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Sample records for automatic differentiation package

  1. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. (comp.)

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  2. User Guide for MAD - A Matlab Automatic Differentiation Package, TOMLAB/MAD, Version 1.4 The Forward Mode.

    OpenAIRE

    Forth, Shaun A.; Edvall, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    MAD is a Matlab library of functions and utilities for the automatic differentiation of Matlab functions/statements via operator and function overloading. Currently the forward mode of automatic differentiation is supported via the fmad class. For a single directional derivative objects of the fmad class use Matlab arrays of the same size for a variable's value and its directional derivative. Multiple directional derivatives are stored in objects of the derivvec class allowi...

  3. New version announcement for TaylUR, an arbitrary-order diagonal automatic differentiation package for Fortran 95

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, G. M.

    2007-06-01

    We present a new version of TaylUR, a Fortran 95 module to automatically compute the numerical values of a complex-valued function's derivatives with respect to several variables up to an arbitrary order in each variable, but excluding mixed derivatives. The new version fixes a potentially serious bug in the code for exponential-related functions that could corrupt the imaginary parts of derivatives, as well as being compatible with a wider range of compilers. Program summaryTitle of program: TaylUR Catalogue identifier: ADXR_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXR_v2_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Programming language used: Fortran 95 Computer: Any computer with a conforming Fortran 95 compiler Operating system: Any system with a conforming Fortran 95 compiler No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6548 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 17 468 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADXR_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 174 (2006) 569-576 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: yes Distribution format:tar.gz Nature of problem: Problems that require potentially high orders of derivatives with respect to some variables or derivatives of complex-valued functions, such as, e.g., expansions of Feynman diagrams in particle masses in perturbative Quantum Field Theory. Solution method: Arithmetic operators and Fortran intrinsics are overloaded to act correctly on objects of a defined type taylor, which encodes a function along with its first few derivatives with respect to the user-defined independent variables. Derivatives of products and composite functions are computed using Leibniz's rule and Fàa di Bruno's formula. Reasons for the new version: The previous version [G.M. von Hippel, TaylUR, an arbitrary-order diagonal automatic differentiation package for

  4. Automatic Differentiation Variational Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Kucukelbir, Alp; Tran, Dustin; Ranganath, Rajesh; Gelman, Andrew; Blei, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic modeling is iterative. A scientist posits a simple model, fits it to her data, refines it according to her analysis, and repeats. However, fitting complex models to large data is a bottleneck in this process. Deriving algorithms for new models can be both mathematically and computationally challenging, which makes it difficult to efficiently cycle through the steps. To this end, we develop automatic differentiation variational inference (ADVI). Using our method, the scientist on...

  5. TMB: Automatic differentiation and laplace approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper; Nielsen, Anders; Berg, Casper Willestofte;

    2016-01-01

    TMB is an open source R package that enables quick implementation of complex nonlinear random effects (latent variable) models in a manner similar to the established AD Model Builder package (ADMB, http://admb-project.org/; Fournier et al. 2011). In addition, it offers easy access to parallel...... computations. The user defines the joint likelihood for the data and the random effects as a C++ template function, while all the other operations are done in R; e.g., reading in the data. The package evaluates and maximizes the Laplace approximation of the marginal likelihood where the random effects are...... automatically integrated out. This approximation, and its derivatives, are obtained using automatic differentiation (up to order three) of the joint likelihood. The computations are designed to be fast for problems with many random effects (approximate to 10(6)) and parameters (approximate to 10...

  6. Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms for Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Baydin, Atilim Gunes; Pearlmutter, Barak A.

    2014-01-01

    Automatic differentiation --- the mechanical transformation of numeric computer programs to calculate derivatives efficiently and accurately --- dates to the origin of the computer age. Reverse mode automatic differentiation both antedates and generalizes the method of backwards propagation of errors used in machine learning. Despite this, practitioners in a variety of fields, including machine learning, have been little influenced by automatic differentiation, and make scant use of available...

  7. Making automatic differentiation truly automatic : coupling PETSc with ADIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite its name, automatic differentiation (AD) is often far from an automatic process. often one must specify independent and dependent variables, indicate the derivative quantities to be computed, and perhaps even provide information about the structure of the Jacobians or Hessians being computed. However, when AD is used in conjunction with a toolkit with well-defined interfaces, many of these issues do not arise. They describe recent research into coupling the ADIC automatic differentiation tool with PETSc, a toolkit for the parallel numerical solution of PDEs. This research leverages the interfaces and objects of PETSc to make the AD process very nearly transparent

  8. Computer Corner: Automatic Differentiation and APL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidinger, Richard D.

    1989-01-01

    Described are several programs that enable the user to evaluate derivatives to order n of any elementary function by using the combination of automatic differentiation method and A Programming Language (APL). Programs calculating first- and higher-order derivatives are presented. Selected APL symbols are appended. (YP)

  9. Automatic Differentiation and its Program Realization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, J.; Lukšan, Ladislav; Zítko, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2009), s. 865-883. ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : automatic differentiation * modeling languages * systems of optimization Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2009 http://dml.cz/handle/10338.dmlcz/140037

  10. Automatic differentiation and lattice function matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although popularized in accelerator physics for the calculation of the Taylor coefficients of phase space maps, automatic differentiation is a generic and powerful technique applicable to any problem where fast and accurate evaluation of (usually first order) derivatives is needed. Problems requiring the evaluation of sensitivities with respect to parameters of a model or the minimization of an error function permeate applications in accelerator physics. The advent of languages with built-in support for operator overloading-such as C++-results in greatly simplified syntax and highly maintainable software. To illustrate this point in practice, we apply automatic differentiation techniques to linear lattice function matching, an important problem encountered in the context of designing insertions or transfer lines between accelerators

  11. DiffSharp: Automatic Differentiation Library

    OpenAIRE

    Baydin, Atilim Gunes; Pearlmutter, Barak A; Siskind, Jeffrey Mark

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce DiffSharp, an automatic differentiation (AD) library designed with machine learning in mind. AD is a family of techniques that evaluate derivatives at machine precision with only a small constant factor of overhead, by systematically applying the chain rule of calculus at the elementary operator level. DiffSharp aims to make an extensive array of AD techniques available, in convenient form, to the machine learning community. These including arbitrary nesting of forw...

  12. A taxonomy of automatic differentiation tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juedes, D.W. (Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-01-01

    Many of the current automatic differentiation (AD) tools have similar characteristics. Unfortunately, the similarities between these various AD tools often cannot be easily ascertained by reading the corresponding documentation. To clarify this situation, a taxonomy of AD tools is presented. The taxonomy places AD tools into the Elemental, Extensional, Integral, Operational, and Symbolic classes. This taxonomy is used to classify twenty-nine AD tools. Each tool is examined individually with respect to the mode of differentiation used and the degree of derivatives computed. A list detailing the availability of the surveyed AD tools is provided in the Appendix. 54 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Sensitivity analysis and design optimization through automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic differentiation is a technique for transforming a program or subprogram that computes a function, including arbitrarily complex simulation codes, into one that computes the derivatives of that function. We describe the implementation and application of automatic differentiation tools. We highlight recent advances in the combinatorial algorithms and compiler technology that underlie successful implementation of automatic differentiation tools. We discuss applications of automatic differentiation in design optimization and sensitivity analysis. We also describe ongoing research in the design of language-independent source transformation infrastructures for automatic differentiation algorithms

  14. Automatic differentiation for reduced sequential quadratic programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Liangcai; Li Jin; Tan Yuejin

    2007-01-01

    In order to slove the large-scale nonlinear programming (NLP) problems efficiently, an efficient optimization algorithm based on reduced sequential quadratic programming (rSQP) and automatic differentiation (AD) is presented in this paper. With the characteristics of sparseness, relatively low degrees of freedom and equality constraints utilized, the nonlinear programming problem is solved by improved rSQP solver. In the solving process, AD technology is used to obtain accurate gradient information. The numerical results show that the combined algorithm, which is suitable for large-scale process optimization problems, can calculate more efficiently than rSQP itself.

  15. Automatic differentiation: Obtaining fast and reliable derivatives -- fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischof, C.H.; Khademi, P.M.; Pusch, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.; Carle, A. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Center for Research on Parallel Computation

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, the authors introduce automatic differentiation as a method for computing derivatives of large computer codes. After a brief discussion of methods of differentiating codes, they review automatic differentiation and introduce the ADIFOR (Automatic DIfferentiation of FORtran) tool. They highlight some applications of ADIFOR to large industrial and scientific codes (groundwater transport, CFD airfoil design, and sensitivity-enhanced MM5 mesoscale weather model), and discuss the effectiveness and performance of their approach. Finally, they discuss sparsity in automatic differentiation and introduce the SparsLinC library.

  16. Hydrocode sensivities by means of automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project has been to provide sensitivities of results from an Eulerian hydrodynamics computer code (hydrocode) for use in design-optimization and uncertainty analyses. We began by applying an equation-based sensitivity technique used successfully in the early eighties that was applied to reactor-safety thermal-hydraulics problems, which is called Differential Sensitivity Theory (DST). The methodology is as follows: the system of partial differential equations (the forward or physical PDEs) is assembled, and differentiated with respect to the model parameters of interest; the adjoint equations are then determined using the inner-product rules of Hilbert spaces; and finally, the resulting adjoint PDEs are solved using straightforward numerical operators. The forward-variable solutions when needed for the adjoint solutions are provided by the original computer code that solves the physical (or forward) problem. In the present hydrocode application, acceptable results were obtained for one-material, one-dimensional problems. The DST results were then improved by means of ''compatible'' finite difference operators. We have seen, however, that DST techniques do not produce accurate values for sensitivities to all of the parameters of interest and for problems with discontinuities such as a multi-material problem. To obtain accurate sensitivities for arbitrary numerical resolution a more code-based approach was then tried. We attempted to apply automatic differentiation (AD) in the forward mode using Automatic Differentiation of Fortran (ADIFOR, version 2.0) and the Tangent-linear and Adjoint Model Compiler (TAMC) in the forward and adjoint modes. We were successful for one-dimensional problems in both modes but failed to obtain accurate sensitivities in the adjoint mode for two-dimensional problem. Here we present the successful results for two-dimensional problems in both the forward and adjoint modes using ADIFOR, version 3.0. In what follows, we

  17. Automatic differentiation based solution of strongly coupled problems in engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Hudobivnik, Blaž

    2016-01-01

    The doctoral thesis presents an approach for the formulation and solution of strongly coupled engineering problems with the finite element method using the automatic differentiation technique that the software tools AceGen and AceFEM enables. It has been shown that it is possible to transform arbitrarily weak form of differential equation of coupled problems into scalar function pseudo-potential. By using the automatic differentiation and appropriate exceptions in the differentiation pr...

  18. Automatic differentiation of melanoma and clark nevus skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeAnder, R. W.; Kasture, A.; Pandey, A.; Umbaugh, S. E.

    2007-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. Although melanoma accounts for just 11% of all types of skin cancer, it is responsible for most of the deaths, claiming more than 7910 lives annually. Melanoma is visually difficult for clinicians to differentiate from Clark nevus lesions which are benign. The application of pattern recognition techniques to these lesions may be useful as an educational tool for teaching physicians to differentiate lesions, as well as for contributing information about the essential optical characteristics that identify them. Purpose: This study sought to find the most effective features to extract from melanoma, melanoma in situ and Clark nevus lesions, and to find the most effective pattern-classification criteria and algorithms for differentiating those lesions, using the Computer Vision and Image Processing Tools (CVIPtools) software package. Methods: Due to changes in ambient lighting during the photographic process, color differences between images can occur. These differences were minimized by capturing dermoscopic images instead of photographic images. Differences in skin color between patients were minimized via image color normalization, by converting original color images to relative-color images. Relative-color images also helped minimize changes in color that occur due to changes in the photographic and digitization processes. Tumors in the relative-color images were segmented and morphologically filtered. Filtered, relative-color, tumor features were then extracted and various pattern-classification schemes were applied. Results: Experimentation resulted in four useful pattern classification methods, the best of which was an overall classification rate of 100% for melanoma and melanoma in situ (grouped) and 60% for Clark nevus. Conclusion: Melanoma and melanoma in situ have feature parameters and feature values that are similar enough to be considered one class of tumor that significantly differs from

  19. Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP) written as ordinary differential equations (ODE), differential algebraic equations (DAE) of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE), the latter solved using the method of lines appr...

  20. An efficient solution to Web server based automatic packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jian-ping; DING Xing-miao

    2004-01-01

    The manfully packaging the content of the web server for down loading is much inefficient.The paper introduced a Web server agent for packaging automitization, which makes self-organization of the content of the pages and free the site administrator from the heavy burden of the manually packaging the web pages downloaded by web browsers. An example was illustrated to show the details of the solution, which was implemented in J2EE architecture.

  1. Operator overloading as an enabling technology for automatic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. [Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Griewank, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-05-01

    We present an example of the science that is enabled by object-oriented programming techniques. Scientific computation often needs derivatives for solving nonlinear systems such as those arising in many PDE algorithms, optimization, parameter identification, stiff ordinary differential equations, or sensitivity analysis. Automatic differentiation computes derivatives accurately and efficiently by applying the chain rule to each arithmetic operation or elementary function. Operator overloading enables the techniques of either the forward or the reverse mode of automatic differentiation to be applied to real-world scientific problems. We illustrate automatic differentiation with an example drawn from a model of unsaturated flow in a porous medium. The problem arises from planning for the long-term storage of radioactive waste.

  2. Operator overloading as an enabling technology for automatic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. (Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States) Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Griewank, A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    We present an example of the science that is enabled by object-oriented programming techniques. Scientific computation often needs derivatives for solving nonlinear systems such as those arising in many PDE algorithms, optimization, parameter identification, stiff ordinary differential equations, or sensitivity analysis. Automatic differentiation computes derivatives accurately and efficiently by applying the chain rule to each arithmetic operation or elementary function. Operator overloading enables the techniques of either the forward or the reverse mode of automatic differentiation to be applied to real-world scientific problems. We illustrate automatic differentiation with an example drawn from a model of unsaturated flow in a porous medium. The problem arises from planning for the long-term storage of radioactive waste.

  3. Operator overloading as an enabling technology for automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an example of the science that is enabled by object-oriented programming techniques. Scientific computation often needs derivatives for solving nonlinear systems such as those arising in many PDE algorithms, optimization, parameter identification, stiff ordinary differential equations, or sensitivity analysis. Automatic differentiation computes derivatives accurately and efficiently by applying the chain rule to each arithmetic operation or elementary function. Operator overloading enables the techniques of either the forward or the reverse mode of automatic differentiation to be applied to real-world scientific problems. We illustrate automatic differentiation with an example drawn from a model of unsaturated flow in a porous medium. The problem arises from planning for the long-term storage of radioactive waste

  4. Radioisotope gage for automatic control of cotton wool package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of research work and in-service tests carried out on radiometric gages for on-line control in bandage industry. A special type of thickness gage based on beta absorption measurements restricts the weight fluctuations of ready cotton wool packages to less than +- 2 per cent. Economic effectiveness of the gage is evaluated

  5. Automatic differentiation, tangent linear models, and (pseudo) adjoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischof, C.H.

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides a brief introduction to automatic differentiation and relates it to the tangent linear model and adjoint approaches commonly used in meteorology. After a brief review of the forward and reverse mode of automatic differentiation, the ADIFOR automatic differentiation tool is introduced, and initial results of a sensitivity-enhanced version of the MM5 PSU/NCAR mesoscale weather model are presented. We also present a novel approach to the computation of gradients that uses a reverse mode approach at the time loop level and a forward mode approach at every time step. The resulting ``pseudoadjoint`` shares the characteristic of an adjoint code that the ratio of gradient to function evaluation does not depend on the number of independent variables. In contrast to a true adjoint approach, however, the nonlinearity of the model plays no role in the complexity of the derivative code.

  6. Nonlinear model predictive control using automatic differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Al Seyab, Rihab Khalid Shakir

    2006-01-01

    Although nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) might be the best choice for a nonlinear plant, it is still not widely used. This is mainly due to the computational burden associated with solving online a set of nonlinear differential equations and a nonlinear dynamic optimization problem in real time. This thesis is concerned with strategies aimed at reducing the computational burden involved in different stages of the NMPC such as optimization problem, state estimation, an...

  7. MassToMI - a Mathematica package for an automatic Mass Insertion expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Rosiek, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    We present a Mathematica package designed to automatize the expansion of QFT transition amplitudes calculated in the mass eigenstates basis (i.e. expressed in terms of physical masses and mixing matrices) into series of "mass insertions", defined as off-diagonal entries of mass matrices in Lagrangian before diagonalization and identification of the physical states. The algorithm implemented in this package is based on the general "Flavor Expansion Theorem" proven in Ref.~\\cite{FET}. The supplied routines are able to automatically analyze the structure of the amplitude, identify the parts which could be expanded and expand them to any required order. They are capable of dealing with amplitudes depending on both scalar or vector (Hermitian) and Dirac or Majorana fermion (complex) mass matrices. The package can be downloaded from the address www.fuw.edu.pl/masstomi.

  8. Automatic differentiation for PDES: Unsaturated flow case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F.; Bischof, C.; Griewank, A.; Wright, S.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Robey, T. (Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The techniques of automatic differentiation are applied to an example partial differential equation arising from the modeling of unsaturated flow. One common paradigm for the numerical solution to some classes of two-, three-, or higher-dimensional partial differential equations is as follows: Given a PDE and boundary conditions, apply finite difference or finite element approximations on some appropriate (frequently nonuniform) grid, and enforce an approximate solution by solving a nonlinear system F(u)=0 for the residual by Newton's method. The dimension of the nonlinear system F(u)=0 is proportional to the number of grid points. In current algorithms, the Jacobian J required by Newton's method is computed by some combination of hand coding, divided differences, matrix coloring, and partial separability. We present a case study documenting the steps we took in analyzing a code provided by Robey for modeling unsaturated flow in porous media. Our purpose was to compute J by automatic differentiation using ADOL-C, a tool for automatic differentiation using overloaded operators in C++.

  9. Automatic differentiation for PDES: Unsaturated flow case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F.; Bischof, C.; Griewank, A.; Wright, S.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Robey, T. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The techniques of automatic differentiation are applied to an example partial differential equation arising from the modeling of unsaturated flow. One common paradigm for the numerical solution to some classes of two-, three-, or higher-dimensional partial differential equations is as follows: Given a PDE and boundary conditions, apply finite difference or finite element approximations on some appropriate (frequently nonuniform) grid, and enforce an approximate solution by solving a nonlinear system F(u)=0 for the residual by Newton`s method. The dimension of the nonlinear system F(u)=0 is proportional to the number of grid points. In current algorithms, the Jacobian J required by Newton`s method is computed by some combination of hand coding, divided differences, matrix coloring, and partial separability. We present a case study documenting the steps we took in analyzing a code provided by Robey for modeling unsaturated flow in porous media. Our purpose was to compute J by automatic differentiation using ADOL-C, a tool for automatic differentiation using overloaded operators in C++.

  10. Clad — Automatic Differentiation Using Clang and LLVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, V.; Vassilev, M.; Penev, A.; Moneta, L.; Ilieva, V.

    2015-05-01

    Differentiation is ubiquitous in high energy physics, for instance in minimization algorithms and statistical analysis, in detector alignment and calibration, and in theory. Automatic differentiation (AD) avoids well-known limitations in round-offs and speed, which symbolic and numerical differentiation suffer from, by transforming the source code of functions. We will present how AD can be used to compute the gradient of multi-variate functions and functor objects. We will explain approaches to implement an AD tool. We will show how LLVM, Clang and Cling (ROOT's C++11 interpreter) simplifies creation of such a tool. We describe how the tool could be integrated within any framework. We will demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept prototype, called Clad, which is able to generate n-th order derivatives of C++ functions and other language constructs. We also demonstrate how Clad can offload laborious computations from the CPU using OpenCL.

  11. Post-convergence automatic differentiation of iterative schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach for performing automatic differentiation (AD) of computer codes that embody an iterative procedure, based on differentiating a single additional iteration upon achieving convergence, is described and implemented. This post-convergence automatic differentiation (PAD) technique results in better accuracy of the computed derivatives, as it eliminates part of the derivatives convergence error, and a large reduction in execution time, especially when many iterations are required to achieve convergence. In addition, it provides a way to compute derivatives of the converged solution without having to repeat the entire iterative process every time new parameters are considered. These advantages are demonstrated and the PAD technique is validated via a set of three linear and nonlinear codes used to solve neutron transport and fluid flow problems. The PAD technique reduces the execution time over direct AD by a factor of up to 30 and improves the accuracy of the derivatives by up to two orders of magnitude. The PAD technique's biggest disadvantage lies in the necessity to compute the iterative map's Jacobian, which for large problems can be prohibitive. Methods are discussed to alleviate this difficulty

  12. Automatic differentiation of codes in nuclear engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss our experience in applying automatic differentiation (AD) to calculations in nuclear reactor applications. The document is intended as a guideline on how to apply AD to Fortran codes with significant legacy components; it is also a part of a larger research effort in uncertainty quantification using sampling methods augmented with derivative information. We provide a brief theoretical description of the concept of AD, explain the necessary changes in the code structure, and remark on possible ways to deal with non-differentiability. Numerical experiments were carried out where the derivative of a functional subset of the SAS4A/SASSYS code was computed in forward mode with several AD tools. The results are in good agreement with both the real and complex finite-difference approximations of the derivative.

  13. Automatic differentiation of codes in nuclear engineering applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexe, M.; Roderick, O.; Utke, J.; Anitescu, M.; Hovland, P.; Fanning, T.; Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ.; Unv. of Chicago

    2009-12-01

    We discuss our experience in applying automatic differentiation (AD) to calculations in nuclear reactor applications. The document is intended as a guideline on how to apply AD to Fortran codes with significant legacy components; it is also a part of a larger research effort in uncertainty quantification using sampling methods augmented with derivative information. We provide a brief theoretical description of the concept of AD, explain the necessary changes in the code structure, and remark on possible ways to deal with non-differentiability. Numerical experiments were carried out where the derivative of a functional subset of the SAS4A/SASSYS code was computed in forward mode with several AD tools. The results are in good agreement with both the real and complex finite-difference approximations of the derivative.

  14. Optimized higher-order automatic differentiation for the Faddeeva function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Isabelle

    2016-08-01

    Considerable research efforts have been directed at implementing the Faddeeva function w(z) and its derivatives with respect to z, but these did not consider the key computing issue of a possible dependence of z on some variable t. The general case is to differentiate the compound function w(z(t)) = w ∘ z(t) with respect to t by applying the chain rule for a first order derivative, or Faà di Bruno's formula for higher-order ones. Higher-order automatic differentiation (HOAD) is an efficient and accurate technique for derivative calculation along scientific computing codes. Although codes are available for w(z) , a special symbolic HOAD is required to compute accurate higher-order derivatives for w ∘ z(t) in an efficient manner. A thorough evaluation is carried out considering a nontrivial case study in optics to support this assertion.

