symmetry assumptions. PMID:27136789

  15. Explicit high-order noncanonical symplectic algorithms for ideal two-fluid systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Jianyuan; Morrison, Philip J; Liu, Jian; Yu, Zhi; Zhang, Ruili; He, Yang

    2016-01-01

    An explicit high-order noncanonical symplectic algorithm for ideal two-fluid systems is developed. The fluid is discretized as particles in the Lagrangian description, while the electromagnetic fields and internal energy are treated as discrete differential form fields on a fixed mesh. With the assistance of Whitney interpolating forms, this scheme preserves the gauge symmetry of the electromagnetic field, and the pressure field is naturally derived from the discrete internal energy. The whole system is solved using the Hamiltonian splitting method discovered by He et al., which was been successfully adopted in constructing symplectic particle-in-cell schemes. Because of its structure preserving and explicit nature, this algorithm is especially suitable for large-scale simulations for physics problems that are multi-scale and require long-term fidelity and accuracy. The algorithm is verified via two tests: studies of the dispersion relation of waves in a two-fluid plasma system and the oscillating two-stream ...

  16. High-order continuum kinetic method for modeling plasma dynamics in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuum methods offer a high-fidelity means of simulating plasma kinetics. While computationally intensive, these methods are advantageous because they can be cast in conservation-law form, are not susceptible to noise, and can be implemented using high-order numerical methods. Advances in continuum method capabilities for modeling kinetic phenomena in plasmas require the development of validation tools in higher dimensional phase space and an ability to handle non-cartesian geometries. To that end, a new benchmark for validating Vlasov-Poisson simulations in 3D (x,vx,vy) is presented. The benchmark is based on the Dory-Guest-Harris instability and is successfully used to validate a continuum finite volume algorithm. To address challenges associated with non-cartesian geometries, unique features of cylindrical phase space coordinates are described. Preliminary results of continuum kinetic simulations in 4D (r,z,vr,vz) phase space are presented

  17. Enhanced high-order harmonic generation from periodic potentials in inhomogeneous laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Tao-Yuan; Zhou, Xiao-Xin; Bian, Xue-Bin

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically study high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from solid-phase systems in spatially inhomogeneous strong laser fields originated by resonant plasmons within a metallic nanostructure. The intensity of the second plateau in HHG may be enhanced by two-three orders and be comparable with the intensity of the first plateau. This is due to bigger transition probabilities to higher conduction bands. It provides us a practical way to increase the yields of HHG with laser intensity below the damage threshold. It presents a promising way to triple the range of HHG spectra in experimental measurements. It also allows to generate intense isolated attosecond pulse from solids driven by few-cycle laser fields.

  18. Combinational-deformable-mirror adaptive optics system for compensation of high-order modes of wavefront

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huafeng Yang; Guilin Liu; Changhui Rao; Yudong Zhang; Wenhan Jiang

    2007-01-01

    A new kind of adaptive optics (AO) system, in which several low spatial frequency deformable mirrors(DMs) with optical conjugation relationship are combined to correct high-order aberrations, is proposed.The phase compensation principle and the control method of the combinational AO system are introduced.The numerical simulations for the AO system with two 60-element DMs are presented. The results indicate that the combinational DM in the AO system can correct different aberrations effectively as one single DM with more actuators, and there is no change of control method. This technique can be applied to a large telescope AO system to improve the spatial compensation capability for wavefront by using current DM.

  19. Carrier-wave Rabi-flopping signatures in high-order harmonic generation for alkali atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappina, M F; Pérez-Hernández, J A; Landsman, A S; Zimmermann, T; Lewenstein, M; Roso, L; Krausz, F

    2015-04-10

    We present a theoretical investigation of carrier-wave Rabi flopping in real atoms by employing numerical simulations of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in alkali species. Given the short HHG cutoff, related to the low saturation intensity, we concentrate on the features of the third harmonic of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) atoms. For pulse areas of 2π and Na atoms, a characteristic unique peak appears, which, after analyzing the ground state population, we correlate with the conventional Rabi flopping. On the other hand, for larger pulse areas, carrier-wave Rabi flopping occurs, and is associated with a more complex structure in the third harmonic. These characteristics observed in K atoms indicate the breakdown of the area theorem, as was already demonstrated under similar circumstances in narrow band gap semiconductors. PMID:25910125

  20. Rad-Hydro with a High-Order, Low-Order Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Park, HyeongKae [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lowrie, Robert Byron [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rauenzahn, Rick M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cleveland, Mathew Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-04

    Moment-based acceleration via the development of “high-order, low-order” (HO-LO) algorithms has provided substantial accuracy and efficiency enhancements for solutions of the nonlinear, thermal radiative transfer equations by CCS-2 and T-3 staff members. Accuracy enhancements over traditional, linearized methods are obtained by solving a nonlinear, timeimplicit HO-LO system via a Jacobian-free Newton Krylov procedure. This also prevents the appearance of non-physical maximum principle violations (“temperature spikes”) associated with linearization. Efficiency enhancements are obtained in part by removing “effective scattering” from the linearized system. In this highlight, we summarize recent work in which we formally extended the HO-LO radiation algorithm to include operator-split radiation-hydrodynamics.

  1. Bright high-order harmonic generation with controllable polarization from a relativistic plasma mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zi-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources with controllable polarization state are powerful tools in investigating not only structural and electronic, but also magnetic properties of materials. However, such light sources are still limited to a few free electron laser facilities and very recently to high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from noble gases. Here we propose and numerically demonstrate a new laser-plasma scheme to generate bright XUV pulses with fully controlled polarization. An elliptically polarized laser pulse is obliquely incident on a plasma surface. The reflected radiation contains trains and isolated circularly or highly elliptically polarized attosecond XUV pulses. The harmonic polarization state is fully controlled by the laser-plasma parameters. The mechanism can be explained within the relativistically oscillating mirror model. This scheme opens a practical and promising route to generate bright attosecond XUV pulses with desirable ellipticities in a straightforward and efficient way f...

  2. Atrial fibrillatory signal estimation using blind source extraction algorithm based on high-order statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gang; RAO NiNi; ZHANG Ying

    2008-01-01

    The analysis and the characterization of atrial fibrillation (AF) requires,in a previous key step,the extraction of the atrial activity (AA) free from 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG).This contribution proposes a novel non-invasive approach for the AA estimation in AF episodes.The method is based on blind source extraction (BSE) using high order statistics (HOS).The validity and performance of this algorithm are confirmed by extensive computer simulations and experiments on realworld data.In contrast to blind source separation (BSS) methods,BSE only extract one desired signal,and it is easy for the machine to judge whether the extracted signal is AA source by calculating its spectrum concentration,while it is hard for the machine using BSS method to judge which one of the separated twelve signals is AA source.Therefore,the proposed method is expected to have great potential in clinical monitoring.

  3. High Order Moment Model for Polydisperse Evaporating Sprays Towards Interfacial Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Essadki, Mohamed; Laurent, Frédérique; Massot, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new Eulerian modeling and related accurate and robust numerical methods, describing polydisperse evaporating sprays, based on high order moment methods in size. The main novelty of this model is its capacity to describe some geometrical variables of the droplet-gas interface, by analogy with the liquid-gas interface in interfacial flows. For this purpose, we use fractional size-moments, where the size variable is taken as the droplet surface. In order to evaluate the evaporation of the polydisperse spray, we use a smooth reconstruction which maximizes the Shannon entropy. However, the use of fractional moments introduces some theoretical and numerical difficulties, which need to be tackled. First, relying on a study of the moment space, we extend the Maximum Entropy (ME) reconstruction of the size distribution to the case of fractional moments. Then, we propose a new accurate and realizable algorithm to solve the moment evolution due to evaporation, which preserves the structure of ...

  4. Fast Algorithms for High-Order Sparse Linear Prediction with Applications to Speech Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Giacobello, Daniele; van Waterschoot, Toon;

    2016-01-01

    In speech processing applications, imposing sparsity constraints on high-order linear prediction coefficients and prediction residuals has proven successful in overcoming some of the limitation of conventional linear predictive modeling. However, this modeling scheme, named sparse linear prediction...... and the alternating direction method of multipliers. These methods allow to obtain solutions with a higher computational efficiency, orders of magnitude faster than with general purpose software based on interior-point methods. Furthermore, computational savings are achieved by solving the sparse linear prediction......, is generally formulated as a linear programming problem that comes at the expenses of a much higher computational burden compared to the conventional approach. In this paper, we propose to solve the optimization problem by combining splitting methods with two approaches: the Douglas-Rachford method...

  5. High-order hidden Markov model for piecewise linear processes and applications to speech recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lee-Min; Jean, Fu-Rong

    2016-08-01

    The hidden Markov models have been widely applied to systems with sequential data. However, the conditional independence of the state outputs will limit the output of a hidden Markov model to be a piecewise constant random sequence, which is not a good approximation for many real processes. In this paper, a high-order hidden Markov model for piecewise linear processes is proposed to better approximate the behavior of a real process. A parameter estimation method based on the expectation-maximization algorithm was derived for the proposed model. Experiments on speech recognition of noisy Mandarin digits were conducted to examine the effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results show that the proposed method can reduce the recognition error rate compared to a baseline hidden Markov model. PMID:27586781

  6. High-order harmonic generation and multi-photon ionization of Na2 in laser fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yan-Ping; Zhang Feng-Shou; Meng Ke-Lai; Xiao Guo-Qing

    2007-01-01

    In this paper high-order harmonic generation (HHG) spectra and the ionization probabilities of various charge states of small cluster Na2 in the multiphoton regimes are calculated by using time-dependent local density approximation (TDLDA) for one-colour (1064 nm) and two-colour (1064 nm and 532 nm) ultrashort (25 fs) laser pulses. HHG spectra of Na2 have not the large extent of plateaus due to pronounced collective effects of electron dynamics. In addition, the two-colour laser field can result in the breaking of the symmetry and generation of the even order harmonic such as the second order harmonic. The results of ionization probabilities show that a two-colour laser field can increase the ionization probability of higher charge state.

  7. A fast high-order method to calculate wakefields in an electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report on a high-order fast method to numerically calculate wakefields in an electron beam given a wake function model. This method is based on a Newton–Cotes quadrature rule for integral approximation and an FFT method for discrete summation that results in an O(Nlog(N)) computational cost, where N is the number of grid points. Using the Simpson quadrature rule with an accuracy of O(h4), where h is the grid size, we present numerical calculation of the wakefields from a resonator wake function model and from a one-dimensional coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wake model. Besides the fast speed and high numerical accuracy, the calculation using the direct line density instead of the first derivative of the line density avoids numerical filtering of the electron density function for computing the CSR wakefield.

  8. Real-Time Wavefront Control for the PALM-3000 High Order Adaptive Optics System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Tuan N.; Bouchez, Antonin H.; Dekany, Richard G.; Guiwits, Stephen R.; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Troy, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    We present a cost-effective scalable real-time wavefront control architecture based on off-the-shelf graphics processing units hosted in an ultra-low latency, high-bandwidth interconnect PC cluster environment composed of modules written in the component-oriented language of nesC. The architecture enables full-matrix reconstruction of the wavefront at up to 2 KHz with latency under 250 us for the PALM-3000 adaptive optics systems, a state-of-the-art upgrade on the 5.1 meter Hale Telescope that consists of a 64 x 64 subaperture Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a 3368 active actuator high order deformable mirror in series with a 241 active actuator tweeter DM. The architecture can easily scale up to support much larger AO systems at higher rates and lower latency.

  9. HIGH ORDER FUZZY TIME SERIES MODEL AND ITS APLICATION TO IMKB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağdaş Hakan ALADAĞ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The observations of some real time series such as temperature and stock market can take different values in a day. Instead of representing the observations of these time series by real numbers, employing linguistic values or fuzzy sets can be more appropriate. In recent years, many approaches have been introduced to analyze time series consisting of observations which are fuzzy sets and such time series are called fuzzy time series. In this study, a novel approach is proposed to analyze high order fuzzy time series model. The proposed method is applied to IMKB data and the obtained results are discussed. IMKB data is also analyzed by using some other fuzzy time series methods available in the literature and obtained results are compared to results obtained from the proposed method. As a result of the comparison, it is seen that the proposed method produce accurate forecasts.

  10. Bright high-order harmonic generation with controllable polarization from a relativistic plasma mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources with a controllable polarization state are powerful tools for investigating the structural and electronic as well as the magnetic properties of materials. However, such light sources are still limited to only a few free-electron laser facilities and, very recently, to high-order harmonic generation from noble gases. Here we propose and numerically demonstrate a laser-plasma scheme to generate bright XUV pulses with fully controlled polarization. In this scheme, an elliptically polarized laser pulse is obliquely incident on a plasma surface, and the reflected radiation contains pulse trains and isolated circularly or highly elliptically polarized attosecond XUV pulses. The harmonic polarization state is fully controlled by the laser-plasma parameters. The mechanism can be explained within the relativistically oscillating mirror model. This scheme opens a practical and promising route to generate bright attosecond XUV pulses with desirable ellipticities in a straightforward and efficient way for a number of applications. PMID:27531047

  11. OPTICAL STORAGE MECHANISM AND HIGH-ORDER DIFFRACTION PROPERTIES OF NITROAZOBENZENE-CONTAINING POLYESTER FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Using Nd:YAG second harmonic pulse (100 ps), the optical storage properties of two novel polyesters, poly [4'-bis (N, N-oxyethylene) imino-4-nitroazobenzene succinyl] and poly [2'-chloro-4'-bis (N, N-oxyethylene) imino-4-nitroazobenzene succinyl] have been studied by multiwave mixing. The high-order diffractions of the orientation gratingsinduced by anisotropy via the reorientation of nitroazobenzene groups and optical information storage with long-term stability have been realized by multiwave mixing in their films. Up to 3rd order forward diffraction was detected in two wave mixing, while up to 4th order backward diffraction was observed in degenerated four wave mixing. The recording mechanism was explained by the trans-cis-trans isomerization cycles of azobenzene groups.The isomerization of these azobenzene groups probably undergoes with inversion mechanism under the experimental conditions. The information recorded in these films has been kept for more than 6 months.

  12. Attosecond pulse production using resonantly-enhanced high-order harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Strelkov, V V

    2016-01-01

    We study theoretically the effect of the giant resonance in Xe on the phase difference between the consecutive high order resonantly-enhanced harmonics and calculate the duration of the attosecond pulses produced by these harmonics. For certain conditions resonantly-induced dephasing compensates the phase difference which is intrinsic for the off-resonance harmonics. We find these conditions analytically and compare them with the numerical results. This harmonic synchronization allows attosecond pulse shortening in conjunction with the resonance-induced intensity increase by more than an order of magnitude; the latter enhancement relaxes the requirements for the UV filtering needed for the attosecond pulse production. Using a two-color driving field allows further increase of the intensity. In particular, a caustic-like feature in the harmonic spectrum leads to the generation efficiency growth up to two orders of magnitude, however accompanied by an elongation of the XUV pulse.

  13. A HIGH ORDER ADAPTIVE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR SOLVING NONLINEAR HYPERBOLIC CONSERVATION LAWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengfu Xu; Jinchao Xu; Chi-Wang Shu

    2011-01-01

    In this note,we apply the h-adaptive streamline diffusion finite element method with a small mesh-dependent artificial viscosity to solve nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations,with the objective of achieving high order accuracy and mesh efficiency.We compute the numerical solution to a steady state Burgers equation and the solution to a converging-diverging nozzle problem.The computational results verify that,by suitably choosing the artificial viscosity coefficient and applying the adaptive strategy based on a posterior error estimate by Johnson et al.,an order of N-3/2 accuracy can be obtained when continuous piecewise linear elements are used,where N is the number of elements.

  14. Alternative interpretation of high-order harmonic generation using Bohmian trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Sanz, A S; Wu, J; Faria, C Figueira de Morisson

    2012-01-01

    A full quantum model of high-order harmonic generation is presented from a Bohmian-mechanical perspective. According to the three-step model, this phenomenon occurs due to the laser-induced recombination of an electron ejected by tunnel ionization with its parent ion. However, when revisited within the Bohmian scenario, we find that the high-harmonic spectrum is generated by those trajectories that reside well inside the core rather than by those that undergo excursions out of it. This agrees with the outcome of quantum mechanical studies, in which the spectrum is obtained through the dipole acceleration. Nevertheless, one may relate time-frequency maps from these central Bohmian trajectories to classical electrons behaving according to the three-step model. This happens because the quantum phase carried by each Bohmian trajectory is influenced by the whole wavefunction and, therefore, also by those trajectories that leave the core.

  15. High-order harmonic generation with Rydberg atoms by using an intense few-cycle pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zhen; Zhu, Qiren; Chen, Jing; Yan, Zong-Chao; Fu, Panming; Wang, Bingbing

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate that high-order harmonic generation (HHG) with both high cutoff frequency and high conversion efficiency can be realized by using a Rydberg atom in a few-cycle laser pulse. This is because a Rydberg state has a large electron orbital radius and small binding energy; therefore an electron in the Rydberg state can be ionized easily and accelerated directly toward the core under the interaction of a few-cycle laser pulse, leading to emission of harmonic photons. In this case, the tunneling process of the electron is not involved and, hence, the conversion efficiency and the cutoff frequency of harmonic generation can be higher than that predicted by the conventional three-step model.

  16. A high order single step-β method for nonlinear structural dynamic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王焕定; 张永山; 王伟

    2003-01-01

    A high order single step-β algorithm, a new direct integration algorithm is proposed for solution ofequations of motion. Whenβ = 0. 5, the accuracy of displacement, velocity and acceleration is of forth order (atruncation error of △t5 ), and the algorithm is unconditionally stable and has no arithmetic damping and noovershooting. When > 0. 5, and an arithmetic damping is adopted, the algorithm is again unconditionally stablewith a third order accuracy (a truncation error of △t4). The analyses run with typical examples show that thealgorithm proposed has higher speed, higher precision and better properties than other direct integrationmethods, such as Wilson-θ method and Newmark-β method in analysing linear elastic responses and nonlinearearthquake responses.

  17. CgWind: A high-order accurate simulation tool for wind turbines and wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chand, K K; Henshaw, W D; Lundquist, K A; Singer, M A

    2010-02-22

    CgWind is a high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) tool designed to meet the modeling needs of wind turbine and wind park engineers. This tool combines several advanced computational technologies in order to model accurately the complex and dynamic nature of wind energy applications. The composite grid approach provides high-quality structured grids for the efficient implementation of high-order accurate discretizations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Composite grids also provide a natural mechanism for modeling bodies in relative motion and complex geometry. Advanced algorithms such as matrix-free multigrid, compact discretizations and approximate factorization will allow CgWind to perform highly resolved calculations efficiently on a wide class of computing resources. Also in development are nonlinear LES subgrid-scale models required to simulate the many interacting scales present in large wind turbine applications. This paper outlines our approach, the current status of CgWind and future development plans.

