Sample records for automatic exposure control

  1. Development of Automatic Remote Exposure Controller for Gamma Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Gwang Tae; Shin, Jin Seong; Kim, Dong Eun; Song, Jung Ho; Choo, Seung Hwan; Chang, Hong Keun [Korea Industrial Testing Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Recently, gamma radiographic equipment have been used about 1,000 sets manually and operated by about 2,500 persons in Korea. In order for a radiography to work effectively with avoiding any hazard of the high level radiation from the source, many field workers have expected developing a wireless automatic remote exposure controller. The KlTCO research team has developed an automatic remote exposure controller that can regulate the speed of 0.4{approx}1.2m/s by BLDC motor of 24V 200W which has output of 54 kgf{center_dot}, suitable torque and safety factor for the work. And the developed automatic remote exposure controller can control rpm of motor, pigtail position by photo-sensor and exposure time by timer to RF sensor. Thus, the developed equipment is expected that the unit can be used in many practical applications with benefits in economical advantage to combine the use of both automatic and manual type because attachment is possible existent manual remote exposure controller, AC and DC combined use

  2. Tailoring automatic exposure control toward constant detectability in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvagnini, Elena, E-mail: [Department of Imaging and Pathology, Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, KUL, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000, Belgium and SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400 (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde [Department of Imaging and Pathology, Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, KUL, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000, Belgium and Department of Radiology, UZ Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000 (Belgium); Struelens, Lara [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400 (Belgium); Marshall, Nicholas W. [Department of Radiology, UZ Gasthuisberg, Herestraat 49, Leuven B-3000 (Belgium)


    Purpose: The automatic exposure control (AEC) modes of most full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems are set up to hold pixel value (PV) constant as breast thickness changes. This paper proposes an alternative AEC mode, set up to maintain some minimum detectability level, with the ultimate goal of improving object detectability at larger breast thicknesses. Methods: The default “OPDOSE” AEC mode of a Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration FFDM system was assessed using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) of thickness 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 mm to find the tube voltage and anode/filter combination programmed for each thickness; these beam quality settings were used for the modified AEC mode. Detectability index (d′), in terms of a non-prewhitened model observer with eye filter, was then calculated as a function of tube current-time product (mAs) for each thickness. A modified AEC could then be designed in which detectability never fell below some minimum setting for any thickness in the operating range. In this study, the value was chosen such that the system met the achievable threshold gold thickness (T{sub t}) in the European guidelines for the 0.1 mm diameter disc (i.e., T{sub t} ≤ 1.10 μm gold). The default and modified AEC modes were compared in terms of contrast-detail performance (T{sub t}), calculated detectability (d′), signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR), and mean glandular dose (MGD). The influence of a structured background on object detectability for both AEC modes was examined using a CIRS BR3D phantom. Computer-based CDMAM reading was used for the homogeneous case, while the images with the BR3D background were scored by human observers. Results: The default OPDOSE AEC mode maintained PV constant as PMMA thickness increased, leading to a reduction in SDNR for the homogeneous background 39% and d′ 37% in going from 20 to 70 mm; introduction of the structured BR3D plate changed these figures to 22% (SDNR) and 6% (d′), respectively

  3. X-ray detector for automatic exposure control using ionization chamber filled with xenon gas

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, A; Yoshida, T


    This report refers to our newly developed X-ray detector for reliable automatic X-ray exposure control, which is to be widely used for X-ray diagnoses in various clinical fields. This new detector utilizes an ionization chamber filled with xenon gas, in contrast to conventional X-ray detectors which use ionization chambers filled with air. Use of xenon gas ensures higher sensitivity and thinner design of the detector. The xenon gas is completely sealed in the chamber, so that the influence of the changes in ambient environments is minimized. (author)


    Bouwman, R W; Binst, J; Dance, D R; Young, K C; Broeders, M J M; den Heeten, G J; Veldkamp, W J H; Bosmans, H; van Engen, R E


    Current digital mammography (DM) X-ray systems are equipped with advanced automatic exposure control (AEC) systems, which determine the exposure factors depending on breast composition. In the supplement of the European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis, a phantom-based test is included to evaluate the AEC response to local dense areas in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This study evaluates the proposed test in terms of SNR and dose for four DM systems. The glandular fraction represented by the local dense area was assessed by analytic calculations. It was found that the proposed test simulates adipose to fully glandular breast compositions in attenuation. The doses associated with the phantoms were found to match well with the patient dose distribution. In conclusion, after some small adaptations, the test is valuable for the assessment of the AEC performance in terms of both SNR and dose.

  5. TU-CD-207-11: Patient-Driven Automatic Exposure Control for Dedicated Breast CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, A; Gazi, P [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Department of Radiology, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Seibert, J; Boone, J [Department of Radiology, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States)


    Purpose: To implement automatic exposure control (AEC) in dedicated breast CT (bCT) on a patient-specific basis using only the pre-scan scout views. Methods: Using a large cohort (N=153) of bCT data sets, the breast effective diameter (D) and width in orthogonal planes (Wa,Wb) were calculated from the reconstructed bCT image and pre-scan scout views, respectively. D, Wa, and Wb were measured at the breast center-of-mass (COM), making use of the known geometry of our bCT system. These data were then fit to a second-order polynomial “D=F(Wa,Wb)” in a least squares sense in order to provide a functional form for determining the breast diameter. The coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) and mean percent error between the measured breast diameter and fit breast diameter were used to evaluate the overall robustness of the polynomial fit. Lastly, previously-reported bCT technique factors derived from Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the tube current required for each breast diameter in order to match two-view mammographic dose levels. Results: F(Wa,Wb) provided fitted breast diameters in agreement with the measured breast diameters resulting in R{sup 2} values ranging from 0.908 to 0.929 and mean percent errors ranging from 3.2% to 3.7%. For all 153 bCT data sets used in this study, the fitted breast diameters ranged from 7.9 cm to 15.7 cm corresponding to tube current values ranging from 0.6 mA to 4.9 mA in order to deliver the same dose as two-view mammography in a 50% glandular breast with a 80 kV x-ray beam and 16.6 second scan time. Conclusion: The present work provides a robust framework for AEC in dedicated bCT using only the width measurements derived from the two orthogonal pre-scan scout views. Future work will investigate how these automatically chosen exposure levels affect the quality of the reconstructed image.

  6. Doses under automatic exposure control (AEC) for direct digital radiographic (DDR) X-ray systems. (United States)

    Bowden, Louise; Faulkner, Ronan; Clancy, Conor; Gallagher, Aoife; Devine, Mark; Gorman, Dermot; O'Reilly, Geraldine; Dowling, Anita


    Current guidelines quote tolerances for automatic exposure control (AEC) device performance for X-ray systems as 'Baseline ± X %'. However, in the situation where a baseline figure has not yet been achieved, as in the case of commissioning assessments, this tolerance is not relevant. The purpose of this work is to provide mean doses for direct digital radiography (DDR) X-ray system, operating in AEC, against which comparisons can be made. Dose measurements have been recorded under AEC operation on 29 DDR detectors from three different manufacturers. Two different testing protocols were examined: (1) water equivalent phantoms in front of the DDR detector and (2) aluminium block at the tube head. The average patient exit dose, using the aluminium block was 4.6 μGy with the antiscatter grid in place and 4.0 μGy with the grid removed. Using the water phantoms, the average dose was measured at 17.1 μGy with the antiscatter grid in place and 5.4 μGy with grid removed. Based on these results, it is clear that different testing configurations significantly impact on the measured dose.

  7. A routine quality assurance test for CT automatic exposure control systems. (United States)

    Iball, Gareth R; Moore, Alexis C; Crawford, Elizabeth J


    The study purpose was to develop and validate a quality assurance test for CT automatic exposure control (AEC) systems based on a set of nested polymethylmethacrylate CTDI phantoms. The test phantom was created by offsetting the 16 cm head phantom within the 32 cm body annulus, thus creating a three part phantom. This was scanned at all acceptance, routine, and some nonroutine quality assurance visits over a period of 45 months, resulting in 115 separate AEC tests on scanners from four manufacturers. For each scan the longitudinal mA modulation pattern was generated and measurements of image noise were made in two annular regions of interest. The scanner displayed CTDIvol and DLP were also recorded. The impact of a range of AEC configurations on dose and image quality were assessed at acceptance testing. For systems that were tested more than once, the percentage of CTDIvol values exceeding 5%, 10%, and 15% deviation from baseline was 23.4%, 12.6%, and 8.1% respectively. Similarly, for the image noise data, deviations greater than 2%, 5%, and 10% from baseline were 26.5%, 5.9%, and 2%, respectively. The majority of CTDIvol and noise deviations greater than 15% and 5%, respectively, could be explained by incorrect phantom setup or protocol selection. Barring these results, CTDIvol deviations of greater than 15% from baseline were found in 0.9% of tests and noise deviations greater than 5% from baseline were found in 1% of tests. The phantom was shown to be sensitive to changes in AEC setup, including the use of 3D, longitudinal or rotational tube current modulation. This test methodology allows for continuing performance assessment of CT AEC systems, and we recommend that this test should become part of routine CT quality assurance programs. Tolerances of ± 15% for CTDIvol and ± 5% for image noise relative to baseline values should be used.

  8. An investigation of automatic exposure control calibration for chest imaging with a computed radiography system. (United States)

    Moore, C S; Wood, T J; Avery, G; Balcam, S; Needler, L; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R


    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of three physical image quality metrics in the calibration of an automatic exposure control (AEC) device for chest radiography with a computed radiography (CR) imaging system. The metrics assessed were signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean effective noise equivalent quanta (eNEQm), all measured using a uniform chest phantom. Subsequent calibration curves were derived to ensure each metric was held constant across the tube voltage range. Each curve was assessed for its clinical appropriateness by generating computer simulated chest images with correct detector air kermas for each tube voltage, and grading these against reference images which were reconstructed at detector air kermas correct for the constant detector dose indicator (DDI) curve currently programmed into the AEC device. All simulated chest images contained clinically realistic projected anatomy and anatomical noise and were scored by experienced image evaluators. Constant DDI and CNR curves do not appear to provide optimized performance across the diagnostic energy range. Conversely, constant eNEQm and SNR do appear to provide optimized performance, with the latter being the preferred calibration metric given as it is easier to measure in practice. Medical physicists may use the SNR image quality metric described here when setting up and optimizing AEC devices for chest radiography CR systems with a degree of confidence that resulting clinical image quality will be adequate for the required clinical task. However, this must be done with close cooperation of expert image evaluators, to ensure appropriate levels of detector air kerma.

  9. An examination of automatic exposure control regimes for two digital radiography systems. (United States)

    Marshall, N W


    The influence of two methods of an automatic exposure control (AEC) setup using a simple measure of detectability is examined as a function of x-ray beam quality for a computed radiography (CR) system and for an indirect conversion digital radiography (DR) system. The regimes assessed were constant air kerma at the detector and the constant contrast noise ratio (CNR). A low scatter geometry was employed with x-ray spectra varying from 60 kV and 1 mm Cu to 125 kV and 2 mm Cu. The CNR was measured using a 2 mm thick Al square of dimension 1 cm by 1 cm. Detectability was quantified via a nominal contrast for a fixed beam quality of 70 kV and 1 mm added Cu filtration, taken from c-d curves measured using the Leeds TO20 test object, for the four x-ray spectra. In addition, objective image quality parameters including modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were also measured for both systems at the four different x-ray spectra. It was found that the constant air kerma strategy did not maintain threshold nominal contrast (simple detectability) constant as the x-ray beam mean energy increased, for either the CR system or the DR system. For the CR detector, the threshold nominal contrast for a 1 mm disc increased by a factor of 4.4 from 3.50% to 15.4% as the tube potential was raised from 60 kV to 125 kV, while for the DR detector, the threshold nominal contrast increased by a factor of 3.4, from 2.27% to 7.67% as the tube potential increased from 60 kV to 120 kV. The constant CNR method was more successful at maintaining constant detectability for the c-d discs. The threshold nominal contrast for the 1 mm disc changed by a factor of 1.2, from 4.80% to 5.70% for the CR system, as the spectrum changed from 60 kV to 125 kV. For the indirect conversion detector, the threshold nominal contrast increased from 2.27% to 5.66% (a factor of 1.4 increase). The constant CNR strategy required an increase in air kerma by


    Söderberg, Marcus


    Today, computed tomography (CT) systems routinely use automatic exposure control (AEC), which modulates the tube current. However, for optimal use, there are several aspects of an AEC system that need to be considered. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the Siemens CARE Dose 4D AEC system, discuss practical tips and demonstrate potential pitfalls. Two adult anthropomorphic phantoms were examined using two different Siemens CT systems. When optimising the CT radiation dose and image quality, the projection angle of the localiser, patient centring, protocol selection, scanning direction and the use of protective devices requires special attention.

  11. Evaluation of the use of automatic exposure control and automatic tube potential selection in low-dose cerebrospinal fluid shunt head CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Adam N.; Bagade, Swapnil; Chatterjee, Arindam; Hicks, Brandon; McKinstry, Robert C. [Barnes Jewish Hospital, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vyhmeister, Ross [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos [Siemens Healthcare, Malvern, PA (United States)


    Cerebrospinal fluid shunts are primarily used for the treatment of hydrocephalus. Shunt complications may necessitate multiple non-contrast head CT scans resulting in potentially high levels of radiation dose starting at an early age. A new head CT protocol using automatic exposure control and automated tube potential selection has been implemented at our institution to reduce radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reduction in radiation dose achieved by this protocol compared with a protocol with fixed parameters. A retrospective sample of 60 non-contrast head CT scans assessing for cerebrospinal fluid shunt malfunction was identified, 30 of which were performed with each protocol. The radiation doses of the two protocols were compared using the volume CT dose index and dose length product. The diagnostic acceptability and quality of each scan were evaluated by three independent readers. The new protocol lowered the average volume CT dose index from 15.2 to 9.2 mGy representing a 39 % reduction (P < 0.01; 95 % CI 35-44 %) and lowered the dose length product from 259.5 to 151.2 mGy/cm representing a 42 % reduction (P < 0.01; 95 % CI 34-50 %). The new protocol produced diagnostically acceptable scans with comparable image quality to the fixed parameter protocol. A pediatric shunt non-contrast head CT protocol using automatic exposure control and automated tube potential selection reduced patient radiation dose compared with a fixed parameter protocol while producing diagnostic images of comparable quality. (orig.)

  12. Digital automatic gain control (United States)

    Uzdy, Z.


    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  13. Over-exposure correction in knee cone-beam CT imaging with automatic exposure control using a partial low dose scan (United States)

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Muller, Kerstin; Hsieh, Scott; Maier, Andreas; Gold, Garry; Levenston, Marc; Fahrig, Rebecca


    C-arm-based cone-beam CT (CBCT) systems with flat-panel detectors are suitable for diagnostic knee imaging due to their potentially flexible selection of CT trajectories and wide volumetric beam coverage. In knee CT imaging, over-exposure artifacts can occur because of limitations in the dynamic range of the flat panel detectors present on most CBCT systems. We developed a straightforward but effective method for correction and detection of over-exposure for an Automatic Exposure Control (AEC)-enabled standard knee scan incorporating a prior low dose scan. The radiation dose associated with the low dose scan was negligible (0.0042mSv, 2.8% increase) which was enabled by partially sampling the projection images considering the geometry of the knees and lowering the dose further to be able to just see the skin-air interface. We combined the line integrals from the AEC and low dose scans after detecting over-exposed regions by comparing the line profiles of the two scans detector row-wise. The combined line integrals were reconstructed into a volumetric image using filtered back projection. We evaluated our method using in vivo human subject knee data. The proposed method effectively corrected and detected over-exposure, and thus recovered the visibility of exterior tissues (e.g., the shape and density of the patella, and the patellar tendon), incorporating a prior low dose scan with a negligible increase in radiation exposure.

  14. Results of verifications of the control automatic exposure in equipment of RX with CR systems; Resultados de las verificaciones del control automatico de exposicion en equipos de RX con sistemas CR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Manzano, P.; Rivas Ballarin, M. A.; Ortega Pardina, P.; Villa Gazulla, D.; Calvo Carrillo, S.; Canellas Anoz, M.; Millan Cebrian, E.


    After the entry into force in 2012, the new Spanish Radiology quality control protocol lists and discusses the results obtained after verification of the automatic control of exposure in computed radiography systems. (Author)

  15. Study of the effect of the variation of automatic exposure control in computed tomography; Estudio del efecto de la variacion del control automatico de exposicion en tomografia computarizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nersissian, D. Y.; Capeleti, F. F.; Furquin, T. A. C.; Melo, C. S.


    Teams computed tomography (CT) contain the current automatic control of exposure (CAE) which vary from the current X-ray tube in clinical protocols and deliver lower doses than those with fixed current. Alone is not enough control of dose, you need an acceptable image quality ensuring an accurate diagnosis. The TC regulate the flow of two ways: by considering the thickness of the patient and the attenuation by different tissues that intercept the x-ray Besides the advantage, there is the responsibility of proper use of different CAE systems, which require particular knowledge of each manufacturer of the CT.

  16. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike


    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...... camera. We approach this problem by modelling it as a dynamic multi-objective optimisation problem and show how this metaphor allows a much richer expressiveness than a classical single objective approach. Finally, we showcase the application of a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to generate a shot...

  17. Automatic exposure control calibration and optimisation for abdomen, pelvis and lumbar spine imaging with an Agfa computed radiography system (United States)

    Moore, C. S.; Wood, T. J.; Avery, G.; Balcam, S.; Needler, L.; Joshi, H.; Saunderson, J. R.; Beavis, A. W.


    The use of three physical image quality metrics, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean effective noise equivalent quanta (eNEQm) have recently been examined by our group for their appropriateness in the calibration of an automatic exposure control (AEC) device for chest radiography with an Agfa computed radiography (CR) imaging system. This study uses the same methodology but investigates AEC calibration for abdomen, pelvis and spine CR imaging. AEC calibration curves were derived using a simple uniform phantom (equivalent to 20 cm water) to ensure each metric was held constant across the tube voltage range. Each curve was assessed for its clinical appropriateness by generating computer simulated abdomen, pelvis and spine images (created from real patient CT datasets) with appropriate detector air kermas for each tube voltage, and grading these against reference images which were reconstructed at detector air kermas correct for the constant detector dose indicator (DDI) curve currently programmed into the AEC device. All simulated images contained clinically realistic projected anatomy and were scored by experienced image evaluators. Constant DDI and CNR curves did not provide optimized performance but constant eNEQm and SNR did, with the latter being the preferred calibration metric given that it is easier to measure in practice. This result was consistent with the previous investigation for chest imaging with AEC devices. Medical physicists may therefore use a simple and easily accessible uniform water equivalent phantom to measure the SNR image quality metric described here when calibrating AEC devices for abdomen, pelvis and spine imaging with Agfa CR systems, in the confidence that clinical image quality will be sufficient for the required clinical task. However, to ensure appropriate levels of detector air kerma the advice of expert image evaluators must be sought.

  18. Automaticity or active control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tudoran, Ana Alina; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    aspects of the construct, such as routine, inertia, automaticity, or very little conscious deliberation. The data consist of 2962 consumers participating in a large European survey. The results show that habit strength significantly moderates the association between satisfaction and action loyalty, and......This study addresses the quasi-moderating role of habit strength in explaining action loyalty. A model of loyalty behaviour is proposed that extends the traditional satisfaction–intention–action loyalty network. Habit strength is conceptualised as a cognitive construct to refer to the psychological......, respectively, between intended loyalty and action loyalty. At high levels of habit strength, consumers are more likely to free up cognitive resources and incline the balance from controlled to routine and automatic-like responses....

  19. Comparison of automatic control systems (United States)

    Oppelt, W


    This report deals with a reciprocal comparison of an automatic pressure control, an automatic rpm control, an automatic temperature control, and an automatic directional control. It shows the difference between the "faultproof" regulator and the actual regulator which is subject to faults, and develops this difference as far as possible in a parallel manner with regard to the control systems under consideration. Such as analysis affords, particularly in its extension to the faults of the actual regulator, a deep insight into the mechanism of the regulator process.

  20. Comparison of entry kerma in the skin with the variation of automatic exposure control in mammography;Comparacao do kerma de entrada na pele com a variacao do controle automatico de exposicao em exames mamograficos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macao Junior, J.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Mecca, F.A. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, B.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The purpose of this work was to analyze the entry kerma values in the skin in comparison with the automatic exposure control tests. To achieve that, 44 mammographies were evaluatecl in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The reference values adopted were taken from the current Brazilian legislation, 'Portaria no. 453/98 do Ministerio da Saude', where the reference entry kerma value in the skin corresponds to 10 mGy and the maximum variation accepted to the automatic exposure control test corresponds to 30 optic unities. It was observed that 46.7% of the analyzecl mammographies presented entry kerma values in the skin above the reference level established, whereas the automatic exposition control for these same mammographies was within the acceptability parameters. (author)

  1. The in vivo relationship between cross-sectional area and CT dose index in abdominal multidetector CT with automatic exposure control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeson, S; Alvey, C M; Golding, S J, E-mail: [Radiology Group, Nuffield Department of Surgery, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DU (United Kingdom)


    The relationship between patient cross-sectional area and both volume CT dose index (CTDI) and dose length product was explored for abdominal CT in vivo, using a 16 multidetector row CT (MDCT) scanner with automatic exposure control. During a year-long retrospective survey of patients with MDCT for symptoms of abdominal sepsis, cross-sectional areas were estimated using customised ellipses at the level of the middle of vertebra L3. The relationship between cross-sectional area and the exposure parameters was explored. Scans were performed using a LightSpeed 16 (GE Healthcare Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) operated with tube current modulation. From a survey of 94 patients it was found that the CTDI increased with the increase in patient cross-sectional area. The relationship was logarithmic rather than linear, with a least-squares fit to the data (R{sup 2} = 0.80). For abdominal CT the cross-sectional area gave a measure of patient size based on the region of the body to be exposed. Exposure parameters increased with increasing cross-sectional area and the greater radiation exposure of larger patients was partly a consequence of their size. Given increasing obesity levels we believe that cross-sectional area and scan length should be added to future dose surveys, allowing patient size to be considered as a factor of relevance when examining population doses.

  2. Commutated automatic gain control system (United States)

    Yost, S. R.


    The commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for the prototype Loran-C receiver is discussed. The current version of the prototype receiver, the Mini L-80, was tested initially in 1980. The receiver uses a super jolt microcomputer to control a memory aided phase loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The AGC control adjusts the level of each station signal, such that the early portion of each envelope rise is about at the same amplitude in the receiver envelope detector.

  3. Automatic Control System for Neutron Laboratory Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Xiao; ZHANG; Guo-guang; FENG; Shu-qiang; SU; Dan; YANG; Guo-zhao; ZHANG; Shuai


    In order to cooperate with the experiment of neutron generator,and realize the automatic control in the experiment,a set of automatic control system for the safety of the neutron laboratory is designed.The system block diagram is shown as Fig.1.Automatic control device is for processing switch signal,so PLC is selected as the core component

  4. Automatic Control of Water Pumping Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhannad Alrheeh; JIANG Zhengfeng


    Automatic Control of pumps is an interesting proposal to operate water pumping stations among many kinds of water pumping stations according to their functions.In this paper, our pumping station is being used for water supply system. This paper is to introduce the idea of pump controller and the important factors that must be considering when we want to design automatic control system of water pumping stations. Then the automatic control circuit with the function of all components will be introduced.

  5. Exposure to Violent Video Games Increases Automatic Aggressiveness (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric; Swanson, Jane


    The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves with aggressive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposure to violent video games…

  6. 12th Portuguese Conference on Automatic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Filomena; Moreira, António


    The biennial CONTROLO conferences are the main events promoted by The CONTROLO 2016 – 12th Portuguese Conference on Automatic Control, Guimarães, Portugal, September 14th to 16th, was organized by Algoritmi, School of Engineering, University of Minho, in partnership with INESC TEC, and promoted by the Portuguese Association for Automatic Control – APCA, national member organization of the International Federation of Automatic Control – IFAC. The seventy-five papers published in this volume cover a wide range of topics. Thirty-one of them, of a more theoretical nature, are distributed among the first five parts: Control Theory; Optimal and Predictive Control; Fuzzy, Neural and Genetic Control; Modeling and Identification; Sensing and Estimation. The papers go from cutting-edge theoretical research to innovative control applications and show expressively how Automatic Control can be used to increase the well being of people. .

  7. Automatic exposure control in CT: the effect of patient size, anatomical region and prescribed modulation strength on tube current and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadakis, Antonios E. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Medical Physics, Stavrakia, P.O. Box 1352, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Perisinakis, Kostas; Damilakis, John [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Physics, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)


    To study the effect of patient size, body region and modulation strength on tube current and image quality on CT examinations that use automatic tube current modulation (ATCM). Ten physical anthropomorphic phantoms that simulate an individual as neonate, 1-, 5-, 10-year-old and adult at various body habitus were employed. CT acquisition of head, neck, thorax and abdomen/pelvis was performed with ATCM activated at weak, average and strong modulation strength. The mean modulated mAs (mAs{sub mod}) values were recorded. Image noise was measured at selected anatomical sites. The mAs{sub mod} recorded for neonate compared to 10-year-old increased by 30 %, 14 %, 6 % and 53 % for head, neck, thorax and abdomen/pelvis, respectively, (P < 0.05). The mAs{sub mod} was lower than the preselected mAs with the exception of the 10-year-old phantom. In paediatric and adult phantoms, the mAs{sub mod} ranged from 44 and 53 for weak to 117 and 93 for strong modulation strength, respectively. At the same exposure parameters image noise increased with body size (P < 0.05). The ATCM system studied here may affect dose differently for different patient habitus. Dose may decrease for overweight adults but increase for children older than 5 years old. Care should be taken when implementing ATCM protocols to ensure that image quality is maintained. circle ATCM efficiency is related to the size of the patient's body. (orig.)

  8. Automatic Control of Freeboard and Turbine Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter Bak; Friis-Madsen, Erik;

    The report deals with the modules for automatic control of freeboard and turbine operation on board the Wave dragon, Nissum Bredning (WD-NB) prototype, and covers what has been going on up to ultimo 2003.......The report deals with the modules for automatic control of freeboard and turbine operation on board the Wave dragon, Nissum Bredning (WD-NB) prototype, and covers what has been going on up to ultimo 2003....

  9. Development of automatic system for reducing of occupational exposure dose in Ir-192 radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, G. T.; Song, J. H.; Shin, J. S.; Kim, D. E. [Korea Industrial Testing Company, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Using Ir-192 gamma source for radiography, it is difficult to reduce occupational exposure and to do quantitative quality control because radiographic test is almost hand-operated and is not improved for a long time in domestic. In this study, a controller with BLDC motor of 24V, 200W which has output of 54 kgf{center_dot}cm and one-chip microprocessor which can control of speed, position and exposure time of Ir-192 gamma source, a remote controller with RF module and a automatic radiation alarm monitor device have been developed. The developed system is predicted that the unit can be in many practical applications with benefits in economical advantage. Also, occupational exposure will be reduced because of remote controller of developed automatic system for Ir-192 radiographic test.

  10. Automatic speed control of highway traffic (United States)

    Klingman, E. E.


    Vehicle control system monitors all vehicles in its range, and automatically slows down speeding vehicles by activating governor in vehicle. System determines only maximum speed; speeds below maximum are controlled by vehicle operator. Loss of transmitted signal or activation of emergency over-ride will open fuel line and return control to operator.

  11. Automatic weld torch guidance control system (United States)

    Smaith, H. E.; Wall, W. A.; Burns, M. R., Jr.


    A highly reliable, fully digital, closed circuit television optical, type automatic weld seam tracking control system was developed. This automatic tracking equipment is used to reduce weld tooling costs and increase overall automatic welding reliability. The system utilizes a charge injection device digital camera which as 60,512 inidividual pixels as the light sensing elements. Through conventional scanning means, each pixel in the focal plane is sequentially scanned, the light level signal digitized, and an 8-bit word transmitted to scratch pad memory. From memory, the microprocessor performs an analysis of the digital signal and computes the tracking error. Lastly, the corrective signal is transmitted to a cross seam actuator digital drive motor controller to complete the closed loop, feedback, tracking system. This weld seam tracking control system is capable of a tracking accuracy of + or - 0.2 mm, or better. As configured, the system is applicable to square butt, V-groove, and lap joint weldments.

  12. Towards Automatic Decentralized Control Structure Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Jørgensen, Sten Bay


    A subtask in integration of design and control of chemical processes is the selection of a control structure. Automating the selection of the control structure enables sequential integration of process and control design. As soon as the process is specified or computed, a structure...... for decentralized control is determined automatically, and the resulting decentralized control structure is automatically tuned using standard techniques. Dynamic simulation of the resulting process system gives immediate feedback to the process design engineer regarding practical operability of the process....... The control structure selection problem is formulated as a special MILP employing cost coefficients which are computed using Parseval's theorem combined with RGA and IMC concepts. This approach enables selection and tuning of large-scale plant-wide decentralized controllers through efficient combination...

  13. Automatic Control of Personal Rapid Transit Vehicles (United States)

    Smith, P. D.


    The requirements for automatic longitudinal control of a string of closely packed personal vehicles are outlined. Optimal control theory is used to design feedback controllers for strings of vehicles. An important modification of the usual optimal control scheme is the inclusion of jerk in the cost functional. While the inclusion of the jerk term was considered, the effect of its inclusion was not sufficiently studied. Adding the jerk term will increase passenger comfort.

  14. Towards Automatic Decentralized Control Structure Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for decentralized control is determined automatically, and the resulting decentralized control structure is automatically tuned using standard techniques. Dynamic simulation of the resulting process system gives immediate feedback to the process design engineer regarding practical operability of the process......A subtask in integration of design and control of chemical processes is the selection of a control structure. Automating the selection of the control structure enables sequential integration of process and controld esign. As soon as the process is specified or computed, a structure....... The control structure selection problem is formulated as a special MILP employing cost coefficients which are computed using Parseval's theorem combined with RGA and IMC concepts. This approach enables selection and tuning of large-scale plant-wide decentralized controllers through efficient combination...

  15. Automatic contour welder incorporates speed control system (United States)

    Wall, W. A., Jr.


    Speed control system maintains the welding torch of an automatic welder at a substantially constant speed. The system is particularly useful when welding contoured or unusually shaped surfaces, which cause the distance from the work surface to the weld carriage to vary in a random manner.

  16. Automatic solar lamp intensity control system (United States)

    Leverone, H.; Mandell, N.


    System that substitutes solar cells directly in the path of the radiation incident on the test volume and uses a dc bridge-null system was developed. The solar cell is affixed to a heat sink mounted on each of three arms for each solar lamp. Control of the radiation from the solar lamps is automatic.

  17. Automatic-Control System for Safer Brazing (United States)

    Stein, J. A.; Vanasse, M. A.


    Automatic-control system for radio-frequency (RF) induction brazing of metal tubing reduces probability of operator errors, increases safety, and ensures high-quality brazed joints. Unit combines functions of gas control and electric-power control. Minimizes unnecessary flow of argon gas into work area and prevents electrical shocks from RF terminals. Controller will not allow power to flow from RF generator to brazing head unless work has been firmly attached to head and has actuated micro-switch. Potential shock hazard eliminated. Flow of argon for purging and cooling must be turned on and adjusted before brazing power applied. Provision ensures power not applied prematurely, causing damaged work or poor-quality joints. Controller automatically turns off argon flow at conclusion of brazing so potentially suffocating gas does not accumulate in confined areas.

  18. Automatic Level Control for Video Cameras towards HDR Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de With PeterHN


    Full Text Available We give a comprehensive overview of the complete exposure processing chain for video cameras. For each step of the automatic exposure algorithm we discuss some classical solutions and propose their improvements or give new alternatives. We start by explaining exposure metering methods, describing types of signals that are used as the scene content descriptors as well as means to utilize these descriptors. We also discuss different exposure control types used for the control of lens, integration time of the sensor, and gain control, such as a PID control, precalculated control based on the camera response function, and propose a new recursive control type that matches the underlying image formation model. Then, a description of commonly used serial control strategy for lens, sensor exposure time, and gain is presented, followed by a proposal of a new parallel control solution that integrates well with tone mapping and enhancement part of the image pipeline. Parallel control strategy enables faster and smoother control and facilitates optimally filling the dynamic range of the sensor to improve the SNR and an image contrast, while avoiding signal clipping. This is archived by the proposed special control modes used for better display and correct exposure of both low-dynamic range and high-dynamic range images. To overcome the inherited problems of limited dynamic range of capturing devices we discuss a paradigm of multiple exposure techniques. Using these techniques we can enable a correct rendering of difficult class of high-dynamic range input scenes. However, multiple exposure techniques bring several challenges, especially in the presence of motion and artificial light sources such as fluorescent lights. In particular, false colors and light-flickering problems are described. After briefly discussing some known possible solutions for the motion problem, we focus on solving the fluorescence-light problem. Thereby, we propose an algorithm for

  19. Automatic oscillator frequency control system (United States)

    Smith, S. F. (Inventor)


    A frequency control system makes an initial correction of the frequency of its own timing circuit after comparison against a frequency of known accuracy and then sequentially checks and corrects the frequencies of several voltage controlled local oscillator circuits. The timing circuit initiates the machine cycles of a central processing unit which applies a frequency index to an input register in a modulo-sum frequency divider stage and enables a multiplexer to clock an accumulator register in the divider stage with a cyclical signal derived from the oscillator circuit being checked. Upon expiration of the interval, the processing unit compares the remainder held as the contents of the accumulator against a stored zero error constant and applies an appropriate correction word to a correction stage to shift the frequency of the oscillator being checked. A signal from the accumulator register may be used to drive a phase plane ROM and, with periodic shifts in the applied frequency index, to provide frequency shift keying of the resultant output signal. Interposition of a phase adder between the accumulator register and phase plane ROM permits phase shift keying of the output signal by periodic variation in the value of a phase index applied to one input of the phase adder.

  20. Lesion strength control by automatic temperature guided retinal photocoagulation (United States)

    Schlott, Kerstin; Koinzer, Stefan; Baade, Alexander; Birngruber, Reginald; Roider, Johann; Brinkmann, Ralf


    Laser photocoagulation is an established treatment for a variety of retinal diseases. However, when using the same irradiation parameter, the size and strength of the lesions are unpredictable due to unknown inter- and intraindividual optical properties of the fundus layers. The aim of this work is to investigate a feedback system to generate desired lesions of preselectable strengths by automatically controlling the irradiation time. Optoacoustics were used for retinal temperature monitoring. A 532-nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser was used for photocoagulation. A 75-ns/523-nm Q-switched Nd:YLF laser simultaneously excited temperature-dependent pressure transients, which were detected at the cornea by an ultrasonic transducer embedded in a contact lens. The temperature data were analyzed during the irradiation by a LabVIEW routine. The treatment laser was switched off automatically when the required lesion strength was achieved. Five different feedback control algorithms for different lesion sizes were developed and tested on rabbits in vivo. With a laser spot diameter of 133 μm, five different lesion types with ophthalmoscopically visible diameters ranging mostly between 100 and 200 μm, and different appearances were achieved by automatic exposure time control. The automatically controlled lesions were widely independent of the treatment laser power and the retinal pigmentation.

  1. 11th Portuguese Conference on Automatic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Matos, Aníbal; Veiga, Germano


    During the last 20 years the Portuguese association of automatic control, Associação Portuguesa de Controlo Automático, with the sponsorship of IFAC have established the CONTROLO conference as a reference international forum where an effective exchange of knowledge and experience amongst researchers active in various theoretical and applied areas of systems and control can take place, always including considerable space for promoting new technical applications and developments, real-world challenges and success stories. In this 11th edition the CONTROLO conference evolved by introducing two strategic partnerships with Spanish and Brazilian associations in automatic control, Comité Español de Automática and Sociedade Brasileira de Automatica, respectively.

  2. Automatic control algorithm effects on energy production (United States)

    Mcnerney, G. M.


    A computer model was developed using actual wind time series and turbine performance data to simulate the power produced by the Sandia 17-m VAWT operating in automatic control. The model was used to investigate the influence of starting algorithms on annual energy production. The results indicate that, depending on turbine and local wind characteristics, a bad choice of a control algorithm can significantly reduce overall energy production. The model can be used to select control algorithms and threshold parameters that maximize long term energy production. The results from local site and turbine characteristics were generalized to obtain general guidelines for control algorithm design.

  3. Automatic Configuration of Programmable Logic Controller Emulators (United States)


    algorithms and constructs used in reversing protocols. Reverse engineering protocols is similar to trying to learn a new language. First, a vocabulary ...AUTOMATIC CONFIGURATION OF PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER EMULATORS THESIS Phillip C. Warner, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-024 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR... THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of

  4. Automatic Synthesis of Robust and Optimal Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassez, Franck; Jessen, Jan Jacob; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;


    In this paper, we show how to apply recent tools for the automatic synthesis of robust and near-optimal controllers for a real industrial case study. We show how to use three different classes of models and their supporting existing tools, Uppaal-TiGA for synthesis, phaver for verification......, and Simulink for simulation, in a complementary way. We believe that this case study shows that our tools have reached a level of maturity that allows us to tackle interesting and relevant industrial control problems....

  5. Automatic Flatness Control of Cold Rolling Mill (United States)

    Anbe, Yoshiharu; Sekiguchi, Kunio

    One of the subjects of cold rolling is a flatness of the rolled strip. Conventionally, measured strip flatness was approximated by polynomial (2th, 4th, 6th) equation across the entire strip width. This made it difficult to deal with desired loose edge or any desired flatness across the entire strip width. Also conventional flatness control was done for the entire strip width, so if there is a different flatness error among drive side and work side, conventional flatness control can not control properly. We propose independent strip flatness control among drive side and work side, and also automatic flatness control (AFC) system with arbitrary desired strip flatness. Also some applied results to cold mill are shown.

  6. Pilot control through the TAFCOS automatic flight control system (United States)

    Wehrend, W. R., Jr.


    The set of flight control logic used in a recently completed flight test program to evaluate the total automatic flight control system (TAFCOS) with the controller operating in a fully automatic mode, was used to perform an unmanned simulation on an IBM 360 computer in which the TAFCOS concept was extended to provide a multilevel pilot interface. A pilot TAFCOS interface for direct pilot control by use of a velocity-control-wheel-steering mode was defined as well as a means for calling up conventional autopilot modes. It is concluded that the TAFCOS structure is easily adaptable to the addition of a pilot control through a stick-wheel-throttle control similar to conventional airplane controls. Conventional autopilot modes, such as airspeed-hold, altitude-hold, heading-hold, and flight path angle-hold, can also be included.

  7. Automatic Control of ITER-like Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosia, G.; Bremond, S


    In ITER Ion Cyclotron System requires a power transfer efficiency in excess of 90% from power source to plasma in quasi continuous operation. This implies the availability of a control system capable of optimizing the array radiation spectrum, automatically acquiring impedance match between the power source and the plasma loaded array at the beginning of the power pulse and maintaining it against load variations due to plasma position and plasma edge parameters fluctuations, rapidly detecting voltage breakdowns in the array and/or in the transmission system and reliably discriminating them from fast load variations. In this paper a proposal for a practical ITER control system, including power, phase, frequency and impedance matching is described. (authors)

  8. 2nd International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control

    CERN Document Server


    This book examines mechatronics and automatic control systems. The book covers important emerging topics in signal processing, control theory, sensors, mechanic manufacturing systems and automation. The book presents papers from the second International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems held in Beijing, China on September 20-21, 2014. Examines how to improve productivity through the latest advanced technologies Covering new systems and techniques in the broad field of mechatronics and automatic control systems.

  9. Automatic charge control system for satellites (United States)

    Shuman, B. M.; Cohen, H. A.


    The SCATHA and the ATS-5 and 6 spacecraft provided insights to the problem of spacecraft charging at geosychronous altitudes. Reduction of the levels of both absolute and differential charging was indicated, by the emission of low energy neutral plasma. It is appropriate to complete the transition from experimental results to the development of a system that will sense the state-of-charge of a spacecraft, and, when a predetermined threshold is reached, will respond automatically to reduce it. A development program was initiated utilizing sensors comparable to the proton electrostatic analyzer, the surface potential monitor, and the transient pulse monitor that flew in SCATHA, and combine these outputs through a microprocessor controller to operate a rapid-start, low energy plasma source.

  10. An electronically controlled automatic security access gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. ENOKELA


    Full Text Available The security challenges being encountered in many places require electronic means of controlling access to communities, recreational centres, offices, and homes. The electronically controlled automated security access gate being proposed in this work helps to prevent an unwanted access to controlled environments. This is achieved mainly through the use of a Radio Frequency (RF transmitter-receiver pair. In the design a microcontroller is programmed to decode a given sequence of keys that is entered on a keypad and commands a transmitter module to send out this code as signal at a given radio frequency. Upon reception of this RF signal by the receiver module, another microcontroller activates a driver circuitry to operate the gate automatically. The codes for the microcontrollers were written in C language and were debugged and compiled using the KEIL Micro vision 4 integrated development environment. The resultant Hex files were programmed into the memories of the microcontrollers with the aid of a universal programmer. Software simulation was carried out using the Proteus Virtual System Modeling (VSM version 7.7. A scaled-down prototype of the system was built and tested. The electronically controlled automated security access gate can be useful in providing security for homes, organizations, and automobile terminals. The four-character password required to operate the gate gives the system an increased level of security. Due to its standalone nature of operation the system is cheaper to maintain in comparison with a manually operated type.

  11. 49 CFR 236.825 - System, automatic train control. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System, automatic train control. 236.825 Section..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.825 System, automatic train control. A system so arranged that its operation will...

  12. 2013 International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems

    CERN Document Server


    This book examines mechatronics and automatic control systems. The book covers important emerging topics in signal processing, control theory, sensors, mechanic manufacturing systems and automation. The book presents papers from the 2013 International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems held in Hangzhou, China on August 10-11, 2013. .

  13. New functional units for coke machine automatic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parfenov, G.I.; Bannikov, L.S.; Vakarenko, I.M.; Grishin, S.P.


    A new device used in the control systems of coking plants is discussed. The system is capable of operating in fully automatic, semi-automatic, or manual modes. Examples of the usage of the unit include the stopping of coke machines within limits of +/- 200 mm. It is concluded that the use of the units reduce manufacture, adjustment, and service costs.

  14. A method of automatic control procedures cardiopulmonary resuscitation (United States)

    Bureev, A. Sh.; Zhdanov, D. S.; Kiseleva, E. Yu.; Kutsov, M. S.; Trifonov, A. Yu.


    The study is to present the results of works on creation of methods of automatic control procedures of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A method of automatic control procedure of CPR by evaluating the acoustic data of the dynamics of blood flow in the bifurcation of carotid arteries and the dynamics of air flow in a trachea according to the current guidelines for CPR is presented. Evaluation of the patient is carried out by analyzing the respiratory noise and blood flow in the interspaces between the chest compressions and artificial pulmonary ventilation. The device operation algorithm of automatic control procedures of CPR and its block diagram has been developed.

  15. A formal structure for advanced automatic flight-control systems (United States)

    Meyer, G.; Cicolani, L. S.


    Techniques were developed for the unified design of multimode, variable authority automatic flight-control systems for powered-lift STOL and VTOL aircraft. A structure for such systems is developed to deal with the strong nonlinearities inherent in this class of aircraft, to admit automatic coupling with advanced air traffic control, and to admit a variety of active control tasks. The aircraft being considered is the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft.

  16. Automatically output-power-controlled WDM EDFA (United States)

    Choi, Bo-Hun; Lee, Sang Soo; Kim, Chang-Bong; Ko, Jesoo


    Our amplifier using an all optical method and a fixed GFF achieved automatic gain flatness through all C-band without any NF degradation, and simultaneously a constant 25 dB gain, while input signals were varied between one channel and forty WDM channels.

  17. Choosing Actuators for Automatic Control Systems of Thermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunov, A. I., E-mail: [JSC “Tornado Modular Systems” (Russian Federation); Serdyukov, O. V. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automation and Electrometry (Russian Federation)


    Two types of actuators for automatic control systems of thermal power plants are analyzed: (i) pulse-controlled actuator and (ii) analog-controlled actuator with positioning function. The actuators are compared in terms of control circuit, control accuracy, reliability, and cost.

  18. Automatic reference level control for an antenna pattern recording system (United States)

    Lipin, R., Jr.


    Automatic gain control system keeps recorder reference levels within 0.2 decibels during operation. System reduces recorder drift during antenna radiation distribution determinations over an eight hour period.

  19. Intelligent control schemes applied to Automatic Generation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingguo Chen


    Full Text Available Integrating ever increasing amount of renewable generating resources to interconnected power systems has created new challenges to the safety and reliability of today‟s power grids and posed new questions to be answered in the power system modeling, analysis and control. Automatic Generation Control (AGC must be extended to be able to accommodate the control of renewable generating assets. In addition, AGC is mandated to operate in accordance with the NERC‟s Control Performance Standard (CPS criteria, which represent a greater flexibility in relaxing the control of generating resources and yet assuring the stability and reliability of interconnected power systems when each balancing authority operates in full compliance. Enhancements in several aspects to the traditional AGC must be made in order to meet the aforementioned challenges. It is the intention of this paper to provide a systematic, mathematical formulation for AGC as a first attempt in the context of meeting the NERC CPS requirements and integrating renewable generating assets, which has not been seen reported in the literature to the best knowledge of the authors. Furthermore, this paper proposes neural network based predictive control schemes for AGC. The proposed controller is capable of handling complicated nonlinear dynamics in comparison with the conventional Proportional Integral (PI controller which is typically most effective to handle linear dynamics. The neural controller is designed in such a way that it has the capability of controlling the system generation in the relaxed manner so the ACE is controlled to a desired range instead of driving it to zero which would otherwise increase the control effort and cost; and most importantly the resulting system control performance meets the NERC CPS requirements and/or the NERC Balancing Authority’s ACE Limit (BAAL compliance requirements whichever are applicable.

  20. Automatic control study of the icing research tunnel refrigeration system (United States)

    Kieffer, Arthur W.; Soeder, Ronald H.


    The Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is a subsonic, closed-return atmospheric tunnel. The tunnel includes a heat exchanger and a refrigeration plant to achieve the desired air temperature and a spray system to generate the type of icing conditions that would be encountered by aircraft. At the present time, the tunnel air temperature is controlled by manual adjustment of freon refrigerant flow control valves. An upgrade of this facility calls for these control valves to be adjusted by an automatic controller. The digital computer simulation of the IRT refrigeration plant and the automatic controller that was used in the simulation are discussed.

  1. An automatic redesign approach for restructurable control systems (United States)

    Looze, D. P.; Weiss, J. L.; Eterno, J. S.; Barrett, N. M.


    This paper presents an approach to the automatic redesign of flight control systems for aircraft that have suffered one or more control element failures. The procedure is based on Linear Quadratic design techniques, and produces a control system that maximizes a measure of feedback system performance subject to a bandwidth constraint.

  2. Evolutionary game dynamics of controlled and automatic decision-making (United States)

    Toupo, Danielle F. P.; Strogatz, Steven H.; Cohen, Jonathan D.; Rand, David G.


    We integrate dual-process theories of human cognition with evolutionary game theory to study the evolution of automatic and controlled decision-making processes. We introduce a model in which agents who make decisions using either automatic or controlled processing compete with each other for survival. Agents using automatic processing act quickly and so are more likely to acquire resources, but agents using controlled processing are better planners and so make more effective use of the resources they have. Using the replicator equation, we characterize the conditions under which automatic or controlled agents dominate, when coexistence is possible and when bistability occurs. We then extend the replicator equation to consider feedback between the state of the population and the environment. Under conditions in which having a greater proportion of controlled agents either enriches the environment or enhances the competitive advantage of automatic agents, we find that limit cycles can occur, leading to persistent oscillations in the population dynamics. Critically, however, these limit cycles only emerge when feedback occurs on a sufficiently long time scale. Our results shed light on the connection between evolution and human cognition and suggest necessary conditions for the rise and fall of rationality.

  3. If he can do it, so can they: exposure to counterstereotypically successful exemplars prompts automatic inferences. (United States)

    Critcher, Clayton R; Risen, Jane L


    After incidental exposure to Blacks who succeeded in counterstereotypical domains (e.g., Brown University President Ruth Simmons, Nobel Laureate Toni Morrison), participants drew an automatic inference that race was not a success-inhibiting factor in modern society. Of note, participants' automatic inferences were not simply guided by their explicit reasoning (i.e., their beliefs about what these exemplars signify about the state of race relations). Studies 1-3 demonstrated the basic automatic inference effect and provided evidence that such effects unfolded automatically, without intention or awareness. Study 4 replicated the effect in non-race-related domains. Subsequent studies examined what features of exemplars (Studies 5 and 6) and inference makers (Studies 7 and 8) prompt automatic inferences. Study 5 suggested that counterstereotypically successful exemplars prompt racism-denying inferences because they signal what is possible, even if not typical. Study 6 demonstrated that when these exemplars succeed in a stereotypical domain (e.g., Blacks in athletics), similar automatic inferences are not drawn. Those most likely to draw automatic inferences are people predisposed to approach the world with inferential thinking: participants dispositionally high in need for cognition (Study 7) or experimentally primed to think inferentially (Study 8).

  4. Robust Fallback Scheme for the Danish Automatic Voltage Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Dmitrova, Evgenia; Lund, Torsten;


    This paper proposes a fallback scheme for the Danish automatic voltage control system. It will be activated in case of the local station loses telecommunication to the control center and/or the local station voltage violates the acceptable operational limits. It cuts in/out switchable and tap-abl...

  5. Automatic Design of a Maglev Controller in State Space (United States)


    conventional trains with steel wheels on steel rails. Several experimen- tal maglev systems in Germany and Japan have demonstrated that this mode of...Design of a Maglev Controller in State Space Feng Zhao Richard Thornton Abstract We describe the automatic synthesis of a global nonlinear controller for...the global switching points of the controller is presented. The synthesized control system can stabilize the maglev vehicle with large initial displace

  6. Automatic control system design of laser interferometer (United States)

    Lu, Qingjie; Li, Chunjie; Sun, Hao; Ren, Shaohua; Han, Sen


    There are a lot of shortcomings with traditional optical adjustment in interferometry, such as low accuracy, time-consuming, labor-intensive, uncontrollability, and bad repetitiveness, so we treat the problem by using wireless remote control system. Comparing to the traditional method, the effect of vibration and air turbulence will be avoided. In addition the system has some peculiarities of low cost, high reliability and easy operation etc. Furthermore, the switching between two charge coupled devices (CCDs) can be easily achieved with this wireless remote control system, which is used to collect different images. The wireless transmission is achieved by using Radio Frequency (RF) module and programming the controller, pulse width modulation (PWM) of direct current (DC) motor, real-time switching of relay and high-accuracy displacement control of FAULHABER motor are available. The results of verification test show that the control system has good stability with less than 5% packet loss rate, high control accuracy and millisecond response speed.