  15. Solving Differential Equations in R: Package deSolve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karline Soetaert

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the R package deSolve to solve initial value problems (IVP written as ordinary differential equations (ODE, differential algebraic equations (DAE of index 0 or 1 and partial differential equations (PDE, the latter solved using the method of lines approach. The differential equations can be represented in R code or as compiled code. In the latter case, R is used as a tool to trigger the integration and post-process the results, which facilitates model development and application, whilst the compiled code significantly increases simulation speed. The methods implemented are efficient, robust, and well documented public-domain Fortran routines. They include four integrators from the ODEPACK package (LSODE, LSODES, LSODA, LSODAR, DVODE and DASPK2.0. In addition, a suite of Runge-Kutta integrators and special-purpose solvers to efficiently integrate 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional partial differential equations are available. The routines solve both stiff and non-stiff systems, and include many options, e.g., to deal in an efficient way with the sparsity of the Jacobian matrix, or finding the root of equations. In this article, our objectives are threefold: (1 to demonstrate the potential of using R for dynamic modeling, (2 to highlight typical uses of the different methods implemented and (3 to compare the performance of models specified in R code and in compiled code for a number of test cases. These comparisons demonstrate that, if the use of loops is avoided, R code can efficiently integrate problems comprising several thousands of state variables. Nevertheless, the same problem may be solved from 2 to more than 50 times faster by using compiled code compared to an implementation using only R code. Still, amongst the benefits of R are a more flexible and interactive implementation, better readability of the code, and access to R’s high-level procedures. deSolve is the successor of package odesolve which will be deprecated in

  16. HEPMath 1.4: A mathematica package for semi-automatic computations in high energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebusch, Martin

    2015-10-01

    This article introduces the Mathematica package HEPMath which provides a number of utilities and algorithms for High Energy Physics computations in Mathematica. Its functionality is similar to packages like FormCalc or FeynCalc, but it takes a more complete and extensible approach to implementing common High Energy Physics notations in the Mathematica language, in particular those related to tensors and index contractions. It also provides a more flexible method for the generation of numerical code which is based on new features for C code generation in Mathematica. In particular it can automatically generate Python extension modules which make the compiled functions callable from Python, thus eliminating the need to write any code in a low-level language like C or Fortran. It also contains seamless interfaces to LHAPDF, FeynArts, and LoopTools.

  17. HEPMath: A Mathematica Package for Semi-Automatic Computations in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wiebusch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the Mathematica package HEPMath which provides a number of utilities and algorithms for High Energy Physics computations in Mathematica. Its functionality is similar to packages like FormCalc or FeynCalc, but it takes a more complete and extensible approach to implementing common High Energy Physics notations in the Mathematica language, in particular those related to tensors and index contractions. It also provides a more flexible method for the generation of numerical code which is based on new features for C code generation in Mathematica. In particular it can automatically generate Python extension modules which make the compiled functions callable from Python, thus eliminating the need to write any code in a low-level language like C or Fortran. It also contains seamless interfaces to LHAPDF, FeynArts, and LoopTools.

  18. SPOT: An R Package For Automatic and Interactive Tuning of Optimization Algorithms by Sequential Parameter Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Bartz-Beielstein, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The sequential parameter optimization (SPOT) package for R is a toolbox for tuning and understanding simulation and optimization algorithms. Model-based investigations are common approaches in simulation and optimization. Sequential parameter optimization has been developed, because there is a strong need for sound statistical analysis of simulation and optimization algorithms. SPOT includes methods for tuning based on classical regression and analysis of variance techniques; tree-based models such as CART and random forest; Gaussian process models (Kriging), and combinations of different meta-modeling approaches. This article exemplifies how SPOT can be used for automatic and interactive tuning.

  19. Parallel computation of automatic differentiation applied to magnetic field calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents a parallelization of an accelerator physics application to simulate magnetic field in three dimensions. The problem involves the evaluation of high order derivatives with respect to two variables of a multivariate function. Automatic differentiation software had been used with some success, but the computation time was prohibitive. The implementation runs on several platforms, including a network of workstations using PVM, a MasPar using MPFortran, and a CM-5 using CMFortran. A careful examination of the code led to several optimizations that improved its serial performance by a factor of 8.7. The parallelization produced further improvements, especially on the MasPar with a speedup factor of 620. As a result a problem that took six days on a SPARC 10/41 now runs in minutes on the MasPar, making it feasible for physicists at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to simulate larger magnets

  20. An automatic detection software for differential reflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Seniha Esen; Dubroca, Thierry; Hummel, Rolf E.; Gader, Paul D.

    2012-06-01

    Recent terrorist attacks have sprung a need for a large scale explosive detector. Our group has developed differential reflection spectroscopy which can detect explosive residue on surfaces such as parcel, cargo and luggage. In short, broad band ultra-violet and visible light is shone onto a material (such as a parcel) moving on a conveyor belt. Upon reflection off the surface, the light intensity is recorded with a spectrograph (spectrometer in combination with a CCD camera). This reflected light intensity is then subtracted and normalized with the next data point collected, resulting in differential reflection spectra in the 200-500 nm range. Explosives show spectral finger-prints at specific wavelengths, for example, the spectrum of 2,4,6, trinitrotoluene (TNT) shows an absorption edge at 420 nm. Additionally, we have developed an automated software which detects the characteristic features of explosives. One of the biggest challenges for the algorithm is to reach a practical limit of detection. In this study, we introduce our automatic detection software which is a combination of principal component analysis and support vector machines. Finally we present the sensitivity and selectivity response of our algorithm as a function of the amount of explosive detected on a given surface.

  1. AD Model Builder: using automatic differentiation for statistical inference of highly parameterized complex nonlinear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournier, David A.; Skaug, Hans J.; Ancheta, Johnoel;

    2011-01-01

    Many criteria for statistical parameter estimation, such as maximum likelihood, are formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem.Automatic Differentiation Model Builder (ADMB) is a programming framework based on automatic differentiation, aimed at highly nonlinear models with a large number of...

  2. Low rank approach to computing first and higher order derivatives using automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manuscript outlines a new approach for increasing the efficiency of applying automatic differentiation (AD) to large scale computational models. By using the principles of the Efficient Subspace Method (ESM), low rank approximations of the derivatives for first and higher orders can be calculated using minimized computational resources. The output obtained from nuclear reactor calculations typically has a much smaller numerical rank compared to the number of inputs and outputs. This rank deficiency can be exploited to reduce the number of derivatives that need to be calculated using AD. The effective rank can be determined according to ESM by computing derivatives with AD at random inputs. Reduced or pseudo variables are then defined and new derivatives are calculated with respect to the pseudo variables. Two different AD packages are used: OpenAD and Rapsodia. OpenAD is used to determine the effective rank and the subspace that contains the derivatives. Rapsodia is then used to calculate derivatives with respect to the pseudo variables for the desired order. The overall approach is applied to two simple problems and to MATWS, a safety code for sodium cooled reactors. (authors)

  3. DCGL v2.0: An R Package for Unveiling Differential Regulation from Differential Co-expression

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jing; Yu, Hui; Liu, Bao-Hong; Zhao, Zhongming; Liu, Lei; Ma, Liang-Xiao; Li, Yi-Xue; Li, Yuan-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Differential co-expression analysis (DCEA) has emerged in recent years as a novel, systematic investigation into gene expression data. While most DCEA studies or tools focus on the co-expression relationships among genes, some are developing a potentially more promising research domain, differential regulation analysis (DRA). In our previously proposed R package DCGL v1.0, we provided functions to facilitate basic differential co-expression analyses; however, the output from DCGL v...

  4. Pymanopt: A Python Toolbox for Manifold Optimization using Automatic Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, James; Koep, Niklas; Weichwald, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Manifold optimization is a method for (non-convex) optimization of an objective function, subject to constraints which are smooth, in the sense that the set of points which satisfy the constraints admits the structure of a differentiable manifold. While many optimization problems are of the described form, technicalities of differential geometry and the laborious calculation of derivatives pose a significant barrier for experimenting with manifold optimization techniques. We introduce Pymanop...

  5. Automatically activated stereotypes and differential treatment against the obese in hiring

    OpenAIRE

    Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2008-01-01

    This study provides empirical support for automatically activated associations inducing unequal treatment against the obese among recruiters in a real-life hiring situation. A field experiment on differential treatment against obese job applicants in hiring is combined with a measure of employers' automatic/implicit performance stereotype toward obese relative to normal weight using the implicit association test. We find a strong and statistically significant obesity difference in the correla...

  6. Stochastic Runge-Kutta Software Package for Stochastic Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Gevorkyan, M N; Korolkova, A V; Kulyabov, D S; Sevastyanov, L A

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the application of a technique of multistep processes stochastic models construction the range of models, implemented as a self-consistent differential equations, was obtained. These are partial differential equations (master equation, the Fokker--Planck equation) and stochastic differential equations (Langevin equation). However, analytical methods do not always allow to research these equations adequately. It is proposed to use the combined analytical and numerical approach studying these equations. For this purpose the numerical part is realized within the framework of symbolic computation. It is recommended to apply stochastic Runge--Kutta methods for numerical study of stochastic differential equations in the form of the Langevin. Under this approach, a program complex on the basis of analytical calculations metasystem Sage is developed. For model verification logarithmic walks and Black--Scholes two-dimensional model are used. To illustrate the stochastic "predator--prey" type model is us...

  7. A Maple Package for the Painlevé Test of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐桂琼; 李志斌

    2003-01-01

    A Maple package, named PLtest, is presented to study whether or not nonlinear partial differential equations the standard WTC algorithm and the Kruskal simplification algorithm. Therefore, we not only study whether the given PDEs pass the test or not, but also obtain its truncated expansion form related to some integrability properties. Several well-known nonlinear models with physical interests illustrate the effectiveness of this package.

  8. Automatic differentiation tools in the dynamic simulation of chemical engineering processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Differentiation is a relatively recent technique developed for the differentiation of functions applicable directly to the source code to compute the function written in standard programming languages. That technique permits the automatization of the differentiation step, crucial for dynamic simulation and optimization of processes. The values for the derivatives obtained with AD are exact (to roundoff. The theoretical exactness of the AD comes from the fact that it uses the same rules of differentiation as in differential calculus, but these rules are applied to an algorithmic specification of the function rather than to a formula. The main purpose of this contribution is to discuss the impact of Automatic Differentiation in the field of dynamic simulation of chemical engineering processes. The influence of the differentiation technique on the behavior of the integration code, the performance of the generated code and the incorporation of AD tools in consistent initialization tools are discussed from the viewpoint of dynamic simulation of typical models in chemical engineering.

  9. MOL1D: a general purpose subroutine package for the numerical solution of partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOL1D is a FORTRAN subroutine package for the method of lines solution for systems of initial-boundary-value partial differential equations in one space dimension. Using the package, a programer with limited experience in numerical analysis can accurately solve linear and nonlinear hyperbolic equations with or without discontinuities, linear and nonlinear parabolic equations (including those arising in reaction-diffusion equations), and elliptic boundary-value problems when posed as the stable time-independent solution of a parabolic equation. Systems are handled as easily as single equations, and a wide variety of boundary conditions can be accommodated, including most that arise in applications. The major advantage of the package is that initial-value problems can be solved accurately with a minimum of programing effort and with moderate computer cost. 4 figures, 1 table

  10. Automatic differentiation of u- and n-serrated patterns in direct immunofluorescence images

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Chenyu; Guo, Jiapan; Azzopardi, George; Meijer, Joost; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Petkov, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a subepidermal autoimmune blistering disease of the skin. Manual u- and n-serrated patterns analysis in direct immunofluorescence (DIF) images is used in medical practice to differentiate EBA from other forms of pemphigoid. The manual analysis of serration patterns in DIF images is very challenging, mainly due to noise and lack of training of the immunofluorescence (IF) microscopists. There are no automatic techniques to distinguish these two types of ...

  11. Algorithms and design for a second-order automatic differentiation module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abate, J. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Texas Inst. for Computational and Applied Mathematics; Bischof, C.; Roh, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.; Carle, A. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Center for Research on Parallel Computation

    1997-07-01

    This article describes approaches to computing second-order derivatives with automatic differentiation (AD) based on the forward mode and the propagation of univariate Taylor series. Performance results are given that show the speedup possible with these techniques relative to existing approaches. The authors also describe a new source transformation AD module for computing second-order derivatives of C and Fortran codes and the underlying infrastructure used to create a language-independent translation tool.

  12. CompHEP - Specialized package for automatic calculations of elementary particle decays and collisions

    OpenAIRE

    E.E. Boos; Dubinin, M. N.; Ilyin, V. A.; Pukhov, A. E.; Savrin, V. I.

    1995-01-01

    At present time when a new generation of TeV colliders are beginning to operate one needs to calculate cross-sections for a great number of various reactions. Such calculations are united in the framework of the collider physical program, providing definite predictions how to detect the signatures of the new physics and separate them from the background. The CompHEP package was created for calculation of decay and high energy collision processes of elementary particles in the lowest order (tr...

  13. DNAD, a simple tool for automatic differentiation of Fortran codes using dual numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenbin; Blair, Maxwell

    2013-05-01

    DNAD (dual number automatic differentiation) is a simple, general-purpose tool to automatically differentiate Fortran codes written in modern Fortran (F90/ 95/2003) or legacy codes written in previous version of the Fortran language. It implements the forward mode of automatic differentiation using the arithmetic of dual numbers and the operator overloading feature of F90/ 95/2003. Very minimum changes of the source codes are needed to compute the first derivatives of Fortran programs. The advantages of DNAD in comparison to other existing similar computer codes are its programming simplicity, extensibility, and computational efficiency. Specifically, DNAD is more accurate and efficient than the popular complex-step approximation. Several examples are used to demonstrate its applications and advantages. Program summaryProgram title: DNAD Catalogue identifier: AEOS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3922 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 18 275 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90/95/2003. Computer: All computers with a modern FORTRAN compiler. Operating system: All platforms with a modern FORTRAN compiler. Classification: 4.12, 6.2. Nature of problem: Derivatives of outputs with respect to inputs of a Fortran code are often needed in physics, chemistry, and engineering. The author of the analysis code may no longer be available and the user may not have a deep knowledge of the code. Thus a simple tool is necessary to automatically differentiate the code with very minimum change to the source codes. This can be achieved using dual number arithmetic and operator overloading. Solution method: A new data type is defined with the first scalar

  14. Efficient calculation of Jacobian and adjoint vector products in the wave propagational inverse problem using automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wave propagational inverse problems arise in several applications including medical imaging and geophysical exploration. In these problems, one is interested in obtaining the parameters describing the medium from its response to excitations. The problems are characterized by their large size, and by the hyperbolic equation which models the physical phenomena. The inverse problems are often posed as a nonlinear data-fitting where the unknown parameters are found by minimizing the misfit between the predicted data and the actual data. In order to solve the problem numerically using a gradient-type approach, one must calculate the action of the Jacobian and its adjoint on a given vector. In this paper, the authors explore the use of automatic differentiation (AD) to develop codes that perform these calculations. They show that by exploiting structure at 2 scales, they can arrive at a very efficient code whose main components are produced by AD. In the first scale they exploit the time-stepping nature of the hyperbolic solver by using the Extended Jacobian framework. In the second (finer) scale, they exploit the finite difference stencil in order to make explicit use of the sparsity in the dependence of the output variables to the input variables. The main ideas in this work are illustrated with a simpler, one-dimensional version of the problem. Numerical results are given for both one- and two-dimensional problems. They present computational templates that can be used in conjunction with optimization packages to solve the inverse problem

  15. Application of automatic differentiation for the simulation of nonisothermal, multiphase flow in geothermal reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulation of nonisothermal, multiphase flow through fractured geothermal reservoirs involves the solution of a system of strongly nonlinear algebraic equations. The Newton-Raphson method used to solve such a nonlinear system of equations requires the evaluation of a Jacobian matrix. In this paper we discuss automatic differentiation (AD) as a method for analytically computing the Jacobian matrix of derivatives. Robustness and efficiency of the AD-generated derivative codes are compared with a conventional derivative computation approach based on first-order finite differences

  16. A multigrid preconditioner and automatic differentiation for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the efficient solution of non-equilibrium radiation diffusion problems. An implicit time discretization leads to the solution of systems of non-linear equations which couple radiation energy and material temperature. We consider the implicit Euler method, the mid-point scheme, the two-step backward differentiation formula, and a two-stage implicit Runge-Kutta method for time discretization. We employ a Newton-Krylov method in the solution of arising non-linear problems. We describe the computation of the Jacobian matrix for Newton's method using automatic differentiation based on the operator overloading in Fortran 90. For GMRES iterations, we propose a simple multigrid preconditioner applied directly to the coupled linearized problems. We demonstrate the efficiency and scalability of the proposed solution procedure by solving one-dimensional and two-dimensional model problems

  17. TaylUR 3, a multivariate arbitrary-order automatic differentiation package for Fortran 95

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, G. M.

    2010-03-01

    This new version of TaylUR is based on a completely new core, which now is able to compute the numerical values of all of a complex-valued function's partial derivatives up to an arbitrary order, including mixed partial derivatives. New version program summaryProgram title: TaylUR Catalogue identifier: ADXR_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXR_v3_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GPLv2 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6750 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 19 162 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 95 Computer: Any computer with a conforming Fortran 95 compiler Operating system: Any system with a conforming Fortran 95 compiler Classification: 4.12, 4.14 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADXR_v2_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 176 (2007) 710 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Problems that require potentially high orders of partial derivatives with respect to several variables or derivatives of complex-valued functions, such as e.g. momentum or mass expansions of Feynman diagrams in perturbative QFT, and which previous versions of this TaylUR [1,2] cannot handle due to their lack of support for mixed partial derivatives. Solution method: Arithmetic operators and Fortran intrinsics are overloaded to act correctly on objects of a defined type taylor, which encodes a function along with its first few partial derivatives with respect to the user-defined independent variables. Derivatives of products and composite functions are computed using multivariate forms [3] of Leibniz's rule D(fg)=∑{ν!}/{μ!(μ-ν)!}DfDg where ν=(ν,…,ν), |ν|=∑j=1dν, ν!=∏j=1dν!, Df=∂f/(∂x⋯∂x), and μ0,0related extension to the functionality of the module is the HESSIAN function that returns the Hessian matrix of second derivatives of its argument. Since the calculation of all mixed partial derivatives can be very costly, and in many cases only some subset is actually needed, a masking facility has been added. Calling the subroutine DEACTIVATE_DERIVATIVE with a multiindex as an argument will deactivate the calculation of the partial derivative belonging to that multiindex, and of all partial derivatives it can feed into. Similarly, calling the subroutine ACTIVATE_DERIVATIVE will activate the calculation of the partial derivative belonging to its argument, and of all partial derivatives that can feed into it. Moreover, it is possible to turn off the computation of mixed derivatives altogether by setting Diagonal_taylors to .TRUE.. It should be noted that any change of Diagonal_taylors or Taylor_order invalidates all existing taylor objects. To aid the better integration of TaylUR into the HPSrc library [4], routines SET_DERIVATIVE and SET_ALL_DERIVATIVES are provided as a means of manually constructing a taylor object with given derivatives. Restrictions: Memory and CPU time constraints may restrict the number of variables and Taylor expansion order that can be achieved. Loss of numerical accuracy due to cancellation may become an issue at very high orders. Unusual features: These are the same as in previous versions, but are enumerated again here for clarity. The complex conjugation operation assumes all independent variables to be real. The functions REAL and AIMAG do not convert to real type, but return a result of type taylor (with the real/imaginary part of each derivative taken) instead. The user-defined functions VALUE, REALVALUE and IMAGVALUE, which return the value of a taylor object as a complex number, and the real and imaginary part of this value, respectively, as a real number are also provided. Fortran 95 intrinsics that are defined only for arguments of real type ( ACOS, AINT, ANINT, ASIN, ATAN, ATAN2, CEILING, DIM, FLOOR, INT, LOG10, MAX, MAXLOC, MAXVAL, MIN, MINLOC, MINVAL, MOD, MODULO, NINT, SIGN) will silently take the real part of taylor-value

  18. Differential Evolution for Optimization of PID Gains in Automatic Generation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. L.D. Arya,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Automatic generation control (AGC of a multi area power system provides power demand signals for AGC power generators to control frequency and tie-line power flow due to the large load changes or other disturbances. Occurrence of large megawatt imbalance causes large frequency deviations from its nominal value which may be a threat to secure operation of power system. To avoid such situation,emergency control to maintain the system frequency using differential evolution (DE based proportionalintegral- derivative (PID controller is proposed in this paper. DE is one of the most powerful stochastic real parameter optimization in current use. DE based optimum gains give better optimal transient response of frequency and tie line power changes compared to particle swarm optimization based gains.

  19. Uncertainty Calculation of Roundness Assessment by Automatic Differentiation in Coordinate Metrology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-chun LIN; Michael Krystek; Zhao-yao SHI

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs) are widely used to measure roundness errors. Roundness is calculated from a large number of points collected from the profiles of the parts. According to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), all measurement results must have a stated uncertainty associated the them. However, no CMMs give the uncertainty value of the roundness, because no suitable measurement uncertainty calculation procedure exists. In the case of roundness measurement in coordinate metrology, this paper suggests the algorithms for the calculation of the measurement uncertainty of the roundness deviation based on the two mainly used association criteria, LSC and MZC. The calculation of the sensitivity coefficients for the uncertainty calculation can be done by automatic differentiation, in order to avoid introducing additional errors by the traditional difference quotient approximations. The proposed methods are exact and need input data only as the measured coordinates of the data points and their associated uncertainties.

  20. An inverse radiative transfer model of the vegetation canopy based on automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an inverse model of radiation transfer processes occurring in the solar domain in vegetation plant canopies. It uses a gradient method to minimize the misfit between model simulation and observed radiant fluxes plus the deviation from prior information on the unknown model parameters. The second derivative of the misfit approximates uncertainty ranges for the estimated model parameters. In a second step, uncertainties are propagated from parameters to simulated radiant fluxes via the model's first derivative. All derivative information is provided by a highly efficient code generated via automatic differentiation of the radiative transfer code. The paper further derives and evaluates an approach for avoiding secondary minima of the misfit. The approach exploits the smooth dependence of the solution on the observations, and relies on a database of solutions for a discretized version of the observation space

  1. Automatic Detection of Exudates in Retinal Fundus Images using Differential Morphological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Tripathi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automatic method for exudate detection from colour fundus imagesbased on Differential Morphological Profile (DMP.The detection of exudates is important for the identification of eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. The method involves of three main phases. Inthe first phase, pre processing tasks like Gaussian smoothing and contrast enhancement is done. In the second phase, DMP is applied on the pre-processed image. The image obtained from DMP containshighlighted bright regions consisting of exudates and optic disc. In the next phase, feature extraction based on location of optic disc, shape index and area is done to obtain actual exudates. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by applying it on the DIARETDB1 database. The specificity,sensitivity and PPV of the proposed method were compared with two other methods. The results showthat the proposed method gives better results than the other conventional methods.

  2. Efficient reliability estimate of passive thermal hydraulic safety system with automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach for efficient estimation of passive safety system functional reliability has been developed and applied to a simplified model of the passive residual heat transport system typical of sodium cooled fast reactors to demonstrate the reduction in computational time. The method is based on generating linear approximations to the best estimate computer code, using the technique of automatic reverse differentiation. This technique enables determination of linear approximation to the code in a few runs independent of the number of input variables for each response variable. The likely error due to linear approximation is reduced by augmented sampling through best estimate code in the neighborhood of the linear failure surface but in a sub domain where linear approximation error is relatively more. The efficiency of this new approach is compared with importance sampling MCS which uses the linear approximation near the failure region and with Direct Monte-Carlo Simulation. In the importance sampling MCS, variants employing random sampling with Box-Muller algorithm and Markov Chain algorithm are inter-compared. The significance of the results with respect to system reliability is also discussed.

  3. Changes in polymer foils used in food packaging tested by using differential scanning calorimetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Gajdoš Kljusurić

    2003-12-01

    This work is an experimental study of the differential scanning calorimetry characterisation of polymer materials used in food packaging materials, such as polypropylene (0.03 mm), polyethylene (0.1 and 0.03 mm), poly(D-(-)--hydroxybutyrate) (powder), two-layered polypropylene (0.064 mm), and two-layered polypropylene with poly-vinylidene-chloride (0.012/0.021). The polymer stability was checked by simulation of conditions during food preparation in microwave ovens, sterilisation or rapid freezing. The materials were tested in the temperature range from 40 to 200°C at different scan rates from 2 to 30° C min-1 during heating or cooling. The enthalpies show a high correlation coefficient (0.964) with scan rate. All samples undergo phase change in the temperature range from 107 to 173°C during heating and enthalpies are in the range from 31.8 to 71.1 J g−1 Upon subsequent cooling from 200°C, the temperature range of phase changes is shifted to lower temperatures from 86 to 102°C with enthalpies ranging from 30.4 to 57.8 J g−1. Experiments with exposure of polymers to microwave radiation and freezing prove that the phase change considering the temperature range is very similar in all experiments.