  18. High-order cyclo-difference techniques: An alternative to finite differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Mark H.; Otto, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The summation-by-parts energy norm is used to establish a new class of high-order finite-difference techniques referred to here as 'cyclo-difference' techniques. These techniques are constructed cyclically from stable subelements, and require no numerical boundary conditions; when coupled with the simultaneous approximation term (SAT) boundary treatment, they are time asymptotically stable for an arbitrary hyperbolic system. These techniques are similar to spectral element techniques and are ideally suited for parallel implementation, but do not require special collocation points or orthogonal basis functions. The principal focus is on methods of sixth-order formal accuracy or less; however, these methods could be extended in principle to any arbitrary order of accuracy.

  19. Exploring arbitrarily high orders of optimized perturbation theory in QCD with nf -> 16.5

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, P M

    2016-01-01

    Perturbative QCD with nf flavours of massless quarks becomes simple in the hypothetical limit nf -> 16.5, where the leading beta-function coefficient vanishes. The Banks-Zaks (BZ) expansion in a0=(8/321)(16.5-nf) is straightforward to obtain from perturbative results in MSbar or any renormalization scheme (RS) whose nf dependence is `regular.' However, `irregular' RS's are perfectly permissible and should ultimately lead to the same BZ results. We show here that the `optimal' RS determined by the Principle of Minimal Sensitivity does yield the same BZ-expansion results when all orders of perturbation theory are taken into account. The BZ limit provides an arena for exploring optimized perturbation theory at arbitrarily high orders. These explorations are facilitated by a `master equation' expressing the optimization conditions in the fixed-point limit. We find an intriguing strong/weak coupling duality a -> a*^2/a about the fixed point a*.

  20. High order expanding domain methods for the solution of Poisson's equation in infinite domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher R.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present a discrete Fourier transform based procedure to evaluate the infinite domain solution of Poisson's equation at points in a rectangular computational region. The numerical procedure is a modification of an "expanding domain" type method where one obtains approximations of increasing accuracy by expanding the computational domain. The modification presented here is one that leads to approximations that converge with high order rates of convergence with respect to domain size. Spectrally accurate approximations are used to approximate differential operators and so the method possesses very high rates of convergence with respect to mesh size as well. Computational results on both two and three dimensional test problems are presented that demonstrate the accuracy and computational efficiency of the procedure.

  1. A simple Riemann solver and high-order Godunov schemes for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple approximate Riemann solver for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws is developed for its use in Godunov schemes. The solver is based on characteristic formulations and is illustrated through Euler and ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) equations. The procedure of a high-order Godunov scheme incorporated with the Riemann solver for one-dimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws is described in detail. The correctness of the scheme is shown by comparison with the piecewise parabolic method for Euler equations and by comparison with exact solutions of Riemann problems for ideal MHD equations. The robustness of the scheme is demonstrated through numerical examples involving more than one strong shock at the same time. It is shown that the scheme offers the principle advantages of Godunov schemes: robust operation in the presence of strong waves, thin shock fronts, thin contact and slip surface discontinuities

  2. A simple Riemann solver and high-order Godunov schemes for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, W.; Woodward, P.R. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A simple approximate Riemann solver for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws is developed for its use in Godunov schemes. The solver is based on characteristic formulations and is illustrated through Euler and ideal magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) equations. The procedure of a high-order Godunov scheme incorporated with the Riemann solver for one-dimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws is described in detail. The correctness of the scheme is shown by comparison with the piecewise parabolic method for Euler equations and by comparison with exact solutions of Riemann problems for ideal MHD equations. The robustness of the scheme is demonstrated through numerical examples involving more than one strong shock at the same time. It is shown that the scheme offers the principle advantages of Godunov schemes: robust operation in the presence of strong waves, thin shock fronts, thin contact and slip surface discontinuities.

  3. A novel high-order, entropy stable, 3D AMR MHD solver with guaranteed positive pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derigs, Dominik; Winters, Andrew R.; Gassner, Gregor J.; Walch, Stefanie

    2016-07-01

    We describe a high-order numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver built upon a novel non-linear entropy stable numerical flux function that supports eight travelling wave solutions. By construction the solver conserves mass, momentum, and energy and is entropy stable. The method is designed to treat the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field in a similar fashion to a hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique. The solver described herein is especially well-suited for flows involving strong discontinuities. Furthermore, we present a new formulation to guarantee positivity of the pressure. We present the underlying theory and implementation of the new solver into the multi-physics, multi-scale adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation code FLASH (http://flash.uchicago.edu)

  4. Improvement of high-order least-squares integration method for stereo deflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongyu; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2015-12-01

    Stereo deflectometry is defined as measurement of the local slope of specular surfaces by using two CCD cameras as detectors and one LCD screen as a light source. For obtaining 3D topography, integrating the calculated slope data is needed. Currently, a high-order finite-difference-based least-squares integration (HFLI) method is used to improve the integration accuracy. However, this method cannot be easily implemented in circular domain or when gradient data are incomplete. This paper proposes a modified easy-implementation integration method based on HFLI (EI-HFLI), which can work in arbitrary domains, and can directly and conveniently handle incomplete gradient data. To carry out the proposed algorithm in a practical stereo deflectometry measurement, gradients are calculated in both CCD frames, and then are mixed together as original data to be meshed into rectangular grids format. Simulation and experiments show this modified method is feasible and can work efficiently. PMID:26836684

  5. Electrochemical assisted photocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid with highly ordered TiO2 nanotube electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the kinetics of photoelectrocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid, one of the important PPCPs, highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTs) were prepared by the electrochemical anodization and characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The effect of TiO2 NTs properties, bias potential, initial salicylic acid concentration and solution pH on the degradation efficiency was studied and carefully analyzed. The results revealed that the salicylic acid degradation follows quasi-first order kinetics in the photoelectrocatalytic process, and the fastest decay kinetics was achieved in acidic environment (pH 2). The result was further interpreted through the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is confirmed that the electrochemical assisted photocatalysis is a synergetic approach to combat stable organic substances with improved efficiency.

  6. A Novel High-Order, Entropy Stable, 3D AMR MHD Solver with Guaranteed Positive Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Derigs, Dominik; Gassner, Gregor J; Walch, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    We describe a high-order numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) solver built upon a novel non-linear entropy stable numerical flux function that supports eight travelling wave solutions. By construction the solver conserves mass, momentum, and energy and is entropy stable. The method is designed to treat the divergence-free constraint on the magnetic field in a similar fashion to a hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique. The solver described herein is especially well-suited for flows involving strong discontinuities. Furthermore, we present a new formulation to guarantee positivity of the pressure. We present the underlying theory and implementation of the new solver into the multi-physics, multi-scale adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulation code $\\texttt{FLASH}$ (http://flash.uchicago.edu). The accuracy, robustness and computational efficiency is demonstrated with a number of tests, including comparisons to available MHD implementations in $\\texttt{FLASH}$.

  7. Coherent diffractive imaging microscope with a high-order harmonic source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Khuong Ba; Le, Hoang Vu; Hannaford, Peter; Dao, Lap Van

    2015-06-10

    We report the generation of highly coherent extreme ultraviolet sources with wavelengths around 30 and 10 nm by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a gas cell filled with argon and helium, respectively. We then perform coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) by using a focused narrow-bandwidth HHG source with wavelength around 30 nm as an illumination beam for two kinds of samples. The first is a transmission sample and the second is a absorption sample. In addition, we report the successful reconstruction of a complex absorption sample using a tabletop high-harmonic source. This will open the path to the realization of a compact soft x-ray microscope to investigate biological samples such as membrane proteins. PMID:26192827

  8. Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balogh, Emeric [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); Kovacs, Katalin [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); National Institute for R and D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, RO-400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dombi, Peter; Farkas, Gyozo [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Fulop, Jozsef A.; Hebling, Janos [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Pecs, H-7624 Pecs (Hungary); Tosa, Valer [National Institute for R and D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, RO-400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Varju, Katalin [HAS Research Group on Laser Physics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary)

    2011-08-15

    High-order harmonic generation by few-cycle 800 nm laser pulses in neon gas in the presence of a strong terahertz (THz) field is investigated numerically with propagation effects taken into account. Our calculations show that the combination of THz fields with up to 12 fs laser pulses can be an effective gating technique to generate single attosecond pulses. We show that in the presence of the strong THz field only a single attosecond burst can be phase matched, whereas radiation emitted during other half cycles disappears during propagation. The cutoff is extended and a wide supercontinuum appears in the near-field spectra, extending the available spectral width for isolated attosecond pulse generation from 23 to 93 eV. We demonstrate that phase-matching effects are responsible for the generation of isolated attosecond pulses, even in conditions when single-atom response yields an attosecond pulse train.

  9. Formation of high-order acoustic Bessel beams by spiral diffraction gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Noé; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Romero-García, Vicent; García-Raffi, Lluis M; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-01-01

    The formation of high-order Bessel beams by a passive acoustic device consisting of an Archimedes' spiral diffraction grating is theoretically, numerically and experimentally reported in this work. These beams are propagation-invariant solutions of the Helmholtz equation and are characterized by an azimuthal variation of the phase along its annular spectrum producing an acoustic vortex in the near field. In our system, the scattering of plane acoustic waves by the spiral grating leads to the formation of the acoustic vortex with zero pressure on-axis and the angular phase dislocations characterized by the spiral geometry. The order of the generated Bessel beam and, as a consequence, the size of the generated vortex can be fixed by the number of arms in the spiral diffraction grating. The obtained results allow to obtain Bessel beams with controllable vorticity by a passive device, which has potential applications in low-cost acoustic tweezers and acoustic radiation force devices.

  10. High order spatial expansion for the method of characteristics applied to 3-D geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of characteristics is an efficient and flexible technique to solve the neutron transport equation and has been extensively used in two-dimensional calculations because it permits to deal with complex geometries. However, because of a very fast increase in storage requirements and number of floating operations, its direct application to three-dimensional routine transport calculations it is not still possible. In this work we introduce and analyze several modifications aimed to reduce memory requirements and to diminish the computing burden. We explore high-order spatial approximation, the use of intermediary trajectory-dependent flux expansions and the possibility of dynamic trajectory reconstruction from local tracking for typed subdomains. (authors)

  11. High-order Composite Likelihood Inference for Max-Stable Distributions and Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Castruccio, Stefano

    2015-09-29

    In multivariate or spatial extremes, inference for max-stable processes observed at a large collection of locations is a very challenging problem in computational statistics, and current approaches typically rely on less expensive composite likelihoods constructed from small subsets of data. In this work, we explore the limits of modern state-of-the-art computational facilities to perform full likelihood inference and to efficiently evaluate high-order composite likelihoods. With extensive simulations, we assess the loss of information of composite likelihood estimators with respect to a full likelihood approach for some widely-used multivariate or spatial extreme models, we discuss how to choose composite likelihood truncation to improve the efficiency, and we also provide recommendations for practitioners. This article has supplementary material online.

  12. Carbon coatings for extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coraggia, S.; Frassetto, F. [CNR-Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, Laboratory for UV and X-Ray Optical Research, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy); Aznarez, J.A.; Larruquert, J.I.; Mendez, J.A. [GOLD-Instituto de Optica-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 144, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Negro, M.; Stagira, S.; Vozzi, C. [Department of Physics-Politecnico of Milano and CNR-Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Poletto, L., E-mail: poletto@dei.unipd.i [CNR-Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, Laboratory for UV and X-Ray Optical Research, via Trasea 7, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2011-04-11

    The experimental study of the optical properties of thin carbon films to be used as grazing-incidence coatings for extreme-ultraviolet high-order harmonics is presented. The carbon samples were deposited on plane glass substrates by the electron beam evaporation technique. The optical constants (real and imaginary parts of the refraction index) have been calculated through reflectivity measurements. The results are in good agreement with what reported in the literature, and confirm that carbon-coated optics operated at grazing incidence have a remarkable gain over conventional metallic coatings in the extreme ultraviolet. Since the harmonics co-propagate with the intense infrared laser generating beam, the carbon damage threshold when exposed to ultrashort infrared laser pulses has been measured.

  13. Electrodeposition and Characteristics of Highly Ordered Macroporous β-PbO2 Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusairie Mohd

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Highly ordered macroporous β-PbO2 deposits were successfully produced on gold using polystyrene microsphere templates through electrodeposition technique from acidic nitrate baths containing Pb(II ions using a constant current at 298 K. The morphology, catalytic activity and chemical stability of the deposits have been investigated. The morphology of the deposits has been analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The catalytic activity of the deposited β-PbO2 electrodes as anodes for dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO oxidation has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry. The chemical stability of the electrode in acidic solution was monitored and observed by the SEM. The deposits were shown to be active for the oxidation of DMSO due to their high surface area. It was also found that decomposition of the electrodes occurred when they were kept standing in acidic solution containing an oxidisable organic compound (ie: DMSO on open circuit.

  14. Optical properties of dyes with/without metal nanoparticles doped in a highly ordered nanostructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-ping; LI Yu-dong; QI Ji-wei; XU Jing-jun; SUN Qian

    2011-01-01

    Highly ordered nanocomposite arrays of Rh6G-Au-AAO are formed by filling anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) with Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) and gold nanoparticles. The optical properties of Rh6G-Au-AAO are studied by visible absorptive and fluorescent spectroscopy. Compared with the fluorescence spectra of Rh6G-Au in the solution environment, the fluorescence peak intensities of Rh6G-Au-AAO are significantly enhanced, the maximum enhancement rate is 5.5, and a constant blue shift of~ 12 nm of peak positions is presented. The effects come from the spatial confinement of AAO and the inhibition of the fluorescence quenching effect induced by gold nanoparticles. The results show that the nanocomposite structures of fluorescence molecules-metal nanoparticles-AAO have a considerable potential in engineering molecular assemblies and creating functional materials of superior properties for future nanophotonics.

  15. Carrier-wave Rabi flopping signatures in high-order harmonic generation for alkali atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Ciappina, M F; Landsman, A S; Zimmermann, T; Lewenstein, M; Roso, L; Krausz, F

    2015-01-01

    We present the first theoretical investigation of carrier-wave Rabi flopping in real atoms by employing numerical simulations of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in alkali species. Given the short HHG cutoff, related to the low saturation intensity, we concentrate on the features of the third harmonic of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) atoms. For pulse areas of 2$\\pi$ and Na atoms, a characteristic unique peak appears, which, after analyzing the ground state population, we correlate with the conventional Rabi flopping. On the other hand, for larger pulse areas, carrier-wave Rabi flopping occurs, and is associated with a more complex structure in the third harmonic. These new characteristics observed in K atoms indicate the breakdown of the area theorem, as was already demonstrated under similar circumstances in narrow band gap semiconductors.

  16. Strong-field-approximation theory of high-order harmonic generation by polyatomic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odžak, S.; Hasović, E.; Milošević, D. B.

    2016-04-01

    A theory of high-order harmonic generation by arbitrary polyatomic molecules is introduced. A polyatomic molecule is modeled by an (N +1 ) -particle system, which consists of N heavy atomic (ionic) centers and an electron. After the separation of the center-of-mass coordinate, the dynamics of this system is reduced to the relative electronic and nuclear coordinates. Various versions (with or without the dressing of the initial and/or final molecular state) of the molecular strong-field approximation are introduced. For neutral polyatomic molecules the derived expression for the T -matrix element takes a simple form. The interference minima in the harmonic spectrum are explained as a multiple-slit type of interference. This is illustrated by numerical examples for the ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) molecules.

  17. Radiative corrections for electron proton elastic scattering taking into account high orders and hard photon emission

    CERN Document Server

    Kuraev, E A; Bystritskiy, Yu M; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effect of high order radiative corrections in unpolarized electron proton elastic scattering and compare with the calculations at lowest order, which are usually applied to experimental data. Particular attention is devoted to the $\\epsilon$ dependence of radiative corrections, which is directly related to the electric proton form factor. We consider in particular the effects of the interference terms for soft and hard photon emission. Both quadratic amplitude describing the collinear emission along the scattered electron as well as the interference with the amplitudes of emission from the initial electron and the emission from protons are important in leading and next to leading approximation and they may compensate in particular kinematical conditions.

  18. Laser-Duration Dependence of Emission Properties of High-Order Harmonic Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Yu-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Quantitative investigations are made for the laser-duration dependence of the emission properties of high-order harmonic generation (HHG). HHG emission properties produced by few-cycle lasers show some useful characteristics. The cutoff energy is less than that by laser for infinite duration. The single energy distribution pulse decreases much faster than its duration as the laser duration grows. A two-cycle laser with carrier-envelope phase of O°can produce a single distribution pulse peaked at the laser carrier phase 1.22rad and spanned 1.18 rad with the cutoff energy 2.9Uρ + Iρ and a bandwidth 0.63Uρ, where Uρ is the ponderomotive potential of the laser field and Iρ is the atomic ionization potential.

  19. Engineering of highly ordered TiO2 nanopore arrays by anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huijie; Huang, Zhennan; Zhang, Li; Ding, Jie; Ma, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yong; Kou, Shengzhong; Yang, Hangsheng

    2016-07-01

    Finite element analysis was used to simulate the current density distributions in the TiO2 barrier layer formed at the initial stage of Ti anodization. The morphology modification of the barrier layer was found to induce current density distribution change. By starting the anodization with proper TiO2 barrier layer morphology, the current density distribution can be adjusted to favor the formation of either nanotube arrays or nanopore arrays of anodic TiO2. We also found that the addition of sodium acetate into the electrolyte suppressed both the field-assisted chemical dissolution of TiO2 and the TiF62- hydrolysis induced TiO2 deposition during anodization, and thus further favored the nanopore formation. Accordingly, highly ordered anodic TiO2 nanopore arrays, similar to anodic aluminum oxide nanopore arrays, were successfully prepared.

  20. A single-electron approach for many-electron dynamics in high-order harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Schild, Axel

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel ab-initio single-electron approach to correlated electron dynamics in strong laser fields. By writing the electronic wavefunction as a product of a marginal one-electron wavefunction and a conditional wavefunction, we show that the exact harmonic spectrum can be obtained from a single-electron Schr\\"odinger equation. To obtain the one-electron potential in practice, we propose an adiabatic approximation, i.e. a potential is generated that depends only on the position of one electron. This potential, together with the laser interaction, is then used to obtain the dynamics of the system. For a model Helium atom in a laser field, we show that by using our approach, the high-order harmonic generation spectrum can be obtained to a good approximation.

  1. A fast high-order method to calculate wakefield forces in an electron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Qiang, Ji; Ryne, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on a high-order fast method to numerically calculate wakefield forces in an electron beam given a wake function model. This method is based on a Newton-Cotes quadrature rule for integral approximation and an FFT method for discrete summation that results in an $O(Nlog(N))$ computational cost, where $N$ is the number of grid points. Using the Simpson quadrature rule with an accuracy of $O(h^4)$, where $h$ is the grid size, we present numerical calculation of the wakefields from a resonator wake function model and from a one-dimensional coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wake model. Besides the fast speed and high numerical accuracy, the calculation using the direct line density instead of the first derivative of the line density avoids numerical filtering of the electron density function for computing the CSR wakefield force.