  7. 5th International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Automatic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Yufeng


    On the basis of instrument electrical and automatic control system, the 5th International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Automatic Control (CEEAC) was established at the crossroads of information technology and control technology, and seeks to effectively apply information technology to a sweeping trend that views control as the core of intelligent manufacturing and life. This book takes a look forward into advanced manufacturing development, an area shaped by intelligent manufacturing. It highlights the application and promotion of process control represented by traditional industries, such as the steel industry and petrochemical industry; the technical equipment and system cooperative control represented by robot technology and multi-axis CNC; and the control and support of emerging process technologies represented by laser melting and stacking, as well as the emerging industry represented by sustainable and intelligent life. The book places particular emphasis on the micro-segments field, such as...

  8. Automatic control of biomass gasifiers using fuzzy inference systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagues, C. [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain). Dpto. de Informatica e Ingenieria de Sistemas; Garcia-Bacaicoa, P.; Serrano, S. [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain). Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica y Medio Ambiente


    A fuzzy controller for biomass gasifiers is proposed. Although fuzzy inference systems do not need models to be tuned, a plant model is proposed which has turned out very useful to prove different combinations of membership functions and rules in the proposed fuzzy control. The global control scheme is shown, including the elements to generate the set points for the process variables automatically. There, the type of biomass and its moisture content are the only data which need to be introduced to the controller by a human operator at the beginning of operation to make it work autonomously. The advantages and good performance of the fuzzy controller with the automatic generation of set points, compared to controllers utilising fixed parameters, are demonstrated. (author)

  9. Automatic control of biomass gasifiers using fuzzy inference systems. (United States)

    Sagüés, C; García-Bacaicoa, P; Serrano, S


    A fuzzy controller for biomass gasifiers is proposed. Although fuzzy inference systems do not need models to be tuned, a plant model is proposed which has turned out very useful to prove different combinations of membership functions and rules in the proposed fuzzy control. The global control scheme is shown, including the elements to generate the set points for the process variables automatically. There, the type of biomass and its moisture content are the only data which need to be introduced to the controller by a human operator at the beginning of operation to make it work autonomously. The advantages and good performance of the fuzzy controller with the automatic generation of set points, compared to controllers utilising fixed parameters, are demonstrated.

  10. On Design of Automatic Choosing Control by Pole Placement


    高田, 等; 提, 祐樹; 八野, 知博; TAKATA, Hitoshi; Sage, Yuki; HACHINO, Tomohiro


    This paper is concerned with design of an augmented automatic choosing control (AACC) for nonlinear systems. The AACC is synthesized by smoothly uniting a set of sectionwise linear controls, in which pole placement approach is used. An observer theory is applied to it in a case that the state vector includes some unmeasurable variables directly. Control and observer's gains are obtained by the pole placement method.

  11. Semi-automatic aircraft control system (United States)

    Gilson, Richard D. (Inventor)


    A flight control type system which provides a tactile readout to the hand of a pilot for directing elevator control during both approach to flare-out and departure maneuvers. For altitudes above flare-out, the system sums the instantaneous coefficient of lift signals of a lift transducer with a generated signal representing ideal coefficient of lift for approach to flare-out, i.e., a value of about 30% below stall. Error signals resulting from the summation are read out by the noted tactile device. Below flare altitude, an altitude responsive variation is summed with the signal representing ideal coefficient of lift to provide error signal readout.

  12. Image Control In Automatic Welding Vision System (United States)

    Richardson, Richard W.


    Orientation and brightness varied to suit welding conditions. Commands from vision-system computer drive servomotors on iris and Dove prism, providing proper light level and image orientation. Optical-fiber bundle carries view of weld area as viewed along axis of welding electrode. Image processing described in companion article, "Processing Welding Images for Robot Control" (MFS-26036).

  13. Clementine auto exposure control software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The primary mission of the Clementine program was to test technology developed under the auspices of BMDO (the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization). A secondary goal of the program was to provide astronomical data to the scientific and educational community. The mission plan developed to accomplish these goals included complete mapping of the lunar surface and a close fly-by of a near-Earth asteroid, 1620 Geographos. Exposure control for the Clementine mission was driven by mission phase requirements and sensor characteristics. Thus, there were a total of twelve algorithms developed for three primary mission phases and the four imaging sensors (two additional sensors operated as star trackers). The three mission phases in question were lunar mapping, distant observation of the asteroid for the purpose of tracking, and close-up viewing (as close as 100 Km) of Geographos. The four non-star tracker sensors consisted of an Ultra Violet/Visible (UV/Vis) camera, a High Resolution (HiRes) camera with a built-in LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) unit, a Near Infrared (NIR) camera, and a Long Wave InfraRed (LWIR) camera. Due to lack of test time and uncertainties about the imaging environment, numerous input parameters were provided in the algorithms to allow extensive tuning of the exposure control during the mission.

  14. Supplement to Comparison of automatic control systems (United States)

    Oppelt, W


    This analysis deals with the indirect regulator, wherefrom the behavior of the direct regulator is deduced as a limiting case. The prime mover is looked upon as "independent of the load": a change in the adjusting power (to be applied) for the control link (as, for example, in relation to the adjusting path (eta) with pressure valves or the rudder of vessels) does not modify the actions of the prime mover. Mass forces and friction are discounted; "clearance" also is discounted in the transmission links of the regulator.

  15. Randomized algorithms in automatic control and data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Granichin, Oleg; Toledano-Kitai, Dvora


    In the fields of data mining and control, the huge amount of unstructured data and the presence of uncertainty in system descriptions have always been critical issues. The book Randomized Algorithms in Automatic Control and Data Mining introduces the readers to the fundamentals of randomized algorithm applications in data mining (especially clustering) and in automatic control synthesis. The methods proposed in this book guarantee that the computational complexity of classical algorithms and the conservativeness of standard robust control techniques will be reduced. It is shown that when a problem requires "brute force" in selecting among options, algorithms based on random selection of alternatives offer good results with certain probability for a restricted time and significantly reduce the volume of operations.

  16. Computer program for automatic generation of BWR control rod patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taner, M.S.; Levine, S.H.; Hsia, M.Y. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))


    A computer program named OCTOPUS has been developed to automatically determine a control rod pattern that approximates some desired target power distribution as closely as possible without violating any thermal safety or reactor criticality constraints. The program OCTOPUS performs a semi-optimization task based on the method of approximation programming (MAP) to develop control rod patterns. The SIMULATE-E code is used to determine the nucleonic characteristics of the reactor core state.

  17. 2011 International Conference in Electrics, Communication and Automatic Control Proceedings

    CERN Document Server


    This two-volume set contains the very latest, cutting-edge material in electrics, communication and automatic control. As a vital field of research that is highly relevant to current developments in a number of technological domains, the subjects it covers include micro-electronics and integrated circuit control, signal processing technology, next-generation network infrastructure, wireless communication and scientific instruments. The aim of the International Conference in Electrics, Communication and Automatic Control, held in Chongqing, China, in June 2011 was to provide a valuable inclusive platform for researchers, engineers, academicians and industrial professionals from all over the world to share their research results with fellow scientists in the sector. The call for papers netted well over 600 submissions, of which 224 were selected for presentation. This fully peer-reviewed collection of papers from the conference can be viewed as a single-source compendium of the latest trends and techniques in t...

  18. Pharmaceutical dust exposure at pharmacies using automatic dispensing machines: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Fent, Kenneth W; Durgam, Srinivas; Mueller, Charles


    Automatic dispensing machines (ADMs) used in pharmacies concentrate and dispense large volumes of pharmaceuticals, including uncoated tablets that can shed dust. We evaluated 43 employees' exposures to pharmaceutical dust at three pharmacies where ADMs were used. We used an optical particle counter to identify tasks that generated pharmaceutical dust. We collected 72 inhalable dust air samples in or near the employees' breathing zones. In addition to gravimetric analysis, our contract laboratory used internal methods involving liquid chromatography to analyze these samples for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and/or lactose, an inactive filler in tablets. We had to choose samples for these additional analyses because many methods used different extraction solvents. We selected 57 samples for analysis of lactose. We used real-time particle monitoring results, observations, and information from employees on the dustiness of pharmaceuticals to select 28 samples (including 13 samples that were analyzed for lactose) for analysis of specific APIs. Pharmaceutical dust was generated during a variety of tasks like emptying and refilling of ADM canisters. Using compressed air to clean canisters and manual count machines produced the overall highest peak number concentrations (19,000-580,000 particles/L) of smallest particles (count median aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2 μm). Employees who refilled, cleaned, or repaired ADM canisters, or hand filled prescriptions were exposed to higher median air concentrations of lactose (5.0-12 μg/m(3)) than employees who did other jobs (0.04-1.3 μg/m(3)), such as administrative/office work, labeling/packaging, and verifying prescriptions. We detected 10 APIs in air, including lisinopril, a drug prescribed for high blood pressure, levothyroxine, a drug prescribed for hypothyroidism, and methotrexate, a hazardous drug prescribed for cancer and other disorders. Three air concentrations of lisinopril (1.8-2.7 μg/m(3)) exceeded the lower

  19. A method for closed loop automatic tuning of PID controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor S. Schei


    Full Text Available A simple method for the automatic tuning of PID controllers in closed loop is proposed. A limit cycle is generated through a nonlinear feedback path from the process output to the controller reference signal. The frequency of this oscillation is above the crossover frequency and below the critical frequency of the loop transfer function. The amplitude and frequency of the oscillation are estimated and the control parameters are adjusted iteratively such that the closed loop transfer function from the controller reference to the process output attains a specified amplitude at the oscillation frequency.

  20. Automatic control systems satisfying certain general criterions on transient behavior (United States)

    Boksenbom, Aaron S; Hood, Richard


    An analytic method for the design of automatic controls is developed that starts from certain arbitrary criterions on the behavior of the controlled system and gives those physically realizable equations that the control system can follow in order to realize this behavior. The criterions used are developed in the form of certain time integrals. General results are shown for systems of second order and of any number of degrees of freedom. Detailed examples for several cases in the control of a turbojet engine are presented.

  1. Controlled versus automatic processes: which is dominant to safety? The moderating effect of inhibitory control. (United States)

    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Ding, Weidong; Lu, Fan


    This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT) reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end.

  2. Controlled versus automatic processes: which is dominant to safety? The moderating effect of inhibitory control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoshan Xu

    Full Text Available This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end.

  3. Automatic control unit for A neutron diffraction crystal spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adib, M.; Abbas, Y.; Mostafa, M.; Hamouda, I.


    An automatic transistorized unit has been designed and constructed to control the operation of the double axis crystal spectrometer installed in front of one of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The function of the automatic unit is to store the diffracted neutrons at a certain angle with respect to the direction of the incident neutron beam in a selected channel of a 1024-multichannel analyzer for a certain preadjusted time period. AT the end of this time period the unit rotates the spectrometer's arm to another angle, selects the next channel of the MCA and provides the measurement of the diffracted neutron for the same time period. Such a sequence is repeated automatically over all angles required for the neutron diffraction pattern of the sample under investigation. As a result, the stored information at the MCA provides the neutron diffraction pattern as a function of channel number, where each channel corresponds to a certain scattering angle. The stored distribution at MCA can be obtained through the analyzer read out unit. The designed automatic unit has the possibility of providing the neutron diffraction pattern using a 6-digit scaler and a printer.

  4. Automatic Tuning of the Superheat Controller in a Refrigeration Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Thybo, Claus; Larsen, Lars F. S.


    This paper proposes an automatic tuning of the superheat control in a refrigeration system using a relay method. By means of a simple evaporator model that captures the important dynamics and non-linearities of the superheat a gain-scheduling that compensates for the variation of the process gain...... can be obtained from tuning in only one operation point. The proposed method is validated by experimental results....

  5. Research on Fuzzy Control for Automatic Transmission of Tracked Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A principle of fuzzy control for tracked vehicles is proposed to make its automatic transmission system be able to adapt complex running conditions, and a model of its power train is established to be used in simulation. Based on the fuzzy control method, a fuzzy shift control system composed of a basic shift strategy and a fuzzy modification module is developed to improve the dynamic characteristics and cross-country maneuverability. Simulation results show that the fuzzy shift strategy can improve the shift quality under manifold driving conditions and avoid cycled shift effectively. Therefore,the proposed fuzzy shift strategies are proved to be feasible and practicable.

  6. 14 CFR 25.904 - Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS). (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic takeoff thrust control system... Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS). Each applicant seeking approval for installation of an engine power control system that automatically resets the power or thrust on the operating engine(s)...

  7. Review on development progress of automatic manual transmissions control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI Amir Ibrahim; QIN Da-tong; ATTIA Nabil Abdulla


    In recent years, the sustainable development of automatic manual transmissions (AMTs) control in vehicles is conspicuous. The control applications have grown fast and steadily due to the tremendous progress in power electronics components and the control software that enhance the requirements for delivering higher vehicles performance. AMTs control strategies achieve a reduction in the driveline dynamic oscillations behavior during gear shifting and clutch starting up processes.AMTs future expectations are an increase of torque capacity, more speed ratios and the development of advanced and efficient electronic control systems. This paper concerns with the progressing view of AMTs in the past, today and future, gives an overview of the potential dynamic problems concerned with AMTs and some control strategies used to solve those problems.

  8. MFM Automatic Control System Development for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO; Lei; YIN; Zhi-guo; LV; Yin-long; ZHONG; Jun-qing


    <正>In order to do the magnetic field measurement (MFM) work for CYCIAE-100, a set of MFM automatic facility has been developed by the cyclotron team at CIAE. 1 Design of project The MFM facility for CYCIAE-100 adopts the method of circular and radial motion to complete the measurement. In circular direction, an open loop control is adopted at hardware level. A kind of arithmetic is compensated to form a virtual closed loop control based on the position signal by angle encoder

  9. Automatic control and tracking of periodic orbits in chaotic systems. (United States)

    Ando, Hiroyasu; Boccaletti, S; Aihara, Kazuyuki


    Based on an automatic feedback adjustment of an additional parameter of a dynamical system, we propose a strategy for controlling periodic orbits of desired periods in chaotic dynamics and tracking them toward the set of unstable periodic orbits embedded within the original chaotic attractor. The method does not require information on the system to be controlled, nor on any reference states for the targets, and it overcomes some of the difficulties encountered by other techniques. Assessments of the method's effectiveness and robustness are given by means of the application of the technique to the stabilization of unstable periodic orbits in both discrete- and continuous-time systems.

  10. Aircraft automatic flight control system with model inversion (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, George


    A simulator study was conducted to verify the advantages of a Newton-Raphson model-inversion technique as a design basis for an automatic trajectory control system in an aircraft with highly nonlinear characteristics. The simulation employed a detailed mathematical model of the aerodynamic and propulsion system performance characteristics of a vertical-attitude takeoff and landing tactical aircraft. The results obtained confirm satisfactory control system performance over a large portion of the flight envelope. System response to wind gusts was satisfactory for various plausible combinations of wind magnitude and direction.

  11. Automatic control system generation for robot design validation (United States)

    Bacon, James A. (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor)


    The specification and drawings present a new method, system and software product for and apparatus for generating a robotic validation system for a robot design. The robotic validation system for the robot design of a robotic system is automatically generated by converting a robot design into a generic robotic description using a predetermined format, then generating a control system from the generic robotic description and finally updating robot design parameters of the robotic system with an analysis tool using both the generic robot description and the control system.

  12. Automatic and controlled processing in the corticocerebellar system. (United States)

    Ramnani, Narender


    During learning, performance changes often involve a transition from controlled processing in which performance is flexible and responsive to ongoing error feedback, but effortful and slow, to a state in which processing becomes swift and automatic. In this state, performance is unencumbered by the requirement to process feedback, but its insensitivity to feedback reduces its flexibility. Many properties of automatic processing are similar to those that one would expect of forward models, and many have suggested that these may be instantiated in cerebellar circuitry. Since hierarchically organized frontal lobe areas can both send and receive commands, I discuss the possibility that they can act both as controllers and controlled objects and that their behaviors can be independently modeled by forward models in cerebellar circuits. Since areas of the prefrontal cortex contribute to this hierarchically organized system and send outputs to the cerebellar cortex, I suggest that the cerebellum is likely to contribute to the automation of cognitive skills, and to the formation of habitual behavior which is resistant to error feedback. An important prerequisite to these ideas is that cerebellar circuitry should have access to higher order error feedback that signals the success or failure of cognitive processing. I have discussed the pathways through which such feedback could arrive via the inferior olive and the dopamine system. Cerebellar outputs inhibit both the inferior olive and the dopamine system. It is possible that learned representations in the cerebellum use this as a mechanism to suppress the processing of feedback in other parts of the nervous system. Thus, cerebellar processes that control automatic performance may be completed without triggering the engagement of controlled processes by prefrontal mechanisms.

  13. Cognitive effort and pupil dilation in controlled and automatic processes (United States)

    Querino, Emanuel; dos Santos, Lafaiete; Ginani, Giuliano; Nicolau, Eduardo; Miranda, Débora; Romano-Silva, Marco; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro


    The Five Digits Test (FDT) is a Stroop paradigm test that aims to evaluate executive functions. It is composed of four parts, two of which are related to automatic and two of which are related to controlled processes. It is known that pupillary diameter increases as the task’s cognitive demand increases. In the present study, we evaluated whether the pupillary diameter could distinguish cognitive effort between automated and controlled cognitive processing during the FDT as the task progressed. As a control task, we used a simple reading paradigm with a similar visual aspect as the FDT. We then divided each of the four parts into two blocks in order to evaluate the differences between the first and second half of the task. Results indicated that, compared to a control task, the FDT required higher cognitive effort for each consecutive part. Moreover, the first half of every part of the FDT induced dilation more than the second. The differences in pupil dilation during the first half of the four FDT parts were statistically significant between the parts 2 and 4 (p=0.023), and between the parts 3 and 4 (p=0.006). These results provide further evidence that cognitive effort and pupil diameter can distinguish controlled from automatic processes.

  14. Scheduling algorithms for automatic control systems for technological processes (United States)

    Chernigovskiy, A. S.; Tsarev, R. Yu; Kapulin, D. V.


    Wide use of automatic process control systems and the usage of high-performance systems containing a number of computers (processors) give opportunities for creation of high-quality and fast production that increases competitiveness of an enterprise. Exact and fast calculations, control computation, and processing of the big data arrays – all of this requires the high level of productivity and, at the same time, minimum time of data handling and result receiving. In order to reach the best time, it is necessary not only to use computing resources optimally, but also to design and develop the software so that time gain will be maximal. For this purpose task (jobs or operations), scheduling techniques for the multi-machine/multiprocessor systems are applied. Some of basic task scheduling methods for the multi-machine process control systems are considered in this paper, their advantages and disadvantages come to light, and also some usage considerations, in case of the software for automatic process control systems developing, are made.

  15. Double blind placebo controlled exposure to molds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H W; Jensen, K A; Nielsen, K F


    non-significant, and at the same level as after placebo exposure. The developed exposure system based on the Particle-Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (P-FLEC) makes it possible to deliver a precise and highly controlled dose of mold spores from water-damaged building materials, imitating realistic....... In conclusion this is, to our knowledge, the first study to successfully conduct a human exposure to a highly controlled dose of fungal material aerosolized directly from wet building materials. This short-term exposure to high concentrations of two different molds induced no more reactions than exposure...... to placebo in eight sensitive school employees. However, a statistical type II error cannot be excluded because of the small sample size. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: In this double blind, placebo controlled study of mold exposure changes in symptoms, objective measurements and blood samples were small and mostly...

  16. Towards Automatic Controller Design using Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gerulf

    of evolutionary computation, a choice was made to use multi-objective algorithms for the purpose of aiding in automatic controller design. More specifically, the choice was made to use the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGAII), which is one of the most potent algorithms currently in use......, as the foundation for achieving the desired goal. While working with the algorithm, some issues arose which limited the use of the algorithm for unknown problems. These issues included the relative scale of the used fitness functions and the distribution of solutions on the optimal Pareto front. Some work has...

  17. Automatic Scheduling and Planning (ASAP) in future ground control systems (United States)

    Matlin, Sam


    This report describes two complementary approaches to the problem of space mission planning and scheduling. The first is an Expert System or Knowledge-Based System for automatically resolving most of the activity conflicts in a candidate plan. The second is an Interactive Graphics Decision Aid to assist the operator in manually resolving the residual conflicts which are beyond the scope of the Expert System. The two system designs are consistent with future ground control station activity requirements, support activity timing constraints, resource limits and activity priority guidelines.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly P. Yakimaho


    Full Text Available The problems of use of subjects of intellectual property in the global computer networks are stated. The main attention is focused on the ways of problems solutions arising during the work in computer networks. Legal problems of information society are considered. The analysis of global computer networks as places for the organization of collective management by copyrights in the world scale is carried out. Issues of creation of a system of automatic control of property rights of authors and owners in the global computer networks are taken up.

  19. Consistently Trained Artificial Neural Network for Automatic Ship Berthing Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Ahmed


    Full Text Available In this paper, consistently trained Artificial Neural Network controller for automatic ship berthing is discussed. Minimum time course changing manoeuvre is utilised to ensure such consistency and a new concept named ‘virtual window’ is introduced. Such consistent teaching data are then used to train two separate multi-layered feed forward neural networks for command rudder and propeller revolution output. After proper training, several known and unknown conditions are tested to judge the effectiveness of the proposed controller using Monte Carlo simulations. After getting acceptable percentages of success, the trained networks are implemented for the free running experiment system to judge the network’s real time response for Esso Osaka 3-m model ship. The network’s behaviour during such experiments is also investigated for possible effect of initial conditions as well as wind disturbances. Moreover, since the final goal point of the proposed controller is set at some distance from the actual pier to ensure safety, therefore a study on automatic tug assistance is also discussed for the final alignment of the ship with actual pier.

  20. Automatic Voltage Control (AVC) System under Uncertainty from Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Abildgaard, Hans; Flynn, Damian


    An automatic voltage control (AVC) system maintains the voltage profile of a power system in an acceptable range and minimizes the operational cost by coordinating the regulation of controllable components. Typically, all of the parameters in the optimization problem are assumed to be certain...... and constant in the decision making process. However, for high shares of wind power, uncertainty in the decision process due to wind power variability may result in an infeasible AVC solution. This paper proposes a voltage control approach which considers the voltage uncertainty from wind power productions....... The proposed method improves the performance and the robustness of a scenario based approach by estimating the potential voltage variations due to fluctuating wind power production, and introduces a voltage margin to protect the decision against uncertainty for each scenario. The effectiveness of the proposed...

  1. On-line current feed and computer aided control tactics for automatic balancing head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the designed automatic balancing head,a non-contact induction transformer is used to deliver driving energy to solve the problem of current fed and controlling on-line.Computer controlled automatic balancing experiments with phase-magnitude control tactics were performed on a flexible rotor system.Results of the experiments prove that the energy feeding method and the control tactics are effective in the automatic balancing head for vibration controlling.

  2. Automatic Thermal Control System with Temperature Difference or Derivation Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Matiskova


    Full Text Available Automatic thermal control systems seem to be non-linear systems with thermal inertias and time delay. A controller is also non-linear because its information and power signals are limited. The application of methods that are available to on-linear systems together with computer simulation and mathematical modelling creates a possibility to acquire important information about the researched system. This paper provides a new look at the heated system model and also designs the structure of the thermal system with temperature derivation feedback. The designed system was simulated by using a special software in Turbo Pascal. Time responses of this system are compared to responses of a conventional thermal system. The thermal system with temperature derivation feedback provides better transients, better quality of regulation and better dynamical properties.

  3. Automatic Meter Reading and Theft Control System by Using GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rakesh Malhotra


    Full Text Available This paper deals with automatic meter reading and theft control system in energy meter. Current transformer is used to measure the total power consumption for house or industrial purpose. This recorded reading is transmitted to the electricity board for every 60 days once. For transmitting the reading of energy meter GSM module is used. To avoid theft, infrared sensor is placed in the screw portion of energy meter seal. If the screw is removed from the meter a message is sent to the electricity board. The measuring of energy meter and monitoring of IR sensor is done with a PIC microcontroller.The informative system will be helpful for the electricity board to monitor the entire supply and the correct billing accordingly without any mishap. This model reduces the manual manipulation work andtheft control.

  4. Automatic diagnosis and control of distributed solid state lighting systems. (United States)

    Dong, Jianfei; van Driel, Willem; Zhang, Guoqi


    This paper describes a new design concept of automatically diagnosing and compensating LED degradations in distributed solid state lighting (SSL) systems. A failed LED may significantly reduce the overall illumination level, and destroy the uniform illumination distribution achieved by a nominal system. To our knowledge, an automatic scheme to compensate LED degradations has not yet been seen in the literature, which requires a diagnostic step followed by control reconfigurations. The main challenge in diagnosing LED degradations lies in the usually unsatisfactory observability in a distributed SSL system, because the LED light output is usually not individually measured. In this work, we tackle this difficulty by using pulse width modulated (PWM) drive currents with a unique fundamental frequency assigned to each LED. Signal processing methods are applied in estimating the individual illumination flux of each LED. Statistical tests are developed to diagnose the degradation of LEDs. Duty cycle of the drive current signal to each LED is re-optimized once a fault is detected, in order to compensate the destruction of the uniform illumination pattern by the failed LED.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Chengshun; Zhang Jianwu


    Start-up working condition is the key to the research of optimal engagement of automatic clutch for AMT.In order to guarantee an ideal dynamic performance of the clutch engagement,an optimal controller is designed by considering throttle angle,engine speed,gear ratio,vehicle acceleration and road condition.The minimum value principle is also introduced to achieve an optimal dynamic performance of the nonlinear system compromised in friction plate wear and vehicle drive quality.The optimal trajectory of the clutch engagement can be described in the form of explicit and analytical expressions and characterized by the deterministic and accurate control strategy in stead of indeterministic and soft control techniques which need thousands of experiments.For validation of the controller,test work is carried out for the automated clutch engagements in a commercial car with an traditional mechanical transmission,a hydraulic actuator,a group of sensors and a portable computer system.It is shown through experiments that dynamic behaviors of the clutch engagement operated by the optimal control are more effective and efficient than those by fuzzy control.

  6. Knowledge-based system for automatic MBR control. (United States)

    Comas, J; Meabe, E; Sancho, L; Ferrero, G; Sipma, J; Monclús, H; Rodriguez-Roda, I


    MBR technology is currently challenging traditional wastewater treatment systems and is increasingly selected for WWTP upgrading. MBR systems typically are constructed on a smaller footprint, and provide superior treated water quality. However, the main drawback of MBR technology is that the permeability of membranes declines during filtration due to membrane fouling, which for a large part causes the high aeration requirements of an MBR to counteract this fouling phenomenon. Due to the complex and still unknown mechanisms of membrane fouling it is neither possible to describe clearly its development by means of a deterministic model, nor to control it with a purely mathematical law. Consequently the majority of MBR applications are controlled in an "open-loop" way i.e. with predefined and fixed air scour and filtration/relaxation or backwashing cycles, and scheduled inline or offline chemical cleaning as a preventive measure, without taking into account the real needs of membrane cleaning based on its filtration performance. However, existing theoretical and empirical knowledge about potential cause-effect relations between a number of factors (influent characteristics, biomass characteristics and operational conditions) and MBR operation can be used to build a knowledge-based decision support system (KB-DSS) for the automatic control of MBRs. This KB-DSS contains a knowledge-based control module, which, based on real time comparison of the current permeability trend with "reference trends", aims at optimizing the operation and energy costs and decreasing fouling rates. In practice the automatic control system proposed regulates the set points of the key operational variables controlled in MBR systems (permeate flux, relaxation and backwash times, backwash flows and times, aeration flow rates, chemical cleaning frequency, waste sludge flow rate and recycle flow rates) and identifies its optimal value. This paper describes the concepts and the 3-level architecture

  7. Robust parameter design for automatically controlled systems and nanostructure synthesis (United States)

    Dasgupta, Tirthankar


    This research focuses on developing comprehensive frameworks for developing robust parameter design methodology for dynamic systems with automatic control and for synthesis of nanostructures. In many automatically controlled dynamic processes, the optimal feedback control law depends on the parameter design solution and vice versa and therefore an integrated approach is necessary. A parameter design methodology in the presence of feedback control is developed for processes of long duration under the assumption that experimental noise factors are uncorrelated over time. Systems that follow a pure-gain dynamic model are considered and the best proportional-integral and minimum mean squared error control strategies are developed by using robust parameter design. The proposed method is illustrated using a simulated example and a case study in a urea packing plant. This idea is also extended to cases with on-line noise factors. The possibility of integrating feedforward control with a minimum mean squared error feedback control scheme is explored. To meet the needs of large scale synthesis of nanostructures, it is critical to systematically find experimental conditions under which the desired nanostructures are synthesized reproducibly, at large quantity and with controlled morphology. The first part of the research in this area focuses on modeling and optimization of existing experimental data. Through a rigorous statistical analysis of experimental data, models linking the probabilities of obtaining specific morphologies to the process variables are developed. A new iterative algorithm for fitting a Multinomial GLM is proposed and used. The optimum process conditions, which maximize the above probabilities and make the synthesis process less sensitive to variations of process variables around set values, are derived from the fitted models using Monte-Carlo simulations. The second part of the research deals with development of an experimental design methodology, tailor

  8. Improved automatic tuning of PID controller for stable processes. (United States)

    Kumar Padhy, Prabin; Majhi, Somanath


    This paper presents an improved automatic tuning method for stable processes using a modified relay in the presence of static load disturbances and measurement noise. The modified relay consists of a standard relay in series with a PI controller of unity proportional gain. The integral time constant of the PI controller of the modified relay is chosen so as to ensure a minimum loop phase margin of 30( composite function). A limit cycle is then obtained using the modified relay. Hereafter, the PID controller is designed using the limit cycle output data. The derivative time constant is obtained by maintaining the above mentioned loop phase margin. Minimizing the distance of Nyquist curve of the loop transfer function from the imaginary axis of the complex plane gives the proportional gain. The integral time constant of the PID controller is set equal to the integral time constant of the PI controller of the modified relay. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is verified by simulation results.

  9. Human interface, automatic planning, and control of a humanoid robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y.K. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kang, S.C.; Lee, S.; Cho, K.R.; Kim, H.S.; Lee, C.W. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, S.M. [Jeonju Technical Coll. (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper presents an integrated robotic system consisting of human interfaces, motion- and grasp-planning algorithms, a controller, a graphical simulator, and a humanoid robot with over 60 joints. All of these subsystems are integrated in a coordinated fashion to enable the robot to perform a commanded task with as much autonomy as possible. The highest level of the system is the human interfaces, which enable a user to specify tasks conveniently and efficiently. At the mid-level, several planning algorithms generate motions of the robot body, arms, and hands automatically. At the lowest level, the motor controllers are equipped with both a position controller and a compliant motion controller to execute gross motions and contact motions, respectively. The main contributions of the work are the large-scale integration and the development of the motion planners for a humanoid robot. A hierarchical integration scheme that preserves the modularities of the human interfaces, the motion planners, and the controller has been the key for the successful integration. The set of motion planners is developed systematically so as to coordinate the motions of the body, arms, and hands to perform a large variety of tasks.

  10. Modeling of a Multiple Digital Automatic Gain Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jingdian; LU Xiuhong; ZHANG Li


    Automatic gain control (AGC) has been used in many applications. The key features of AGC, including a steady state output and static/dynamic timing response, depend mainly on key parameters such as the reference and the filter coefficients. A simple model developed to describe AGC systems based on several simple assumptions shows that AGC always converges to the reference and that the timing constant depends on the filter coefficients. Measures are given to prevent oscillations and limit cycle effects. The simple AGC system is adapted to a multiple AGC system for a TV tuner in a much more efficient model. Simulations using the C language are 16 times faster than those with MATLAB, and 10 times faster than those with a mixed register transfer level (RTL)-simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (SPICE) model.

  11. From the Conception to the Marketing of a New Automatic Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Kildegaard, Erik; Boel, Jan


    From a historical viewpoint, product technology has developed via radiator thermostats, return thermostats and selfacting automatic temperature and pressure controls towards more integrated automatic control systems also including weather compensators, which offer benefits in the form of energy...... savings and improved comfort. As a continuation of this development, Danfoss has this year introduced a new electronic automatic control system, the RPS 2000, which deserves closer scrutiny....

  12. Research on key control technologies of all-position automatic welding machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Huilin; Du Zeyu; Ma Jing; Huang Fuxiang


    The pipeline all-position automatic welding machine system is a special welding system for automatically welding circumferential joint of pipeline on site, which has been widely used to the long-distance pipeline construction projects due to the advantages of automatic control for welding parameters at all-position, moving speed of bugs and operating. In this paper, the key control technologies of PAWM all-position automatic welding machine (developed by Pipeline Research Institute of CNPC) such as the automatic control system, control software, personal digital assistant (PDA) software and complex programmable logic device(CPLD) program as well as the control method of welding parameter have been described detailedly. With the higher welding quality, higher welding efficiency and lower labor intensity, PAWM all-position automatic welding machine has been successfully applied in many famous pipeline construction projects.

  13. Effectiveness of Automatic Control over Flash Distillation Kettle for Liquid-Phase Bulk Polymerization of Propylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Linge; Ma Jiantong


    Automatic control over flash distillation section at SINOPEC Cangzhou Refinery has been realized, resulting in saving of propylene feedstock and emission reduction to harvest significant economic benefits.

  14. Indonesian Automatic Speech Recognition For Command Speech Controller Multimedia Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Arief Wardhany


    Full Text Available The purpose of multimedia devices development is controlling through voice. Nowdays voice that can be recognized only in English. To overcome the issue, then recognition using Indonesian language model and accousticc model and dictionary. Automatic Speech Recognizier is build using engine CMU Sphinx with modified english language to Indonesian Language database and XBMC used as the multimedia player. The experiment is using 10 volunteers testing items based on 7 commands. The volunteers is classifiedd by the genders, 5 Male & 5 female. 10 samples is taken in each command, continue with each volunteer perform 10 testing command. Each volunteer also have to try all 7 command that already provided. Based on percentage clarification table, the word “Kanan” had the most recognize with percentage 83% while “pilih” is the lowest one. The word which had the most wrong clarification is “kembali” with percentagee 67%, while the word “kanan” is the lowest one. From the result of Recognition Rate by male there are several command such as “Kembali”, “Utama”, “Atas “ and “Bawah” has the low Recognition Rate. Especially for “kembali” cannot be recognized as the command in the female voices but in male voice that command has 4% of RR this is because the command doesn’t have similar word in english near to “kembali” so the system unrecognize the command. Also for the command “Pilih” using the female voice has 80% of RR but for the male voice has only 4% of RR. This problem is mostly because of the different voice characteristic between adult male and female which male has lower voice frequencies (from 85 to 180 Hz than woman (165 to 255 Hz.The result of the experiment showed that each man had different number of recognition rate caused by the difference tone, pronunciation, and speed of speech. For further work needs to be done in order to improving the accouracy of the Indonesian Automatic Speech Recognition system

  15. Automatic Tuning of PID Controller for a 1-D Levitation System Using a Genetic Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Gerulf K.m.


    The automatic PID control design for a onedimensional magnetic levitation system is investigated. The PID controller is automatically tuned using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) based on a nonlinear system model. The developed controller is digitally implemented and tested...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 25 - Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS) (United States)


    ... Appendix I to Part 25—Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS) I25.1General. (a... crew to increase thrust or power. I25.2Definitions. (a) Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS... Control System (ATTCS) I Appendix I to Part 25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...

  17. Application of Feedback Linearization Method in Airplane Automatic Landing Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaoyan; Feng Jiang; Feng Xiujuan; Wu Junqin


    Summarizes the I/O feedback linearization about MIMO system, and applies it to nonlinear control equation of airplane. And also designs the tracing control laws for airplane longitudinal automatic landing control system.

  18. Pressure-control purge panel for automatic butt welding (United States)

    Lang, E. J.; Van Wagner, B. H.


    Modification of a purge panel for use in an automatic butt weld reduces the drop in pressure between the regulators and the weld head and tube purge fitting. The invention affects air regulators for plants, regulating circuits for pneumatic valves, and automatic welding machines.

  19. Research in Adaptronic Automatic Control System and Biosensor System Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skopis Vladimir


    Full Text Available This paper describes the research on adaptronic systems made by the author and offers to use biosensors that can be later inserted into the adaptronic systems. Adaptronic systems are based, on the one hand, on the adaptronic approach when the system is designed not to always meet the worst condition, but to change the structure of the system according to the external conditions. On the other hand, it is an extension of common automatic control ad adaptive systems. So, in the introduction firstly the adaptronic approach and biosensor as a term is explained. Adaptive systems, upon which adaptronic ones are based, are also mentioned. Then the construction of biosensor is described, as well as some information is given about the classification of biosensors and their main groups. Also it is suggested to use lichen indicators in industry to control concentration of chemical substances in the air. After that mathematical models and computer experiments for adaptronic system and biosensor analysis are given.

  20. 3D position measurement using square marker for automatic mobile robot control (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Ohmori, Koji


    A mobile robot is an automatic machine that is capable of movement in a given environment. Many techniques of automatic control are proposed. A line tracer is one of the most popular robots. The line tracer goes along a white line on the floor. The authors developed a mobile robot which moves to indicated point automatically. All you have to do is to indicate a goal point. In this paper, we propose an automatic mobile robot system controlled by an invisible marker and remote indication using the augmented reality technology.

  1. Automatic channel trimming for control systems: A concept (United States)

    Vandervoort, R. J.; Sykes, H. A.


    Set of bias signals added to channel inputs automatically normalize differences between channels. Algorithm and second feedback loop compute trim biases. Concept could be applied to regulators and multichannel servosystems for remote manipulators in undersea mining.

  2. Dynamic Optimization of Feedforward Automatic Gauge Control Based on Extended Kalman Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bin-hu; YANG Wei-dong; CHEN Lian-gui; QU Lei


    Automatic gauge control is an essentially nonlinear process varying with time delay, and stochastically varying input and process noise always influence the target gauge control accuracy. To improve the control capability of feedforward automatic gauge control, Kalman filter was employed to filter the noise signal transferred from one stand to another. The linearized matrix that the Kalman filter algorithm needed was concluded; thus, the feedforward automatic gauge control architecture was dynamically optimized. The theoretical analyses and simulation show that the proposed algorithm is reasonable and effective.

  3. Devises of automatic for controling of microwave stove for food products’ incinerating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Gren


    Full Text Available Development of automatic meant for controlling of microwave oven with the possibility of work on the base of few magnetrons and controlling temperature at the same time with VSWR are represented.

  4. Fuzzy logic control strategy for submerged arc automatic welding of digital controlling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Kuanfang; Huang Shisheng; Zhou Yiqing; Wang Zhenmin


    A microcomputer control system based on 80C320 and a switching regulation of wire feeder were designed. A correction factor based double model fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was introduced to achieve welding digital and intellectualized control by means of wire feeding speed feedback. The controller has many functions such as keyboard input, light emitting diode (LED) display and real-time intellectualized control of welding process etc. The controlling performance influenced by the coefficient of correction function was discussed. It was concluded by the experiments the relation between the coefftcient of correction function and welding quality, when the coefficient of correction function is great, the dynamic character of controller is better, when the coefficient of correction function is small, the sensitivity character of controller is better. Experimental results also show that digital and fuzzy logic control method enable the improvement of appearance of weld and stability of welding process to be achieved in submerged arc automatic welding.

  5. Personnel exposure control system with auto thermoluminescence dosimeter in Shimane Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubayashi, Hideo; Ochi, Susumu (Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan))


    In the past, film badges and pocket dosimeters were put on the persons who entered a controlled area in a nuclear power station to measure the external radiation exposure. For these, read out error or mistake, delay in taking out the result, trouble for monitoring many persons, etc. were problems. To solve these problems, the auto thermoluminescence dosimeter (ATLD) system has been introduced in Shimane Nuclear Power Station in place of pocket dosimeters since the second half of fiscal 1978. The outline of the system and the composition and software of the TLD automatic readout system are described. For the control of access to controlled areas, workers are forced to pass the check point where watchmen check everyone's ID card, and subjected to the check-up with the TLD automatic readout device. The checking items in the case of entering the areas are: (1) confirmation of licensee, (2) confirmation of the term of validity for the medical examination on ionizing radiation, (3) checking for exposure dose compared to the controlled exposure level, (4) confirmation of time limit to stay in controlled areas, and (5) TLD element annealing condition. The checking items in the case of leaving the areas are: (1) checking for identifying the TLD element that the personnel has brought in, (2) exposure dose compared to the controlled exposure level, (3) time for which the personnel stayed in controlled areas.

  6. 46 CFR 61.30-20 - Automatic control and safety tests. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic control and safety tests. 61.30-20 Section 61.30-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-20 Automatic...

  7. Analysis of automobile’s automatic control systems for the hill climbing start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy I. Klimenko


    Full Text Available To improve road safety while driving on the rise, facilitating the driver’s activity the automobile industry leaders are introducing automatic hill-hold control systems into the car design. This study purpose relates to the existing automatic start control systems’ design analysis. Analyzed are the existing design developments of automatic hill start assist control systems applied for driving at the start of the climbing. The effected research allows to select the scheme for further development of start driving automatic control systems. Further improvement of driving control systems and primarily the driver assistance hill-hold control systems is necessary to increase both the driving comfort and the traffic safety.

  8. Small-Scale Helicopter Automatic Autorotation: Modeling, Guidance, and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taamallah, S.


    Our research objective consists in developing a, model-based, automatic safety recovery system, for a small-scale helicopter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in autorotation, i.e. an engine OFF flight condition, that safely flies and lands the helicopter to a pre-specified ground location. In pursuit o

  9. Path Tracking Control of Automatic Parking Cloud Model considering the Influence of Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiding Hua


    Full Text Available This paper establishes the kinematic model of the automatic parking system and analyzes the kinematic constraints of the vehicle. Furthermore, it solves the problem where the traditional automatic parking system model fails to take into account the time delay. Firstly, based on simulating calculation, the influence of time delay on the dynamic trajectory of a vehicle in the automatic parking system is analyzed under the transverse distance Dlateral between different target spaces. Secondly, on the basis of cloud model, this paper utilizes the tracking control of an intelligent path closer to human intelligent behavior to further study the Cloud Generator-based parking path tracking control method and construct a vehicle path tracking control model. Moreover, tracking and steering control effects of the model are verified through simulation analysis. Finally, the effectiveness and timeliness of automatic parking controller in the aspect of path tracking are tested through a real vehicle experiment.

  10. Freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease: disturbances in automaticity and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen eVandenbossche


    Full Text Available Recent studies emphasize a key role of controlled operations, such as set-shifting and inhibition, in the occurrence of freezing of gait (FOG in Parkinson’s disease (PD. However, FOG can also be characterized as a de-automatization disorder, showing impairments in both the execution and acquisition of automaticity. The observed deficits in automaticity and executive functioning indicate that both processes are malfunctioning in freezers. Therefore, to explain FOG from a cognitive-based perspective, we present a model describing the pathways involved in automatic and controlled processes prior to a FOG episode. Crucially, we focus on disturbances in automaticity and control, regulated by the frontostriatal circuitry. In complex situations, non-freezing PD patients may compensate for deficits in automaticity by switching to increased cognitive control. However, as both automatic and controlled processes are more severely impaired in freezers, this hampers cognitive compensation in FOG, resulting in a potential breakdown. Future directions for cognitive rehabilitation are proposed, based on the cognitive model we put forward.

  11. A new PID controller design for automatic generation control of hydro power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodabakhshian, A.; Hooshmand, R. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Isfahan (Iran)


    This paper presents a new robust PID controller for automatic generation control (AGC) of hydro turbine power systems. The method is mainly based on a maximum peak resonance specification that is graphically supported by the Nichols chart. The open-loop frequency response curve is tangent to a specified ellipse and this makes the method to be efficient for controlling the overshoot, the stability and the dynamics of the system. Comparative results of this new load frequency controller with a conventional PI one and also with another PID controller design tested on a multimachine power system show the improvement in system damping remarkably. The region of acceptable performance of the new PID controller covers a wide range of operating and system conditions. (author)

  12. Automatic Generation Control Using PI Controller with Bacterial Foraging for both Thermal and Hydro Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Hooda,


    Full Text Available The load-frequency control (LFC is used to restore the balance between load and generation in each control area by means of speed control. In power system, the main goal of load frequency control (LFC or automatic generation control (AGC is to maintain the frequency of each area and tie- line power flow within specified tolerance by adjusting the MW outputs of LFC generators so as to accommodate fluctuating load demands. In this paper, attempt is made to make a scheme for automatic generation control within a restructured environment considering effects of contracts between DISCOs and GENCOs to make power system network in normal state where, GENCO used are hydro plants as well as thermal plants. The bacterial foraging optimization technique is being developed, which is applied to AGC in an interconnected four area system.The performance of the system is obtained by MATLAB Simulink tool. The results are shown in frequency and power response for four area AGC system. In this paper we have shown practical work by using thermal and hydro both system at Genco’s side.As reheated system transfer function is being used.

  13. ISS Contingency Attitude Control Recovery Method for Loss of Automatic Thruster Control (United States)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Bhatt, Sagar; Alaniz, Abran; McCants, Edward; Nguyen, Louis; Chamitoff, Greg


    In this paper, the attitude control issues associated with International Space Station (ISS) loss of automatic thruster control capability are discussed and methods for attitude control recovery are presented. This scenario was experienced recently during Shuttle mission STS-117 and ISS Stage 13A in June 2007 when the Russian GN&C computers, which command the ISS thrusters, failed. Without automatic propulsive attitude control, the ISS would not be able to regain attitude control after the Orbiter undocked. The core issues associated with recovering long-term attitude control using CMGs are described as well as the systems engineering analysis to identify recovery options. It is shown that the recovery method can be separated into a procedure for rate damping to a safe harbor gravity gradient stable orientation and a capability to maneuver the vehicle to the necessary initial conditions for long term attitude hold. A manual control option using Soyuz and Progress vehicle thrusters is investigated for rate damping and maneuvers. The issues with implementing such an option are presented and the key issue of closed-loop stability is addressed. A new non-propulsive alternative to thruster control, Zero Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) attitude control method is introduced and its rate damping and maneuver performance evaluated. It is shown that ZPM can meet the tight attitude and rate error tolerances needed for long term attitude control. A combination of manual thruster rate damping to a safe harbor attitude followed by a ZPM to Stage long term attitude control orientation was selected by the Anomaly Resolution Team as the alternate attitude control method for such a contingency.

  14. Development of a microcontroller-based automatic control system for the electrohydraulic total artificial heart. (United States)

    Kim, H C; Khanwilkar, P S; Bearnson, G B; Olsen, D B


    An automatic physiological control system for the actively filled, alternately pumped ventricles of the volumetrically coupled, electrohydraulic total artificial heart (EHTAH) was developed for long-term use. The automatic control system must ensure that the device: 1) maintains a physiological response of cardiac output, 2) compensates for an nonphysiological condition, and 3) is stable, reliable, and operates at a high power efficiency. The developed automatic control system met these requirements both in vitro, in week-long continuous mock circulation tests, and in vivo, in acute open-chested animals (calves). Satisfactory results were also obtained in a series of chronic animal experiments, including 21 days of continuous operation of the fully automatic control mode, and 138 days of operation in a manual mode, in a 159-day calf implant.

  15. Automatic sleep staging using state machine-controlled decision trees. (United States)

    Imtiaz, Syed Anas; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther


    Automatic sleep staging from a reduced number of channels is desirable to save time, reduce costs and make sleep monitoring more accessible by providing home-based polysomnography. This paper introduces a novel algorithm for automatic scoring of sleep stages using a combination of small decision trees driven by a state machine. The algorithm uses two channels of EEG for feature extraction and has a state machine that selects a suitable decision tree for classification based on the prevailing sleep stage. Its performance has been evaluated using the complete dataset of 61 recordings from PhysioNet Sleep EDF Expanded database achieving an overall accuracy of 82% and 79% on training and test sets respectively. The algorithm has been developed with a very small number of decision tree nodes that are active at any given time making it suitable for use in resource-constrained wearable systems.

  16. The Automatic and Controlled Processing of Temporal and Spatial Patterns. (United States)


    Atkinson and Juola, 1973; Slhffrin and Geisler, 1973; and Corballis, 1975; Posner and Snyder, 1975). Schneider and Shiffrin (1977; Shiffrin and Schneider...Besides the frame size, Schneider and Shiffrin (1977) also varied the memory set size to study the differential load requirements of CM and VM...theoretical level, Shiffrin and Schneider (1977) described an automatic process as a sequence of memory nodes that nearly always become active in

  17. Solution to automatic generation control problem using firefly algorithm optimized I(λ)D(µ) controller. (United States)

    Debbarma, Sanjoy; Saikia, Lalit Chandra; Sinha, Nidul


    Present work focused on automatic generation control (AGC) of a three unequal area thermal systems considering reheat turbines and appropriate generation rate constraints (GRC). A fractional order (FO) controller named as I(λ)D(µ) controller based on crone approximation is proposed for the first time as an appropriate technique to solve the multi-area AGC problem in power systems. A recently developed metaheuristic algorithm known as firefly algorithm (FA) is used for the simultaneous optimization of the gains and other parameters such as order of integrator (λ) and differentiator (μ) of I(λ)D(µ) controller and governor speed regulation parameters (R). The dynamic responses corresponding to optimized I(λ)D(µ) controller gains, λ, μ, and R are compared with that of classical integer order (IO) controllers such as I, PI and PID controllers. Simulation results show that the proposed I(λ)D(µ) controller provides more improved dynamic responses and outperforms the IO based classical controllers. Further, sensitivity analysis confirms the robustness of the so optimized I(λ)D(µ) controller to wide changes in system loading conditions and size and position of SLP. Proposed controller is also found to have performed well as compared to IO based controllers when SLP takes place simultaneously in any two areas or all the areas. Robustness of the proposed I(λ)D(µ) controller is also tested against system parameter variations.

  18. An Evaluation of Automatic Control System Concepts for General Aviation Airplanes (United States)

    Stewart, E. C.


    A piloted simulation study of automatic longitudinal control systems for general aviation airplanes has been conducted. These automatic control systems were designed to make the simulated airplane easy to fly for a beginning or infrequent pilot. Different control systems are presented and their characteristics are documented. In a conventional airplane control system each cockpit controller commands combinations of both the airspeed and the vertical speed. The best system in the present study decoupled the airspeed and vertical speed responses to cockpit controller inputs. An important feature of the automatic system was that neither changing flap position nor maneuvering in steeply banked turns affected either the airspeed or the vertical speed. All the pilots who flew the control system simulation were favorably impressed with the very low workload and the excellent handling qualities of the simulated airplane.