  4. An R package suite for microarray meta-analysis in quality control, differentially expressed gene analysis and pathway enrichment detection

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xingbin; Kang, Dongwan D.; Shen, Kui; Song, Chi; Lu, Shuya; Chang, Lun-Ching; Liao, Serena G.; Huo, Zhiguang; Tang, Shaowu; Ding, Ying; Kaminski, Naftali; Sibille, Etienne; Lin, Yan; Li, Jia; Tseng, George C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: With the rapid advances and prevalence of high-throughput genomic technologies, integrating information of multiple relevant genomic studies has brought new challenges. Microarray meta-analysis has become a frequently used tool in biomedical research. Little effort, however, has been made to develop a systematic pipeline and user-friendly software. In this article, we present MetaOmics, a suite of three R packages MetaQC, MetaDE and MetaPath, for quality control, differentially expre...

  5. LanHEP - A package for automatic generation of Feynman rules from the Lagrangian. Version 3.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, A.

    2016-04-01

    We present a new version 3.2 of the LanHEP software package. New features of the program include tools for the models with extra dimensions, implementation of the particle classes for FeynArts output, using templates with LanHEP statements, color sextet particles and new substitution techniques which allow to define new routines.

  6. Aerodynamic design applying automatic differentiation and using robust variable fidelity optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemiya, Tetsushi

    , and that (2) the AMF terminates optimization erroneously when the optimization problems have constraints. The first problem is due to inaccuracy in computing derivatives in the AMF, and the second problem is due to erroneous treatment of the trust region ratio, which sets the size of the domain for an optimization in the AMF. In order to solve the first problem of the AMF, automatic differentiation (AD) technique, which reads the codes of analysis models and automatically generates new derivative codes based on some mathematical rules, is applied. If derivatives are computed with the generated derivative code, they are analytical, and the required computational time is independent of the number of design variables, which is very advantageous for realistic aerospace engineering problems. However, if analysis models implement iterative computations such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which solves system partial differential equations iteratively, computing derivatives through the AD requires a massive memory size. The author solved this deficiency by modifying the AD approach and developing a more efficient implementation with CFD, and successfully applied the AD to general CFD software. In order to solve the second problem of the AMF, the governing equation of the trust region ratio, which is very strict against the violation of constraints, is modified so that it can accept the violation of constraints within some tolerance. By accepting violations of constraints during the optimization process, the AMF can continue optimization without terminating immaturely and eventually find the true optimum design point. With these modifications, the AMF is referred to as "Robust AMF," and it is applied to airfoil and wing aerodynamic design problems using Euler CFD software. The former problem has 21 design variables, and the latter 64. In both problems, derivatives computed with the proposed AD method are first compared with those computed with the finite

  7. Building the Tangent and Adjoint codes of the Ocean General Circulation Model OPA with the Automatic Differentiation tool TAPENADE

    CERN Document Server

    Tber, Moulay Hicham; Vidard, Arthur; Dauvergne, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    The ocean general circulation model OPA is developed by the LODYC team at Paris VI university. OPA has recently undergone a major rewriting, migrating to FORTRAN95, and its adjoint code needs to be rebuilt. For earlier versions, the adjoint of OPA was written by hand at a high development cost. We use the Automatic Differentiation tool TAPENADE to build mechanicaly the tangent and adjoint codes of OPA. We validate the differentiated codes by comparison with divided differences, and also with an identical twin experiment. We apply state-of-the-art methods to improve the performance of the adjoint code. In particular we implement the Griewank and Walther's binomial checkpointing algorithm which gives us an optimal trade-off between time and memory consumption. We apply a specific strategy to differentiate the iterative linear solver that comes from the implicit time stepping scheme

  8. A candidate packaging signal of human rotavirus differentiating Wa-like and DS-1-like genomic constellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshiyuki

    2015-09-01

    Rotavirus A (RVA) possesses a genome of 11 segmented RNAs. In human RVA, two major genomic constellations are represented by prototype strains Wa and DS-1. Here packaging signals differentiating Wa-like and DS-1-like genomic constellations were searched for by analyzing genomic sequences of Wa-like and DS-1-like strains. One pair of 11 nucleotide sites in the coding regions of viral structural protein (VP) 2 and VP6 was found to be complementary specifically among Wa-like strains. These sites tended to be free from base-pairing in secondary structures of genomic segments, suggesting that they may serve as a packaging signal in Wa-like strains. PMID:26224654

  9. The routine leukocyte differential flow cytometry HematoFlow™ method: A new flagging system for automatic validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allou, Kaoutar; Vial, Jean-Philippe; Béné, Marie C; Lacombe, Francis

    2015-01-01

    The complete blood cell count and white blood cell differential are the first step in the biological diagnosis of hematological diseases. Both are currently performed by automated instruments which control data and produce alerts. If such flags are activated, the automated differential cannot be validated and the operator must activate a visual blood smear review. Microscopic examination is still today the reference method despite its lack of sensitivity and reproducibility. The HematoFlow™ (Beckman Coulter) system is the first flow cytometry commercialized method designed for the routine differential. Using six markers in five colors and an automated gating strategy, it provides differentials proven to be reliable for 17 leukocyte subpopulations detection. Relying first on a retrospective analysis of 6,462 blood samples processed by HematoFlow™, thresholds were determined to detect the presence of immature granulocytes and/or blast cells. All possible gating strategy misclassifications of leukocyte subpopulations were then summarized in a systematic nomenclature leading to the development of an original flag system based on the detection of aberrant localization of cell events in specific new bivariate histograms. Ultimately, more than 50% of the results could be automatically validated using the HematoFlow™ system, without any false negative, thereby dramatically contributing to an important decrease of technicians' workload. Moreover a noticeable help was given for smear review interpretation and new immunological flags led to the confirmation of blood disease after classical immunophenotyping. These results were confirmed in a second prospective study including 15,335 cases, where more than 50% of the results were automatically validated by this new flag system. MFC stands as being more and more essential for analyzing differentials in routine and this new flag system could greatly improve its implementation. PMID:25906976

  10. Population stochastic modelling (PSM)-An R package for mixed-effects models based on stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klim, Søren; Mortensen, Stig Bousgaard; Kristensen, Niels Rode;

    2009-01-01

    are often partly ignored in PK/PD modelling although violating the hypothesis for many standard statistical tests. This article presents a package for the statistical program R that is able to handle SDEs in a mixed-effects setting. The estimation method implemented is the FOCE1 approximation......)) (2005) 1247-1258; R.V. Overgaard, N. Jonsson, C.W. Tornoe, H. Madsen, Non-linear mixed-effects models with stochastic differential equations: implementation of an estimation algorithm, J. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn. 32 (February(1)) (2005) 85-107; U. Picchini, S. Ditlevsen, A. De Gaetano, Maximum...

  11. Bayesian Updating in the EEG : Differentiation between Automatic and Controlled Processes of Human Economic Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Hügelschäfer, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that economic decision makers often do not behave according to the prescriptions of rationality, but instead show systematic deviations from rational behavior (e.g., Starmer, 2000). One approach to explain these deviations is taking a dual-process perspective (see Evans, 2008; Sanfey & Chang, 2008; Weber & Johnson, 2009) in which a distinction is made between deliberate, resource-consuming controlled processes and fast, effortless automatic processes. In many cases, deviati...

  12. Tractor Mechanics. Maintaining and Servicing the Power Train, Learning Activity Packages 49-53; Maintaining and Servicing the Clutch, Learning Activity Packages 54-59; Maintaining and Servicing the Transmission and Differential, Learning Activity Packages 60-68; Maintaining and Servicing the Final Drive, Learning Activity Packages 69-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    This series of learning activity packages focuses on four areas of tractor mechanics: (1) maintaining and servicing the power train, (2) maintaining and servicing the clutch, (3) maintaining and servicing the transmission and differential, and (4) maintaining and servicing the final drive. Each of the twenty-nine illustrated learning activity…

  13. Population stochastic modelling (PSM)--an R package for mixed-effects models based on stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klim, Søren; Mortensen, Stig Bousgaard; Kristensen, Niels Rode; Overgaard, Rune Viig; Madsen, Henrik

    2009-06-01

    The extension from ordinary to stochastic differential equations (SDEs) in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is an emerging field and has been motivated in a number of articles [N.R. Kristensen, H. Madsen, S.H. Ingwersen, Using stochastic differential equations for PK/PD model development, J. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn. 32 (February(1)) (2005) 109-141; C.W. Tornøe, R.V. Overgaard, H. Agersø, H.A. Nielsen, H. Madsen, E.N. Jonsson, Stochastic differential equations in NONMEM: implementation, application, and comparison with ordinary differential equations, Pharm. Res. 22 (August(8)) (2005) 1247-1258; R.V. Overgaard, N. Jonsson, C.W. Tornøe, H. Madsen, Non-linear mixed-effects models with stochastic differential equations: implementation of an estimation algorithm, J. Pharmacokinet. Pharmacodyn. 32 (February(1)) (2005) 85-107; U. Picchini, S. Ditlevsen, A. De Gaetano, Maximum likelihood estimation of a time-inhomogeneous stochastic differential model of glucose dynamics, Math. Med. Biol. 25 (June(2)) (2008) 141-155]. PK/PD models are traditionally based ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with an observation link that incorporates noise. This state-space formulation only allows for observation noise and not for system noise. Extending to SDEs allows for a Wiener noise component in the system equations. This additional noise component enables handling of autocorrelated residuals originating from natural variation or systematic model error. Autocorrelated residuals are often partly ignored in PK/PD modelling although violating the hypothesis for many standard statistical tests. This article presents a package for the statistical program R that is able to handle SDEs in a mixed-effects setting. The estimation method implemented is the FOCE(1) approximation to the population likelihood which is generated from the individual likelihoods that are approximated using the Extended Kalman Filter's one-step predictions. PMID:19268387

  14. Integral valve provides automatic relief and remote venting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, R. F.

    1969-01-01

    In-line, pilot-operated, differential area, poppet type valve provides both automatic relief of a tank at a precise over-pressure and remote control of tank venting. Relief and vent operations are separate functions incorporated in an integral valve package.

  15. Automatic differentiation of u- and n-serrated patterns in direct immunofluorescence images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Chenyu; Guo, Jiapan; Azzopardi, George; Meijer, Joost; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Petkov, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a subepidermal autoimmune blistering disease of the skin. Manual u- and n-serrated patterns analysis in direct immunofluorescence (DIF) images is used in medical practice to differentiate EBA from other forms of pemphigoid. The manual analysis of serration pa

  16. The automatic solution of partial differential equations using a global spectral method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alex; Olver, Sheehan

    2015-10-01

    A spectral method for solving linear partial differential equations (PDEs) with variable coefficients and general boundary conditions defined on rectangular domains is described, based on separable representations of partial differential operators and the one-dimensional ultraspherical spectral method. If a partial differential operator is of splitting rank 2, such as the operator associated with Poisson or Helmholtz, the corresponding PDE is solved via a generalized Sylvester matrix equation, and a bivariate polynomial approximation of the solution of degree (nx ,ny) is computed in O ((nxny) 3 / 2) operations. Partial differential operators of splitting rank ≥3 are solved via a linear system involving a block-banded matrix in O (min ⁡ (nx3 ny ,nx ny3)) operations. Numerical examples demonstrate the applicability of our 2D spectral method to a broad class of PDEs, which includes elliptic and dispersive time-evolution equations. The resulting PDE solver is written in MATLAB and is publicly available as part of CHEBFUN. It can resolve solutions requiring over a million degrees of freedom in under 60 seconds. An experimental implementation in the JULIA language can currently perform the same solve in 10 seconds.

  17. The efficiency of geophysical adjoint codes generated by automatic differentiation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasenko, A. V.; Köhl, A.; Stammer, D.

    2016-02-01

    The accuracy of numerical models that describe complex physical or chemical processes depends on the choice of model parameters. Estimating an optimal set of parameters by optimization algorithms requires knowledge of the sensitivity of the process of interest to model parameters. Typically the sensitivity computation involves differentiation of the model, which can be performed by applying algorithmic differentiation (AD) tools to the underlying numerical code. However, existing AD tools differ substantially in design, legibility and computational efficiency. In this study we show that, for geophysical data assimilation problems of varying complexity, the performance of adjoint codes generated by the existing AD tools (i) Open_AD, (ii) Tapenade, (iii) NAGWare and (iv) Transformation of Algorithms in Fortran (TAF) can be vastly different. Based on simple test problems, we evaluate the efficiency of each AD tool with respect to computational speed, accuracy of the adjoint, the efficiency of memory usage, and the capability of each AD tool to handle modern FORTRAN 90-95 elements such as structures and pointers, which are new elements that either combine groups of variables or provide aliases to memory addresses, respectively. We show that, while operator overloading tools are the only ones suitable for modern codes written in object-oriented programming languages, their computational efficiency lags behind source transformation by orders of magnitude, rendering the application of these modern tools to practical assimilation problems prohibitive. In contrast, the application of source transformation tools appears to be the most efficient choice, allowing handling even large geophysical data assimilation problems. However, they can only be applied to numerical models written in earlier generations of programming languages. Our study indicates that applying existing AD tools to realistic geophysical problems faces limitations that urgently need to be solved to allow the

  18. Structural and evolutionary implications of the packaging of DNA for differentiation and proliferation in the lymphocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, J G; Brown, D L; Chaly, N; Greer, W L; Prasad, K V; Severini, A; Sahai, B M

    1987-01-01

    During the differentiation of the clonally distributed lymphocytes of mouse and man into mature resting B and T cells, their DNA becomes tightly packed into dense heterochromatin masses and exhibits very little transcriptional activity; it also becomes extensively nicked, containing some 3000-4000 single-strand breaks per diploid genome. The nuclear matrix is sparse and poorly organized and there are but trace amounts of the matrix-linked enzyme DNA topoisomerase II; the nucleus of these small cells is surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm. The resting cell can thus be considered (by analogy to a sperm cell) as a vector for transporting tightly packed and relatively inert genetic information to all parts of the body. When the lymphocyte is stimulated to enter a proliferative cycle by binding of appropriately presented antigen or mitogen to relevant membrane receptors, the cell enlarges, due to increased synthesis of protein; the dense heterochromatin is pulled out into very small clumps, as a result of an enormous growth in size as well as complexity of the nuclear matrix, and a great increase in transcriptional activity occurs. We have identified four nuclear matrix antigens that are very widely conserved in the evolution of eucaryotes and that occupy distinctive domains in interphase nuclei. Of particular interest is antigen P1, detected in organisms ranging from algae to mammals. By virtue of its location at the interface between nuclear envelope and chromatin, we propose that it plays a major and evolutionarily conserved role in chromatin organization and orientation in all eucaryotic cell types.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2834558

  19. Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-III Plus. User's manual. Volume 1: Chapters 1-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a continuation of its effort to provide comprehensive and impartial guidance to Member States facing the need for introducing nuclear power, the IAEA has completed a new version of the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package for carrying out power generation expansion planning studies. WASP was originally developed in 1972 in the USA to meet the IAEA's needs to analyze the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in comparison to other generation expansion alternatives for supplying the future electricity requirements of a country or region. The model was first used by the IAEA to conduct global studies (Market Survey for Nuclear Power Plants in Developing Countries, 1972-1973) and to carry out Nuclear Power Planning Studies for several Member States. The WASP system developed into a very comprehensive planning tool for electric power system expansion analysis. Following these developments, the so-called WASP-Ill version was produced in 1979. This version introduced important improvements to the system, namely in the treatment of hydroelectric power plants. The WASP-III version has been continually updated and maintained in order to incorporate needed enhancements. In 1981, the Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MAED) was developed in order to allow the determination of electricity demand, consistent with the overall requirements for final energy, and thus, to provide a more adequate forecast of electricity needs to be considered in the WASP study. MAED and WASP have been used by the Agency for the conduct of Energy and Nuclear Power Planning Studies for interested Member States. More recently, the VALORAGUA model was completed in 1992 as a means for helping in the preparation of the hydro plant characteristics to be input in the WASP study and to verify that the WASP overall optimized expansion plan takes also into account an optimization of the use of water for electricity generation. The combined application of VALORAGUA and WASP permits the

  20. Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-IV. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a continuation of its efforts to provide methodologies and tools to Member States to carry out comparative assessment and analyse priority environmental issues related to the development of the electric power sector, the IAEA has completed a new version of the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package WASP-IV for carrying out power generation expansion planning taking into consideration fuel availability and environmental constraints. This manual constitutes a part of this work and aims to provide users with a guide to use effectively the new version of the model WASP-IV. WASP was originally developed in 1972 by the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the USA to meet the IAEA needs to analyse the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in comparison to other generation expansion alternatives for supplying the future electricity requirements of a country or region. Previous versions of the model were used by Member States in many national and regional studies to analyse the electric power system expansion planning and the role of nuclear energy in particular. Experience gained from its application allowed development of WASP into a very comprehensive planning tool for electric power system expansion analysis. New, improved versions were developed, which took into consideration the needs expressed by the users of the programme in order to address important emerging issues being faced by the electric system planners. In 1979, WASP-IV was released and soon after became an indispensable tool in many Member States for generation expansion planning. The WASP-IV version was continually upgraded and the development of version WASP-III Plus commenced in 1992. By 1995, WASP-III Plus was completed, which followed closely the methodology of the WASP-III but incorporated new features. In order to meet the needs of electricity planners and following the recommendations of the Helsinki symposium, development of a new version of WASP was

  1. Fully automatic differential diagnosis system for dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease using FDG-PET and 3D-SSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Atsushi K.; Ishii, Kazunari; Sofue, Keitaro; Miyamoto, Naokazu [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Sakamoto, Setsu [Himeji Central Hospital, PET Center, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Mori, Etsuro [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Behavioral Neurology and Cognitive Neuroscience, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    To evaluate a fully automatic computer-assisted diagnostic system for mild dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), permitting distinction from mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using{sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), glucose metabolic images were obtained from mild DLB and mild AD patients. Two groups consisting of 16 mild DLB patients and 21 mild AD patients were recruited for diagnostic evaluation between mild DLB and mild AD. The mean age {+-} SD of the mild DLB group and the mild AD group was 74.3 {+-} 4.9 and 71.7 {+-} 2.1 years, respectively, and the mean scores of the MMSE for the mild DLB and the mild AD group were 21.7 {+-} 1.9 and 23.1 {+-} 2.1, respectively. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to compare the diagnostic performance, in terms of discrimination between DLB and AD, of conventional axial FDG-PET images inspected visually by experts and beginners with that of our fully automatic diagnosis system using the statistical brain mapping method and Z scores obtained with the DLB template. The diagnostic performance of the automatic system was comparable to that of visual inspection by experts. The area under the ROC curve for the automatic diagnosis system was 0.77. The mean area under the ROC curve for visual inspection by experts and beginners was 0.76 and 0.65, respectively. The fully automatic differential diagnosis system for distinction between mild DLB and AD showed a similar diagnostic accuracy to visual inspection by experts. It would be a useful diagnostic tool to distinguish mild DLB from mild AD in clinical practice. (orig.)

  2. Single-serve ice cream packaging: packaging structures enhancing brand

    OpenAIRE

    Salo, August

    2014-01-01

    The thesis focuses on packaging structures and branding; discussing the role packaging plays in brand identity. In today’s crowded marketplaces brands must fight to differentiate themselves from the competition by offering unique product experiences. As most products are packaged in one way or another, packaging has become a valuable element in brand communication and marketing. Packaging is seen as a part of the product experience, adding value and personality to otherwise similar products. ...

  3. An evolutionary computation based algorithm for calculating solar differential rotation by automatic tracking of coronal bright points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahamatnia Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing specialized software tools is essential to support studies of solar activity evolution. With new space missions such as Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO, solar images are being produced in unprecedented volumes. To capitalize on that huge data availability, the scientific community needs a new generation of software tools for automatic and efficient data processing. In this paper a prototype of a modular framework for solar feature detection, characterization, and tracking is presented. To develop an efficient system capable of automatic solar feature tracking and measuring, a hybrid approach combining specialized image processing, evolutionary optimization, and soft computing algorithms is being followed. The specialized hybrid algorithm for tracking solar features allows automatic feature tracking while gathering characterization details about the tracked features. The hybrid algorithm takes advantages of the snake model, a specialized image processing algorithm widely used in applications such as boundary delineation, image segmentation, and object tracking. Further, it exploits the flexibility and efficiency of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, a stochastic population based optimization algorithm. PSO has been used successfully in a wide range of applications including combinatorial optimization, control, clustering, robotics, scheduling, and image processing and video analysis applications. The proposed tool, denoted PSO-Snake model, was already successfully tested in other works for tracking sunspots and coronal bright points. In this work, we discuss the application of the PSO-Snake algorithm for calculating the sidereal rotational angular velocity of the solar corona. To validate the results we compare them with published manual results performed by an expert.

  4. An evolutionary computation based algorithm for calculating solar differential rotation by automatic tracking of coronal bright points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahamatnia, Ehsan; Dorotovič, Ivan; Fonseca, Jose M.; Ribeiro, Rita A.

    2016-03-01

    Developing specialized software tools is essential to support studies of solar activity evolution. With new space missions such as Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), solar images are being produced in unprecedented volumes. To capitalize on that huge data availability, the scientific community needs a new generation of software tools for automatic and efficient data processing. In this paper a prototype of a modular framework for solar feature detection, characterization, and tracking is presented. To develop an efficient system capable of automatic solar feature tracking and measuring, a hybrid approach combining specialized image processing, evolutionary optimization, and soft computing algorithms is being followed. The specialized hybrid algorithm for tracking solar features allows automatic feature tracking while gathering characterization details about the tracked features. The hybrid algorithm takes advantages of the snake model, a specialized image processing algorithm widely used in applications such as boundary delineation, image segmentation, and object tracking. Further, it exploits the flexibility and efficiency of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), a stochastic population based optimization algorithm. PSO has been used successfully in a wide range of applications including combinatorial optimization, control, clustering, robotics, scheduling, and image processing and video analysis applications. The proposed tool, denoted PSO-Snake model, was already successfully tested in other works for tracking sunspots and coronal bright points. In this work, we discuss the application of the PSO-Snake algorithm for calculating the sidereal rotational angular velocity of the solar corona. To validate the results we compare them with published manual results performed by an expert.

  5. 面巾纸自动包装机的改进设计%Improvement Design of Facial Tissues Automatic Packaging Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄有恒

    2011-01-01

    Raises the fast complete machine vibration after the facial tissues packaging machine the question , has the reason using the cam gear follower lever law of motion analysis, the revision cam curve, enables it to achieve the anticipated effect.%针对面巾纸包装机提速后整机震动的问题,运用凸轮机构从动杆运动规律分析产生的原因,修改凸轮曲线,使之达到预期的效果.

  6. Modulating rest-break length induces differential recruitment of automatic and controlled attentional processes upon task reengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Julian; Teng, James; Wong, Kian Foong; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-07-01

    Rest breaks are commonly administered as a countermeasure to reduce on-the-job fatigue, both physical and mental. However, this practice makes the assumption that recovery from fatigue, as measured by the reversal of performance declines, is the sole effect of taking a break on behavior. Here, through administering rest breaks of differing lengths in between blocks of a mentally demanding symbol decoding task, we show that this assumption may not be strictly true. First, we replicate previous work by showing that taking a longer break leads to two correlated effects: greater immediate rebound in performance, and greater subsequent time-on-task decline. Using fMRI, we reveal that time-on-task in this paradigm is associated with increasing recruitment of fronto-parietal areas associated with top-down control, and decreasing deactivation in the default-mode network. Finally, by analyzing individual differences, we reveal a potential neural basis for our behavioral observation: greater recovery following long breaks is associated with greater activity in the putamen, an area associated with the automatic generation of motor responses, followed by greater activity in left middle frontal gyrus by the end of those task periods. Taken together, this suggests a shift in the implicit engagement of automatic and controlled attentional processing following longer breaks. This shift may be undesirable or detrimental in real-world situations where maintaining a stable level of attention over time is necessary. PMID:27039697

  7. An Analytic Linear Accelerator Source Model for Monte Carlo dose calculations. II. Model Utilization in a GPU-based Monte Carlo Package and Automatic Source Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Zhen; Li, Yongbao; Shi, Feng; Jiang, Steve B; Jia, Xun

    2015-01-01

    We recently built an analytical source model for GPU-based MC dose engine. In this paper, we present a sampling strategy to efficiently utilize this source model in GPU-based dose calculation. Our source model was based on a concept of phase-space-ring (PSR). This ring structure makes it effective to account for beam rotational symmetry, but not suitable for dose calculations due to rectangular jaw settings. Hence, we first convert PSR source model to its phase-space let (PSL) representation. Then in dose calculation, different types of sub-sources were separately sampled. Source sampling and particle transport were iterated. So that the particles being sampled and transported simultaneously are of same type and close in energy to alleviate GPU thread divergence. We also present an automatic commissioning approach to adjust the model for a good representation of a clinical linear accelerator . Weighting factors were introduced to adjust relative weights of PSRs, determined by solving a quadratic minimization ...