  2. Coherent Sources of XUV Radiation Soft X-Ray Lasers and High-Order Harmonic Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Jaeglé, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet radiation, also referred to as soft X-rays or XUV, offers very special optical properties. The X-UV refractive index of matter is such that normal reflection cannot take place on polished surfaces whereas beam transmission through one micrometer of almost all materials reduces to zero. Therefore, it has long been a difficult task to imagine and to implement devices designed for complex optics experiments in this wavelength range. Thanks to new sources of coherent radiation - XUV-lasers and High Order Harmonics - the use of XUV radiation, for interferometry, holography, diffractive optics, non-linear radiation-matter interaction, time-resolved study of fast and ultrafast phenomena and many other applications, including medical sciences, is ubiquitous.

  3. Electrochemical assisted photocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid with highly ordered TiO2 nanotube electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Jinwei; Wang, Ying; Feng, Jiangtao; Yan, Wei; Xu, Hao

    2014-07-01

    To explore the kinetics of photoelectrocatalytic degradation of salicylic acid, one of the important PPCPs, highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTs) were prepared by the electrochemical anodization and characterized with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The effect of TiO2 NTs properties, bias potential, initial salicylic acid concentration and solution pH on the degradation efficiency was studied and carefully analyzed. The results revealed that the salicylic acid degradation follows quasi-first order kinetics in the photoelectrocatalytic process, and the fastest decay kinetics was achieved in acidic environment (pH 2). The result was further interpreted through the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is confirmed that the electrochemical assisted photocatalysis is a synergetic approach to combat stable organic substances with improved efficiency.

  4. Astrophysical hydrodynamics with a high-order discontinuous Galerkin scheme and adaptive mesh refinement

    CERN Document Server

    Schaal, Kevin; Chandrashekar, Praveen; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Klingenberg, Christian; Springel, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Solving the Euler equations of ideal hydrodynamics as accurately and efficiently as possible is a key requirement in many astrophysical simulations. It is therefore important to continuously advance the numerical methods implemented in current astrophysical codes, especially also in light of evolving computer technology, which favours certain computational approaches over others. Here we introduce the new adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code TENET, which employs a high-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme for hydrodynamics. The Euler equations in this method are solved in a weak formulation with a polynomial basis by means of explicit Runge-Kutta time integration and Gauss-Legendre quadrature. This approach offers significant advantages over commonly employed finite volume (FV) solvers. In particular, the higher order capability renders it computationally more efficient, in the sense that the same precision can be obtained at significantly less computational cost. Also, the DG scheme inherently conserves a...

  5. Study and development of a soft X-ray laser seeded by high-order harmonic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work in this thesis aimed to study a geometry of X-UV lasers inspired by high power laser. This architecture, consisting of an injector (a source of high-order harmonics) coupled to an amplifier (plasma created by laser), corresponds to that of a laser chain in the spectral range of the X-UV. The laser at 32.8 nm studied here, is produced by the injection of high-order harmonic in a krypton plasma created by Optical Field Ionization (OFI). This scheme, initially tested by T. Ditmire in 1995, was validated in 2003 with a plasma amplifier created by the interaction of intense laser and a gaseous medium. This thesis is a continuation of that work in trying to address different aspects, not only a better understanding of the physical processes involved, but also of the spatio-temporal characterization of this type of source. We have demonstrated experimentally for the first time a source in the X-UV, which can be highly compact, energetic (1 μJ per pulse), close to the diffraction limit and Fourier transform limited. Indeed, through the spatial filtering of harmonics by the amplifying medium, the injected X-UV laser at 32.8 nm shows a Gaussian spatial profile with a divergence of 0.7 mrad (at 1/e2). The wavefront was measured with a Hartmann sensor and presents a value of λ/17 in standard deviation, demonstrating that the X-UV source is diffraction limited. The temporal characterization of laser shows that the coherence time is of the order of the duration of spontaneous emission of the amplifier. The temporal coherence presents a Gaussian profile with a relative spectral width Δλ/λ equal to 10-5 (FWHM) corresponding to a pulse duration of about 5 ps. (author)

  6. Highly ordered Ni–Ti–O nanotubes for non-enzymatic glucose detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Ruiqiang, E-mail: hangruiqiang@tyut.edu.cn [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liu, Yanlian [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Gao, Ang [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Bai, Long; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiangyu; Lin, Naiming [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Tang, Bin, E-mail: tangbin@tyut.edu.cn [Research Institute of Surface Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-06-01

    Anodization is used to fabricate Ni–Ti–O nanotube (NT) electrodes for non-enzymatic glucose detection. The morphology, microstructure and composition of the materials are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Our results show amorphous and highly ordered NTs with diameter of 50 nm, length of 800 nm, and Ni/Ti ratio (at %) of 0.35 can be fabricated in ethylene glycol electrolyte supplemented with 0.2 wt.% NH{sub 4}F and 0.5 vol.% H{sub 2}O at 30 °C and 25 V for 1 h. Electrochemical experiments indicate that at an applied potential of 0.60 V vs. Ag/AgCl, the electrode exhibits a linear response window for glucose concentrations from 0.002 mM to 0.2 mM with a response time of 10 s, detection limit of 0.13 μM (S/N = 3), and sensitivity of 83 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. The excellent performance of the electrode is attributed to its large specific area and fast electron transfer between the NT walls. The good electrochemical performance of the Ni–Ti–O NTs as well as their simple and low-cost preparation method make the strategy promising in non-enzymatic glucose detection. - Highlights: • Highly ordered Ni–Ti–O nanotubes have been fabricated by one-step anodization. • We find H{sub 2}O contents in the electrolyte is critical to successful fabrication of the NTs. • The Ni–Ti–O nanotubes are ideal electrode materials for non-enzymatic glucose detection.

  7. High-order triangle-based discontinuous Galerkin methods for hyperbolic equations on a rotating sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-order triangle-based discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for hyperbolic equations on a rotating sphere are presented. The DG method can be characterized as the fusion of finite elements with finite volumes. This DG formulation uses high-order Lagrange polynomials on the triangle using nodal sets up to 15th order. The finite element-type area integrals are evaluated using order 2N Gauss cubature rules. This leads to a full mass matrix which, unlike for continuous Galerkin (CG) methods such as the spectral element (SE) method presented in Giraldo and Warburton [A nodal triangle-based spectral element method for the shallow water equations on the sphere, J. Comput. Phys. 207 (2005) 129-150], is small, local and efficient to invert. Two types of finite volume-type flux integrals are studied: a set based on Gauss-Lobatto quadrature points (order 2N - 1) and a set based on Gauss quadrature points (order 2N). Furthermore, we explore conservation and advection forms as well as strong and weak forms. Seven test cases are used to compare the different methods including some with scale contractions and shock waves. All three strong forms performed extremely well with the strong conservation form with 2N integration being the most accurate of the four DG methods studied. The strong advection form with 2N integration performed extremely well even for flows with shock waves. The strong conservation form with 2N - 1 integration yielded results almost as good as those with 2N while being less expensive. All the DG methods performed better than the SE method for almost all the test cases, especially for those with strong discontinuities. Finally, the DG methods required less computing time than the SE method due to the local nature of the mass matrix

  8. Direct Simulations of Transition and Turbulence Using High-Order Accurate Finite-Difference Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    1997-01-01

    In recent years the techniques of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been used to compute flows associated with geometrically complex configurations. However, success in terms of accuracy and reliability has been limited to cases where the effects of turbulence and transition could be modeled in a straightforward manner. Even in simple flows, the accurate computation of skin friction and heat transfer using existing turbulence models has proved to be a difficult task, one that has required extensive fine-tuning of the turbulence models used. In more complex flows (for example, in turbomachinery flows in which vortices and wakes impinge on airfoil surfaces causing periodic transitions from laminar to turbulent flow) the development of a model that accounts for all scales of turbulence and predicts the onset of transition may prove to be impractical. Fortunately, current trends in computing suggest that it may be possible to perform direct simulations of turbulence and transition at moderate Reynolds numbers in some complex cases in the near future. This seminar will focus on direct simulations of transition and turbulence using high-order accurate finite-difference methods. The advantage of the finite-difference approach over spectral methods is that complex geometries can be treated in a straightforward manner. Additionally, finite-difference techniques are the prevailing methods in existing application codes. In this seminar high-order-accurate finite-difference methods for the compressible and incompressible formulations of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations and their applications to direct simulations of turbulence and transition will be presented.

  9. Role of high-order dispersion on strong-field laser-molecule interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantus, Marcos; Nairat, Muath

    2016-05-01

    Strong-field (1012- 1016 W/ cm2) laser-matter interactions are characterized by the extent of fragmentation and charge of the resulting ions as a function of peak intensity and pulse duration. Interactions are influenced by high-order dispersion, which is difficult to characterize and compress. Fourth-order dispersion (FOD) causes a time-symmetric pedestal, while third-order dispersion (TOD) causes a leading (negative) or following (positive) pedestal. Here, we report on strong-field interactions with pentane and toluene molecules, tracking the molecular ion and the doubly charged carbon ion C2+ yields as a function of TOD and FOD for otherwise transform-limited (TL) 35fs pulses. We find TL pulses enhance molecular ion yield and suppress C2+ yield, while FOD reverses this trend. Interestingly, the leading pedestal in negative TOD enhances C2+ yield compared to positive TOD. Pulse pedestals are of particular importance in strong-field science because target ionization or alignment can be induced well before the main pulse arrives. A pedestal following an intense laser pulse can cause sequential ionization or accelerate electrons causing cascaded ionization. Control of high-order dispersion allows us to provide strong-field measurements that can help address the mechanisms responsible for different product ions in the presence and absence of pedestals. Financial support of this work comes from the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy, DOE SISGR (DE-SC0002325)

  10. High-order multi-implicit spectral deferred correction methods for problems of reactive flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models for reacting flow are typically based on advection-diffusion-reaction (A-D-R) partial differential equations. Many practical cases correspond to situations where the relevant time scales associated with each of the three sub-processes can be widely different, leading to disparate time-step requirements for robust and accurate time-integration. In particular, interesting regimes in combustion correspond to systems in which diffusion and reaction are much faster processes than advection. The numerical strategy introduced in this paper is a general procedure to account for this time-scale disparity. The proposed methods are high-order multi-implicit generalizations of spectral deferred correction methods (MISDC methods), constructed for the temporal integration of A-D-R equations. Spectral deferred correction methods compute a high-order approximation to the solution of a differential equation by using a simple, low-order numerical method to solve a series of correction equations, each of which increases the order of accuracy of the approximation. The key feature of MISDC methods is their flexibility in handling several sub-processes implicitly but independently, while avoiding the splitting errors present in traditional operator-splitting methods and also allowing for different time steps for each process. The stability, accuracy, and efficiency of MISDC methods are first analyzed using a linear model problem and the results are compared to semi-implicit spectral deferred correction methods. Furthermore, numerical tests on simplified reacting flows demonstrate the expected convergence rates for MISDC methods of orders three, four, and five. The gain in efficiency by independently controlling the sub-process time steps is illustrated for nonlinear problems, where reaction and diffusion are much stiffer than advection. Although the paper focuses on this specific time-scales ordering, the generalization to any ordering combination is straightforward

  11. Osteoinductive peptide-functionalized nanofibers with highly ordered structure as biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao X

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Gao,1,2,* Xiaohong Zhang,3,* Jinlin Song,1,2 Xiao Xu,4 Anxiu Xu,1 Mengke Wang,4 Bingwu Xie,1 Enyi Huang,2 Feng Deng,1,2 Shicheng Wei2–41College of Stomatology, 2Chongqing Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 3Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The construction of functional biomimetic scaffolds that recapitulate the topographical and biochemical features of bone tissue extracellular matrix is now of topical interest in bone tissue engineering. In this study, a novel surface-functionalized electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL nanofiber scaffold with highly ordered structure was developed to simulate the critical features of native bone tissue via a single step of catechol chemistry. Specially, under slightly alkaline aqueous solution, polydopamine (pDA was coated on the surface of aligned PCL nanofibers after electrospinning, followed by covalent immobilization of bone morphogenetic protein-7-derived peptides onto the pDA-coated nanofiber surface. Contact angle measurement, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of pDA and peptides on PCL nanofiber surface. Our results demonstrated that surface modification with osteoinductive peptides could improve cytocompatibility of nanofibers in terms of cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation. Most importantly, Alizarin Red S staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunostaining, and Western blot revealed that human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on aligned nanofibers with osteoinductive peptides exhibited enhanced osteogenic differentiation potential than

  12. Adaptive Mesh Refinement and High Order Geometrical Moment Method for the Simulation of Polydisperse Evaporating Sprays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essadki Mohamed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Predictive simulation of liquid fuel injection in automotive engines has become a major challenge for science and applications. The key issue in order to properly predict various combustion regimes and pollutant formation is to accurately describe the interaction between the carrier gaseous phase and the polydisperse evaporating spray produced through atomization. For this purpose, we rely on the EMSM (Eulerian Multi-Size Moment Eulerian polydisperse model. It is based on a high order moment method in size, with a maximization of entropy technique in order to provide a smooth reconstruction of the distribution, derived from a Williams-Boltzmann mesoscopic model under the monokinetic assumption [O. Emre (2014 PhD Thesis, École Centrale Paris; O. Emre, R.O. Fox, M. Massot, S. Chaisemartin, S. Jay, F. Laurent (2014 Flow, Turbulence and Combustion 93, 689-722; O. Emre, D. Kah, S. Jay, Q.-H. Tran, A. Velghe, S. de Chaisemartin, F. Laurent, M. Massot (2015 Atomization Sprays 25, 189-254; D. Kah, F. Laurent, M. Massot, S. Jay (2012 J. Comput. Phys. 231, 394-422; D. Kah, O. Emre, Q.-H. Tran, S. de Chaisemartin, S. Jay, F. Laurent, M. Massot (2015 Int. J. Multiphase Flows 71, 38-65; A. Vié, F. Laurent, M. Massot (2013 J. Comp. Phys. 237, 277-310]. The present contribution relies on a major extension of this model [M. Essadki, S. de Chaisemartin, F. Laurent, A. Larat, M. Massot (2016 Submitted to SIAM J. Appl. Math.], with the aim of building a unified approach and coupling with a separated phases model describing the dynamics and atomization of the interface near the injector. The novelty is to be found in terms of modeling, numerical schemes and implementation. A new high order moment approach is introduced using fractional moments in surface, which can be related to geometrical quantities of the gas-liquid interface. We also provide a novel algorithm for an accurate resolution of the evaporation. Adaptive mesh refinement properly scaling on massively

  13. A method to design aspheric spectacles for correction of high-order aberrations of human eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui; WANG ZhaoQi; LIU YongJi; MU GuoGuang

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the correction of high-order aberrations of human eye with spectacles,a design method of aspheric spectacles is proposed based on the eye's wavefront aberrations data.Regarding the eyeball and the spectacles as a whole system-the lens-eye system-the surface profiles of the spectacles are achieved by optimization procedure of lens design.Different from the conventional optometry,in which the refraction prescription is acquired with a visual chart,the design takes into account the two aspects of actual human viewing,eyeball rolling and certain distinct viewing field.The rotation angle of eyeball is set to be ±20° as wearing spectacles,and the field of view is set to be ∧7° which is especially important as watching screen display.The individual eye model is constructed as the main part of the lens-eye system.The Liou eye model is modified by sticking a thin meniscus lens to the crystalline lens.Then the defocus of the individual eye is transferred to the front surface of the meniscus lens,and the astigmatism and high-order aberrations are transferred to the front surface of the cornea.50 eyes are involved in this research,among which 36 eyes have good enough visual performance already after sphero-cylindrical correction.10 eyes have distinct improvement in vision and 4 eyes have no visual improvement by further aspheric correction.6 typical subject eyes are selected for the aberrations analysis and the spectacles design in this paper.It is shown that the validity of visual correction of aspheric lens depends on the characteristics of the eye's wavefront aberrations,and it is effective for the eye with larger astigmatism or spherical aberration.Compared with sphero-cylindrical correction only,the superiority taken by the aspheric correction is mainly on the improvement of MTF at a larger field of view.For the best aspheric correction,the MTF values increase by 18.87%,38.34%,44.36%,51.29% and 57.32% at the spatial frequencies of 40

  14. High-order central ENO finite-volume scheme for hyperbolic conservation laws on three-dimensional cubed-sphere grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, L.; De Sterck, H.; Susanto, A.; Groth, C. P. T.

    2015-02-01

    A fourth-order accurate finite-volume scheme for hyperbolic conservation laws on three-dimensional (3D) cubed-sphere grids is described. The approach is based on a central essentially non-oscillatory (CENO) finite-volume method that was recently introduced for two-dimensional compressible flows and is extended to 3D geometries with structured hexahedral grids. Cubed-sphere grids feature hexahedral cells with nonplanar cell surfaces, which are handled with high-order accuracy using trilinear geometry representations in the proposed approach. Varying stencil sizes and slope discontinuities in grid lines occur at the boundaries and corners of the six sectors of the cubed-sphere grid where the grid topology is unstructured, and these difficulties are handled naturally with high-order accuracy by the multidimensional least-squares based 3D CENO reconstruction with overdetermined stencils. A rotation-based mechanism is introduced to automatically select appropriate smaller stencils at degenerate block boundaries, where fewer ghost cells are available and the grid topology changes, requiring stencils to be modified. Combining these building blocks results in a finite-volume discretization for conservation laws on 3D cubed-sphere grids that is uniformly high-order accurate in all three grid directions. While solution-adaptivity is natural in the multi-block setting of our code, high-order accurate adaptive refinement on cubed-sphere grids is not pursued in this paper. The 3D CENO scheme is an accurate and robust solution method for hyperbolic conservation laws on general hexahedral grids that is attractive because it is inherently multidimensional by employing a K-exact overdetermined reconstruction scheme, and it avoids the complexity of considering multiple non-central stencil configurations that characterizes traditional ENO schemes. Extensive numerical tests demonstrate fourth-order convergence for stationary and time-dependent Euler and magnetohydrodynamic flows on

  15. Landing-gear noise prediction using high-order finite difference schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Wook Kim, Jae; Zhang, Xin; Angland, David; Caruelle, Bastien

    2013-07-01

    Aerodynamic noise from a generic two-wheel landing-gear model is predicted by a CFD/FW-H hybrid approach. The unsteady flow-field is computed using a compressible Navier-Stokes solver based on high-order finite difference schemes and a fully structured grid. The calculated time history of the surface pressure data is used in an FW-H solver to predict the far-field noise levels. Both aerodynamic and aeroacoustic results are compared to wind tunnel measurements and are found to be in good agreement. The far-field noise was found to vary with the 6th power of the free-stream velocity. Individual contributions from three components, i.e. wheels, axle and strut of the landing-gear model are also investigated to identify the relative contribution to the total noise by each component. It is found that the wheels are the dominant noise source in general. Strong vortex shedding from the axle is the second major contributor to landing-gear noise. This work is part of Airbus LAnding Gear nOise database for CAA validatiON (LAGOON) program with the general purpose of evaluating current CFD/CAA and experimental techniques for airframe noise prediction.