  19. Automatic flatness control strategy with a Smith predictor for steel strip rolling (United States)

    Zhang, Ruicheng; Zheng, Xin


    The simplified transfer function diagram block for a automatic flatness control (AFC) system of strip steel rolling process was investigated. For the problem of automatic flatness control (AFC) in cold tandem mills this paper proposes control techniques based on Smith predictor to compensate for the numerous delays present in the mill. After a Smith predictor was used to the AFC system, the control laws were deduced for both proportional and integral regulators. Control algorithms are tested in simulation considering a tandem mill with four stands as a benchmark, and results are shown to demonstrate the performance of the proposed schemes.

  20. General collaboration offer of Johnson Controls regarding the performance of air conditioning automatic control systems and other buildings` automatic control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gniazdowski, J.


    JOHNSON CONTROLS manufactures measuring and control equipment (800 types) and is as well a {open_quotes}turn-key{close_quotes} supplier of complete automatic controls systems for heating, air conditioning, ventilation and refrigerating engineering branches. The Company also supplies Buildings` Computer-Based Supervision and Monitoring Systems that may be applied in both small and large structures. Since 1990 the company has been performing full-range trade and contracting activities on the Polish market. We have our own well-trained technical staff and we collaborate with a series of designing and contracting enterprises that enable us to have our projects carried out all over Poland. The prices of our supplies and services correspond with the level of the Polish market.

  1. Automatic SIMD vectorization of SSA-based control flow graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Karrenberg, Ralf


    Ralf Karrenberg presents Whole-Function Vectorization (WFV), an approach that allows a compiler to automatically create code that exploits data-parallelism using SIMD instructions. Data-parallel applications such as particle simulations, stock option price estimation or video decoding require the same computations to be performed on huge amounts of data. Without WFV, one processor core executes a single instance of a data-parallel function. WFV transforms the function to execute multiple instances at once using SIMD instructions. The author describes an advanced WFV algorithm that includes a v

  2. [Automatization of microscopic blood smear analyses and quality control using reference virtual slides]. (United States)

    Medovyĭ, V S; Nikolaenko, D S; Parpara, A A; Piatnitskiĭ, A M; Sokolinskiĭ, B Z; Dem'ianov, V L; Zhurkina, T V; Pal'chunova, I B


    MEKOC microscopy complexes have a group of specialized automatic functions for medical analyses of biomaterials integrated with general virtual microscopy accessories. Such functions provide a way of making specialized reference virtual slides (RVS). The latter contain the results of virtual analysis or expert evidence of the automatic analysis results presented in the virtual slide. The use of RVS yields an open system with a step-by-step control of the quality of automatic operations. RVS as realistic preparation models are also used to train staff. The results of step-by-step trials of the MEKOC--2 are presented in the paper.

  3. A closed-loop automatic control system for high-intensity acoustic test systems. (United States)

    Slusser, R. A.


    Sound at sound pressure levels in the range from 130 to 160 dB is used in the investigation. Random noise is passed through a series of parallel filters, generally 1/3-octave wide. A basic automatic system is investigated because of preadjustment inaccuracies and high costs found in a study of a typical manually controlled acoustic testing system. The unit described has been successfully used in automatic acoustic tests in connection with the spacecraft tests for the Mariner 1971 program.

  4. A Computer-controlled, Fully Automatic NMR/NQR Double Resonance Spectrometer (United States)

    Zhenye, Feng; Lücken, Edwin A. C.; Diolot, Jacques


    A completely automatic computer-controlled NMR/NQR double resonance spectrometer is described. It features automatic tuning of the low, variable frequency power amplifier, thus permitting untended use over long periods, with high sensitivity and signal reproducibility. The sample is transferred between the low-frequency, zero-field region and the high-field region using compressed air and the possibility of switching on a field of several tens of gauss during the transfer of the sample is also included

  5. On the Existence of an Optimal Control of Ship Automatic Steering Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Cunchen; GUO Jifeng


    The existence of linear quadratic optimal control of ship automatic steering instruments is studied. Firstly, the sufficient conditions for the quadratic integrability of the solutions of linear second order time-variant differential equations are developed. Secondly, the optimal control form of the ship automatic steering instrument is obtained by using the dynamic programming method, which guarantees a minimal ship sway range, during long-distance navigation, by using as little energy as possible. Finally, based on the above mentioned sufficient conditions, the conditions for the realization of optimal control are obtained, which provides a foundation for choosing the weighted coefficients for optimal control in engineering.

  6. Flight Investigation of the Effectiveness of an Automatic Aileron Trim Control Device for Personal Airplanes (United States)

    Phillips, William H; Kuehnel, Helmut A; Whitten, James B


    A flight investigation to determine the effectiveness of an automatic aileron trim control device installed in a personal airplane to augment the apparent spiral stability has been conducted. The device utilizes a rate-gyro sensing element in order to switch an on-off type of control that operates the ailerons at a fixed rate through control centering springs. An analytical study using phase-plane and analog-computer methods has been carried out to determine a desirable method of operation for the automatic trim control.

  7. Controlling automatic imitative tendencies: interactions between mirror neuron and cognitive control systems. (United States)

    Cross, Katy A; Torrisi, Salvatore; Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A; Iacoboni, Marco


    Humans have an automatic tendency to imitate others. Although several regions commonly observed in social tasks have been shown to be involved in imitation control, there is little work exploring how these regions interact with one another. We used fMRI and dynamic causal modeling to identify imitation-specific control mechanisms and examine functional interactions between regions. Participants performed a pre-specified action (lifting their index or middle finger) in response to videos depicting the same two actions (biological cues) or dots moving with similar trajectories (non-biological cues). On congruent trials, the stimulus and response were similar (e.g. index finger response to index finger or left side dot stimulus), while on incongruent trials the stimulus and response were dissimilar (e.g. index finger response to middle finger or right side dot stimulus). Reaction times were slower on incongruent compared to congruent trials for both biological and non-biological stimuli, replicating previous findings that suggest the automatic imitative or spatially compatible (congruent) response must be controlled on incongruent trials. Neural correlates of the congruency effects were different depending on the cue type. The medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis (IFGpo) and the left anterior insula were involved specifically in controlling imitation. In addition, the IFGpo was also more active for biological compared to non-biological stimuli, suggesting that the region represents the frontal node of the human mirror neuron system (MNS). Effective connectivity analysis exploring the interactions between these regions, suggests a role for the mPFC and ACC in imitative conflict detection and the anterior insula in conflict resolution processes, which may occur through interactions with the frontal node of the MNS. We suggest an extension of the previous models of imitation control involving interactions between imitation

  8. Automatic Generation Control Strategy Based on Balance of Daily Electric Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An automatic generation control strategy based on balance of daily total electric energy is put forward. It makes the balance between actual total generated energy controlled by automatic generation system and planned total energy on base of area control error, and makes the actual 24-hour active power load curve to approach the planned load curve. The generated energy is corrected by velocity weighting factor so that it conducts dynamic regulation and reaches the speed of response. Homologous strategy is used according to the real-time data in the operation of automatic generation control. Results of simulation are perfect and power energy compensation control with ideal effect can be achieved in the particular duration.

  9. Analysis and Design of PLC-based Control System for Automatic Beverage Filling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yundan Lu


    Full Text Available Automatic filling system is the main equipment in the food machinery industry. With the development of beverage industry and increasing demand of the filling system. The relay control method in traditional Filling machine has low automation and integration level and cannot satisfy the rapid development of automatic production. PLC control method has advantages of simple programming, strong anti-interference and high working reliability, has gradually replace the relay control method. In this study, hardware and software for the automatic filling system based on PLC control is designed, especially the injection section servo control system which adopts the servo motor driver metering pump is carefully analyzed and the filling precision is highly improved.

  10. Specific predictive power of automatic spider-related affective associations for controllable and uncontrollable fear responses toward spiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Huijding (Jorg); P.J. de Jong (Peter)


    textabstractThis study examined the predictive power of automatically activated spider-related affective associations for automatic and controllable fear responses. The Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST; De Houwer, 2003) was used to indirectly assess automatic spider fear-related associations. Th

  11. Specific predictive power of automatic spider-related affective associations for controllable and uncontrollable fear responses toward spiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijdlng, J; de Jong, PJ; Huijding, J.


    This study examined the predictive power of automatically activated spider-related affective associations for automatic and controllable fear responses. The Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST; De Houwer, 2003) was used to indirectly assess automatic spider fear-related associations. The EAST and t

  12. Man-system interface based on automatic speech recognition: integration to a virtual control desk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Aghina, Mauricio Alves C., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nomiya, Diogo V., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)


    This work reports the implementation of a man-system interface based on automatic speech recognition, and its integration to a virtual nuclear power plant control desk. The later is aimed to reproduce a real control desk using virtual reality technology, for operator training and ergonomic evaluation purpose. An automatic speech recognition system was developed to serve as a new interface with users, substituting computer keyboard and mouse. They can operate this virtual control desk in front of a computer monitor or a projection screen through spoken commands. The automatic speech recognition interface developed is based on a well-known signal processing technique named cepstral analysis, and on artificial neural networks. The speech recognition interface is described, along with its integration with the virtual control desk, and results are presented. (author)

  13. Towards automatic model based controller design for reconfigurable plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel Gottlieb; Stoustrup, Jakob; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh


    This paper introduces model-based Plug and Play Process Control, a novel concept for process control, which allows a model-based control system to be reconfigured when a sensor or an actuator is plugged into a controlled process. The work reported in this paper focuses on composing a monolithic m...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravliov A.A.


    Full Text Available The control system of the temperature of the superheated steam of the drum boiler is examined. Main features of the system are the PI-controller in the external control loop and introduction of the functional component of the error signal of the external control loop with the negative feedback of the error signal between the prescribed value of steam flowrate and the signal of the steam flowrate in the exit of the boiler in the internal control loop.

  15. Automatic Weight Selection Algorithm for Designing H Infinity controller for Active Magnetic Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarath S Nair


    Full Text Available In recent times active magnetic bearing has got wide acceptance in industries and other special systems. Current researches focus on improving the disturbance rejection properties of magnetic bearings towork well in industrial environment. So far many controllers have been developed to control the system, of which the H∞ controller is found to guarantee robustness and performance. In this paper an automatic weight selection algorithm is proposed to design robust H Infinity controller automatically for active magnetic bearing system and detailed disturbance analysis is done. This paper focuses on the controller implementation point of view and analyses the variation in control current, peak responses and steady state error of the developed controller. Comparison with a well tuned PID controller shows the efficacy of H infinity controller designed using the proposed algorithm.

  16. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy under steadypressure automatically controlled endoscopy: First clinicalseries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AIM To elucidate the safety of percutaneous endoscopicgastrostomy (PEG) under steady pressure automaticallycontrolled endoscopy (SPACE) using carbon dioxide (CO2). METHODS: Nine patients underwent PEG with a modifiedintroducer method under conscious sedation. A T-tubewas attached to the channel of an endoscope connectedto an automatic surgical insufflator. The stomach wasinflated under the SPACE system. The intragastricpressure was kept between 4-8 mmHg with a flow of CO2at 35 L/min. Median procedure time, intragastric pressure,median systolic blood pressure, partial pressure of CO2,abdominal girth before and immediately after PEG, andfree gas and small intestinal gas on abdominal X-raybefore and after PEG were recorded.RESULTS: PEG was completed under stable pneumostomachin all patients, with a median procedural timeof 22 min. Median intragastric pressure was 6.9 mmHgand median arterial CO2 pressure before and after PEGwas 42.1 and 45.5 Torr (NS). The median abdominal girthbefore and after PEG was 68.1 and 69.6 cm (NS). A mildfree gas image after PEG was observed in two patients,and faint abdominal gas in the downstream bowel wasdocumented in two patients.CONCLUSION: SPACE might enable standardized pneumostomachand modified introducer procedure of PEG.

  17. Eye movements in pedophiles: automatic and controlled attentional processes while viewing prepubescent stimuli. (United States)

    Fromberger, Peter; Jordan, Kirsten; Steinkrauss, Henrike; von Herder, Jakob; Stolpmann, Georg; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit; Müller, Jürgen Leo


    Recent theories in sexuality highlight the importance of automatic and controlled attentional processes in viewing sexually relevant stimuli. The model of Spiering and Everaerd (2007) assumes that sexually relevant features of a stimulus are preattentively selected and automatically induce focal attention to these sexually relevant aspects. Whether this assumption proves true for pedophiles is unknown. It is aim of this study to test this assumption empirically for people suffering from pedophilic interests. Twenty-two pedophiles, 8 nonpedophilic forensic controls, and 52 healthy controls simultaneously viewed the picture of a child and the picture of an adult while eye movements were measured. Entry time was assessed as a measure of automatic attentional processes and relative fixation time in order to assess controlled attentional processes. Pedophiles demonstrated significantly shorter entry time to child stimuli than to adult stimuli. The opposite was the case for nonpedophiles, as they showed longer relative fixation time for adult stimuli, and, against all expectations, pedophiles also demonstrated longer relative fixation time for adult stimuli. The results confirmed the hypothesis that pedophiles automatically selected sexually relevant stimuli (children). Contrary to all expectations, this automatic selection did not trigger the focal attention to these sexually relevant pictures. Furthermore, pedophiles were first and longest attracted by faces and pubic regions of children; nonpedophiles were first and longest attracted by faces and breasts of adults. The results demonstrated, for the first time, that the face and pubic region are the most attracting regions in children for pedophiles.

  18. A new portable device for automatic controlled-gradient cryopreservation of blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L; Albeck, G; Hansen, B


    , which has proved suitable for field conditions. We report here the development and testing of a similar micro-controller regulated device, allowing unattended and automatic controlled-gradient cell freezing. The equipment exploits the temperature gradient present between the liquid N2 surface...

  19. 75 FR 80886 - Ninth Meeting-RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Ninth Meeting--RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 220... and Control meeting. The agenda will include: Welcome/Agenda Overview. Presentation of progress WG...

  20. Initial ideas for automatic design and verification of control logic in reversible HDLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Robert; Keszocze, Oliver; Othmer, Lars;


    not obvious. Moreover, implementations exist which may not be realized with a reversible control flow at all. In this work, we propose automatic methods for descriptions in the reversible HDL SyReC that can generate the required fi-conditions and check whether a reversible control flow indeed can be realized...

  1. Development of an Automatic Gain Controller Card or Next Generation EDFAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. Y. Liaw; T. H. Cheng; C. Lu; M.Akiyama; T.Sakai; A.Wada


    This paper describes a low cost automatic gain controller card that provides fast transient gain control to maintain the power of the surviving channels when the number of input channels to an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)changes rapidly.

  2. Methods of Synthesis of Automatic Control Systems with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksandr Lapeta


    Full Text Available The paper investigates the procedure for introduction of systems containing delay elements. Shortcomings and difficulties in the synthesis of regulators and precompensators of control systems with delays in output and control channel where determined. The author focused on two approaches for the formation of promatrix and synthesis of control systems, considering the factor of delay.

  3. Automatic power control for KMRR using reactivity constraint method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung I.; Kim, Myung H. [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)


    The use of reactivity constraint approach for the non-linear, digital controller is described. The design of controller was done for Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor(KMRR) which is now under construction. The performance test showed that reactivity constraint approach is a fast and reliable means for reactor power change control. A new formulation of the dynamic period equation for 2-point kinetics model is presented. The instantaneous dynamic period is calculated by new equation and used for time optimal control. A new controller keeping up the allowed minimum reactor period shows effective and reliable performance for power change.

  4. Realization of the ergonomics design and automatic control of the fundus cameras (United States)

    Zeng, Chi-liang; Xiao, Ze-xin; Deng, Shi-chao; Yu, Xin-ye


    The principles of ergonomics design in fundus cameras should be extending the agreeableness by automatic control. Firstly, a 3D positional numerical control system is designed for positioning the eye pupils of the patients who are doing fundus examinations. This system consists of a electronically controlled chin bracket for moving up and down, a lateral movement of binocular with the detector and the automatic refocusing of the edges of the eye pupils. Secondly, an auto-focusing device for the object plane of patient's fundus is designed, which collects the patient's fundus images automatically whether their eyes is ametropic or not. Finally, a moving visual target is developed for expanding the fields of the fundus images.

  5. Method and apparatus for automatic control of a humanoid robot (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor)


    A robotic system includes a humanoid robot having a plurality of joints adapted for force control with respect to an object acted upon by the robot, a graphical user interface (GUI) for receiving an input signal from a user, and a controller. The GUI provides the user with intuitive programming access to the controller. The controller controls the joints using an impedance-based control framework, which provides object level, end-effector level, and/or joint space-level control of the robot in response to the input signal. A method for controlling the robotic system includes receiving the input signal via the GUI, e.g., a desired force, and then processing the input signal using a host machine to control the joints via an impedance-based control framework. The framework provides object level, end-effector level, and/or joint space-level control of the robot, and allows for functional-based GUI to simplify implementation of a myriad of operating modes.

  6. Simulation results of automatic restructurable flight control system concepts (United States)

    Weiss, J. L.; Looze, D. P.; Eterno, J. S.; Ostroff, A.


    The restructurable flight control system (RFCS) described by Weiss et al. (1986) is reviewed, and several results of an extensive six degrees of freedom nonlinear simulation of several aspects of this system are reported. It is concluded that the nontraditional use of standard control surfaces in a nominal feedback control system to spread control authority among many redundant control elements provides a significant amount of fault tolerance without any use of restructuring techniques. The use of new feedback gains alone following a failure can provide significantly improved recovery as long as the control elements remain within their travel limits and as long as uncertainty about the failure identity is properly handled. The use of the feed-forward trim solution in conjunction with redesigned feedback gains allows recovery to take place even when significant control saturation occurs.

  7. Methodology of automatic quality control of aluminium castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Sokolowski


    Full Text Available Purpose: Employment of the artificial intelligence tools for development of the methodology of the automatedassessment of quality and structural defects in the Al and Mg alloys and the custom made computer softwarewill make it possible to determine the quality of the manufactured element based on the digital images registeredin the X-ray flaw detection examinations. The possibility to correlate the frequency and morphology of defectswith the technological process parameters will make it also possible to identify and classify these defects andcontrol the process to minimise and eliminate them.Design/methodology/approach: The developed design methodologies both the material and technologicalones will make it possible to improve shortly the quality of materials from the light alloys in the technologicalprocess, and the automatic process flow correction will make the production cost reduction possible, and - firstof all - to reduce the amount of the waste products.Findings: The merit of the project consists in the interdisciplinary joining of the knowledge in the area oflight metal alloys, including Al and/or Mg, in the area of materials processing connected with the entire scopeof problems connected with manufacturing of products and their elements, in the area of the automated lowpressuredie casting, and also in the methodology of structure and properties assessment of the engineeringmaterials with, among others, the X-ray flaw detection and computer image analysis methods.Practical implications: The developed methodology of the automated assessment of quality and properties ofthe light Al and Mg based alloys may be used by manufacturers of subassemblies and elements of engines (e.g.,car engine bodies made from the light alloys with the low-pressure casting in the sand moulds.Originality/value: The project’s effects will be shortening the time needed for analyses and elimination of manusubjective evaluation errors made by humans.

  8. Hybrid Control of a Two-Wheeled Automatic-Balancing Robot with Backlash Feature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Yang, Zhenyu


    This paper investigates the application of hybrid control for an automatic balancing robot system subject to backlash effect. The developed controller is a type of sliding mode controller, refereed to as a switching controller, with respect to different situations i.e., whether the backlash is pr...... and comparisons with other solutions show the proposed solution can lead to a very satisfactory anti-backlash performance, with an easy and cost-effective implementation....

  9. Initial design and evaluation of automatic restructurable flight control system concepts (United States)

    Weiss, J. L.; Looze, D. P.; Eterno, J. S.; Grunberg, D. B.


    Results of efforts to develop automatic control design procedures for restructurable aircraft control systems is presented. The restructurable aircraft control problem involves designing a fault tolerance control system which can accommodate a wide variety of unanticipated aircraft failure. Under NASA sponsorship, many of the technologies which make such a system possible were developed and tested. Future work will focus on developing a methodology for integrating these technologies and demonstration of a complete system.

  10. The integrated manual and automatic control of complex flight systems (United States)

    Schmidt, David K.


    Research dealt with the general area of optimal flight control synthesis for manned flight vehicles. The work was generic; no specific vehicle was the focus of study. However, the class of vehicles generally considered were those for which high authority, multivariable control systems might be considered, for the purpose of stabilization and the achievement of optimal handling characteristics. Within this scope, the topics of study included several optimal control synthesis techniques, control-theoretic modeling of the human operator in flight control tasks, and the development of possible handling qualities metrics and/or measures of merit. Basic contributions were made in all these topics, including human operator (pilot) models for multi-loop tasks, optimal output feedback flight control synthesis techniques; experimental validations of the methods developed, and fundamental modeling studies of the air-to-air tracking and flared landing tasks.

  11. Adaptive Clutch Engaging Process Control for Automatic Mechanical Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hai-ou; CHEN Hui-yan; DING Hua-rong; HE Zhong-bo


    Based on detail analysis of clutch engaging process control targets and adaptive demands, a control strategy which is based on speed signal, different from that of based on main clutch displacement signal, is put forward. It considers both jerk and slipping work which are the most commonly used quality evaluating indexes of vehicle starting phase. The adaptive control system and its reference model are discussed profoundly.Taking the adaptability to different starting gears and different road conditions as examples, some proving field test records are shown to illustrate the main clutch adaptive control strategy at starting phase. Proving field test gives acceptable results.

  12. Simultaneous Control of Phenanthrene and Drought by Dual Exposure System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine N.; Holmstrup, Martin; Damgaard, Christian;


    and independent control of chemical and drought exposure in bioassays with terrestrial organisms: Passive dosing from silicone controlled the chemical activity of phenanthrene (chemical stress), while saline solutions controlled the water activity (drought stress) in the closed exposure system. The dual exposure...... system was then applied in a full factorial experiment with seven exposure levels (72), which aimed at determining the combined effects of phenanthrene and drought on the survival of the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida after 7 d exposure. Fitting an "independent action" model to the complete data...... set revealed statistically significant synergy between phenanthrene and drought (p

  13. A simple readout electronics for automatic power controlled self-mixing laser diode systems. (United States)

    Cattini, Stefano; Rovati, Luigi


    The paper describes a simple electronic circuit to drive a laser diode for self-mixing interferometry. The network integrates a stable commercial automatic power controller and a current mirror based readout of the interferometric signal. The first prototype version of the circuit has been realized and characterized. The system allows easily performing precise interferometric measurements with no thermostatic circuitry to stabilize the laser diode temperature and an automatic control gain network to compensate emitted optical power fluctuations. To achieve this result, in the paper a specific calibration procedure to be performed is described.

  14. Improvement of remote control system of automatic ultrasonic equipment for inspection of reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Yong Moo; Jung, H. K.; Joo, Y. S.; Koo, K. M.; Hyung, H.; Sim, C. M.; Gong, U. S.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, J. P.; Rhoo, H. C.; Kim, M. S.; Ryoo, S. K.; Choi, C. H.; Oh, K. I


    One of the important issues related to the nuclear safety is in-service inspection of reactor pressure vessel (RPV). A remote controlled automatic ultrasonic method is applied to the inspection. At present the automatic ultrasonic inspection system owned by KAERI is interrupted due to degradation of parts. In order to resume field inspection new remote control system for the equipment was designed and installed to the existing equipment. New ultrasonic sensors and their modules for RPV inspection were designed and fabricated in accordance with the new requirements of the inspection codes. Ultrasonic sensors were verified for the use in the RPV inspection. (autho0008.

  15. Using Spec Explorer for Automatic Checking of Constraints in Software Controlled Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izzat Mahmoud ALSMADI


    Full Text Available In software engineering, several formal models and tools are proposed for defining system requirements and constraints formally. Such formal definitions can help in the automatic checking and verification for them. It can also help in the automatic test case generation, execution and verification. In this paper, we will demonstrate and evaluate the usage of Spec Explorer from Microsoft for defining and checking examples of software controlled system such as cruise control. Such formal requirements can be eventually embedded in the developed system or can help in exposing important elements to test in the testing stage or through the usage of the application

  16. PLC based automatic control of pasteurize mix in ice cream production (United States)

    Yao, Xudong; Liang, Kai


    This paper describes the automatic control device of pasteurized mix in the ice cream production process.We design a scheme of control system using FBD program language and develop the programmer in the STEP 7-Micro/WIN software, check for any bugs before downloading into PLC .These developed devices will able to provide flexibility and accuracy to control the step of pasteurized mix. The operator just Input the duration and temperature of pasteurized mix through control panel. All the steps will finish automatically without any intervention in a preprogrammed sequence stored in programmable logic controller (PLC). With the help of this equipment we not only can control the quality of ice cream for various conditions, but also can simplify the production process. This control system is inexpensive and can be widely used in ice cream production industry.

  17. Design and Implementation of Automatic Air Flow Rate Control System (United States)

    Akbar, A.; Saputra, C.; Munir, M. M.; Khairurrijal


    Venturimeter is an apparatus that can be used to measure the air flow rate. In this experiment we designed a venturimeter which equipped with a valve that is used to control the air flow rate. The difference of pressure between the cross sections was measured with the differential pressure sensor GA 100-015WD which can calculate the difference of pressures from 0 to 3737.33 Pa. A 42M048C Z36 stepper motor was used to control the valve. The precision of this motor rotation is about 0.15 °. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) was developed to monitor and set the value of flow rate then an 8-bit microcontroller was used to process the control system In this experiment- the venturimeter has been examined to get the optimal parameter of controller. The results show that the controller can set the stable output air flow rate.

  18. Testing interactive effects of automatic and conflict control processes during response inhibition - A system neurophysiological study. (United States)

    Chmielewski, Witold X; Beste, Christian


    In everyday life successful acting often requires to inhibit automatic responses that might not be appropriate in the current situation. These response inhibition processes have been shown to become aggravated with increasing automaticity of pre-potent response tendencies. Likewise, it has been shown that inhibitory processes are complicated by a concurrent engagement in additional cognitive control processes (e.g. conflicting monitoring). Therefore, opposing processes (i.e. automaticity and cognitive control) seem to strongly impact response inhibition. However, possible interactive effects of automaticity and cognitive control for the modulation of response inhibition processes have yet not been examined. In the current study we examine this question using a novel experimental paradigm combining a Go/NoGo with a Simon task in a system neurophysiological approach combining EEG recordings with source localization analyses. The results show that response inhibition is less accurate in non-conflicting than in conflicting stimulus-response mappings. Thus it seems that conflicts and the resulting engagement in conflict monitoring processes, as reflected in the N2 amplitude, may foster response inhibition processes. This engagement in conflict monitoring processes leads to an increase in cognitive control, as reflected by an increased activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate areas, while simultaneously the automaticity of response tendencies is decreased. Most importantly, this study suggests that the quality of conflict processes in anterior cingulate areas and especially the resulting interaction of cognitive control and automaticity of pre-potent response tendencies are important factors to consider, when it comes to the modulation of response inhibition processes.

  19. Automatic Control of Contextual Interaction Integrated with Affection and Architectural Attentional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Jiang


    Full Text Available It is still a challenge for robots to interact with complex environments in a smooth and natural manner. The robot should be aware of its surroundings and inner status to make decisions accordingly and appropriately. Contexts benefit the interaction a lot, such as avoiding frequent interruptions (e.g., the explicit inputting requests and thus are essential for interaction. Other challenges, such as shifting attentional focus to a more important stimulus, etc., are also crucial in interaction control. This paper presents a hybrid automatic control approach for interaction, as well as its integration, with these multiple important factors, aiming at performing natural, human‐like interactions in robots. In particular, a novel approach of architectural attentional control, based on affection is presented, which attempts to shift the attentional focus in a natural manner. Context‐aware computing is combined with interaction to endow the robot with proactive abilities. The long‐term interaction control approaches are described. Emotion and personality are introduced into the interaction and their influence mechanism on interaction is explored. We implemented the proposal in an interactive head robot (IHR and the experimental results indicate the effectiveness.

  20. Development of Full Automatic Flash Butt Welding with Digital Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui; SUN Hexu; WANG Hongwen


    The hardware and software design of two digital control systems based on 80C196KB MCU for flash butt welder is introduced in this paper. The welding power supply is made of six-phase half-wave rectifier. The welding outer characteristic of welding machine is realized by digital PI algorithm with the voltage close-loop feedback. The flashing curve is finished by electric-hydraulic servo valve .The process control system transfers datum with power supply system by a serial communication interface. The parameters of the control systems are collected by photoelectrical seclusion to avoid the disturbing of the electromagnetism in welding process.

  1. An approach of optimal sensitivity applied in the tertiary loop of the automatic generation control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belati, Edmarcio A. [CIMATEC - SENAI, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Alves, Dilson A. [Electrical Engineering Department, FEIS, UNESP - Sao Paulo State University (Brazil); da Costa, Geraldo R.M. [Electrical Engineering Department, EESC, USP - Sao Paulo University (Brazil)


    This paper proposes an approach of optimal sensitivity applied in the tertiary loop of the automatic generation control. The approach is based on the theorem of non-linear perturbation. From an optimal operation point obtained by an optimal power flow a new optimal operation point is directly determined after a perturbation, i.e., without the necessity of an iterative process. This new optimal operation point satisfies the constraints of the problem for small perturbation in the loads. The participation factors and the voltage set point of the automatic voltage regulators (AVR) of the generators are determined by the technique of optimal sensitivity, considering the effects of the active power losses minimization and the network constraints. The participation factors and voltage set point of the generators are supplied directly to a computational program of dynamic simulation of the automatic generation control, named by power sensitivity mode. Test results are presented to show the good performance of this approach. (author)

  2. 49 CFR 236.401 - Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. (United States)


    ... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.401 Automatic... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. 236.401 Section 236.401 Transportation Other...

  3. Study of structure of marine specialist activity in an ergative system on monitoring and managing automatic control parameters of safe navigation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholichev S. N.


    Full Text Available The study of structures' common features and dynamics of the technical object tuning circuit performing automatic adjustment of safe navigation options has been conducted for the first time in the theory of ergative systems. The research of the structure and process of ergative system functioning including an automatic control system with the option of safe navigation conditions has been fulfilled. The function of signals' selection performing optimal control law reconfiguration of the mentioned system has been given, and some sequence of marine specialist activities allowing solve the problem of navigation safety has been composed. The ergative system retargeted by the ship specialist has a two-tier hierarchy. The first level is an automatic control of the safe navigation parameter, and the second is the level of reconfiguration where the ship specialist changes the parameters of regulation act. The two-level hierarchical representation of the ergative navigation security settings management system makes it possible to introduce the concept of reconfiguration of regulation level as ship specialist activity which is to reduce the uncertainty in the environment in the operation of this layer. Such a reduction can be achieved as a result of exposure to the upper level associated with ideas of the ship specialist on the regulation of safe navigation parameters of the vessel on the lower level – the level of direct control automatic safe navigation option. As a result of studying the activities of the ship specialist in the ergative system on monitoring and managing automatic control parameters of safe navigation process it has been found that the main task of the ship specialist in the operation within the ergative system ensuring the navigation safety is to monitor the input and output of the automatic control system, decisions on the choice of reconfiguration laws regulating signal on the basis of information about deviations and the

  4. Research on HCI Prototype Design of Ink Automatic Control System for Offset Printer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianyu; GAO Lixin; CUI Lingli; WANG Yingwang; LI Xianghui


    In order to solve the low efficiency and poor precision problems of traditional ink control methods on domestic offset printers, developing modern ink automatic control system has become more and more urgent. As an important subsystem, the human computer interface (HCI) is a key function for the wholly automatic control. Once this goal is obtained, all the printing procedures especially the automatic control of ink volume should be finished with human computer interface in different areas. Considering the HCI design theory and structure characteristics of domestic printers comprehensively, the HCI prototype for automatic ink control system has been developed based on Visual Basic platform. As the individual ink key is instead of the integrated key, the division result of ink fountain can be displayed on the interface. Through the interface, the dynamic adjusting functions such as modifying ink volume, locking or unlocking each ink key and real-time displaying the adjusting results etc. can be completed. The simulation test has shown that the opening and practical feature of the prototype is satisfactory.

  5. Carrier-phase differential GPS for automatic control of land vehicles (United States)

    O'Connor, Michael Lee

    Real-time centimeter-level navigation has countless potential applications in land vehicles, including precise topographic field mapping, runway snowplowing in bad weather, and land mine detection and avoidance. Perhaps the most obvious and immediate need for accurate, robust land vehicle sensing is in the guidance and control of agricultural vehicles. Accurate guidance and automatic control of farm vehicles offers many potential advantages; however, previous attempts to automate these vehicles have been unsuccessful due to sensor limitations. With the recent development of real-time carrier-phase differential GPS (CDGPS), a single inexpensive GPS receiver can measure a vehicle's position to within a few centimeters and orientation to fractions of a degree. This ability to provide accurate real-time measurements of multiple vehicle states makes CDGPS ideal for automatic control of vehicles. This work describes the theoretical and experimental work behind the first successfully demonstrated automatic control system for land vehicles based on CDGPS. An extension of pseudolite-based CDGPS initialization methods was explored for land vehicles and demonstrated experimentally. Original land vehicle dynamic models were developed and identified using this innovative sensor. After initial automatic control testing using a Yamaha Fleetmaster golf cart, a centimeter-level, fully autonomous row guidance capability was demonstrated on a John Deere 7800 farm tractor.

  6. Effect of Subject Control and Graduated Exposure on Snake Phobias (United States)

    Hepner, Alain; Cauthen, Nelson R.


    The influence of two of the variables in Leitenberg's graduated exposure technique for treating phobias, graduated exposure and subject control of the exposure time, was investigated using 15 snake-phobic subjects. Subjective fear significantly decreased from pretesting to posttesting. (Author)

  7. Programmable Logic Controllers for Systems of Automatic of the Level Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczyslaw Kornaszewski


    Full Text Available The railway crossings are vulnerable to incidence of high number of accidents often deadly. In order to face this problem, the modern systems of automatic of the level crossing have been introduced. These systems are based on Programmable Logic Controllers, which allow the designers to exploit self-control mechanisms, events acquiring, technical diagnostic which in turn enable remote control and acquisition of faults.

  8. Automatic Frequency Controller for Power Amplifiers Used in Bio-Implanted Applications: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahammad A. Hannan


    Full Text Available With the development of communication technologies, the use of wireless systems in biomedical implanted devices has become very useful. Bio-implantable devices are electronic devices which are used for treatment and monitoring brain implants, pacemakers, cochlear implants, retinal implants and so on. The inductive coupling link is used to transmit power and data between the primary and secondary sides of the biomedical implanted system, in which efficient power amplifier is very much needed to ensure the best data transmission rates and low power losses. However, the efficiency of the implanted devices depends on the circuit design, controller, load variation, changes of radio frequency coil’s mutual displacement and coupling coefficients. This paper provides a comprehensive survey on various power amplifier classes and their characteristics, efficiency and controller techniques that have been used in bio-implants. The automatic frequency controller used in biomedical implants such as gate drive switching control, closed loop power control, voltage controlled oscillator, capacitor control and microcontroller frequency control have been explained. Most of these techniques keep the resonance frequency stable in transcutaneous power transfer between the external coil and the coil implanted inside the body. Detailed information including carrier frequency, power efficiency, coils displacement, power consumption, supplied voltage and CMOS chip for the controllers techniques are investigated and summarized in the provided tables. From the rigorous review, it is observed that the existing automatic frequency controller technologies are more or less can capable of performing well in the implant devices; however, the systems are still not up to the mark. Accordingly, current challenges and problems of the typical automatic frequency controller techniques for power amplifiers are illustrated, with a brief suggestions and discussion section concerning

  9. Automatic frequency controller for power amplifiers used in bio-implanted applications: issues and challenges. (United States)

    Hannan, Mahammad A; Hussein, Hussein A; Mutashar, Saad; Samad, Salina A; Hussain, Aini


    With the development of communication technologies, the use of wireless systems in biomedical implanted devices has become very useful. Bio-implantable devices are electronic devices which are used for treatment and monitoring brain implants, pacemakers, cochlear implants, retinal implants and so on. The inductive coupling link is used to transmit power and data between the primary and secondary sides of the biomedical implanted system, in which efficient power amplifier is very much needed to ensure the best data transmission rates and low power losses. However, the efficiency of the implanted devices depends on the circuit design, controller, load variation, changes of radio frequency coil's mutual displacement and coupling coefficients. This paper provides a comprehensive survey on various power amplifier classes and their characteristics, efficiency and controller techniques that have been used in bio-implants. The automatic frequency controller used in biomedical implants such as gate drive switching control, closed loop power control, voltage controlled oscillator, capacitor control and microcontroller frequency control have been explained. Most of these techniques keep the resonance frequency stable in transcutaneous power transfer between the external coil and the coil implanted inside the body. Detailed information including carrier frequency, power efficiency, coils displacement, power consumption, supplied voltage and CMOS chip for the controllers techniques are investigated and summarized in the provided tables. From the rigorous review, it is observed that the existing automatic frequency controller technologies are more or less can capable of performing well in the implant devices; however, the systems are still not up to the mark. Accordingly, current challenges and problems of the typical automatic frequency controller techniques for power amplifiers are illustrated, with a brief suggestions and discussion section concerning the progress of

  10. daptive Filter Used as a Dynamic Compensator in Automatic Gauge Control of Strip Rolling Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. ROMAN


    Full Text Available The paper deals with a control structure of the strip thickness in a rolling mill of quarto type (AGC – Automatic Gauge Control. It performs two functions: the compensation of errors induced by unideal dynamics of the tracking systems lead by AGC system and the control adaptation to the change of dynamic properties of the tracking systems. The compensation of dynamical errors is achieved through inverse models of the tracking system, implemented as adaptive filters.

  11. Automatic Voltage Control (AVC) of Danish Transmission System - Concept design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Abildgaard, Hans; Lund, P.


    , objectives, constraints, algorithms for optimal power flow and some special functions in particular systems, which inspires the concept design of a Danish AVC system to address the future challenges of voltage control. In the concept, the Danish AVC design is based on a centralized control scheme. All...... the buses are monitored where the voltage magnitudes are maintained continually. The loss minimization including switching cost is the objectives of the AVC system. The reactive power reserves as constraints are taken into account to limit the regulation capabilities of generators. The Day ahead and short...

  12. Automatic quadrature control and measuring system. [using optical coupling circuitry (United States)

    Hamlet, J. F. (Inventor)


    A quadrature component cancellation and measuring system comprising a detection system for detecting the quadrature component from a primary signal, including reference circuitry to define the phase of the quadrature component for detection is described. A Raysistor optical coupling control device connects an output from the detection system to a circuit driven by a signal based upon the primary signal. Combining circuitry connects the primary signal and the circuit controlled by the Raysistor device to subtract quadrature components. A known current through the optically sensitive element produces a signal defining the magnitude of the quadrature component.

  13. Application of the concept of dynamic trim control to automatic landing of carrier aircraft. [utilizing digital feedforeward control (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.


    The results of a simulation study of an alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system are presented. The alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system is described. The design concept is the total aircraft flight control system (TAFCOS). TAFCOS is an open loop, feed forward system that commands the proper instantaneous thrust, angle of attack, and roll angle to achieve the forces required to follow the desired trajector. These dynamic trim conditions are determined by an inversion of the aircraft nonlinear force characteristics. The concept was applied to an A-7E aircraft approaching an aircraft carrier. The implementation details with an airborne digital computer are discussed. The automatic carrier landing situation is described. The simulation results are presented for a carrier approach with atmospheric disturbances, an approach with no disturbances, and for tailwind and headwind gusts.

  14. Analysis of Information Systems Based on Automatic Control Theory, (United States)

    The development of information systems in the USSR have given rise to increased interest in studing them. In this report basic attention is the problems of optimizing the operation and control of information systems . It appears that this problem can be solved most fruitfully on the basis

  15. Automatic phase control in solar power satellite systems (United States)

    Lindsey, W. C.; Kantak, A. V.


    Various approaches to the problem of generating, maintaining and distributing a coherent, reference phase signal over a large area are suggested, mathematically modeled and analyzed with respect to their ability to minimize: phase build-up, beam diffusion and beam steering phase jitter, cable length, and maximize power transfer efficiency. In addition, phase control configurations are suggested which alleviate the need for layout symmetry.

  16. Automatic quality control in the production of ceramic substrates by pulsed laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morace, Renate Erica; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    This paper deals with the use of optical coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) in the quality control of ceramic substrates produced by a CO2 pulsed laser. A procedure of automatic measurements on a CMM equipped with a CCD camera was developed. In particular, the number and the distribution...

  17. 76 FR 79754 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 220, Automatic Flight Guidance and Control (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 220, Automatic Flight Guidance and Control AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... Return to general plenary meeting Review of WG 2 status--progress, issues and plan Review of WG 3...

  18. 76 FR 50809 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 220: Automatic Flight Guidance and Control AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Correction of Notice of RTCA... plenary meeting RTCA paper no. 011-11/SC220-024 Presentation of progress of Working Group-2...

  19. Using Automatic Code Generation in the Attitude Control Flight Software Engineering Process (United States)

    McComas, David; O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Andrews, Stephen F.


    This paper presents an overview of the attitude control subsystem flight software development process, identifies how the process has changed due to automatic code generation, analyzes each software development phase in detail, and concludes with a summary of our lessons learned.

  20. Postural Control and Automaticity in Dyslexic Children: The Relationship between Visual Information and Body Sway (United States)

    Barela, Jose A.; Dias, Josenaldo L.; Godoi, Daniela; Viana, Andre R.; de Freitas, Paulo B.


    Difficulty with literacy acquisition is only one of the symptoms of developmental dyslexia. Dyslexic children also show poor motor coordination and postural control. Those problems could be associated with automaticity, i.e., difficulty in performing a task without dispending a fair amount of conscious efforts. If this is the case, dyslexic…

  1. Adaptive Automatic Gauge Control of a Cold Strip Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMAN, N.


    Full Text Available The paper tackles with thickness control structure of the cold rolled strips. This structure is based on the rolls position control of a reversible quarto rolling mill. The main feature of the system proposed in the paper consists in the compensation of the errors introduced by the deficient dynamics of the hydraulic servo-system used for the rolls positioning, by means of a dynamic compensator that approximates the inverse system of the servo-system. Because the servo-system is considered variant over time, an on-line identification of the servo-system and parameter adapting of the compensator are achieved. The results obtained by numerical simulation are presented together with the data taken from real process. These results illustrate the efficiency of the proposed solutions.

  2. Iron ore sintering. Part 3: Automatic and control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cores


    Full Text Available El proceso de sinterización implica un gran número de parámetros, más de quinientos, cada uno de los cuales ejerce una mayor o menor influencia y necesita ser controlado, dentro de los límites posibles, con el fin de optimizar la productividad, la estabilidad del proceso, y la composición y la calidad de la sinterizado producido. Para cumplir con la legislación ambiental, un sistema de control de la contaminación debe monitorizar la composición de las partículas y los gases generados en la planta de sinterización y emitidos a la atmósfera. Los sistemas de automatización y control son herramientas vitales para ayudar a los operadores de la planta en el seguimiento de cada etapa del proceso de producción de sinterizado.

  3. Optimization of Automatic Train Control for Energy Management and Service Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susanna P. Gordon; Richard M. Wheeler; Timothy J. Sa; Donald A. Sheaffer


    A new generation of automatic train control systems is currently under development in the commuter-rail transit industry. These systems will utilize radio communication between wayside control computers and trains in order to provide high precision train control beyond the capability of today's automatic systems. The Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system is developing such a modern control system in collaboration with Harmon Industries. This system, called the Advanced Automatic Train Control (AATC) system, will allow for precision train locating and control, and will facilitate coordination of the trajectories of multiple trains. This system will be capable of running trains more closely together and decreasing the time a train requires to traverse the system, while simultaneously operating with a more modest traction power infrastructure, and providing a smoother, more comfortable ride to commuters. The authors have collaborated with BART to develop a simulator of the AATC system and the traction power system, and they have utilized this simulator as a testbed for the development of advanced train control techniques. Several train control algorithms, including one employing a neural network for train voltage prediction, have been developed and tested in the simulator. Smoother train trajectories, reduced power infrastructure requirements, and reduced energy consumption have been demonstrated. Improved service reliability is also expected to result.

  4. An automatically controlled predistorter for multilevel quadrature amplitude modulation (United States)

    Namiki, J.


    In digital microwave transmission, the nonlinear characteristics in a high power amplifier, such as a TWT (traveling-wave tube), inhibit efficient output use. This note introduces a new predistorter control technique, and assesses the nonlinear compensation capability of a third-order predistorter incorporating this technique. Concerning 16-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation), a 10 dB reduction in out-of-band emission and larger than 8 dB C/N improvement with respect to symbol error rate can be achieved at 3 dB TWT average output power backoff.

  5. Design and evaluation of a virtual reality exposure therapy system with automatic free speech interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Heijden, N.; Brinkman, W.P.


    Research on Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) to treat social phobia is not new. Still few studies focus on creating an elaborate conversation between the patient and characters in a virtual environment. This study focuses on techniques to run a semi-scripted conversation between virtual chara

  6. Unattended vehicle detection for automatic traffic light control (United States)

    Abdel Hady, Aya Salama; Moustafa, Mohamed


    Machine vision based traffic light control depends mainly on measuring traffic statistics at cross roads. Most of the previous studies have not taken unattended vehicles into consideration when calculating either the traffic density or the traffic flow. In this paper, we propose incorporating unattended vehicles into a new metric for measuring the traffic congestion. In addition to the vehicle motion analysis, opening the driver's side door is an important indicator that this vehicle is going to be unattended. Therefore, we focus in this paper on presenting how to detect this event for stationary vehicles from a live camera or a video feed. Through a set of experiments, we have found out that a Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature-descriptor with a Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier was able to successfully classify open-door vehicles from closed-door ones in 96.7% of our test dataset.

  7. Study of an automatic trajectory following control system (United States)

    Vanlandingham, H. F.; Moose, R. L.; Zwicke, P. E.; Lucas, W. H.; Brinkley, J. D.


    It is shown that the estimator part of the Modified Partitioned Adaptive Controller, (MPAC) developed for nonlinear aircraft dynamics of a small jet transport can adapt to sensor failures. In addition, an investigation is made into the potential usefulness of the configuration detection technique used in the MPAC and the failure detection filter is developed that determines how a noise plant output is associated with a line or plane characteristic of a failure. It is shown by computer simulation that the estimator part and the configuration detection part of the MPAC can readily adapt to actuator and sensor failures and that the failure detection filter technique cannot detect actuator or sensor failures accurately for this type of system because of the plant modeling errors. In addition, it is shown that the decision technique, developed for the failure detection filter, can accurately determine that the plant output is related to the characteristic line or plane in the presence of sensor noise.

  8. Development and evaluation of an Exposure Control Efficacy Library (ECEL)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransman, W.; Schinkel, J.; Meijster, T.; Hemmen, J. van; Tielemans, E.; Goede, H.


    Objectives: This paper describes the development and evaluation of an evidence database on the effectiveness of risk management measures (RMMs) to control inhalation exposure. This database is referred to as Exposure Control Efficacy Library (ECEL). Methods: A comprehensive review of scientific jour

  9. Short communication: Automatic washing of hooves can help control digital dermatitis in dairy cows. (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Jan Tind


    The objectives of this study were to develop and test a system for automatic washing of the hooves of dairy cows and to evaluate the effect of frequent automatic washing on the prevalence of digital dermatitis (DD). An automatic hoof washer was developed in an experimental dairy herd and tested in 6 commercial dairy herds in 2 experiments (1 and 2). In the experimental herd, automatic hoof washing resulted in cleaner hooves. In experiments 1 and 2, cows were washed after each milking on the left side only, leaving the right side unwashed as a within-cow control. In experiment 1, hooves were washed with a water and 0.4% soap solution. In experiment 2, hooves were washed with water only. In each experiment, DD was scored in a hoof-trimming chute approximately 60 d after the start of hoof washing. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. The outcome was the DD status of each leg (DD positive or DD negative). Herd and cow within herd were included as random effects, and treatment (washing or control) was included as a fixed effect. The statistical analyses showed that the odds ratio of having DD was 1.48 in the control leg compared with the washed leg in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the odds ratio of having DD was 1.27 in the control leg compared with the washed leg. We concluded that automatic washing of hooves with water and soap can help decrease the prevalence of DD in commercial dairy herds.

  10. Automatic computation of conservation laws in the calculus of variations and optimal control



    Computer Application We present analytic computational tools that permit us to identify, in an automatic way, conservation laws in optimal control. The central result we use is the famous Noether's theorem, a classical theory developed by Emmy Noether in 1918, in the context of the calculus of variations and mathematical physics, and which was extended recently to the more general context of optimal control. We show how a Computer Algebra System can be very helpful in finding the symmetrie...

  11. The application of charge-coupled device processors in automatic-control systems (United States)

    Mcvey, E. S.; Parrish, E. A., Jr.


    The application of charge-coupled device (CCD) processors to automatic-control systems is suggested. CCD processors are a new form of semiconductor component with the unique ability to process sampled signals on an analog basis. Specific implementations of controllers are suggested for linear time-invariant, time-varying, and nonlinear systems. Typical processing time should be only a few microseconds. This form of technology may become competitive with microprocessors and minicomputers in addition to supplementing them.

  12. Application of NASA-developed technology to the automatic control of municipal sewage treatment plants (United States)

    Hiser, L. L.; Herrera, W. R.


    A search was made of NASA developed technology and commercial technology for process control sensors and instrumentation which would be applicable to the operation of municipal sewage treatment plants. Several notable items were found from which process control concepts were formulated that incorporated these items into systems to automatically operate municipal sewage treatment plants. A preliminary design of the most promising concept was developed into a process control scheme for an activated sludge treatment plant. This design included process control mechanisms for maintaining constant food to sludge mass (F/M) ratio, and for such unit processes as primary sedimentation, sludge wastage, and underflow control from the final clarifier.

  13. Flight Investigation of a Normal-Acceleration Automatic Longitudinal Control System in a Fighter Airplane (United States)

    Sjoberg, S. A.; Russell, Walter R.; Alford, William L.