  8. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana;

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature...... on packaging design and processing fluency, our aim is to define and conceptualise packaging fluency. We stress the important role of packaging fluency since it is anticipated that a fluent package would influence the evaluative judgments for a product. We conclude this paper by setting the research agenda...

  9. HYPERDIRE. HYPERgeometric functions DIfferential REduction. MATHEMATICA based packages for differential reduction of generalized hypergeometric functions pFp-1, F1, F2, F3, F4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HYPERDIRE is a project devoted to the creation of a set of Mathematica based programs for the differential reduction of hypergeometric functions. The current version includes two parts: one, pfq, is relevant for manipulations of hypergeometric functions p+1Fp, and the second one, AppellF1F4, for manipulations with Appell hypergeometric functions F1, F2, F3, F4 of two variables.

  10. Fully Automatic 3D Facial Expression Recognition using Differential Mean Curvature Maps and Histograms of Oriented Gradients

    OpenAIRE

    Lemaire, Pierre; Chen, Liming; Ardabilian, Mohsen; Daoudi, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an holistic, fully auto- matic approach to 3D Facial Expression Recognition (FER). A novel facial representation, namely Differential Mean Curva- ture Maps (DMCMs), is proposed to capture both global and local facial surface deformations which typically occur during facial expressions. These DMCMs are directly extracted from 3D depth images, by calculating the mean curvatures thanks to an integral computation. To account for facial morphology variations, they are fur...

  11. Automatic processing of taxonomic and thematic relations in semantic priming - Differentiation by early N400 and late frontal negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingfei; Ye, Chun; Liang, Xiuling; Cao, Bihua; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2014-09-16

    Most current models of knowledge organization are based on hierarchical (plant-pine) or taxonomic categories (animal-plant). Another important organizational pattern is thematic categories, which performs external or complementary roles in the same scenario or event (bee-honey). The goal of this study was to explore the processing of hierarchical categories and thematic categories under automatic processing conditions that minimize strategic influences. The Evoked response potential (ERP) procedure was used to examine the time course of semantic priming for category members with a short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 300ms as participants performed a lexical decision task. Six experimental conditions were compared: hierarchical relations (offspring-grandson), internal features (gold-golden), productive relations (bee-honey), script relations (room-tenant), unrelated (star-spoon), and non-word trials (star-derf). We found faster reaction times for related prime-target pairs than unrelated pairs except for productive relations. The ERP data showed that an early N400 effect (200-400ms) was more negative for unrelated words than for all related words. Furthermore, a frontal negativity (400-550ms) elicited by productive relations was smaller (more positive) than other related words. We suggest that the smaller frontal negativity in the processing of productive relations indicates their increased salience in knowledge structure compared to less prominent hierarchical relations. Indeed, the allocation of attentional resources and subsequent recruitment of additional memory processing might be two of the hallmarks of thematic relations. PMID:25234647

  12. RECOVIR: An application package to automatically identify some single stranded RNA viruses using capsid protein residues that uniquely distinguish among these viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox George E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most single stranded RNA (ssRNA viruses mutate rapidly to generate large number of strains having highly divergent capsid sequences. Accurate strain recognition in uncharacterized target capsid sequences is essential for epidemiology, diagnostics, and vaccine development. Strain recognition based on similarity scores between target sequences and sequences of homology matched reference strains is often time consuming and ambiguous. This is especially true if only partial target sequences are available or if different ssRNA virus families are jointly analyzed. In such cases, knowledge of residues that uniquely distinguish among known reference strains is critical for rapid and unambiguous strain identification. Conventional sequence comparisons are unable to identify such capsid residues due to high sequence divergence among the ssRNA virus reference strains. Consequently, automated general methods to reliably identify strains using strain distinguishing residues are not currently available. Results We present here RECOVIR ("recognize viruses", a software tool to automatically detect strains of caliciviruses and picornaviruses by comparing their capsid residues with built-in databases of residues that uniquely distinguish among known reference strains of these viruses. The databases were created by constructing partitioned phylogenetic trees of complete capsid sequences of these viruses. Strains were correctly identified for more than 300 complete and partial target sequences by comparing the database residues with the aligned residues of these sequences. It required about 5 seconds of real time to process each sequence. A Java-based user interface coupled with Perl-coded computational modules ensures high portability of the software. RECOVIR currently runs on Windows XP and Linux platforms. The software generalizes a manual method briefly outlined earlier for human caliciviruses. Conclusion This study shows implementation of

  13. Autonomous packaging robot

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Van Thanh

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the autonomous packaging robot application is to replace manual product packaging in food industry with a fully automatic robot. The objective is achieved by using the combination of machine vision, central computer, sensors, microcontroller and a typical ABB robot. The method is to equip the robot with different sensors: camera as “eyes” of robot, distance sensor and microcontroller as “sense of touch” of the robot, central computer as “brain” of the robot. Because the ro...

  14. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  15. Differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions: A comparison between automatically generated breast volume scans and handheld ultrasound examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of automated breast volume scanning (ABVS) or conventional handheld ultrasonography (HHUS) for the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions. Materials and methods: The study prospectively evaluated 239 lesions in 213 women who were scheduled for open biopsy. The patients underwent ABVS and conventional HHUS. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, false positive rate, false negative rate, and positive and negative predictive values for HHUS and ABVS images were calculated using histopathological examination as the gold standard. Additionally, diagnostic accuracy was further evaluated according to the size of the masses. Results: Among the 239 breast lesions studied, pathology revealed 85 (35.6%) malignant lesions and 154 (64.4%) benign lesions. ABVS was similar to HHUS in terms of sensitivity (95.3% vs. 90.6%), specificity (80.5% vs. 82.5%), accuracy (85.8% vs. 85.3%), positive predictive value (73.0% vs. 74.0%), and negative predictive value (93.3% vs. 94.1%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, which is used to estimate the accuracy of the methods, demonstrated only minor differences between HHUS and ABVS (0.928 and 0.948, respectively). Conclusions: The diagnostic accuracy of HHUS and ABVS in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions is almost identical. However, ABVS can offer new diagnostic information. ABVS may help to distinguish between real lesions and inhomogeneous areas, find small lesions, and demonstrate the presence of intraductal lesions. This technique is feasible for clinical applications and is a promising new technique in breast imaging.

  16. Flight test evaluation of the Stanford University/United Airlines differential GPS Category 3 automatic landing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, David N.; Ncnally, B. David

    1995-01-01

    Test flights were conducted to evaluate the capability of Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) to provide the accuracy and integrity required for International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Category (CAT) 3 precision approach and landings. These test flights were part of a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to evaluate the technical feasibility of using DGPS based technology for CAT 3 precision approach and landing applications. A United Airlines Boeing 737-300 (N304UA) was equipped with DGPS receiving equipment and additional computing capability provided by Stanford University. The test flights were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Crows Landing Flight Facility, Crows Landing, California. The flight test evaluation was based on completing 100 approaches and autolandings; 90 touch and go, and 10 terminating with a full stop. Two types of accuracy requirements were evaluated: 1) Total system error, based on the Required Navigation Performance (RNP), and 2) Navigation sensor error, based on ICAO requirements for the Microwave Landing System (MLS). All of the approaches and autolandings were evaluated against ground truth reference data provided by a laser tracker. Analysis of these approaches and autolandings shows that the Stanford University/United Airlines system met the requirements for a successful approach and autolanding 98 out of 100 approaches and autolandings, based on the total system error requirements as specified in the FAA CAT 3 Level 2 Flight Test Plan.

  17. An automatic differentiation-based gradient method for inversion of the shear wave equation in magnetic resonance elastography: specific application in fibrous soft tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelin, Simon; Charpentier, Isabelle; Corbin, Nadège; Meylheuc, Laurence; Vappou, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative and accurate measurement of in vivo mechanical properties using dynamic elastography has been the scope of many research efforts over the past two decades. Most of the shear-wave-based inverse approaches for magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) make the assumption of isotropic viscoelasticity. In this paper, we propose a quantitative gradient method for inversion of the shear wave equation in anisotropic media derived from a full waveform description using analytical viscoelastic Green formalism and automatic differentiation. The abilities and performances of the proposed identification method are first evaluated on numerical phantoms calculated in a transversely isotropic medium, and subsequently on experimental MRE data measured on an isotropic hydrogel phantom, on an anisotropic cryogel phantom and on an ex vivo fibrous muscle. The experiments are carried out by coupling circular shear wave profiles generated by acoustic radiation force and MRE acquisition of the wave front. Shear modulus values obtained by our MRE method are compared to those obtained by rheometry in the isotropic hydrogel phantom, and are found to be in good agreement despite non-overlapping frequency ranges. Both the cryogel and the ex vivo muscle are found to be anisotropic. Stiffness values in the longitudinal direction are found to be 1.8 times and 1.9 times higher than those in the transverse direction for the cryogel and the muscle, respectively. The proposed method shows great perspectives and substantial benefits for the in vivo quantitative investigation of complex mechanical properties in fibrous soft tissues.

  18. MEMS packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu , Tai-Ran

    2004-01-01

    MEMS Packaging discusses the prevalent practices and enabling techniques in assembly, packaging and testing of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The entire spectrum of assembly, packaging and testing of MEMS and microsystems, from essential enabling technologies to applications in key industries of life sciences, telecommunications and aerospace engineering is covered. Other topics included are bonding and sealing of microcomponents, process flow of MEMS and microsystems packaging, automated microassembly, and testing and design for testing.The Institution of Engineering and Technology is

  19. Automatic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    Automatic sequences are sequences which are produced by a finite automaton. Although they are not random they may look as being random. They are complicated, in the sense of not being not ultimately periodic, they may look rather complicated, in the sense that it may not be easy to name the rule by which the sequence is generated, however there exists a rule which generates the sequence. The concept automatic sequences has special applications in algebra, number theory, finite automata and formal languages, combinatorics on words. The text deals with different aspects of automatic sequences, in particular:· a general introduction to automatic sequences· the basic (combinatorial) properties of automatic sequences· the algebraic approach to automatic sequences· geometric objects related to automatic sequences.

  20. The AdMit Package

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. David (David); L.F. Hoogerheide (Lennart); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis short note presents the R package AdMit which provides flexible functions to approximate a certain target distribution and it provides an efficient sample of random draws from it, given only a kernel of the target density function. The estimation procedure is fully automatic and thu

  1. Investigating the effect of aesthetic aspect of packaging and its dimensions on purchase intention through packaging preference

    OpenAIRE

    Abolghasem Ebrahimi; Sayed Moslem Alavi; Mehdi Najafi Seyahroodi

    2015-01-01

    Companies in the era of quality convergence of products are bound to differentiation. As a differentiating tool, Packaging can be a troubleshooter in this field. One of the ways of differentiation is to consider aesthetic aspect of packaging. According to this fact, current survey has studied the impact of aesthetic aspect of packaging on purchase intention of goods through packaging preference. A sample consisted of 384 customers of the big food stores in Shiraz is selected. To test the vali...

  2. Comparison of three commercially available DIGE analysis software packages: minimal user intervention in gel-based proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yunyi; Techanukul, Tanasit; Mantalaris, Anthanasios; Nagy, Judit M

    2009-02-01

    The success of high-performance differential gel electrophoresis using fluorescent dyes (DIGE) depends on the quality of the digital image captured after electrophoresis, the DIGE enabled image analysis software tool chosen for highlighting the differences, and the statistical analysis. This study compares three commonly available DIGE enabled software packages for the first time: DeCyder V6.5 (GE-Healthcare), Progenesis SameSpots V3.0 (Nonlinear Dynamics), and Dymension 3 (Syngene). DIGE gel images of cell culture media samples conditioned by HepG2 and END2 cell lines were used to evaluate the software packages both quantitatively and subjectively considering ease of use with minimal user intervention. Consistency of spot matching across the three software packages was compared, focusing on the top fifty spots ranked statistically by each package. In summary, Progenesis SameSpots outperformed the other two software packages in matching accuracy, possibly being benefited by its new approach: that is, identical spot outline across all the gels. Interestingly, the statistical analysis of the software packages was not consistent on account of differences in workflow, algorithms, and default settings. Results obtained for protein fold changes were substantially different in each package, which indicates that in spite of using internal standards, quantification is software dependent. A future research goal must be to reduce or eliminate user controlled settings, either by automatic sample-to-sample optimization by intelligent software, or by alternative parameter-free segmentation methods. PMID:19133722

  3. Software packager user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Software integration is a growing area of concern for many programmers and software managers because the need to build new programs quickly from existing components is greater than ever. This includes building versions of software products for multiple hardware platforms and operating systems, building programs from components written in different languages, and building systems from components that must execute on different machines in a distributed network. The goal of software integration is to make building new programs from existing components more seamless -- programmers should pay minimal attention to the underlying configuration issues involved. Libraries of reusable components and classes are important tools but only partial solutions to software development problems. Even though software components may have compatible interfaces, there may be other reasons, such as differences between execution environments, why they cannot be integrated. Often, components must be adapted or reimplemented to fit into another application because of implementation differences -- they are implemented in different programming languages, dependent on different operating system resources, or must execute on different physical machines. The software packager is a tool that allows programmers to deal with interfaces between software components and ignore complex integration details. The packager takes modular descriptions of the structure of a software system written in the package specification language and produces an integration program in the form of a makefile. If complex integration tools are needed to integrate a set of components, such as remote procedure call stubs, their use is implied by the packager automatically and stub generation tools are invoked in the corresponding makefile. The programmer deals only with the components themselves and not the details of how to build the system on any given platform.

  4. The environmental effects of taxes on packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an evaluation of the environmental impacts of taxes for packages are presented, differentiated for greenhouse gas emissions. The evaluation used a qualitative analysis of information from eighteen depth-interviews with experts in the packaging market, foreign experiences, relevant price elasticities and 'expert guesses'. It appears that tax package so far had a limited effect on the packaging market. For the longer term (ten years) larger, but probably also limited, effects are expected. The environmental impact of packaging tax can be increased if the taxes are substantially increased.

  5. Consumer perception: attributes considered important in packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Medianeira Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Packaging has been considered the main vehicle for sales, brand building and product identity, since it is the first contact with the product that the consumer has, it is fundamental when choosing and buying a product. In this sense, the packaging is a silent salesperson, because it is up to the package to attract attention, create interest and desire, show the quality of the product and close the sale within seconds. Packaging has contributed to corporate communication with consumers; it provides product protection, storage and convenience, as products move through the value chain. Thinking about it, the product cannot be planned separately from its packaging, and it should not be defined based only on engineering, marketing, communications or economics. The packaging concept has expanded and gained product status; packaging is able to communicate the same language of convenience wherever it goes. Today, packaging industries are taking advantage of this opportunity to differentiate their products through packaging, finding that it is not enough for the package to be beautiful, unbreakable, or preserve the flavor and freshness of foods. Within this context, the objective of this research is to analyze, from the point of view of consumers, the most important product packaging attributes at the time of purchase. For this purpose, the data obtained in this study was run through the Statistica 8.0 and SPSS 16 (Statistical Package Social Sciences software’s.

  6. GRACE/SUSY Automatic Generation of Tree Amplitudes in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, J

    2003-01-01

    GRACE/SUSY is a program package for generating the tree-level amplitude and evaluating the corresponding cross section of processes of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model (MSSM). The Higgs potential adopted in the system, however, is assumed to have a more general form indicated by the two-Higgs-doublet model. This system is an extension of GRACE for the standard model(SM) of the electroweak and strong interactions. For a given MSSM process the Feynman graphs and amplitudes at tree-level are automatically created. The Monte-Carlo phase space integration by means of BASES gives the total and differential cross sections. When combined with SPRING, an event generator, the program package provides us with the simulation of the SUSY particle productions.

  7. Orientlib: An R Package for Orientation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Murdoch

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientlib is an R package to facilitate working with orientation data, i.e. elements of S O(3. It provides automatic translation between different representations of orientations, including rotation matrices, quaternions, Euler angles and skew-symmetric matrices; it also has functions for fitting regression models and displaying orientations. This paper reviews simple properties of orientation data and describes Orientlib.

  8. Implementation and usage of the Bergman package shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Colesnikov

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is the survey of author's work on dialog shells over interpreting systems. Aspects of the shell for the computational algebra package Bergman are presented: the solved task, homogenization algorithm, input data checking, approaches to implementation. The shell automatizes and strongly simplifies data preparation and monitoring of the Bergman package.

  9. ATLAS software packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Rybkin, G

    2012-01-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages - platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis pro...

  10. High density packaging technology ultra thin package & new tab package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Osamu; Shimamoto, Haruo; Ueda, Tetsuya; Shimomura, Kou; Hata, Tsutomu; Tachikawa, Toru; Fukushima, Jiro; Banjo, Toshinobu; Yamamoto, Isamu

    1989-09-01

    As electronic devices become more highly integrated, the demand for small, high pin count packages has been increasing. We have developed two new types of IC packages in response to this demand. One is an ultra thin small outline package (TSOP) which has been reduced in size from the standard SOP and the other, which uses Tape Automated Bonding (TAB) technology, is a super thin, high pin count TAB in cap (T.I.C.) package. In this paper, we present these packages and their features along with the technologies used to improve package reliability and TAB. Thin packages are vulnerable to high humidity exposure, especially after heat shock.1 The following items were therefore investigated in order to improve humidity resistance: (1) The molding compound thermal stress, (2) Water absorption into the molding compound and its effect on package cracking during solder dipping, (3) Chip attach pad area and its affect on package cracking, (4) Adhesion between molding resin and chip attach pad and its affect on humidity resistance. With the improvements made as a result of these investigations, the reliability of the new thin packages is similar to that of the standard thicker plastic packages.

  11. lordif: An R Package for Detecting Differential Item Functioning Using Iterative Hybrid Ordinal Logistic Regression/Item Response Theory and Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung W. Choi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Logistic regression provides a flexible framework for detecting various types of differential item functioning (DIF. Previous efforts extended the framework by using item response theory (IRT based trait scores, and by employing an iterative process using group--specific item parameters to account for DIF in the trait scores, analogous to purification approaches used in other DIF detection frameworks. The current investigation advances the technique by developing a computational platform integrating both statistical and IRT procedures into a single program. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo simulation approach was incorporated to derive empirical criteria for various DIF statistics and effect size measures. For purposes of illustration, the procedure was applied to data from a questionnaire of anxiety symptoms for detecting DIF associated with age from the Patient--Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System.

  12. HYPERDIRE. HYPERgeometric functions DIfferential REduction. MATEMATICA based packages for differential reduction of generalized hypergeometric functions. F{sub D} and F{sub S} Horn-type hypergeometric functions of three variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytev, Vladimir V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Moch, Sven-Olaf [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-12-15

    HYPERDIRE is a project devoted to the creation of a set of Mathematica based programs for the differential reduction of hypergeometric functions. The current version includes two parts: the first one, FdFunction, for manipulations with Appell hypergeometric functions F{sub D} of r variables; and the second one, FsFunction, for manipulations with Lauricella-Saran hypergeometric functions F{sub S} of three variables. Both functions are related with one-loop Feynman diagrams.

  13. HYPERDIRE. HYPERgeometric functions DIfferential REduction. MATHEMATICA based packages for differential reduction of generalized hypergeometric functions {sub p}F{sub p-1}, F{sub 1}, F{sub 2}, F{sub 3}, F{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytev, Vladimir V.; Kalmykov, Mikhail Yu. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-05-15

    HYPERDIRE is a project devoted to the creation of a set of Mathematica based programs for the differential reduction of hypergeometric functions. The current version includes two parts: one, pfq, is relevant for manipulations of hypergeometric functions {sub p+1}F{sub p}, and the second one, AppellF1F4, for manipulations with Appell hypergeometric functions F{sub 1}, F{sub 2}, F{sub 3}, F{sub 4} of two variables.

  14. RiboProfiling: a Bioconductor package for standard Ribo-seq pipeline processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Alexandra; Lebrigand, Kevin; Paquet, Agnes; Nottet, Nicolas; Robbe-Sermesant, Karine; Waldmann, Rainer; Barbry, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The ribosome profiling technique (Ribo-seq) allows the selective sequencing of translated RNA regions. Recently, the analysis of genomic sequences associated to Ribo-seq reads has been widely employed to assess their coding potential. These analyses led to the identification of differentially translated transcripts under different experimental conditions, and/or ribosome pausing on codon motifs. In the context of the ever-growing need for tools analyzing Ribo-seq reads, we have developed ‘RiboProfiling’, a new Bioconductor open-source package. ‘RiboProfiling’ provides a full pipeline to cover all key steps for the analysis of ribosome footprints. This pipeline has been implemented in a single R workflow. The package takes an alignment (BAM) file as input and performs ribosome footprint quantification at a transcript level. It also identifies footprint accumulation on particular amino acids or multi amino-acids motifs. Report summary graphs and data quantification are generated automatically. The package facilitates quality assessment and quantification of Ribo-seq experiments. Its implementation in Bioconductor enables the modeling and statistical analysis of its output through the vast choice of packages available in R. This article illustrates how to identify codon-motifs accumulating ribosome footprints, based on data from Escherichia coli. PMID:27347386

  15. Packaging for logistical support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twede, Diana; Hughes, Harold

    Logistical packaging is conducted to furnish protection, utility, and communication for elements of a logistical system. Once the functional requirements of space logistical support packaging have been identified, decision-makers have a reasonable basis on which to compare package alternatives. Flexible packages may be found, for example, to provide adequate protection and superior utility to that of rigid packages requiring greater storage and postuse waste volumes.

  16. FITSH -- a software package for image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Pál, András

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe the main features of the software package named FITSH, intended to provide a standalone environment for analysis of data acquired by imaging astronomical detectors. The package provides utilities both for the full pipeline of subsequent related data processing steps (incl. image calibration, astrometry, source identification, photometry, differential analysis, low-level arithmetic operations, multiple image combinations, spatial transformations and interpolations, etc.) and for aiding the interpretation of the (mainly photometric and/or astrometric) results. The package also features a consistent implementation of photometry based on image subtraction, point spread function fitting and aperture photometry and provides easy-to-use interfaces for comparisons and for picking the most suitable method for a particular problem. This set of utilities found in the package are built on the top of the commonly used UNIX/POSIX shells (hence the name of the package), therefore both frequently us...

  17. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  18. Computational differentiation and multidisciplinary design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischof, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Griewank, A. [Institute of Scientific Computing, Technical Univ. of Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) by means of formal sensitivity analysis requires that each single-discipline analysis code supply not only the output functions for the (usually constrained) optimization process and other discipline analysis inputs, but also the derivatives of all of these output functions with respect to its input variables. Computational differentiation techniques and automatic differentiation tools enable MDO by providing accurate and efficient derivatives of computer programs with little human effort. We discuss the principles behind automatic differentiation and give a brief overview of automatic differentiation tools and how they can be employed judiciously, for example, for sparse Jacobians and to exploit parallelism. We show how, and under what circumstances, automatic differentiation applied to iterative solvers delivers the mathematically desired derivatives. We then show how derivatives that can now be feasibly obtained by computational differentiation techniques can lead to improved solution schemes for nonlinear coupled systems and multidisciplinary design optimization.