  16. Photonic circuit for high order USB and LSB separation for remote heterodyning: analysis and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mehedi; Hall, Trevor J

    2015-09-21

    A novel photonic integrated circuit is proposed that, using an RF source, generates at its output ports the same magnitude but opposite sign high order single optical side bands of a suppressed optical carrier. A single stage parallel Mach-Zehnder Modulator (MZM) and a two-stage series parallel MZM architecture are described and their relative merits discussed. A transfer matrix method is used to describe the operation of the circuits. The theoretical analysis is validated by computer simulation. As an illustration of a prospective application, it is shown how the circuit may be used as a key element of an optical transmission system to transport radio signals over fibre for wireless access; generating remotely a mm-wave carrier modulated by digital IQ data. A detailed calculation of symbol error rate is presented to characterise the system performance. The circuit may be fabricated in any integration platform offering a suitable phase modulator circuit element such as LiNbO(3), Silicon, and III-V or hybrid technology.

  17. Is aridity a high-order control on the hydro-geomorphic response of burned landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Gary; Van der Sant, Rene; Nyman, Petter; Lane, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Fire results in hydro-geomorphic changes that are spatially variable and difficult to predict. In this study we compile 294 infiltration measurements, ten other soil, catchment runoff and erosion datasets, and a year of new data from 15 natural runoff plots across an aridity gradient from the eastern Victorian uplands in SE Australia. The results show that aridity (a function of the long term mean precipitation and net radiation) is associated with low post-fire infiltration capacities, increasing the chance of surface runoff, and strongly increasing the chance of debris flows. Runoff plots from the wettest site (aridity = 1.1) had an average runoff ratio of 0.3% compared with 33.6% for the most arid sites (aridity = 2.4). Post-fire debris flows were only observed in the more arid locations within the Victorian uplands, and resulted in erosion rates more than two orders of magnitude greater than non-debris flow processes. We therefore argue that in south eastern Australia aridity is a high-order control on the magnitude of post-wildfire hydro-geomorphic processes. The results from this Australian study may also help to provide insight into the landscape controls on post fire debris flows elsewhere. Aridity is a landscape-scale parameter that is mappable at a high resolution and therefore is a useful predictor of the spatial variability of the magnitude of post-fire hydro-geomorphic responses.

  18. High-order harmonic generation by H2+ in super-intense xuv ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics of the two-dimensional H2+ under 30- and 40-cycle xuv (45 and 90 nm) laser pulses is investigated by numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation beyond the dipole and Born–Oppenheimer approximations for two orientations (θ = 0° and θ = 90° referenced to the molecular axis) of the laser polarization. Dynamics of the electron and nuclei are treated in quantum and classical approaches, respectively. The ground, first and second excited states of H2+ are considered as initial states for different laser field intensities in the range of (4 × 1016 – 4 × 1019 W cm−2). For parallel orientation (θ = 0°), a negligibly small difference is seen for high-order harmonic generation (HOHG) spectra obtained with the dipole and non-dipole Hamiltonians for all three electronic states. While, for the perpendicular orientation (θ = 90°), non-dipole forces attenuate the HOHG spectra for the initial ground and the second excited states. For the initial first excited state and orientation θ = 90°, the motion of nuclei considerably increases the HOHG yield within the dipole approximation, but decreases it partially beyond dipole approximation. It is shown that contribution of the motion of nuclei to the HOHG yield depends on the extent of the increase in the separation between nuclei. (paper)

  19. Role of elastic scattering in high-order above threshold ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhang-Jin; Ye, Jian-Mian; Xu, Yang-Bing

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the target and intensity dependence of plateau in high-order above threshold ionization (HATI) by simulating the two-dimensional (2D) momentum distributions and the energy spectra of photoelectrons in HATI of rare gas atoms through using the quantitative rescattering model. The simulated results are compared with the existing experimental measurements. It is found that the slope of the plateau in the HATI photoelectron energy spectrum highly depends on the structure of elastic scattering differential cross section (DCS) of laser-induced returning electron with its parent ion. The investigations of the long- and short-range potential effects in the DCSs reveal that the short-range potential, which reflects the structure of the target, plays an essential role in generating the HATI photoelectron spectra. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274219), the STU Scientific Research Foundation for Talents, and the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry, China.

  20. Numerical pricing of options using high-order compact finite difference schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangman, D. Y.; Gopaul, A.; Bhuruth, M.

    2008-09-01

    We consider high-order compact (HOC) schemes for quasilinear parabolic partial differential equations to discretise the Black-Scholes PDE for the numerical pricing of European and American options. We show that for the heat equation with smooth initial conditions, the HOC schemes attain clear fourth-order convergence but fail if non-smooth payoff conditions are used. To restore the fourth-order convergence, we use a grid stretching that concentrates grid nodes at the strike price for European options. For an American option, an efficient procedure is also described to compute the option price, Greeks and the optimal exercise curve. Comparisons with a fourth-order non-compact scheme are also done. However, fourth-order convergence is not experienced with this strategy. To improve the convergence rate for American options, we discuss the use of a front-fixing transformation with the HOC scheme. We also show that the HOC scheme with grid stretching along the asset price dimension gives accurate numerical solutions for European options under stochastic volatility.

  1. Phase properties of the cut-off high-order harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Khokhlova, M A

    2015-01-01

    The cut-off regime of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) by atoms in an intense laser field is studied numerically and analytically. We find that the cut-off regime is characterized by equal dephasing between the successive harmonics. The change of the harmonic phase-locking when HHG evolves from the cut-off to the plateau regime determines the optimal bandwidth of the spectral region which should be used for attosecond pulse generation via amplitude gating technique. The cut-off regime is also characterized by a linear dependence of the harmonic phase on the fundamental intensity. The proportionality coefficient grows as the cube of the fundamental wavelength, thus this dependence becomes very important for the HHG by mid-infrared fields. Moreover, for every high harmonic there is a {\\it range} of laser intensities providing the generation in the cut-off regime and the atomic response magnitude in this regime can be greater than that in the plateau regime. Thus the cut-off regime substantially contributes ...

  2. High-order harmonic generation by enhanced plasmonic near-fields in metal nanoparticules

    CERN Document Server

    Shaaran, T; Guichard, R; Pérez-Hernández, J A; Arnold, M; Siegel, T; Zaïr, A; Lewenstein, M

    2013-01-01

    We present theoretical investigations of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) resulting from the interaction of noble gases with localized surface plasmons. These plasmonic fields are produced when a metal nanoparticle is subject to a few-cycle laser pulse. The enhanced field, which largely depends on the geometrical shape of the metallic structure, has a strong spatial dependency. We demonstrate that the strong non-homogeneity of this laser field plays an important role in the HHG process and leads to a significant increase of the harmonic cut-off energy. In order to understand and characterize this new feature, we include the functional form of the laser electric field obtained from recent attosecond streaking experiments [F. S{\\"u}{\\ss}mann and M. F. Kling, Proc. of SPIE, {\\bf Vol. 8096}, 80961C (2011)] in the time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation (TDSE). By performing classical simulations of the HHG process we show consistency between them and the quantum mechanical predictions. These allow us to underst...

  3. High-order harmonic generation from Rydberg states at fixed Keldysh parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Bleda, E A; Altun, Z; Topcu, T

    2013-01-01

    Because the commonly adopted viewpoint that the Keldysh parameter $\\gamma $ determines the dynamical regime in strong field physics has long been demonstrated to be misleading, one can ask what happens as relevant physical parameters, such as laser intensity and frequency, are varied while $\\gamma$ is kept fixed. We present results from our one- and fully three-dimensional quantum simulations of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from various bound states of hydrogen with $n$ up to 40, where the laser intensities and the frequencies are scaled from those for $n=1$ in order to maintain a fixed Keldysh parameter $\\gamma$$< 1$ for all $n$. We find that as we increase $n$ while keeping $\\gamma $ fixed, the position of the cut-off scales in well defined manner. Moreover, a secondary plateau forms with a new cut-off, splitting the HHG plateau into two regions. First of these sub-plateaus is composed of lower harmonics, and has a higher yield than the second one. The latter extends up to the semiclassical $I_p+...

  4. A high-order numerical method for the nonlinear Helmholtz equation in multidimensional layered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, G.; Fibich, G.; Tsynkov, S.

    2009-06-01

    We present a novel computational methodology for solving the scalar nonlinear Helmholtz equation (NLH) that governs the propagation of laser light in Kerr dielectrics. The methodology addresses two well-known challenges in nonlinear optics: Singular behavior of solutions when the scattering in the medium is assumed predominantly forward (paraxial regime), and the presence of discontinuities in the optical properties of the medium. Specifically, we consider a slab of nonlinear material which may be grated in the direction of propagation and which is immersed in a linear medium as a whole. The key components of the methodology are a semi-compact high-order finite-difference scheme that maintains accuracy across the discontinuities and enables sub-wavelength resolution on large domains at a tolerable cost, a nonlocal two-way artificial boundary condition (ABC) that simultaneously facilitates the reflectionless propagation of the outgoing waves and forward propagation of the given incoming waves, and a nonlinear solver based on Newton's method. The proposed methodology combines and substantially extends the capabilities of our previous techniques built for 1D and for multi-D. It facilitates a direct numerical study of nonparaxial propagation and goes well beyond the approaches in the literature based on the "augmented" paraxial models. In particular, it provides the first ever evidence that the singularity of the solution indeed disappears in the scalar NLH model that includes the nonparaxial effects. It also enables simulation of the wavelength-width spatial solitons, as well as of the counter-propagating solitons.

  5. A high order characteristic discontinuous Galerkin scheme for advection on unstructured meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Lowrie, R.; Petersen, M.; Ringler, T.; Hecht, M.

    2016-11-01

    A new characteristic discontinuous Galerkin (CDG) advection scheme is presented. In contrast to standard discontinuous Galerkin schemes, the test functions themselves follow characteristics in order to ensure conservation and the edges of each element are also traced backwards along characteristics in order to create a swept region, which is integrated in order to determine the mass flux across the edge. Both the accuracy and performance of the scheme are greatly improved by the use of large Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy numbers for a shear flow test case and the scheme is shown to scale sublinearly with the number of tracers being advected, outperforming a standard flux corrected transport scheme for 10 or more tracers with a linear basis. Moreover the CDG scheme may be run to arbitrarily high order spatial accuracy and on unstructured grids, and is shown to give the correct order of error convergence for piecewise linear and quadratic bases on regular quadrilateral and hexahedral planar grids. Using a modal Taylor series basis, the scheme may be made monotone while preserving conservation with the use of a standard slope limiter, although this reduces the formal accuracy of the scheme to first order. The second order scheme is roughly as accurate as the incremental remap scheme with nonlocal gradient reconstruction at half the horizontal resolution. The scheme is being developed for implementation within the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) Ocean model, an unstructured grid finite volume ocean model.

  6. Optimization of multi-color laser waveform for high-order harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Lin, C. D.

    2016-09-01

    With the development of laser technologies, multi-color light-field synthesis with complete amplitude and phase control would make it possible to generate arbitrary optical waveforms. A practical optimization algorithm is needed to generate such a waveform in order to control strong-field processes. We review some recent theoretical works of the optimization of amplitudes and phases of multi-color lasers to modify the single-atom high-order harmonic generation based on genetic algorithm. By choosing different fitness criteria, we demonstrate that: (i) harmonic yields can be enhanced by 10 to 100 times, (ii) harmonic cutoff energy can be substantially extended, (iii) specific harmonic orders can be selectively enhanced, and (iv) single attosecond pulses can be efficiently generated. The possibility of optimizing macroscopic conditions for the improved phase matching and low divergence of high harmonics is also discussed. The waveform control and optimization are expected to be new drivers for the next wave of breakthrough in the strong-field physics in the coming years. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 30916011207), Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U. S. Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13491), and Air Force Office of Scientific Research, USA (Grant No. FA9550-14-1-0255).

  7. Application of a sensitivity analysis technique to high-order digital flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduano, James D.; Downing, David R.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis technique for multiloop flight control systems is studied. This technique uses the scaled singular values of the return difference matrix as a measure of the relative stability of a control system. It then uses the gradients of these singular values with respect to system and controller parameters to judge sensitivity. The sensitivity analysis technique is first reviewed; then it is extended to include digital systems, through the derivation of singular-value gradient equations. Gradients with respect to parameters which do not appear explicitly as control-system matrix elements are also derived, so that high-order systems can be studied. A complete review of the integrated technique is given by way of a simple example: the inverted pendulum problem. The technique is then demonstrated on the X-29 control laws. Results show linear models of real systems can be analyzed by this sensitivity technique, if it is applied with care. A computer program called SVA was written to accomplish the singular-value sensitivity analysis techniques. Thus computational methods and considerations form an integral part of many of the discussions. A user's guide to the program is included. The SVA is a fully public domain program, running on the NASA/Dryden Elxsi computer.

  8. Exploring arbitrarily high orders of optimized perturbation theory in QCD with nf→1612

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Stevenson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Perturbative QCD with nf flavours of massless quarks becomes simple in the hypothetical limit nf→1612, where the leading β-function coefficient vanishes. The Banks–Zaks (BZ expansion in a0≡8321(1612−nf is straightforward to obtain from perturbative results in MS‾ or any renormalization scheme (RS whose nf dependence is ‘regular’. However, ‘irregular’ RS's are perfectly permissible and should ultimately lead to the same BZ results. We show here that the ‘optimal’ RS determined by the Principle of Minimal Sensitivity does yield the same BZ-expansion results when all orders of perturbation theory are taken into account. The BZ limit provides an arena for exploring optimized perturbation theory at arbitrarily high orders. These explorations are facilitated by a ‘master equation’ expressing the optimization conditions in the fixed-point limit. We find an intriguing strong/weak coupling duality a→a⁎2/a about the fixed point a⁎.

  9. Exploring arbitrarily high orders of optimized perturbation theory in QCD with nf → 161/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, P. M.

    2016-09-01

    Perturbative QCD with nf flavours of massless quarks becomes simple in the hypothetical limit nf → 161/2, where the leading β-function coefficient vanishes. The Banks-Zaks (BZ) expansion in a0 ≡8/321 (161/2 -nf) is straightforward to obtain from perturbative results in MS ‾ or any renormalization scheme (RS) whose nf dependence is 'regular'. However, 'irregular' RS's are perfectly permissible and should ultimately lead to the same BZ results. We show here that the 'optimal' RS determined by the Principle of Minimal Sensitivity does yield the same BZ-expansion results when all orders of perturbation theory are taken into account. The BZ limit provides an arena for exploring optimized perturbation theory at arbitrarily high orders. These explorations are facilitated by a 'master equation' expressing the optimization conditions in the fixed-point limit. We find an intriguing strong/weak coupling duality a →a*2 / a about the fixed point a*.

  10. Exploration of laser-driven electron-multirescattering dynamics in high-order harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng-Cheng; Sheu, Yae-Lin; Jooya, Hossein Z; Zhou, Xiao-Xin; Chu, Shih-I

    2016-01-01

    Multiple rescattering processes play an important role in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in an intense laser field. However, the underlying multi-rescattering dynamics are still largely unexplored. Here we investigate the dynamical origin of multiple rescattering processes in HHG associated with the odd and even number of returning times of the electron to the parent ion. We perform fully ab initio quantum calculations and extend the empirical mode decomposition method to extract the individual multiple scattering contributions in HHG. We find that the tunneling ionization regime is responsible for the odd number times of rescattering and the corresponding short trajectories are dominant. On the other hand, the multiphoton ionization regime is responsible for the even number times of rescattering and the corresponding long trajectories are dominant. Moreover, we discover that the multiphoton- and tunneling-ionization regimes in multiple rescattering processes occur alternatively. Our results uncover the dynamical origin of multiple rescattering processes in HHG for the first time. It also provides new insight regarding the control of the multiple rescattering processes for the optimal generation of ultrabroad band supercontinuum spectra and the production of single ultrashort attosecond laser pulse. PMID:27596056

  11. Radiation forces on a three-level atom in the high-order Bessel beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zheng-Ling; Yin Jian-Ping

    2008-01-01

    The general expressions of the average dissipative and dipole forces acting on a A-configuration three-level atom in an arbitrary light field are derived by means of the optical Bloch equations based on the atomic density matrix elements, and the general properties of the average dissipative and dipole forces on a three-level atom in the linearly-polarized high-order Bessel beams (HBBs) are analysed. We find a resonant property (with two resonant peaks) of the dissipative force and a non-resonant property (with two pairs of non-resonant peaks) of the dipole force on the three-level atom, which are completely different from those on the two-level atom. Meanwhile we find a saturation effect of the average dissipative force in the HBB, which comes from the saturation of the upper-level population. Our study shows that the general expressions of the average dissipative and dipole forces on the three-level atom will be simplified to those of the two-level atom under the approximation of large detuning. Finally, we study the axial and azimuthal Doppler cooling of atoms in 1D optical molasses composed of two counter-propagating HBBs and discuss the azimuthal influence of the HBB on the Doppler cooling limit. We also find that the Doppler limit of atoms in the molasses HBB is slightly below the conventional Doppler limit of hг/(2кB) due to the orbital angular momentum lh of the HBB.

  12. Universal High Order Subroutine with New Shock Detector for Shock Boundary Layer Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveria, M; Liu, X; Liu, C

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop a new universal high order subroutine for shock boundary layer interaction. First, an effective shock/discontinuity detector has been developed.The detector has two steps.The first step is to check the ratio of the truncation errors on the coarse and fine grids and the second step is to check the local ratio of the left and right slopes. The currently popular shock/discontinuity detectors can detect shock, but mistake high frequency waves and critical points as shock and then damp the physically important high frequency waves.Preliminary results show the new shock/discontinuity detector is very delicate and can detect all shocks including strong, weak and oblique shocks or discontinuity in function and the first, second, and third order derivatives without artificial constants, but never mistake high frequency waves and critical points, expansion waves as shock. This will overcome the bottle neck problem with numerical simulation for the shock-boundary layer interaction, sh...

  13. Focused Wave Properties Based on A High Order Spectral Method with A Non-Periodic Boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金宣; 柳淑学

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical model is developed based on the High Order Spectral (HOS) method with a non-periodic boundary. A wave maker boundary condition is introduced to simulate wave generation at the incident boundary in the HOS method. Based on the numerical model, the effects of wave parameters, such as the assumed focused amplitude, the central frequency, the frequency bandwidth, the wave amplitude distribution and the directional spreading on the surface elevation of the focused wave, the maximum generated wave crest, and the shifting of the focusing point, are numerically investigated. Especially, the effects of the wave directionality on the focused wave properties are emphasized. The numerical results show that the shifting of the focusing point and the maximum crest of the wave group are dependent on the amplitude of the focused wave, the central frequency, and the wave amplitude distribution type. The wave directionality has a definite effect on multidirectional focused waves. Generally, it can even out the difference between the simulated wave amplitude and the amplitude expected from theory and reduce the shifting of the focusing points, implying that the higher order interaction has an influence on wave focusing, especially for 2D wave. In 3D wave groups, a broader directional spreading weakens the higher nonlinear interactions.