    A flight investigation was made to obtain experimental information on the handling qualities of a normal-acceleration type of automatic longitudinal control system. The control system was installed in a subsonic fighter-type airplane. In hands-off (stick-free) flight the normal-acceleration control system attempted to regulate the normal acceleration to a constant value which is dependent on the automatic-control-system trim setting. In maneuvering flight a given pilot's stick deflection produced a proportional change in normal acceleration, the change in acceleration being independent of flight condition. A small side-located controller stick was used by the pilot to introduce signals into the automatic control system. In the flight program emphasis was placed on the acceleration-limiting capabilities of the control system. The handling qualities were investigated in maneuvers such as slow and rapid pull-ups and turns and also in flight operations such as cruising, stalls, landings, aerobatics, and air-to-air tracking. Good acceleration limiting was obtained with the normal-acceleration control system by limiting the magnitude of the input signal that the pilot could introduce into the control system. The same values of control-system gain settings could be used from an acceleration-limiting stand-point at both 10,000 and 30,000 feet for the complete speed range of the airplane. The response characteristics of the airplane-control system combination were also satisfactory at both high and low altitude with these same values of control-system gain setting. In the pilot's opinion, the normal-acceleration control system provided good stability and control characteristics in flight operations such as cruising, stalls, landings, aerobatics, and air-to-air tracking.

  14. Are urinary PAHs biomarkers of controlled exposure to diesel exhaust? (United States)

    Lu, Sixin S; Sobus, Jon R; Sallsten, Gerd; Albin, Maria; Pleil, Joachim D; Gudmundsson, Anders; Madden, Michael C; Strandberg, Bo; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Rappaport, Stephen M


    Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as possible biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in two controlled-chamber studies. We report levels of 14 PAHs from 28 subjects in urine that were collected before, immediately after and the morning after exposure. Using linear mixed-effects models, we tested for effects of DE exposure and several covariates (time, age, gender and urinary creatinine) on urinary PAH levels. DE exposures did not significantly alter urinary PAH levels. We conclude that urinary PAHs are not promising biomarkers of short-term exposures to DE in the range of 106-276 µg/m(3).

  15. Inhibitory motor control in old age: evidence for de-automatization? (United States)

    Maylor, Elizabeth Ann; Birak, Kulbir Singh; Schlaghecken, Friederike


    To examine age-related effects on high-level consciously controlled and low-level automatically controlled inhibitory processes, the Simon task was combined with the masked prime task in a hybrid procedure. Young and older adults responded to the identity of targets (left/right key-press to left-/right-pointing arrows) that appeared on the left/right of the screen and were preceded by left-/right-pointing backward-masked arrow primes at fixation. Responses were faster and more accurate when the target was congruent with its location than incongruent (Simon effect), and when the target was incompatible with the prime than compatible (negative compatibility effect; NCE). The Simon effect was disproportionately larger, and the NCE disproportionately delayed, in older adults compared to young adults, indicating both high- and low-level inhibitory control deficits with aging. Moreover, the two effects were additive in young adults, but interactive in older adults, providing support for the dedifferentiation hypothesis of aging. Specifically, older adults' prime-related inhibitory control appeared improved on incongruent relative to congruent trials, suggesting that impaired automatic control was substituted by high-level, non-automatic processes.

  16. Inhibitory motor control in old age: evidence for de-automatization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Maylor


    Full Text Available To examine age-related effects on high-level consciously-controlled and low-level automatically-controlled inhibitory processes, the Simon task was combined with the masked prime task in a hybrid procedure. Young and older adults responded to the identity of targets (left/right key-press to left-/right-pointing arrows that appeared on the left/right of the screen and were preceded by left-/right-pointing backward-masked arrow primes at fixation. Responses were faster and more accurate when the target was congruent with its location than incongruent (Simon effect, and when the target was incompatible with the prime than compatible (negative compatibility effect; NCE. The Simon effect was disproportionately larger, and the NCE disproportionately delayed, in older adults compared to young adults, indicating both high- and low-level inhibitory control deficits with aging. Moreover, the two effects were additive in young adults, but interactive in older adults, providing support for the dedifferentiation hypothesis of aging. Specifically, older adults’ prime-related inhibitory control appeared improved on incongruent relative to congruent trials, suggesting that impaired automatic control was substituted by high-level, non-automatic processes.

  17. Automatic Gauge Control in Rolling Process Based on Multiple Smith Predictor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangyun Li


    Full Text Available Automatic rolling process is a high-speed system which always requires high-speed control and communication capabilities. Meanwhile, it is also a typical complex electromechanical system; distributed control has become the mainstream of computer control system for rolling mill. Generally, the control system adopts the 2-level control structure—basic automation (Level 1 and process control (Level 2—to achieve the automatic gauge control. In Level 1, there is always a certain distance between the roll gap of each stand and the thickness testing point, leading to the time delay of gauge control. Smith predictor is a method to cope with time-delay system, but the practical feedback control based on traditional Smith predictor cannot get the ideal control result, because the time delay is hard to be measured precisely and in some situations it may vary in a certain range. In this paper, based on adaptive Smith predictor, we employ multiple models to cover the uncertainties of time delay. The optimal model will be selected by the proposed switch mechanism. Simulations show that the proposed multiple Smith model method exhibits excellent performance in improving the control result even for system with jumping time delay.

  18. Bond graph modeling, simulation, and reflex control of the Mars planetary automatic vehicle (United States)

    Amara, Maher; Friconneau, Jean Pierre; Micaelli, Alain


    The bond graph modeling, simulation, and reflex control study of the Planetary Automatic Vehicle are considered. A simulator derived from a complete bond graph model of the vehicle is presented. This model includes both knowledge and representation models of the mechanical structure, the floor contact, and the Mars site. The MACSYMEN (French acronym for aided design method of multi-energetic systems) is used and applied to study the input-output power transfers. The reflex control is then considered. Controller architecture and locomotion specificity are described. A numerical stage highlights some interesting results of the robot and the controller capabilities.

  19. Adjustment of automatic control systems of production facilities at coal processing plants using multivariant physico- mathematical models (United States)

    Evtushenko, V. F.; Myshlyaev, L. P.; Makarov, G. V.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Burkova, E. V.


    The structure of multi-variant physical and mathematical models of control system is offered as well as its application for adjustment of automatic control system (ACS) of production facilities on the example of coal processing plant.

  20. Automatic irradiation control by an optical feedback technique for selective retina treatment (SRT) in a rabbit model (United States)

    Seifert, Eric; Roh, Young-Jung; Fritz, Andreas; Park, Young Gun; Kang, Seungbum; Theisen-Kunde, Dirk; Brinkmann, Ralf


    Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) targets the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) without effecting neighboring layers as the photoreceptors or the choroid. SRT related RPE defects are ophthalmoscopically invisible. Owing to this invisibility and the variation of the threshold radiant exposure for RPE damage the treating physician does not know whether the treatment was successful or not. Thus measurement techniques enabling a correct dosing are a demanded element in SRT devices. The acquired signal can be used for monitoring or automatic irradiation control. Existing monitoring techniques are based on the detection of micro-bubbles. These bubbles are the origin of RPE cell damage for pulse durations in the ns and μs time regime 5μs. The detection can be performed by optical or acoustical approaches. Monitoring based on an acoustical approach has already been used to study the beneficial effects of SRT on diabetic macula edema and central serous retinopathy. We have developed a first real time feedback technique able to detect micro-bubble induced characteristics in the backscattered laser light fast enough to cease the laser irradiation within a burst. Therefore the laser energy within a burst of at most 30 pulses is increased linearly with every pulse. The laser irradiation is ceased as soon as micro-bubbles are detected. With this automatic approach it was possible to observe invisible lesions, an intact photoreceptor layer and a reconstruction of the RPE within one week.

  1. The Analysis of Some Methods Less Ordinary Concerning the Assessment of the Controllability of the Automatic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Negrău


    Full Text Available In many situations it has to be pointed out if an automatic system is controllable and in what controllability type it is integrated. Because the complete controllability represents the best situation, in the present study we are going to deal with it. From the multiple ways mentioned in the literature of defining and analyzing the property of complete controllability of automatic systems, we introduce some ordinate equivalent formulations so that the previous formulations to contribute to demonstrating the ulterior ones.

  2. Monitor automatic gauge control strategy with a Smith predictor for steel strip rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The simplified transfer function diagram block for a monitor automatic gauge control (Mon-AGC) system of strip steel rolling process was investigated.The new notion of strip sample length was given.In this way,the delay time varying with the rolling speed was evaded.After a Smith predictor was used to monitor the AGC system,the control laws were deduced for both proportional and integral regulators.The control strategies showed that by choosing the controller parameter P=∞ for both control algorithms each regulator could compensate the whole strip gage error in the first control step.The result shows that the integral algorithm is more controllable for the system regulating process and has a better steady-state precision than the proportional regulator.Compared with the traditional control strategy,the new control laws have a faster response speed and a higher steady-state precision.

  3. Design of a modern automatic control system for the activated sludge process in wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandros D. Kotzapetros; Panayotis A. Paraskevas; Athanasios S. Stasinakis


    The Activated Sludge Process (ASP) exhibits highly nonlinear properties. The design of an automatic control system that is robust against disturbance of inlet wastewater flow rate and has short process settling times is a chal enging matter. The proposed control method is an I-P modified controller automatic control system with state variable feedback and control canonical form simulation diagram for the process. A more stable response is achieved with this type of modern control. Settling times of 0.48 days are achieved for the concentration of microorganisms, (reference value step increase of 50 mg·L−1) and 0.01 days for the concentration of oxygen (reference value step increase of 0.1 mg·L−1). Fluctuations of concentrations of oxygen and microorganisms after an inlet disturbance of 5 × 103m3·d−1 are smal . Changes in the reference values of oxygen and microorganisms (increases by 10%, 20%and 30%) show satisfactory response of the system in al cases. Changes in the value of inlet wastewater flow rate disturbance (increases by 10%, 25%, 50%and 100%) are stabilized by the control system in short time. Maximum percent overshoot is also taken in consideration in all cases and the largest value is 25%which is acceptable. The proposed method with I-P controller is better for disturbance rejection and process settling times compared to the same method using PI control er. This method can substitute optimal control systems in ASP.

  4. Children's Behavioral Pain Cues: Implicit Automaticity and Control Dimensions in Observational Measures (United States)

    Fashler, Samantha R.


    Some pain behaviors appear to be automatic, reflexive manifestations of pain, whereas others present as voluntarily controlled. This project examined whether this distinction would characterize pain cues used in observational pain measures for children aged 4–12. To develop a comprehensive list of cues, a systematic literature search of studies describing development of children's observational pain assessment tools was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Twenty-one articles satisfied the criteria. A total of 66 nonredundant pain behavior items were identified. To determine whether items would be perceived as automatic or controlled, 277 research participants rated each on multiple scales associated with the distinction. Factor analyses yielded three major factors: the “Automatic” factor included items related to facial expression, paralinguistics, and consolability; the “Controlled” factor included items related to intentional movements, verbalizations, and social actions; and the “Ambiguous” factor included items related to voluntary facial expressions. Pain behaviors in observational pain scales for children can be characterized as automatic, controlled, and ambiguous, supporting a dual-processing, neuroregulatory model of pain expression. These dimensions would be expected to influence judgments of the nature and severity of pain being experienced and the extent to which the child is attempting to control the social environment.

  5. Children’s Behavioral Pain Cues: Implicit Automaticity and Control Dimensions in Observational Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kaur Sekhon


    Full Text Available Some pain behaviors appear to be automatic, reflexive manifestations of pain, whereas others present as voluntarily controlled. This project examined whether this distinction would characterize pain cues used in observational pain measures for children aged 4–12. To develop a comprehensive list of cues, a systematic literature search of studies describing development of children’s observational pain assessment tools was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Twenty-one articles satisfied the criteria. A total of 66 nonredundant pain behavior items were identified. To determine whether items would be perceived as automatic or controlled, 277 research participants rated each on multiple scales associated with the distinction. Factor analyses yielded three major factors: the “Automatic” factor included items related to facial expression, paralinguistics, and consolability; the “Controlled” factor included items related to intentional movements, verbalizations, and social actions; and the “Ambiguous” factor included items related to voluntary facial expressions. Pain behaviors in observational pain scales for children can be characterized as automatic, controlled, and ambiguous, supporting a dual-processing, neuroregulatory model of pain expression. These dimensions would be expected to influence judgments of the nature and severity of pain being experienced and the extent to which the child is attempting to control the social environment.

  6. The systems of automatic weight control of vehicles in the road and rail transport in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available . Condition of roads in Poland, despite the on-going modernisation works is still unsatisfactory. One reason is the excessive wear caused by overloaded vehicles. This problem also applies to rail transport, although to a much lesser extent. One solution may be the system of automatic weight control of road and rail vehicles. The article describes the legal and organizational conditions of oversize vehicles inspection in Poland. Characterized current practices weighing road vehicles, based on measurements of static technology. The article includes the description of the existing applications of the automatic dynamic weighing technology, known as systems WIM (Weigh in Motion. Additionally, the weighing technology and construction of weighing stands in road and rail are characterized. The article ends with authors' conclusions indicating the direction and ways of improving the weighing control systems for vehicles.

  7. Design and Realization of Controllable Ultrasonic Fault Detector Automatic Verification System (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Feng; Liu, Hui-Ying; Guo, Hui-Juan; Shu, Rong; Wei, Kai-Li

    The ultrasonic flaw detection equipment with remote control interface is researched and the automatic verification system is developed. According to use extensible markup language, the building of agreement instruction set and data analysis method database in the system software realizes the controllable designing and solves the diversification of unreleased device interfaces and agreements. By using the signal generator and a fixed attenuator cascading together, a dynamic error compensation method is proposed, completes what the fixed attenuator does in traditional verification and improves the accuracy of verification results. The automatic verification system operating results confirms that the feasibility of the system hardware and software architecture design and the correctness of the analysis method, while changes the status of traditional verification process cumbersome operations, and reduces labor intensity test personnel.

  8. Automatic Learning of Fine Operating Rules for Online Power System Security Control. (United States)

    Sun, Hongbin; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Kang; Jiang, Weiyong; Guo, Qinglai; Zhang, Boming; Wehenkel, Louis


    Fine operating rules for security control and an automatic system for their online discovery were developed to adapt to the development of smart grids. The automatic system uses the real-time system state to determine critical flowgates, and then a continuation power flow-based security analysis is used to compute the initial transfer capability of critical flowgates. Next, the system applies the Monte Carlo simulations to expected short-term operating condition changes, feature selection, and a linear least squares fitting of the fine operating rules. The proposed system was validated both on an academic test system and on a provincial power system in China. The results indicated that the derived rules provide accuracy and good interpretability and are suitable for real-time power system security control. The use of high-performance computing systems enables these fine operating rules to be refreshed online every 15 min.

  9. Results of automatic system implementation for the friction control rods execution in Cofrentes nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Urrea, M. [Iberdrola Generacion S. A., Central Nuclear Cofrentes, Carretera Almansa Requena s/n, 04662 Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)


    The purpose of this presentation is to show the obtained results in Cofrentes nuclear power plant (Spain) of control rods Pcc/24 friction test procedure. In order to perform this, a control rod friction test system has been developed. Principally, this system consists on software and data acquisition hardware that obtains and analyzes the control rod pressure variation on which the test is being made. The Pcc/24 procedure objective is to detect an excessive friction in the control rod movement that could cause a control rod drive movement slower than usual. This test is necessary every time that an anomalous alteration is produced in the reactor core that could affect to a fuel rod, and it is executed before the time measure of control rods rapid scram test of the affected rods. This test has to be carried out to all the reactor control rods and takes valuable time during plant refuelling. So, by means of an automatic system to perform the test, we obtain an important time saving during refuelling. On the other hand, the on-line monitoring of the control rod insertion and changes in differential pressure, permits a control rod operation fast and safe validation. Moreover, an automatic individual report of every rod is generated by the system and a final global result report of the entire test developed in refuelling is generated. The mentioned reports can be attached directly to the procedure documents obtaining an office data processing important saving time. (Author)

  10. Results of automatic system implementation for the friction control rods execution in Cofrentes nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M., E-mail: [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV) (Spain); Urrea, M., E-mail: [Iberdrola Generacion S.A. Valencia (Spain). C.N. Cofrentes; Curiel, M., E-mail: [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales (LAINSA), Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: [TITANIA Servicios Teconologicos, Valencia (Spain)


    The purpose of this presentation is to show the obtained results in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant (Spain) of Control Rods PCC/24 Friction Test Procedure. In order to perform this, a Control Rod Friction Test System has been developed. Principally, this system consists on software and data acquisition hardware that obtains and analyzes the control rod pressure variation on which the test is being made. The PCC/24 Procedure objective is to detect an excessive friction in the control rod movement that could cause a CRD (Control Rod Drive) movement slower than usual. This test is necessary every time that an anomalous alteration is produced in the reactor core that could affect to a fuel rod, and it is executed before the time measure of control rods rapid scram test of the affected rods. This test has to be carried out to all the reactor control rods and takes valuable time during plant refuelling. So, by means of an automatic system to perform the test, we obtain an important time saving during refuelling. On the other hand, the on-line monitoring of the control rod insertion and changes in differential pressure, permits a control rod operation fast and safe validation. Moreover, an automatic individual report of every rod is generated by the system and a final global result report of the entire test developed in refuelling is generated. The mentioned reports can be attached directly to the procedure documents obtaining an office data processing important saving time.(author)

  11. Automatic control system of brain temperature by air-surface cooling for therapeutic hypothermia. (United States)

    Utsuki, T


    An automatic control system of brain temperature by air-surface cooling was developed for therapeutic hypothermia, which is increasingly recommended for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy after cardiac arrest and neonatal asphyxia in several guidelines pertinent to resuscitation. Currently, water-surface cooling is the most widespread cooling method in therapeutic hypothermia. However, it requires large electric power for precise control and also needs water-cooling blankets which have potential for compression of patients by its own weight and for water leakage in ICU. Air-surface cooling does not have such problems and is more suitable for clinical use than water-surface cooling, because air has lower specific heat and density as well as the impossibility of the contamination in ICU by its leakage. In the present system, brain temperature of patients is automatically controlled by suitable adjustment of the temperature of the air blowing into the cooling blankets. This adjustment is carried out by the regulation of mixing cool and warm air using proportional control valves. The computer in the developed control apparatus suitably calculates the air temperature and rotation angle of the valves every sampling time on the basis of the optimal-adaptive control algorithm. Thus, the proposed system actualizes automatic control of brain temperature by the inputting only the clinically desired temperature of brain. The control performance of the suggested system was verified by the examination using the mannequin in substitution for an adult patient. In the result, the control error of the head temperature of the mannequin was 0.12 °C on average in spite of the lack of the production capacity of warm air after the re-warming period. Thus, this system serves as a model for the clinically applied system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Pelevin


    Full Text Available The paper presents simulation results of hydrostatic bearing dynamics in spindle assembly of standard flexible production module with throttled circuit. The necessity of dynamic quality increase for automatic control system of the hydrostatic bearing with the use of correcting means in the form of RC-chains is shown. The features of correction parameters choice coming from the existence of the crossing connections in automatic control system structure are noted. We propose the block diagram of automatic control system of the hydrostatic bearing in Simulink working field and cyclic algorithm for determination program of RC-chain parameters implemented in MATLAB taking into account typical thermal processes for the finishing treatment. Graphic-analytical method for the correction parameters choice is presented based on the stability stock phase gradient for dynamic quality determination of automatic control system. Researches of the method estimability in case of using the standard metal bellow valve as the hydrocapacity for RC-chain are also carried out. Recommendations for the bellow valve choice are formulated. The check of dynamic quality indicators concerning transition processes calculated by means of the appropriate programs developed for MATLAB is performed. Examples are given for phase stability factor gradient schedules with partition of various areas of hydrostatic bearing dynamic quality for different frequencies of spindle rotation and procedure description of data cursor function application on MATLAB toolbar. Improvement of hydrostatic bearing dynamics under typical low loadings for finishing treatment is noted. Also, decrease of dynamic indicators for high loadings treatment in case of roughing treatment is marked.

  13. System design of the METC automatic data acquisition and control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, D. R.; Armstrong, D. L.


    A system of computer programs and hardware was developed by the Instrumentation Branch of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to provide data acquisition and control features for research projects at the site. The Automatic Data Acquisition and Control System (ADACS) has the capability of servicing up to eight individual projects simultaneously, providing data acquisition, data feedback, and process control where needed. Several novel software features - including a data table driven program, extensive feedback in real time, free format English commands, and high reliability - were incorporated to provide these functions.

  14. Digital system for automatic control of multi-arm neutron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patwardhan, P.K.; Srivastava, H.M.L.; Chawla, H.K.


    A flexible system for automatic and Simultaneous control of a Multiarm Neutron Spectrometer has been designed, developed and installed at CIRUS Reactor at Trombay. It controls digitally up to a maximum of nine angular/linear position variable to an accuracy of 0.01/sup 0/. Each variable is associated with one slow speed fractional horsepower bidirectional induction motor. The system receives control data pertaining to the positions of these variable from a preprogrammed paper tape and generates the necessary movement of the motors to set the variable to the desired values. The system employs IC Technology, is computer compatible and has varied applications.

  15. Application of configuration software WinCC in logistics automatic control system (United States)

    Weng, Yifang; Duan, Zhengang; Lian, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xiaoli; Yang, Wenying


    This paper presents the application of WinCC in Logistics Automatic Control System on the experiment facility of miniature warehouse. The information management system, the supervisory control system and the PLC execution part are developed. The communication between WinCC and PLC based on the PROFIBUS protocol is implemented. DDE Communication, VB as server and WinCC as client, is realized. The system combines information management and supervisory control together and works well. It would be applicable to industry after deeper study.

  16. An approach to the synthesis of separate surface automatic flight control systems. (United States)

    Roskam, J.; Henry, S.


    A method is presented for the analysis of separate surface automatic flight control systems. The feasibility of such systems is demonstrated by the analysis of an example system, a separate surface wing-leveler for a Cessna 172. This example system employs a separate surface aileron with 15% of the basic airplane roll control power. A 90% reduction in bank-angle gust response can be obtained when compared with the basic airplane. The system does not feed back to the pilot's wheel. When failed (even hardover) the pilot retains more than adequate control of the airplane.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Lekareva


    Full Text Available We consider combined control in automatic control systems for technological objects trajectory movements. We present research results of the system disturbance invariance ensuring on the example of the technological manipulator that implements hydrocutting of the oil pipelines. Control is based on the propositions of the fourth modified invariance form with the use of bootstrapping methods. The paper presents analysis of results obtained by two different correction methods. The essence of the first method lies in injection of additional component into the already established control signal and formation of the channel for that component. Control signal correction during the signal synthesis stage in the control device constitutes the basis for the second method. Research results have shown high efficiency of application for both correction methods. Both methods have roughly the same precision. We have shown that the correction in the control device is preferable because it has no influence on the inner contour of the system. We have shown the necessity of the block usage with the variable transmission coefficient, which value is determined by technological trajectory parameters. Research results can be applied in practice for improvement of the precision specifications of automatic control systems for trajectorial manipulators.

  18. Advanced AFCS developments on the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. [Automatic Flight Control System (United States)

    Churchill, G. B.; Gerdes, R. M.


    The design criteria and control and handling qualities of the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), developed in the framework of the XV-15 tilt-rotor research aircraft, are evaluated, differentiating between the stability and control criteria. A technically aggressive SCAS control law was implemented, demonstrating that significant benefits accrue when stability criteria are separated from design criteria; the design analyses for application of the control law are presented, and the limit bandwidth for stabilization in hovering flight is shown to be defined by rotor or control lag functions. Flight tests of the aircraft resulted in a rating of 3 on the Cooper-Harper scale; a possibility of achieving a rating of 2 is expected if the system is applied to the yaw and heave control modes.

  19. Study on Rear-end Real-time Data Quality Control Method of Regional Automatic Weather Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    [Objective] The aim was to study the rear-end real-time data quality control method of regional automatic weather station. [Method] The basic content and steps of rear-end real-time data quality control of regional automatic weather station were introduced. Each element was treated with systematic quality control procedure. The existence of rear-end real time data of regional meteorological station in Guangxi was expounded. Combining with relevant elements and linear changes, improvement based on traditiona...

  20. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers. (United States)

    Riddervold, I S; Bønløkke, J H; Mølhave, L; Massling, A; Jensen, B; Grønborg, T K; Bossi, R; Forchhammer, L; Kjærgaard, S K; Sigsgaard, T


    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3 h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m³ (low) and 400 µg/m³ (high) under controlled environmental conditions. The range for PM₂.₅ load observed for single experiments was 165-303 µg/m³ for the low exposure and 205-662 µg/m³ for the high exposure, whereas particle loads during clean air exposure most often were below the detection limit (humans. The knowledge gained in this study on subjective-rated symptoms may be important for understanding human response to wood-smoke exposure.

  1. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Mølhave, Lars


    function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m3 (low) and 400 µg/m3 (high) under controlled environmental conditions....... The range for PM2.5 load observed for single experiments was 165–303 µg/m3 for the low exposure and 205–662 µg/m3 for the high exposure, whereas particle loads during clean air exposure most often were below the detection limit (... in symptoms and environmental perception using a computerized questionnaire and a potentiometer. Subjective symptoms were generally weak, but when combining the effect of each of the symptoms into categorical symptom indices, significant effects were found for “environmental perception” (p = 0...

  2. Automatic Calibration of Frequency Compensation System in Computer-Controlled Patch-Clamp Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xion


    Full Text Available Computer-controlled patch-clamp amplifier is a digitally controlled analog device used to record the cellular ion channel currents in electrophysiology research. The inherent bandwidth and performance of the headstage is limited by the stray capacitance and distributed capacitance across the feedback resistors. In order to effectively improve the performance of the headstage, the paper advanced a simplified automatic calibration method of frequency compensation system in resistor-feedback patch-clamp amplifier. The dynamic model of headstage was approximate as a two poles and one zero system in the transfer function by experience and test results, so the dynamic characteristics of the headstage were obtained employing least squares parameter estimation algorithm. Further more, the compensation parameter of high frequency booster can be estimated by the time constant of main pole of headstage. And automatic adjustment of the parameters in transient response correction stage was performed as a least squares fitting problem. The software routine running on the host computer conducted all operations of frequency compensation. Experimental results demonstrate that the simplified automatic calibration method can substantially extend the bandwidth and minimize step response error of headstage.

  3. Automatic learning rate adjustment for self-supervising autonomous robot control (United States)

    Arras, Michael K.; Protzel, Peter W.; Palumbo, Daniel L.


    Described is an application in which an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) controls the positioning of a robot arm with five degrees of freedom by using visual feedback provided by two cameras. This application and the specific ANN model, local liner maps, are based on the work of Ritter, Martinetz, and Schulten. We extended their approach by generating a filtered, average positioning error from the continuous camera feedback and by coupling the learning rate to this error. When the network learns to position the arm, the positioning error decreases and so does the learning rate until the system stabilizes at a minimum error and learning rate. This abolishes the need for a predetermined cooling schedule. The automatic cooling procedure results in a closed loop control with no distinction between a learning phase and a production phase. If the positioning error suddenly starts to increase due to an internal failure such as a broken joint, or an environmental change such as a camera moving, the learning rate increases accordingly. Thus, learning is automatically activated and the network adapts to the new condition after which the error decreases again and learning is 'shut off'. The automatic cooling is therefore a prerequisite for the autonomy and the fault tolerance of the system.

  4. The AST3 controlling and operating software suite for automatic sky survey (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Shang, Zhaohui; Ma, Bin; Hu, Keliang


    We have developed a specialized software package, called ast3suite, to achieve the remote control and automatic sky survey for AST3 (Antarctic Survey Telescope) from scratch. It includes several daemon servers and many basic commands. Each program does only one single task, and they work together to make AST3 a robotic telescope. A survey script calls basic commands to carry out automatic sky survey. Ast3suite was carefully tested in Mohe, China in 2013 and has been used at Dome, Antarctica in 2015 and 2016 with the real hardware for practical sky survey. Both test results and practical using showed that ast3suite had worked very well without any manual auxiliary as we expected.

  5. Automatic control systems for submerged membrane bioreactors: a state-of-the-art review. (United States)

    Ferrero, Giuliana; Rodríguez-Roda, Ignasi; Comas, Joaquim


    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has become relatively widespread as an advanced treatment for both industrial and municipal wastewater, especially in areas prone to water scarcity. Although operational cost is a key issue in MBRs, currently only a few crucial papers and inventions aimed to optimise and enhance MBR efficiency have been published. The present review summarises the available solutions in the area of automatic control systems and widely explores the advances in automation and control for MBRs. In this review of state of the art, different control systems are evaluated comparatively, distinguishing between control systems used for the filtration process and those used for the biological process of MBRs and describing the challenge faced by integrated control systems. The existing knowledge is classified according to the manipulated variables, the operational mode (open-loop or closed-loop) and the controlled variables used.

  6. Application of Nonlinear Systems Inverses to Automatic Flight Control Design: System Concepts and Flight Evaluations (United States)

    Meyer, G.; Cicolani, L.


    A practical method for the design of automatic flight control systems for aircraft with complex characteristics and operational requirements, such as the powered lift STOL and V/STOL configurations, is presented. The method is effective for a large class of dynamic systems requiring multi-axis control which have highly coupled nonlinearities, redundant controls, and complex multidimensional operational envelopes. It exploits the concept of inverse dynamic systems, and an algorithm for the construction of inverse is given. A hierarchic structure for the total control logic with inverses is presented. The method is illustrated with an application to the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft equipped with a digital flight control system. Results of flight evaluation of the control concept on this aircraft are presented.

  7. The application of ANN technique to automatic generation control for multi-area power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeynelgil, H.L.; Demiroren, A.; Sengor, N.S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Maslak (Turkey). Electrical and Electronic Faculty


    This paper presents an application of layered artificial neural network controller (ANN) to study automatic generation control (AGC) problem in a four-area interconnected power system that three areas include steam turbines and the other area includes a hydro turbine. Each area of steam turbine in the system contains the reheat effect non-linearity of the steam turbine and the area of hydro turbine contains upper and lower constraints for generation rate. Only one ANN controller, which controls the inputs of each area in the power system together, is considered. In the study, back propagation-through-time algorithm is used as ANN learning rule. By comparing the results for both cases, the performance of ANN controller is better than conventional controllers. (author)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敬兆; 张崇巍; 周时欢; 王清灵


    This paper presents the solution of regulating the wind rate automatically by means of fuzzy control technology and implementing it with PLC (programmable logical controller) under the circumstance of many influence factors, which exists in the axial-flow fans wind rate regulation system during the process of mine ventilation, and has difficulty in modifying the mathematic model to obtain the satisfied result by normal control ways. According to this analysis, the intelligent and analytic treatment of fuzzy controller has been made and fuzzy control scheme involving self-regulation divisor and intelligent integral has been deeply proposed. Test result shows that this system based on the scheme above is obviously prior to others in its responsibility such as high-speed, overshoot, control precision and robustness. The system furnishes the great reliability of mine working safety and fans running efficiency.

  9. Automatic Control System of Ion Electrostatic Accelerator and Anti-Interference Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhenwu; HUO Yuping; LIU Gencheng; LI Yuxiao; LI Tao


    An automatic control system for the electrostatic accelerator has been developed by adopting the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control technique, infrared and optical-fibre transmission technique and network communication with the purpose to improve the intelligence level of the accelerator and to enhance the ability of monitoring, collecting and recording parameters. In view of the control system' structure, some anti-interference measures have been adopted after analyzing the interference sources. The measures in hardware include controlling the position of the corona needle, using surge arresters, shielding, ground connection and stabilizing the voltage. The measures in terms of software involve inter-blocking protection, soft-spacing, time delay, and diagnostic and protective programs. The electromagnetic compatible ability of the control system, has thus been effectively improved.

  10. Development of a digital automatic control law for steep glideslope capture and flare (United States)

    Halyo, N.


    A longitudinal digital guidance and control law for steep glideslopes using MLS (Microwave Landing System) data is developed for CTOL aircraft using modern estimation and control techniques. The control law covers the final approach phases of glideslope capture, glideslope tracking, and flare to touchdown for automatic landings under adverse weather conditions. The control law uses a constant gain Kalman filter to process MLS and body-mounted accelerometer data to form estimates of flight path errors and wind velocities including wind shear. The flight path error estimates and wind estimates are used for feedback in generating control surface commands. Results of a digital simulation of the aircraft dynamics and the guidance and control law are presented for various wind conditions.

  11. Automatic control of freeboard and turbine operation. Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, P. [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark); Friis-Madsen, Erik [Wave Dragon ApS (Denmark); Nimskov, M. [Balslev (Denmark)


    This report deals with the modules for automatic control of freeboard and turbine operation on board the Wave Dragon, Nissum Bredning (WD-NB) prototype, and covers what has been going on up to ultimo 2003. The modules have been implemented on board WD-NB by means of a Siemens PLC. The control and monitoring of the PLC is achieved through a SCADA software package (SIMATIC WinCC V6) running on a Windows 2000 PC situated on board. A preliminary Users manual is available (Nimskov, 2003). The two modules for automatic control of freeboard and turbine operation are denoted 'Buoyancy' and 'Generators', respectively, in the SCADA system. The 'Buoyancy' part controls the freeboard by blowing air into or letting air out of air chambers underneath the structure, and thereby raise or lower it. The 'generator' part controls the generators, and thereby the turbines, by switching them on and of in order to maintain the water level in the reservoir within the specified work span. Furthermore, the generators are controlled by frequency converters, so the rotational speed for each turbine is achieved, corresponding to the optimal operation point. (au)

  12. Design and Implementation of Electrostatic Spraying Automatic Controlling System Based on PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Jia


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to improve the spraying efficiency and meet the demand of modern agricultural. A new generation of electrostatic sprayer which we designed realized the goals. The automatic controlling system is successfully designed. PLC (Programmable Logic Controller was taken as the control core of the system and LCD touch screen was employed for human-computer interaction interface. The system integrates kinds of techniques including programming, pressure monitoring and sensor technology, etc. The main structure of this equipment, working principle and control system hardware selection will be also introduced in the study. Human-computer interaction software was programmed by the software of Pro Tool/Pro CS. System controlling software was programmed in form of ladder diagram, which realized kinds of functions including ESD protection, accurate quantification, automatic controlling and humanized operation. Test results show that the effective spraying range is between 5 to 6 m, the Volume Median Diameter (VMD is 47.48 µm and the Ultra-Low Volume spray (ULV is realized. The spray deposition rate and effective availability of pesticide is higher than old sprayer. And also this new sprayer runs steadily.

  13. Multi-Stage Optimization Based Automatic Voltage Control Systems Considering Wind Power Forecasting Errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Bak, Claus Leth; Abildgaard, Hans


    cost and the generator reactive power output cost. The problem is formulated in a multi-stage optimal reactive power flow (MORPF) framework, solved by the nonlinear programming techniques via a rolling process. The voltage uncertainty caused by wind power forecasting errors is considered in the optimal......This paper proposes an automatic voltage control (AVC) system for power systems with limited continuous voltage control capability. The objective is to minimize the operational cost over a period, which consists of the power loss in the grid, the shunt switching cost, the transformer tap change...

  14. Automatic control of human thermal comfort with a liquid-cooled garment (United States)

    Kuznetz, L. H.


    Water cooling in a liquid-cooled garment is used to maintain the thermal comfort of crewmembers during extravehicular activity. The feasibility of a simple control that will operate automatically to maintain the thermal comfort is established. Data on three test subjects are included to support the conclusion that heat balance can be maintained well within allowable medical limits. The controller concept was also successfully demonstrated for ground-based applications and shows potential for any tasks involving the use of liquid-cooled garments.

  15. A Prototype Automatic Solar Panel Controller (ASPC with Night-time Hibernation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salihu O. Aliyu


    Full Text Available Solar cells, as an alternate means of electricity supply, is rapidly advancing. Generally, output of solar cells depends largely on intensity of sun and angle of incidence on the cells. This means that to get maximum efficiency from these cells, they must remain directly pointed at the sun from sun rise to sun set. However, the position of sun‟s highest intensity with respect to a given spot changes with time of the day. It is therefore necessary to automatically control position of solar cells to always align with the highest intensity of sun. In this paper, we present a prototype automatic solar panel controller, with night time hibernation. The proposed system consists of both software and hardware parts, and it automatically provides best alignment of solar panel with sun to get maximum intensity. The solar panel controller system detects the presence of sun rays using light dependent resistors (LDR. At the heart of the control mechanism is an AT89C52 microcontroller. It is programmed to constantly monitor the output of an LDR, actuate a stepper motor to reposition the solar panel to a direction with the highest intensity. The proposed system also has an option of manual control of the panel via a computer interface or a keypad unit for easy of user interactivity during maintenance. Testing the proposed system, results shows that it can successfully track the sun and enter idle mode in the absence of sun rays, hence, conserving over 50% of energy required to operate the system.

  16. Automatic Generation Control in Multi Area Interconnected Power System by using HVDC Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Arya


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of HVDC link in parallel with HVAC link on automatic generation control (AGC problem for a multi-area power system taking into consideration system parameter variations. A fuzzy logic controller is proposed for four area power system interconnected via parallel HVAC/HVDC transmission link which is also referred as asynchronous tie-lines. The linear model of HVAC/HVDC link is developed and the system responses to sudden load change are studied. The simulation studies are carried out for a four area interconnected thermal power system. Suitable solution for automatic generation control problem of four area electrical power system is obtained by means of improving the dynamic performance of power system under study. Robustness of controller is also checked by varying parameters. Simulation results indicate that the scheme works well. The dynamic analyses have been done with and without HVDC link using fuzzy logic controller in Matlab-Simulink. Further a comparison between the two is presented and it has been shown that the performance of the proposed scheme is superior in terms of overshoot and settling time.

  17. Electric Drive Discrete Control System with Automatic Switching-On Reserve for Autonomous Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsytovich L.I.


    Full Text Available The paper aims at developing of control the water supply system’s electric drives for autonomous settlement. The system provides automatic switching to a reserve control channel at refusal of any of the functional elements of the working regulation channel. Usually, such systems have a test signal generator and analyzer to system response to their impact. This result to an increase in the structural redundancy of the system, increase its cost and increase the requirements for the staff qualification. A specific feature of the system is its ability to self-diagnosis of catastrophic malfunctions of scheme’s components and an automatic switching-on the reserve control channels, without applying any test signals to the whole complex of electrical equipment. Multi-zone integrating regulator with frequency-pulse-width modulation realizes this technical solution. Control system structure and signals timing diagrams are presented. The construction principle of adaptive interval-code synchronization device with improved noise stability to control the voltage regulators serving for smooth start-up of asynchronous motors of water pumps is considered as well. Such solution allowing increase noise stability and reliability work of the system in conditions of limited power electrical networks, which is characteristic for the autonomous settlements. The article may be of interest to specialists in the field of power electronics and information electronics, electric drives and process automation.

  18. Application of GA optimization for automatic generation control design in an interconnected power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golpira, H., E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, PO Box 416, Kurdistan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bevrani, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, PO Box 416, Kurdistan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golpira, H. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch, PO Box 618, Kurdistan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Highlights: {yields} A realistic model for automatic generation control (AGC) design is proposed. {yields} The model considers GRC, Speed governor dead band, filters and time delay. {yields} The model provides an accurate model for the digital simulations. -- Abstract: This paper addresses a realistic model for automatic generation control (AGC) design in an interconnected power system. The proposed scheme considers generation rate constraint (GRC), dead band, and time delay imposed to the power system by governor-turbine, filters, thermodynamic process, and communication channels. Simplicity of structure and acceptable response of the well-known integral controller make it attractive for the power system AGC design problem. The Genetic algorithm (GA) is used to compute the decentralized control parameters to achieve an optimum operating point. A 3-control area power system is considered as a test system, and the closed-loop performance is examined in the presence of various constraints scenarios. It is shown that neglecting above physical constraints simultaneously or in part, leads to impractical and invalid results and may affect the system security, reliability and integrity. Taking to account the advantages of GA besides considering a more complete dynamic model provides a flexible and more realistic AGC system in comparison of existing conventional schemes.

  19. Automatic Control Systems (ACS for Generation and Sale of Electric Power Under Conditions of Industry-Sector Liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Petrusha


    Full Text Available Possible risks pertaining to transition of electric-power industry to market relations have been considered in the paper. The paper presents an integrated ACS for generation and sale of electric power as an improvement of methodology for organizational and technical management. The given system is based on integration of operating Automatic Dispatch Control System (ADCS and developing Automatic Electricity Meter Reading System (AEMRS. The paper proposes to form an inter-branch sector of ACS PLC (Automatic Control System for Prolongation of Life Cycle users which is oriented on provision of development strategy.

  20. Robust on-line relay automatic tuning of PID control systems (United States)

    Tan; Lee; Jiang


    In this paper, a robust on-line relay automatic tuning method for PID control systems is developed which expand on the application domain of Astrom's renowned relay autotuning method. In the proposed configuration, a relay is applied to an inner loop of a controller-stabilised process in the usual manner. Using the induced limit cycle oscillations from the closed-loop system, the controller settings may be re-tuned non-iteratively to achieve enhanced performance without disrupting closed-loop control. Two control tuning methodologies are developed -- a direct and an indirect method based on an explicit process model. Simulation examples and a real-time experiment are provided to illustrate the practical appeal and potential advantages of the proposed method over the basic one.

  1. Neural Network Control-Based Drive Design of Servomotor and Its Application to Automatic Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shyan Wang


    Full Text Available An automatic guided vehicle (AGV is extensively used for productions in a flexible manufacture system with high efficiency and high flexibility. A servomotor-based AGV is designed and implemented in this paper. In order to steer the AGV to go along a predefined path with corner or arc, the conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID control is used in the system. However, it is difficult to tune PID gains at various conditions. As a result, the neural network (NN control is considered to assist the PID control for gain tuning. The experimental results are first provided to verify the correctness of the neural network plus PID control for 400 W-motor control system. Secondly, the AGV includes two sets of the designed motor systems and CAN BUS transmission so that it can move along the straight line and curve paths shown in the taped videos.

  2. Decentralized automatic generation control of interconnected power systems incorporating asynchronous tie-lines. (United States)

    Ibraheem; Hasan, Naimul; Hussein, Arkan Ahmed


    This Paper presents the design of decentralized automatic generation controller for an interconnected power system using PID, Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The designed controllers are tested on identical two-area interconnected power systems consisting of thermal power plants. The area interconnections between two areas are considered as (i) AC tie-line only (ii) Asynchronous tie-line. The dynamic response analysis is carried out for 1% load perturbation. The performance of the intelligent controllers based on GA and PSO has been compared with the conventional PID controller. The investigations of the system dynamic responses reveal that PSO has the better dynamic response result as compared with PID and GA controller for both type of area interconnection.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov


    Full Text Available The usage of digital micro-processing automatic means allow to use design methods (technique of automatic control systems  more wider, and also to apply optimal ways of control, for example, it is possible to combine the Method of structural-parameter optimization and invariance theory. This method allow to increase essential system speed in processing of task jump and to reduce operation time of outside external disturbance up to two  values of regulated influence, and the usage of invariance principle is based on an additional measuring of the most dangerous perturbation influence and in connection with it the improvement of regulation quality is achieved.In this article the principle of invariance is applied in order to improve greatly external disturbance attack by consumption of over-heated steam. Compensation of disturbance influence on regulated value is achieving by introduction of additional signal on input of correction regulator from output of compensation device, measuring the external disturbance by consumption of over-heated steam.Modeling results of transient processes of cascade system of automatic control (CSAC, on the base of which were realized the unity of these methods, demonstrated the fact that, in processing of external disturbance by consumption of steam, the reduction of maximal dynamic regulation error is six times and cutting of regulation time by 30 % in comparison with CSAC without compensation device of external disturbance. And that is why it leads to the further reduction of maximal dynamic regulation error in processing of external disturbance by consumption of steam, and this allows to improve the quality of control.

  4. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghio Andrew J


    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in susceptible subjects, including the elderly and patients with cardiopulmonary diseases. Controlled human exposure studies have been used to confirm the causal relationship between pollution particle exposure and adverse health effects. Earlier studies enrolled mostly young healthy subjects and have largely confirmed the capability of particles to cause adverse health effects shown in epidemiological studies. In the last few years, more studies involving susceptible populations have been published. These recent studies in susceptible populations, however, have shown that the adverse responses to particles appear diminished in these susceptible subjects compared to those in healthy subjects. The present paper reviewed and compared control human exposure studies to particles and sought to explain the "unexpected" response to particle exposure in these susceptible populations and make recommendations for future studies. We found that the causes for the discrepant results are likely multifactorial. Factors such as medications, the disease itself, genetic susceptibility, subject selection bias that is intrinsic to many controlled exposure studies and nonspecificity of study endpoints may explain part of the results. Future controlled exposure studies should select endpoints that are more closely related to the pathogenesis of the disease and reflect the severity of particle-induced health effects in the specific populations under investigation. Future studies should also attempt to control for medications and genetic susceptibility. Using a different study design, such as exposing subjects to filtered air and ambient levels of particles, and assessing the improvement in

  5. Automatic control with fuzzy logic of home-made beer production in maceration and cooking stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Luján Corro


    Full Text Available The process of home-made beer production in the malt maceration and cooking stages was controlled automatically with fuzzy logic, across different performers considering the time and temperature of the process, using 2009LabVIEW. The equipment was mainly composed of three 20 L capacity stainless steel containers (water supply, maceration and cooking, an additional hops container, a data acquisition card (PIC 16F877a micro controller, three LM35 temperature sensors and 11 on/off type performers, which were governed by a total of 47 Mandani type fuzzy rules with trapezoidal membership functions, using the method of center area for the defuzzification. The performers: electrovalves (5, pumps (2, heaters (3 and a stirrer, in approximately 4 hours, were adequately controlled in their early maceration and cooking stages. The beer obtained by automatic control with fuzzy logic in the maceration and cooking stages, had the following characteristics: 0.98 g/cm3 of density, 3.9 of pH, total acidity expressed as 0.87% of lactic acid, 6.2ºGL of alcoholic degree and 0.91% w/v of CO2 percentage.

  6. Developing an intelligent control system of automatic window motor with diverse wireless sensor network devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yao-Chiang Kan; Hsueh-Chun Lin; Wen-Pei Sung


    This invention system involves hardware, firmware and software to develop an intelligent control system of automatic window motor with diverse wireless sensor network (WSN) devices for health and environmental monitoring. The parts of this invention are improved by implementing the WSN mote into environmental sensors that may detect temperature, humility, toxic gas, smog or aerosol, etc. With embedded system design, these sensors are capable of delivering WSN signal packets based on ZigBee protocol that follows the IEEE 802.14.4 standards. The primary hardware of the system is the window motor with circuit design by integrating micro control unit (MCU), radio frequency (RF) and WSN antenna to receive command. The firmware developed under embedded system can bridge hardware and software to control the window at the specified position. At the back end, the control system software can manage diverse sensor data and provide the interface for remote monitoring.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yanchun; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Jianwu


    In parallel hybrid electrical vehicle (PHEV) equipped with automatic mechanical transmission (AMT), the driving smoothness and the clutch abrasion are the primary considerations for powertrain control during gearshift and clutch operation. To improve these performance indexes of PHEV, a coordinated control system is proposed through the analyzing of HEV powertrain dynamic characteristics. Using the method of minimum principle, the input torque of transmission is optimized to improve the driving sinoothness of vehicle. Using the methods of fuzzy logic and fuzzy-PID, the engaging speed of clutch and the throttle opening of engine are manipulated to ensure the smoothness of clutch engagement and reduce the abrasion of clutch friction plates. The motor provides the difference between the required input torque of transmission and the torque transmitted through clutch plates. Results of simulation and experiments show that the proposed control strategy performs better than the contrastive control system, the smoothness of driving and the abrasion of clutch can be improved simultaneously.

  8. Digital controller for a Baum folding machine. [providing automatic counting and machine shutoff (United States)

    Bryant, W. H. (Inventor)


    A digital controller for controlling the operation of a folding machine enables automatic folding of a desired number of sheets responsive to entry of that number into a selector. The controller includes three decade counter stages for corresponding rows of units, tens and hundreds push buttons. Each stage including a decimal-to-BCD encoder, a buffer register, and a digital or binary counter. The BCD representation of the selected count for each digit is loaded into the respective decade down counters. Pulses generated by a sensor and associated circuitry are used to decrease the count in the decade counters. When the content of the decade counter reaches either 0 or 1, a solenoid control valve is actuated which interrupts operation of the machine. A repeat switch, when actuated, prevents clearing of the buffer registers so that multiple groups of the same number of sheets can be folded without reentering the number into the selector.

  9. Automatic control systems of daylighting and artificial lighting; Saiko shomei setsubi no seigyo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, M. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Means for controlling illumination include a blind for adjusting the light coming directly from the sun, system for maintaining environmental comfort by controlling light-modulating glass and the like, labor-saving system incorporating a control center governing multiple buildings in the vicinity, and system intended for improved energy efficiency. Energy saving efforts include an occupancy sensor control for the automatic turn-on/off of lighting by detecting the presence or absence of people in a chamber, optimum lighting control using sensors for adjusting illumination to the designed level, time-scheduled control for the turning-on/off of lighting according to the time of the day, daylight utilizing control for adjusting artificial lighting according to the amount of incident daylight, guidance light control system for turning on guidance lights upon sensing a decrease in incident daylight. Other than these, there are controls of lighting for performance and demonstration. Examples of practical application include the system adopted by Museum of Contemporary Art, Tokyo, for keeping incident light homogeneous, and the optimum illumination control and daylight utilizing control of Research & Development Center, The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Automatic control system of high precision welding of workpieces in mechanical engineering (United States)

    Kuznetsov, I. N.; Zvezdin, V. V.; Israfilov, I. H.; Portnov, S. M.


    In this paper, based on the conducted patent research, the system of laser welding control with different geometry of weld and shapes of parts is developed. The method of monitoring the position of the spot of laser radiation in relation to the curved weld is worked out; it is based on the tracking the edges of the welded parts by low-power laser radiation reflected from the surface of the parts. It allows to make the positioning of the focus of laser radiation in relation to the juncture of the welded parts automatically.

  11. Automatic Shape Control of Triangular B-Splines of Arbitrary Topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying He; Xian-Feng Gu; Hong Qin


    Triangular B-splines are powerful and flexible in modeling a broader class of geometric objects defined over arbitrary, non-rectangular domains. Despite their great potential and advantages in theory, practical techniques and computational tools with triangular B-splines are less-developed. This is mainly because users have to handle a large number of irregularly distributed control points over arbitrary triangulation. In this paper, an automatic and efficient method is proposed to generate visually pleasing, high-quality triangular B-splines of arbitrary topology. The experimental results on several real datasets show that triangular B-splines are powerful and effective in both theory and practice.

  12. Using fuzzy logic for automatic control: Case study of a problem of cereals samples classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhoua Najeh Mohamed


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the use of fuzzy logic for automatic control of industrial systems particularly the way to approach a problem of classification. We present a case study of a grading system of cereals that allows us to determine the price of transactions of cereals in Tunisia. Our contribution in this work consists in proposing not only an application of the fuzzy logic on the grading system of cereals but also a methodology enabling the proposing of a new grading system based on the concept of 'Grade' while using the fuzzy logic techniques. .