  19. STUDY ON SHIFT SCHEDULE AND SIMULATION OF AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the point of view of saving energy, a new shift schedule and auto-controlling strategy for automatic transmission are proposed. In order to verify this shift schedule,a simulation program using a software package of Matlab/Simulink is developed. The simulation results show the shift schedule is correct. This shift schedule has enriched the theory of vehicle automatic maneuvering and will improve the efficiency of hydrodynanic drive system of the vehicle.

  20. Comparative Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  1. Dual Use Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks down-weighted packaging compatible with microwave preparation and perhaps high hydrostatic pressure processing. New packaging must satisfy NASA's 3-year...

  2. Merganser Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains an Esri 10.0 MXD, file geodatabase and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  3. Recycling glass packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Delia DOMNICA; Leila BARDAªUC

    2015-01-01

    From the specialized literature it follows that glass packaging is not as used as other packages, but in some industries are highly needed. Following, two features of glass packaging will become important until 2017: the shape of the glass packaging and glass recycling prospects in Romania. The recycling of glass is referred to the fact that it saves energy, but also to be in compliance with the provisions indicating the allowable limit values for the quantities of lead and cadmium.

  4. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  5. ATLAS software packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybkin, Grigory

    2012-12-01

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages—platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis projects (currently 6) used by particular physics groups on top of the full release. The tools provide an installation test for the full distribution kit. Packaging is done in two formats for use with the Pacman and RPM package managers. The tools are functional on the platforms supported by ATLAS—GNU/Linux and Mac OS X. The packaged software is used for software deployment on all ATLAS computing resources from the detector and trigger computing farms, collaboration laboratories computing centres, grid sites, to physicist laptops, and CERN VMFS and covers the use cases of running all applications as well as of software development.

  6. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2008-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in advanced packaging in recent years. Several new packaging techniques have been developed and new packaging materials have been introduced. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in this industry, particularly in the areas of microelectronics, optoelectronics, digital health, and bio-medical applications. The book discusses established techniques, as well as emerging technologies, in order to provide readers with the most up-to-date developments in advanced packaging.

  7. ATLAS software packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Software packaging is indispensable part of build and prerequisite for deployment processes. Full ATLAS software stack consists of TDAQ, HLT, and Offline software. These software groups depend on some 80 external software packages. We present tools, package PackDist, developed and used to package all this software except for TDAQ project. PackDist is based on and driven by CMT, ATLAS software configuration and build tool, and consists of shell and Python scripts. The packaging unit used is CMT project. Each CMT project is packaged as several packages—platform dependent (one per platform available), source code excluding header files, other platform independent files, documentation, and debug information packages (the last two being built optionally). Packaging can be done recursively to package all the dependencies. The whole set of packages for one software release, distribution kit, also includes configuration packages and contains some 120 packages for one platform. Also packaged are physics analysis projects (currently 6) used by particular physics groups on top of the full release. The tools provide an installation test for the full distribution kit. Packaging is done in two formats for use with the Pacman and RPM package managers. The tools are functional on the platforms supported by ATLAS—GNU/Linux and Mac OS X. The packaged software is used for software deployment on all ATLAS computing resources from the detector and trigger computing farms, collaboration laboratories computing centres, grid sites, to physicist laptops, and CERN VMFS and covers the use cases of running all applications as well as of software development.

  8. MEASURE/ANOMTEST. Anomaly detection software package for the Dodewaard power plant facility. Supplement 1. Extension of measurement analysis part, addition of plot package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anomaly detection software package installed at the Dodewaard nuclear power plant has been revised with respect to the part of the measurement analysis. A plot package has been added to the package. Signals in which an anomaly has been detected are automatically plotted including the uncertainty margins of the signals. This report gives a description of the revised measurement analysis part and the plot package. Each new routine of the plot package is described briefly and the new input and output files are given. (orig.)

  9. Central heating: package boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.

    1977-05-01

    Performance and cost data for electrical and fossil-fired package boilers currently available from manufacturers are provided. Performance characteristics investigated include: unit efficiency, rated capacity, and average expected lifetime of units. Costs are tabulated for equipment and installation of various package boilers. The information supplied in this report will simplify the process of selecting package boilers required for industrial, commercial, and residential applications.

  10. Biobased packaging catalogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenveld, K.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Bos, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the catalogue is to showcase biobased packaging products and provide an overview of commercially available biobased packaging in 2014. This catalogue is a translation of the Dutch version of the biobased packaging catalogue that was launched September 2014. The raw materials, products

  11. Application to MISR Land Products of an RPV Model Inversion Package Using Adjoint and Hessian Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, T.; Kaminski, T.; Pinty, B.; Taberner, M.; Gobron, N.; Verstraete, M. M.; Vossbeck, M.; Widlowski, J.-L.; Giering, R.

    The capability of the non-linear Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete RPV model to 1 accurately fit a large variety of Bidirectional Reflectance Factor BRF fields and 2 return parameter values of interest for land surface applications motivate the development of a computer efficient inversion package The present paper describes such a package based on the 3 and 4 parameter versions of the RPV model This software environment implements the adjoint code generated using automatic differentiation techniques of the cost function This cost function itself balances two main contributions reflecting 1 the a priori knowledge on the model parameter values and 2 BRF uncertainties together with the requirement to minimize the mismatch between the measurements and the RPV simulations The individual weights of these contributions are specified notably via covariance matrices of the uncertainties in the a priori knowledge on the model parameters and the observations This package also reports on the probability density functions of the retrieved model parameter values that thus permit the user to evaluate the a posteriori uncertainties on these retrievals This is achieved by evaluating the Hessian of the cost function at its minimum Results from a variety of tests are shown in order to document and analyze software performance against complex synthetic BRF fields simulated by radiation transfer models as well as against actual MISR-derived surface BRF products

  12. Autoclass: An automatic classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, John; Cheeseman, Peter; Hanson, Robin

    1991-01-01

    The task of inferring a set of classes and class descriptions most likely to explain a given data set can be placed on a firm theoretical foundation using Bayesian statistics. Within this framework, and using various mathematical and algorithmic approximations, the AutoClass System searches for the most probable classifications, automatically choosing the number of classes and complexity of class descriptions. A simpler version of AutoClass has been applied to many large real data sets, has discovered new independently-verified phenomena, and has been released as a robust software package. Recent extensions allow attributes to be selectively correlated within particular classes, and allow classes to inherit, or share, model parameters through a class hierarchy. The mathematical foundations of AutoClass are summarized.

  13. Slavnov-Taylor1.0: A Mathematica package for computation in BRST formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Picariello, M; Picariello, Marco; Torrente-Lujan, Emilio

    2004-01-01

    Slavnov-Taylor1.0 is a Mathematica package which allows us to perform automatic simbolic computation in BRST formalism. This article serves as a self-contained guide to prospective users, and indicates the conventions and approximations used.

  14. Towards a complete Feynman diagrams automatic computation system

    CERN Document Server

    Perret-Gallix, D

    1995-01-01

    Complete Feynman diagram automatic computation systems are now coming of age after many years of development. They are made available to the high energy physics community through user-friendly interfaces. Theorists and experimentalists can benefit from these powerful packages for speeding up time consuming calculations and for preparing event generators. The general architecture of these packages is presented and the current development of the one-loop diagrams extension is discussed. A rapid description of the prominent packages and tools is then proposed. Finally, the necessity for defining a standardization scheme is heavily stressed for the benefit of developers and users.

  15. Reseach of Control System of Packaging Machine on PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao SUN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An automatic control system of sampling package for sample coal is designed according to the realities of sample coal powdery materials which are based on controller (PLC. The system can realize the functions of random sampling, auto-weighting, auto-packaging, and auto-sealing off. It also can adjust waste less, control convenient, zero point self-tuning and dynamics weighing measurement. It can be used in sampling weighing package of sample coal. Various performance indicators can be stably and reliably used in field.

  16. The Associate Principal Astronomer for AI Management of Automatic Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Gregory W.

    1998-01-01

    This research program in scheduling and management of automatic telescopes had the following objectives: 1. To field test the 1993 Automatic Telescope Instruction Set (ATIS93) programming language, which was specifically developed to allow real-time control of an automatic telescope via an artificial intelligence scheduler running on a remote computer. 2. To develop and test the procedures for two-way communication between a telescope controller and remote scheduler via the Internet. 3. To test various concepts in Al scheduling being developed at NASA Ames Research Center on an automatic telescope operated by Tennessee State University at the Fairborn Observatory site in southern Arizona. and 4. To develop a prototype software package, dubbed the Associate Principal Astronomer, for the efficient scheduling and management of automatic telescopes.

  17. FITSH: Software Package for Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pál, András

    2011-11-01

    FITSH provides a standalone environment for analysis of data acquired by imaging astronomical detectors. The package provides utilities both for the full pipeline of subsequent related data processing steps (including image calibration, astrometry, source identification, photometry, differential analysis, low-level arithmetic operations, multiple image combinations, spatial transformations and interpolations, etc.) and for aiding the interpretation of the (mainly photometric and/or astrometric) results. The package also features a consistent implementation of photometry based on image subtraction, point spread function fitting and aperture photometry and provides easy-to-use interfaces for comparisons and for picking the most suitable method for a particular problem. The utilities in the package are built on the top of the commonly used UNIX/POSIX shells (hence the name of the package), therefore both frequently used and well-documented tools for such environments can be exploited and managing massive amount of data is rather convenient.

  18. Automatic input rectification

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Fan; Ganesh, Vijay; Carbin, Michael James; Sidiroglou, Stelios; Rinard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique, automatic input rectification, and a prototype implementation, SOAP. SOAP learns a set of constraints characterizing typical inputs that an application is highly likely to process correctly. When given an atypical input that does not satisfy these constraints, SOAP automatically rectifies the input (i.e., changes the input so that it satisfies the learned constraints). The goal is to automatically convert potentially dangerous inputs into typical inputs that the ...

  19. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.

  20. Extraction: a system for automatic eddy current diagnosis of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving speed and quality of Eddy Current non-destructive testing of steam generator tubes leads to automatize all processes that contribute to diagnosis. This paper describes how we use signal processing, pattern recognition and artificial intelligence to build a software package that is able to automatically provide an efficient diagnosis. (authors). 2 figs., 5 refs

  1. An interactive system for the automatic layout of printed circuit boards (ARAIGNEE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A software package for the automatic layout of printed circuit boards is presented. The program permits an interaction of the user during the layout process. The automatic searching of paths can be interrupted at any step and convenient corrections can be inserted. This procedure improves strongly the performance of the program as far as the number of unresolved connections is concerned

  2. Packaging for Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The packaging industry is under pressure from regulators, customers and other stakeholders to improve packaging’s sustainability by reducing its environmental and societal impacts. This is a considerable challenge because of the complex interactions between products and their packaging, and the many roles that packaging plays in the supply chain. Packaging for Sustainability is a concise and readable handbook for practitioners who are trying to implement sustainability strategies for packaging. Industry case studies are used throughout the book to illustrate possible applications and scenarios. Packaging for Sustainability draws on the expertise of researchers and industry practitioners to provide information on business benefits, environmental issues and priorities, environmental evaluation tools, design for environment, marketing strategies, and challenges for the future.

  3. Smart packaging for photonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H.; Carson, R.F.; Sullivan, C.T.; McClellan, G.; Palmer, D.W. [ed.

    1997-09-01

    Unlike silicon microelectronics, photonics packaging has proven to be low yield and expensive. One approach to make photonics packaging practical for low cost applications is the use of {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} packages. {open_quotes}Smart{close_quotes} in this context means the ability of the package to actuate a mechanical change based on either a measurement taken by the package itself or by an input signal based on an external measurement. One avenue of smart photonics packaging, the use of polysilicon micromechanical devices integrated with photonic waveguides, was investigated in this research (LDRD 3505.340). The integration of optical components with polysilicon surface micromechanical actuation mechanisms shows significant promise for signal switching, fiber alignment, and optical sensing applications. The optical and stress properties of the oxides and nitrides considered for optical waveguides and how they are integrated with micromechanical devices were investigated.

  4. Investigating the effect of aesthetic aspect of packaging and its dimensions on purchase intention through packaging preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Ebrahimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Companies in the era of quality convergence of products are bound to differentiation. As a differentiating tool, Packaging can be a troubleshooter in this field. One of the ways of differentiation is to consider aesthetic aspect of packaging. According to this fact, current survey has studied the impact of aesthetic aspect of packaging on purchase intention of goods through packaging preference. A sample consisted of 384 customers of the big food stores in Shiraz is selected. To test the validity of researcher made questionnaire, two approaches including face and confirmatory factor analysis and to examine the reliability of questionnaire, alpha cronbach (88/4 percent approach were used. Findings showed that packaging preference had mediated completely the relationship between the aesthetic aspect of packaging and purchase intention. Other findings indicated that informational aspect of packaging has moderated the relationship between the aesthetic aspect of packaging and purchase intention. On the other hand, some variables such as price, quality and brand of food products have moderated the relationship between packaging preference and purchase intention.

  5. Packaging for meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtíšková, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Packaging for meat products Summary Packaging is usually integral to production process in meat industry. The packing has mainly influence on shelf life and quality of meat and meat products. It protects the product from adverse effects such as oxidation, especially fats. In addition it affects transport, storage and serves as a means of communication with customers (logo, marketing benefits, legislation). Significant is also the impact of packaging to keep attractive look of the prod...

  6. R and D on automatic modeling methods for Monte Carlo codes FLUKA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FLUKA is a fully integrated particle physics Monte Carlo simulation package. It is necessary to create the geometry models before calculation. However, it is time- consuming and error-prone to describe the geometry models manually. This study developed an automatic modeling method which could automatically convert computer-aided design (CAD) geometry models into FLUKA models. The conversion program was integrated into CAD/image-based automatic modeling program for nuclear and radiation transport simulation (MCAM). Its correctness has been demonstrated. (authors)

  7. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    “User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?......Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  8. HIRENASD analysis Information Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Updated November 2, 2011 Contains summary information and analysis condition details for the Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop Information plotted in this package is...

  9. Plasma physics plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a package of plotting routines that do up to six two- or three-dimensional plots on a frame with minimal loss of resolution. The package now runs on a PDP-10 with PLOT-10 TCS primitives and on a Control Data Corporation-7600 and a Cray-1 with TV80LIB primitives on the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center network. The package is portable to other graphics systems because only the primitive plot calls are used from the underlying system's graphics package

  10. Packaging printed circuit boards: A production application of interactive graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrill, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    The structure and use of an Interactive Graphics Packaging Program (IGPP), conceived to apply computer graphics to the design of packaging electronic circuits onto printed circuit boards (PCB), were described. The intent was to combine the data storage and manipulative power of the computer with the imaginative, intuitive power of a human designer. The hardware includes a CDC 6400 computer and two CDC 777 terminals with CRT screens, light pens, and keyboards. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 extended with the exception of a few functions coded in COMPASS (assembly language). The IGPP performs four major functions for the designer: (1) data input and display, (2) component placement (automatic or manual), (3) conductor path routing (automatic or manual), and (4) data output. The most complex PCB packaged to date measured 16.5 cm by 19 cm and contained 380 components, two layers of ground planes and four layers of conductors mixed with ground planes.

  11. Waste package scenario modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UK Nirex has supported a programme of work to develop models describing the post-closure evolution of intermediate-level waste packages with the objectives of: - providing support and justification for the parameters and representations used in performance assessment models; - informing future model development and packaging advice. Scenarios for the potential evolution of a waste package were developed and modelled taking explicit account of waste package heterogeneity and the time-dependence of the physical and chemical characteristics of the system. The modelling work highlighted the treatment of organic complexants and the representation of physical containment as two areas in which the impacts of time dependence and package scale heterogeneity might be particularly significant. A subsequent study of the impact of organic complexants emphasised the importance of heterogeneity in package inventory in determining the radionuclide release from the near field. The degree of containment afforded by the wasteform and the waste container has been investigated as part of a study to develop a preliminary understanding of the mixing scales within the repository. The study suggests that the most important control on the release of radionuclides from the waste packages is the integrity of the waste encapsulation grout. Interactions between neighbouring packages are to be expected, but the degree to which homogeneous (well mixed) conditions develop may be limited in both time and space. (author)

  12. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''

  13. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  14. The DYNAMIC program package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important constituents and capacities of the practice-oriented program package DYNAMIC are explained. The versatility of the package in dealing with problems of structural dynamics is shown by examples (seismic qualification of SF6 switchgear equipment, turbine building of a BWR). The examples explain applications in the fields of construction engineering and electromechanics. (orig./HP)

  15. Waste package performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been applied to several package designs. The resulting preliminary assessments were intended for use in making decisions about package development programs. A computer model called BARIER estimates the package life and subsequent rate of release of selected nuclides. The model accounts for temperature, pressure (and resulting stresses), bulk and localized corrosion, and nuclide retardation by the backfill after water intrusion into the waste form. The assessment model assumes a post-closure, flooded, geologic repository. Calculations indicated that, within the bounds of model assumptions, packages could last for several hundred years. Intact backfills of appropriate design may be capable of nuclide release delay times on the order of 107 yr for uranium, plutonium, and americium. 8 references, 6 figures, 9 tables

  16. Advanced flip chip packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Yi-Shao; Wong, CP

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Flip Chip Packaging presents past, present and future advances and trends in areas such as substrate technology, material development, and assembly processes. Flip chip packaging is now in widespread use in computing, communications, consumer and automotive electronics, and the demand for flip chip technology is continuing to grow in order to meet the need for products that offer better performance, are smaller, and are environmentally sustainable. This book also: Offers broad-ranging chapters with a focus on IC-package-system integration Provides viewpoints from leading industry executives and experts Details state-of-the-art achievements in process technologies and scientific research Presents a clear development history and touches on trends in the industry while also discussing up-to-date technology information Advanced Flip Chip Packaging is an ideal book for engineers, researchers, and graduate students interested in the field of flip chip packaging.

  17. MARZ: Manual and automatic redshifting software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, S. R.; Davis, Tamara M.; Lidman, C.; Glazebrook, K.; Lewis, G. F.

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Dark Energy Survey (OzDES) is a 100-night spectroscopic survey underway on the Anglo-Australian Telescope using the fibre-fed 2-degree-field (2dF) spectrograph. We have developed a new redshifting application MARZ with greater usability, flexibility, and the capacity to analyse a wider range of object types than the RUNZ software package previously used for redshifting spectra from 2dF. MARZ is an open-source, client-based, Javascript web-application which provides an intuitive interface and powerful automatic matching capabilities on spectra generated from the AAOmega spectrograph to produce high quality spectroscopic redshift measurements. The software can be run interactively or via the command line, and is easily adaptable to other instruments and pipelines if conforming to the current FITS file standard is not possible. Behind the scenes, a modified version of the AUTOZ cross-correlation algorithm is used to match input spectra against a variety of stellar and galaxy templates, and automatic matching performance for OzDES spectra has increased from 54% (RUNZ) to 91% (MARZ). Spectra not matched correctly by the automatic algorithm can be easily redshifted manually by cycling automatic results, manual template comparison, or marking spectral features.

  18. Automatic program generation: future of software engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    At this moment software development is still more of an art than an engineering discipline. Each piece of software is lovingly engineered, nurtured, and presented to the world as a tribute to the writer's skill. When will this change. When will the craftsmanship be removed and the programs be turned out like so many automobiles from an assembly line. Sooner or later it will happen: economic necessities will demand it. With the advent of cheap microcomputers and ever more powerful supercomputers doubling capacity, much more software must be produced. The choices are to double the number of programers, double the efficiency of each programer, or find a way to produce the needed software automatically. Producing software automatically is the only logical choice. How will automatic programing come about. Some of the preliminary actions which need to be done and are being done are to encourage programer plagiarism of existing software through public library mechanisms, produce well understood packages such as compiler automatically, develop languages capable of producing software as output, and learn enough about the whole process of programing to be able to automate it. Clearly, the emphasis must not be on efficiency or size, since ever larger and faster hardware is coming.

  19. Automatic generation of simple (statistical) exams

    OpenAIRE

    Grün, Bettina; Zeileis, Achim

    2008-01-01

    Package exams provides a framework for automatic generation of simple (statistical) exams. To employ the tools, users just need to supply a pool of exercises and a master file controlling the layout of the final PDF document. The exercises are specified in separate Sweave files (containing R code for data generation and LaTeX code for problem and solution description) and the master file is a LaTeX document with some additional control commands. This paper gives an overview on the main design...

  20. Safety Analysis Report - Packages, 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the analysis and testing performed on four type B Packages: the 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 packages. Because all four packages have similar designs with very similar performance characteristics, all of them are presented in a single SARP. The performance evaluation presented in this SARP documents the compliance of the 9975 package with the regulatory safety requirements. Evaluations of the 9972, 9973, and 9974 packages support that of the 9975. To avoid confusion arising from the inclusion of four packages in a single document, the text segregates the data for each package in such a way that the reader interested in only one package can progress from Chapter 1 through Chapter 9. The directory at the beginning of each chapter identifies each section that should be read for a given package. Sections marked ''all'' are generic to all packages

  1. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal; Romenesco, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the packageùespecially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  2. Hermeticity of electronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Greenhouse, Hal

    2000-01-01

    This is a book about the integrity of sealed packages to resist foreign gases and liquids penetrating the seal or an opening (crack) in the package-especially critical to the reliability and longevity of electronics. The author explains how to predict the reliability and the longevity of the packages based on leak rate measurements and the assumptions of impurities. Non-specialists in particular will benefit from the author's long involvement in the technology. Hermeticity is a subject that demands practical experience, and solving one problem does not necessarily give one the background to so

  3. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator February 19, 2009 Halifax Health Medical Center, Daytona Beach, FL Welcome to Halifax Health Daytona Beach, Florida. Over the next hour you' ...

  4. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  5. Automatic Arabic Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Al-harbi, S; Almuhareb, A.; Al-Thubaity , A; Khorsheed, M. S.; Al-Rajeh, A.

    2008-01-01

    Automated document classification is an important text mining task especially with the rapid growth of the number of online documents present in Arabic language. Text classification aims to automatically assign the text to a predefined category based on linguistic features. Such a process has different useful applications including, but not restricted to, e-mail spam detection, web page content filtering, and automatic message routing. This paper presents the results of experiments on documen...

  6. London 2012 packaging guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines are intended to provide supplemental advice to suppliers and licensees regarding the provisions of the LOCOG Sustainable Sourcing Code that relate to packaging design and materials selection.

  7. Dual Use Packaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA calculation that over a kg of packaging waste are generated per day for a 6 member crew. This represents over 1.5 metric tons of waste during a Mars mission....

  8. FLEXIBLE FOOD PACKAGING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment to fabricate and test prototype packages of many types and sizes (e.g., bags, pouches, trays, cartons, etc.). This equipment can...

  9. Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1987-01-01

    Initial-value ordinary differential equation solution via variable order Adams method (SIVA/DIVA) package is collection of subroutines for solution of nonstiff ordinary differential equations. There are versions for single-precision and double-precision arithmetic. Requires fewer evaluations of derivatives than other variable-order Adams predictor/ corrector methods. Option for direct integration of second-order equations makes integration of trajectory problems significantly more efficient. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  10. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT Shipping Package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SAR P charges the WIPP Management and Operation (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize these operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  11. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the WIPP management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR 71.11. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document provides the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT packaging. The intent of these instructions is to standardize operations. All users will follow these instructions or equivalent instructions that assure operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARPs

  12. The ENSDF Java Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A package of computer codes has been developed to process and display nuclear structure and decay data stored in the ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) library. The codes were written in an object-oriented fashion using the java language. This allows for an easy implementation across multiple platforms as well as deployment on web pages. The structure of the different java classes that make up the package is discussed as well as several different implementations

  13. Packaging sustainability assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Peregrina, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Packaging is an essential part of the majority of products in the actual market. Therefore, packaging design must draw attention to improve its sustainable character in order to satisfy consumers, enhance its environmental performance and keep economic costs to a minimum. Measuring packaging’s sustainability would provide consumers information so as to raise awareness and, moreover, a tool that would help companies to find product weaknesses to be improved. For that purpose, this projec...