  14. Dependence of high-order-harmonic generation on dipole moment in Si O2 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chao; Zhang, Xirui; Jiang, Shicheng; Cao, Xu; Yuan, Guanglu; Wu, Tong; Bai, Lihua; Lu, Ruifeng

    2016-07-01

    High-order-harmonic generation in α-quartz Si O2 is theoretically investigated under a strong laser field by solving the extended semiconductor Bloch equations. The accurate band structures as well as dipole moments between different bands are obtained from state-of-the-art first-principles calculations. We find that the shapes of k -space-dependent dipole moments play an important role in harmonic generation. The calculated results show that harmonic conversion efficiency is significantly enhanced and the cutoff energy is distinctly increased when the dipole moments change greatly along a valley in the k direction in the solid. Based on that dependence on the dipole moment, we also show that symmetry groups greatly affect the harmonic spectra from the solid materials. Moreover, a two-color synthesized field is used to achieve a supercontinuum harmonic spectrum near the cutoff region, and isolated attosecond pulses can be obtained directly by filtering out the harmonic radiation. We hope the contribution presented in this work provides a useful reference for future studies on laser-crystal interactions.

  15. Multi-level perspective on high-order harmonic generation in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Mengxi; Gaarde, Mette B

    2016-01-01

    We investigate high-order harmonic generation in a solid, modeled as a multi-level system dressed by a strong infrared laser field. We show that the cutoff energies and the relative strengths of the multiple plateaus that emerge in the harmonic spectrum can be understood both qualitatively and quantitatively by considering a combination of adiabatic and diabatic processes driven by the strong field. Such a model was recently used to interpret the multiple plateaus exhibited in harmonic spectra generated by solid argon and krypton [Ndabashimiye {\\it et al.}, Nature 534, 520 (2016)]. We also show that when the multi-level system originates from the Bloch state at the $\\Gamma$ point of the band structure, the laser-dressed states are equivalent to the Houston states [Krieger {\\it el al.} Phys. Rev. B 33, 5494 (1986)] and will therefore map out the band structure away from the $\\Gamma$ point as the laser field increases. This leads to a semi-classical three-step picture in momentum space that describes the high-o...

  16. Effect of Tin+ defects on electrochemical properties of highly-ordered titania nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, highly-ordered TiO2 nanotube (TNT) electrodes fabricated by anodization at 20 V in 0.1 M F--based solution were annealed in O2, N2 and CO respectively. The surface properties of the TiO2 electrodes after annealing treatment by different gases were studied by means of photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the TNT electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, steady-state polarization and photocurrent response measurements. The results showed that Tin+ (n = 0-3) cations and oxygen vacancies existed in the TNT electrode after annealing in CO, leading to a very efficient electron transfer rate of 1.34 x 10-3 cm/s. Steady-state polarization measurement and photocurrent response demonstrated that the electrode potential of oxygen evolution reaction (OER) reduced by 20% and the photocurrent response increased by 50% for CO-annealed TNT electrode compared with O2-annealed TNT electrode.

  17. Highly ordered surface structure of large-scale porphyrin aggregates assembled from protonated TPP and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udal'tsov, Alexander V.; Bolshakova, Anastasia V.; Vos, Johannes G.

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale aggregates assembled from protonated meso-tetraphenylporphine (TPP) dimers and water have been investigated by IR and resonance Raman spectroscopy and also by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the properties of water confined in the aggregates depend on the physical state of the support. When the aggregates were deposited on a solid CaF2 plate, they showed properties consistent with a quasi-crystalline structure. But when the aggregates were dispersed in oil, their IR characteristics were different; the vibration bands of the confined water were like those of water in liquid state. A doublet at about 1000 cm-1, components of which have been attributed to specific vibrations of H3O+ and H2O bound in the structure of water-porphyrin dimeric complex, was found in IR and resonance Raman spectra (λex = 441.6 nm) of protonated TPP aggregates. This doublet indicates the hydrogen ion involving in the vibrational system of water-porphyrin dimeric complex with hydrogen bonding by similar way as in so-called Zundel cation. The resonance Raman spectrum shows evidence for proton sharing between protonated water dimer and N groups of the pyrrole rings. SEM results indicate that the large-scale aggregates of the protonated porphyrin possess highly ordered structure, are only observed when using extremely pure water.

  18. Robust disturbance rejection control of a biped robotic system using high-order extended state observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fonseca, Nadhynee; Castañeda, Luis Ángel; Uranga, Agustín; Luviano-Juárez, Alberto; Chairez, Isaac

    2016-05-01

    This study addressed the problem of robust control of a biped robot based on disturbance estimation. Active disturbance rejection control was the paradigm used for controlling the biped robot by direct active estimation. A robust controller was developed to implement disturbance cancelation based on a linear extended state observer of high gain class. A robust high-gain scheme was proposed for developing a state estimator of the biped robot despite poor knowledge of the plant and the presence of uncertainties. The estimated states provided by the state estimator were used to implement a feedback controller that was effective in actively rejecting the perturbations as well as forcing the trajectory tracking error to within a small vicinity of the origin. The theoretical convergence of the tracking error was proven using the Lyapunov theory. The controller was implemented by numerical simulations that showed the convergence of the tracking error. A comparison with a high-order sliding-mode-observer-based controller confirmed the superior performance of the controller using the robust observer introduced in this study. Finally, the proposed controller was implemented on an actual biped robot using an embedded hardware-in-the-loop strategy. PMID:26928517

  19. Multivariate High Order Statistics of Measurements of the Temporal Evolution of Fission Chain-Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattingly, J.K.

    2001-03-08

    The development of high order statistical analyses applied to measurements of the temporal evolution of fission chain-reactions is described. These statistics are derived via application of Bayes' rule to conditional probabilities describing a sequence of events in a fissile system beginning with the initiation of a chain-reaction by source neutrons and ending with counting events in a collection of neutron-sensitive detectors. Two types of initiating neutron sources are considered: (1) a directly observable source introduced by the experimenter (active initiation), and (2) a source that is intrinsic to the system and is not directly observable (passive initiation). The resulting statistics describe the temporal distribution of the population of prompt neutrons in terms of the time-delays between members of a collection (an n-tuplet) of correlated detector counts, that, in turn, may be collectively correlated with a detected active source neutron emission. These developments are a unification and extension of Rossi-a, pulsed neutron, and neutron noise methods, each of which measure the temporal distribution of pairs of correlated events, to produce a method that measures the temporal distribution of n-tuplets of correlated counts of arbitrary dimension n. In general the technique should expand present capabilities in the analysis of neutron counting measurements.

  20. Re-study on Recurrence Period of Stokes Wave Train with High Order Spectral Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Ai-feng; ZHENG Jin-hai; MEE Mee Soe; CHEN Bo-tao

    2011-01-01

    Owing to the Benjamin-Feir instability,the Stokes wave train experiences a modulation-demodulation process,and presents a recurrence characteristics.Stiassnie and Shemer researched the unstable evolution process and provided a theoretical formulation for the recurrence period in 1985 on the basis of the nonlinear cubic Schr(o)dinger equation (NLS).However,NLS has limitations on the narrow band and the weak nonlinearity.The recurrence period is re-investigated in this paper by using a highly efficient High Order Spectral (HOS) method,which can be applied for the direct phaseresolved simulation of the nonlinear wave train evolution.It is found that the Stiassnie and Shemer's formula should be modified in the cases with most unstable initial conditions,which is important for such topics as the generation mechanisms of freak waves.A new recurrence period formula is presented and some new evolution characteristics of the Stokes wave train are also discussed in details.

  1. Add-drop filters based on asymmetric high-order microring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Huang, Yongqing; Ren, Xiaomin; Duan, Xiaofeng; Shen, Bing; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xia; Cai, Shiwei

    2012-11-01

    Add/drop filters are key components of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) communication systems. Free spectral range(FSR) is a key parameter for Add/drop filters, the FSR should operate within the entire C-band (1530-1562nm).And flat-top drop-port response with a sharp rolloff is also import, Flatness of the passband, sharp roll-off from passband to stop band are necessary to minimize the pulse broadening and the packing efficiency of wavelength channels. In this paper, we proposed an asymmetric approach to design high-order microring filters, The aim is to achieve large extension ratios and adequate suppression of the spurious interstitial mode, meanwhile, flat-top and steep-side response in filter could be obtained by this approach. Our simulation results showed an extended FSR of 40nm, reducing the interstitial peak suppression from 5dB to 35dB and a boxlike filter response with sharpe factor(SF) of 0.68. And a quality-factor of 2961 and a 3-dB bandwidth of 0.52nm is achieved.

  2. A structural investigation of highly ordered catalyst- and mask-free GaN nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figge, S; Aschenbrenner, T; Kruse, C; Kunert, G; Hommel, D [Institute of Solid State Physics-Semiconductor Epitaxy-University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee NW1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Schowalter, M; Rosenauer, A, E-mail: figge@ifp.uni-bremen.de [Institute of Solid State Physics-Electron Microscopy-University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee NW1, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2011-01-14

    GaN nanorods were grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by a two-step approach. Nucleation sites for the nanorods were provided by the formation of AlN islands during nitridation in a metal organic vapor phase system. These islands are a-plane oriented as expected for nitride growth on r-plane sapphire. The nanorods themselves were grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The nanorods show an inclination towards the surface normal of 28.3 deg. and are highly ordered. Studies with high resolution x-ray diffraction polar plots reveal the epitaxial relationship between the substrate and nanorods as a c-direction growth on inclined m-plane facets of the nitridated islands. The determined lattice constants show nanorods which are strain free. The growth direction of the nanorods has been confirmed in a transmission electron microscope by convergent beam electron diffraction patterns to be in the N-polar [000 1-bar] direction.

  3. High-Order Fully General-Relativistic Hydrodynamics: new Approaches and Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Radice, David; Galeazzi, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    We present a new approach for achieving high-order convergence in fully general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations. The approach is implemented in WhiskyTHC, a new code that makes use of state-of-the-art numerical schemes and was key in achieving, for the first time, higher than second-order convergence in the calculation of the gravitational radiation from inspiraling binary neutron stars Radice et al. (2013). Here, we give a detailed description of the algorithms employed and present results obtained for a series of classical tests involving isolated neutron stars. In addition, using the gravitational-wave emission from the late inspiral and merger of binary neutron stars, we make a detailed comparison between the results obtained with the new code and those obtained when using standard second-order schemes commonly employed for matter simulations in numerical relativity. We find that even at moderate resolutions and for binaries with large compactness, the phase accuracy is improved by a factor 50 or mo...

  4. High-order Large Eddy Simulations of Confined Rotor-Stator Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Viazzo, Stéphane; Serre, Eric; Randriamampianina, Anthony; Bontoux, Patrick; 10.1007/s10494-011-9345-0

    2013-01-01

    In many engineering and industrial applications, the investigation of rotating turbulent flow is of great interest. In rotor-stator cavities, the centrifugal and Coriolis forces have a strong influence on the turbulence by producing a secondary flow in the meridian plane composed of two thin boundary layers along the disks separated by a non-viscous geostrophic core. Most numerical simulations have been performed using RANS and URANS modelling, and very few investigations have been performed using LES. This paper reports on quantitative comparisons of two high-order LES methods to predict a turbulent rotor-stator flow at the rotational Reynolds number Re=400000. The classical dynamic Smagorinsky model for the subgrid-scale stress (Germano et al., Phys Fluids A 3(7):1760-1765, 1991) is compared to a spectral vanishing viscosity technique (S\\'everac & Serre, J Comp Phys 226(2):1234-1255, 2007). Numerical results include both instantaneous data and postprocessed statistics. The results show that both LES met...

  5. Synthesis and characterization of highly-ordered ZnO/PbS core/shell heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y. F.; Zhou, G. H.; Ding, H. Y.; Liu, A. H.; Lin, Y. B.; Dong, Y. W.

    2011-11-01

    The strategy to manipulate nanoscale building blocks into well-organized heterostructures is very important to both material synthesis and nanodevice applications. In this work, highly-ordered ZnO/PbS core/shell nanowire arrays were fabricated by a facile and low temperature chemical route. Large area and well-aligned ZnO nanowire arrays were firstly fabricated on conductive glass substrates, and then the synthesis of ZnO/ZnS and ZnO/PbS core/shell nanowire arrays were realized by a chemical conversion method. The morphology, structure, and composition of the obtained nanostructures were confirmed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray diffraction measurements. The optical properties of the synthesized nanostructures were investigated by micro-Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy. In the synthesized ZnO/PbS core/shell nanowire arrays, the ZnO cores can provide direct conduction pathways for electron transport and PbS shells possess superior photoelectric performance. Therefore, the obtained ZnO/PbS core/shell nanostructures may have potential application in photovoltaic devices.

  6. High-order continuum Vlasov-Maxwell simulations of collisionless plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogman, G. V.; Colella, P.; Shumlak, U.

    2015-11-01

    Plasma kinetic theory treats each constituent species as a probability distribution function in phase space. Numerically, the velocity dependence of the distribution function can be sampled discretely as in particle-in-cell methods, or represented smoothly as in continuum methods. Continuum methods for solving kinetic theory governing equations are advantageous in that they can be cast in conservation-law form, are not susceptible to noise, and can be implemented using high-order numerical methods, which provide enhanced solution accuracy. A fourth-order accurate finite volume method has been developed to solve the continuum kinetic Vlasov-Maxwell equation system in 2D2V phase space using the Chombo library. The evolving species are collisionless, and are coupled through electromagnetic fields. The algorithm is validated against theoretical predictions using benchmarks based on the Dory-Guest-Harris instability and the Harris current sheet. Extension of the algorithm to cylindrical coordinates and its application to axisymmetric plasma configurations like the Z-pinch are also presented.

  7. Fabrication of cobalt-nickel binary nanowires in a highly ordered alumina template via AC electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ghafar; Maqbool, Muhammad

    2013-08-14

    Cobalt-nickel (Co-Ni) binary alloy nanowires of different compositions were co-deposited in the nanopores of highly ordered anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates from a single sulfate bath using alternating current (AC) electrodeposition. AC electrodeposition was accomplished without modifying or removing the barrier layer. Field emission scanning electron microscope was used to study the morphology of templates and alloy nanowires. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed the deposition of Co-Ni alloy nanowires in the AAO templates. Average diameter of the alloy nanowires was approximately 40 nm which is equal to the diameter of nanopore. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the alloy nanowires consisted of both hexagonal close-packed and face-centered cubic phases. Magnetic measurements showed that the easy x-axis of magnetization is parallel to the nanowires with coercivity of approximately 706 Oe. AC electrodeposition is very simple, fast, and is useful for the homogenous deposition of various secondary nanostuctured materials into the nanopores of AAO.

  8. A High Order Theory for Linear Thermoelastic Shells: Comparison with Classical Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zozulya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high order theory for linear thermoelasticity and heat conductivity of shells has been developed. The proposed theory is based on expansion of the 3-D equations of theory of thermoelasticity and heat conductivity into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials. The first physical quantities that describe thermodynamic state have been expanded into Fourier series in terms of Legendre polynomials with respect to a thickness coordinate. Thereby all equations of elasticity and heat conductivity including generalized Hooke's and Fourier's laws have been transformed to the corresponding equations for coefficients of the polynomial expansion. Then in the same way as in the 3D theories system of differential equations in terms of displacements and boundary conditions for Fourier coefficients has been obtained. First approximation theory is considered in more detail. The obtained equations for the first approximation theory are compared with the corresponding equations for Timoshenko's and Kirchhoff-Love's theories. Special case of plates and cylindrical shell is also considered, and corresponding equations in displacements are presented.

  9. Role of quantum trajectory in high-order harmonic generation in the Keldysh multiphoton regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng-Cheng; Jiao, Yuan-Xiang; Zhou, Xiao-Xin; Chu, Shih-I

    2016-06-27

    We present a systematic study of spectral and temporal structure of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) by solving accurately the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a hydrogen atom in the multiphoton regime where the Keldysh parameter is greater unity. Combining with a time-frequency transform and an extended semiclassical analysis, we explore the role of quantum trajectory in HHG. We find that the time-frequency spectra of the HHG plateau near cutoff exhibit a decrease in intensity associated with the short- and long-trajectories when the ionization process is pushed from the multiphoton regime into the tunneling regime. This implies that the harmonic emission spectra in the region of the HHG plateau near and before the cutoff are suppressed. To see the generality of this prediction, we also present a time-dependent density-functional theoretical study of the effect of correlated multi-electron responses on the spectral and temporal structure of the HHG plateau of the Ar atom. PMID:27410589

  10. GalICS V Low and high order clustering in mock SDSS's

    CERN Document Server

    Blaizot, J P; Budavari, T; Colombi, S; Devriendt, J E G; Guiderdoni, B; Pan, J; Szalay, A S; Szapudi, I

    2006-01-01

    [Abridged] We use mock catalogues based on the GALICS model (Hatton et al. 03) to explore the nature of galaxy clustering observed in the SDSS. We measure low and high order angular clustering statistic from these mock catalogues, after selecting galaxies the same way as for observations, and compare them directly to estimates from SDSS data. Note that we also present measurements of S3-S5 on the SDSS DR1. We find that our model is in general good agreement with observations in the scale/luminosity range where we can trust the predictions. This range is found to be limited (i) by the size of the dark matter simulation used -- which introduces finite volume effects at large scales -- and by the mass resolution of this simulation -- which introduces incompleteness at apparent magnitudes fainter than $r\\sim 20$. We then focus on the small scale clustering properties of galaxies and investigate the behaviour of three different prescriptions for positioning galaxies within haloes of dark matter. We show that galax...

  11. Carrier Envelope Phase Controlled High-Order Harmonic Generation in Ultrashort Laser Pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing-Bing; CHEN Jing; LIU Jie; LI Xiao-Feng; FU Pan-Ming

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate the carrier envelope phase (CEP) effects on high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in ultrashort pulses with the pulse duration 2.5fs when the laser intensity is high enough so that the initial state is ionized effectively during the laser pulse but remains about 20% population at the end of the laser pulse. We find that the ionization process of the initial state is very sensitive to the CEP during the laser pulse. The ionization process of the initial state determines the continuum state population and hence influences dramatically the weights of the classical trajectories that contribute to HHG. In such a case we can not predict the cutoff and the structure of the harmonic spectrum only by the number and the kinetic energy of the classical trajectories. The harmonic spectrum exhibits abundant characters for different CEP cases. As a result, we can control the cutoff frequency and the plateau structure of the harmonic spectrum with CEP by controlling the time behaviour of the ionization of the initial state.