  13. An automatic system for controlling the quality of straws installed in the ATLAS TRT detector

    CERN Document Server

    Golunov, A O; Gousakov, Yu V; Kekelidze, G D; Livinski, V V; Mouraviev, S V; Parzycki, S S; Peshekhonov, V D; Price, M J; Savenkov, A A


    This article describes an automatic system to control the quality of straws installed in the wheels of the end-cap Transition Radiation Tracker of the ATLAS experiment. The system tests both the straightness and the electrical insulation of the straws during installation. The testing time per straw is 9s; consequently it takes about 2h to measure one layer of straws. The off-line analysis takes 20s per straw. With this system defects can be immediately detected and corrected. This clearly influences the future performance of the detector.

  14. Possibilities for Automatic Control of Hydro-Mechanical Transmission and Birotating Electric Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Mikhailov


    Full Text Available The paper presents mathematical models and results of virtual investigations pertaining to the selected motion parameters of a mobile machine equipped with hydro mechanical and modernized transmissions. The machine has been tested in similar technological cycles and it has been equipped with a universal automatic control system. Changes in structure and type of power transmission have been obtained with the help of a control algorithm including an extra reversible electric machine which is switched in at some operational modes.Implementation of the proposed  concept makes it possible to obtain and check the improved C-code of the control system and enhance operational parameters of the transmission and machine efficiency, reduce slippage and tire wear while using braking energy for its later beneficial use which is usually considered as a consumable element.

  15. Equipment, exposure, emission review--specification of process equipment for worker exposure control. (United States)

    Bowes, Stephen M


    Worker exposure to chemical agents may occur from equipment leaks in closed processes and from open system activities and maintenance (e.g., sampling, tank gauging, line breaking, equipment flushing, and drainage). To prevent worker overexposure to chemical agents, an Equipment, Exposure, Emission Review (EEER) was developed to consistently match equipment properties to the leakage-related inhalation risk posed by each stream. For streams where gas or liquid leakage could cause worker exposure above occupational exposure limits (OEL), the EEER recommended a high performance, low leakage equipment category. Conversely, where standard engineering offered reliable containment for lower health risk streams, the EEER did not recommend over-control. The EEER matched equipment to stream health hazard as follows: (1) the composition of each stream was determined, with particular attention to chemical substances with stringent exposure limits; (2) a mixture exposure limit was calculated for each stream based on stream composition and the OEL for stream constituent chemicals; (3) each stream was classified as to its respiratory exposure hazard on the basis of the stream exposure limit; (4) equipment was recommended as a function of respiratory exposure hazard class using an Equipment Selection Matrix. Equipment options were based, in part, on the emission performance of the equipment and a near-field dispersion model that was used to relate equipment emissions to an OEL. Over a 5-yr implementation period, nearly 1700 streams of 78 refining process units were reviewed. Standard engineering practice was selected for about 70% of the streams reviewed. Benzene, hydrogen sulfide, ethanolamine, and high boiling aromatic oil streams were the primary chemical agents responsible for more stringent controls. Although the EEER criteria for stream classification and control options were arranged in order of magnitude--a form of control banding--the correct selection of control

  16. Automatic weight determination in nonlinear model predictive control of wind turbines using swarm optimization technique (United States)

    Tofighi, Elham; Mahdizadeh, Amin


    This paper addresses the problem of automatic tuning of weighting coefficients for the nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) of wind turbines. The choice of weighting coefficients in NMPC is critical due to their explicit impact on efficiency of the wind turbine control. Classically, these weights are selected based on intuitive understanding of the system dynamics and control objectives. The empirical methods, however, may not yield optimal solutions especially when the number of parameters to be tuned and the nonlinearity of the system increase. In this paper, the problem of determining weighting coefficients for the cost function of the NMPC controller is formulated as a two-level optimization process in which the upper- level PSO-based optimization computes the weighting coefficients for the lower-level NMPC controller which generates control signals for the wind turbine. The proposed method is implemented to tune the weighting coefficients of a NMPC controller which drives the NREL 5-MW wind turbine. The results are compared with similar simulations for a manually tuned NMPC controller. Comparison verify the improved performance of the controller for weights computed with the PSO-based technique.

  17. Automatic Method for Controlling the Iodine Adsorption Number in Carbon Black Oil Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević, N.


    Full Text Available There are numerous of different inlet process factors in carbon black oil furnaces which must be continuously and automatically adjusted, due to stable quality of final product. The most important six inlet process factors in carbon black oil-furnaces are:1. volume flow of process air for combustion2. temperature of process air for combustion3. volume flow of natural gas for insurance the necessary heat for thermal reaction of conversionthe hydrocarbon oil feedstock in oil-furnace carbon black4. mass flow rate of hydrocarbon oil feedstock5. type and quantity of additive for adjustment the structure of oil-furnace carbon black6. quantity and position of the quench water for cooling the reaction of oil-furnace carbon black.The control of oil-furnace carbon black adsorption capacity is made with mass flow rate of hydrocarbon feedstock, which is the most important inlet process factor. Oil-furnace carbon black adsorption capacity in industrial process is determined with laboratory analyze of iodine adsorption number. It is shown continuously and automatically method for controlling iodine adsorption number in carbon black oil-furnaces to get as much as possible efficient control of adsorption capacity. In the proposed method it can be seen the correlation between qualitatively-quantitatively composition of the process tail gasses in the production of oil-furnace carbon black and relationship between air for combustion and hydrocarbon feedstock. It is shown that the ratio between air for combustion and hydrocarbon oil feedstock is depended of adsorption capacity summarized by iodine adsorption number, regarding to BMCI index of hydrocarbon oil feedstock.The mentioned correlation can be seen through the figures from 1. to 4. From the whole composition of the process tail gasses the best correlation for continuously and automatically control of iodine adsorption number is show the volume fraction of methane. The volume fraction of methane in the

  18. Flight tests of the total automatic flight control system (Tafcos) concept on a DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft (United States)

    Wehrend, W. R., Jr.; Meyer, G.


    Flight control systems capable of handling the complex operational requirements of the STOL and VTOL aircraft designs as well as designs using active control concepts are considered. Emphasis is placed on the total automatic flight control system (TACOS) (TAFCOS). Flight test results which verified the performance of the system concept are presented.

  19. GSM Web-Based Centralized Remote Wireless Automatic Controlling and Monitoring of Aquafeeder (United States)

    Wong, C. L.; Idris, A.; Hasan, Z.


    This project is about producing a prototype to feed fishes at fish ponds of remote location with the use of GSM mobile phone. An automatic fish feeder is an electric device that has been designed to give out the right amount of pellets at the designed time. In this project, the automatic feeder designed consists of photovoltaic solar cells that are used to generate electricity and storing it into batteries. Solar charge controllers can be used to determine the rate of which current is drawn and added from the batteries. GSM cellular communication is used to allow user to control from a distance. Commands or instructions are sent to the operating system which in return runs the servomotor and blower by blowing certain amount of fish pallets into the pond to feed the fishes. The duration of the feeding processes is fixed by the user, hence the amount of fish food pallets released are precisely the same for each time. This technology is especially useful for fish farmers where they can remotely feed their fishes.

  20. Differential evolution algorithm based automatic generation control for interconnected power systems with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaja Mohanty


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and performance analysis of Differential Evolution (DE algorithm based Proportional–Integral (PI and Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID controllers for Automatic Generation Control (AGC of an interconnected power system. Initially, a two area thermal system with governor dead-band nonlinearity is considered for the design and analysis purpose. In the proposed approach, the design problem is formulated as an optimization problem control and DE is employed to search for optimal controller parameters. Three different objective functions are used for the design purpose. The superiority of the proposed approach has been shown by comparing the results with a recently published Craziness based Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO technique for the same interconnected power system. It is noticed that, the dynamic performance of DE optimized PI controller is better than CPSO optimized PI controllers. Additionally, controller parameters are tuned at different loading conditions so that an adaptive gain scheduling control strategy can be employed. The study is further extended to a more realistic network of two-area six unit system with different power generating units such as thermal, hydro, wind and diesel generating units considering boiler dynamics for thermal plants, Generation Rate Constraint (GRC and Governor Dead Band (GDB non-linearity.

  1. Design and evaluation of automatic control for human/liquid cooling garment thermal interaction (United States)

    Nyberg, Karen Lujean

    An automatic control system was designed and developed to control the thermal comfort of an astronaut wearing a liquid cooling garment (LCG). Experimental trials were run with test subjects performing arm cranking exercise in an environmental chamber. The thermal control algorithm incorporates the use of carbon dioxide production as a measure of metabolic rate to initiate the control response and mean body temperature, as a function of ear canal and skin temperatures, to provide feedback of the human thermal state to the controller. Nine test subjects each completed three, ninety-minute tests in three different environmental temperatures. Subjective comfort levels were obtained from the subjects throughout each test. Evaluation of subjective comfort level and quantitative energy storage indicates good performance of the controller in maintaining thermal neutrality for the subject over a wide range of environmental and transient metabolic states. The Wissler human thermoregulation model was utilized in the control design process and was used to further analyze the experimental results following testing. Subsequent application of the model allowed evaluation of additional protocols for which the LCG thermal controller may be used in the future.

  2. Tunning PID controller using particle swarm optimization algorithm on automatic voltage regulator system (United States)

    Aranza, M. F.; Kustija, J.; Trisno, B.; Hakim, D. L.


    PID Controller (Proportional Integral Derivative) was invented since 1910, but till today still is used in industries, even though there are many kind of modern controllers like fuzz controller and neural network controller are being developed. Performance of PID controller is depend on on Proportional Gain (Kp), Integral Gain (Ki) and Derivative Gain (Kd). These gains can be got by using method Ziegler-Nichols (ZN), gain-phase margin, Root Locus, Minimum Variance dan Gain Scheduling however these methods are not optimal to control systems that nonlinear and have high-orde, in addition, some methods relative hard. To solve those obstacles, particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to get optimal Kp, Ki and Kd. PSO is proposed because PSO has convergent result and not require many iterations. On this research, PID controller is applied on AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator). Based on result of analyzing transient, stability Root Locus and frequency response, performance of PID controller is better than Ziegler-Nichols.

  3. Lithography focus/exposure control and corrections to improve CDU (United States)

    Kim, Young Ki; Yelverton, Mark; Lee, Joungchel; Cheng, Jerry; Wei, Hong; Kim, Jeong Soo; Gutjahr, Karsten; Gao, Jie; Karur-Shanmugam, Ram; Herrera, Pedro; Huang, Kevin; Volkovich, Roie; Pierson, Bill


    As leading edge lithography moves to advanced nodes which requires better critical dimension (CD) control ability within wafer. Current methods generally make exposure corrections by field via factory automation or by sub-recipe to improve CD uniformity. KLA-Tencor has developed a method to provide CD uniformity (CDU) control using a generated Focus/Exposure (F/E) model from a representative process. Exposure corrections by each field can be applied back to the scanner so as to improve CD uniformity through the factory automation. CDU improvement can be observed either at after lithography or after etch metrology steps. In addition to corrections, the graphic K-T Analyzer interface also facilitates the focus/exposure monitoring at the extreme wafer edge. This paper will explain the KT CDFE method and the application in production environment. Run to run focus/exposure monitoring will be carried out both on monitoring and production wafers to control the wafer process and/or scanner fleet. CDU improvement opportunities will be considered as well.

  4. Controlled Exposures to Air Pollutants and Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmia (United States)

    Watts, Simon J.; Hunter, Amanda J.; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Bosson, Jenny A.; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R.; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E.; Mills, Nicholas L.


    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias, particularly in susceptible patient groups. Objectives: We investigated the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias during and after controlled exposure to air pollutants in healthy volunteers and patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: We analyzed data from 13 double-blind randomized crossover studies including 282 participants (140 healthy volunteers and 142 patients with stable coronary heart disease) from whom continuous electrocardiograms were available. The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was recorded for each exposure and study population. Results: There were no increases in any cardiac arrhythmia during or after exposure to dilute diesel exhaust, wood smoke, ozone, concentrated ambient particles, engineered carbon nanoparticles, or high ambient levels of air pollution in either healthy volunteers or patients with coronary heart disease. Conclusions: Acute controlled exposure to air pollutants did not increase the short-term risk of arrhythmia in participants. Research employing these techniques remains crucial in identifying the important pathophysiological pathways involved in the adverse effects of air pollution, and is vital to inform environmental and public health policy decisions. Citation: Langrish JP, Watts SJ, Hunter AJ, Shah AS, Bosson JA, Unosson J, Barath S, Lundbäck M, Cassee FR, Donaldson K, Sandström T, Blomberg A, Newby DE, Mills NL. 2014. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia. Environ Health Perspect 122:747–753; PMID:24667535

  5. Development of an Automatic Frequency Control (AFC) System for RF Electron Linear Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byeong-No; Joo, Youngwoo; Lee, Soo Min; Lee, Byung Cheol; Cha, Hyungki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Dal [Radiation Technology eXcellence, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hyun [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this paper, the design, fabrication, and RF power test of the AFC system for the X-band linac are presented. The main function of the AFC system is automatically matching of the resonance frequency of the accelerating structure and the RF frequency of the magnetron. For the frequency tuning, a fine tuning of 10 kHz is possible by rotating the tuning shaft with a rotation of 0.72 degree per pulse. Therefore, the frequency deviation is about 0.01%, and almost full RF power (2.1 MW) transmission was obtained because the reflected power is minimized. The Radiation Equipment Research Division of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing and upgrading a medical/industrial X-band RF electron linear accelerators. The medical compact RF electron linear accelerator consists of an electron gun, an acceleration tube (accelerating structure), two solenoid magnets, two steering magnets, a magnetron, modulator, an automatic frequency control (AFC) system, and an X-ray generating target. The accelerating structure of the component is composed of oxygen-free high-conductivity copper (OFHC). Therefore, the volume of the structure, hence, its resonance frequency can easily be changeable if the ambient temperature and pressure are changed. If the RF frequency of the 9300 MHz magnetron and the resonance frequency of accelerating structure are not matched, performance of the structure can be degraded. An AFC system is automatically matched with the RF frequency of the magnetron and resonance frequency of the accelerating structure, which obtained a high output power and reliable accelerator operation.

  6. Evaluating the Control Banding Nanotool: a qualitative risk assessment method for controlling nanoparticle exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalk, D.M.; Paik, S.Y.; Swuste, P.


    Control banding (CB) strategies offer simplified processes for controlling worker exposures in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure information. The nanotechnology industry is an excellent candidate for applying such strategies with overwhelming uncertainties of work-related health risks p

  7. Embedded Wireless Based Communications and Security Application for Oilfield for Automatic Controlling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh V Padole


    Full Text Available The site of oil-well is distributed dispersedly, but distribution area is wide. Oil exhauster continuous working for 24 hours. As the problem of petroleum being stolen, transmission line being stolen, and transformer being stolen exists which requires the strong secures management system. With Consideration of the objective condition restriction of geographical environment, the implementation of safe management for oilfield is very difficult. We overcome these difficulties, which comes from geographical environment. The cost is not only high if the fiber cable would be lay between working station in the several tens of square kilometers, but also need to put into a lot of human and material resources with line maintenance and guard against theft. It is a perfect scheme that remote wireless monitoring and control system is established. The system is required to manage the data received from the various site and providing the security by managing and providing automatic controlling structure.

  8. The alternate wire-feed control in the automatic CO2 arc welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚静; 胡绳荪; 易小林; 单平


    In the automatic CO2 arc welding, the alteration of the vertical distance between the welding torch and the workpiece has a strong effect on the welding parameters such as welding current and voltage, with the result that the appearance and quality of weld are not steady. To weaken the influence of the distance alteration, a method is put forward in the paper. The method is that the alternate wire-feed control is used for compensating the welding current. On the basis of theoretical analysis, a static numerical model for alternate wire-feed control is established. The experiments show that the model-based regulation of the wire feed rate can compensate the welding current and ensure the appearance of weld. When the alteration of vertical distance between the torch and the workpiece is greater, not only is the wire feed rate regulated, but the output voltage of the power source is adjusted to ensure the appearance and quality of weld.

  9. Availability verification of information for human system interface in automatic SG level control using activity diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuraslinda, Anuar; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Uljugun (Korea, Republic of)


    Steam Generator (SG) level control system in OPR 1000 is one of representative automatic systems that falls under the Supervisory Control level in Endsley's taxonomy. Supervisory control of automated systems is classified as a form of out of the loop (OOTL) performance due to passive involvement in the systems operation, which could lead to loss of situation awareness (SA). There was a reported event, which was caused by inadequate human automation communication that contributed to an unexpected reactor trip in July 2005. A high SG level trip occurred in Yeonggwang (YGN) Unit 6 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) due to human operator failure to recognize the need to change the control mode of the economizer valve controller (EVC) to manual mode during swap over (the transition from low power mode to high power mode) after the loss of offsite power (LOOP) event was recovered. This paper models the human system interaction in NPP SG level control system using Unified Modeling Language (UML) Activity Diagram. Then, it identifies the missing information for operators in the OPR1000 Main Control Room (MCR) and suggests some means of improving the human system interaction.

  10. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Tischler, Mark B.


    An automatic rotor trim control system was developed and successfully used during a wind tunnel test of a full-scale UH-60 rotor system with Individual Blade Control (IBC) actuators. The trim control system allowed rotor trim to be set more quickly, precisely and repeatably than in previous wind tunnel tests. This control system also allowed the rotor trim state to be maintained during transients and drift in wind tunnel flow, and through changes in IBC actuation. The ability to maintain a consistent rotor trim state was key to quickly and accurately evaluating the effect of IBC on rotor performance, vibration, noise and loads. This paper presents details of the design and implementation of the trim control system including the rotor system hardware, trim control requirements, and trim control hardware and software implementation. Results are presented showing the effect of IBC on rotor trim and dynamic response, a validation of the rotor dynamic simulation used to calculate the initial control gains and tuning of the control system, and the overall performance of the trim control system during the wind tunnel test.

  11. Mission-Area Guide to Lead-Exposure Control (United States)


    Dentistry needs an elastic impression material that takes accurate, one-piece impressions of undercut areas (for inlay and crown preparations). Types of...Management and Budget. 1987. Stannard, Jan G., Materials in Dentistry , Denali Publishing. Boston, MA, 1986. Sullivan, Jim, Headquarters, Army...Lead-Exposure Control March 1996 63 DOD Memorandum, SUBJECT: Modification of Pediatric Blood Lead Screening Program, June 26, 1995. Universal

  12. Optical performance of a PDMS tunable lens with automatically controlled applied stress (United States)

    Cruz-Felix, Angel S.; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustín.; Hernández-Méndez, Arturo; Reyes-Pérez, Emilio R.; Tepichín-Rodriguez, Eduardo


    The advances in the field of adaptive optics and in the fabrication of tunable optical components capable to automatically modify their physical features are of great interest in areas like machine vision, imaging systems, ophthalmology, etc. Such components like tunable lenses are used to reduce the overall size of optical setups like in small camera systems and even to imitate some biological functions made by the human eye. In this direction, in the last years we have been working in the development and fabrication of PDMS-made tunable lenses and in the design of special mechanical mounting systems to manipulate them. A PDMS-made tunable lens was previously designed by us, following the scheme reported by Navarro et al. in 1985, in order to mimic the accommodation process made by the crystalline lens of the human eye. The design included a simulation of the application of radial stress onto the lens and it was shown that the effective focal length was indeed changed. In this work we show the fabrication process of this particular tunable lens and an optimized mechanism that is able to automatically change the curvature of both surfaces of the lens by the application of controlled stress. We also show results of a study and analysis of aberrations performed to the Solid Elastic Lens (SEL).

  13. Cardiovascular Automatic Feedback Control Instrument for Rescuing Critical Patients With Abnormal Blood Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Yuzhi; Wu Zhiting; Sheng Guotai; Li Gang


    Objectives Most medical instruments are designed for diagnosis purpose but very few for clinical treatment. Our research aim is to design and develop a cardiovascular automatic feedback control instrument (CAFCI) for rescuing the critical patients with abnormal blood pressure.Methods The CAFCI was designed on the basis of abundant clinical experiences and on successful mathematic modeling of our experimental data. The blood pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure,and rates of heart beat were measured and inputted into a computer and drugs were chosen by a doctor through a user-friendly interface with the computer.The responses to medication were rapidly acquired and feed back to the computer by automatic detection system in a close-loop system. The data were refreshed every 7.5 sec in order to regulate the speed and dosage of the medications that were given. Results The experimental results with ten dogs showed that the CAFCI system took samples promptly and accurately so that the targeted blood pressure could be reached reliably based on our input parameters and our designing requirements. Conclusions Since the dependability and accuracy of the CAFCI system are much superior to that of the traditional method, its clinical application to rescue the critical patient warrants evaluation in the future.

  14. Single-beam water vapor detection system with automatic photoelectric conversion gain control (United States)

    Zhu, C. G.; Chang, J.; Wang, P. P.; Wang, Q.; Wei, W.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, S. S.


    A single-beam optical sensor system with automatic photoelectric conversion gain control is proposed for doing high reliability water vapor detection under relatively rough environmental conditions. Comparing to a dual-beam system, it can distinguish the finer photocurrent variations caused by the optical power drift and provide timely compensation by automatically adjusting the photoelectric conversion gain. This system can be rarely affected by the optical power drift caused by fluctuating ambient temperature or variation of fiber bending loss. The deviation of the single-beam system is below 1.11% when photocurrent decays due to fiber bending loss for bending radius of 5 mm, which is obviously lower than the dual-beam system (8.82%). We also demonstrate the long-term stability of the single-beam system by monitoring a 660 ppm by volume (ppmv) water vapor sample continuously for 24 h. The maximum deviation of the measured concentration during the whole testing period does not exceed 10 ppmv. Experiments have shown that the new system features better reliability and is more apt for remote sensing application which is often subject to light transmission loss.

  15. Hardware simulation of automatic braking system based on fuzzy logic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Cholis Basjaruddin


    Full Text Available In certain situations, a moving or stationary object can be a barrier for a vehicle. People and vehicles crossing could potentially get hit by a vehicle. Objects around roads as sidewalks, road separator, power poles, and railroad gates are also a potential source of danger when the driver is inattentive in driving the vehicle. A device that can help the driver to brake automatically is known as Automatic Braking System (ABS. ABS is a part of the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS, which is a device designed to assist the driver in driving the process. This device was developed to reduce human error that is a major cause of traffic accidents. This paper presents the design of ABS based on fuzzy logic which is simulated in hardware by using a remote control car. The inputs of fuzzy logic are the speed and distance of the object in front of the vehicle, while the output of fuzzy logic is the intensity of braking. The test results on the three variations of speed: slow-speed, medium-speed, and high-speed shows that the design of ABS can work according to design.

  16. Stabilization Algorithms for Automatic Control of the Trajectory Movement of Quadcopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KeKe Gen


    Full Text Available The article considers an automatic quadcopter routing task. The quadcopter is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, which has four engines. Currently, such already widely used vehicles are controlled, mainly, from the operator’s control panel. A relevant task is to develop a quadcopter control system that enables an autonomous flight. The aim of this paper is to study the possibility for solving this problem using an algorithm of the stabilization and trajectory control.A mathematical model of the quadrocopter is the fairly complicated non-linear system, which can be obtained by using the Matlab Simulink and Universal Mechanism software systems simultaneously. Comparison of the simulation results in two software packages, i.e. Matlab wherein the nonlinear system of equations is modeled and UM wherein the flight path and other parameters are calculated according to transmitted forces and moments may prove correctness of the model used.Synthesis of controllers for the orientation and stabilization subsystem and trajectory control subsystem, is performed on traditional principles, in particular using the PID controllers and method based on Lyapunov functions known in the literature as "backstepping." The most appropriate controls are selected by comparing the simulation results. Responses to the stepped impacts and to tracking the given paths have been simulated. It has been found that the flight path of a quadcopter almost coincides with designated routing, changes of coordinates for the quadcopter mass center of two controllers under comparison are almost the same, but a deviation range of the angular position for the controller backstepping is much smaller than that of for the PID controller.

  17. A Simulink Library of cryogenic components to automatically generate control schemes for large Cryorefrigerators (United States)

    Bonne, François; Alamir, Mazen; Hoa, Christine; Bonnay, Patrick; Bon-Mardion, Michel; Monteiro, Lionel


    In this article, we present a new Simulink library of cryogenics components (such as valve, phase separator, mixer, heat exchanger...) to assemble to generate model-based control schemes. Every component is described by its algebraic or differential equation and can be assembled with others to build the dynamical model of a complete refrigerator or the model of a subpart of it. The obtained model can be used to automatically design advanced model based control scheme. It also can be used to design a model based PI controller. Advanced control schemes aim to replace classical user experience designed approaches usually based on many independent PI controllers. This is particularly useful in the case where cryoplants are submitted to large pulsed thermal loads, expected to take place in future fusion reactors such as those expected in the cryogenic cooling systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) or the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced Fusion Experiment (JT- 60SA). The paper gives the example of the generation of the dynamical model of the 400W@1.8K refrigerator and shows how to build a Constrained Model Predictive Control for it. Based on the scheme, experimental results will be given. This work is being supported by the French national research agency (ANR) through the ANR-13-SEED-0005 CRYOGREEN program.

  18. Automatic control of finite element models for temperature-controlled radiofrequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haemmerich Dieter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The finite element method (FEM has been used to simulate cardiac and hepatic radiofrequency (RF ablation. The FEM allows modeling of complex geometries that cannot be solved by analytical methods or finite difference models. In both hepatic and cardiac RF ablation a common control mode is temperature-controlled mode. Commercial FEM packages don't support automating temperature control. Most researchers manually control the applied power by trial and error to keep the tip temperature of the electrodes constant. Methods We implemented a PI controller in a control program written in C++. The program checks the tip temperature after each step and controls the applied voltage to keep temperature constant. We created a closed loop system consisting of a FEM model and the software controlling the applied voltage. The control parameters for the controller were optimized using a closed loop system simulation. Results We present results of a temperature controlled 3-D FEM model of a RITA model 30 electrode. The control software effectively controlled applied voltage in the FEM model to obtain, and keep electrodes at target temperature of 100°C. The closed loop system simulation output closely correlated with the FEM model, and allowed us to optimize control parameters. Discussion The closed loop control of the FEM model allowed us to implement temperature controlled RF ablation with minimal user input.

  19. Leptospira Exposure and Gardeners: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto


    Background Leptospira can be found in soil. However, it is unclear whether occupational exposure to soil may represent a risk for Leptospira infection in humans. Therefore, we sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of gardener, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of gardeners associated with Leptospira exposure. Methods We performed a case-control study in 168 gardeners and 168 age- and gender-matched control subjects without gardening occupation in Durango City, Mexico. The seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies in cases and controls was determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of Leptospira exposure and the characteristics of the gardeners. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6%) of 168 gardeners and in 15 (8.9%) of 168 control subjects (odds ratio (OR): 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28 - 1.48; P = 0.40). Multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira seropositivity was positively associated with female gender (OR: 5.82; 95% CI: 1.11 - 30.46; P = 0.03), and negatively associated with eating while working (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05 - 0.87; P = 0.03). In addition, multivariate analysis showed that high anti-Leptospira levels were associated with consumption of boar meat (OR: 28.00; 95% CI: 1.20 - 648.80; P = 0.03). Conclusions This is the first case-control study of Leptospira exposure in gardeners. Results do not support an association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of gardener. However, further studies to confirm the lack of this association are needed. The potential role of consumption of boar meat in Leptospira infection deserves further investigation. PMID:26668679

  20. A computer program to automatically control the multi leaf collimator; Un programa informatico para el control automatico del colimador multilamina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Galiano, P.; Crelgo Alonso, D.; Gonzalez Sancho, J. M.; Fernandez Garcia, J.; Vivanco Parellada, J.


    A computer program to automatically analyze strip test images for MLC leaf positioning quality assurance was developed and assessed. The program is fed with raw individual segment images in DICOM format supplied by the accelerator software and it automatically carries out all the steps in the leaf positioning quality control test (image merging, image analysis, storing and reporting). A comprehensive description of the software, that allows a relatively easy implementation, is shown. To check the performance of the program, a series of test fields with intentionally introduced errors were used. The obtained Measurement uncertainty of any individual leaf position was lower than 0.15 mm with gantry at 0 degree centigrade. At another gantry angles (90 degree centigrade, 180 degree centigrade and 270 degree centigrade) the dispersion of the measurements was larger, specially towards the external positions of the leafs, probably due to a slight rotation of the EPID caused by gravity. That reduces the useful area of the MLC to control when gantry angles different from 0 degree centigrade are used. In conclusion, this technique is fast enough to be carried out in a daily basis being also very precise and reliable. (Author)

  1. A novel analog/digital reconfigurable automatic gain control with a novel DC offset cancellation circuit*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Xiaofeng; Mo Taishan; Ma Chengyan; Ye Tianchun


    An analog/digital reconfigurable automatic gain control (AGC) circuit with a novel DC offset cancellation circuit for a direct-conversion receiver is presented. The AGC is analog/digital reconfigurable in order to be compatible with different baseband chips. What's more, a novel DC offset cancellation (DCOC) circuit with an HPCF (high pass cutoff frequency) less than 10 kHz is proposed. The AGC is fabricated by a 0.18 μm CMOS process. Under analog control mode, the AGC achieves a 70 dB dynamic range with a 3 dB-bandwidth larger than 60 MHz. Under digital control mode, through a 5-bit digital control word, the AGC shows a 64 dB gain control range by 2 dB each step with a gain error of less than 0.3 dB. The DC offset cancellation circuits can suppress the output DC offset voltage to be less than 1.5 mV, while the offset voltage of 40 mV is introduced into the input. The overall power consumption is less than 3.5 mA, and the die area is 800 × 300μm2.

  2. Piloted Simulation Evaluation of a Model-Predictive Automatic Recovery System to Prevent Vehicle Loss of Control on Approach (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Liu, Yuan; Sowers, Thomas S.; Owen, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei


    This paper describes a model-predictive automatic recovery system for aircraft on the verge of a loss-of-control situation. The system determines when it must intervene to prevent an imminent accident, resulting from a poor approach. It estimates the altitude loss that would result from a go-around maneuver at the current flight condition. If the loss is projected to violate a minimum altitude threshold, the maneuver is automatically triggered. The system deactivates to allow landing once several criteria are met. Piloted flight simulator evaluation showed the system to provide effective envelope protection during extremely unsafe landing attempts. The results demonstrate how flight and propulsion control can be integrated to recover control of the vehicle automatically and prevent a potential catastrophe.

  3. Controller Design and Analysis of Spacecraft Automatic Levelling and Equalizing Hoist Device based on Hanging Point Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Laiying


    Full Text Available Spacecraft Automatic Levelling and Equalizing Hoist Device (SALEHD is a kind of hoisting device developed for eccentric spacecraft level-adjusting, based on hanging point adjustment by utilizing XY-workbench. To make the device automatically adjust the spacecraft to be levelling, the controller for SALEHD was designed in this paper. Through geometry and mechanics analysis for SALEHD and the spacecraft, the mathematical model of the controller is established. And then, the link of adaptive control and the link of variable structure control were added into the controller to adapt the unknown parameter and eliminate the interference of support vehicle. The stability of the controller was analysed, through constructing Lyapunov energy function. It was proved that the controller system is asymptotically stable, and converged to origin that is equilibrium point. So the controller can be applied in SALEHD availably and safely.

  4. Slow Dynamics Model of Compressed Air Energy Storage and Battery Storage Technologies for Automatic Generation Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Venkat; Das, Trishna


    Increasing variable generation penetration and the consequent increase in short-term variability makes energy storage technologies look attractive, especially in the ancillary market for providing frequency regulation services. This paper presents slow dynamics model for compressed air energy storage and battery storage technologies that can be used in automatic generation control studies to assess the system frequency response and quantify the benefits from storage technologies in providing regulation service. The paper also represents the slow dynamics model of the power system integrated with storage technologies in a complete state space form. The storage technologies have been integrated to the IEEE 24 bus system with single area, and a comparative study of various solution strategies including transmission enhancement and combustion turbine have been performed in terms of generation cycling and frequency response performance metrics.

  5. Regenerative braking control strategy in mild hybrid electric vehicles equipped with automatic manual transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Datong; YE Ming; LIU Zhenjun


    The actual regenerative braking force of an integrated starter/generator (ISG),which is varied with desired braking deceleration and vehicle speed,is calculated based on an analysis of the required deceleration,maximum braking force of ISG,engine braking force and state of charge (SOC) of battery.Braking force distribution strategies are presented according to the actual regenerative braking force of ISG.To recover the vehicle's kinetic energy maximally,braking shift rules for a mild hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) equipped with automatic manual transmission (AMT) are brought forward and effects of transmission ratios are considered.A test-bed is built up and regenerative braking tests are carried out.The results show that power recovered by the braking shift rules is more than that recovered by the normal braking control rules.

  6. A Novel, Automatic Quality Control Scheme for Real Time Image Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramachandran


    Full Text Available A novel scheme to compute energy on-the-fly and thereby control the quality of the image frames dynamically is presented along with its FPGA implementation. This scheme is suitable for incorporation in image compression systems such as video encoders. In this new scheme, processing is automatically stopped when the desired quality is achieved for the image being processed by using a concept called pruning. Pruning also increases the processing speed by a factor of more than two when compared to the conventional method of processing without pruning. An MPEG-2 encoder implemented using this scheme is capable of processing good quality monochrome and color images of sizes up to 1024 × 768 pixels at the rate of 42 and 28 frames per second, respectively, with a compression ratio of over 17:1. The encoder is also capable of working in the fixed pruning level mode with user programmable features.

  7. An automatic frequency control loop using overlapping DFTs (Discrete Fourier Transforms) (United States)

    Aguirre, S.


    An automatic frequency control (AFC) loop is introduced and analyzed in detail. The new scheme is a generalization of the well known Cross Product AFC loop that uses running overlapping discrete Fourier transforms (DFTs) to create a discriminator curve. Linear analysis is included and supported with computer simulations. The algorithm is tested in a low carrier to noise ratio (CNR) dynamic environment, and the probability of loss of lock is estimated via computer simulations. The algorithm discussed is a suboptimum tracking scheme with a larger frequency error variance compared to an optimum strategy, but offers simplicity of implementation and a very low operating threshold CNR. This technique can be applied during the carrier acquisition and re-acquisition process in the Advanced Receiver.

  8. Development of a parameter optimization technique for the design of automatic control systems (United States)

    Whitaker, P. H.


    Parameter optimization techniques for the design of linear automatic control systems that are applicable to both continuous and digital systems are described. The model performance index is used as the optimization criterion because of the physical insight that can be attached to it. The design emphasis is to start with the simplest system configuration that experience indicates would be practical. Design parameters are specified, and a digital computer program is used to select that set of parameter values which minimizes the performance index. The resulting design is examined, and complexity, through the use of more complex information processing or more feedback paths, is added only if performance fails to meet operational specifications. System performance specifications are assumed to be such that the desired step function time response of the system can be inferred.

  9. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A low power automatic gain control loop for a receiver (United States)

    Guofeng, Li; Zhiqing, Geng; Nanjian, Wu


    This paper proposes a new structure to lower the power consumption of a variable gain amplifier (VGA) and keep the linearity of the VGA unchanged. The structure is used in a high rate amplitude-shift keying (ASK) based IF-stage. It includes an automatic gain control (AGC) loop and ASK demodulator. The AGC mainly consists of six-stage VGAs. The IF-stage is realized in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The measurement results show that the power consumption of the whole system is very low. The system consumes 730 μA while operating at 1.8 V. The minimum ASK signal the system could detect is 0.7 mV (peak to peak amplitude).

  10. Key techniques of automatic gauge control and profile control for aluminium strip and foil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mou-wei; LIU Hong-fei; WANG Xiang-li; TONG Chao-nan; YIN Feng-fu; BIAN Xin-xiao; ZHANG Lei


    Such characteristics of aluminium strip and foil as soft and thin gauge make tension control one of the key techniques for automation gauge control(AGC). To avoid the disadvantage of traditional mathematical control method which is unfitful for nonlinear hysteresis, the technique for tension AGC fuzzy control was developed and thickness deviation more than 3% of product thickness was achieved consequently in 1 350 mm cold rolling mill of aluminium strip and foil. Additionally, because the gauge of aluminium strip and foil is thin, stage-cooling roll method becomes a key technique for profile control. So stage-cooling roll intelligent control method is developed and pre-coated aluminum foil with good profile less than 10 I (the relative differences in elongation of 0.01% ) is produced using the profile control system in 1 400 mm cold rolling mill of aluminium strip and foil.

  11. Design and Analysis of Automatic Car Park System with Capacity Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Mohammed Gujja


    Full Text Available :The need for an automatic car park gate system has been in increase in recent times following the economic situation in present days. The circuit is aimed at eliminating manual operation of a car park. It incorporate the use of LM741 op-amp and CD4017 decade counter for controlling the number of vehicle that can have access to the parking premises and the circuit is fixed close to the gate with the sensor tragically located where it can sense the presence of a car. The light dependent resistor (LDR senses both entrance and exit of the cars and this followed the maximum of three cars in the case of this design. As a monitoring and control system, when you comes close to the gate the light dependent resistor senses an incoming car which allows the gate to open automatically and closed when done. This process is same for outgoing cars. This module make use of an optical sensor, whose resistance changes with the intensity of light (Horowitz, 1980 the type use is ORP12 and it has a dark resistance of 10MΩ. When light rays are focused on the light dependent resistor (LDR, the resistance becomes very low (0-500Ω but when the rays are interrupted, the increases to its dark resistance (Huiyu, 2010. The variable resistor is used to vary the sensitivity of the light dependent resistor. It is otherwise called dark activated sensor. For the design two conditions are considered. First, when light rays are focused on the ORP12, and second, when the rays are being interrupted. The counter registers and displays the number of vehicle crossing the gate (both entrance and exit and allows maximum of three cars. Once the maximum is reached, the gate entrance remains closed and inaccessible, until another vehicle leaves the park. The car park system comprises of the sensor unit, trigger circuitry, display unit (switching unit and the power supply unit.

  12. Feeding patterns and performance of cows in controlled cow traffic in automatic milking systems. (United States)

    Melin, M; Svennersten-Sjaunja, K; Wiktorsson, H


    Two groups of dairy cows monitored from 3 to 19 wk postpartum were subjected to 2 different cow traffic routines in an automatic milking system with control gates and an open waiting area. Using different time settings in the control gates, the groups of cows were separated by average milking frequency; cows in the high milking frequency routine had a minimum of 4 h between milkings (MF(4)) and were milked 3.2 +/- 0.1 times daily, whereas cows in the low milking frequency routine had at least 8 h between milkings (MF8) and were milked 2.1 +/- 0.1 times daily. Cows in the 2 groups were switched to the opposite milking frequency control for wk 18 and 19. The increased milking frequency resulted in a higher milk yield of about 9% through 16 wk of early lactation Although the higher milk yield was not significant when measured as energy-corrected milk, significant interactions of milking frequency and study period for milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield were consistent with a yield response when cows were milked more frequently. Meal criteria estimated for each individual cow were used to group feeding visits into meals. During MF4, cows fed in fewer meals per day and had longer meals than during MF8. The control gates were used efficiently, with only a few passages not resulting in actual meals. Although the voluntary meal intervals seemed to be short, the average milking frequency was far below that theoretically possible. This was explained by individual differences in milking frequency and long intervals from when a cow was redirected in a control gate until it arrived in the milking unit. A wide individual range in the voluntary interval between the first and the second meal in the milking cycle suggests that fixed time limits for control gates set on group level have no justifiable biological basis. It was also concluded that primiparous cows were well adapted to the automatic milking system after 2 wk in the barn.

  13. Automatic PID Control Loops Design for Performance Improvement of Cryogenic Turboexpander (United States)

    Joshi, D. M.; Patel, H. K.; Shah, D. K.


    Cryogenics field involves temperature below 123 K which is much less than ambient temperature. In addition, many industrially important physical processes—from fulfilling the needs of National Thermonuclear Fusion programs, superconducting magnets to treatment of cutting tools and preservation of blood cells, require extreme low temperature. The low temperature required for liquefaction of common gases can be obtained by several processes. Liquefaction is the process of cooling or refrigerating a gas to a temperature below its critical temperature so that liquid can be formed at some suitable pressure which is below the critical pressure. Helium liquefier is used for the liquefaction process of helium gas. In general, the Helium Refrigerator/Liquefier (HRL) needs turboexpander as expansion machine to produce cooling effect which is further used for the production of liquid helium. Turboexpanders, a high speed device that is supported on gas bearings, are the most critical component in many helium refrigeration systems. A very minor fault in the operation and manufacturing or impurities in the helium gas can destroy the turboexpander. However, since the performance of expanders is dependent on a number of operating parameters and the relations between them are quite complex, the instrumentation and control system design for turboexpander needs special attention. The inefficiency of manual control leads to the need of designing automatic control loops for turboexpander. Proper design and implementation of the control loops plays an important role in the successful operation of the cryogenic turboexpander. The PID control loops has to be implemented with accurate interlocks and logic to enhance the performance of the cryogenic turboexpander. For different normal and off-normal operations, speeds will be different and hence a proper control method for critical rotational speed avoidance is must. This paper presents the design of PID control loops needed for the

  14. Tuning of PID controller for an automatic regulator voltage system using chaotic optimization approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Coelho, Leandro dos [Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, Zip code 80215-901, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)], E-mail:


    Despite the popularity, the tuning aspect of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers is a challenge for researchers and plant operators. Various controllers tuning methodologies have been proposed in the literature such as auto-tuning, self-tuning, pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, and optimization methods. Chaotic optimization algorithms as an emergent method of global optimization have attracted much attention in engineering applications. Chaotic optimization algorithms, which have the features of easy implementation, short execution time and robust mechanisms of escaping from local optimum, is a promising tool for engineering applications. In this paper, a tuning method for determining the parameters of PID control for an automatic regulator voltage (AVR) system using a chaotic optimization approach based on Lozi map is proposed. Since chaotic mapping enjoys certainty, ergodicity and the stochastic property, the proposed chaotic optimization introduces chaos mapping using Lozi map chaotic sequences which increases its convergence rate and resulting precision. Simulation results are promising and show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Numerical simulations based on proposed PID control of an AVR system for nominal system parameters and step reference voltage input demonstrate the good performance of chaotic optimization.

  15. Towards the implementation of e-manufacturing: design of an automatic tea drying control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabvuu, Never


    Full Text Available Many of the production costs for producing tea are attributable to the process of drying the tea. E-manufacturing can assist companies to reduce these production costs by making crucial information available to decision-makers so that they can make informed decisions. This paper presents an application of e-manufacturing to the design of an automatic tea drying control system. This control system will ensure that the multiple drying parameters such as temperature, dryer-exit tea moisture content, and fuel consumption are maintained at optimal states during the course of the drying of tea. The additional aim of this system is to balance the cost of production and the quality of the final product. Using the Guggenheim-Anderson-De Boer (GAB model, the optimum drying temperature was found to be 100-110°C, while maintaining a dryer-exit tea moisture content of 3 to 3.12 per cent, at a drying rate of 3 per cent per minute. A Barix control application to control the system’s activities, using the web user interface (WUI, was also developed.

  16. Testing a satellite automatic nutation control system. [on synchronous meteorological satellite (United States)

    Hrasiar, J. A.


    Testing of a particular nutation control system for the synchronous meteorological satellite (SMS) is described. The test method and principles are applicable to nutation angle control for other satellites with similar requirements. During its ascent to synchronous orbit, a spacecraft like the SMS spins about its minimum-moment-of-inertia axis. An uncontrolled spacecraft in this state is unstable because torques due to fuel motion increase the nutation angle. However, the SMS is equipped with an automatic nutation control (ANC) system which will keep the nutation angle close to zero. Because correct operation of this system is critical to mission success, it was tested on an air-bearing table. The ANC system was mounted on the three-axis air-bearing table which was scaled to the SMS and equipped with appropriate sensors and thrusters. The table was spun up in an altitude chamber and nutation induced so that table motion simulated spacecraft motion. The ANC system was used to reduce the nutation angle. This dynamic test of the ANC system met all its objectives and provided confidence that the ANC system will control the SMS nutation angle.

  17. Fully automatic control of paraplegic FES pedaling using higher-order sliding mode and fuzzy logic control. (United States)

    Farhoud, Aidin; Erfanian, Abbas


    In this paper, a fully automatic robust control strategy is proposed for control of paraplegic pedaling using functional electrical stimulation (FES). The method is based on higher-order sliding mode (HOSM) control and fuzzy logic control. In FES, the strength of muscle contraction can be altered either by varying the pulse width (PW) or by the pulse amplitude (PA) of the stimulation signal. The proposed control strategy regulates simultaneously both PA and PW (i.e., PA/PW modulation). A HOSM controller is designed for regulating the PW and a fuzzy logic controller for the PA. The proposed control scheme is free-model and does not require any offline training phase and subject-specific information. Simulation studies on a virtual patient and experiments on three paraplegic subjects demonstrate good tracking performance and robustness of the proposed control strategy against muscle fatigue and external disturbances during FES-induced pedaling. The results of simulation studies show that the power and cadence tracking errors are 5.4% and 4.8%, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the proposed controller can improve pedaling system efficacy and increase the endurance of FES pedaling. The average of power tracking error over three paraplegic subjects is 7.4±1.4% using PA/PW modulation, while the tracking error is 10.2±1.2% when PW modulation is used. The subjects could pedal for 15 min with about 4.1% power loss at the end of experiment using proposed control strategy, while the power loss is 14.3% using PW modulation. The controller could adjust the stimulation intensity to compensate the muscle fatigue during long period of FES pedaling.

  18. Central automatic control or distributed occupant control for better indoor environment quality in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn


    of adverse symptoms and building related symptoms than the ventilation mode per se. This result indicates that even though the development and application of new indoor environment sensors and HVAC control systems may allow for fully automated IEQ control, such systems should not compromise occupants...... in the degree of perceived control. The database was composed of 1353 responses obtained in 25 buildings of which 15 had mechanical ventilation (997 responses) and 9 had natural ventilation (275 responses). Analysis of occupant responses, after grouping according to categories determined by the degree...... of satisfaction with the perceived control, showed that the degree of control satisfaction, but rarely building category (natural vs. mechanical ventilation), affected the prevalence of adverse perceptions and symptoms. Thus, the degree of control, as perceived by occupants, was more important for the prevalence...

  19. Central automatic control or distributed occupant control for better indoor environment quality in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn


    of control, as perceived by occupants, seemed more important for the prevalence of adverse symptoms and building-related symptoms than the ventilation mode per se. This result indicates that even though the development and application of new indoor environment sensors and HVAC control systems may allow...... for fully automated IEQ control, such systems should not compromise occupants' perception of having some degree of control of their indoor environment....... a discrepancy in the degree of perceived control. The database was composed of 1272 responses obtained in 24 buildings of which 15 had mechanical ventilation (997 responses) and 9 had natural ventilation (275 responses). The number of occupant-reported control opportunities was higher in buildings with natural...

  20. Retrospective exposure assessment and quality control in an international multi-centre case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinnerberg, H; Heikkilä, P; Huici-Montagud, A;


    The paper presents the exposure assessment method and quality control procedure used in an international, multi-centre case-control study within a joint Nordic and Italian cohort. This study was conducted to evaluate whether occupational exposure to carcinogens influenced the predictivity of high...... frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in peripheral lymphocytes for increased cancer risk. Occupational hygienists assessed exposures in each participating country: Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway and Sweden. The exposure status to a carcinogen or a clastogen was coded in the cohort according...... country-specific differences, differences in information available to the home assessor and the others and misunderstandings or difficulties in translation of information. To ensure the consistency of exposure assessments in international retrospective case-control studies it is important to have a well...

  1. Hexavalent chromium exposure and control in welding tasks. (United States)

    Meeker, John D; Susi, Pam; Flynn, Michael R


    Studies of exposure to the lung carcinogen hexavalent chromium (CrVI) from welding tasks are limited, especially within the construction industry where overexposure may be common. In addition, despite the OSHA requirement that the use of engineering controls such as local exhaust ventilation (LEV) first be considered before relying on other strategies to reduce worker exposure to CrVI, data on the effectiveness of LEV to reduce CrVI exposures from welding are lacking. The goal of the present study was to characterize breathing zone air concentrations of CrVI during welding tasks and primary contributing factors in four datasets: (1) OSHA compliance data; (2) a publicly available database from The Welding Institute (TWI); (3) field survey data of construction welders collected by the Center for Construction Research and Training (CPWR); and (4) controlled welding trials conducted by CPWR to assess the effectiveness of a portable LEV unit to reduce CrVI exposure. In the OSHA (n = 181) and TWI (n = 124) datasets, which included very few samples from the construction industry, the OSHA permissible exposure level (PEL) for CrVI (5 μg/m(3)) was exceeded in 9% and 13% of samples, respectively. CrVI concentrations measured in the CPWR field surveys (n = 43) were considerably higher, and 25% of samples exceeded the PEL. In the TWI and CPWR datasets, base metal, welding process, and LEV use were important predictors of CrVI concentrations. Only weak-to-moderate correlations were found between total particulate matter and CrVI, suggesting that total particulate matter concentrations are not a good surrogate for CrVI exposure in retrospective studies. Finally, in the controlled welding trials, LEV reduced median CrVI concentrations by 68% (p = 0.02). In conclusion, overexposure to CrVI in stainless steel welding is likely widespread, especially in certain operations such as shielded metal arc welding, which is commonly used in construction. However, exposure could be

  2. Rapid Automatized Naming in Children with Dyslexia: Is Inhibitory Control Involved? (United States)

    Bexkens, Anika; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Tijms, Jurgen


    Rapid automatized naming (RAN) is widely seen as an important indicator of dyslexia. The nature of the cognitive processes involved in rapid naming is however still a topic of controversy. We hypothesized that in addition to the involvement of phonological processes and processing speed, RAN is a function of inhibition processes, in particular of interference control. A total 86 children with dyslexia and 31 normal readers were recruited. Our results revealed that in addition to phonological processing and processing speed, interference control predicts rapid naming in dyslexia, but in contrast to these other two cognitive processes, inhibition is not significantly associated with their reading and spelling skills. After variance in reading and spelling associated with processing speed, interference control and phonological processing was partialled out, naming speed was no longer consistently associated with the reading and spelling skills of children with dyslexia. Finally, dyslexic children differed from normal readers on naming speed, literacy skills, phonological processing and processing speed, but not on inhibition processes. Both theoretical and clinical interpretations of these results are discussed.