  14. Battery packaging - Technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production

  15. Lush Cosmetics packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Frazer

    2014-01-01

    Frazer Hudson – Lush Cosmetics Packaging Commissioned by Suzie Hackney for Lush Cosmetics via illustration Agency - Debut Art - February 2014 I was approached in February 2014 via my London based Illustration agency Debut Art to create packaging illustration designs for the high street retailer and International cosmetics brand ‘Lush’. The illustrations would be used on an octagonal gift box set and be positioned amongst other bespoke gift box set designs within Lush Cosme...

  16. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  17. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

  18. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  19. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-09-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the pplication." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  20. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  1. ATLASWatchMan, a tool for automatized data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATLAS detector will start soon to take data and many New Physics phenomena are expected. The ATLASWatchMan package has been developed with the principles of CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) and it helps the user setting up any analysis by automatically generating the actual analysis code and data files from user settings. ATLASWatchMan provides a light and transparent framework to plug in user-defined cuts and algorithms to look at as many channels the user wants, running the analysis both locally and on the Grid. Examples of analyses run with the package using the latest release of the ATLAS software are shown

  2. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: ''each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.'' They further state: ''each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.

  3. Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  4. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  5. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: 'each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application.' They further state: 'each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M and O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations

  6. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package TransporterModel II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant| (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations(CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions ofapproval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  7. CH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-13

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for preparation for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of a Transuranic Package Transporter Model II (TRUPACT-II), a HalfPACT shipping package, and directly related components. This document complies with the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), HalfPACT SARP, and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificates of Compliance (C of C) 9218 and 9279, respectively. In the event of a conflict between this document and the SARP or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of Cs state: "each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." They further state: "each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP charges the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) or the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) management and operating (M&O) contractor with assuring packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8. Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21 regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to these regulations are

  8. Automatic Program Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Automatic Program Development is a tribute to Robert Paige (1947-1999), our accomplished and respected colleague, and moreover our good friend, whose untimely passing was a loss to our academic and research community. We have collected the revised, updated versions of the papers published in his...... honor in the Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation Journal in the years 2003 and 2005. Among them there are two papers by Bob: (i) a retrospective view of his research lines, and (ii) a proposal for future studies in the area of the automatic program derivation. The book also includes some papers by...... members of the IFIP Working Group 2.1 of which Bob was an active member. All papers are related to some of the research interests of Bob and, in particular, to the transformational development of programs and their algorithmic derivation from formal specifications. Automatic Program Development offers a...

  9. Automatic utilities auditing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Colin Boughton [Energy Metering Technology (United Kingdom)

    2000-08-01

    At present, energy audits represent only snapshot situations of the flow of energy. The normal pattern of energy audits as seen through the eyes of an experienced energy auditor is described. A brief history of energy auditing is given. It is claimed that the future of energy auditing lies in automatic meter reading with expert data analysis providing continuous automatic auditing thereby reducing the skill element. Ultimately, it will be feasible to carry out auditing at intervals of say 30 minutes rather than five years.

  10. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...... camera. We approach this problem by modelling it as a dynamic multi-objective optimisation problem and show how this metaphor allows a much richer expressiveness than a classical single objective approach. Finally, we showcase the application of a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to generate a shot...

  11. Automatic text summarization

    CERN Document Server

    Torres Moreno, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This new textbook examines the motivations and the different algorithms for automatic document summarization (ADS). We performed a recent state of the art. The book shows the main problems of ADS, difficulties and the solutions provided by the community. It presents recent advances in ADS, as well as current applications and trends. The approaches are statistical, linguistic and symbolic. Several exemples are included in order to clarify the theoretical concepts.  The books currently available in the area of Automatic Document Summarization are not recent. Powerful algorithms have been develop

  12. Software Package for the Technical Support Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continued radiological surveillance system has been technically improved during the last two years by establishing 11 new automatic stations, so that there are currently 14 locations with installed gamma-monitors for air radiation monitoring on the Croatian national territory. Given that the original system had been designed primarily for gathering data for off-line treatment with the purpose of statistical analyses, the contemporary Radiological Early Warning System (SPRU) approach has demanded developing of a new software by the Technical Support Centre (TPC) in order to allow operators interactive work in the case of emergency situations. The outcome of this development is a software package called DORAP (Automatic Radiological Station Remote Reading), which brings together automatic functions of continual data gathering, daily production of the standard report, distribution of the report by fax, SMS (Short Message Service), SMT (Simple Mail Transfer) and FTP (File Transfer Protocol) as well as generation and distribution of alarms in the case of failure in the system or exceeding of the set radiation intensity values. (author)

  13. Differentiation transforming system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Cheng; Haibin Zhang; Bin Wang; Yonghua Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The differentiation transforming(DFT)system is developed to produce the tangent linear codes,which is used to calculate the Jacobian-and the Hessian-vector products with no truncation errors.This paper first gives the introduction of the functionality and features of the DFT system,and then discusses several techniques for the implementation of automatic differentiation tools,including data dependence analysis,singular differentiation and code optimization.Finally,the codes generated with DFT used in several applications have been demonstrated.

  14. Waste package characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes originating from the hot labs of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN contain a wide variety of radiotoxic substances. The accurate characterisation of the short- and long-term radiotoxic components is extremely difficult but required in view of geological disposal. This paper describes the methodology which was developed and adopted to characterise the high- and medium-level waste packages at the SCK-CEN hot laboratories. The proposed method is based on the estimation of the fuel inventory evacuated in a particular waste package; a calculation of the relative fission product contribution on the fuel fabrication and irradiation footing; a comparison of the calculated, as expected, dose rate and the real measured dose rate of the waste package. To cope with the daily practice an appropriate fuel inventory estimation route, a user friendly computer programme for fission product and corresponding dose rate calculation, and a simple dose rate measurement method have been developed and implemented

  15. Packaging Solutions : Delivering customer value through Logistical Packaging: A Case Study at Stora Enso Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Kun; Julius, Joezer

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground;Despite of the significant role of packaging within logistics and supply chain management, packaging is infrequently studied as focal point in supply chain. Most of the previous logistics research studies tend to explain the integration between packaging and logistics through logistical packaging. In very rare cases, the studies mentioned about customer value. Therefore the major disadvantage of these studies is that, they didn’t consider logistical packaging and customer v...

  16. SPHINX experimenters information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarick, T.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Radiation Effects Experimentation Dept.

    1996-08-01

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced.

  17. SPHINX experimenters information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This information package was prepared for both new and experienced users of the SPHINX (Short Pulse High Intensity Nanosecond X-radiator) flash X-Ray facility. It was compiled to help facilitate experiment design and preparation for both the experimenter(s) and the SPHINX operational staff. The major areas covered include: Recording Systems Capabilities,Recording System Cable Plant, Physical Dimensions of SPHINX and the SPHINX Test cell, SPHINX Operating Parameters and Modes, Dose Rate Map, Experiment Safety Approval Form, and a Feedback Questionnaire. This package will be updated as the SPHINX facilities and capabilities are enhanced

  18. Optimization of Cardboard Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Dominika Crnjac Milic

    2010-01-01

    The paper will show that the area of a cube is less than the area of a parallelepiped of the same volume, and that the volume of the cube is greater than the volume of the parallelepiped of the same area, what is of major importance for the transportation of goods in cardboard packaging with the possibility of application to other packaging materials. Motivation for finding an exact mathematical proof for this problem originates from the Nestle company, since inadequate forms of product packa...

  19. Automatic Dance Lesson Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Leung, H.; Yue, Lihua; Deng, LiQun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic lesson generation system is presented which is suitable in a learning-by-mimicking scenario where the learning objects can be represented as multiattribute time series data. The dance is used as an example in this paper to illustrate the idea. Given a dance motion sequence as the input, the proposed lesson generation…

  20. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1989-01-01

    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstract...

  1. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  2. Openability of tamperproof packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Castillo C., A.; Wever, R.; Buijs, P.J.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Communication, product protection and presentation are three key aspects in the world of packaging nowadays. Due to a retail landscape consisting of large stores, displaying packed products on the shelves in self-service environments, these aspects become increasingly important, not only for Fast Mo

  3. Printer Graphics Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Printer Graphics Package (PGP) is tool for making two-dimensional symbolic plots on line printer. PGP created to support development of Heads-Up Display (HUD) simulation. Standard symbols defined with HUD in mind. Available symbols include circle, triangle, quadrangle, window, line, numbers, and text. Additional symbols easily added or built up from available symbols.

  4. Polymers in Waveguide Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyi Zhang; G. Z.Xiao; Jiaren Liu; C. P. Grover

    2003-01-01

    Polymers were successfully used in the packaging of waveguide-based photonic components in the area of fiber-to-waveguide coupling, waveguide die attachment, strain relief, and waveguide encapsulation. The application results of these polymers were described in this paper.

  5. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  6. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  7. The Swarm Magnetometry Package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Friis-Christensen, Eigil;

    2008-01-01

    The Swarm mission under the ESA's Living Planet Programme is planned for launch in 2010 and consists of a constellation of three satellites at LEO. The prime objective of Swarm is to measure the geomagnetic field with unprecedented accuracy in space and time. The magnetometry package consists of an...

  8. The Swarm Magnetometry Package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Brauer, Peter; Primdahl, Fritz; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Allin, Thomas Højgaard; Denver, Troelz

    The Swarm mission under the ESA's Living Planet Programme is planned for launch in 2010 and consists of a constellation of three satellites at LEO. The prime objective of Swarm is to measure the geomagnetic field with unprecedented accuracy in space and time. The magnetometry package consists of an...

  9. Semi-automatic removal of foreground stars from images of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Frei, Z

    1996-01-01

    A new procedure, designed to remove foreground stars from galaxy profiles is presented. Although several programs exist for stellar and faint object photometry, none of them treat star removal from the images very carefully. I present my attempt to develop such a system, and briefly compare the performance of my software to one of the well known stellar photometry packages, DAOPhot. Major steps in my procedure are: (1) automatic construction of an empirical 2D point spread function from well separated stars that are situated off the galaxy; (2) automatic identification of those peaks that are likely to be foreground stars, scaling the PSF and removing these stars, and patching residuals (in the automatically determined smallest possible area where residuals are truly significant); and (3) cosmetic fix of remaining degradations in the image. The algorithm and software presented here is significantly better for automatic removal of foreground stars from images of galaxies than DAOPhot or similar packages, since...

  10. Automatic numerical integration methods for Feynman integrals through 3-loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Doncker, E.; Yuasa, F.; Kato, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Olagbemi, O.

    2015-05-01

    We give numerical integration results for Feynman loop diagrams through 3-loop such as those covered by Laporta [1]. The methods are based on automatic adaptive integration, using iterated integration and extrapolation with programs from the QUADPACK package, or multivariate techniques from the ParInt package. The Dqags algorithm from QuadPack accommodates boundary singularities of fairly general types. PARINT is a package for multivariate integration layered over MPI (Message Passing Interface), which runs on clusters and incorporates advanced parallel/distributed techniques such as load balancing among processes that may be distributed over a network of nodes. Results are included for 3-loop self-energy diagrams without IR (infra-red) or UV (ultra-violet) singularities. A procedure based on iterated integration and extrapolation yields a novel method of numerical regularization for integrals with UV terms, and is applied to a set of 2-loop self-energy diagrams with UV singularities.

  11. Automatic indexing, compiling and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the principles of automatic indexing, is followed by a comparison and summing-up of work by the authors and by a Soviet staff from the Moscou INFORM-ELECTRO Institute. The mathematical and linguistic problems of the automatic building of thesaurus and automatic classification are examined

  12. Lakes Ecosystem Services Download Package

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data download package contains Esri 10.0 MXDs, file geodatabases and copy of this FGDC metadata record. The data in this package are used in support of the...

  13. Network Design and Quality Checks in Automatic Orientation of Close-Range Photogrammetric Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Dall'Asta; Klaus Thoeni; Marina Santise; Gianfranco Forlani; Anna Giacomini; Riccardo Roncella

    2015-01-01

    Due to the recent improvements of automatic measurement procedures in photogrammetry, multi-view 3D reconstruction technologies are becoming a favourite survey tool. Rapidly widening structure-from-motion (SfM) software packages offer significantly easier image processing workflows than traditional photogrammetry packages. However, while most orientation and surface reconstruction strategies will almost always succeed in any given task, estimating the quality of the result is, to some extent,...

  14. The automatic NMR gaussmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the automatic gaussmeter operating according to the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance. There have been discussed the operating principle, the block diagram and operating parameters of the meter. It can be applied to measurements of induction in electromagnets of wide-line radio-spectrometers EPR and NMR and in calibration stands of magnetic induction values. Frequency range of an autodyne oscillator from 0,6 up to 86 MHz for protons is corresponding to the field range from 0.016 up to 2T. Applicaton of other nuclei, such as 7Li and 2D is also foreseen. The induction measurement is carried over automatically, and the NMR signal and value of measured induction are displayed on a monitor screen. (author)

  15. Automatic trend estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Vamos¸, C˘alin

    2013-01-01

    Our book introduces a method to evaluate the accuracy of trend estimation algorithms under conditions similar to those encountered in real time series processing. This method is based on Monte Carlo experiments with artificial time series numerically generated by an original algorithm. The second part of the book contains several automatic algorithms for trend estimation and time series partitioning. The source codes of the computer programs implementing these original automatic algorithms are given in the appendix and will be freely available on the web. The book contains clear statement of the conditions and the approximations under which the algorithms work, as well as the proper interpretation of their results. We illustrate the functioning of the analyzed algorithms by processing time series from astrophysics, finance, biophysics, and paleoclimatology. The numerical experiment method extensively used in our book is already in common use in computational and statistical physics.

  16. Packaging based on polymeric materials

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Slobodan M.; Živković Predrag M.; Stoiljković Dragoslav M.

    2005-01-01

    In the past two years the consumption of common in the developed countries world wide (high tonnage) polymers for packaging has approached a value of 50 wt.%. In the same period more than 50% of the packaging units on the world market were made of polymeric materials despite the fact that polymeric materials present 17 wt.% of all packaging materials. The basic properties of polymeric materials and their environmental and economical advantages, providing them such a position among packaging m...

  17. Automatic Wall Painting Robot

    OpenAIRE

    P.KEERTHANAA, K.JEEVITHA, V.NAVINA, G.INDIRA, S.JAYAMANI

    2013-01-01

    The Primary Aim Of The Project Is To Design, Develop And Implement Automatic Wall Painting Robot Which Helps To Achieve Low Cost Painting Equipment. Despite The Advances In Robotics And Its Wide Spreading Applications, Interior Wall Painting Has Shared Little In Research Activities. The Painting Chemicals Can Cause Hazards To The Human Painters Such As Eye And Respiratory System Problems. Also The Nature Of Painting Procedure That Requires Repeated Work And Hand Rising Makes It Boring, Time A...

  18. Automatic Program Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia Maria da Silva Ribeiro; Gabriel de Sousa Torcato David

    2007-01-01

    To profit from the data collected by the SIGARRA academic IS, a systematic setof graphs and statistics has been added to it and are available on-line. Thisanalytic information can be automatically included in a flexible yearly report foreach program as well as in a synthesis report for the whole school. Somedifficulties in the interpretation of some graphs led to the definition of new keyindicators and the development of a data warehouse across the university whereeffective data consolidation...

  19. Automatic Inductive Programming Tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Aler, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Computers that can program themselves is an old dream of Artificial Intelligence, but only nowadays there is some progress of remark. In relation to Machine Learning, a computer program is the most powerful structure that can be learned, pushing the final goal well beyond neural networks or decision trees. There are currently many separate areas, working independently, related to automatic programming, both deductive and inductive. The first goal of this tutorial is to give to the attendants ...

  20. Automatic food decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    Consumers' food decisions are to a large extent shaped by automatic processes, which are either internally directed through learned habits and routines or externally influenced by context factors and visual information triggers. Innovative research methods such as eye tracking, choice experiments...... and food diaries allow us to better understand the impact of unconscious processes on consumers' food choices. Simone Mueller Loose will provide an overview of recent research insights into the effects of habit and context on consumers' food choices....

  1. Automaticity or active control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tudoran, Ana Alina; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    This study addresses the quasi-moderating role of habit strength in explaining action loyalty. A model of loyalty behaviour is proposed that extends the traditional satisfaction–intention–action loyalty network. Habit strength is conceptualised as a cognitive construct to refer to the psychologic......, respectively, between intended loyalty and action loyalty. At high levels of habit strength, consumers are more likely to free up cognitive resources and incline the balance from controlled to routine and automatic-like responses....

  2. Automatic digital image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshtasby, A.; Jain, A. K.; Enslin, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper introduces a general procedure for automatic registration of two images which may have translational, rotational, and scaling differences. This procedure involves (1) segmentation of the images, (2) isolation of dominant objects from the images, (3) determination of corresponding objects in the two images, and (4) estimation of transformation parameters using the center of gravities of objects as control points. An example is given which uses this technique to register two images which have translational, rotational, and scaling differences.

  3. Sustainable Library Development Training Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This Sustainable Library Development Training Package supports Peace Corps' Focus In/Train Up strategy, which was implemented following the 2010 Comprehensive Agency Assessment. Sustainable Library Development is a technical training package in Peace Corps programming within the Education sector. The training package addresses the Volunteer…

  4. Anticounterfeit packaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchir Y Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is the coordinated system that encloses and protects the dosage form. Counterfeit drugs are the major cause of morbidity, mortality, and failure of public interest in the healthcare system. High price and well-known brands make the pharma market most vulnerable, which accounts for top priority cardiovascular, obesity, and antihyperlipidemic drugs and drugs like sildenafil. Packaging includes overt and covert technologies like barcodes, holograms, sealing tapes, and radio frequency identification devices to preserve the integrity of the pharmaceutical product. But till date all the available techniques are synthetic and although provide considerable protection against counterfeiting, have certain limitations which can be overcome by the application of natural approaches and utilization of the principles of nanotechnology.

  5. KAPPA -- Kernel Application Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Malcolm J.; Berry, David. S.

    KAPPA is an applications package comprising about 180 general-purpose commands for image processing, data visualisation, and manipulation of the standard Starlink data format---the NDF. It is intended to work in conjunction with Starlink's various specialised packages. In addition to the NDF, KAPPA can also process data in other formats by using the `on-the-fly' conversion scheme. Many commands can process data arrays of arbitrary dimension, and others work on both spectra and images. KAPPA operates from both the UNIX C-shell and the ICL command language. This document describes how to use KAPPA and its features. There is some description of techniques too, including a section on writing scripts. This document includes several tutorials and is illustrated with numerous examples. The bulk of this document comprises detailed descriptions of each command as well as classified and alphabetical summaries.

  6. The Ettention software package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Tim; Marsalek, Lukas; Marniok, Nico; Turoňová, Beata; Bogachev, Sviatoslav; Trampert, Patrick; Nickels, Stefan; Slusallek, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel software package for the problem "reconstruction from projections" in electron microscopy. The Ettention framework consists of a set of modular building-blocks for tomographic reconstruction algorithms. The well-known block iterative reconstruction method based on Kaczmarz algorithm is implemented using these building-blocks, including adaptations specific to electron tomography. Ettention simultaneously features (1) a modular, object-oriented software design, (2) optimized access to high-performance computing (HPC) platforms such as graphic processing units (GPU) or many-core architectures like Xeon Phi, and (3) accessibility to microscopy end-users via integration in the IMOD package and eTomo user interface. We also provide developers with a clean and well-structured application programming interface (API) that allows for extending the software easily and thus makes it an ideal platform for algorithmic research while hiding most of the technical details of high-performance computing. PMID:26686659

  7. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  8. Standard integrated head package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated head package for a standard-type nuclear reactor is described which consolidates many components and subassemblies of the upper reactor structure into a single unit which may be removed from the reactor vessel in a single lift. Included among the consolidated elements are a pressure vessel head, a cooling shroud, control rod drive mechanisms, a missile shield, a lifting rig, a hoist assembly, and a cable tray assembly. (author)

  9. 78 FR 19007 - Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof.... 1337, on behalf of Lamina Packaging Innovations LLC of Longview, Texas. An amended complaint was filed... importation of certain products having laminated packaging, laminated packaging, and components thereof...

  10. 78 FR 13083 - Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... COMMISSION Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of... Commission has received a complaint entitled Products Having Laminated ] Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and... filed on behalf of Lamina Packaging Innovations LLC on February 20, 2013. The complaint...

  11. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  12. Ensuring socially responsible packaging design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgitte Geert; Widding, Sofie Hartvig

    "User‐friendly Packaging" aims to create a platform for developing more user‐friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?......Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  13. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material

  14. 21 CFR 355.20 - Packaging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (toothpastes and tooth powders) packages shall not contain more than 276 milligrams (mg) total fluorine per... packages shall not contain more than 120 mg total fluorine per package. (3) Exception. Package...

  15. An automatically controlled system for waste transport in low level nuclear waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobe Steel has developed and manufactured a fully automatic remote-controlled system for the storage of up to 42 000 waste drum packages discharged from nuclear reprocessing facilities. The system includes two forklifts and an elevator both of which are controlled via a remote control center. The forklifts can transport up to 4 ton waste packages. The elevator can transport a forklift carrying a maximum weight package. The system also includes a rescue vehicle that can be manually operated at a distance from a remote station using ITV cameras. (author)

  16. MARZ: Manual and Automatic Redshifting Software

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Samuel R; Lidman, Chris; Glazebrook, Karl; Lewis, Geraint F

    2016-01-01

    The Australian Dark Energy Survey (OzDES) is a 100-night spectroscopic survey underway on the Anglo-Australian Telescope using the fibre-fed 2-degree-field (2dF) spectrograph. We have developed a new redshifting application Marz with greater usability, flexibility, and the capacity to analyse a wider range of object types than the Runz software package previously used for redshifting spectra from 2dF. Marz is an open-source, client-based, Javascript web-application which provides an intuitive interface and powerful automatic matching capabilities on spectra generated from the AAOmega spectrograph to produce high quality spectroscopic redshift measurements. The software can be run interactively or via the command line, and is easily adaptable to other instruments and pipelines if conforming to the current FITS file standard is not possible. Behind the scenes, a modified version of the Autoz cross-correlation algorithm is used to match input spectra against a variety of stellar and galaxy templates, and automat...

  17. Automatic radioactive waste recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of a plutonium ingot by calcium reduction process at CEA/Valduc generates a residue called 'slag'. This article introduces the recycling unit which is dedicated to the treatment of slags. The aim is to separate and to recycle the plutonium trapped in this bulk on the one hand, and to generate a disposable waste from the slag on the other hand. After a general introduction of the facilities, some elements will be enlightened, particularly the dissolution step, the filtration and the drying equipment. Reflections upon technological constraints will be proposed, and the benefits of a fully automatic recycling unit of nuclear waste will also be stressed. (authors)

  18. Automatic Configuration in NTP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zongli(蒋宗礼); Xu Binbin

    2003-01-01

    NTP is nowadays the most widely used distributed network time protocol, which aims at synchronizing the clocks of computers in a network and keeping the accuracy and validation of the time information which is transmitted in the network. Without automatic configuration mechanism, the stability and flexibility of the synchronization network built upon NTP protocol are not satisfying. P2P's resource discovery mechanism is used to look for time sources in a synchronization network, and according to the network environment and node's quality, the synchronization network is constructed dynamically.

  19. Automatic Test Builder

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasi, Saad Zeb

    2012-01-01

    In Ericsson, the Automation Team automates test cases that are frequently rerun. This process involves copying data related to a particular Configured Test Case from a database and then pasting it into a java file created to run a test case. In one java file, there can be more than one Configured Test Cases. So information can vary. Then the tester has to add package name, necessary imports, member variables, preamble and post amble methods, help methods and main execution methods. A lot of t...