  12. Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Tsuneto; Minemoto, Shinichirou; Sakai, Hirofumi

    2005-05-01

    High-order harmonic generation (HHG) from atoms and molecules offers potential application as a coherent ultrashort radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray regions. In the three-step model of HHG, an electron tunnels out from the atom and may recombine with the parent ion (emitting a high-energy photon) after undergoing laser-driven motion in the continuum. Aligned molecules can be used to study quantum phenomena in HHG associated with molecular symmetries; in particular, simultaneous observations of both ion yields and harmonic signals under the same conditions serve to disentangle the contributions from the ionization and recombination processes. Here we report evidence for quantum interference of electron de Broglie waves in the recombination process of HHG from aligned CO2 molecules. The interference takes place within a single molecule and within one optical cycle. Characteristic modulation patterns of the harmonic signals measured as a function of the pump-probe delay are explained with simple formulae determined by the valence orbital of the molecules. We propose that simultaneous observations of both ion yields and harmonic signals can serve as a new route to probe the instantaneous structure of molecular systems.

  13. Quantum interference during high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Tsuneto; Minemoto, Shinichirou; Sakai, Hirofumi

    2005-05-26

    High-order harmonic generation (HHG) from atoms and molecules offers potential application as a coherent ultrashort radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray regions. In the three-step model of HHG, an electron tunnels out from the atom and may recombine with the parent ion (emitting a high-energy photon) after undergoing laser-driven motion in the continuum. Aligned molecules can be used to study quantum phenomena in HHG associated with molecular symmetries; in particular, simultaneous observations of both ion yields and harmonic signals under the same conditions serve to disentangle the contributions from the ionization and recombination processes. Here we report evidence for quantum interference of electron de Broglie waves in the recombination process of HHG from aligned CO2 molecules. The interference takes place within a single molecule and within one optical cycle. Characteristic modulation patterns of the harmonic signals measured as a function of the pump-probe delay are explained with simple formulae determined by the valence orbital of the molecules. We propose that simultaneous observations of both ion yields and harmonic signals can serve as a new route to probe the instantaneous structure of molecular systems. PMID:15917803

  14. High-order harmonic generation enhanced by x rays from free-electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buth, Christian; Kohler, Markus C.; He, Feng; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.; Ullrich, Joachim; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2012-06-01

    We theoretically examine high-order harmonic generation (HHG), by an intense near-infrared (nir) laser, in the light of the emerging, intense x-ray free electron lasers (FELs) which have started to revolutionize x-ray science. We present two theories based on modified three-step models of HHG. Once, we combine HHG with resonant x-ray excitation of a core electron into the transient valence vacancy that is created in the course of the HHG process via tunnel ionization (first step of HHG) by the nir light. When the continuum electron is driven back to the parent ion, a recombination with the valence and the core hole may occur. Modified HHG spectra are determined and analyzed for krypton on the 3d ->4p resonance and for neon on the 1s ->2p resonance. Another time, we examine HHG where tunnel ionization by the nir light is replaced by direct x-ray ionization of a core electron. We use the boosted HHG radiation from 1s electrons of neon to predict single attosecond pulses in the kiloelectronvolt regime. For both presented schemes, we find substantial HHG yield from the recombination of the continuum electron with the core hole. Our research brings the capabilities of HHG-based sources to FELs.

  15. Exploring the high-order harmonic generation from Rydberg states with a fixed Keldysh parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata Bleda, Erdi; Yavuz, Ilhan; Altun, Zikri; Topcu, Turker

    2012-06-01

    The commonly adopted viewpoint that the Keldysh parameter γ determines the dynamical regime of ionization in strong field physics has long been demonstrated to be a misleading one. One can then ask what happens in strong field ionization as relevant parameters, such as laser intensity and frequency, are varied while keeping γ fixed. We present results from our simulations of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from Rydberg states of a hydrogen atom. We calculate high harmonic spectra from various initial states with n up to 42, where the laser intensities and the frequencies are scaled from those for n=1 in order to maintain a fixed Keldysh parameter γthree-step model for n=1. However, a secondary cut-off structure forms below this, which moves to lower harmonics as n is increased. This second cut-off splits the plateau into two regions, one higher in yield and below the second cut-off, and the second with lower yield following it. We further investigate the final n-distributions for some of the interesting cases to elucidate the physical mechanism leading to this structure

  16. A High Order Finite Difference Scheme with Sharp Shock Resolution for the Euler Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Margot; Olsson, Pelle

    1996-01-01

    We derive a high-order finite difference scheme for the Euler equations that satisfies a semi-discrete energy estimate, and present an efficient strategy for the treatment of discontinuities that leads to sharp shock resolution. The formulation of the semi-discrete energy estimate is based on a symmetrization of the Euler equations that preserves the homogeneity of the flux vector, a canonical splitting of the flux derivative vector, and the use of difference operators that satisfy a discrete analogue to the integration by parts procedure used in the continuous energy estimate. Around discontinuities or sharp gradients, refined grids are created on which the discrete equations are solved after adding a newly constructed artificial viscosity. The positioning of the sub-grids and computation of the viscosity are aided by a detection algorithm which is based on a multi-scale wavelet analysis of the pressure grid function. The wavelet theory provides easy to implement mathematical criteria to detect discontinuities, sharp gradients and spurious oscillations quickly and efficiently.

  17. Drag reduction using metallic engineered surfaces with highly ordered hierarchical topographies: nanostructures on micro-riblets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taekyung; Shin, Ryung; Jung, Myungki; Lee, Jinhyung; Park, Changsu; Kang, Shinill

    2016-03-01

    Durable drag-reduction surfaces have recently received much attention, due to energy-saving and power-consumption issues associated with harsh environment applications, such as those experienced by piping infrastructure, ships, aviation, underwater vehicles, and high-speed ground vehicles. In this study, a durable, metallic surface with highly ordered hierarchical structures was used to enhance drag-reduction properties, by combining two passive drag-reduction strategies: an air-layer effect induced by nanostructures and secondary vortex generation by micro-riblet structures. The nanostructures and micro-riblet structures were designed to increase slip length. The top-down fabrication method used to form the metallic hierarchical structures combined laser interference lithography, photolithography, thermal reflow, nanoimprinting, and pulse-reverse-current electrochemical deposition. The surfaces were formed from nickel, which has high hardness and corrosion resistance, making it suitable for use in harsh environments. The drag-reduction properties of various metal surfaces were investigated based on the surface structure: a bare surface, a nanostructured surface, a micro-riblet surface, and a hierarchically structured surface of nanostructures on micro-riblets.

  18. Highly ordered cellulose II crystalline regenerated from cellulose hydrolyzed by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yongjun; Song, Younghan; Kwak, Seung-Yeop; Kim, Hyungsup

    2016-02-10

    This research focused on the preparation of highly ordered cellulose II crystalline by cellulose hydrolysis in ionic liquid, and the influence of molecular mobility on recrystallization of cellulose. The molar mass of cellulose was controlled by hydrolysis using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BmimCl). The molecular mobility of cellulose dissolved in BmimCl was characterized by rheological properties. After characterization of cellulose solution and regeneration, change of molar mass and conversion to crystalline were monitored using gel-permeation chromatography and powder X-ray diffraction, respectively. The molar mass of the cellulose in BmimCl was remarkably decreased with an increase in duration time, resulting in better mobility and a lower conformational constraint below critical molar mass. The decrease in molar mass surprisingly increased the crystallinity up to ∼ 85%, suggesting a recrystallization rate dependence of the mobility. The correlation between the mobility and recrystallization rate represented quit different behavior above and below a critical molar mass, which strongly demonstrated to the effect of mobility on the conversion of amorphous state to crystalline structure.

  19. Demodulation of acoustic telemetry binary phase shift keying signal based on high-order Duffing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bing-Nan; Liu, Chong-Xin; Ni, Jun-Kang; Zhao, Liang

    2016-10-01

    In order to grasp the downhole situation immediately, logging while drilling (LWD) technology is adopted. One of the LWD technologies, called acoustic telemetry, can be successfully applied to modern drilling. It is critical for acoustic telemetry technology that the signal is successfully transmitted to the ground. In this paper, binary phase shift keying (BPSK) is used to modulate carrier waves for the transmission and a new BPSK demodulation scheme based on Duffing chaos is investigated. Firstly, a high-order system is given in order to enhance the signal detection capability and it is realized through building a virtual circuit using an electronic workbench (EWB). Secondly, a new BPSK demodulation scheme is proposed based on the intermittent chaos phenomena of the new Duffing system. Finally, a system variable crossing zero-point equidistance method is proposed to obtain the phase difference between the system and the BPSK signal. Then it is determined that the digital signal transmitted from the bottom of the well is ‘0’ or ‘1’. The simulation results show that the demodulation method is feasible. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51177117) and the National Key Science & Technology Special Projects, China (Grant No. 2011ZX05021-005).

  20. Parallelization of a high-order accurate unstructured mesh finite-volume solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generic solver eliminates the need to write new finite-volume codes for each type of physics. By separating the physics from the numerics of the solver, a modular design is achieved. New physics modules can easily be written with a minimal knowledge of the finite-volume method. A parallel solver allows simulation of complex physics on intricate domains in a timely manner by using numerous processors simultaneously. In this paper we describe the steps needed to adapt a high-order accurate unstructured mesh generic finite-volume solver to a parallel architecture. A message-passing approach is used which allows the solver to operate on a distributed memory system, such as a cluster of workstations. The reconstruction stencil is determined at the preprocessing stage and an appropriate parallel data structure for the solution is formed. Fluxes for faces on the partition boundary are evaluated by communicating the reconstruction coefficients to the adjacent processor. Good performance scalability is achieved for second and fourth-order accurate solutions on cell and vertex centered meshes. (authors)

  1. High-order central Hermite WENO schemes: Dimension-by-dimension moment-based reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhanjing; Li, Fengyan; Qiu, Jianxian

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a class of high-order central finite volume schemes is proposed for solving one- and two-dimensional hyperbolic conservation laws. Formulated on staggered meshes, the methods involve Hermite WENO (HWENO) spatial reconstructions, and Lax-Wendroff type discretizations or the natural continuous extension of Runge-Kutta methods in time. Differently from the central Hermite WENO methods we developed previously in Tao et al. (2015) [34], the spatial reconstructions, a core ingredient of the methods, are based on the zeroth-order and the first-order moments of the solution, and are implemented through a dimension-by-dimension strategy when the spatial dimension is higher than one. This leads to much simpler implementation of the methods in higher dimension and better cost efficiency. Meanwhile, the proposed methods have the attractive features of the general central Hermite WENO methods such as being compact in reconstruction and requiring neither flux splitting nor numerical fluxes, while being accurate and essentially non-oscillatory. A collection of one- and two-dimensional numerical examples is presented to demonstrate high resolution and robustness of the methods in capturing smooth and non-smooth solutions.

  2. High-order wavelet reconstruction/differentiation filters and Gibbs phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardini, Richard; Acevedo, Ramiro; Kuczala, Alexander; Keys, Kerry; Goodrich, Carl; Johnson, Bruce

    2016-03-01

    We have developed an efficient method to accurately represent 1D or 2D, smooth or discontinuous, solutions to partial differential equations (PDE's), such as Schrodinger or Maxwell's equations, in an orthogonal Daubechies wavelet basis. This is a crucial step in the future development of a wavelet method that solves these PDE's. There are two main developments from this research. First, a reconstruction transform for smooth functions, discovered in previous works [Keinert and Kwon (1997) and Neelov and Goedecker (2006)], is generalized in order to develop a systematic way of tuning its error. This transform converts the wavelet basis representation back to the actual point values of the function. Since this reconstruction can far exceed the wavelet approximation order, it is shown that shorter wavelets can be used while maintaining a high-order accuracy resulting in an increase of computational efficiency. Second, a new ``truncated'' reconstruction transform is developed, using pieces of wavelets, or ``tail functions'', which can be applied to discontinuous functions. Not only does it avoid the wavelet Gibbs phenomenon, but also maintains a tunable accuracy similar to the smooth function case.

  3. Modeling fragmentation with new high order finite element technology and node splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olovsson, Lars; Limido, Jérôme; Lacome, Jean-Luc; Grønsund Hanssen, Arve; Petit, Jacques

    2015-09-01

    The modeling of fragmentation has historically been linked to the weapons industry where the main goal is to optimize a bomb or to design effective blast shields. Numerical modeling of fragmentation from dynamic loading has traditionally been modeled by legacy finite element solvers that rely on element erosion to model material failure. However this method results in the removal of too much material. This is not realistic as retaining the mass of the structure is critical to modeling the event correctly. We propose a new approach implemented in the IMPETUS AFEA SOLVER® based on the following: New High Order Finite Elements that can easily deal with very large deformations; Stochastic distribution of initial damage that allows for a non homogeneous distribution of fragments; and a Node Splitting Algorithm that allows for material fracture without element erosion that is mesh independent. The approach is evaluated for various materials and scenarios: -Titanium ring electromagnetic compression; Hard steel Taylor bar impact, Fused silica Taylor bar impact, Steel cylinder explosion, The results obtained from the simulations are representative of the failure mechanisms observed experimentally. The main benefit of this approach is good energy conservation (no loss of mass) and numerical robustness even in complex situations.

  4. High-order optical vortex position detection using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jia; Huang, Hongxin; Matsui, Yoshinori; Toyoda, Haruyoshi; Inoue, Takashi; Bai, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Optical vortex (OV) beams have null-intensity singular points, and the intensities in the region surrounding the singular point are quite low. This low intensity region influences the position detection accuracy of phase singular point, especially for high-order OV beam. In this paper, we propose a new method for solving this problem, called the phase-slope-combining correlation matching method. A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SH-WFS) is used to measure phase slope vectors at lenslet positions of the SH-WFS. Several phase slope vectors are combined into one to reduce the influence of low-intensity regions around the singular point, and the combined phase slope vectors are used to determine the OV position with the aid of correlation matching with a pre-calculated database. Experimental results showed that the proposed method works with high accuracy, even when detecting an OV beam with a topological charge larger than six. The estimated precision was about 0.15 in units of lenslet size when detecting an OV beam with a topological charge of up to 20.

  5. 2D coherent charge transport in highly ordered conducting polymers doped by solid state diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Keehoon; Watanabe, Shun; Broch, Katharina; Sepe, Alessandro; Brown, Adam; Nasrallah, Iyad; Nikolka, Mark; Fei, Zhuping; Heeney, Martin; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Marumoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hisaaki; Kuroda, Shin-Ichi; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2016-08-01

    Doping is one of the most important methods to control charge carrier concentration in semiconductors. Ideally, the introduction of dopants should not perturb the ordered microstructure of the semiconducting host. In some systems, such as modulation-doped inorganic semiconductors or molecular charge transfer crystals, this can be achieved by spatially separating the dopants from the charge transport pathways. However, in conducting polymers, dopants tend to be randomly distributed within the conjugated polymer, and as a result the transport properties are strongly affected by the resulting structural and electronic disorder. Here, we show that in the highly ordered lamellar microstructure of a regioregular thiophene-based conjugated polymer, a small-molecule p-type dopant can be incorporated by solid state diffusion into the layers of solubilizing side chains without disrupting the conjugated layers. In contrast to more disordered systems, this allows us to observe coherent, free-electron-like charge transport properties, including a nearly ideal Hall effect in a wide temperature range, a positive magnetoconductance due to weak localization and the Pauli paramagnetic spin susceptibility.

  6. Finite Element Analysis of Dam-Reservoir Interaction Using High-Order Doubly Asymptotic Open Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichao Gao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dam-reservoir system is divided into the near field modeled by the finite element method, and the far field modeled by the excellent high-order doubly asymptotic open boundary (DAOB. Direct and partitioned coupled methods are developed for the analysis of dam-reservoir system. In the direct coupled method, a symmetric monolithic governing equation is formulated by incorporating the DAOB with the finite element equation and solved using the standard time-integration methods. In contrast, the near-field finite element equation and the far-field DAOB condition are separately solved in the partitioned coupled methodm, and coupling is achieved by applying the interaction force on the truncated boundary. To improve its numerical stability and accuracy, an iteration strategy is employed to obtain the solution of each step. Both coupled methods are implemented on the open-source finite element code OpenSees. Numerical examples are employed to demonstrate the performance of these two proposed methods.

  7. A new high-order accurate continuous Galerkin method for linear elastodynamics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idesman, Alexander V.

    2007-07-01

    A new high-order accurate time-continuous Galerkin (TCG) method for elastodynamics is suggested. The accuracy of the new implicit TCG method is increased by a factor of two in comparison to that of the standard TCG method and is one order higher than the accuracy of the standard time-discontinuous Galerkin (TDG) method at the same number of degrees of freedom. The new method is unconditionally stable and has controllable numerical dissipation at high frequencies. An iterative predictor/multi-corrector solver that includes the factorization of the effective mass matrix of the same dimension as that of the mass matrix for the second-order methods is developed for the new TCG method. A new strategy combining numerical methods with small and large numerical dissipation is developed for elastodynamics. Simple numerical tests show a significant reduction in the computation time (by 5 25 times) for the new TCG method in comparison to that for second-order methods, and the suppression of spurious high-frequency oscillations.

  8. A THREE-DIMENSIONAL DESINGULARIZED HIGH ORDER PANEL METHOD BASED ON NURBS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhi-liang; ZOU Zao-jian

    2008-01-01

    A desingularized high order panel method based on Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) was developed to deal with three-dimensional potential flow problems. A NURBS surface was used to precisely represent the body geometry. Velocity potential on the body surface was described by the B-spline after the source density distribution on the body surface had been solved. The collocation approach was employed to satisfy the Neumann boundary condition and Gaussian quadrature points were chosen as both the collocation points and the source points. The singularity was removed by a combined method, so the process of the numerical computation was non-singular. In order to verify the method proposed, the unbounded flow problems of sphere and ellipsoid, the wave-making problem of a submerged ellipsoid were chosen as computational examples. It is shown that the numerical results are in good agreement with analytical solutions and other numerical results in all cases, and sufficient accuracy of numerical solution can be reached with a small number of panels.