  3. Automatic Gain Control in Mass Spectrometry using a Jet Disrupter Electrode in an Electrodynamic Ion Funnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Jason S.; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Vilkov, Andrey N.; Prior, David C.; Buschbach, Michael A.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.


    We report on the use of a jet disrupter electrode in an electrodynamic ion funnel as an electronic valve to regulate the intensity of the ion beam transmitted through the interface of a mass spectrometer in order to perform automatic gain control (AGC). The ion flux is determined by either directly detecting the ion current on the conductance limiting orifice of the ion funnel or using a short mass spectrometry acquisition. Based upon the ion flux intensity, the voltage of the jet disrupter is adjusted to alter the transmission efficiency of the ion funnel to provide a desired ion population to the mass analyzer. Ion beam regulation by an ion funnel is shown to provide an unbiased control to within a few percent of a targeted ion intensity or abundance. The utility of ion funnel AGC was evaluated using a protein tryptic digest analyzed with liquid chromatography Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (LC-FTICR) mass spectrometry. The ion population in the ICR cell was accurately controlled to a variety of different levels, which improved data quality and provided better mass measurement accuracy.

  4. 11th International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC) Workshop on Time-Delay Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Emilia; Sename, Olivier; Dugard, Luc


    This book mostly results from a selection of papers presented during the 11th IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Workshop on Time-Delay Systems, which took place in Grenoble, France, February 4 - 6, 2013.  During this event, 37 papers were presented. Taking into account the reviewers' evaluation and the papers' presentation the best papers have been selected and collected into the present volume. The authors of 13 selected papers were invited to participate to this book and provided a more detailed and improved version of the conference paper. To enrich the book, three more chapters have been included from specialists on time-delay systems who presented their work during the 52nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, which held in December 10 - 13, 2013, at Florence, Italy. The content of the book is divided into four main parts as follows: Modeling, Stability analysis, Stabilization and control, and Input-delay systems. Focusing on various topics of time-delay systems, this book will be...

  5. Induced rhinovirus infection under controlled exposure to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, I. (Aarhus, Univ., Denmark); Jensen, P.L.; Reed, S.E.; Craig, J.W.; Proctor, D.F.; Adams, G.K.


    The interaction between short-term sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) exposure and experimentally induced rhinovirus infection was studied in thirty-two volunteers divided into two groups balanced with respect to age, antibody levels, and nasal mucous flow rates. One group was exposed to SO/sub 2/ at the threshold limit value (TLV) of 5 ppM during 4 hours; the other group served as controls exposed to pollution-free air under the same conditions. The SO/sub 2/ exposure caused a 50% decrease in nasal mucous flow rate in the anterior parts of the nose, but there was no difference in the number of colds which developed in the two groups. The group exposed to SO/sub 2/ had fewer symptoms and a possibly shorter incubation period (P = .06), and virus shedding was at a lower level but more persistent than in the control group. No differences were found in antibody response. The rhinovirus infection in the control group caused a gradual decrease in nasal mucus flow rate starting 2 days after the virus instillation, and after 5 days the rate was less than half its initial value. For future experiments on the interaction between airborne pollutants and rhinovirus infections, a virus challenge by aerosol inhalation is recommended. Our study supports an earlier observation that growth of influenza virus in the nasal cavity of mice was inhibited by exposure to SO/sub 2/ concentrations of 6 or 20 ppM.

  6. Occupational exposure to DDT among mosquito control sprayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nhachi, C.F.B.; Kasilo, O.J. (Univ. of Zimbabwe, Harare (Zimbabwe))


    DDT, a broad action insecticide whose use is restricted or banned in most industrialized countries is still often used for vector control in many tropical and developing countries. Despite the fact that DDT is accumulative and persistant in the ecosystem use of such substitutes as malathion or propoxur is not popular because these increases costs by 3.4 to 8.5 fold. As such DDT is economically attractive to poorer countries. As far as can be ascertained no systemic poisoning has resulted from occupational exposure to DDT. Due to the large particle size, the amount of DDT inhaled by workers is far less than the amount reaching exposed portions of skin. As such occupational exposure is mainly dermal or tropical. Occupational exposure to DDT studies have been done before. The present study is an analysis of some characteristics, (i.e. age, body size, relationship between plasma vitamin A and DDE levels, and smoking habits), of occupational exposure to DDT among spraymen in a Zimbabwe population.

  7. On the Control of Automatic Processes: A Parallel Distributed Processing Account of the Stroop Effect. (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan D.; And Others


    It is proposed that attributes of automatization depend on the strength of a processing pathway, and that strength increases with training. With the Stroop effect as an example, automatic processes are shown through simulation to be continuous and to emerge gradually with practice. (SLD)

  8. 染料生产过程的自动控制%Automatic Control for Dye Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    详细介绍了我国染料工业的发展现状,染料生产过程的综合自动控制水平、生产特点及其控制要求;列举了自动控制的主要内容,常用的控制方案以及控制方案选择的基本原则。最后对自动控制技术的应用前景作了展望,并简述了提高染料生产过程自控水平的重要意义。%The current situation, automatization level, production characteristics and control requirement in dye pro- duction were introduced in detail. The main contents of automatic control, the control scheme commonly used and the bas- ic principles for scheme selection were enumerated. In the end, application prospects of the automatic control technology were predicted, and the significance of improving the automatization level was also given.

  9. A digital-analog hybrid system and its application to the automatic flight control system simulation research (United States)


    The characteristics of a digital-analog hybrid system composed of a DJS-8 digital computer and a HMJ-200 analog computer are described as well as its applications to simulation research for an automatic flight control system. A hybrid computational example is included to illustrate the application.

  10. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC Effects Reflect Controlled Rather than Automatic Mechanisms of Sentence Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kotchoubey


    Full Text Available This study compared automatic and controlled cognitive processes that underlie event-related potentials (ERPs effects during speech perception. Sentences were presented to French native speakers, and the final word could be congruent or incongruent, and presented at one of four levels of degradation (using a modulation with pink noise: no degradation, mild degradation (2 levels, or strong degradation. We assumed that degradation impairs controlled more than automatic processes. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC effects were defined as the differences between the corresponding wave amplitudes to incongruent words minus congruent words. Under mild degradation, where controlled sentence-level processing could still occur (as indicated by behavioral data, both N400 and LPC effects were delayed and the latter effect was reduced. Under strong degradation, where sentence processing was rather automatic (as indicated by behavioral data, no ERP effect remained. These results suggest that ERP effects elicited in complex contexts, such as sentences, reflect controlled rather than automatic mechanisms of speech processing. These results differ from the results of experiments that used word-pair or word-list paradigms.

  11. Design of an expert system to automatically calibrate impedance control for powered knee prostheses. (United States)

    Wang, Ding; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Fan; Huang, He


    Many currently available powered knee prostheses (PKP) use finite state impedance control to operate a prosthetic knee joint. The desired impedance values were usually manually calibrated with trial-and-error in order to enable near-normal walking pattern. However, such a manual approach is inaccurate, time consuming, and impractical. This paper aimed to design an expert system that can tune the control impedance for powered knee prostheses automatically and quickly. The expert system was designed based on fuzzy logic inference (FLI) to match the desired knee motion and gait timing while walking. The developed system was validated on an able-bodied subject wearing a powered prosthesis. Preliminary experimental results demonstrated that the developed expert system can converge the user's knee profile and gait timing to the desired values within 2 minutes. Additionally, after the auto-tuning procedure, the user produced more symmetrical gait. These preliminary results indicate the promise of the designed expert system for quick and accuracy impedance calibration, which can significantly improve the practical value of powered lower limb prosthesis. Continuous engineering efforts are still needed to determine the calibration objectives and validate the expert system.

  12. An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control with high gain step accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓丰; 莫太山; 马成炎; 叶甜春


    An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control (AGC) with high gain step accuracy for the GNSS receiver is presented.The amplitude of an AGC is configurable in order to cooperate with baseband chips to achieve interference suppression and be compatible with different full range ADCs.And what's more,the gain-boosting technology is introduced and the circuit is improved to increase the step accuracy.A zero,which is composed by the source feedback resistance and the source capacity,is introduced to compensate for the pole.The AGC is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process.The AGC shows a 62 dB gain control range by 1 dB each step with a gain error of less than 0.2 dB.The AGC provides 3 dB bandwidth larger than 80 MHz and the overall power consumption is less than 1.8 mA,and the die area is 800 × 300μm2.

  13. A Computer Model of the Evaporator for the Development of an Automatic Control System (United States)

    Kozin, K. A.; Efremov, E. V.; Kabrysheva, O. P.; Grachev, M. I.


    For the implementation of a closed nuclear fuel cycle it is necessary to carry out a series of experimental studies to justify the choice of technology. In addition, the operation of the radiochemical plant is impossible without high-quality automatic control systems. In the technologies of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, the method of continuous evaporation is often used for a solution conditioning. Therefore, the effective continuous technological process will depend on the operation of the evaporation equipment. Its essential difference from similar devices is a small size. In this paper the method of mathematic simulation is applied for the investigation of one-effect evaporator with an external heating chamber. Detailed modelling is quite difficult because the phase equilibrium dynamics of the evaporation process is not described. Moreover, there is a relationship with the other process units. The results proved that the study subject is a MIMO plant, nonlinear over separate control channels and not selfbalancing. Adequacy was tested using the experimental data obtained at the laboratory evaporation unit.

  14. A 155 Mbps laser diode driver with automatic power and extinction ratio control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An integrated laser diode driver (LDD) driving an edge-emitting laser diode was designed and fabricated by 0.35 μm BiCMOS technology. This paper proposes a scheme which combines the automatic power control loop and temperature compensation for modulation current in order to maintain constant extinction ratio and average optical power. To implement temperature compensation for modulation current, a novel circuit which generates a PTAT current by using the injecting base current of a bipolar transistor in saturation region, and alternates the amplifier feedback loop (closed or not) to control the state of the current path is presented. Simulation results showed that programmed by choice of external resistors, the IC can provide modulation current from 5 mA to 85 mA with temperature compensation adjustments and independent bias current from 4 mA to 100 mA. Optical test results showed that clear eye-diagrams can be obtained at 155 Mbps, with the output optical power being nearly constant, and the variation of extinction ratio being lower than 0.7 dB.

  15. Benchmarking of control strategies for ATAD technology: a first approach to the automatic control of sludge treatment systems. (United States)

    Zambrano, J A; Gil-Martinez, M; Garcia-Sanz, M; Irizar, I


    Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD technology) is a promising alternative to conventional digestion systems. Aeration is a key factor in the performance of these kinds of reactors, in relation to effluent quality and operating costs. At present, the realisation of automatic control in ATADs is in its infancy. Additionally, the lack of robust sensors also makes the control of these processes difficult: only redox potential and temperature sensors are reliable for operation in full-scale plants. Based as it is on the existing simulation protocols for benchmarking of control strategies for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), this paper presents the definition and implementation of a similar protocol but specifically adapted to the needs of ATAD technology. The implemented simulation protocol has been used to validate two different control strategies for aeration (ST1 and ST2). In comparison to an open-loop operation for the ATAD, simulation results showed that the ST1 strategy was able to save aeration costs of around 2-4%. Unlike ST1, ST2 achieved maximum sludge stabilisation but at the expense of higher aeration costs.

  16. JEMs and incompatible occupational coding systems: Effect of manual and automatic recoding of job codes on exposure assignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, T.; Offermans, N.S.M.; Christopher-De Vries, Y.; Slottje, P.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kromhout, H.; Vermeulen, R.


    Background: In epidemiological studies, occupational exposure estimates are often assigned through linkage of job histories to job-exposure matrices (JEMs). However, available JEMs may have a coding system incompatible with the coding system used to code the job histories, necessitating a translatio

  17. Automatic Optimization of Focal Point Position in CO2 Laser Welding with Neural Network in A Focus Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    CO2 lasers are increasingly being utilized for quality welding in production. Considering the high cost of equipment, the start-up time and the set-up time should be minimized. Ideally the parameters should be set up and optimized more or less automatically. In this paper a control system...... is designed and built to automatically optimize the focal point position, one of the most important parameters in CO2 laser welding, in order to perform a desired deep/full penetration welding. The control system mainly consists of a multi-axis motion controller - PMAC, a light sensor - Photo Diode, a data....... The results of the self-learning focus control system show that the neural network is capable of optimizing the focal point position with good accuracy in CW CO2 laser welding....

  18. Modeling and simulation of the generation automatic control of electric power systems; Modelado y simulacion del control automatico de generacion de sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero Ortiz, Ezequiel


    This work is devoted to the analysis of the Automatic Control of Electrical Systems Generation of power, as of the information that generates the loop with Load-Frequency Control and the Automatic Voltage Regulator loop. To accomplish the analysis, the control classical theory and feedback control systems concepts are applied. Thus also, the modern theory concepts are employed. The studies are accomplished in the digital computer through the MATLAB program and the available simulation technique in the SIMULINK tool. In this thesis the theoretical and physical concepts of the automatic control of generation are established; dividing it in load frequency control and automatic voltage regulator loops. The mathematical models of the two control loops are established. Later, the models of the elements are interconnected in order to integrate the loop with load frequency control and the digital simulation of the system is carried out. In first instance, the function of the primary control in are - machine, area - multi machine and multi area - multi machine power systems, is analyzed. Then, the automatic control of generation of the area and multi area power systems is studied. The economic dispatch concept is established and with this plan the power system multi area is simulated, there in after the energy exchange among areas in stationary stage is studied. The mathematical models of the component elements of the control loop of the automatic voltage regulator are interconnected. Data according to the nature of each component are generated and their behavior is simulated to analyze the system response. The two control loops are interconnected and a simulation is carry out with data generated previously, examining the performance of the automatic control of generation and the interaction between the two control loops. Finally, the Poles Positioning and the Optimum Control techniques of the modern control theory are applied to the automatic control of an area generation

  19. Quality control for exposure assessment in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornkessel, C; Blettner, M; Breckenkamp, J


    In the framework of an epidemiological study, dosemeters were used for the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. To check the correct dosemeter's performance in terms of consistency of recorded field values over the entire study period, a quality control strategy...... was developed. In this paper, the concept of quality control and its results is described. From the 20 dosemeters used, 19 were very stable and reproducible, with deviations of a maximum of +/-1 dB compared with their initial state. One device was found to be faulty and its measurement data had to be excluded...... from the analysis. As a result of continuous quality control procedures, the confidence in the measurements obtained during the field work was strengthened significantly....

  20. No effects of a single 3G UMTS mobile phone exposure on spontaneous EEG activity, ERP correlates, and automatic deviance detection. (United States)

    Trunk, Attila; Stefanics, Gábor; Zentai, Norbert; Kovács-Bálint, Zsófia; Thuróczy, György; Hernádi, István


    Potential effects of a 30 min exposure to third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) mobile phone-like electromagnetic fields (EMFs) were investigated on human brain electrical activity in two experiments. In the first experiment, spontaneous electroencephalography (sEEG) was analyzed (n = 17); in the second experiment, auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) and automatic deviance detection processes reflected by mismatch negativity (MMN) were investigated in a passive oddball paradigm (n = 26). Both sEEG and ERP experiments followed a double-blind protocol where subjects were exposed to either genuine or sham irradiation in two separate sessions. In both experiments, electroencephalograms (EEG) were recorded at midline electrode sites before and after exposure while subjects were watching a silent documentary. Spectral power of sEEG data was analyzed in the delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands. In the ERP experiment, subjects were presented with a random series of standard (90%) and frequency-deviant (10%) tones in a passive binaural oddball paradigm. The amplitude and latency of the P50, N100, P200, MMN, and P3a components were analyzed. We found no measurable effects of a 30 min 3G mobile phone irradiation on the EEG spectral power in any frequency band studied. Also, we found no significant effects of EMF irradiation on the amplitude and latency of any of the ERP components. In summary, the present results do not support the notion that a 30 min unilateral 3G EMF exposure interferes with human sEEG activity, auditory evoked potentials or automatic deviance detection indexed by MMN.

  1. A digitally calibrated CMOS RMS power detector for RF automatic gain control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Taotao; Wang Hui; Li Jinbo; Zhou Jianjun


    This paper presents the design and implementation of a digitally calibrated CMOS wideband radio frequency (RF) root-mean-square (RMS) power detector for high accuracy RF automatic gain control (AGC).The proposed RMS power detector demonstrates accurate power detection in the presence of process,supply voltage,and temperature (PVT) variations by employing a digital calibration scheme.It also consumes low power and occupies a small chip area.The measurement results show that the scheme improves the accuracy of the detector to better than 0.3 dB over the PVT variations and wide operating frequency range from 0.2 to 0.8 GHz.Implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and occupying a small die area of 263 × 214 μm2,the proposed digitally calibrated CMOS RMS power detector only consumes 1.6 mA in power detection mode and 2.1 mA in digital calibration mode from a 1.8 V supply voltage.

  2. Autonomous monitoring of control hardware to predict off-normal conditions using NIF automatic alignment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, Abdul A.S., E-mail: [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Wilhelmsen, Karl; Leach, Richard R.; Miller-Kamm, Vicki; Burkhart, Scott; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Cohen, Simon [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An automatic alignment system was developed to process images of the laser beams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System uses processing to adjust a series of control loops until alignment criteria are satisfied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monitored conditions are compared against nominal values with an off-normal alert. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Automated health monitoring system trends off-normals with a large image history. - Abstract: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high power laser system capable of supporting high-energy-density experimentation as a user facility for the next 30 years. In order to maximize the facility availability, preventive maintenance enhancements are being introduced into the system. An example of such an enhancement is a camera-based health monitoring system, integrated into the automated alignment system, which provides an opportunity to monitor trends in measurements such as average beam intensity, size of the beam, and pixel saturation. The monitoring system will generate alerts based on observed trends in measurements to allow scheduled pro-active maintenance before routine off-normal detection stops system operations requiring unscheduled intervention.

  3. Automatic Control of the Reciprocating Compressor%往复压缩机的自动控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There are mainly logic control and sequence control in automatic control of the reciprocating compressor, and the difficulty is automatic sequence control for the compressor start or stop.Taking a fresh hydrogen compressor as an example,this paper introduces the configuration of an instrument control system for the fresh hydrogen compressor,the realization of the one button controls for full automatic compressor start or stop operation.The good application effect is received.%往复压缩机的自动控制主要体现在逻辑控制和顺序控制2个方面,其中自动开停机顺序控制是此类压缩机的控制难点.本文以某装置新氢压缩机的自动控制为例,介绍该压缩机的仪表控制系统配置集成、一键式全自动开停机顺序控制方案的实现策略,以及所取得的应用效果.

  4. To describe and control exposure in nanoecotoxicology tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders

    of nanomaterials. While the database of results from these tests is rapidly expanding, problems with controlling the exposure are often reported, e.g. due to the particle behavior in the test media used. Problems encountered include uncontrollable aggregation, agglomeration, sedimentation, or dissolution...... are fulfilling the purpose they originally were intended for (ranking and classification). The validity of extrapolations made from these data (e.g. predicted no-effect concentrations for environmental risk assessments) is therefore further questionable. Based on own experiences these fundamental problems...

  5. Comparative Study of Automatic and Manual Exposal Controlled Radiographs of 1 000 Cases Shot by IMIX DR%IMIX DR自动、手动曝光控制胸片1000例对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑放超; 丁成怀; 李超; 明锐奇; 窦红梅


    Objective To discuss a method in order to reduce exposure, improve the X-ray image quality, reduce machine depletion, and extend the service life of the machine. Methods 500 pieces of radiographs were shot using automatic exposure control mode. The exposure of chest films with the same body thick was found out, using 50% of which, 500 pieces of radiographs were shot using manual exposure control mode for the comparison. Results The exposure less than or equal to that of the automatic exposure control mode was feasible for the chest film shooting. Conclusion There is no obvious difference in the image quality of chest radiographs shot by the two control modes. Manual exposure control mode in contrast, is better than automatic exposure control mode in increasing the contrast and reducing exercise-induced fuzzy of the radiograph, which can improve the image quality of the chest film. In this way, X-ray irradiation of clients can be reduced greatly. machine depletion can be reduced. and also the use efficiency of DR can be improved.[Chinese Medical Equipment Journal. 2011 , 32 ( 5) : 105-106 . 110]%目的:探讨如何减少X线曝光量,提高胸片影像质量,减少机器损耗并延长使用寿命.方法:用自动曝光控制方式拍摄胸片(以下简称自控胸片)500例,找出相同体厚胸片的曝光量,用其约1/2的曝光量在手动曝光控制方式下拍摄胸片(以下简称手控胸片)500例,将其进行对比.结果:用≤自动曝光控制方式1/2的曝光量拍摄胸片是可行的.结论:2种控制方式拍摄的胸片影像质量没有明显的差异,手控胸片在提高反差、减少运动性模糊方面优于自控胸片,能部分提高胸片的影像质量;这样可使受检者X线照射量大幅度降低;同时也减少了机器损耗、提高了DR的使用效率.

  6. A Dynamic Visualization Environment For The Design And Evaluation Of Automatic Vehicle Control Systems


    Xu, Z.


    This document presents Dynamic Visualization, a project associated with the California PATH Program. The objective of the project is to develop a software which can animate automated highways, visualize the dynamics of automatic vehicles, and help the design and evaluation of automatic vehicle systems. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the project, describes the functions of the developed software, and provides an explanation of how to use the software.

  7. 78 FR 68447 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government (United States)


    ... OFFICE Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY: U.S. Government... 2013 Exposure Draft update to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government reflect... Internal Control in the Federal Government, 2013 Exposure Draft, is available and can be downloaded...

  8. Manganese and welding fume exposure and control in construction. (United States)

    Meeker, John D; Susi, Pam; Flynn, Michael R


    Overexposure to welding fume constituents, particularly manganese, is of concern in the construction industry due to the prevalence of welding and the scarcity of engineering controls. The control effectiveness of a commercially available portable local exhaust ventilation (LEV) unit was assessed. It consisted of a portable vacuum and a small bell-shaped hood connected by a flexible 2 inch (50.8 mm) diameter hose, in both experimental and field settings. The experimental testing was done in a semienclosed booth at a pipefitter training facility. Five paired trials of LEV control vs. no control, each approximately 1 hr in duration and conducted during two successive welds of 6 inch (152.4 mm) diameter carbon steel pipe were run in random order. Breathing zone samples were collected outside the welding hood during each trial. In the field scenario, full-shift breathing zone samples were collected from two pipefitters welding carbon steel pipe for a chiller installation on a commercial construction project. Eight days of full-shift sampling were conducted on both workers (n = 16), and the LEV was used by one of the two workers on an alternating basis for 7 of the days. All samples were collected with personal sample pumps calibrated at 2 L/min. Filter cassettes were analyzed for total particulate and manganese concentration by a certified laboratory. In the experimental setting, use of the portable LEV resulted in a 75% reduction in manganese exposure (mean 13 microg/m(3) vs. 51 microg/m(3); p 0.05). These results demonstrate that LEV use can reduce manganese exposure associated with welding tasks in construction.

  9. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 5: Design and development of a Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) for steep final approach using modern control techniques (United States)

    Halyo, N.


    The design and development of a 3-D Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) Research Aircraft, a B-737-100 is described. The system was designed using sampled data Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LOG) methods, resulting in a direct digital design with a modern control structure which consists of a Kalman filter followed by a control gain matrix, all operating at 10 Hz. DIALS uses Microwave Landing System (MLS) position, body-mounted accelerometers, as well as on-board sensors usually available on commercial aircraft, but does not use inertial platforms. The phases of the final approach considered are the localizer and glideslope capture which may be performed simultaneously, localizer and steep glideslope track or hold, crab/decrab and flare to touchdown. DIALS captures, tracks and flares from steep glideslopes ranging from 2.5 deg to 5.5 deg, selected prior to glideslope capture. Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System is the first modern control design automatic landing system successfully flight tested. The results of an initial nonlinear simulation are presented here.

  10. Automatic control of pollutant on a shallow river using surface water systems: application to the Ebro River. (United States)

    Puig, V; Romera, J; Quevedo, J; Sarrate, R; Morales-Hernandez, M; Gonzalez-Sanchis, M; Garcia-Navarro, P


    In this paper, the problem of automatic control of pollutant on a shallow river using surface water systems is addressed using a benchmark test case based in the Ebro River. The Ebro River presents flooding episodes in the city of Zaragoza in Spring when snow melts in the Pyrenees. To avoid flooding and high pollutant levels in living areas, some lands outside the city are prepared to be flooded. Going one step further, this paper is focused on the pollutant level control at a certain point downstream of the river under flooding episodes, and several control strategies for that purpose are presented and tested.

  11. An artificial vision-based control system for automatic heliostat positioning offset correction in a central receiver solar power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Dept. de Lenguajes y Computacion, La Canada Almeria (Spain); Rubio, F.R.; Lara, P.J.; Arahal, M.R.; Camacho, E.F.; Lopez, M. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Sevilla (Spain); Valverde, A. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA-CIEMAT), Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)


    This paper presents the development of a simplified and automatic heliostat positioning offset correction control system using artificial vision techniques and common CCD devices. The heliostats of a solar power plant reflect solar radiation onto a receiver (in this case, a volumetric receiver) placed at the top of a tower in order to provide a desired energy flux distribution correlated with the coolant flow (in this case air mass flow) through the receiver, usually in an open loop control configuration. There exist error sources that increase the complexity of the control system, some of which are systematic ones, mainly due to tolerances, wrong mirror facets alignment (optical errors), errors due to the approximations made when calculating the solar position, etc., that produce errors (offsets) in the heliostat orientation (aiming point). The approximation adopted in this paper is based on the use of a B/W CCD camera to correct these deviations in an automatic way imitating the same procedure followed by the operators. The obtained images are used to estimate the distance between the sunbeam centroid projected by the heliostats and a target placed on the tower, this distance thus is used for low accuracy offset correction purposes. Basic threshold-based image processing techniques are used for automatic correction. (Author)

  12. Research and Implementation on Control Algorithm in Automatic Control Glue System%自动控胶系统控制算法的研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    自动控胶是胶订机的一个重要工艺过程.自动控胶是以自动控制理论为指导,自动控制技术为手段,实现控胶工艺过程自动化的技术.合理有效的控制算法是实现这一技术的基础,这里讨论的是怎样按照控制工艺过程和控制器件的连接、位置和时序关系建立算法模型.并根据叠加原理,将复杂算法分解成单一算法,逐一实现之.%Automatic Control Glue is an important process in binding machine. Automatic Control Glue is a technology to achieve con-trolled process automation, which is guided by the theory of automatic control and based on automatic control technology. Reasonable and ef-fective control algorithms are the basis for achieving this technical, here is discussing how to build an algorithm model according to technolog-ical process control and control devices, location and timing of connection relationships. According to the principle of superposition,complex algorithms are composed into a single algorithm, and realize them one by one, This control principles and methods have been applied to TB500CM6A elliptic binding package, and have had effective control.

  13. Automatic controller to water plants Acionador automático para irrigar plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Oliveira Medici


    Full Text Available Despite the massive demand of water for plant irrigation, there are few devices being used in the automation of this process in agriculture. This work evaluates a simple controller to water plants automatically that can be set up with low cost commercial materials, which are large-scale produced. This controller is composed by a ceramic capsule used in common domestic water filters; a plastic tube around 1.5 m long, and a pressostate used in domestic washing machines. The capsule and the pressostate are connected through the tube so that all parts are filled with water. The ceramic capsule is the sensor of the controller and has to be placed into the plant substrate. The pressostate has to be placed below the sensor and the lower it is, the higher is the water tension to start the irrigation, since the lower is the pressostate the higher is the water column above it and, therefore, the higher is the tension inside the ceramic cup to pull up the water column. The controller was evaluated in the control of drip irrigation for small containers filled with commercial organic substrate or soil. Linear regressions explained the relationship between the position of pressostate and the maximum water tension in the commercial substrate (p A despeito da enorme demanda por água na irrigação de plantas, existem poucos aparelhos para automação deste processo sendo usados na agricultura. Avaliou-se um acionador automático para irrigação, o qual pode ser confeccionado com materiais comerciais de baixo custo, pois são produzidos em larga escala. Este acionador é composto por uma cápsula cerâmica usada em filtros de água domésticos; um tubo plástico com cerca de um metro e meio de comprimento e um pressostato de máquinas de lavar roupas domésticas. A cápsula e o pressostato são conectados pelo tubo de forma que todo o espaço interno seja preenchido com água. A cápsula é o sensor do acionador e deve ser posicionada dentro do substrato das

  14. Controlling Risk Exposure in Periodic Environments: A Genetic Algorithm Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro, Emeterio


    In this paper, we compare the performance of different agent's investment strategies in an investment scenario with periodic returns and different types and levels of noise. We consider an investment model, where an agent decides the percentage of budget to risk at each time step. Afterwards, agent's investment is evaluated in the market via a return on investment (RoI), which we assume is a stochastic process with unknown periodicities and different levels of noise. To control the risk exposure, we investigate approaches based on: technical analysis (Moving Least Squares, MLS), and evolutionary computation (Genetic Algorithms, GA). In our comparison, we also consider two reference strategies for zero-knowledge and complete-knowledge behaviors, respectively. In our approach, the performance of a strategy corresponds to the average budget that can be obtained with this strategy over a certain number of time steps. To this end, we perform some computer experiments, where for each strategy the budget obtained af...

  15. Controlled exposures to air pollutants and risk of cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langrish, Jeremy P; Watts, Simon J; Hunter, Amanda J; Shah, Anoop S V; Bosson, Jenny A; Unosson, Jon; Barath, Stefan; Lundbäck, Magnus; Cassee, Flemming R; Donaldson, Ken; Sandström, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Newby, David E; Mills, Nicholas L


    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between air pollution exposure and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to air pollutants can influence cardiac autonomic tone and reduce heart rate variability, and may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias,

  16. Mastitis therapy and control - Automatic on-line detection of abnormal milk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, H.


    Automated online detection of mastitis and abnormal milk is an important subject in the dairy industry, especially because of the introduction of automatic milking systems and the growing farm sizes with consequently less labor available per cow. Demands for performance, which is expressed as sensit

  17. AutoSync : Automatic duty-cycle control for synchronous low-power listening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Tranberg; Kusy, Branislav; Jurdak, Raja;


    resources doing idle listening. This problem is particularly exacerbated in multi-radio networks where majority of data comes through the most reliable radio and the duty cycles of other radios could be reduced. We address this issue in AutoSync, a protocol that combines synchronous LPL with automatic...

  18. Saccadic eye movements in a high-speed bimanual stacking task: changes of attentional control during learning and automatization. (United States)

    Foerster, Rebecca M; Carbone, Elena; Koesling, Hendrik; Schneider, Werner X


    Principles of saccadic eye movement control in the real world have been derived by the study of self-paced well-known tasks such as sandwich or tea making. Little is known whether these principles generalize to high-speed sensorimotor tasks and how they are affected by learning and automatization. In the present study, right-handers practiced the speed-stacking task in 14 consecutive daily training sessions, while their eye movements were recorded. Speed stacking is a high-speed sensorimotor task that requires grasping, moving, rotating, and placing of objects. The following main results emerged. Throughout practice, the eyes led the hands, displayed by a positive eye-hand time span. Moreover, visual information was gathered for the subsequent manual sub-action, displayed by a positive eye-hand unit span. With automatization, the eye-hand time span became shorter, yet it increased when corrected by the decreasing trial duration. In addition, fixations were mainly allocated to the goal positions of the right hand or objects in the right hand. The number of fixations decreased while the fixation rate remained constant. Importantly, all participants fixated on the same task-relevant locations in a similar scan path across training days, revealing a long-term memory-based mode of attention control after automatization of a high-speed sensorimotor task.

  19. Photoresponsive carbohydrate-based giant surfactants: automatic vertical alignment of nematic liquid crystal for the remote-controllable optical device. (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Yoon; Lee, Sang-A; Kang, Dong-Gue; Park, Minwook; Choi, Yu-Jin; Jeong, Kwang-Un


    Photoresponsive carbohydrate-based giant surfactants (abbreviated as CELAnD-OH) were specifically designed and synthesized for the automatic vertical alignment (VA) layer of nematic (N) liquid crystal (LC), which can be applied for the fabrication of remote-controllable optical devices. Without the conventional polymer-based LC alignment process, a perfect VA layer was automatically constructed by directly adding the 0.1 wt % CELA1D-OH in the N-LC media. The programmed CELA1D-OH giant surfactants in the N-LC media gradually diffused onto the substrates of LC cell and self-assembled to the expanded monolayer structure, which can provide enough empty spaces for N-LC molecules to crawl into the empty zones for the construction of VA layer. On the other hand, the CELA3D-OH giant surfactants forming the condensed monolayer structure on the substrates exhibited a planar alignment (PA) rather than a VA. Upon tuning the wavelength of light, the N-LC alignments were reversibly switched between VA and PA in the remote-controllable LC optical devices. Based on the experimental results, it was realized that understanding the interactions between N-LC molecules and amphiphilic giant surfactants is critical to design the suitable materials for the automatic LC alignment.

  20. Vision system for driving control using camera mounted on an automatic vehicle. Jiritsu sokosha no camera ni yoru shikaku system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimori, K.; Ishihara, K.; Tokutaka, H.; Kishida, S.; Fujimura, K. (Tottori University, Tottori (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Okada, M. (Mazda Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)); Hirakawa, S. (Fujitsu Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    The present report explains a vision system, in which a CCD camera, used for the model vehicle automatically traveling by fuzzy control, is used as a vision sensor. The vision system is composed of input image processing module, situation recognition/analysis module to three-dimensionally recover the road, route-selecting navigation module to avoid the obstacle and vehicle control module. The CCD camera is used as a vision sensor to make the model vehicle automatically travel by fuzzy control with the above modules. In the present research, the traveling is controlled by treating the position and configuration of objective in image as a fuzzy inferential variable. Based on the above method, the traveling simulation gave the following knowledge: even with the image information only from the vision system, the application of fuzzy control facilitates the traveling. If the objective is clearly known, the control is judged able to be made even from vague image which does not necessitate the exact locative information. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Decision-directed automatic gain control for MAPSK systems. [M-ary Amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (United States)

    Weber, W. J., III


    An automatic gain control (AGC) loop is presented for use with M-ary amplitude and phase shift keying (MAPSK) systems. The gain control amplifier is regulated by an error signal formed by the difference between the estimated amplitude level and the received amplitude level. The AGC performance is thus independent of the short-term average received signal energy. AGC loop analysis and simulation is presented for M-ary amplitude shift keying and quadrature amplitude shift keying. The AGC is shown to have a negligible degradation on the symbol probability of error for most practical cases. A generalized AGC for an arbitrary MAPSK system is presented.

  2. 玉米胚芽油厂自动化控制技术的应用%Application of automatic control in corn germ oil plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The scope,characteristics,basic status and the development in recent years of automatic control in corn germ oil plant was introduced.The functions of automatic control in deodorization,alkali refining and decoloration were analyzed.The difference between process with or without automatic control was compared.The importance of cooperate between technicians of both in production and automatic control during design and management was emphasized.%介绍了玉米胚芽油厂自动化控制的范围、特点、基本状况和近年的发展,分析了自动化在脱臭、碱炼、脱色的作用,对比了自动化前后的差别。强调了油脂专业与自动化控制人员在设计、管理中的作用与配合。

  3. PLC自动控制系统可靠性提升研究%Discussion on the Reliability Improvement of Plc Automatic Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    随着我国工业快速发展,各种自动化系统也在不断得以运用与完善,PLC自动控制系统结合了可编程控制器和继电器控制器的优点,形成一套完整的、自动化的控制系统。PLC自动控制系统由于在数据传输以及硬件设备使用的过程中易出错,从而降低PLC自动控制系统的可靠性,因此本文就如何提升PLC自动控制系统的可靠性展开论述。%Along with the fast development of industry in our country,all kinds of automatic systems also have continuous improvement and application,PLC automatic control system combined the advantages of programming controller and a relay controller,formed a complete set of automatic control system. Because PLC automatic control system in the process of data transmission and hardware using process tends to be wrong,thus reducing the reliability of PLC automatic control system. This paper discussed how to enhance the reliability of PLC automatic control system..

  4. Design of an optimal SMES for automatic generation control of two-area thermal power system using Cuckoo search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabita Chaine


    Full Text Available This work presents a methodology adopted in order to tune the controller parameters of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES system in the automatic generation control (AGC of a two-area thermal power system. The gains of integral controllers of AGC loop, proportional controller of SMES loop and gains of the current feedback loop of the inductor in SMES are optimized simultaneously in order to achieve a desired performance. Recently proposed intelligent technique based algorithm known as Cuckoo search algorithm (CSA is applied for optimization. Sensitivity and robustness of the tuned gains tested at different operating conditions prove the effectiveness of fast acting energy storage devices like SMES in damping out oscillations in power system when their controllers are properly tuned.

  5. Telemetric control of heart adaptation during automatic and free-fall parachute jumps. (United States)

    Deroanne, R; Cession-Fossion, A; Juchmes, J; Servais, J C; Petit, J M


    Telmetered heart rate recordings have been ovtaine from 17 parachutists (6 during automatic jumps) 9 Catecholamine (adrenaline and noradrenaline) concentrations have been measured in urine and plasma of six of these subjects. No difference appears between heart rates recorded in the two jumps at egress and at parachute deployment. On the other hand, higher heart rate values are recorded during automatic jumps during descent and at ground impace. The urine catecholamine analysis after jump shows a statistically significant increase in adrenaline and noradrenaline concentration. It is suggested that simulation of the orthosympathetic system is due to two facts; muscular work performed during jumping and the emotional stress which it involves. The importance of these two causes varies with the jump circumstances.

  6. Research methodology simplification for teaching purposes illustrated by clutch automatic control device testing (United States)

    Wojs, J.


    The paper proves that simplified, shorter examination of an object, feasible in laboratory classes, can produce results similar to those reached in scientific investigation of the device using extensive equipment. A thorough investigation of an object, an automatic clutch device in this case, enabled identifying the magnitudes that most significantly affect its operation. The knowledge of these most sensitive magnitudes allows focusing in the teaching process on simplified measurement of only selected magnitudes and verifying the given object in the positive or negative.

  7. Differences in semantic category priming in the left and right cerebral hemispheres under automatic and controlled processing conditions. (United States)

    Collins, M


    The contribution of each cerebral hemisphere to the generation of semantic category meanings at automatic and strategic levels of processing was investigated in a priming experiment where prime and target words were independently projected to the left or right visual fields (LVF or RVF). Non-associated category exemplars were employed as related pairs in a lexical decision task and presented in two experimental conditions. The first condition was designed to elicit automatic processing, so related pairs comprised 20% of the positive set, stimulus pairs were temporally separated by a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 250 ms, and there was no allusion to the presence of related pairs in the instructions to subjects. The second condition, designed to invoke controlled processing, incorporated a relatedness proportion of 50%, stimulus pairs separated by an SOA of 750 ms, and instructions which informed subjects of the presence and use of category exemplar pairs in the stimulus set. In the first condition, a prime directed to either visual field facilitated responses to categorically related targets subsequently projected to the RVF, while in the second condition a prime directed to either visual field facilitated responses to related targets projected to the LVF. The facilitation effects obtained in both conditions appeared to reflect automatic processes, while strategic processes were invoked in the left, but not the right hemisphere in the second condition. The results suggest that both hemispheres have automatic access to semantic category meanings, although the timecourse of activation of semantic category meanings is slower in the right hemisphere than in the left.

  8. Automatic HDL firmware generation for FPGA-based reconfigurable measurement and control systems with mezzanines in FMC standard (United States)

    Wojenski, Andrzej; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard


    The paper describes a concept of automatic firmware generation for reconfigurable measurement systems, which uses FPGA devices and measurement cards in FMC standard. Following sections are described in details: automatic HDL code generation for FPGA devices, automatic communication interfaces implementation, HDL drivers for measurement cards, automatic serial connection between multiple measurement backplane boards, automatic build of memory map (address space), automatic generated firmware management. Presented solutions are required in many advanced measurement systems, like Beam Position Monitors or GEM detectors. This work is a part of a wider project for automatic firmware generation and management of reconfigurable systems. Solutions presented in this paper are based on previous publication in SPIE.

  9. Application of a pilot control banding tool for risk level assessment and control of nanoparticle exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, S Y; Zalk, D M; Swuste, P


    Control Banding (CB) strategies offer simplified solutions for controlling worker exposures to constituents that are found in the workplace in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure data. These strategies may be particularly useful in nanotechnology applications, considering the overwhelming level of uncertainty over what nanomaterials and nanotechnologies present as potential work-related health risks, what about these materials might lead to adverse toxicological activity, how risk related to these might be assessed, and how to manage these issues in the absence of this information. This study introduces a pilot CB tool or 'CB Nanotool' that was developed specifically for characterizing the health aspects of working with engineered nanoparticles and determining the level of risk and associated controls for five ongoing nanotechnology-related operations being conducted at two Department of Energy (DOE) research laboratories. Based on the application of the CB Nanotool, four of the five operations evaluated in this study were found to have implemented controls consistent with what was recommended by the CB Nanotool, with one operation even exceeding the required controls for that activity. The one remaining operation was determined to require an upgrade in controls. By developing this dynamic CB Nanotool within the realm of the scientific information available, this application of CB appears to be a useful approach for assessing the risk of nanomaterial operations, providing recommendations for appropriate engineering controls, and facilitating the allocation of resources to the activities that most need them.

  10. Fuzzy control on automatic frequency tracking of ultrasonic vibration system with high power and high quality factor Q

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wu; ZHANG Jia-min; LIU Hong-li; MENG Feng-feng; ZHANG Zhi-ming


    In order to realize automatic tracking drift of resonance frequency of ultrasonic vibration system with high power and high quality factor Q, adaptive fuzzy control was studied with a self-fabricated ultrasonic plastic welding machine. At first, relations between amplitude of vibration and frequency as well as main loop current and amplitude of vibration were analyzed. From this analysis, we deduced that frequency tracking process of the vibration system can be concluded as an optimizing problem of one dimensional fluctuant extremum of main loop current in vibration system. Then a method of self-optimizing fuzzy control, used for the realization of automatic frequency tracking in vibration system, is presented on the basis of self-optimizing adaptive control approach and fuzzy control approach. The result of experiments shows that the fuzzy self-optimizing method can solve the problem of tracking frequency drift very well. Response time of tracking in the system is less than 50 ms, which basically meets the requirements of frequency tracking in ultrasonic plastic welding machine.

  11. Decoupling of automatic control systems in a continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer for biomedical applications. (United States)

    Hirata, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kumada, Masaharu; Itoh, Kouichi; Fujii, Hirotada


    This article describes a systematic approach to decoupling automatic tuning control (ATC) and automatic matching control (AMC) systems in continuous-wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for animal experiments. This technique enables us to improve the stability of CW-EPR spectroscopy even if the animal is moving during the data acquisition of EPR spectra. The control systems are formulated to allow the behavior of interference between them to be investigated, since they are generally coupled due to the characteristics of the microwave resonator. The stability of the entire control system in a 1.1 GHz CW-EPR spectrometer is evaluated with the generalized Nyquist stability criterion. We compare the EPR spectra of a triarylmethyl (TAM) radical that is dosed in anesthetized mice in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to test the precompensator for decoupling the ATC and AMC systems. The experimental findings suggest that the present technique is useful for improving the SNR of EPR spectra in animal experiments. The SNR of the measured EPR spectra was improved by about 50% with the precompensator.

  12. Wind power integration into the automatic generation control of power systems with large-scale wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit


    Transmission system operators have an increased interest in the active participation of wind power plants (WPP) in the power balance control of power systems with large wind power penetration. The emphasis in this study is on the integration of WPPs into the automatic generation control (AGC......) of the power system. The present paper proposes a coordinated control strategy for the AGC between combined heat and power plants (CHPs) and WPPs to enhance the security and the reliability of a power system operation in the case of a large wind power penetration. The proposed strategy, described...... and exemplified for the future Danish power system, takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan for generation and power exchange with neighbouring power systems into account. The performance of the proposed strategy for coordinated secondary control is assessed and discussed by means of simulations for different...

  13. Psilocybin-induced deficits in automatic and controlled inhibition are attenuated by ketanserin in healthy human volunteers. (United States)

    Quednow, Boris B; Kometer, Michael; Geyer, Mark A; Vollenweider, Franz X


    The serotonin-2A receptor (5-HT(2A)R) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and related inhibitory gating and behavioral inhibition deficits of schizophrenia patients. The hallucinogen psilocybin disrupts automatic forms of sensorimotor gating and response inhibition in humans, but it is unclear so far whether the 5-HT(2A)R or 5-HT(1A)R agonist properties of its bioactive metabolite psilocin account for these effects. Thus, we investigated whether psilocybin-induced deficits in automatic and controlled inhibition in healthy humans could be attenuated by the 5-HT(2A/2C)R antagonist ketanserin. A total of 16 healthy participants received placebo, ketanserin (40 mg p.o.), psilocybin (260 μg/kg p.o.), or psilocybin plus ketanserin in a double-blind, randomized, and counterbalanced order. Sensorimotor gating was measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. The effects on psychopathological core dimensions and behavioral inhibition were assessed by the altered states of consciousness questionnaire (5D-ASC), and the Color-Word Stroop Test. Psilocybin decreased PPI at short lead intervals (30 ms), increased all 5D-ASC scores, and selectively increased errors in the interference condition of the Stroop Test. Stroop interference and Stroop effect of the response latencies were increased under psilocybin as well. Psilocybin-induced alterations were attenuated by ketanserin pretreatment, whereas ketanserin alone had no significant effects. These findings suggest that the disrupting effects of psilocybin on automatic and controlled inhibition processes are attributable to 5-HT(2A)R stimulation. Sensorimotor gating and attentional control deficits of schizophrenia patients might be due to changes within the 5-HT(2A)R system.

  14. Simulation study of an automatic trim system for reducing the control forces on a light twin after an engine failure (United States)

    Stewart, E. C.; Brown, P. W.


    An automatic trim system for reducing the control forces after an engine failure on a light twin has been investigated on the Langley General Aviation Simulator. The system schedules open-loop trim tab deflections as a function of differential propeller slipstream dynamic pressure and freestream dynamic pressure. The system is described and the airplane-system static and dynamic characteristics are documented. Three NASA research pilots evaluated the effectiveness of the system for takeoff and landing maneuvers. A variety of off-nominal system characteristics were studied. The system was judged to be generally beneficial, providing a 2 to 3 point improvement in pilot rating for the tasks used in the evaluations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.


    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to elaborate the scheme of the disturbance compensation system, which is influencing the level of refrigerant consumption in evaporators and gas coolers of the heat pump embedded in the milk pasteurization and cooling installation, as well as, to design the automatic control system for the heat-exchanger with two output parameters – the water temperature at the outlet of the primary and secondary heat-carrying agent circuits by adjusting the consumption level in the secondary heat-carrying agent circuit and by adjusting the heat exchange surface area. System structures are based on principles of the coordinated control and the multidimensional systems control. The proposed structural scheme of the coordinated system for control of the consumption in evaporators, both water heating and cooling segments, is more accurate in transient processes than alternative systems of non-integrated control of the working agent consumption in each evaporator. The heat exchanger control system with two controls controlling segments (controlling the heat exchange surface area and controlling the consumption level in the secondary coolant circuit has proven to have good transient characteristics.

  16. Flight test results of an automatic support system on board a YF-12A airplane. [for jet engine inlet air control (United States)

    Love, J. E.


    An automatic support system concept that isolated faults in an existing nonavionics subsystem was flight tested up to a Mach number of 3. The adaptation of the automated support concept to an existing system (the jet engine automatic inlet control system) caused most of the problems one would expect to encounter in other applications. These problems and their solutions are discussed. Criteria for integrating automatic support into the initial design of new subsystems are included in the paper. Cost effectiveness resulted from both the low maintenance of the automated system and the man-hour saving resulting from the real time diagnosis of the monitored subsystem.

  17. An Analysis of an Automatic Coolant Bypass in the International Space Station Node 2 Internal Active Thermal Control System (United States)

    Clanton, Stephen E.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)


    A challenging part of International Space Station (ISS) thermal control design is the ability to incorporate design changes into an integrated system without negatively impacting performance. The challenge presents itself in that the typical ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) consists of an integrated hardware/software system that provides active coolant resources to a variety of users. Software algorithms control the IATCS to specific temperatures, flow rates, and pressure differentials in order to meet the user-defined requirements. What may seem to be small design changes imposed on the system may in fact result in system instability or the temporary inability to meet user requirements. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the solution process and analyses used to implement one such design change that required the incorporation of an automatic coolant bypass in the ISS Node 2 element.

  18. Design and performance of an Automatic Gain Control system for the High Energy X-Ray Timing Experiment (United States)

    Pelling, Michael R.; Rothschild, Richard E.; Macdonald, Daniel R.; Hertel, Robert; Nishiie, Edward


    The High Energy X-Ray Timing Experiment (HEXTE), currently under development for the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE) mission, employs a closed loop gain control system to attain 0.5 percent stabilization of each of eight-phoswich detector gains. This Automatic Gain Control (AGC) system utilizes a split window discriminator scheme to control the response of each detector pulse height analyzer to gated Am-241 X-ray events at 60 keV. A prototype AGC system has been implemented and tested within the gain perturbation environment expected to be experienced by the HEXTE instrument in flight. The AGC system and test configuration are described. Response, stability and noise characteristics are measured and compared with theoretical predictions. The system is found to be generally suitable for the HEXTE application.

  19. Occupational Exposure Assessment of Nanomaterials using Control Banding Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase

    to measurements, it was found that models in general can be used successfully and effectively in assessing the exposure to conventional chemicals. Several models are suggested also by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) in the technical guidance document R.14 for the assessment of occupational exposure and some...... assessment to nanomaterials is still a promising route. A few years ago a new conceptual model for the assessment of inhalation exposure to nanomaterials was developed. As illustrated in this thesis, this new model includes considerations on nanoparticles behaviour and physical and chemical properties...... and the included scientific papers provide an in-depth analysis and a case study of CB tools. A set of parameters were identified which should always be taken into account for occupational assessment of inhalation exposure to nanoparticles. Harmonization considering a set of parameters was encouraged in order...

  20. 废水处理中pH值的PLC自动控制系统%PLC automatic control system of pH value in wastewater treatment.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李安峰; 张志群; 丁庭华; 王绍堂


    The pH value automatic control is a key link in the treatment of industrial wastewater. Based on much literature review, a new PLC automatic control system, suitable for pH value control in the wastewater treatment, is developed with simple structure and good control effect, which offers a practical approach for pH value automatic control in the treatment of industrial wastewater.%pH值自动控制是工业废水处理过程中的关键环节.在查阅大量文献的基础上,研究出一套新的适于污水处理pH值控制的结构简单且控制效果良好的PLC自动控制系统,为工业废水处理的pH值自动控制提供了一条切实可行的途径.