  20. Conditioned craving cues elicit an automatic approach tendency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Gucht; D. Vansteenwegen; O. Van den Bergh; T. Beckers

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task. Th

  1. Packaging - Materials review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Matthias [Hoppecke Advanced Battery Technology GmbH, 08056 Zwickau (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  2. Packaging - Materials review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  3. Packaging - Materials review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, a large number of different electrochemical energy storage systems are known. In the last two decades the development was strongly driven by a continuously growing market of portable electronic devices (e.g. cellular phones, lap top computers, camcorders, cameras, tools). Current intensive efforts are under way to develop systems for automotive industry within the framework of electrically propelled mobility (e.g. hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, full electric vehicles) and also for the energy storage market (e.g. electrical grid stability, renewable energies). Besides the different systems (cell chemistries), electrochemical cells and batteries were developed and are offered in many shapes, sizes and designs, in order to meet performance and design requirements of the widespread applications. Proper packaging is thereby one important technological step for designing optimum, reliable and safe batteries for operation. In this contribution, current packaging approaches of cells and batteries together with the corresponding materials are discussed. The focus is laid on rechargeable systems for industrial applications (i.e. alkaline systems, lithium-ion, lead-acid). In principle, four different cell types (shapes) can be identified - button, cylindrical, prismatic and pouch. Cell size can be either in accordance with international (e.g. International Electrotechnical Commission, IEC) or other standards or can meet application-specific dimensions. Since cell housing or container, terminals and, if necessary, safety installations as inactive (non-reactive) materials reduce energy density of the battery, the development of low-weight packages is a challenging task. In addition to that, other requirements have to be fulfilled: mechanical stability and durability, sealing (e.g. high permeation barrier against humidity for lithium-ion technology), high packing efficiency, possible installation of safety devices (current interrupt device

  4. The PIDCalib package

    CERN Document Server

    Anderlini, Lucio; Jones, Christopher Rob; Malde, Sneha Sirirshkumar; Muller, Dominik; Ogilvy, Stephen; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Pearce, Alex; Polyakov, Ivan; Qian, Wenbin; Sciascia, Barbara; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Zhang, Yanxi

    2016-01-01

    The PIDCalib package is a tool, widely used within the LHCb Collaboration, providing access to the calibration samples of electrons, muons, pions, kaons and protons. This note covers both theoretical aspects related to the measurement of the efficiency of particle identification requirements, and more technical issues such as the selection of the calibration samples, the background subtraction procedure, and the storage of the data sets in the new data-processing scheme adopted by the LHCb experiment during the second run of the LHC.

  5. The Kull IMC package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the Kull IMC package, and Implicit Monte Carlo Program written for use in A and X division radiation hydro codes. The Kull IMC has been extensively tested. Written in C++ and using genericity via the template feature to allow easy integration into different codes, the Kull IMC currently runs coupled radiation hydrodynamic problems in 2 different 3D codes. A stand-alone version also exists, which has been parallelized with mesh replication. This version has been run on up to 384 processors on ASCI Blue Pacific

  6. Rock mechanics data package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This data package provides a summary of available laboratory and in situ stress field test results from site characterization investigations by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project Modeling and Analysis Group. The objective is to furnish rock mechanics information for use by Rockwell Hanford Operations and their subcontractors in performance assessment and engineering studies. This release includes Reference Repository Location (RRL) site specific laboratory and field test data from boreholes RRL-2, RRL-6, and RRL-14 as well as previous Hanford wide data available as of April, 1985. 25 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs

  7. Nuclear application software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Application Software Package generates a full-core distribution and power peaking analysis every six minutes during reactor operation. Information for these calculations is provided by a set of fixed incore, self-powered rhodium detectors whose signals are monitored and averaged to obtain input for the software. Following the calculation of a power distribution and its normalization to a core heat balance, the maximum power peaks in the core and minimum DNBR are calculated. Additional routines are provided to calculate the core reactivity, future xenon concentrations, critical rod positions, and assembly isotopic concentrations

  8. The PIDCalib package

    CERN Document Server

    Anderlini, Lucio; Jones, Christopher Rob; Malde, Sneha Sirirshkumar; Muller, Dominik; Ogilvy, Stephen; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Pearce, Alex; Polyakov, Ivan; Qian, Wenbin; Sciascia, Barbara; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Zhang, Yanxi

    2016-01-01

    The PIDCalib package is a tool, widely used within the LHCb Collaboration, which provides access to the calibration samples of electrons, muons, pions, kaons and protons. This note covers both theoretical aspects related to the measurement of the efficiency of particle identification requirements, and more technical issues such as the selection of the calibration samples, the background subtraction procedure, and the storage of the data sets in the new data-processing scheme adopted by the LHCb experiment during the second run of the LHC.

  9. Packaging-radiation disinfestation relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foods that are susceptible to insect infestation can be irradiated to destroy the infestation; however, the food must be kept essentially insect-free until consumed, or it must be disinfested again, perhaps repeatedly. Insect-resistant packages can be used to prevent reinfestation, but there are certain requirements that must be fulfilled before a package can be made insect resistant. These include the use of insect-light construction and packaging materials that resist boring insects. The relative insect resistance of various packages and packaging materials is discussed, as are behavior traits such as egressive boring that enables insects to escape from packages and the ability of insects to climb on various packaging materials. Some successful and unsuccessful attempts to make various types of packages insect resistant are discussed, as are factors that must be considered in the selection or development of insect-resistant packages for radiation disinfested foods. The latter factors include biological and physical environments, length of storage periods, stresses on packages during shipment, types of storage facilities, governmental regulations, health requirements, and others

  10. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOEHNKE, W.M.

    2000-07-13

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A{sub 2}s) and is a type B packaging.

  11. Safety Analysis Report for packaging (onsite) steel waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steel waste package is used primarily for the shipment of remote-handled radioactive waste from the 324 Building to the 200 Area for interim storage. The steel waste package is authorized for shipment of transuranic isotopes. The maximum allowable radioactive material that is authorized is 500,000 Ci. This exceeds the highway route controlled quantity (3,000 A2s) and is a type B packaging

  12. The Package Blueprint: visually analyzing and quantifying package dependencies

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeen, Hani; Ducasse, Stéphane; Pollet, Damien; Alloui, Ilham; Falleri, Jean-Rémy

    2014-01-01

    Large object-oriented applications are structured over many packages. Packages are important but complex structural entities that are difficult to understand since they act as containers of classes, which can have many dependencies with other classes spread over multiple packages. However to be able to take decisions (e.g., refactoring and/or assessment decisions), maintainers face the challenges of managing (sorting, grouping) the massive amount of dependencies between classes spread over mu...

  13. Automatic readout micrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range

  14. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)

  15. ShapeR: an R package to study otolith shape variation among fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libungan, Lísa Anne; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2015-01-01

    ShapeR is an open source software package that runs on the R platform and is specifically designed to study otolith shape variation among fish populations. The package extends previously described software used for otolith shape analysis by allowing the user to automatically extract closed contour outlines from a large number of images, perform smoothing to eliminate pixel noise, choose from conducting either a Fourier or Wavelet transform to the outlines and visualize the mean shape. The output of the package are independent Fourier or Wavelet coefficients which can be directly imported into a wide range of statistical packages in R. The package might prove useful in studies of any two dimensional objects. PMID:25803855

  16. HPLOT: the graphics interface package for the HBOOK histogramming package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subroutine package HPLOT described in this report, enables the CERN histogramming package HBOOK to produce high-quality pictures by means of high-resolution devices such as plotters. HPLOT can be implemented on any scientific computing system with a Fortran IV compiler and can be interfaced with any graphics package; spectral routines in addition to the basic ones enable users to embellish their histograms. Examples are also given of the use of HPLOT as a graphics package for plotting simple pictures without histograms. (Auth.)

  17. EXTRACSION: a system for automatic Eddy Current diagnosis of steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving speed and quality of Eddy Current non-destructive testing of steam generator tubes leads to automation of all process that contribute to diagnosis. This paper describes how signal processing, pattern recognition and artificial and artificial intelligence are used to build a software package that is able to automatically provide an efficient diagnosis. (author)

  18. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.7, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence.

  19. CH Packaging Operations Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the user with instructions for assembling a payload. All the steps in Subsections 1.2, Preparing 55-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.3, Preparing 'Short' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT); 1.4, Preparing 'Tall' 85-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly (HalfPACT only); 1.5, Preparing 100-Gallon Drum Payload Assembly; 1.6, Preparing Shielded Container Payload Assembly; 1.7, Preparing SWB Payload Assembly; and 1.8, Preparing TDOP Payload Assembly, must be completed, but may be performed in any order as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Transport trailer operations, package loading and unloading from transport trailers, hoisting and rigging activities such as ACGLF operations, equipment checkout and shutdown, and component inspection activities must be performed, but may be performed in any order and in parallel with other activities as long as radiological control steps are not bypassed. Steps involving OCA/ICV lid removal/installation and payload removal/loading may be performed in parallel if there are multiple operators working on the same packaging. Steps involving removal/installation of OCV/ICV upper and lower main O-rings must be performed in sequence, except as noted.

  20. Japan's electronic packaging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Rao R.; Pecht, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found Japan to have significant leadership over the United States in the strategic area of electronic packaging. Many technologies and products once considered the 'heart and soul' of U.S. industry have been lost over the past decades to Japan and other Asian countries. The loss of consumer electronics technologies and products is the most notable of these losses, because electronics is the United States' largest employment sector and is critical for growth businesses in consumer products, computers, automobiles, aerospace, and telecommunications. In the past there was a distinction between consumer and industrial product technologies. While Japan concentrated on the consumer market, the United States dominated the industrial sector. No such distinction is anticipated in the future; the consumer-oriented technologies Japan has dominated are expected to characterize both domains. The future of U.S. competitiveness will, therefore, depend on the ability of the United States to rebuild its technological capabilities in the area of portable electronic packaging.

  1. Tamper indicating packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL

  2. Review On Automatic-Cleaning Basket Strainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gothwal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clean water is a basic need of every individual. Today in numerous cities of India large number of waste water is produced. Such waste water is polluting natural water bodies like rivers lakes etc. Hence waste water filtration amp waters final purification is need of hour. In conventional type of filters when strainer gets clogged we have to manually clean it which takes time amp filtration processes stops during cleaning process. While in Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer when strainer gets clogged a pressure difference is created between inlet amp outlet nozzle which is sensed by the differential pressure gauges. A differential pressure gauge activates backwash assembly which automatically cleans the strainer. Hence Self-Cleaning Basket Strainer is used to save cleaning time amp it automates the filtering process.

  3. The R package MitISEM : efficient and robust simulation procedures for Bayesian inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baştürk, N.; Grassi, S.; Hoogerheide, L.; Opschoor, A.; van Dijk, H.K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the R package MitISEM (mixture of t by importance sampling weighted expectation maximization) which provides an automatic and flexible two-stage method to approximate a non-elliptical target density kernel - typically a posterior density kernel - using an adaptive mixture of Stud

  4. ONEOptimal: A Maple Package for Generating One-Dimensional Optimal System of Finite Dimensional Lie Algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a Maple computer algebra package, ONEOptimal, which can calculate one-dimensional optimal system of finite dimensional Lie algebra for nonlinear equations automatically based on Olver's theory. The core of this theory is viewing the Killing form of the Lie algebra as an invariant for the adjoint representation. Some examples are given to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the program. (general)

  5. BIOESTIM: software for automatic design of estimators in bioprocess engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farza, M; Chéruy, A

    1994-09-01

    This paper describes BIOESTIM, a software package devoted to on-line estimation in bioprocess engineering. BIOESTIM enables bioengineers automatically to design state and parameter estimators from a minimal knowledge of the process kinetics. Such estimators allow development of software sensors capable of coping with the lack of reliable instrumentation suited to real-time monitoring. The estimator building procedure through BIOESTIM starts up from a dynamical material balance model of the bioprocess. This model, supplied by the user, is next completed by other information with no requirement for numerical values: the user has only to specify available measurements, coupled reactions and the known yield coefficients. On the base of this knowledge, BIOESTIM proceeds to symbolic algebraic manipulations on the model in order to study estimation possibilities and check identifiability of yield coefficients. When the design of an estimator is possible, the corresponding equations are automatically generated. Moreover, these estimators are stored in a user-specified file which is automatically interfaced with a specialized simulation software including data treatment and numerical integration packages. Thus, the user can simulate the estimator performances under various operational conditions using available experimental measurements. A typical example dealing with microbial growth and biosynthesis reactions is given in order to illustrate the main functional capabilities of BIOESTIM. BIOESTIM has been designed and written in a modular fashion. The module dealing with estimators design makes use of symbolic computation; it is written in Mathematica and runs on every computer on which this language is available. PMID:7828062

  6. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2005-07-14

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H{sub 2}O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package.

  7. Packaging investigation of optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhike, Zhang; Yu, Liu; Jianguo, Liu; Ninghua, Zhu

    2015-10-01

    Compared with microelectronic packaging, optoelectronic packaging as a new packaging type has been developed rapidly and it will play an essential role in optical communication. In this paper, we try to summarize the development history, research status, technology issues and future prospects, and hope to provide a meaningful reference. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Nos. 2013AA014201, 2013AA014203) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61177080, 61335004, 61275031).

  8. Creating R Packages: A Tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Leisch, Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    This tutorial gives a practical introduction to creating R packages. We discuss how object oriented programming and S formulas can be used to give R code the usual look and feel, how to start a package from a collection of R functions, and how to test the code once the package has been created. As running example we use functions for standard linear regression analysis which are developed from scratch.

  9. K east encapsulation packager modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Supporting Document analyzes a proposal for reducing the under-packager volume to decrease the amount of fissile material that could accumulate there. The analysis shows that restricting the under packager volume to no more than 4080 in3 will assure that if accumulated fissile material beneath the packager is added to the worst-case mass of fissile material in the discharge chute, a keff of 0.98 will not be exceeded

  10. Laser Sealed Packaging for Microsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Seigneur, Frank; JACOT, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Packaging is the last process of microsystem manufacturing. There are mainly two kinds of packages: plastic or metallic. The two main components of the package (base and cover) may either be glued or soldered. Each of these techniques has its advantages and drawbacks, and the choice should be driven by the functionality of the microsystem. The advantage of gluing is that it is quite an easy production process. The drawback is that glue, like all polymers, is not hermetic on the long te...

  11. IN-PACKAGE CHEMISTRY ABSTRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for Postclosure Waste Form Modeling'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173246]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as a function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model, which uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model, which is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials, and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed (CDSP) waste packages containing high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor diffusing into the waste package, and (2) seepage water entering the waste package as a liquid from the drift. (1) Vapor-Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Liquid-Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package

  12. About the ZOOM minimization package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischler, M.; Sachs, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete.

  13. Optimal Non-Invasive Fault Classification Model for Packaged Ceramic Tile Quality Monitoring Using MMW Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Smriti; Singh, Dharmendra

    2016-04-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) frequency has emerged as an efficient tool for different stand-off imaging applications. In this paper, we have dealt with a novel MMW imaging application, i.e., non-invasive packaged goods quality estimation for industrial quality monitoring applications. An active MMW imaging radar operating at 60 GHz has been ingeniously designed for concealed fault estimation. Ceramic tiles covered with commonly used packaging cardboard were used as concealed targets for undercover fault classification. A comparison of computer vision-based state-of-the-art feature extraction techniques, viz, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), wavelet transform (WT), principal component analysis (PCA), gray level co-occurrence texture (GLCM), and histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) has been done with respect to their efficient and differentiable feature vector generation capability for undercover target fault classification. An extensive number of experiments were performed with different ceramic tile fault configurations, viz., vertical crack, horizontal crack, random crack, diagonal crack along with the non-faulty tiles. Further, an independent algorithm validation was done demonstrating classification accuracy: 80, 86.67, 73.33, and 93.33 % for DFT, WT, PCA, GLCM, and HOG feature-based artificial neural network (ANN) classifier models, respectively. Classification results show good capability for HOG feature extraction technique towards non-destructive quality inspection with appreciably low false alarm as compared to other techniques. Thereby, a robust and optimal image feature-based neural network classification model has been proposed for non-invasive, automatic fault monitoring for a financially and commercially competent industrial growth.

  14. Automatic Speaker Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul,R. B. Dubey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language is used by human to convey many types of information. Primarily, speech convey message via words. Owing to advanced speech technologies, people's interactions with remote machines, such as phone banking, internet browsing, and secured information retrieval by voice, is becoming popular today. Speaker verification and speaker identification are important for authentication and verification in security purpose. Speaker identification methods can be divided into text independent and text-dependent. Speaker recognition is the process of automatically recognizing speaker voice on the basis of individual information included in the input speech waves. It consists of comparing a speech signal from an unknown speaker to a set of stored data of known speakers. This process recognizes who has spoken by matching input signal with pre- stored samples. The work is focussed to improve the performance of the speaker verification under noisy conditions.

  15. Automatic Wall Painting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.KEERTHANAA, K.JEEVITHA, V.NAVINA, G.INDIRA, S.JAYAMANI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Primary Aim Of The Project Is To Design, Develop And Implement Automatic Wall Painting Robot Which Helps To Achieve Low Cost Painting Equipment. Despite The Advances In Robotics And Its Wide Spreading Applications, Interior Wall Painting Has Shared Little In Research Activities. The Painting Chemicals Can Cause Hazards To The Human Painters Such As Eye And Respiratory System Problems. Also The Nature Of Painting Procedure That Requires Repeated Work And Hand Rising Makes It Boring, Time And Effort Consuming. When Construction Workers And Robots Are Properly Integrated In Building Tasks, The Whole Construction Process Can Be Better Managed And Savings In Human Labour And Timing Are Obtained As A Consequence. In Addition, It Would Offer The Opportunity To Reduce Or Eliminate Human Exposure To Difficult And Hazardous Environments, Which Would Solve Most Of The Problems Connected With Safety When Many Activities Occur At The Same Time. These Factors Motivate The Development Of An Automated Robotic Painting System.

  16. Automatic alkaloid removal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Muhammad Rizuwan; Hj Razali, Mohd Hudzari; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah; Ismail, Wan Ishak Wan; Muda, Wan Musa Wan; Mat, Nashriyah; Zakaria, Abd

    2014-01-01

    This alkaloid automated removal machine was developed at Instrumentation Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Malaysia that purposely for removing the alkaloid toxicity from Dioscorea hispida (DH) tuber. It is a poisonous plant where scientific study has shown that its tubers contain toxic alkaloid constituents, dioscorine. The tubers can only be consumed after it poisonous is removed. In this experiment, the tubers are needed to blend as powder form before inserting into machine basket. The user is need to push the START button on machine controller for switching the water pump ON by then creating turbulence wave of water in machine tank. The water will stop automatically by triggering the outlet solenoid valve. The powders of tubers are washed for 10 minutes while 1 liter of contaminated water due toxin mixture is flowing out. At this time, the controller will automatically triggered inlet solenoid valve and the new water will flow in machine tank until achieve the desire level that which determined by ultra sonic sensor. This process will repeated for 7 h and the positive result is achieved and shows it significant according to the several parameters of biological character ofpH, temperature, dissolve oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and fish survival rate or time. From that parameter, it also shows the positive result which is near or same with control water and assuming was made that the toxin is fully removed when the pH of DH powder is near with control water. For control water, the pH is about 5.3 while water from this experiment process is 6.0 and before run the machine the pH of contaminated water is about 3.8 which are too acid. This automated machine can save time for removing toxicity from DH compared with a traditional method while less observation of the user. PMID:24783795

  17. Geometry methods and packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors address the problem of following the trajectory of a particle in simulations. It is necessary to follow the motion of the particle, and to determine its intersection with different geometric surfaces in the problem, in order to relate the stepping of the particle trajectory into real motion through the physical problem at hand. The distance a particle moves before encountering a surface is needed to compare with the actual transport distance that is about to be used in the simulation. Basic mathematical expressions are developed for the intersections of particle trajectories with plane and conic surfaces. The authors show how these are used in the EGS4 code system, which should be typical of the general problem. They also review geometry packages currently being used in electron-photon Monte Carlo programs

  18. Tritium waste package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmassler, Rich; Ciebiera, Lloyd; Tulipano, Francis J.; Vinson, Sylvester; Walters, R. Thomas

    1995-01-01

    A containment and waste package system for processing and shipping tritium xide waste received from a process gas includes an outer drum and an inner drum containing a disposable molecular sieve bed (DMSB) seated within outer drum. The DMSB includes an inlet diffuser assembly, an outlet diffuser assembly, and a hydrogen catalytic recombiner. The DMSB absorbs tritium oxide from the process gas and converts it to a solid form so that the tritium is contained during shipment to a disposal site. The DMSB is filled with type 4A molecular sieve pellets capable of adsorbing up to 1000 curies of tritium. The recombiner contains a sufficient amount of catalyst to cause any hydrogen add oxygen present in the process gas to recombine to form water vapor, which is then adsorbed onto the DMSB.

  19. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  20. Influence of the shape on the consumers perception of the packaging attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gojko Vladić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Packaging for fast moving consumer goods (FMCG demands constant attention in order to stay competitive in modern dynamic markets. FMCG consumers do not think about the purchasing product until they enter the place of purchase. This emphasizes importance of the communication in a place of purchase. Alongside promotional banners, displays and counters, packaging can be used for this purpose. While in-store promotional banners, displays and counters represent additional cost, the packaging as the integral part of the product can be used as an important marketing tool that does not add to product cost. Thus packaging becomes an important marketing tool that does not add to product cost. Marketers, distributors and researchers as well must take into consideration the complexity of consumer behaviour to achieve desired results. Alongside graphic design, material, colour, etc. packaging shape is considered as an important tool for product differentiation and promotion. Having this in mind, it is unclear why the influence of the packaging shape on the consumer remains the least examined of all packaging characteristics. The aim of this research is to understand the influence of packaging shape design on the consumer’s perception. The survey study conducted among the consumers of the fast moving consumer goods gave clear insight into the influence of packaging shape on the perception of packaging characteristics. The results can help to improve packaging shape design in order to achieve better market impact.

  1. Space shuttle food system study: Food and beverage package development, modification 8S

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A new, highly utile rehydration package was developed for foods in zero gravity. Rehydratable foods will become more acceptable as a result of their overall rehydration capability and improved palatability. This new package design is greatly enhanced by the specified spacecraft condition of atmospheric pressure; the pressure differential between the atmosphere and the package carries the functional responsibility for rapid food rehydration without excess package manipulation by the consumer. Crew acceptance will further be enhanced by less manipulation, hotter rehydration water temperatures and the ability to hold the foods at preparation temperatures until they are consumed.

  2. A Test Set for stiff Initial Value Problem Solvers in the open source software R: Package deTestSet

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzia, F.; Cash, J.R.; K. Soetaert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the R package deTestSet that includes challenging test problems written as ordinary differential equations (ODEs), differential algebraic equations (DAEs) of index up to 3 and implicit differential equations (IDES). In addition it includes 6 new codes to solve initial value problems (IVPs). The R package is derived from the Test Set for Initial Value Problem Solvers available at http://www.dm.uniba.it/similar to testset which includes documentation of the test problem...

  3. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  4. Packaging Software Assets for Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattmann, C. A.; Marshall, J. J.; Downs, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    The reuse of existing software assets such as code, architecture, libraries, and modules in current software and systems development projects can provide many benefits, including reduced costs, in time and effort, and increased reliability. Many reusable assets are currently available in various online catalogs and repositories, usually broken down by disciplines such as programming language (Ibiblio for Maven/Java developers, PyPI for Python developers, CPAN for Perl developers, etc.). The way these assets are packaged for distribution can play a role in their reuse - an asset that is packaged simply and logically is typically easier to understand, install, and use, thereby increasing its reusability. A well-packaged asset has advantages in being more reusable and thus more likely to provide benefits through its reuse. This presentation will discuss various aspects of software asset packaging and how they can affect the reusability of the assets. The characteristics of well-packaged software will be described. A software packaging domain model will be introduced, and some existing packaging approaches examined. An example case study of a Reuse Enablement System (RES), currently being created by near-term Earth science decadal survey missions, will provide information about the use of the domain model. Awareness of these factors will help software developers package their reusable assets so that they can provide the most benefits for software reuse.