  9. Bayesian Modeling of ChIP-chip Data Through a High-Order Ising Model

    KAUST Repository

    Mo, Qianxing

    2010-01-29

    ChIP-chip experiments are procedures that combine chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and DNA microarray (chip) technology to study a variety of biological problems, including protein-DNA interaction, histone modification, and DNA methylation. The most important feature of ChIP-chip data is that the intensity measurements of probes are spatially correlated because the DNA fragments are hybridized to neighboring probes in the experiments. We propose a simple, but powerful Bayesian hierarchical approach to ChIP-chip data through an Ising model with high-order interactions. The proposed method naturally takes into account the intrinsic spatial structure of the data and can be used to analyze data from multiple platforms with different genomic resolutions. The model parameters are estimated using the Gibbs sampler. The proposed method is illustrated using two publicly available data sets from Affymetrix and Agilent platforms, and compared with three alternative Bayesian methods, namely, Bayesian hierarchical model, hierarchical gamma mixture model, and Tilemap hidden Markov model. The numerical results indicate that the proposed method performs as well as the other three methods for the data from Affymetrix tiling arrays, but significantly outperforms the other three methods for the data from Agilent promoter arrays. In addition, we find that the proposed method has better operating characteristics in terms of sensitivities and false discovery rates under various scenarios. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  10. Amplitude-preserving nonlinear adaptive multiple attenuation using the high-order sparse Radon transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yaru; Yang, Jing; Ma, Jitao; Chen, Yangkang

    2016-06-01

    The Radon transform is widely used for multiple elimination. Since the Radon transform is not an orthogonal transform, it cannot preserve the amplitude of primary reflections well. The prediction and adaptive subtraction method is another widely used approach for multiple attenuation, which demands that the primaries are orthogonal with the multiples. However, the orthogonality assumption is not true for non-stationary field seismic data. In this paper, the high-order sparse Radon transform (HOSRT) method is introduced to protect the amplitude variation with offset information during the multiple subtraction procedures. The HOSRT incorporates the high-resolution Radon transform with the orthogonal polynomial transform. Because the Radon transform contains the trajectory information of seismic events and the orthogonal polynomial transform contains the amplitude variation information of seismic events, their combination constructs an overcomplete transform and obtains the benefits of both the high-resolution property of the Radon transform and the amplitude preservation of the orthogonal polynomial transform. A fast nonlinear filter is adopted in the adaptive subtraction step in order to avoid the orthogonality assumption that is used in traditional adaptive subtraction methods. The application of the proposed approach to synthetic and field data examples shows that the proposed method can improve the separation performance by preserving more useful energy.

  11. Role of high-order aberrations in senescent changes in spatial vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot, S; Choi, S S; Doble, N; Hardy, J L; Evans, J W; Werner, J S

    2009-01-06

    The contributions of optical and neural factors to age-related losses in spatial vision are not fully understood. We used closed-loop adaptive optics to test the visual benefit of correcting monochromatic high-order aberrations (HOAs) on spatial vision for observers ranging in age from 18-81 years. Contrast sensitivity was measured monocularly using a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) procedure for sinusoidal gratings over 6 mm and 3 mm pupil diameters. Visual acuity was measured using a spatial 4AFC procedure. Over a 6 mm pupil, young observers showed a large benefit of AO at high spatial frequencies, whereas older observers exhibited the greatest benefit at middle spatial frequencies, plus a significantly larger increase in visual acuity. When age-related miosis is controlled, young and old observers exhibited a similar benefit of AO for spatial vision. An increase in HOAs cannot account for the complete senescent decline in spatial vision. These results may indicate a larger role of additional optical factors when the impact of HOAs is removed, but also lend support for the importance of neural factors in age-related changes in spatial vision.

  12. Structure/Processing Relationships of Highly Ordered Lead Salt Nanocrystal Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Hanrath, Tobias

    2009-10-27

    We investigated the influence of processing conditions, nanocrystal/substrate interactions and solvent evaporation rate on the ordering of strongly interacting nanocrystals by synergistically combining electron microscopy and synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. Spin-cast PbSe nanocrystal films exhibited submicrometer-sized supracrystals with face-centered cubic symmetry and (001)s planes aligned parallel to the substrate. The ordering of drop-cast lead salt nanocrystal films was sensitive to the nature of the substrate and solvent evaporation dynamics. Nanocrystal films drop-cast on rough indium tin oxide substrates were polycrystalline with small grain size and low degree of orientation with respect to the substrate, whereas films drop-cast on flat Si substrates formed highly ordered face-centered cubic supracrystals with close-packed (111)s planes parallel to the substrate. The spatial coherence of nanocrystal films drop-cast in the presence of saturated solvent vapor was significantly improved compared to films drop-cast in a dry environment. Solvent vapor annealing was demonstrated as a postdeposition technique to modify the ordering of nanocrystals in the thin film. Octane vapor significantly improved the long-range order and degree of orientation of initially disordered or polycrystalline nanocrystal assemblies. Exposure to 1,2-ethanedithiol vapor caused partial displacement of surface bound oleic acid ligands and drastically degraded the degree of order in the nanocrystal assembly. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  13. Communication: excitation band modulation with high-order photonic band gap in PMMA:Eu(TTA)3(TPPO)2 opals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Bai, Xue; Zhu, Yongsheng; Liu, Tong; Xu, Sai; Dong, Biao; Song, Hongwei

    2013-05-14

    Changes in the excitation spectra of luminescent species inserted in photorefractive crystals as a function of changes in the high-order photonic band gap (PBG) have not been previously observed. In this communication, we present our results monitoring the excitation band of Eu(TTA)3(TPPO)2 inserted in the PMMA opal photonic crystals as a function of the changes in the high-order PBG of the crystals. We find shifts in the complex excitation band and changes in the integrated emission intensity that correlates with shifts in the high-order PBG through coupling to the excitation transition.

  14. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  15. Validation and application of an high-order spectral difference method for flow induced noise simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Parsani, Matteo

    2011-09-01

    The main goal of this paper is to develop an efficient numerical algorithm to compute the radiated far field noise provided by an unsteady flow field from bodies in arbitrary motion. The method computes a turbulent flow field in the near fields using a high-order spectral difference method coupled with large-eddy simulation approach. The unsteady equations are solved by advancing in time using a second-order backward difference formulae scheme. The nonlinear algebraic system arising from the time discretization is solved with the nonlinear lowerupper symmetric GaussSeidel algorithm. In the second step, the method calculates the far field sound pressure based on the acoustic source information provided by the first step simulation. The method is based on the Ffowcs WilliamsHawkings approach, which provides noise contributions for monopole, dipole and quadrupole acoustic sources. This paper will focus on the validation and assessment of this hybrid approach using different test cases. The test cases used are: a laminar flow over a two-dimensional (2D) open cavity at Re = 1.5 × 10 3 and M = 0.15 and a laminar flow past a 2D square cylinder at Re = 200 and M = 0.5. In order to show the application of the numerical method in industrial cases and to assess its capability for sound field simulation, a three-dimensional turbulent flow in a muffler at Re = 4.665 × 10 4 and M = 0.05 has been chosen as a third test case. The flow results show good agreement with numerical and experimental reference solutions. Comparison of the computed noise results with those of reference solutions also shows that the numerical approach predicts noise accurately. © 2011 IMACS.

  16. New renewable resource amphiphilic molecular design for size-controlled and highly ordered polyaniline nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilkumar, P; Jayakannan, M

    2006-06-20

    We demonstrate here, for the first time, a unique strategy for conducting polyaniline nanofibers based on renewable resources. Naturally available cardanol, which is an industrial waste and main pollutant from the cashew nut industry, is utilized for producing well-defined polyaniline nanofibers. A new amphiphilic molecule is designed and developed from cardanol, which forms a stable emulsion with aniline for a wide composition range in water (1:1 to 1:100 dopant/aniline mole ratio) to produce polyaniline nanofibers. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis of the nanofibers reveals that the dopant/aniline ratio plays a major role in determining the shape and size of polyaniline nanofibers. The nanofiber length increases with the increase in the dopant/aniline ratio, and perfectly linear, well-defined nanofibers of lengths as long as 7-8 muM were produced. The amphiphilic dopant has a built-in head-to-tail geometry and effectively penetrates into the polyaniline chains to form highly organized nanofibers. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD) spectra of the nanofibers showed a new peak at 2theta = 6.3 (d spacing = 13.9 A) corresponding to the three-dimensional solid-state ordering of polyaniline-dopant chains, and this peak intensity increases with increase in the nanofiber length. The comparison of morphology and WXRD reveals that high ordering in polyaniline chains results in the formation of long, well-defined nanofibers, and this direct correlation for the polyaniline nanofibers with solid-state ordering has been established. The conductivity of the polyaniline nanofibers also increases with increase in the solid-state ordering rather than increasing with the extent of doping. The polyaniline nanofibers are freely soluble in water and possess high environmental and thermal stability up to 300 degrees C for various applications. PMID:16768535

  17. FPGA-based real time controller for high order correction in EDIFISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, L. F.; Chulani, H.; Martín, Y.; Dorta, T.; Alonso, A.; Fuensalida, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    EDIFISE is a technology demonstrator instrument developed at the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC), intended to explore the feasibility of combining Adaptive Optics with attenuated optical fibers in order to obtain high spatial resolution spectra at the surroundings of a star, as an alternative to coronagraphy. A simplified version with only tip tilt correction has been tested at the OGS telescope in Observatorio del Teide (Canary islands, Spain) and a complete version is intended to be tested at the OGS and at the WHT telescope in Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, (Canary Islands, Spain). This paper describes the FPGA-based real time control of the High Order unit, responsible of the computation of the actuation values of a 97-actuactor deformable mirror (11x11) with the information provided by a configurable wavefront sensor of up to 16x16 subpupils at 500 Hz (128x128 pixels). The reconfigurable logic hardware will allow both zonal and modal control approaches, will full access to select which mode loops should be closed and with a number of utilities for influence matrix and open loop response measurements. The system has been designed in a modular way to allow for easy upgrade to faster frame rates (1500 Hz) and bigger wavefront sensors (240x240 pixels), accepting also several interfaces from the WFS and towards the mirror driver. The FPGA-based (Field Programmable Gate Array) real time controller provides bias and flat-fielding corrections, subpupil slopes to modal matrix computation for up to 97 modes, independent servo loop controllers for each mode with user control for independent loop opening or closing, mode to actuator matrix computation and non-common path aberration correction capability. It also provides full housekeeping control via UPD/IP for matrix reloading and full system data logging.

  18. Molecular internal dynamics studied by quantum path interferences in high order harmonic generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaïr, Amelle, E-mail: azair@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory Laser Consortium, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Siegel, Thomas; Sukiasyan, Suren; Risoud, Francois; Brugnera, Leonardo; Hutchison, Christopher [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory Laser Consortium, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Diveki, Zsolt; Auguste, Thierry [Service des Photons, Atomes et Molécules, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Tisch, John W.G. [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory Laser Consortium, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Salières, Pascal [Service des Photons, Atomes et Molécules, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ivanov, Misha Y.; Marangos, Jonathan P. [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory Laser Consortium, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-12

    Highlights: ► Electronic trajectories in high order harmonic generation encodes attosecond and femtosecond molecular dynamical information. ► The observation of these quantum paths allows us to follow nuclear motion after ionization. ► Quantum paths interference encodes a signature of superposition of ionization channels. ► Quantum paths interference encodes a signature of transfer of population between channels due to laser coupling. ► Quantum paths interference is a promising technique to resolve ultra-fast dynamical processes after ionization. - Abstract: We investigate how short and long electron trajectory contributions to high harmonic emission and their interferences give access to information about intra-molecular dynamics. In the case of unaligned molecules, we show experimental evidence that the long trajectory contribution is more dependent upon the molecular species than the short one, providing a high sensitivity to cation nuclear dynamics from 100’s of as to a few fs after ionisation. Using theoretical approaches based on the strong field approximation and numerical integration of the time dependent Schrödinger equation, we examine how quantum path interferences encode electronic motion when the molecules are aligned. We show that the interferences are dependent upon which ionisation channels are involved and any superposition between them. In particular, quantum path interferences can encode signatures of electron dynamics if the laser field drives a coupling between the channels. Hence, molecular quantum path interferences are a promising method for attosecond spectroscopy, allowing the resolution of ultra-fast charge migration in molecules after ionisation in a self-referenced manner.

  19. Positronium formation in highly-ordered pyrolytic graphite and potassium intercalated graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D ACAR) technique is used to study the electron-positron momentum densities in highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and alkali metal GIC's. The momentum spectra obtained using the 2D ACAR technique correspond to an integral over one dimension of the three dimensional electron-positron momentum density. The polycrystalline samples measured are layered materials consisting of planar crystallites. The c-axis of the crystallites are well aligned perpendicular to the layer plane, however, in-plane orientation is random. In the measurements presented herein, samples were oriented such that the integration direction was perpendicular to the c-axis. In 2D ACAR measurements of HOPG, a narrow, nearly isotropic low intensity component is observed. The intensity of this component is found to increase as a function of temperature in a manner consistent with thermally activated positronium. An activation energy of 0.17 eV is obtained using non-linear least-squares fitting techniques. 2D ACAR measurements of the alkali metal GIC's C8Cs, C3K and C24K were made at temperatures ranging from 90 to 294K. The spectra of these materials are dominated by an intense highly anisotropic component. The intensity of this component measured in the presence of a magnetic field is observed to depend on the direction of the applied field in C24K, indicating at least part of this structure is due to the formation and subsequent annihilation of quasi two-dimensional positronium. A Hanning window filtered Hankel transform based reconstruction algorithm is employed to compute the three-dimensional electron-positron momentum density in C24K from ACAR measurements

  20. High-order sum and difference-frequency generation in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-order harmonic generation provides a new method for generating coherent, XUV radiation. These harmonics are characterized by a rapid, pertubative drop at low orders, followed by a broad plateau extending to photon energies of 150 eV in the lighter, rare gas atoms. An experimentally observed limit coincides with the theoretical limit for harmonic generation in neutral atoms given by the expression Ec(eV)=IP(0)+3Up(I), where Ec is the energy cutoff of the harmonic plateau, IP(O) is the field-free ionization potential and Up is the electron quiver energy at the maximum intensity, I seen by the atom. As part of an effort to develop this technique into a general purpose XUV source, extensive work to understand the phase-matching between the harmonic and driving fields, and the resulting effect on the conversion efficiency, angular distribution and spectral brightness has been undertaken at several. Though, certain aspects of the harmonically generated radiation such as the polarization, relative strength of a given harmonic, and the plateau extent, are defined by the single atom-field interaction. Specifically, the single-atom harmonic spectrum is determined primarily by the interaction of a driven, quasi-free electron with the atomic potential. Using two, independent fields one can affect the electron motion by controlling the relative strength, polarization, and phase of the fields and alter the harmonic spectrum. In this paper we discuss initial, two-color experiments where we drive the atom with two fields of different frequencies: 1053 nm (1ω) and 526 nm (2ω). In addition to the higher, odd harmonics, we observe sets of three additional peaks that we attribute to sum and difference-frequency generation between the two fields. By controlling the relative polarization between the two fields we can control the relative strength of the harmonic and mixing components, as well as the polarization of the output XUV photon

  1. Verification & Validation of High-Order Short-Characteristics-Based Deterministic Transport Methodology on Unstructured Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azmy, Yousry [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Wang, Yaqi [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-12-20

    The research team has developed a practical, high-order, discrete-ordinates, short characteristics neutron transport code for three-dimensional configurations represented on unstructured tetrahedral grids that can be used for realistic reactor physics applications at both the assembly and core levels. This project will perform a comprehensive verification and validation of this new computational tool against both a continuous-energy Monte Carlo simulation (e.g. MCNP) and experimentally measured data, an essential prerequisite for its deployment in reactor core modeling. Verification is divided into three phases. The team will first conduct spatial mesh and expansion order refinement studies to monitor convergence of the numerical solution to reference solutions. This is quantified by convergence rates that are based on integral error norms computed from the cell-by-cell difference between the code’s numerical solution and its reference counterpart. The latter is either analytic or very fine- mesh numerical solutions from independent computational tools. For the second phase, the team will create a suite of code-independent benchmark configurations to enable testing the theoretical order of accuracy of any particular discretization of the discrete ordinates approximation of the transport equation. For each tested case (i.e. mesh and spatial approximation order), researchers will execute the code and compare the resulting numerical solution to the exact solution on a per cell basis to determine the distribution of the numerical error. The final activity comprises a comparison to continuous-energy Monte Carlo solutions for zero-power critical configuration measurements at Idaho National Laboratory’s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Results of this comparison will allow the investigators to distinguish between modeling errors and the above-listed discretization errors introduced by the deterministic method, and to separate the sources of uncertainty.

  2. High-Performance High-Order Simulation of Wave and Plasma Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockner, Andreas

    This thesis presents results aiming to enhance and broaden the applicability of the discontinuous Galerkin ("DG") method in a variety of ways. DG was chosen as a foundation for this work because it yields high-order finite element discretizations with very favorable numerical properties for the treatment of hyperbolic conservation laws. In a first part, I examine progress that can be made on implementation aspects of DG. In adapting the method to mass-market massively parallel computation hardware in the form of graphics processors ("GPUs"), I obtain an increase in computation performance per unit of cost by more than an order of magnitude over conventional processor architectures. Key to this advance is a recipe that adapts DG to a variety of hardware through automated self-tuning. I discuss new parallel programming tools supporting GPU run-time code generation which are instrumental in the DG self-tuning process and contribute to its reaching application floating point throughput greater than 200 GFlops/s on a single GPU and greater than 3 TFlops/s on a 16-GPU cluster in simulations of electromagnetics problems in three dimensions. I further briefly discuss the solver infrastructure that makes this possible. In the second part of the thesis, I introduce a number of new numerical methods whose motivation is partly rooted in the opportunity created by GPU-DG: First, I construct and examine a novel GPU-capable shock detector, which, when used to control an artificial viscosity, helps stabilize DG computations in gas dynamics and a number of other fields. Second, I describe my pursuit of a method that allows the simulation of rarefied plasmas using a DG discretization of the electromagnetic field. Finally, I introduce new explicit multi-rate time integrators for ordinary differential equations with multiple time scales, with a focus on applicability to DG discretizations of time-dependent problems.

  3. High-order large-eddy simulation of flow over the ``Ahmed body'' car model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguez, M.; Pasquetti, R.; Serre, E.

    2008-09-01

    The structure of the turbulent flow over a simplified automotive model, the Ahmed body (S. R. Ahmed and G. Ramm, SAE Paper No. 8403001, 1984) with a 25° slanted back face, is investigated using high-order large-eddy simulations (LESs) at Reynolds number Re =768000. The numerical approach is carried out with a multidomain spectral Chebyshev-Fourier solver and the bluff body is modeled with a pseudopenalization method. The LES capability is implemented thanks to a spectral vanishing viscosity (SVV) technique, with particular attention to the near wall region. Such a SVV-LES approach is extended for the first time to an industrial three-dimensional turbulent flow over a complex geometry. In order to better understand the interactions between flow separations and the dynamic behavior of the released vortex wake, a detailed analysis of the flow structures is provided. The topology of the flow is well captured showing a partial separation of the boundary layer over the slanted face and the occurrence of two strong contrarotating trailing vortices expanding farther in the wake. The interactions of these large vortices with smaller structures reminiscent of horseshoe vortices, within the shear layer over the slanted face, form large helical structures providing strong unsteady phenomena in the wake. Mean velocity fields and turbulence statistics show a global agreement with the reference experiments of Lienhart et al. (DGLR Fach Symposium der AG SRAB, Stuttgart University, 15-17 November 2000). In order to provide a deeper insight into the nature of turbulence, the flow is analyzed using power spectra and the invariant theory of turbulence of Lumley [Adv. Appl. Mech. 18, 123 (1978)].