  1. Multiple sclerosis and exposure to house pets during childhood and adolescence : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Zwanikken, C


    Multiple sclerosis (MS) might be triggered by an infectious agent early in life. In a case-control study, we compared exposure to household pets for the age periods 0-5, 6-10, 11-15 and 16-20 years in 100 patients with MS and 100 controls. Exposure to household dogs between the ages of 0-10 years wa

  2. 冷固球团自动控制系统%Automatic Control System of Cold-bound Pellets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛秦洲; 廖承业


    Introduces the Siemens S7-300 PLC on cold solid pellets application in automatic control system,detailed introduces the cold solid pellet production process,and gives the hardware and software of the control system design scheme,the network structure,PLC program design and configuration monitoring system design.In the cold solid pellets batching processing,for batching accuracy is difficult to control,a kind of based on fuzzy adaptive PID control method was proposed.The system realizes the cold solid pellets process automatic control,since its operation,the actual operation was stable,and the effect was good.%阐述了西门子公司S7-300PLC在冷固球团自动控制系统中的运用,详细介绍了冷固球团生产工艺流程,并给出了控制系统的硬件和软件设计方案,网络结构、PLC程序设计以及组态监控系统的设计.针对冷固球团配料过程中配料精度难以控制的问题,提出一种基于模糊自适应PID控制方法.该系统实现了冷固球团工艺全自动控制,自投产以来,实际运行稳定,效果良好.

  3. Detecting subtle expressions: older adults demonstrate automatic and controlled positive response bias in emotional perception. (United States)

    Johnson, Dan R; Whiting, Wythe L


    The present study examined age differences in emotional perception for the detection of low-intensity, single-emotion facial expressions. Confirming the "positivity effect," at 60 ms and 2,000 ms presentation rates older adults (age = 61+ years, n = 39) exhibited a response bias favoring happy over neutral responses, whereas younger adults (age = 18-23 years, n = 40) favored neutral responses. Furthermore, older adults favored neutral over fearful responses at the 60 ms presentation rate, relative to younger adults. The finding that age differences in response bias were most pronounced at the 60 ms versus 2,000 ms presentation rate suggests that positivity effects in emotional perception rely partly on automatic processing.

  4. Study of connected system of automatic control of load and operation efficiency of a steam boiler with extremal controller on a simulation model (United States)

    Sabanin, V. R.; Starostin, A. A.; Repin, A. I.; Popov, A. I.


    The problems of operation effectiveness increase of steam boilers are considered. To maintain the optimum fuel combustion modes, it is proposed to use an extremal controller (EC) determining the value of airflow rate, at which the boiler generating the desired amount of heat will consume a minimum amount of fuel. EC sets the determined value of airflow rate to airflow rate controller (ARC). The test results of numerical simulation dynamic nonlinear model of steam boiler with the connected system of automatic control of load and combustion efficiency using EC are presented. The model is created in the Simulink modeling package of MATLAB software and can be used to optimize the combustion modes. Based on the modeling results, the conclusion was drawn about the possibility in principle of simultaneously boiler load control and optimizing by EC the combustion modes when changing the fuel combustion heat and the boiler characteristics and its operating mode. It is shown that it is possible to automatically control the operation efficiency of steam boilers when using EC without applying the standard flue gas analyzers. The article considers the numerical simulation dynamic model of steam boiler with the schemes of control of fuel consumption and airflow rate, the steam pressure and EC; the purpose of using EC in the scheme with linear controllers and the requirements to the quality of its operation; the results of operation of boiler control schemes without EC with estimation of influence of roughness of thermal mode maps on the nature of static and dynamic connection of the control units of fuel consumption and airflow rate; the phase trajectories and the diagrams of transient processes occurring in the control scheme with EC with stepped changing the fuel quality and boiler characteristics; analysis of modeling results and prospects for using EC in the control schemes of boilers.

  5. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for use During the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.


    A full-scale wind tunnel test to evaluate the effects of Individual Blade Control (IBC) on the performance, vibration, noise and loads of a UH-60A rotor was recently completed in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel [1]. A key component of this wind tunnel test was an automatic rotor trim control system that allowed the rotor trim state to be set more precisely, quickly and repeatably than was possible with the rotor operator setting the trim condition manually. The trim control system was also able to maintain the desired trim condition through changes in IBC actuation both in open- and closed-loop IBC modes, and through long-period transients in wind tunnel flow. This ability of the trim control system to automatically set and maintain a steady rotor trim enabled the effects of different IBC inputs to be compared at common trim conditions and to perform these tests quickly without requiring the rotor operator to re-trim the rotor. The trim control system described in this paper was developed specifically for use during the IBC wind tunnel test

  6. Automatic dosage of hydrogen peroxide in solar photo-Fenton plants: Development of a control strategy for efficiency enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Gomez, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almeria-CIEMAT, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Moreno Ubeda, J.C. [Department of Language and Computation, University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Alvarez Hervas, J.D. [Department of Language and Computation, University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Department of Language and Computation, University of Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Casas Lopez, J.L.; Santos-Juanes Jorda, L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almeria-CIEMAT, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Sanchez Perez, J.A., E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almeria-CIEMAT, 04120 Almeria (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dissolved oxygen monitoring is used for automatic dosage of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in photo-Fenton. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PI with anti-windup minimises H{sub 2}O{sub 2} consumption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} consumption was reduced up to 50% with respect to manual addition strategies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Appropriate H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage is achieved by PI with anti-windup under disturbances. - Abstract: The solar photo-Fenton process is widely used for the elimination of pollutants in aqueous effluent and, as such, is amply cited in the literature. In this process, hydrogen peroxide represents the highest operational cost. Up until now, manual dosing of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has led to low process performance. Consequently, there is a need to automate the hydrogen peroxide dosage for use in industrial applications. As it has been demonstrated that a relationship exists between dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and hydrogen peroxide consumption, DO can be used as a variable in optimising the hydrogen peroxide dosage. For this purpose, a model was experimentally obtained linking the dynamic behaviour of DO to hydrogen peroxide consumption. Following this, a control system was developed based on this model. This control system - a proportional and integral controller (PI) with an anti-windup mechanism - has been tested experimentally. The assays were carried out in a pilot plant under sunlight conditions and with paracetamol used as the model pollutant. In comparison with non-assisted addition methods (a sole initial or continuous addition), a decrease of 50% in hydrogen peroxide consumption was achieved when the automatic controller was used, driving an economic saving and an improvement in process efficiency.

  7. Occupational Exposure Assessment of Nanomaterials using Control Banding Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase

    Nanotechnology can be termed as the “new industrial revolution”. A broad range of potential benefits in various applications for the environment and everyday life of humans can be related to the use of nanotechnology. Nanomaterials are used in a large variety of products already in the market...... assessment to nanomaterials is still a promising route. A few years ago a new conceptual model for the assessment of inhalation exposure to nanomaterials was developed. As illustrated in this thesis, this new model includes considerations on nanoparticles behaviour and physical and chemical properties...... to pursue the development of an advanced CB tool for occupational exposure assessment to nanomaterials. Such as model could be a suitable strategic component for a first exposure assessment and may also improve the risk communication between stakeholders involved in risk assessment of nanomaterials...

  8. Lithography beamline design and exposure uniformity controlling and measuring (United States)

    Qian, Shinan; Jiang, Dikui; Liu, Zewen; Chen, Qianhong; Kan, Ya; Liu, Wanpo


    The lithography beamline design of Hefei National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is presented. A scanning mirror is used to cut off short wavelength radiation and to expand the vertical exposure dimension to 50 mm. A thin beryllium window is installed before the scanning mirror to prevent the longer wavelength radiation from going through. An exposure chamber with a vacuum of 5×10E-7 Torr is located at 7 m downstream from the source point. Because there is no window at the entrance of the chamber, a differential pumping system is used. The scanning mirror is driven by a stepping motor which oscillates through a 1° angle. The required driving speed curve is determined by a computer in order to obtain a uniform exposure area. An in situ moiré fringe grating system is used to measure the uniformity of the motor speed.

  9. Automatic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Friedrich


    Automatic sequences are sequences which are produced by a finite automaton. Although they are not random they may look as being random. They are complicated, in the sense of not being not ultimately periodic, they may look rather complicated, in the sense that it may not be easy to name the rule by which the sequence is generated, however there exists a rule which generates the sequence. The concept automatic sequences has special applications in algebra, number theory, finite automata and formal languages, combinatorics on words. The text deals with different aspects of automatic sequences, in particular:· a general introduction to automatic sequences· the basic (combinatorial) properties of automatic sequences· the algebraic approach to automatic sequences· geometric objects related to automatic sequences.

  10. Research Progress on Automatic Control Technology of Flotation Column%浮选柱自动控制技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵一帆; 廖寅飞; 马子龙; 刘长青


    从浮选柱运行参数及其控制原理出发,总结了当前浮选柱自动控制的研究成果和发展方向,详细介绍了浮选柱液位、充气量、给料量和喷淋水等参数的自动控制方法和技术,并探讨了未来浮选柱自动控制技术的发展趋势。%Based on operation parameters and control principle of flotation column , the research sta-tus and development trend of flotation column automatic control were summarized .The automatic control methods and techniques of operation parameters , including liquid level , aeration rate , feed rate and spray water were elaborated .Moreover , the development trend of automatic control tech-nology for flotation column was also discussed .

  11. Respiratory function and exposure-effect relationships in wood dust-exposed and control workers. (United States)

    Holness, D L; Sass-Kortsak, A M; Pilger, C W; Nethercott, J R


    The effect of wood dust exposure on 50 cabinet makers was examined. Woodworkers reported more nasal and eye symptoms and more cough, sputum and wheezing than did 49 control workers. More irritated cells were present in the woodworkers' nasal cytological smears. In contrast to the control workers, the woodworkers had a significant decline in lung function over the workshift. An inverse correlation between baseline lung function and an exposure index (mean area dust level multiplied by length of exposure) was demonstrated in the woodworkers. Greater dust exposure was not associated with larger falls in lung function over the work shift.

  12. On the validity of the case-time-control design for autocorrelated exposure histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Aksel Karl Georg; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Weeke, Peter


    The case-time-control design is an extension of the case-crossover design capable of handling time trends in the exposure of the general population. Time-invariant confounders are controlled for by the design itself. The idea is to compare the exposure status of a person in one or several reference...... periods during which no event occurred with the exposure status of the same person in the index period where the event occurred. By comparing case-crossover results in cases to case-crossover results in controls, the exposure-outcome association can be estimated by conditional logistic regression. We...... review the mathematical assumptions underlying the case-time-control design and examine sensitivity to deviations from the assumed independence of within-individual exposure history. Results from simulating various scenarios suggest that the design is quite robust to deviations from this model assumption...

  13. Engineering controls for selected silica and dust exposures in the construction industry--a review. (United States)

    Flynn, Michael R; Susi, Pam


    This literature review summarizes engineering control technology research for dust and silica exposures associated with selected tasks in the construction industry. Exposure to crystalline silica can cause silicosis and lung fibrosis, and evidence now links it with lung cancer. Of over 30 references identified and reviewed, 16 were particularly significant in providing data and analyses capable of documenting the efficacy of various engineering controls. These reports include information on generation rates and worker exposures to silica and dust during four different tasks: cutting brick and concrete block, grinding mortar from between bricks, drilling, and grinding concrete surfaces. The major controls are wet methods and local exhaust ventilation. The studies suggest that while the methods provide substantial exposure reductions, they may not reduce levels below the current ACGIH threshold limit value (TLV) of 0.05 mg/m(3) for respirable quartz. Although further research on controls for these operations is indicated, it is clear that effective methods exist for significant exposure reduction.

  14. Quality control for handling of accidental blood exposures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Wijkmans, C.; Voss, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.


    A regional counselling service was established to handle all accidental blood exposures using a standardized protocol. Levels of risk were assessed using an algorithm. Accidents that posed a risk for the transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were

  15. Exposure Control Using Adaptive Multi-Stage Item Bundles. (United States)

    Luecht, Richard M.

    This paper presents a multistage adaptive testing test development paradigm that promises to handle content balancing and other test development needs, psychometric reliability concerns, and item exposure. The bundled multistage adaptive testing (BMAT) framework is a modification of the computer-adaptive sequential testing framework introduced by…

  16. Automatic control of gaseous effluents emitted through the RP-10 reactor chimney; Control automatico de efluentes gaseosos emitidos por chimenea en el reactor RP-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Y, Walter; Anaya G, Olgger; Ovalle S, Edgar [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)


    The ventilation system of the reactor, has a way in which should work in the event of a nuclear accident. Formerly the change to this emergency way was carried out in manual form manual, when the radioprotection official, detected during the control of the places that the radiation levels had been overcome, informing to the responsible of the control room, so that they change the ventilation system to the emergency way. Considering that this procedure was not the most appropriate for the retarded time in taking the measures correctives, we are decided to carry out in the design and implementation of an automatic system that it acquires the data of the radiation levels of the effluents that are evacuating to the environment, of the SEM1000 equipment and when the reference level is overcome, automatically the designed system will change the operation way the ventilation system to emergency, closing the exit to the exterior and putting it in the recirculation way, for it is used a micro controller PIC 16F877. On the other hand it has been taken to the control room the sign of the SEM1000, as a repeater with the same characteristics of the presentation of data of this equipment. (author)

  17. Automatic control of positioning along the joint during EBW in conditions of action of magnetic fields (United States)

    Druzhinina, A. A.; Laptenok, V. D.; Murygin, A. V.; Laptenok, P. V.


    Positioning along the joint during the electron beam welding is a difficult scientific and technical problem to achieve the high quality of welds. The final solution of this problem is not found. This is caused by weak interference protection of sensors of the joint position directly in the welding process. Frequently during the electron beam welding magnetic fields deflect the electron beam from the optical axis of the electron beam gun. The collimated X-ray sensor is used to monitor the beam deflection caused by the action of magnetic fields. Signal of X-ray sensor is processed by the method of synchronous detection. Analysis of spectral characteristics of the X-ray sensor showed that the displacement of the joint from the optical axis of the gun affects on the output signal of sensor. The authors propose dual-circuit system for automatic positioning of the electron beam on the joint during the electron beam welding in conditions of action of magnetic interference. This system includes a contour of joint tracking and contour of compensation of magnetic fields. The proposed system is stable. Calculation of dynamic error of system showed that error of positioning does not exceed permissible deviation of the electron beam from the joint plane.

  18. Results from tests of the system for automatically controlling frequency and power of the PGU-450 power unit at the kaliningrad TETs-2 cogeneration station (United States)

    Bilenko, V. A.; Manevskaya, O. A.; Melamed, A. D.


    The structure of the system and the results of tests for checking the preparedness of the power unit for common primary control of the network frequency are described. An analysis of the results is presented, and an assessment is made of whether the PGU-450 unit can participate in selective primary and automatic secondary control of frequency and power.

  19. Strategies for energy saving in buildings by means of automatic control; Estrategias de ahorro de energia en inmuebles mediante el control automatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Trujillo, Oscar [Johnson Controls de Mexico S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)


    In this paper some of the measures and strategies for energy saving that can be applied in different types of buildings, mainly in hotels and office buildings, are presented. The proposed actions are accomplished with the aid of the automatic control equipment and the operation and/or maintenance personnel that supervises and establishes the control parameters of each one of the strategies than are focused to the appropriate utilization of the electric energy. [Espanol] En este documento se presentan algunas de las medidas y estrategias de ahorro de energia que pueden ser aplicadas en diferentes tipos de inmuebles, principalmente en hoteles y en edificios de oficinas. Las acciones propuestas son realizadas con la ayuda del equipo de control automatico y del personal de operacion y/o mantenimiento quien supervisa y establece los parametros de control de cada una de las estrategias que son destinadas a la buena utilizacion de la energia electrica.

  20. HVAC System Automatic Controls and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin. (United States)

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Fans, motors, coils, and other control components enable a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system to function smoothly. An explanation of these control components and how they make school HVAC systems work is provided. Different systems may be compared by counting the number of controlled devices that are required. Control…

  1. Wind power integration into the automatic generation control of power systems with large-scale wind power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Basit


    Full Text Available Transmission system operators have an increased interest in the active participation of wind power plants (WPP in the power balance control of power systems with large wind power penetration. The emphasis in this study is on the integration of WPPs into the automatic generation control (AGC of the power system. The present paper proposes a coordinated control strategy for the AGC between combined heat and power plants (CHPs and WPPs to enhance the security and the reliability of a power system operation in the case of a large wind power penetration. The proposed strategy, described and exemplified for the future Danish power system, takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan for generation and power exchange with neighbouring power systems into account. The performance of the proposed strategy for coordinated secondary control is assessed and discussed by means of simulations for different possible future scenarios, when wind power production in the power system is high and conventional production from CHPs is at a minimum level. The investigation results of the proposed control strategy have shown that the WPPs can actively help the AGC, and reduce the real-time power imbalance in the power system, by down regulating their production when CHPs are unable to provide the required response.

  2. Exposure of eyes to perfume: a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment. (United States)

    Elberling, J; Duus Johansen, J; Dirksen, A; Mosbech, H


    Environmental perfume exposure can elicit bothersome respiratory symptoms. Symptoms are induced at exposure levels which most people find tolerable, and the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate patients with eye and respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume, by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Twenty-one eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case-control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire, and underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled exposure to perfume. Of the 42 individuals tested, 10 had more eye symptoms (irritation, itching, and tears) during perfume exposure than during placebo exposures, and eight of these individuals (P = 0.07, Fisher's exact test) belonged to the patient group. A true positive eye reaction to perfume was significantly associated with identification of perfume as an active exposure (P perfume elicited irritation in the eyes independently of olfaction, but the relative importance of ocular chemoperception in relation to elicitation of respiratory symptoms from common environmental exposures to perfume remains unclear. We investigated the hypothesis of an association between respiratory symptoms related to perfume and ocular perfume sensitivity by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double blind, placebo-controlled experiment. Vapors of perfume provoked symptoms in the relevant eye in some patients and healthy control persons, but under our exposure conditions, ocular chemesthesis failed to elicit respiratory symptoms.

  3. Virtual Clutch Controller for Clutch-to-Clutch Shifts in Planetary-Type Automatic Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjiang Cheng


    Full Text Available It is known that the shift processes of the four types of clutch-to-clutch shifts can theoretically be divided into two phases which are torque phase and inertia phase, but the execution orders are different. Two virtual clutch controllers are designed with the same eight states which include all control processes for these shifts. An equivalent method is proposed so that AT can be controlled just like DCT by adopting the torque ratios of oncoming clutch and offgoing clutch of each gear. The powertrain system model and the shift controller are established on Matlab/Simulink platform. The clutch-to-clutch shift processes have been studied based on the virtual clutch controller by software-in-the-loop simulations. Some typical problems in the clutch-to-clutch shift control are discussed and several control methods are compared to solve these problems.

  4. Renal effects of acute exposure to toluene. A controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H K; Krusell, Lars Romer; Bælum, Jesper


    Urinary excretion rates of beta 2-microglobulin and albumin were measured in 43 male printing trade workers and 43 age-matched male controls before and during exposure to toluene, 382 mg/m3, for 6 1/2 hours in a climate chamber. There were no significant changes in renal excretion rates of albumin...... and beta 2-microglobulin during toluene exposure indicating that no causal relationship exists between moderate exposure to organic solvents and renal injury....

  5. Application of the concept of dynamic trim control and nonlinear system inverses to automatic control of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing aircraft (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.


    A full envelope automatic flight control system based on nonlinear inverse systems concepts has been applied to a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) fighter aircraft. A new method for using an airborne digital aircraft model to perform the inversion of a nonlinear aircraft model is presented together with the results of a simulation study of the nonlinear inverse system concept for the vertical-attitude hover mode. The system response to maneuver commands in the vertical attitude was found to be excellent; and recovery from large initial offsets and large disturbances was found to be very satisfactory.

  6. Modernized build and test infrastructure for control software at ESO: highly flexible building, testing, and automatic quality practices for telescope control software (United States)

    Pellegrin, F.; Jeram, B.; Haucke, J.; Feyrin, S.


    The paper describes the introduction of a new automatized build and test infrastructure, based on the open-source software Jenkins1, into the ESO Very Large Telescope control software to replace the preexisting in-house solution. A brief introduction to software quality practices is given, a description of the previous solution, the limitations of it and new upcoming requirements. Modifications required to adapt the new system are described, how these were implemented to current software and the results obtained. An overview on how the new system may be used in future projects is also presented.

  7. [Informational cooperation of the complex of software and hardware tools in automatization of state disease control management]. (United States)

    Akimkin, V G; Muzychenko, F V; Malinovskiĭ, A A; Moiseev, A N; Shvedov, D V


    Nowadays, taking into account new tasks, that should be resolved by the medical service, could be marked enlargement of informational cooperation at the expense of perspective program-technical solutions, put in the complex of program-technical means of automatization of administration of state disease control CPTMADC during it's creating. It's planed to elaborate an additional programmatic module for the purpose of using in CPTMADC the methodology of valuation of risk for resolving of tasks of socially-hygienic monitoring. Before it's elaborating, there was examined a capacity to conversion of patterns of weekly reports about the sanitarian condition of objects and it's following using for informational transporting using electronic means of connection of the complex CPTMADC by the way of including in patterns the data about the staff under the influence of adverse factor, and following rangering the objects by the level of risk for staff.

  8. Papaya seedlings growth using a low-cost, automatic watering controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cardoso de Oliveira Dias


    Full Text Available The study assessed growth and physiological parameters of 'Sunrise Golden' and 'Tainung 01' papaya seedlings grown in 280mL plastic tubes and watered using a low-cost automatic irrigation system adjusted to operate at substrate water tension for starting irrigation (STI of 3.0, 6.0 or 9.0 kPa. The water depths applied by the dripping system and drainage were monitored during germination and seedling growth. Germination, emergence velocity index (EVI, leaf area, plant height, shoot and root dry weight, stomatal conductance, relative water content (RWC and relative chlorophyll content (RCC were evaluated. Soil nutrient levels were determined by electrical conductivity (EC. Water use efficiency (WUE corresponded to the ratio of plant dry mass to depth of water applied. STI settings did not affect papaya germination or EVI. System configuration to 3.0 and 6.0 kPa STI exhibited the highest drainage and lowest EC and RCC, indicating soil nutrient loss and plant nutrient deficiency. Drainage was greater in tubes planted with the 'Tainung 01' variety, which developed smaller root systems and lower stomatal conductance than 'Sunrise Golden' seedlings. The highest values for shoot dry weight and WEU were obtained at 6.0 kPa STI for 'Sunrise Golden' (0.62 g and 0.69 g L-1 and at 9.0 kPa in 'Tainung 01' (0.35 g and 0.82 g L-1. RWC at 9.0 kPa STI was lower than at 3.0 kPa in both varieties. The results indicate that the low-cost technology developed for irrigation automation is promising. Even so, new studies are needed to evaluate low-flow irrigation systems as well as the nutrient and water needs of different papaya varieties.

  9. The effects of total sleep deprivation on semantic priming: event-related potential evidence for automatic and controlled processing strategies. (United States)

    López Zunini, Rocío; Muller-Gass, Alexandra; Campbell, Kenneth


    There is general consensus that performance on a number of cognitive tasks deteriorates following total sleep deprivation. At times, however, subjects manage to maintain performance. This may be because of an ability to switch cognitive strategies including the exertion of compensatory effort. The present study examines the effects of total sleep deprivation on a semantic word priming task. Word priming is unique because it can be carried out using different strategies involving either automatic, effortless or controlled, effortful processing. Twelve subjects were presented with word pairs, a prime and a target, that were either highly semantically associated (cat…dog), weakly associated (cow…barn) or unassociated (apple…road). In order to increase the probability of the use of controlled processing following normal sleep, the subject's task was to determine if the target word was semantically related to the prime. Furthermore, the time between the offset of the prime and the onset of the target was relatively long, permitting the use of an effortful, expectancy-predictive strategy. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 64 electrode sites. After normal sleep, RTs were faster and accuracy higher to highly associated targets; this performance advantage was also maintained following sleep deprivation. A large negative deflection, the N400, was larger to weakly associated and unassociated targets in both sleep-deprived and normal conditions. The overall N400 was however larger in the normal sleep condition. Moreover, a long-lasting negative slow wave developed between the offset of the prime and the onset of the target. These physiological measures are consistent with the use of an effortful, predictive strategy following normal sleep but an automatic, effortless strategy following total sleep deprivation. A picture priming task was also run. This task benefits less from the use of a predictive strategy. Accordingly, in this task, ERPs following the

  10. Development of an automatic subsea blowout preventer stack control system using PLC based SCADA. (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Liu, Zengkai; Wang, Fei; Tian, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yanzhen


    An extremely reliable remote control system for subsea blowout preventer stack is developed based on the off-the-shelf triple modular redundancy system. To meet a high reliability requirement, various redundancy techniques such as controller redundancy, bus redundancy and network redundancy are used to design the system hardware architecture. The control logic, human-machine interface graphical design and redundant databases are developed by using the off-the-shelf software. A series of experiments were performed in laboratory to test the subsea blowout preventer stack control system. The results showed that the tested subsea blowout preventer functions could be executed successfully. For the faults of programmable logic controllers, discrete input groups and analog input groups, the control system could give correct alarms in the human-machine interface.

  11. The use of differential pressure feedback in an automatic flight control system (United States)

    Levy, D. W.; Roskam, J.; Finn, P. D.


    A feasibility study has been performed to evaluate the performance of a system whereby a control surface is positioned with differential pressure as the feedback variable. Analogous to a position command system, the control surface is commanded to move until a certain differential pressure is achieved at a given point on the surface. Frequency response tests and theoretical considerations indicate that the pressure feedback transfer function is first order, with a break frequency up to 50 rad/sec. There exist applications to the outer loops of flight control systems as well. Stability augmentation, gust alleviation, and stall prevention appear to be possible by feeding back differential pressure across lifting and control surfaces.

  12. On the Application of MATLAB to the Course of Automatic Control Theory%MATLAB在自动控制理论课程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    本文介绍了MATLAB软件在自动控制原理上的应用,通过实例分析,应用MATLAB软件进行计算机辅助分析,对于自动控制原理的学习有很大的帮助。%This paper introduces the application of MATLAB software to the course of Automatic Control Theory.Practical examples prove it of great help for the learning of automatic control theory by applying MATLAB software to implement computer-aided analysis.

  13. Study of automatic and manual terminal guidance and control systems for space shuttle vehicles. Volume 1: Sections 1 through 3 (United States)

    Osder, S.; Keller, R.


    The results of a study to analyze, design, and evaluate guidance and control systems are presented that start at an altitude of about 100,000 feet and bring the unpowered space shuttle orbiters to a precision horizontal landing. The systems under consideration included fully automatic versions which involve no pilot participation as well as various manual configurations that provide combinations of displays and control augmentation which permit the pilot to control the vehicle to a successful landing. Two classes of vehicles were studied: the low cross range or straight-wing orbiter and the high cross range or delta-wing (delta body) orbiter. The recommended navigation, guidance and control system is shown to be compatible with realistic physical constraints that would exist in space shuttlecraft and to be consistent with the 1971 avionics equipment state of the art. Aircraft capable of aerodynamically simulating the various candidate space shuttlecraft in their unpowered, terminal area descent were investigated, and flight test recommendations, including system mechanizations, are made.

  14. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cochet, C.; Fernandes, E.O.; Jantunen, M.;

    ECA-IAQ (European Collaborative Action, Urban Air, Indoor Environment and Human Exposure), 2006. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX), Report No 25. EUR 22503 EN. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the Eu...

  15. Silica exposure and lung cancer in ceramic workers: a case-control study. (United States)

    Meijers, J M; Swaen, G M; Volovics, A; Slangen, J J; Van Vliet, K


    The results are presented from a case-control study, concerning the possible relation between silica exposure in the Dutch fine ceramic industry and lung cancer. For this purpose 381 male, age-matched pairs of primary lung cancer cases and controls were selected from the pathology department of the University Hospital in the region, where two large ceramic companies are located. Information about employment in the ceramic industry was obtained from the personnel and financial administration departments of the two companies. On the basis of job titles a panel of occupational hygiene experts reached consensus about the qualitative exposures of each individual worker. Twenty one per cent of the cases were employed in the ceramic industry, compared with 19% of the controls (odds ratio 1.11; 95% Cl: 0.77-1.61). Although the average employment period of cases and their relative silica exposure surpassed those of controls, odds ratios for long duration of employment and considerable exposure to respirable silica dust did not reach statistical significance. After constructing a qualitative exposure index, based on the amount and duration of exposure, a tendency towards a positive correlation with lung cancer emerged. No relation between specific histological tumour cell types and working in the ceramic industry emerged. Although the study does not suggest a consistent cause-effect relation between silica exposure in the regional, Dutch fine ceramic industry and lung cancer, an increased risk for the high exposure group in the past can not be totally excluded.

  16. QFT Based Robust Positioning Control of the PMSM Using Automatic Loop Shaping with Teaching Learning Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitish Katal


    Full Text Available Automation of the robust control system synthesis for uncertain systems is of great practical interest. In this paper, the loop shaping step for synthesizing quantitative feedback theory (QFT based controller for a two-phase permanent magnet stepper motor (PMSM has been automated using teaching learning-based optimization (TLBO algorithm. The QFT controller design problem has been posed as an optimization problem and TLBO algorithm has been used to minimize the proposed cost function. This facilitates designing low-order fixed-structure controller, eliminates the need of manual loop shaping step on the Nichols charts, and prevents the overdesign of the controller. A performance comparison of the designed controller has been made with the classical PID tuning method of Ziegler-Nichols and QFT controller tuned using other optimization algorithms. The simulation results show that the designed QFT controller using TLBO offers robust stability, disturbance rejection, and proper reference tracking over a range of PMSM’s parametric uncertainties as compared to the classical design techniques.

  17. Automatic Tuning Of Proportional-Integral-Derivative (Pid Controller Using Particle Swarm Optimization (Pso Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Bassi


    Full Text Available The proportional-integral-derivative (PID controllers are the most popular controllers used in industry because of their remarkable effectiveness, simplicity of implementation and broad applicability. However, manual tuning of these controllers is time consuming, tedious and generally lead to poor performance. This tuning which is application specific also deteriorates with time as a result of plant parameter changes. This paper presents an artificial intelligence (AI method of particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm for tuning the optimal proportional-integral derivative (PID controller parameters for industrial processes. This approach has superior features, including easy implementation, stable convergence characteristic and good computational efficiency over the conventional methods. Ziegler- Nichols, tuning method was applied in the PID tuning and results were compared with the PSO-Based PID for optimum control. Simulation results are presented to show that the PSO-Based optimized PID controller is capable of providing an improved closed-loop performance over the Ziegler- Nichols tuned PID controller Parameters. Compared to the heuristic PID tuning method of Ziegler-Nichols, the proposed method was more efficient in improving the step response characteristics such as, reducing the steady-states error; rise time, settling time and maximum overshoot in speed control of DC motor.

  18. Monitoring and Automatic Control for Ship Power Plants Based Logical Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammad Salem Al-suod


    Full Text Available Controlling power station systems with diesel engines is vital issue. Algorithms of microprocessors are developed to be used in the control unit of this type of power station systems. Such Algorithms are built in a logic form, and then the control functions are derived using logic functions. Analyzing the contents of the received logic signals allows us to overcome structural redundancy of the systems. Monitor the network parameter is very important to protect the devices used in the power station systems. In this paper automated controller is developed using microprocessor algorithms to view and control the parameters of the system devices such as generator, synchronizers, and load sharers on-line, this will help in improving the system to be fast, reliable and more accurate. This paper proposes an implementation of a subsequent optimization for structural and algorithmic blocks of microprocessor systems automation of ship power plants.

  19. Design of a variable width pulse generator feasible for manual or automatic control (United States)

    Vegas, I.; Antoranz, P.; Miranda, J. M.; Franco, F. J.


    A variable width pulse generator featuring more than 4-V peak amplitude and less than 10-ns FWHM is described. In this design the width of the pulses is controlled by means of the control signal slope. Thus, a variable transition time control circuit (TTCC) is also developed, based on the charge and discharge of a capacitor by means of two tunable current sources. Additionally, it is possible to activate/deactivate the pulses when required, therefore allowing the creation of any desired pulse pattern. Furthermore, the implementation presented here can be electronically controlled. In conclusion, due to its versatility, compactness and low cost it can be used in a wide variety of applications.

  20. Policy-based secure communication with automatic key management for industrial control and automation systems (United States)

    Chernoguzov, Alexander; Markham, Thomas R.; Haridas, Harshal S.


    A method includes generating at least one access vector associated with a specified device in an industrial process control and automation system. The specified device has one of multiple device roles. The at least one access vector is generated based on one or more communication policies defining communications between one or more pairs of devices roles in the industrial process control and automation system, where each pair of device roles includes the device role of the specified device. The method also includes providing the at least one access vector to at least one of the specified device and one or more other devices in the industrial process control and automation system in order to control communications to or from the specified device.

  1. Automatic control of a drop-foot stimulator based on angle measurement using bioimpedance. (United States)

    Nahrstaedt, Holger; Schauer, Thomas; Shalaby, Raafat; Hesse, Stefan; Raisch, Jörg


    The topic of this contribution is iterative learning control of a drop-foot stimulator in which a predefined angle profile during the swing phase is realized. Ineffective dorsiflexion is compensated by feedback-controlled stimulation of the muscle tibialis anterior. The ankle joint measurement is based on changes in the bioimpedance (BI) caused by leg movements. A customized four-channel BI measurement system was developed. The suggested control approach and the new measurement method for the joint angle were successfully tested in preliminary experiments with a neurologically intact subject. Reference angle measurements were taken with a marker-based optical system. An almost linear relation between joint angle and BI was found for the angle range applicable during gait. The desired angle trajectory was closely tracked by the iterative learning controller after three gait cycles. The final root mean square tracking error was below 5 degrees.

  2. 集中供热系统的自控%Automatic Control of Central Heating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    介绍了在集中供热系统中,采用二次水供水温度自控、二次水循环泵变频调速、二次水循环量自控、二次网水力平衡控制、部分建筑供水温度分时自控等措施,进行节能技术改造的方法和节能效果。%This paper describes the measures of controlling temperature ofsecondary water, frequency converting of secondary circulation pumps, controlling flow of secondary water, controlling hydraulic balance of secondary network and controlling temperature of supply water of buildings according to time in central heating system. This paper also introduces the methods and effects of saving energy by technical reconstruction.

  3. “Ball and beam” virtual laboratory: a teaching aid in automatic control courses



    This paper describes a humanoid robot simulator with realistic dynamics. As simulation is a powerful tool for speeding up the control software development, the suggested accurate simulator allows to accomplish this goal. The simulator, based on the Open Dynamics Engine and GLScene graphics library, provides instant visual feedback and allows the user to test any control strategy without damaging the real robot in the early stages of the development. The proposed simulator also captures some c...

  4. Automatic Control System for the High Pressure CdTe Crystal Growth Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Praus


    Full Text Available CdTe and (CdZnTe bulk single crystals have been widely used as substrates for MBE and LPE epitaxy of infrared (HgCdTe as well as gamma- and X-ray detectors. The Cd1-xZnxTe (x = 0.04-0.1 single crystals with diameter up to 100 mm and height at most 40 mm were prepared in our laboratory in a vertical arrangement by gradual cooling of the melt (the Vertical Gradient Freezing method. Achievement of excellent crystal quality required full control of Cd pressure during the growth process and application of high Cd pressures (up to 4 bar at growth temperature. An electronic control system was designed to control both temperature and internal pressure of two zones CZT crystal growth furnace by using two high performance PID controllers/setpoint programmers. Two wire current loop serial communication bus was used for the data exchange and computer control of the furnace electronics setup. Control software was written to supervise the crystal growth process and to collect all important data and parameters.

  5. Impact on energy conservation of automatic control systems utilization in the US pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fam, S.S.


    This study is concerned with the energy and other resource benefits resulting from the computerized automation of processes in the US pulp and paper industry. The primary objectives were to characterize the state of the art of computer controls in the industry and to pinpoint the problem areas that limit their further use. The study lasted approximately 4 months. An exhaustive survey of all the possible technologies in use, or under development, was not possible. The main conclusions are that the pulping and recovery operations offer the greatest potential for reducing energy use by computer control, and that effective hierarchical control at the plant level requires the integration of these operations into one or more control loops. No control system has been found that provides reliable, fully automated control of recovery boilers for an extended period of time. The total technical potential for fuel savings was estimated at 0.2 quadrillion Btu's a year, or the equivalent of 94,000 barrels of oil per day.

  6. Controlled exposure of volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, W.S.; Fischer, D.A.; Shamoo, D.A.; Spier, C.E.; Valencia, L.M.; Anzar, U.T.; Hackney, J.D.


    Twenty-four volunteers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) at 0, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm in an environmental control chamber. Exposures lasted 1 hr and included two 15-min exercise periods (mean exercise ventilation rate 18 liter/min). Pulmonary mechanical function was evaluated before exposures, after initial exercise, and at the end of exposure. Blood oxygenation was measured by ear oximetry before exposure and during the second exercise period. Symptoms were recorded throughout exposure periods and for 1 week afterward. No statistically significant changes in physiology or symptoms could be attributed to SO/sub 2/ exposure. Older adults with COPD seem less reactive to a given concentration of SO/sub 2/ than heavily exercising young adult asthmatics. This may be due to lower ventilation rates (i.e., lower SO/sub 2/ dose rates) and/or to lower airway reactivity in the COPD group.

  7. Nonlinear automatic landing control of unmanned aerial vehicles on moving platforms via a 3D laser radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervas, Jaime Rubio; Tang, Hui [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 639798 (Singapore); Reyhanoglu, Mahmut [Physical Sciences Department, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States)


    This paper presents a motion tracking and control system for automatically landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on an oscillating platform using Laser Radar (LADAR) observations. The system itself is assumed to be mounted on a ship deck. A full nonlinear mathematical model is first introduced for the UAV. The ship motion is characterized by a Fourier transform based method which includes a realistic characterization of the sea waves. LADAR observation models are introduced and an algorithm to process those observations for yielding the relative state between the vessel and the UAV is presented, from which the UAV's state relative to an inertial frame can be obtained and used for feedback purposes. A sliding mode control algorithm is derived for tracking a landing trajectory defined by a set of desired waypoints. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is proposed to account for process and observation noises in the design of a state estimator. The effectiveness of the control algorithm is illustrated through a simulation example.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Blagoveshchenskaya


    Full Text Available Summary. The most important operation of granular mixed fodder production is molding process. Properties of granular mixed fodder are defined during this process. They determine the process of production and final product quality. The possibility of digital video camera usage as intellectual sensor for control system in process of production is analyzed in the article. The developed parametric model of the process of bundles molding from granular fodder mass is presented in the paper. Dynamic characteristics of the molding process were determined. A mathematical model of motion of bundle of granular fodder mass after matrix holes was developed. The developed mathematical model of the automatic control system (ACS with the use of etalon video frame as the set point in the MATLAB software environment was shown. As a parameter of the bundles molding process it is proposed to use the value of the specific area defined in the mathematical treatment of the video frame. The algorithms of the programs to determine the changes in structural and mechanical properties of the feed mass in video frames images were developed. Digital video shooting of various modes of the molding machine was carried out and after the mathematical processing of video the transfer functions for use as a change of adjustable parameters of the specific area were determined. Structural and functional diagrams of the system of regulation of the food bundles molding process with the use of digital camcorders were built and analyzed. Based on the solution of the equations of fluid dynamics mathematical model of bundle motion after leaving the hole matrix was obtained. In addition to its viscosity, creep property was considered that is characteristic of the feed mass. The mathematical model ACS of the bundles molding process allowing to investigate transient processes which occur in the control system that uses a digital video camera as the smart sensor was developed in Simulink

  9. Automatic generation control of multi-area power systems with diverse energy sources using Teaching Learning Based Optimization algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra Kumar Sahu


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and analysis of Proportional-Integral-Double Derivative (PIDD controller for Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area power systems with diverse energy sources using Teaching Learning Based Optimization (TLBO algorithm. At first, a two-area reheat thermal power system with appropriate Generation Rate Constraint (GRC is considered. The design problem is formulated as an optimization problem and TLBO is employed to optimize the parameters of the PIDD controller. The superiority of the proposed TLBO based PIDD controller has been demonstrated by comparing the results with recently published optimization technique such as hybrid Firefly Algorithm and Pattern Search (hFA-PS, Firefly Algorithm (FA, Bacteria Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA, Genetic Algorithm (GA and conventional Ziegler Nichols (ZN for the same interconnected power system. Also, the proposed approach has been extended to two-area power system with diverse sources of generation like thermal, hydro, wind and diesel units. The system model includes boiler dynamics, GRC and Governor Dead Band (GDB non-linearity. It is observed from simulation results that the performance of the proposed approach provides better dynamic responses by comparing the results with recently published in the literature. Further, the study is extended to a three unequal-area thermal power system with different controllers in each area and the results are compared with published FA optimized PID controller for the same system under study. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions in the range of ±25% from their nominal values to test the robustness.

  10. A review of engineering control technology for exposures generated during abrasive blasting operations. (United States)

    Flynn, Michael R; Susi, Pam


    This literature review presents information on measures for controlling worker exposure to toxic airborne contaminants generated during abrasive blasting operations occurring primarily in the construction industry. The exposures of concern include respirable crystalline silica, lead, chromates, and other toxic metals. Unfortunately, silica sand continues to be widely used in the United States as an abrasive blasting medium, resulting in high exposures to operators and surrounding personnel. Recently, several alternative abrasives have emerged as potential substitutes for sand, but they seem to be underused Some of these abrasives may pose additional metal exposure hazards. In addition, several new and improved technologies offer promise for reducing or eliminating exposures; these include wet abrasive blasting, high-pressure water jetting, vacuum blasting, and automated/robotic systems. More research, particularly field studies, is needed to evaluate control interventions in this important and hazardous operation.

  11. Experimental implementation of automatic 'cycle to cycle' control to a nonlinear chiral simulated moving bed separation. (United States)

    Grossmann, Cristian; Langel, Christian; Mazzotti, Marco; Morari, Manfred; Morbidelli, Massimo


    In order to better exploit the economic potential of the simulated moving bed chromatography a 'cycle to cycle' controller which only requires the information about the linear adsorption behavior and the overall average porosity of the columns has been proposed. Recently, an automated on-line HPLC monitoring system which determines the concentrations in the two product streams averaged over one cycle, and returns them as feedback information to the controller was implemented. The new system allows for an accurate determination of the average concentration of the product streams even if the plant is operated at high concentrations. This paper presents the experimental implementation of the 'cycle to cycle' control concept to the separation of guaifenesin enantiomers under nonlinear chromatographic conditions, i.e. at high feed concentrations. Different case studies have been carried out to challenge the controller under realistic operation conditions, e.g. introducing pump disturbances and changing the feed concentration during the operation. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the controller can indeed deliver the specified purities and improve the process performance.

  12. Evaluation of the approach to respirable quartz exposure control in U.S. coal mines. (United States)

    Joy, Gerald J


    Occupational exposure to high levels of respirable quartz can result in respiratory and other diseases in humans. The Mine Safety and Health Adminstration (MSHA) regulates exposure to respirable quartz in coal mines indirectly through reductions in the respirable coal mine dust exposure limit based on the content of quartz in the airborne respirable dust. This reduction is implemented when the quartz content of airborne respirable dust exceeds 5% by weight. The intent of this dust standard reduction is to restrict miners' exposure to respirable quartz to a time-weighted average concentration of 100 μg/m(3). The effectiveness of this indirect approach to control quartz exposure was evaluated by analyzing respirable dust samples collected by MSHA inspectors from 1995 through 2008. The performance of the current regulatory approach was found to be lacking due to the use of a variable property-quartz content in airborne dust-to establish a standard for subsequent exposures. In one situation, 11.7% (4370/37,346) of samples that were below the applicable respirable coal mine dust exposure limit exceeded 100 μg/m(3) quartz. In a second situation, 4.4% (895/20,560) of samples with 5% or less quartz content in the airborne respirable dust exceeded 100 μg/m(3) quartz. In these two situations, the samples exceeding 100 μg/m(3) quartz were not subject to any potential compliance action. Therefore, the current respirable quartz exposure control approach does not reliably maintain miner exposure below 100 μg/m(3) quartz. A separate and specific respirable quartz exposure standard may improve control of coal miners' occupational exposure to respirable quartz.

  13. Algorithms for accelerated automatic tuning of controllers with estimating the plant model from the plant response to an impulse disturbance and under self-oscillation conditions (United States)

    Kuzishchin, V. F.; Tsarev, V. S.


    The problem of automatically tuning controllers in an operating control system is considered. Two methods for quickly determining the model parameters with calculating the plant model and the optimal controller tuning parameters in real time are proposed for the preliminary controller tuning stage: from the experimentally obtained plant response to an impulse disturbance and from two periods of self-oscillations excited in the mode of two-position control. The PID controller tunings are determined using the calculation algorithm of indirect frequency optimality indicators. The results from checking the serviceability of the proposed method in a system fitted with an industry-grade controller are presented.

  14. Sensitivity analysis of automatic flight control systems using singular value concepts (United States)

    Herrera-Vaillard, A.; Paduano, J.; Downing, D.


    A sensitivity analysis is presented that can be used to judge the impact of vehicle dynamic model variations on the relative stability of multivariable continuous closed-loop control systems. The sensitivity analysis uses and extends the singular-value concept by developing expressions for the gradients of the singular value with respect to variations in the vehicle dynamic model and the controller design. Combined with a priori estimates of the accuracy of the model, the gradients are used to identify the elements in the vehicle dynamic model and controller that could severely impact the system's relative stability. The technique is demonstrated for a yaw/roll damper stability augmentation designed for a business jet.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuYong; YangYidong; DaiShijun


    The landing task of an aircraft under low aerodynamic pressure on carrier requires precise airplane control,A flight/thrust integrated control system(FTICS)with constant ad,actual angle of attack,is developed using LMI-based H∞synthesis.The typical single input/outputspecifications are translated into the weighting functions of an H∞output-feedback synthesis problem.The motiva-tion of the work is to improve the key performance of dy-namic tracking and air disturbance attenuation.The FTICS can keep the attitude andgle and the path angle un-changeable as the airplane is passing through the ramp at which the tracking radar doesnot work and the guidance signal is terminated.For engineering application,an or-der-reduction method of the H∞controller is also pro-posed,Simulational results indicate that the system satis-fies the design requirements quite well.

  16. 78 FR 52532 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government (United States)


    ... OFFICE Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government AGENCY: U.S. Government... Office (GAO) is seeking public comments on the proposed revisions to the Standards for Internal Control... Internal Control in the Federal Government reflect major developments in the accountability and...

  17. Study of automatic and manual terminal guidance and control systems for space shuttle vehicles. Volume 2: Section 4 through appendix B (United States)

    Osder, S.; Keller, R.


    Guidance and control design studies that were performed for three specific space shuttle candidate vehicles are described. Three types of simulation were considered. The manual control investigations and pilot evaluations of the automatic system performance is presented. Recommendations for systems and equipment, both airborne and ground-based, necessary to flight test the guidance and control concepts for shuttlecraft terminal approach and landing are reported.

  18. Automatic approach to stabilization and control for multi robot teams by multilayer network operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diveev Askhat


    Full Text Available The paper describes a novel methodology for synthesis a high-level control of autonomous multi robot teams. The approach is based on multilayer network operator method that belongs to a symbolic regression class. Synthesis is accomplished in three steps: stabilizing robots about some given position in a state space, finding optimal trajectories of robots’ motion as sets of stabilizing points and then approximating all the points of optimal trajectories by some multi-dimensional function of state variables. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified on simulations of the task of control synthesis for three mobile robots parking in the constrained space.

  19. Control banding tools for occupational exposure assessment of nanomaterials - Ready for use in a regulatory context?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liguori, Biase; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders


    area of concern. Therefore, a number of Control Banding (CB)-based tools have been developed in order to assess and manage the potential risks associated with occupational exposure to nanomaterials. In this paper we provide a comparative analysis of different nanomaterial-specific types of control-banding/risk...... developed for different purposes, with different application domains and inclusion criteria. The exposure assessments and derived risk levels are based on different concepts and assumptions and outputs in different formats. The use of requested input parameters for exposure assessment differ greatly among...

  20. Controlling and monitoring exposure to radiation from medical imaging. (United States)


    Above a certain threshold dose, ionising radiation invariably provokes harmful effects such as burns, nausea and aplasia. Their severity increases with the dose received. There is no known threshold dose below which long-term harmful effects, such as cancer and genetic defects, do not occur. Ionising radiation comes from both natural and man-made sources. Worldwide, medical exposure accounts for 98% of the dose received from man-made sources. In France, the average dose per person received from diagnostic radiological examinations increased by more than 50% between 2002 and 2007. This increase was due to more frequent use of computed tomography (CT) and diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. The internationally defined individual dose limits for the general population do not apply to the medical uses of ionising radiation, but medical exposure must comply with the principles of radiation protection: the examination must be justified and the dose optimised. In France, shortcomings are observed in the application of these principles. In 2012, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) received 345 reports of "significant radiation protection incidents" affecting patients: 75% involving external beam radiotherapy, 15% involving nuclear medicine, 6% involving CT scans, and 4% involving radiology. In 2011, reference levels were established for the doses received by children during CT imaging and nuclear medicine procedures. When deciding whether to order a diagnostic procedure using ionising radiation, the harm-benefit balance of both the procedure and the chosen technique must be taken into account. When two procedures have the same performance, the technique that exposes the patient to the lowest dose of radiation should be chosen.

  1. Body segments decoupling in sitting: Control of body posture from automatic chair adjustments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geffen, van Paul; Molier, Birgit I.; Reenalda, Jasper; Veltink, Peter H.; Koopman, Bart F.J.M.


    Background: Individuals who cannot functionally reposition themselves adopt a passive body posture and suffer from physical discomfort in long-term sitting. To regulate body load and to prevent sitting related mobility problems, proper posture control is important. The inability to reposition underl

  2. A Semi-Automatic, Remote-Controlled Video Observation System for Transient Luminous Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Thomas Højgaard; Neubert, Torsten; Laursen, Steen;


    at the Pic du Midi Observatory in Southern France, the system was operational during the period from July 18 to September 15, 2003. The video system, based two low-light, non-intensified CCD video cameras, was mounted on top of a motorized pan/tilt unit. The cameras and the pan/tilt unit were controlled over...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravleov A.A.


    Full Text Available There is examined the structure the of control system of gas cooler of heat pump station, which uses the carbon dioxide as the working fluid in the transctitical thermodynamical cycle. It is analiyed the structure of the complex: heat pump station – district heating system.

  4. Potential of controlled traffic farming with automatic guidance on an organic farm in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Mosquera, J.; Wel, van der C.; Klooster, van der A.; Steenhuizen, J.W.


    Some organic farms in the Netherlands use RTK-DGPS guidance of machinery over fixed traffic lanes to achieve non-trafficked cropping zones with optimum soil structure. These lanes are not yet used for harvesting and primary tillage. The potential of such a seasonal controlled traffic farming (SCTF)

  5. Automatic feedback on cognitive load and emotional state of traffic controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, M.A.; Harbers, M.; Lim, D.; Tas, V. van der


    Workload research in command, information and process-control centers, resulted in a modular and formal Cognitive Load and Emotional State (CLES) model with transparent and easy-to-modify classification and assessment techniques. The model distinguishes three representation and analysis layers with

  6. A New Internet Tool for Automatic Evaluation in Control Systems and Programming (United States)

    Munoz de la Pena, D.; Gomez-Estern, F.; Dormido, S.


    In this paper we present a web-based innovative education tool designed for automating the collection, evaluation and error detection in practical exercises assigned to computer programming and control engineering students. By using a student/instructor code-fusion architecture, the conceptual limits of multiple-choice tests are overcome by far.…

  7. Functionality and operation of fluoroscopic automatic brightness control/automatic dose rate control logic in modern cardiovascular and interventional angiography systems: a report of Task Group 125 Radiography/Fluoroscopy Subcommittee, Imaging Physics Committee, Science Council. (United States)

    Rauch, Phillip; Lin, Pei-Jan Paul; Balter, Stephen; Fukuda, Atsushi; Goode, Allen; Hartwell, Gary; LaFrance, Terry; Nickoloff, Edward; Shepard, Jeff; Strauss, Keith


    Task Group 125 (TG 125) was charged with investigating the functionality of fluoroscopic automatic dose rate and image quality control logic in modern angiographic systems, paying specific attention to the spectral shaping filters and variations in the selected radiologic imaging parameters. The task group was also charged with describing the operational aspects of the imaging equipment for the purpose of assisting the clinical medical physicist with clinical set-up and performance evaluation. Although there are clear distinctions between the fluoroscopic operation of an angiographic system and its acquisition modes (digital cine, digital angiography, digital subtraction angiography, etc.), the scope of this work was limited to the fluoroscopic operation of the systems studied. The use of spectral shaping filters in cardiovascular and interventional angiography equipment has been shown to reduce patient dose. If the imaging control algorithm were programmed to work in conjunction with the selected spectral filter, and if the generator parameters were optimized for the selected filter, then image quality could also be improved. Although assessment of image quality was not included as part of this report, it was recognized that for fluoroscopic imaging the parameters that influence radiation output, differential absorption, and patient dose are also the same parameters that influence image quality. Therefore, this report will utilize the terminology "automatic dose rate and image quality" (ADRIQ) when describing the control logic in modern interventional angiographic systems and, where relevant, will describe the influence of controlled parameters on the subsequent image quality. A total of 22 angiography units were investigated by the task group and of these one each was chosen as representative of the equipment manufactured by GE Healthcare, Philips Medical Systems, Shimadzu Medical USA, and Siemens Medical Systems. All equipment, for which measurement data were

  8. Report of the 14th IFAC symposium on automatic control in aerospace; Dai 14 kai IFAC `koku uchu ni okeru jido seigyo symposium` shusseki hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasuka, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    This is the report of the 14th International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC) symposium on automatic control in aerospace, held on August 24 to 28 1998 at National Seoul University, ROK, by the author who participated in the symposium. This symposium is held by the IFAC`s Aerospace Technical Committee once in every 3 years for automatic control mainly for aerospace, in particular navigation, guidance and control of aircraft, satellites, rockets and the like. A total of 65 papers were presented to 25 sessions, with a total of 106 attendees. There were a number of attendees from Japan, and Russia sent an unusually large number of attendees. The general lectures covered the topics of, e.g., attitude and orbit control of satellites and the like, control of aircraft, guidance and control of missiles, navigation of aircraft and space aircraft, space robotics, failure diagnosis, basic theories on control, and system development. Reports on development and results of actual projects accounted for the majority in the sessions for control of satellites, rockets and the like. (NEDO)

  9. Matlab仿真在自动控制原理教学中的应用%Application of Matlab Software in Teaching of Automatic Control Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In order to greatly inspire students' enthusiasm to learn the automatic control theory and improve the ability to analyze, design and debug automatic control system. This paper describes the method to calculate and analyze the more typical and abstract systems in automatic control theory courses with examples by using MATLAB programming language. The results indicate that this kind of educational software can improve student's understanding of automatic control theory and achieve the purpose of teaching.%为了加深学生对自动控制原理课程的兴趣、提高分析、设计和调试自动控制系统的能力,本文采用了MATLAB语言编制程序结合实例对自动控制原理课程中遇到的一些典型和抽象系统进行计算和分析方法.通过这种教学软件,提高学生学习自动控制原理的理解,达到了该课程的教学目的.

  10. Predictors of Change Following Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Children with Anxiety Problems: A Preliminary Investigation on Negative Automatic Thoughts and Anxiety Control (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Mayer, Birgit; den Adel, Madelon; Roos, Tamara; van Wamelen, Julie


    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate negative automatic thoughts and anxiety control as predictors of change produced by cognitive-behavioral treatment of youths with anxiety disorders. Forty-five high-anxious children aged between 9 and 12 years who were selected from the primary school population, received a standardized CBT…

  11. 矿用自动喷雾洒水控制器的设计%Design of Mine-used Automatic Spray and Watering Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The paper introduced design of a kind of automatic spray and watering controller. The controller uses main controller to control magnetic valve switch to achieve automatic watering of sprayer. The practical application showed that the controller has high reliability, good atomization effect, which average dust-laying rate is 92.7%.%介绍了一种自动喷雾洒水控制器的设计.该控制器利用控制主机控制电磁阀的开关,实现了喷雾装置的自动洒水.实际应用表明,该控制器可靠性高,雾化效果好,平均降尘率为92.7%.

  12. Field evaluation of an engineering control for respirable crystalline silica exposures during mortar removal. (United States)

    Collingwood, Scott; Heitbrink, William A


    During mortar removal with a right angle grinder, a building renovation process known as "tuck pointing," worker exposures to respirable crystalline silica can be as high as 5 mg/m(3), 100 times the recommended exposure limit developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. To reduce the risk of silicosis among these workers, a vacuum cleaner can be used to exhaust 80 ft(3)/min (2.26 m(3)/min) from a hood mounted on the grinder. Field trials examined the ability of vacuum cleaners to maintain adequate exhaust ventilation rates and measure exposure outcomes when using this engineering control. These field trials involved task-based exposure measurement of respirable dust and crystalline silica exposures during mortar removal. These measurements were compared with published exposure data. Vacuum cleaner airflows were obtained by measuring and digitally logging vacuum cleaner static pressure at the inlet to the vacuum cleaner motor. Static pressures were converted to airflows based on experimentally determined fan curves. In two cases, video exposure monitoring was conducted to study the relationship between worker activities and dust exposure. Worker activities were video taped concurrent with aerosol photometer measurement of dust exposure and vacuum cleaner static pressure as a measure of airflow. During these field trials, respirable crystalline silica exposures for 22 samples had a geometric mean of 0.06 mg/m(3) and a range of less than 0.01 to 0.86 mg/m(3). For three other studies, respirable crystalline silica exposures during mortar removal have a geometric means of 1.1 to 0.35. Although this field study documented noticeably less exposure to crystalline silica, video exposure monitoring found that the local exhaust ventilation provided incomplete dust control due to low exhaust flow rates, certain work practices, and missing mortar. Vacuum cleaner airflow decrease had a range of 3 to 0.4 ft(3)/min (0.08 to 0.01 m(3)/sec(2)) over a range

  13. Evaluation Of Rotation Frequency Gas-Diesel Engines When Using Automatic Control System (United States)

    Zhilenkov, A.; Efremov, A.


    A possibility of quality improvement of stabilization of rotation frequency of the gas-diesels used as prime mover of generator set in the multigenerator units working for abruptly variable load of large power is considered. An evaluation is made on condition of fuzzy controller use developed and described by the authors in a number of articles. An evaluation has shown that theoretically, the revolution range of gas-diesel engine may be reduced at 25-30 times at optimal settings of the controller in all the power range. The results of modeling showing a considerable quality improvement of transient processes in the investigated system at a sharp change of loading are presented in this article.

  14. Automatic control strategy for step feed anoxic/aerobic biological nitrogen removal process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Gui-bing; PENG Yong-zhen; WU Shu-yun; WANG Shu-ying


    Control of sludge age and mixed liquid suspended solids concentration in the activated sludge process is critical for ensuring effective wastewater treatment. A nonlinear dynamic model for a step-feed activated sludge process was developed in this study. The system is based on the control of the sludge age and mixed liquor suspended solids in the aerator of last stage by adjusting the sludge recycle and wastage flow rates respectively. The simulation results showed that the sludge age remained nearly constant at a value of 16 d in the variation of the influent characteristics. The mixed liquor suspended solids in the aerator of last stage were also maintained to a desired value of 2500 g/m3 by adjusting wastage flow rates.

  15. Automatic Analysis and Synthesis of Controllers for Dynamical Systems Based on Phase-Space Knowledge (United States)


    nonlinear controller. The simulation showed that our design allows the maglev train to oper- ate with much larger disturbances in the airgap than the...trajectory design. (2) Vehicles like the maglev trains and automobiles usually use passive suspension to dampen disturbances caused by road irregularities and...synthesized by the Workbench can stabilize a maglev vehicle with large initial displacements from an equilibrium and outperform the classical linear

  16. Using Historical Data to Automatically Identify Air-Traffic Control Behavior (United States)

    Lauderdale, Todd A.; Wu, Yuefeng; Tretto, Celeste


    This project seeks to develop statistical-based machine learning models to characterize the types of errors present when using current systems to predict future aircraft states. These models will be data-driven - based on large quantities of historical data. Once these models are developed, they will be used to infer situations in the historical data where an air-traffic controller intervened on an aircraft's route, even when there is no direct recording of this action.

  17. Fast and automatic depth control of iterative bone ablation based on optical coherence tomography data (United States)

    Fuchs, Alexander; Pengel, Steffen; Bergmeier, Jan; Kahrs, Lüder A.; Ortmaier, Tobias


    Laser surgery is an established clinical procedure in dental applications, soft tissue ablation, and ophthalmology. The presented experimental set-up for closed-loop control of laser bone ablation addresses a feedback system and enables safe ablation towards anatomical structures that usually would have high risk of damage. This study is based on combined working volumes of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Er:YAG cutting laser. High level of automation in fast image data processing and tissue treatment enables reproducible results and shortens the time in the operating room. For registration of the two coordinate systems a cross-like incision is ablated with the Er:YAG laser and segmented with OCT in three distances. The resulting Er:YAG coordinate system is reconstructed. A parameter list defines multiple sets of laser parameters including discrete and specific ablation rates as ablation model. The control algorithm uses this model to plan corrective laser paths for each set of laser parameters and dynamically adapts the distance of the laser focus. With this iterative control cycle consisting of image processing, path planning, ablation, and moistening of tissue the target geometry and desired depth are approximated until no further corrective laser paths can be set. The achieved depth stays within the tolerances of the parameter set with the smallest ablation rate. Specimen trials with fresh porcine bone have been conducted to prove the functionality of the developed concept. Flat bottom surfaces and sharp edges of the outline without visual signs of thermal damage verify the feasibility of automated, OCT controlled laser bone ablation with minimal process time.

  18. Waste gas radiation ignition control automatically%荒煤气自动放散点火控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迪; 钦仿仿; 张天一


    介绍了西门子 S7—200PLC 在荒煤气自动放散点火控制系统中的应用,对其工作原理、过程、装置进行详细说明,通过 PLC 的控制对剩余煤气进行合理处理,保障管网压力的安全。本系统采用 Smart 作为编程工具,用 WinCC 软件组态相应的画面。%This paper introduces the Siemens S7 - 200 PLC in the automatic waste gas radiation ignition control system, the appli-cation of the detailed description of working principle, process, equipment, through the PLC control processing the residual gas in a reasonable manner, guarantee the safety of the pipeline pressure. This system adopts Smart as a programming tool, use WinCC software configuration of the corresponding picture.

  19. Aircraft automatic digital flight control system with inversion of the model in the feed-forward path (United States)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.


    A full-flight-envelope automatic trajectory control system concept is being investigated at Ames Research Center. This concept was developed for advanced aircraft configurations with severe nonlinear characteristics. A feature of the system is an inverse of the complete nonlinear aircraft model as part of the feed-forward control path. Simulation and flight tests have been reported at previous Digital Avionics Systems conferences. A new method for the continuous real-time inversion of the aircraft model using a Newton-Raphson trim algorithm instead of the original inverse table look-up procedure has been developed. The results of a simulation study of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing aircraft using the new inversion technique are presented. Maneuvers were successfully carried out in all directions in the vertical-attitude hover mode. Transition runs from conventional flight through the region of lift-curve-slope reversal at an angle of attack of about 32 deg and to hover at zero speed in the vertical attitude showed satisfactory transient response. Simulations were also conducted in conventional flight at high subsonic speed in steep climb and with turns up to 4 g. Successful flight tests of the system with the new model-inversion technique in a UH-1H helicopter have recently been carried out.

  20. Flight test results for the Digital Integrated Automatic Landing Systems (DIALS): A modern control full-state feedback design (United States)

    Hueschen, R. M.


    The Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS) is discussed. The DIALS is a modern control theory design performing all the maneuver modes associated with current autoland systems: localizer capture and track, glideslope capture and track, decrab, and flare. The DIALS is an integrated full-state feedback system which was designed using direct-digital methods. The DIALS uses standard aircraft sensors and the digital Microwave Landing System (MLS) signals as measurements. It consists of separately designed longitudinal and lateral channels although some cross-coupling variables are fed between channels for improved state estimates and trajectory commands. The DIALS was implemented within the 16-bit fixed-point flight computers of the ATOPS research aircraft, a small twin jet commercial transport outfitted with a second research cockpit and a fly-by-wire system. The DIALS became the first modern control theory design to be successfully flight tested on a commercial-type aircraft. Flight tests were conducted in late 1981 using a wide coverage MLS on Runway 22 at Wallops Flight Center. All the modes were exercised including the capture and track of steep glidescopes up to 5 degrees.

  1. Design of automatic control system for the precipitation of bromelain from the extract of pineapple wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Vasconcelos da Silva


    Full Text Available In this work, bromelain was recovered from ground pineapple stem and rind by means of precipitation with alcohol at low temperature. Bromelain is the name of a group of powerful protein-digesting, or proteolytic, enzymes that are particularly useful for reducing muscle and tissue inflammation and as a digestive aid. Temperature control is crucial to avoid irreversible protein denaturation and consequently to improve the quality of the enzyme recovered. The process was carried out alternatively in two fed-batch pilot tanks: a glass tank and a stainless steel tank. Aliquots containing 100 mL of pineapple aqueous extract were fed into the tank. Inside the jacketed tank, the protein was exposed to unsteady operating conditions during the addition of the precipitating agent (ethanol 99.5% because the dilution ratio "aqueous extract to ethanol" and heat transfer area changed. The coolant flow rate was manipulated through a variable speed pump. Fine tuned conventional and adaptive PID controllers were on-line implemented using a fieldbus digital control system. The processing performance efficiency was enhanced and so was the quality (enzyme activity of the product.

  2. Effectiveness of a Multidimensional Randomized Control Intervention to Reduce Quartz Exposure Among Construction Workers. (United States)

    van Deurssen, Erik; Meijster, Tim; Oude Hengel, Karen M; Boessen, Ruud; Spaan, Suzanne; Tielemans, Erik; Heederik, Dick; Pronk, Anjoeka


    There is little evidence with respect to the effectiveness of intervention programs that focus on the reduction of occupational quartz exposure in the construction industry. This article evaluates the effectiveness of a multidimensional intervention which was aimed at reducing occupational quartz exposure among construction workers by increasing the use of technical control measures. Eight companies participating in the cluster randomized controlled trial were randomly allocated to the intervention (four companies) or control condition (four companies). The multidimensional intervention included engineering, organizational, and behavioural elements at both organizational and individual level. Full-shift personal quartz exposure measurements and detailed observations were conducted before and after the intervention among bricklayers, carpenters, concrete drillers, demolishers, and tuck pointers (n = 282). About 59% of these workers measured at baseline were reassessed during follow-up. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to evaluate the intervention effect on exposure levels. Concrete drillers in the intervention group used technical control measures, particularly water suppression, for a significantly greater proportion of the time spent on abrasive tasks during follow-up compared to baseline (93 versus 62%; P quartz exposure (73 versus 40% in the intervention and control group respectively; P quartz exposure among high exposed construction workers.

  3. Use of a beat effect for the automatic positioning of flow obstructions to control tonal fan noise: Theory and experiments (United States)

    Gérard, A.; Berry, A.; Masson, P.; Moreau, S.


    Tonal noise generated by axial fans at the Blade Passage Frequency and its harmonics is a source of discomfort for low-speed fans used in many cooling and ventilation applications. The noise control approach presented here is based on the interference between the unsteady aerodynamic blade loads responsible for tonal noise generation and secondary aerodynamic loads generated in the rotor plane by fixed, carefully positioned, small obstructions in the upstream flow. Although not strictly active control, the magnitude and phase of the secondary tonal noise can be adjusted by varying the axial distance between the rotor and the obstruction, and the circumferential position of the obstruction, respectively. An optimal position of the obstruction generally exists, that minimizes the total noise at a given frequency. This paper establishes a practical method for automatic positioning of such control obstructions. In a first step, the method searches for the optimal axial distance between the rotor and the obstruction using a slowly rotating control obstruction. The modulation created by the rotation of the obstruction allows for the primary and secondary noises to be distinguished in the frequency response of the sound field. The steepest descent algorithm is used to find the optimal axial distance, for which the magnitudes of the primary and secondary tonal noise are equal at the error microphone. Then, the optimal angular position of the obstruction is obtained by slowly rotating the obstruction until minimal total noise is achieved. Finally, it is shown that at the optimal axial and angular position, the BPF tone, which produced the largest area in the loudness pattern, has been greatly reduced.

  4. New upper solution bounds for perturbed continuous algebraic Riccati equations applied to automatic control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Richard [School of Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, CF37 1DL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Peng Shi [School of Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, CF37 1DL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Wiltshire, Ron [School of Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, CF37 1DL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:


    In dynamical systems studies, the so-called Riccati and Lyapunov equations play an important role in stability analysis, optimal control and filtering design. In this paper, upper matrix bounds for the perturbation of the stabilizing solution of the continuous algebraic Riccati equation (CARE) are derived for the case when one, or all the coefficient matrices are subject to small perturbations. Comparing with existing works on this topic, the proposed bounds are less restrictive. In addition to these bounds, iterative algorithms are also derived to obtain more precise estimates.

  5. An innovative exercise method to simulate orbital EVA work - Applications to PLSS automatic controls (United States)

    Lantz, Renee; Vykukal, H.; Webbon, Bruce


    An exercise method has been proposed which may satisfy the current need for a laboratory simulation representative of muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses to work during orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The simulation incorporates arm crank ergometry with a unique body support mechanism that allows all body position stabilization forces to be reacted at the feet. By instituting this exercise method in laboratory experimentation, an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) thermoregulatory control system can be designed to more accurately reflect the specific work requirements of orbital EVA.

  6. Automatic Control System for the High Pressure CdTe Crystal Growth Furnace


    Petr Praus; Eduard Belas; Jiri Bok; Roman Fesh; Jan Franc; Pavel Hoschl


    CdTe and (CdZn)Te bulk single crystals have been widely used as substrates for MBE and LPE epitaxy of infrared (HgCd)Te as well as gamma- and X-ray detectors. The Cd1-xZnxTe (x = 0.04-0.1) single crystals with diameter up to 100 mm and height at most 40 mm were prepared in our laboratory in a vertical arrangement by gradual cooling of the melt (the Vertical Gradient Freezing method). Achievement of excellent crystal quality required full control of Cd pressure during the growth process and ap...

  7. Online Automatic Monitoring of Ambient Air Quality Control Technology Research%环境空气自动监测在线质控技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The automatic monitoring system for ambient air monitoring, to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the monitoring data. Online quality control technology innovation automatic detection system, which can maximize their potential in the monitoring of ambient air. This paper analyzes the necessity of quality control techniques and management methods automatic ambient air monitoring; quality control methods discussed online automatic monitoring of ambient air.%利用自动监测系统对环境空气进行监测,可保证监测数据的准确性和可靠性。利用在线质控技术不断革新自动检测系统,可使其在监测环境空气时发挥最大功效。分析了质控技术对环境空气自动监测的必要性和管理方法,探讨了环境空气自动监测的在线质控方式。


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva


    Full Text Available As products of high nutritional value can be used bakery products from a mixture of rye and wheat flour with the application of a grain of rye. Use whole grains assumes control of its quality according to organoleptic, physico-chemical and hygienic indices. Method of determining the color characteristics of grain scanner-metric method us-ing tablet scanner HP ScanJet 3570C with application of computer processing of images in RGB color mode is proposed. Application of the method to determine the color characteristics showed that rye, prepared in different ways, has different intensity of coloring, and the maximum intensity of the color components is observed at native grain.

  9. An Automatic Quality Control Pipeline for High-Throughput Screening Hit Identification. (United States)

    Zhai, Yufeng; Chen, Kaisheng; Zhong, Yang; Zhou, Bin; Ainscow, Edward; Wu, Ying-Ta; Zhou, Yingyao


    The correction or removal of signal errors in high-throughput screening (HTS) data is critical to the identification of high-quality lead candidates. Although a number of strategies have been previously developed to correct systematic errors and to remove screening artifacts, they are not universally effective and still require fair amount of human intervention. We introduce a fully automated quality control (QC) pipeline that can correct generic interplate systematic errors and remove intraplate random artifacts. The new pipeline was first applied to ~100 large-scale historical HTS assays; in silico analysis showed auto-QC led to a noticeably stronger structure-activity relationship. The method was further tested in several independent HTS runs, where QC results were sampled for experimental validation. Significantly increased hit confirmation rates were obtained after the QC steps, confirming that the proposed method was effective in enriching true-positive hits. An implementation of the algorithm is available to the screening community.

  10. DDF炉自动恒温控制系统设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Automatic Constant Temperature Control System for DDF Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    通过设计回转窑熟料烧成系统分解炉(DDF炉)自动恒温控制系统,提高系统的稳定性和可靠性.传统的DDF炉自动恒温控制系统的数据采集及温度控制单元采用有源晶振A/D时钟采样控制方法,导致基线漂移,恒温控制性能不好.提出一种基线漂移交流耦合控制的DDF炉自动恒温控制系统设计方法.在炉内温度离散采集的基础上,进行温度控制曲线拟合,设计基线漂移交流耦合控制的DDF炉自动恒温控制算法,实现对DFF炉温度控制的优化预测,进行硬件电路设计,实现对自动恒温控制系统设计和改进.仿真结果表明,该系统能有效避免恒温控制中的基线漂移,温度跟踪性能较好,具有较好的稳定输出,能有效应用在DDF炉恒温控制中.%The automatic constant temperature control system of the clinker burning system of rotary kiln (DDF) is designed, and the stability and reliability of the system are improved.. Traditional DDF furnace automatic constant temperature con-trol system of the data acquisition system and the temperature control unit using active crystal A/D sampling clock control method, resulting in the baseline drift and constant temperature control performance is not good. A design method of auto-matic constant temperature control system for DDF furnace is presented, which is controlled by the exchange and coupling of the baseline drift. In furnace based on discrete temperature acquisition, temperature control curve fitting and control de-sign baseline drift AC coupled DDF furnace automatic constant temperature control algorithm to achieve on DFF furnace temperature control optimization prediction, hardware circuit design and Realization of automatic constant temperature con-trol system design and improvement. The simulation results show that the system can effectively avoid the baseline drift in the constant temperature control, the temperature tracking performance is good, and has good stable output

  11. Automatic system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Menéndez Barrios


    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of infectious diseases transmission through blood transfusion is one of the biggest challenges in the transfusion field of medicine. Objective: to design a computerized system for blood donors control with seropositive results in epidemiological tests. Methods: A system designed by the Provincial Blood Bank using Microsoft Access as a data base system and DELFHI 7 as associated language. It runs under Windows 2000 or any other superior system with 64 RAM and do not need special requirements of software or hardware. It includes the following data: Full name, age, sex, race, Id number, home address, number of the clinical record in the blood bank, date when the trial took place in each patient, kind of disease diagnosed, technical data of the trial such as: fluorescence, sectional level of the 1st trial as well as the repetition, name of the technician who performed it. Results: It permits to consult general data of donors as well as the disease diagnosed. It also permits to elaborate reports of these patients from any PC of the blood bank acceding with the security password of the program. Conclusions: It constitutes a beneficial tool which permits to improve the notification system established in the program of the web about sexually transmitted diseases from the Minister of Public Health in Cuba.

  12. Fuzzy Controller for Automatic Steering in Heavy Vehicle Semi-Trailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Ruíz G.


    Full Text Available Los camiones con semi-remolques son ampliamente utilizados para el transporte de mercancías debido a su bajo costo de operación, sino inherentes a estos vehículos son algunos problemas como una mala maniobrabilidad. Para minimizar los efectos de esta desventaja, entre otras soluciones, la incorporación de ejes orientables en los semirremolques se ha propuesto. Este artículo presenta una ecuación de dirección, y un controlador de lógica difusa para un semi-remolque automático forzado sistema de dirección para reducir al mínimo el apagado de seguimiento y la anchura total en curva, lo que resulta en una mejora de la maniobrabilidad del vehículo a baja velocidad. Para lograr esto, el algoritmo de control propuesto considera el ángulo de articulación y parámetros tales como la velocidad y dirección del vehículo. El sistema se probó en un instrumentada experimental semi-remolque durante varias maniobras de prueba predeterminados.

  13. Design of Wireless Sensor Network-Based Greenhouse Environment Monitoring and Automatic Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxian Song


    Full Text Available  In view of the characteristics of greenhouse environment monitoring system, a system scheme based on wireless sensor network (WSN is presented, which adopts Atmega128L chip and CC2530 that is a low power RF chip from TI to design the sink node and sensor nodes in the WSN. The monitoring and management center can control the temperature and humidity of the greenhouse, measure the carbon dioxide content, and collect the information about intensity of illumination, and so on. And the system adopts multilevel energy memory. It combines energy management with energy transfer, which makes the energy collected by solar energy batteries be used reasonably. Therefore, the self-managing energy supply system is established. In addition, the nodes deployment method and time synchronization problem are analyzed in detail. The system can solve the problem of complex cabling with the advantages of low power consumption, low cost, good robustness, extended flexible and high reliability. An effective tool is provided for monitoring and analysis decision-making of the greenhouse environment.

  14. Controlled exposures of human volunteers to sulfate aerosols. Health effects and aerosol characterization. (United States)

    Avol, E L; Jones, M P; Bailey, R M; Chang, N M; Kleinman, M T; Linn, W S; Bell, K A; Hackney, J D


    Our laboratory has undertaken the study of possible acute adverse health effects of sulfate aerosols through controlled exposures of volunteer human subjects. Both healthy and asthmatic adult men were exposed for 2-hour periods (with intermittent exercise) to ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, and sulfuric acid of particle size distributions and concentrations intended to simulate "worst case" exposures during Los Angeles smog episodes. Lung function tests were performed by the subjects on entering and before exiting from a carefully controlled environmental chamber. Subject symptoms were evluated in a standardized manner. Aerosol concentrations and size distributions were determined by an on-line computer/aerometric monitoring system; gravimetric and chemical analyses were performed on impactor and total filter samples after test exposures. We found little or no evidence of adverse health effects from 2-hour multiple-day exposures to any of the compounds at "worst case" ambient concentrations.

  15. Comparison of dual-time-constant and fast-acting automatic gain control (AGC) systems in cochlear implants. (United States)

    Boyle, Patrick J; Büchner, Andreas; Stone, Michael A; Lenarz, Thomas; Moore, Brian C J


    Cochlear implants usually employ an automatic gain control (AGC) system as a first stage of processing. AGC1 was a fast-acting (syllabic) compressor. AGC2 was a dual-time-constant system; it usually performed as a slow-acting compressor, but incorporated an additional fast-acting system to provide protection from sudden increases in sound level. Six experienced cochlear-implant users were tested in a counterbalanced order, receiving one-month of experience with a given AGC type before switching to the other type. Performance was evaluated shortly after provision of a given AGC type and after one-month of experience with that AGC type. Questionnaires, mainly relating to listening in quiet situations, did not reveal significant differences between the two AGC types. However, fixed-level and roving-level tests of sentence identification in noise both revealed significantly better performance for AGC2. It is suggested that the poorer performance for AGC1 occurred because AGC1 introduced cross-modulation between the target speech and background noise, which made perceptual separation of the target and background more difficult.

  16. Modelling of occupational respirable crystalline silica exposure for quantitative exposure assessment in community-based case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Susan; Vermeulen, Roe; Portengen, Lutzen; Olsson, Ann; Kendzia, Benjamin; Vincent, Raymond; Savary, Barbara; Lavoue, Jerome; Cavallo, Domenico; Cattaneo, Andrea; Mirabelli, Dario; Plato, Nils; Fevotte, Joelle; Pesch, Beate; Bruening, Thomas; Straif, Kurt; Kromhout, Hans


    We describe an empirical model for exposure to respirable crystalline silica (RCS) to create a quantitative job-exposure matrix (JEM) for community-based studies. Personal measurements of exposure to RCS from Europe and Canada were obtained for exposure modelling. A mixed-effects model was elaborate

  17. Exposure control practices for administering nitrous oxide: a survey of dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants. (United States)

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L; Sweeney, Marie H


    Engineering, administrative, and work practice controls have been recommended for many years to minimize exposure to nitrous oxide during dental procedures. To better understand the extent to which these exposure controls are used, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted among members of professional practice organizations representing dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants. The anonymous, modular, web-based survey was completed by 284 dental professionals in private practice who administered nitrous oxide to adult and/or pediatric patients in the seven days prior to the survey. Use of primary engineering controls [i.e., nasal scavenging mask and/or local exhaust ventilation (LEV) near the patient's mouth] was nearly universal, reported by 93% and 96% of respondents who administered to adult (A) and pediatric (P) patients, respectively. However, adherence to other recommended precautionary practices were lacking to varying degrees, and were essentially no different among those administering nitrous oxide to adult or pediatric patients. Examples of work practices which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: not checking nitrous oxide equipment for leaks (41% A; 48% P); starting nitrous oxide gas flow before delivery mask or airway mask was applied to patient (13% A; 12% P); and not turning off nitrous oxide gas flow before turning off oxygen flow to the patient (8% A; 7% P). Absence of standard procedures to minimize worker exposure to nitrous oxide (13% of all respondents) and not being trained on safe handling and administration of nitrous oxide (3%) were examples of breaches of administrative controls which may also increase exposure risk. Successful management of nitrous oxide emissions should include properly fitted nasal scavenging masks, supplemental LEV (when nitrous oxide levels cannot be adequately controlled using nasal masks alone), adequate general ventilation, regular

  18. 基于 PLC的自动运料小车控制系统设计%Design of control system of automatic transporter car based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟霞; 李红艳; 朱婷; 刘红胜


      利用FX2N-32MR作为控制器,设计了运料小车的自动控制系统,对系统的软硬件进行了设计,仿真结果表明该系统可以有效控制运料小车到达预定位置,还可以进行自动装料和卸料,实现无人化操作。%In the paper, design the automatic control system of transporter car using FX 2N -32MR as controller .Design the hardware and software of the system .Simulation results show that this system can effectively control transporter car reaching scheduled position and feeding and unloading automatical -ly.And realize unmanned operation .

  19. System identification and automatic tuning of the controller in hydro power plants; Systemidentifikation und Reglerselbsteinstellung in Wasserkraftanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anz, R.


    In this work a method is presented to generate dynamic nonlinear models for speed and power controlled hydro Power plants. The models are identified automatically with measured data during operation. The models can be used for optimisation of the parameters of the controller. In this approach local linear neuro-fuzzy models are used. They seem very suitable for modelling nonlinear static and dynamic Systems. For a given set of measured data the structure and the parameters of the model are generated with the LOLIMOT-algorithm which is well known from literature. Several modifications of this algorithm are investigated during application on hydro power stations. Unfortunately not sufficient measured data from real power plants were available therefore theoretical models based on physical law and equations had to be used instead. The parameters for speed and power control are optimises using a global optimisation method. Other optimisation and design methods can be used and are discussed. The controllers which are optimised with the experimentally generated local linear neuro-fuzzy model are tested with the theoretical model. A clear improvement of the controller can be confirmed. (orig.) [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird ein Verfahren vorgestellt, mit dem dynamische Modelle von drehzahl- und leistungsgeregelten Wasserkraftanlagen aus gemessenen Betriebsdaten automatisch bestimmt werden koennen. Diese Modelle koennen fuer den Entwurf oder zur Optimierung von Reglerparametern herangezogen werden. Bei dem dynamischen Modell handelt es sich um ein lokal lineares Neuro-Fuzzy Netz. Dieser Ansatz ist geeignet, nichtlineare statische und dynamische Systeme abzubilden. Fuer einen gegebenen Satz gemessener Daten erfolgt die Modellerstellung weitgehend automatisch mit dem aus der Literatur bekannten LOLIMOT-Algorithmus. Verschiedene Varianten und Abaenderungen des Verfahrens werden am Beispiel von Wasserkraftanlagen in dieser Arbeit untersucht. Leider standen fuer die

  20. 室内温度自动控制系统的设计%Design of automatic control system of indoor temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    随着社会的发展和科技的进步,计算机技术在室内温度自动控制系统中得到了广泛的应用,人们越来越多地采用计算机技术来实现室内温度的自动控制。计算机技术的不断进步与创新,为计算机控制系统带来了巨大的变革,室内温度自动控制系统的设计也达到了一定的水平高度。本文对计算机控制系统进行了阐述,并介绍了一种室内温度自动控制系统,还对其系统应用进行了说明。%Along with the development of society and the progress of science and technology,automatic control in the indoor temperature system in computer technology has been widely used,more and more people use the computer technology to realize the automatic control of the room temperature.Continuous improvement and innovation of computer technology,has brought great changes to the computer control system,automatic control system design of the indoor temperature has reached a certain level.This paper discusses the computer control system,and introduces an automatic control system for the indoor temperature,but also to the application of system are described.

  1. Case-control study of bladder cancer in New Jersey. I. Occupational exposures in white males. (United States)

    Schoenberg, J B; Stemhagen, A; Mogielnicki, A P; Altman, R; Abe, T; Mason, T J


    The occupational bladder cancer risk for New Jersey white males was estimated with the use of both industry-job title-based and exposure-based analyses of data from 658 incident cases and 1,258 general population controls. The overall bladder cancer risk attributable to occupational exposures was estimated as 20-22%. A wide variety of employment categories and exposures contributed to this risk. Odds ratios were significantly high for employment as garage and gas station workers and food counter workers and/or cooks and for exposure to leather, rubber, paint, printing ink, and other organic compounds. Odds ratios for textile mill workers, chemical workers, and metal workers for the a priori high-risk employment category and odds ratios for those exposed to dyes, chlorinated compounds, and rubber showed significant differences between younger and older subjects. Bladder cancer risk associated with occupational exposures was not limited to persons with initial exposures before 25 years of age. However, there was significantly decreasing risk for bladder cancer with increasing age at first exposure for chemical workers and metal workers and for the a priori high-risk materials and metals. Drivers and/or deliverymen and miscellaneous laborers had significantly increasing bladder cancer risk with increasing duration of employment.

  2. Effect of Acute Noise Exposure on Salivary Cortisol: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Mehrdad, Ramin; Valipouri, Alireza


    Cardiovascular adverse effects are interesting aspects of occupational noise exposure. One possible mechanism of these effects is an alternation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Our aim was to measure salivary cortisol response to relatively high-intensity noise exposure in a controlled randomized trial study. We exposed 50 male volunteers to 90 dBA noise for 20 minutes and compared their level of salivary cortisol with 50 non-exposed controls. Salivary samples obtained before and after exposure. Before intervention means (SD) salivary cortisol level were 3.24 (0.47)ng/ml and 3.25 (0.41)ng/ml for exposed and non-exposed groups respectively. Mean salivary cortisol level increased to 4.17 ng/mlafter intervention in exposure group. This increment was statistically significant (P=0.00). Mean salivary cortisol level of the non-exposed group had statistically non-significant decrement after this period (0.2 ng/ml). The difference between salivary cortisol level of non-exposed and exposed groups after the intervention was statistically significant. Noise exposure may affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, and this may be one of the mechanisms of noise exposure cardiovascular effects.

  3. Evaluation and control of worker exposure to fungi in a beet sugar refinery. (United States)

    Jensen, P A; Todd, W F; Hart, M E; Mickelsen, R L; O'Brien, D M


    A study of worker exposure to airborne fungi was undertaken in a sugar beet refinery to evaluate the level of exposure and to determine if controls could be implemented that would lower these exposures. A previous study at this refinery identified one worker who reacted on challenge testing to the moldy but not the fresh sugar beet pulp, had specific Immunoglobulin G to Aspergillus niger, and specific Immunoglobulin E to Aspergillus. Also, two employees were diagnosed with occupational asthma. In the study reported here, two field surveys were conducted, the first during the sugar production campaign (January) and the second during postproduction cleanup and maintenance (June). Approximately 65 personal and area air samples were collected on polycarbonate filters and the culturable fungal spores were identified and enumerated. This study showed high exposure of pellet loaders and pellet silo workers to various species of Aspergillus. Other fungal species that might pose a health hazard were detected. Exposures to fungi during the postproduction cleanup and maintenance phase were much higher than those measured during the production campaign. Engineering controls that would reduce employee exposure are discussed.

  4. 汽车电控自动变速技术及发展趋势%Electronically Controlled Automatic Transmission Car Technology and its Development Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The electronically controlled automatic transmission to achieve the best shift, with good economic and sexual power, low-pollution; stable and reliable work, well adapted to complex traffic conditions and geographical conditions; no impact on the process of shifting and vibration, the shift action accurate, timely and easily manipulated; and has a fault self-diagnosis function. In this paper, electronically controlled automatic transmission type, the basic principles of composition and control, electronically controlled automatic transmission technology trends.%电子控制自动变速器能实现最佳的换档规律,具有良好的经济性和动力性,污染低;工作稳定可靠,能很好地适应复杂的交通情况和地理条件;换档过程无冲击和振动,换档动作准确、及时,操纵方便;且具有故障自诊断功能.介绍电控自动变速器的类型、基本组成和控制原理及电控自动变速技术的发展趋势.

  5. A simple control for sediment-toxicity exposures using the amphipod, Hyalella azteca. (United States)

    Lasier, Peter J; Urich, Matthew L


    Sediment-toxicity exposures comparing survival and growth of the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, are often components of aquatic-habitat assessments. Standardized exposure methods have been established and require evaluations for quality assurance. Test acceptability using performance-based criteria can be determined from exposures to control sediments, which are collected from the environment or formulated from commercially available components. Amending sand with leached alfalfa solids provided a simple formulated sediment that elicited consistently acceptable survival and growth in 28-day exposures with and without a daily feeding regime. A procedure is described for preparing the sediment along with results from comparisons among sand, amended sand, and field-collected sediments that incorporated three feeding regimes.

  6. Impact of the "Tobacco control law" on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorrilla Belén


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The initial evaluations of the introduction of legislation that regulates smoking in enclosed public places in European countries, describe an important effect in the control of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. However, the evidence is still limited. The objective of this study is to estimate the short-term effects of the comprehensive "Tobacco control law" introduced in Spain on January 2006, which includes a total ban of smoking in workplaces and a partial limitation of smoking in bars and restaurants. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based study. The self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home, at work, in bars and restaurants of the population aged 18 to 64 years in the Madrid Region during a period prior to the law (October and November 2005; n = 1750 was compared to that of the period immediately after the law came into force (January-July 2006; n = 1252. Adjusted odds ratios (OR were calculated using logistic regression models. Results Passive exposure to tobacco smoke at home has hardly changed. However, at indoor workplaces there has been a considerable reduction: after the law came into force the OR for daily exposure > 0–3 hours versus non-exposure was 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.17 and for more than 3 hours, 0.12 (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.18. For fairly high exposure in bars and restaurants versus non-exposure, the OR in the former was 0.30 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.44 and in the latter was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.32; for very high exposure versus non-exposure they were 0.16 (95% CI: 0.10 to 0.24 and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.19, respectively. These results were similar for the smoking and non-smoking populations. Conclusion A considerable reduction in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace and, to a lesser extent, in bars and restaurants, is related to the implementation of the "Tobacco control law". Although only initial figures, these results already demonstrate the effectiveness of

  7. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio


    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were analyzed for anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Data of meat workers were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of Leptospira exposure with the characteristics of meat workers was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 22 (17.7%) of 124 meat workers and in eight (6.5%) of 124 controls (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.33 - 7.33; P = 0.006). Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection was similar between male butchers (17.6%) and female butchers (18.2%) (P = 1.00). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, work and behavioral variables showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with duration in the activity, rural residence, and consumption of snake meat and unwashed raw fruits. Conclusions This is the first case-control study of the association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of meat worker. Results indicate that meat workers represent a risk group for Leptospira exposure. Risk factors for Leptospira exposure found in this study may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26858797

  8. 自动控制系统在制氢装置中的应用%The Automatic Control System in the Hydrogen Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Water electrolysis hydrogen production units part of the main task of the automatic control system when the device is running,the system pressure,temperature,level,current,replenishment automatic adjustment and control,in order to maintain the stability of the system;to maintain the normal operation of the device.%水电解制氢单元部分的自动控制系统主要任务是在装置运行时,对系统压力、温度、液位、电流、补水进行自动调节及控制,以保持系统的稳定;保持装置的正常运行。

  9. Automatic chemical monitoring in the composition of functions performed by the unit level control system in the new projects of nuclear power plant units (United States)

    Denisova, L. G.; Khrennikov, N. N.


    The article presents information on the state of regulatory framework and development of a subsystem for automated chemical monitoring of water chemistries in the primary and secondary coolant circuits used as part of the automatic process control system in new projects of VVER reactor-based nuclear power plant units. For the strategy of developing and putting in use the water chemistry-related part of the automated process control system within the standard AES-2006 nuclear power plant project to be implemented, it is necessary to develop regulatory documents dealing with certain requirements imposed on automatic water chemistry monitoring systems in accordance with the requirements of federal codes and regulations in the field of using atomic energy.

  10. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study. (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun


    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

  11. Planetary camera control improves microfiche production (United States)

    Chesterton, W. L.; Lewis, E. B.


    Microfiche is prepared using an automatic control system for a planetary camera. The system provides blank end-of-row exposures and signals card completion so the legend of the next card may by photographed.

  12. Engineering model of the electric drives of separation device for simulation of automatic control systems of reactive power compensation by means of serially connected capacitors (United States)

    Juromskiy, V. M.


    It is developed a mathematical model for an electric drive of high-speed separation device in terms of the modeling dynamic systems Simulink, MATLAB. The model is focused on the study of the automatic control systems of the power factor (Cosφ) of an actuator by compensating the reactive component of the total power by switching a capacitor bank in series with the actuator. The model is based on the methodology of the structural modeling of dynamic processes.

  13. Analysis of results obtained using the automatic chemical control of the quality of the water heat carrier in the drum boiler of the Ivanovo CHP-3 power plant (United States)

    Larin, A. B.; Kolegov, A. V.


    Results of industrial tests of the new method used for the automatic chemical control of the quality of boiler water of the drum-type power boiler ( P d = 13.8 MPa) are described. The possibility of using an H-cationite column for measuring the electric conductivity of an H-cationized sample of boiler water over a long period of time is shown.

  14. Solar Automatic Tracking Double Fuzzy Control System Based on ARM%基于ARM的太阳自动跟踪双模糊控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景艳; 李玉东; 杨晓邦


    针对太阳自动跟踪系统采用常规的PID控制器存在着跟踪精度低,超调量大等缺点,提出了一种基于ARM的太阳自动跟踪双模糊控制系统的设计方案;以32位ARM嵌入式微处理器为核心,采用光电跟踪和太阳运动轨迹跟踪相结合的混合跟踪模式;在光电跟踪模式下.采用模糊控制;在太阳运动轨迹跟踪模式下,采用模糊PID分段式控制,并依据光强的大小自动切换控制器;采用两个同样规格的太阳能电池板,分别采用固定安装和太阳自动跟踪系统测试太阳能电池板的采光强度;实验结果表明,该系统具有较高的跟踪精度,实现了对太阳全天候的跟踪,有效地提高了光电转换效率.%The solar automatic tracking system adopting the conventional PID controller has low tracking precision and big overshoot. The solar automatic tracking double fuzzy control system based on ARM is put forward. Embedded microcontroller 32-bit ARM processor is the core. A kind of mixed tracking mode is adopted, and it combines photoelectric tracking mode and solar trajectory tracking mode. The double fuzzy control method is presented, the fuzzy control method is adopted in photoelectric tracking mode, and in solar trajectory tracking mode, the fuzzy PID segmented tracking control method is put forward. And the controller can be automatically switched control mode according to light intensity. The fixed installation and the automatic tracking system are respectively used to test the solar panels daylighting strength. The experimental results show that the solar automatic tracking system is possessed of high tracking precision, realizes the sun round-the-clock tracking and effectively improves the photoelectric conversion efficiency.

  15. Automatic Web-Based, Radio-Network System To Monitor And Control Equipment For Investigating Gas Flux At Water - Air Interfaces (United States)

    Duc, N. T.; Silverstein, S.; Wik, M.; Beckman, P.; Crill, P. M.; Bastviken, D.; Varner, R. K.


    Aquatic ecosystems are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). Robust measurements of natural GHG emissions are vital for evaluating regional to global carbon budgets and for assessing climate feedbacks on natural emissions to improve climate models. Diffusive and ebullitive (bubble) transport are two major pathways of gas release from surface waters. To capture the high temporal variability of these fluxes in a well-defined footprint, we designed and built an inexpensive automatic device that includes an easily mobile diffusive flux chamber and a bubble counter, all in one. Besides a function of automatically collecting gas samples for subsequent various analyses in the laboratory, this device utilizes low cost CO2 sensor (SenseAir, Sweden) and CH4 sensor (Figaro, Japan) to measure GHG fluxes. To measure the spatial variability of emissions, each of the devices is equipped with an XBee module to enable a local radio communication DigiMesh network for time synchronization and data readout at a server-controller station on the lakeshore. Software of this server-controller is operated on a low cost Raspberry Pi computer which has a 3G connection for remote monitoring - controlling functions from anywhere in the world. From field studies in Abisko, Sweden in summer 2014 and 2015, the system has resulted in measurements of GHG fluxes comparable to manual methods. In addition, the deployments have shown the advantage of a low cost automatic network system to study GHG fluxes on lakes in remote locations.

  16. Emotional attentional control predicts changes in diurnal cortisol secretion following exposure to a prolonged psychosocial stressor


    Lenaert, Bert; Barry, Tom; Schruers, Koen; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk


    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis irregularities have been associated with several psychological disorders. Hence, the identification of individual difference variables that predict variations in HPA-axis activity represents an important challenge for psychiatric research. We investigated whether self-reported attentional control in emotionally demanding situations prospectively predicted changes in diurnal salivary cortisol secretion following exposure to a prolonged psychosocial str...

  17. Exposure to virtual social interactions in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampmann, I.L.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Hartanto, D.; Brinkman, W.P.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.; Morina, N.


    This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a stand-alone virtual reality exposure intervention comprising verbal interaction with virtual humans to target heterogeneous social fears in participants with social anxiety disorder. Sixty participants (Mage = 36.9 years; 63.3% women) d

  18. Association Between Toxoplasma gondii Exposure and Heart Disease: A Case-Control Study (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Salcedo-Jaquez, Misael; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Rabago-Sanchez, Elizabeth; Beristain-Garcia, Isabel; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Alvarado-Soto, Ediyair


    Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes infections all around the world. Infections with T. gondii are systemic and the parasite can persist in the heart muscle. Very little is known about the impact of T. gondii on patients with heart disease. We determined the association between T. gondii exposure and patients suffering from heart diseases attending in a public hospital in Durango, Mexico; the association of T. gondii exposure with socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics of these patients was also investigated. Methods Through a case-control study, we examined the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies in 400 patients with heart diseases and 400 age- and gender-matched controls using enzyme-linked immunoassays. In addition, we analyzed the association of patient characteristics as determined by a standardized questionnaire with T. gondii exposure by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Fifty-five (13.8%) of 400 patients and 32 (8.0%) of 400 controls had anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (odds ratio (OR) = 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15 - 2.90; P = 0.01). High anti-T. gondii IgG levels (> 150 IU/mL) were found in 28 (50.9%) of the 55 positive cases and in 14 (43.8%) of the 32 positive controls (P = 0.51). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 13 (23.6%) of the 55 anti-T. gondii IgG positive patients and in 19 (59.4%) of 32 anti-T. gondii IgG positive controls (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.08 - 0.54; P = 0.0008). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii exposure was positively associated with being born out of Durango State (OR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.40 - 6.13; P = 0.004), and with consumption of alcohol (OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.01 - 4.12; P = 0.04). Conclusions Results obtained in this study indicate that T. gondii infection is associated with heart disease, and suggest that heart disease might be related with a chronic infection. This is the first report of an association of T. gondii exposure with alcohol

  19. Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli John J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10 were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases and 1506 population based controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to fit statistical models. Results Based on conditional logistic regression modeling, the following factors independently increased the risk of NHL: farmer and machinist as long held occupations; constant exposure to diesel exhaust fumes; constant exposure to ionizing radiation (radium; and personal history of another cancer. Men who had worked for 20 years or more as farmer and machinist were the most likely to develop NHL. Conclusion An increased risk of developing NHL is associated with the following: long held occupations of faer and machinist; exposure to diesel fumes; and exposure to ionizing radiation (radium. The risk of NHL increased with the duration of employment as a farmer or machinist.

  20. Predicting automaticity in exercise behaviour: the role of perceived behavioural control, affect, intention, action planning, and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.J.; Gardner, B.; van Osch, L.; Sniehotta, F.F.


    Background Habit formation has been proposed as a way to maintain behaviour over time. Purpose Recent evidence suggests that constructs additional to repeated performance may predict physical automaticity, but no research has yet explored possible direct impacts of intention, planning, affect, and p