  4. Recollision dynamics of electron wave packets in high-order harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D.

    2009-11-01

    We numerically investigate the dynamics of recollision of an electron in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) for an H atom and a molecular ion H2+ using a short (ten optical cycles), and intense (I0≥1014W/cm2) , z -polarized linear laser pulse with wavelength 800 nm by accurately solving the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation. A time-frequency analysis obtained via Gabor transforms is employed to identify electron recollision and recombination times responsible for the generation of harmonics. We find that the HHG spectra are mainly attributed to the recollision of an inner electron wave packet with the parent ion in agreement with the classical recollision model. A time delay of the electron recollision occurs between wave packets in inner and outer regions, near to and far from the parent ion, due to different phase of the acceleration (as well as dipole velocity) of the electron. Inner wave packets at recollision contain mainly short and long trajectories whereas outer wave packets contain only single trajectories. Lower-order harmonics are generated mainly by single recollisions near field extrema, i.e., in strong electric fields whereas higher-order harmonics are generated by double trajectories with different intensities. In the case of H2+ at a critical nuclear distance for charge resonance enhanced ionization, we also find that HHG mainly comes from contributions of the inner electron wave packet, but with more complex recollision trajectories due to the presence of more than one Coulomb center. Triple recollision trajectories are shown to occur generally for the latter.

  5. High-Order Implicit-Explicit Multi-Block Time-stepping Method for Hyperbolic PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tanner B.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Fisher, Travis C.; Frankel, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    This work seeks to explore and improve the current time-stepping schemes used in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in order to reduce overall computational time. A high-order scheme has been developed using a combination of implicit and explicit (IMEX) time-stepping Runge-Kutta (RK) schemes which increases numerical stability with respect to the time step size, resulting in decreased computational time. The IMEX scheme alone does not yield the desired increase in numerical stability, but when used in conjunction with an overlapping partitioned (multi-block) domain significant increase in stability is observed. To show this, the Overlapping-Partition IMEX (OP IMEX) scheme is applied to both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) problems, the nonlinear viscous Burger's equation and 2D advection equation, respectively. The method uses two different summation by parts (SBP) derivative approximations, second-order and fourth-order accurate. The Dirichlet boundary conditions are imposed using the Simultaneous Approximation Term (SAT) penalty method. The 6-stage additive Runge-Kutta IMEX time integration schemes are fourth-order accurate in time. An increase in numerical stability 65 times greater than the fully explicit scheme is demonstrated to be achievable with the OP IMEX method applied to 1D Burger's equation. Results from the 2D, purely convective, advection equation show stability increases on the order of 10 times the explicit scheme using the OP IMEX method. Also, the domain partitioning method in this work shows potential for breaking the computational domain into manageable sizes such that implicit solutions for full three-dimensional CFD simulations can be computed using direct solving methods rather than the standard iterative methods currently used.

  6. Spectral splitting of high order harmonics of ionizing gases irradiated with ultrashort intense laser pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    [1]Chang Zenghu,Rundquist,A.,Wang Haiwen et al.,Generation of coherent soft X-rays a 2.7 nm using high harmonics,Phys.Rev.Lett.,1997,79(16): 2967-2970.[2]Schnurer,M.,Spielmann,Ch.,Wobrauschek,P.et al.,Coherent 0.5 keV X-ray emission from Helium driven by a sub-10-fs laser,Phys.Rev.Lett.,1998,80(15): 3236-3239.[3]Corkum,P.B.,Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,Phys.Rev.Lett.,1993,71(13): 1994-1997.[4]Lewenstein,M.,Balcou,Ph.,Yu.M.et al.,Theory of high-harmonic generation by low frequency laser fields,Phys.Rev.A,1994,49(3): 2117-2132.[5]Li,X.F.,L'Huillier,A.L.,Ferray,M.et al.,Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,Phys.Rev.A,1989,39(11): 5751-5761.[6]L'Huillier,A.,Schafer,K.J.,Kulander,K.C.,Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,J.Phys.B,1991,24(),3315-3341.[7]L'Huillier,A.,Balcou,Ph.,Candel,S.et al.,Calculation of high-order harmonic-generation processin Xeon at 1064 nm,Phys.Rev.A,1992,46(5): 2778-2790.[8]Balcou,Ph.,L'Huillier,A.,Phase-matching effects in strong-field harmonics generation,Phys.Rev.A,1993,47(2): 1447-1459.[9]Race,S.C.,Burnett,K.,Detailed simulation of plasma-induced spectral blueshifting,Phys.Rev.A,1992,46(2): 1084-1090.[10]Wood,W.M.,Siders,C.W.,Downer,M.C.,Measurement of femtosecond ionization dynamics of atmosphere density gases by spectral blueshifting ,Phys.Rev.Lett.,1991,67(25): 3523-3526.[11]Le Blanc S.P.,Sauerbrey,R.,Rae,S.C.et al.,Spectral blue shifting of a femtosecond laser pulse propagating through a high-pressure gas,J.Opt.Soc.Am.B,1993,10(10): 1801-1809.[12]Le Blanc,S.P.,Sauerbrey,R.,Spectral,temporal,and spatial characteristics of plasma-induced spectral blue shifting and its application to femtosecond pulse measurement,J.Opt.Soc.Am.B,1996,[13](1): 72-88.13.Burnett,N.H.,Corkum,P.B.,Cold-plasma production for recombination extreme-ultraviolet lasers by optical-field-induced ionization,J.Opt.Soc.Am.B,1989,6(6): 1195

  7. On Weighted Estimates of High-Order Riesz-Bessel Transformations Generated by the Generalized Shift Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail EKINCIOGLU; Ayhan SERBETCI

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we establish sufficient conditions on weights which ensure that high-order Riesz-Bessel transformations generated by the generalized shift operator act boundedly from one weighted Lp-space into another.

  8. Parallel high-order methods for deterministic and stochastic CFD and MHD problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guang

    In computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) applications there exist many sources of uncertainty, arising from imprecise material properties, random geometric roughness, noise in boundary/initial condition, transport coefficients, or external forcing. In this dissertation, stochastic perturbation analysis and stochastic simulations based on multi-element generalized polynomial chaos (ME-gPC) are employed synergistically, to solve large-scale stochastic CFD and MHD problems with many random inputs. Stochastic analytical solutions are obtained to serve in verifying the accuracy of the numerical results for small random inputs, but also in shedding light into the physical mechanisms and scaling laws associated with the structural changes of flow field due to random inputs. First, the Karhuen-Loeve (K-L) decomposition is presented; it is an efficient technique for modeling the random inputs. How to represent the covariance kernel for different boundary constrains is an important issue. A new covariance matrix for an one-dimensional fourth-order random process with four boundary constraints is derived analytically, and it is used to model random rough wedge surfaces subjected to supersonic flow. The algorithm of ME-gPC is presented next. ME-gPC is based on the decomposition of random space and spectral expansions. To efficiently solve complex stochastic fluid dynamical systems, e.g., stochastic compressible flows, the ME-gPC method is extended to multi-element probabilistic collocation method on sparse grids (ME-PCM) by coupling it with the probabilistic collocation projection. By using the sparse grid points, ME-PCM can handle random process with large number of random dimensions, with relative lower computational cost, compared to full tensor products. Several prototype problems in compressible and MHD flows are investigated by employing the aforementioned high-order stochastic numerical methods in conjunction with the stochastic

  9. High-Order Moving Overlapping Grid Methodology in a Spectral Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Brandon E.

    A moving overlapping mesh methodology that achieves spectral accuracy in space and up to second-order accuracy in time is developed for solution of unsteady incompressible flow equations in three-dimensional domains. The targeted applications are in aerospace and mechanical engineering domains and involve problems in turbomachinery, rotary aircrafts, wind turbines and others. The methodology is built within the dual-session communication framework initially developed for stationary overlapping meshes. The methodology employs semi-implicit spectral element discretization of equations in each subdomain and explicit treatment of subdomain interfaces with spectrally-accurate spatial interpolation and high-order accurate temporal extrapolation, and requires few, if any, iterations, yet maintains the global accuracy and stability of the underlying flow solver. Mesh movement is enabled through the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation of the governing equations, which allows for prescription of arbitrary velocity values at discrete mesh points. The stationary and moving overlapping mesh methodologies are thoroughly validated using two- and three-dimensional benchmark problems in laminar and turbulent flows. The spatial and temporal global convergence, for both methods, is documented and is in agreement with the nominal order of accuracy of the underlying solver. Stationary overlapping mesh methodology was validated to assess the influence of long integration times and inflow-outflow global boundary conditions on the performance. In a turbulent benchmark of fully-developed turbulent pipe flow, the turbulent statistics are validated against the available data. Moving overlapping mesh simulations are validated on the problems of two-dimensional oscillating cylinder and a three-dimensional rotating sphere. The aerodynamic forces acting on these moving rigid bodies are determined, and all results are compared with published data. Scaling tests, with both methodologies

  10. Stabilization and characterization of platinum nano-catalysts formed on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Helga C.

    Platinum catalysts are prepared on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). Two different methods are used to deposit platinum onto HOPG; electrochemical deposition and impregnation followed by thermal decomposition. To increase interactions between the Pt deposits and the carbon support, HOPG is oxidized either electrochemically or with ozone gas. The combination two different deposition techniques and three different substrates (freshly cleaved, electrochemically, and ozone oxidized HOPG) results in six different Pt/carbon electrodes that are studied with respect to their particle morphology, activity towards electrochemically oxidizing adsorbed carbon monoxide (COads), and electrochemical stability. Oxidation of HOPG generated pits on the basal plane; ozone oxidation formed nano-pits, 85 nm in diameter. Regardless of the substrate pre-treatment, electrochemical deposition resulted in clusters of nanoparticles, while impregnation followed by thermal decomposition resulted in individual Pt nano-catalysts. Regardless of the deposition technique, Pt particles are confined to step edges on freshly cleaved HOPG, and dispersed over the basal plane on oxidized HOPG. When comparing all six electrodes it became evident that substrate pre-treatment did not affect the electrochemical activity of the electrodes towards the oxidation of COads, while the method of Pt deposition did significantly affect the measured activity. For example, Pt/HOPG electrodes prepared by electrochemical deposition using short deposition times, polycrystalline Pt foil, while electrodes prepared by impregnation followed by thermal decomposition show faster kinetics compared to polycrystalline Pt foil. For a given substrate, Pt/HOPG electrodes prepared by impregnation followed by thermal decomposition proved to be more electrochemically stable than electrodes prepared by electrochemical deposition. For a given deposition technique, ozone oxidized HOPG has the greatest stabilizing effect. The

  11. (1) H MRS in the human spinal cord at 7 T using a dielectric waveguide transmitter, RF shimming and a high density receive array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, A; Koning, W; Fuchs, A; Raaijmakers, A; Bluemink, J J; van den Berg, C A T; Boer, V O; Klomp, D W J

    2016-09-01

    Multimodal MRI is the state of the art method for clinical diagnostics and therapy monitoring of the spinal cord, with MRS being an emerging modality that has the potential to detect relevant changes of the spinal cord tissue at an earlier stage and to enhance specificity. Methodological challenges related to the small dimensions and deep location of the human spinal cord inside the human body, field fluctuations due to respiratory motion, susceptibility differences to adjacent tissue such as vertebras and pulsatile flow of the cerebrospinal fluid hinder the clinical application of (1) H MRS to the human spinal cord. Complementary to previous studies that partly addressed these problems, this work aims at enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of (1) H MRS in the human spinal cord. To this end a flexible tight fit high density receiver array and ultra-high field strength (7 T) were combined. A dielectric waveguide and dipole antenna transmission coil allowed for dual channel RF shimming, focusing the RF field in the spinal cord, and an inner-volume saturated semi-LASER sequence was used for robust localization in the presence of B1 (+) inhomogeneity. Herein we report the first 7 T spinal cord (1) H MR spectra, which were obtained in seven independent measurements of 128 averages each in three healthy volunteers. The spectra exhibit high quality (full width at half maximum 0.09 ppm, SNR 7.6) and absence of artifacts and allow for reliable quantification of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) (NAA/Cr (creatine) 1.31 ± 0.20; Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) 5), total choline containing compounds (Cho) (Cho/Cr 0.32 ± 0.07; CRLB 7), Cr (CRLB 5) and myo-inositol (mI) (mI/Cr 1.08 ± 0.22; CRLB 6) in 7.5 min in the human cervical spinal cord. Thus metabolic information from the spinal cord can be obtained in clinically feasible scan times at 7 T, and its benefit for clinical decision making in spinal cord disorders will be investigated in the future using the

  12. Efficient high-order discontinuous Galerkin schemes with first-order hyperbolic advection-diffusion system approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    We propose arbitrary high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) schemes that are designed based on a first-order hyperbolic advection-diffusion formulation of the target governing equations. We present, in details, the efficient construction of the proposed high-order schemes (called DG-H), and show that these schemes have the same number of global degrees-of-freedom as comparable conventional high-order DG schemes, produce the same or higher order of accuracy solutions and solution gradients, are exact for exact polynomial functions, and do not need a second-derivative diffusion operator. We demonstrate that the constructed high-order schemes give excellent quality solution and solution gradients on irregular triangular elements. We also construct a Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) limiter for the proposed DG-H schemes and apply it to discontinuous problems. We also make some accuracy comparisons with conventional DG and interior penalty schemes. A relative qualitative cost analysis is also reported, which indicates that the high-order schemes produce orders of magnitude more accurate results than the low-order schemes for a given CPU time. Furthermore, we show that the proposed DG-H schemes are nearly as efficient as the DG and Interior-Penalty (IP) schemes as these schemes produce results that are relatively at the same error level for approximately a similar CPU time.

  13. Automatic text summarization

    CERN Document Server

    Torres Moreno, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This new textbook examines the motivations and the different algorithms for automatic document summarization (ADS). We performed a recent state of the art. The book shows the main problems of ADS, difficulties and the solutions provided by the community. It presents recent advances in ADS, as well as current applications and trends. The approaches are statistical, linguistic and symbolic. Several exemples are included in order to clarify the theoretical concepts.  The books currently available in the area of Automatic Document Summarization are not recent. Powerful algorithms have been develop

  14. Automatic utilities auditing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Colin Boughton [Energy Metering Technology (United Kingdom)

    2000-08-01

    At present, energy audits represent only snapshot situations of the flow of energy. The normal pattern of energy audits as seen through the eyes of an experienced energy auditor is described. A brief history of energy auditing is given. It is claimed that the future of energy auditing lies in automatic meter reading with expert data analysis providing continuous automatic auditing thereby reducing the skill element. Ultimately, it will be feasible to carry out auditing at intervals of say 30 minutes rather than five years.

  15. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...... camera. We approach this problem by modelling it as a dynamic multi-objective optimisation problem and show how this metaphor allows a much richer expressiveness than a classical single objective approach. Finally, we showcase the application of a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to generate a shot...

  16. A multi-dimensional high-order DG-ALE method based on gas-kinetic theory with application to oscillating bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaodong; Xu, Kun; Shyy, Wei

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a multi-dimensional high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method in an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation to simulate flows over variable domains with moving and deforming meshes. It is an extension of the gas-kinetic DG method proposed by the authors for static domains (X. Ren et al., 2015 [22]). A moving mesh gas kinetic DG method is proposed for both inviscid and viscous flow computations. A flux integration method across a translating and deforming cell interface has been constructed. Differently from the previous ALE-type gas kinetic method with piecewise constant mesh velocity at each cell interface within each time step, the mesh velocity variation inside a cell and the mesh moving and rotating at a cell interface have been accounted for in the finite element framework. As a result, the current scheme is applicable for any kind of mesh movement, such as translation, rotation, and deformation. The accuracy and robustness of the scheme have been improved significantly in the oscillating airfoil calculations. All computations are conducted in a physical domain rather than in a reference domain, and the basis functions move with the grid movement. Therefore, the numerical scheme can preserve the uniform flow automatically, and satisfy the geometric conservation law (GCL). The numerical accuracy can be maintained even for a largely moving and deforming mesh. Several test cases are presented to demonstrate the performance of the gas-kinetic DG-ALE method.

  17. High order three part split symplectic integrators: Application to the disordered discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    CERN Document Server

    Skokos, Ch; Bodyfelt, J D; Papamikos, G; Eggl, S

    2013-01-01

    While symplectic integration methods based on operator splitting are well established in many branches of science, high order methods for Hamiltonian systems that split in more than two parts have not yet been studied in detail. We demonstrate ways to construct high order symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian systems that can be split in three integrable parts. Using these techniques for the integration of the disordered, discrete nonlinear Schroedinger equation, we show that three part split symplectic integrators are more efficient than other numerical methods for the long time integration of multidimensional systems, with respect to both accuracy and computational time.

  18. The Partition of Unity Method for High-Order Finite Volume Schemes Using Radial Basis Functions Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Serena Morigi; Fiorella Sgallari

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the use of partition of unity method for the develop-ment of a high order finite volume discretization scheme on unstructured grids for solv-ing diffusion models based on partial differential equations. The unknown function and its gradient can be accurately reconstructed using high order optimal recovery based on radial basis functions. The methodology proposed is applied to the noise removal prob-lem in functional surfaces and images. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new numerical approach and provide experimental order of convergence.

  19. High order correlation-polarization potential for vibrational excitation scattering of diatomic molecules by low-energy electrons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Hao; Sun Wei-Guo; Zeng Yang-Yang

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a correlation-polarization potential with high order terms for vibrational excitation in electron-molecule scattering. The new polarization potential generalizes the two-term approximation so that it can better reflect the dependence of correlation and polarization effects on the position coordinate of the scattering electron. It applies the new potential on the vibrational excitation scattering from N_2 in an energy range which includes the ~2Ⅱ_g shape resonance. The good agreement of theoretical resonant peaks with experiments shows that polarization potentials with high order terms are important and should be included in vibrational excitation scattering.

  20. Analysis of axial-induction-based wind plant control using an engineering and a high-order wind plant model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annoni, Jennifer [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics; Gebraad, Pieter M. O. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO (United States); Scholbrock, Andrew K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO (United States); Fleming, Paul A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO (United States); Wingerden, Jan-Willem van [Delft Center for Systems and Control, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-08-14

    Wind turbines are typically operated to maximize their performance without considering the impact of wake effects on nearby turbines. Wind plant control concepts aim to increase overall wind plant performance by coordinating the operation of the turbines. This paper focuses on axial-induction-based wind plant control techniques, in which the generator torque or blade pitch degrees of freedom of the wind turbines are adjusted. The paper addresses discrepancies between a high-order wind plant model and an engineering wind plant model. Changes in the engineering model are proposed to better capture the effects of axial-induction-based control shown in the high-order model.