  5. Gentoo package dependencies over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Remco; Amrit, Chintan; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Ordonez-Matamoros, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Open source distributions such as Gentoo need to accurately track dependency relations between software packages in order to install working systems. To do this, Gentoo has a carefully authored database containing those relations. In this paper, we extract the Gentoo package dependency graph and its

  6. Symbolic computations in applied differential geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gragert, P.K.H.; Kersten, P.H.M.; Martini, R.

    1983-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to contribute to the automatic calculations in differential geometry and its applications, with emphasis on the prolongation theory of Estabrook and Wahlquist, and the calculation of invariance groups of exterior differential systems. A large number of worked examples h

  7. 49 CFR 173.411 - Industrial packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... comparative data showing that the construction methods, packaging design, and materials of construction comply... industrial packaging must comply with the requirements of this section which specifies packaging tests, and record retention applicable to Industrial Packaging Type 1 (IP-1), Industrial Packaging Type 2...

  8. 49 CFR 173.63 - Packaging exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packaging exceptions. 173.63 Section 173.63... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions, Classification and Packaging for Class 1 § 173.63 Packaging exceptions... which are used to project fastening devices. (2) Packaging for cartridges, small arms, and...

  9. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed...

  10. Geometric model of robotic arc welding for automatic programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Geometric information is important for automatic programming of arc welding robot. Complete geometric models of robotic arc welding are established in this paper. In the geometric model of weld seam, an equation with seam length as its parameter is introduced to represent any weld seam. The method to determine discrete programming points on a weld seam is presented. In the geometric model of weld workpiece, three class primitives and CSG tree are used to describe weld workpiece. Detailed data structure is presented. In pose transformation of torch, world frame, torch frame and active frame are defined, and transformation between frames is presented. Based on these geometric models, an automatic programming software package for robotic arc welding, RAWCAD, is developed. Experiments show that the geometric models are practical and reliable.

  11. CDIAC catalog of numeric data packages and computer model packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center acquires, quality-assures, and distributes to the scientific community numeric data packages (NDPs) and computer model packages (CMPs) dealing with topics related to atmospheric trace-gas concentrations and global climate change. These packages include data on historic and present atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations, historic and present oceanic CO2 concentrations, historic weather and climate around the world, sea-level rise, storm occurrences, volcanic dust in the atmosphere, sources of atmospheric CO2, plants' response to elevated CO2 levels, sunspot occurrences, and many other indicators of, contributors to, or components of climate change. This catalog describes the packages presently offered by CDIAC, reviews the processes used by CDIAC to assure the quality of the data contained in these packages, notes the media on which each package is available, describes the documentation that accompanies each package, and provides ordering information. Numeric data are available in the printed NDPs and CMPs, in CD-ROM format, and from an anonymous FTP area via Internet. All CDIAC information products are available at no cost

  12. Algorithms and differential relations for Belyi functions

    OpenAIRE

    van Hoeij, Mark; Vidunas, Raimundas

    2013-01-01

    A tool package for computing genus 0 Belyi functions is presented, including simplification routines, computation of moduli fields, decompositions, dessins d'enfant. The main algorithm for computing the Belyi functions themselves is based on implied transformations of the hypergeometric differential equation to Fuchsian equations, preferably with few singular points. This gives interesting differential relations between polynomial components of a Belyi function.

  13. Towards automatic building of continuous and discrete process simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem to be solved is the simulation of essentially continuous processes but involving a limited number of events leading to discontinuities. The NEPTUNIX simulation package solves this problem in the folloving way: a description of the process model is made, using a non-procedural language, the model is then analysed and, if it is found correct, NEPTUNIX generates automatically the corresponding simulator. This simulator is efficient and transportable. Model description and other compiler outputs build up a complete documentation of the model, which documentation is also fundamental for easy and efficient operation of the simulator

  14. Automatic Kurdish Dialects Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hassani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Automatic dialect identification is a necessary Lan guage Technology for processing multi- dialect languages in which the dialects are linguis tically far from each other. Particularly, this becomes crucial where the dialects are mutually uni ntelligible. Therefore, to perform computational activities on these languages, the sy stem needs to identify the dialect that is the subject of the process. Kurdish language encompasse s various dialects. It is written using several different scripts. The language lacks of a standard orthography. This situation makes the Kurdish dialectal identification more interesti ng and required, both form the research and from the application perspectives. In this research , we have applied a classification method, based on supervised machine learning, to identify t he dialects of the Kurdish texts. The research has focused on two widely spoken and most dominant Kurdish dialects, namely, Kurmanji and Sorani. The approach could be applied to the other Kurdish dialects as well. The method is also applicable to the languages which are similar to Ku rdish in their dialectal diversity and differences.

  15. Electronic amplifiers for automatic compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Polonnikov, D Ye

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Amplifiers for Automatic Compensators presents the design and operation of electronic amplifiers for use in automatic control and measuring systems. This book is composed of eight chapters that consider the problems of constructing input and output circuits of amplifiers, suppression of interference and ensuring high sensitivity.This work begins with a survey of the operating principles of electronic amplifiers in automatic compensator systems. The succeeding chapters deal with circuit selection and the calculation and determination of the principal characteristics of amplifiers, as

  16. Nuclear waste packaging facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear waste packaging facility comprising: (a) a first section substantially surrounded by radiation shielding, including means for remotely handling waste delivered to the first section and for placing the waste into a disposal module; (b) a second section substantially surrounded by radiation shielding, including means for handling a deformable container bearing waste delivered to the second section, the handling means including a compactor and means for placing the waste bearing deformable container into the compactor, the compactor capable of applying a compacting force to the waste bearing containers sufficient to inelastically deform the waste and container, and means for delivering the deformed waste bearing containers to a disposal module; (c) a module transportation and loading section disposed between the first and second sections including a means for handling empty modules delivered to the facility and for loading the empty modules on the transport means; the transport means moving empty disposal modules to the first section and empty disposal modules to the second section for locating empty modules in a position for loading with nuclear waste, and (d) a grouting station comprising means for pouring grout into the waste bearing disposal module, and a capping station comprising means for placing a lid onto the waste bearing grout-filled disposal module to completely encapsulate the waste

  17. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste package has been

  18. In-Package Chemistry Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Thomas

    2004-11-09

    This report was developed in accordance with the requirements in ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of the in-package chemistry model is to predict the bulk chemistry inside of a breached waste package and to provide simplified expressions of that chemistry as function of time after breach to Total Systems Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The scope of this report is to describe the development and validation of the in-package chemistry model. The in-package model is a combination of two models, a batch reactor model that uses the EQ3/6 geochemistry-modeling tool, and a surface complexation model that is applied to the results of the batch reactor model. The batch reactor model considers chemical interactions of water with the waste package materials and the waste form for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste packages and codisposed waste packages that contain both high-level waste glass (HLWG) and DOE spent fuel. The surface complexation model includes the impact of fluid-surface interactions (i.e., surface complexation) on the resulting fluid composition. The model examines two types of water influx: (1) the condensation of water vapor that diffuses into the waste package, and (2) seepage water that enters the waste package from the drift as a liquid. (1) Vapor Influx Case: The condensation of vapor onto the waste package internals is simulated as pure H2O and enters at a rate determined by the water vapor pressure for representative temperature and relative humidity conditions. (2) Water Influx Case: The water entering a waste package from the drift is simulated as typical groundwater and enters at a rate determined by the amount of seepage available to flow through openings in a breached waste package. TSPA-LA uses the vapor influx case for the nominal scenario for simulations where the waste

  19. Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

  20. Characterization of integrated circuit packaging materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Chapters in this volume address important characteristics of IC packages. Analytical techniques appropriate for IC package characterization are demonstrated through examples of the measurement of critical performance parameters and the analysis of key technological problems of IC packages. Issues are discussed which affect a variety of package types, including plastic surface-mount packages, hermetic packages, and advanced designs such as flip-chip, chip-on-board and multi-chip models.

  1. Automatic convey or System with In–Process Sorting Mechanism using PLC and HMI System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y V Aruna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Programmable logic controllers are widely used in many manufacturing process like machinery packaging material handling automatic assembly. These are special type of microprocessor based controller used for any application that needs any kind of electrical controller including lighting controller and HVAC control system. Automatic conveyor system is a computerized control method of controlling and managing the sorting mechanism at the same time maintaining the efficiency of the industry & quality of the products.HMI for automatic conveyor system is considered the primary way of controlling each operation. Text displays are available as well as graphical touch screens. It is used in touch panels and local monitoring of machines. This paper deals with the efficient use of PLC in automatic conveyor system and also building the accuracy in it.

  2. Radioactive waste package acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary acceptance criteria have been developed for packages containing nuclear waste which must be stored or disposed of by the US Department of Energy. Acceptance criteria are necessary to ensure that the waste packages are compatible with all elements of the Waste Management System. The acceptance criteria are subject to revision since many of the constraints that will be imposed on the waste packages by the Waste Management System have either not been defined or are being revised. Delineation of the acceptance criteria will provide bases for handling, transporting and disposing of the commercial waste

  3. Packaging systems for animal origin food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main task of food packaging is to protect the product during storage and transport against the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors. The paper presents packaging systems for food of animal origin. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packagings were characterised together with novel types of packagings, referred to as intelligent packaging and active packaging. The aim of this paper was to present all advantages and disadvantages of packaging used for meat products. Such list enables to choose the optimal type of packaging for given assortment of food and specific conditions of the transport and storing.

  4. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  5. Prospects for de-automatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihlstrom, John F

    2011-06-01

    Research by Raz and his associates has repeatedly found that suggestions for hypnotic agnosia, administered to highly hypnotizable subjects, reduce or even eliminate Stroop interference. The present paper sought unsuccessfully to extend these findings to negative priming in the Stroop task. Nevertheless, the reduction of Stroop interference has broad theoretical implications, both for our understanding of automaticity and for the prospect of de-automatizing cognition in meditation and other altered states of consciousness. PMID:20356765

  6. Process automatization in system administration

    OpenAIRE

    Petauer, Janja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to present automatization of user management in company Studio Moderna. The company has grown exponentially in recent years, that is why we needed to find faster, easier and cheaper way of man- aging user accounts. We automatized processes of creating, changing and removing user accounts within Active Directory. We prepared user interface inside of existing application, used Java Script for drop down menus, wrote script in scripting programming langu...

  7. Automatic Number Plate Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Rajshree Dhruw; Dharmendra Roy

    2014-01-01

    Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) is a mass surveillance system that captures the image of vehicles and recognizes their license number. The objective is to design an efficient automatic authorized vehicle identification system by using the Indian vehicle number plate. In this paper we discus different methodology for number plate localization, character segmentation & recognition of the number plate. The system is mainly applicable for non standard Indian number plates by recognizing...

  8. Eating as an Automatic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah A. Cohen, MD, MPH; Thomas A. Farley, MD, MPH

    2007-01-01

    The continued growth of the obesity epidemic at a time when obesity is highly stigmatizing should make us question the assumption that, given the right information and motivation, people can successfully reduce their food intake over the long term. An alternative view is that eating is an automatic behavior over which the environment has more control than do individuals. Automatic behaviors are those that occur without awareness, are initiated without intention, tend to continue without contr...

  9. Packaging the product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Traditionally, when the nuclear industry produces a brochure or video programme, the platform of our arguments is reasoned, factual, abstract, far-sighted and convoluted. It is all about things and processes: energy plants, machinery, numbers and percentages. Yet we know that people are interested only in people, in emotions, in reality, and in basic values about next week or next month. And this is probably the biggest incongruity. Our painstaking, in-depth research backed by technical evidence and statistics is no match for the other side's anecdotal speech making. Our perfectly designed graphics cannot compete against those visual cliches that can give instant life to an abstract idea. In the UK, pioneering work for the British Nuclear Forum's, the Nuclear Industry Education Programme (NIEP) breaks through the traditional approach, allowing passion and feeling to stimulate debate. Material about nuclear power produced for young people often promotes knowledge acquisition about particular aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle without conceptual or value change. NIEP materials build on the experience of developing packages that fully meet curriculum objectives, follow educational best practice, and place nuclear power in a real energy context. But they also make a positive contribution to the meaning a young person attaches to a concept such as radiation. Essentially, the materials are in tune with the way young people make sense of their experience of the real world and the issues in it. For further information about AEA Technology's public acceptance programmes, contact: Roy Newson or Meriel Lewis on +44 235 433650, fax +44 235 432123. (author)

  10. Emotional response towards food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis Xinwei; Corsi, Armando M.; Chrysochou, Polymeros;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate consumers’ emotional responses to food packaging. More specifically, we use self-report and physiological measures to jointly assess emotional responses to three typical food packaging elements: colours (lowwavelength vs. high-wavelength), images (positive vs. negative......) and typefaces (simple vs. ornate). A sample of 120 participants was exposed to mock package design concepts of chocolate blocks. The results suggest that images generate an emotional response that can be measured by both self-report and physiological measures, whereas colours and typefaces generate emotional...... response that can only be measured by self-report measures. We propose that a joint application of selfreport and physiological measures can lead to richer information and wider interpretation of consumer emotional responses to food packaging elements than using either measure alone....

  11. Packages for radiactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of multi-stage type package for sea disposal of compactable nuclear wastes, is presented. The basic requirements for the project followed the NEA and IAEA recommendations and observations of the solutions adopted by others countries. The packages of preliminary design was analysed, by computer, under several conditions arising out of its nature, as well as their conditions descent, dumping and durability in the deep of sea. The designed pressure equalization mechanic and the effect compacting on the package, by prototypes and specific tests, were studied. These prototypes were also submitted to the transport tests of the 'Regulament for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'. Based on results of the testes and the re-evaluation of the preliminary design, final indications and specifications for excuting the package design, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  12. High Frequency Electronic Packaging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, M.; Lowry, L.; Lee, K.; Kolawa, E.; Tulintseff, A.; Shalkhauser, K.; Whitaker, J.; Piket-May, M.

    1994-01-01

    Commercial and government communication, radar, and information systems face the challenge of cost and mass reduction via the application of advanced packaging technology. A majority of both government and industry support has been focused on low frequency digital electronics.

  13. Packaging trends seen by ITRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergen Wolf, M.; Reichl, H.; Aschenbrenner, R. [Fraunhofer IZM (Germany); Adams, J. [Skyworks Solutions, Corp. (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Faced with the rapid development of IC technology the traditional packaging is merging into a complex system integration technique to satisfy the growing demand in terms of increased functionality, performance and miniaturization of electronic products. This requires the development of new packaging and system integration technologies using complex design tools along with new materials to realize complex systems in a package carrying multiple components such as silicon ICs, MEMS, sensors or optical devices. System integration technologies have increasingly become a vital factor in the economic success of suppliers and users in the areas of consumer electronics, telecommunications, mechanical engineering and automotive industry. The paper discusses major aspects, challenges and requirements of system integration technologies which will be of special interest in the next years. The aspects discussed in the paper are primarily based on the work of the ITRS (International Technology Roadmap of Semiconductors) technical working group Packaging. (orig.)

  14. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsness, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suratwala, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steele, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rogowski, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  15. Automatic or Deliberate? Cerebral correlates of automatic associations towards performance enhancing substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eSchindler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The direct assessment of explicit attitudes towards performance enhancing substances, for example Neuroenhancement or doping in sports can be affected by social desirability biases and cheating attempts. According to Dual Process Theories of cognition, indirect measures like the Implicit Association Test (IAT measure automatic associations towards a topic (as opposed to explicit attitudes measured by self-report measures. Such automatic associations are thought to occur rapidly and to evade voluntary control. However, whether or not such indirect tests actually reflect automatic associations is difficult to validate. Electroencephalography´s superior time resolution enables to differentiate between highly automatic compared to more elaborate processing stages. We therefore examined on which processing stages cortical differences between negative or positive attitudes to doping occur, and whether or not these differences can be related to BIAT scores. We tested 42 university students (31 females, 24.43 ± 3.17 years old, who were requested to complete a brief doping IAT (BIAT on attitudes towards doping. Cerebral activity during doping BIAT completion was assessed using high-density EEG. Behaviorally, participants D-scores exhibited negative attitudes towards doping, represented by faster reaction times in the doping + dislike pairing task. Event-related potentials (ERPs revealed earliest effects between 200 and 300ms. Here, a relatively larger occipital positivity was found for the doping + dislike pairing task. Further, in the LPP time range between 400 and 600ms a larger late positive potential was found for the doping + dislike pairing task over central regions. These LPP amplitude differences were successfully predicting participants´ BIAT D-scores.Results indicate that event-related potentials differentiate between positive and negative doping attitudes at stages of mid-latency. However, it seems that IAT scores can be predicted only by

  16. Using automatic differentiation in sensitivity analysis of nuclear simulatoin models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexe, M.; Roderick, O.; Anitescu, M.; Utke, J.; Fanning, T.; Hovland, P.; Virginia Tech.

    2010-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is an important tool in the study of nuclear systems. In our recent work, we introduced a hybrid method that combines sampling techniques with first-order sensitivity analysis to approximate the effects of uncertainty in parameters of a nuclear reactor simulation model. For elementary examples, the approach offers a substantial advantage (in precision, computational efficiency, or both) over classical methods of uncertainty quantification.

  17. Packaging Review Guide for Reviewing Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSabatino, A; Biswas, D; DeMicco, M; Fisher, L E; Hafner, R; Haslam, J; Mok, G; Patel, C; Russell, E

    2007-04-12

    This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE Order 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his or her review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. This PRG is generally organized at the section level in a format similar to that recommended in Regulatory Guide 7.9 (RG 7.9). One notable exception is the addition of Section 9 (Quality Assurance), which is not included as a separate chapter in RG 7.9. Within each section, this PRG addresses the technical and regulatory bases for the review, the manner in which the review is accomplished, and findings that are generally applicable for a package that meets the approval standards. This Packaging Review Guide (PRG) provides guidance for DOE review and approval of packagings to transport fissile and Type B quantities of radioactive material. It fulfills, in part, the requirements of DOE O 460.1B for the Headquarters Certifying Official to establish standards and to provide guidance for the preparation of Safety Analysis Reports for Packagings (SARPs). This PRG is intended for use by the Headquarters Certifying Official and his review staff, DOE Secretarial offices, operations/field offices, and applicants for DOE packaging approval. The primary objectives of this PRG are to: (1) Summarize the regulatory requirements for package approval; (2) Describe the technical review procedures by which DOE determines that these requirements have been satisfied; (3) Establish and maintain the quality and uniformity of reviews; (4) Define the base from which to evaluate proposed changes in scope

  18. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    "Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    "AliPDU Package" is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  19. AliPDU Package Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    AliPDU Package is a set of script, panels, and datapoints designed in WinCC to manage and monitor PDU's. PDU is an essential component in the data center, in order to make data center working properly through the monitoring of power distribution and environmental condition of the data center. In this project "AliPDU Package" is upgraded so it can be used to monitor environmental condition of data center using PDU's and external environmental sensor connected to PDU.

  20. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  1. Automatic sensor placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Besma R.

    1995-10-01

    exploration procedure. These steps are integrated into the design of an off-line Autonomous Model Construction System AMCS, based on data-driven active sensing. The system operates autonomously with no human intervention and with no prior knowledge about the object. The results of this work are illustrated using computer simulation applied to intensity images rendered by ray-tracing software package.

  2. Automatic analysis of double coronal mass ejections from coronagraph images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Matthew; Chang, Lin-Ching; Pulkkinen, Antti; Romano, Michelangelo

    2015-11-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can have major impacts on man-made technology and humans, both in space and on Earth. These impacts have created a high interest in the study of CMEs in an effort to detect and track events and forecast the CME arrival time to provide time for proper mitigation. A robust automatic real-time CME processing pipeline is greatly desired to avoid laborious and subjective manual processing. Automatic methods have been proposed to segment CMEs from coronagraph images and estimate CME parameters such as their heliocentric location and velocity. However, existing methods suffered from several shortcomings such as the use of hard thresholding and an inability to handle two or more CMEs occurring within the same coronagraph image. Double-CME analysis is a necessity for forecasting the many CME events that occur within short time frames. Robust forecasts for all CME events are required to fully understand space weather impacts. This paper presents a new method to segment CME masses and pattern recognition approaches to differentiate two CMEs in a single coronagraph image. The proposed method is validated on a data set of 30 halo CMEs, with results showing comparable ability in transient arrival time prediction accuracy and the new ability to automatically predict the arrival time of a double-CME event. The proposed method is the first automatic method to successfully calculate CME parameters from double-CME events, making this automatic method applicable to a wider range of CME events.

  3. Upgrade of FUMACS code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FUMACS code package (an acronym of FUel MAnagement Code System) was developed at Rudjer Boskovic Institute in year 1991 with the aim to enable in-core fuel management analysis of the NPP Krsko core for nominal (full power) conditions. The modernization and uprating of the NPP Krsko core from 1876 to 1994 MW (th) performed in year 2000 resulted in the change of operating conditions. The old version of the FUMACS code package would not model properly the NPP Krsko core for the new operating conditions. The upgrade of the FUMACS code package to enable the modeling of the NPP Krsko core for uprated conditions and longer cycles required modifications of master files, libraries and codes. In order to make the code package more user friendly, Windows (95/98/NT) compatible version of the code package, with incorporated graphical user interface has been developed. The new version of the code package has been verified and validated for new operating conditions through modeling and comparison of results with referent design of a number of 12-month and 18-month operating cycles.(author)

  4. Faster, less expensive package certifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy Packaging Certification Staff (PCS) has been reviewing ways to shorten the radioactive material packaging certification process and reduce the overall costs of obtaining certification. The PCS can help to identify existing certified packaging designs that may meet a shipper's needs. If it is necessary to design a new packaging, then the fastest, easiest way toward certification is through the use of common designs and materials already familiar to the PCS (though this is not always possible or desirable). The shipper should be realistic about the amount of time, money, and documentation necessary to obtain a certification, and should involve the PCS early in the planning of the packaging. The PCS will not do design work or recommend a design, but can warn of potential pitfalls. The Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) is the basis for certification; therefore, the adequacy of the SARP should be the focal point of all efforts toward certification. Technical services provided by the PCS can help in the preparation of the SARP and can accelerate the certification process

  5. Automatic configuration of modular vault walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grković Vladan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Products such as modular partition walls of vault rooms (with or without vault doors are made at the request of the client who chooses the safety degree and provides the available dimensions of the wall that should be made. Modular construction of vault walls is the system of construction of industrially made elements which are composed in situ, which allows design of products adjusted to individual requirements of clients. Since the vault wall modules repeat in every new project and since they differ only by their number and dimensions, the use of modern CA (Computer Aided tools and the possibility of application of parameter and variant design shorten design time and eliminate possible errors in the process of design of modular vault walls, which reduces the costs of production and increases the level of product quality. The paper presents the procedure for calculation of parameters of parts, modules and the entire vault wall in Microsoft Excel based on which the 3D model of a modular vault wall is automatically configured and developed in software package Autodesk Inventor. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR37020

  6. Automatic Energy Schemes for High Performance Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundriyal, Vaibhav [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Although high-performance computing traditionally focuses on the efficient execution of large-scale applications, both energy and power have become critical concerns when approaching exascale. Drastic increases in the power consumption of supercomputers affect significantly their operating costs and failure rates. In modern microprocessor architectures, equipped with dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) and CPU clock modulation (throttling), the power consumption may be controlled in software. Additionally, network interconnect, such as Infiniband, may be exploited to maximize energy savings while the application performance loss and frequency switching overheads must be carefully balanced. This work first studies two important collective communication operations, all-to-all and allgather and proposes energy saving strategies on the per-call basis. Next, it targets point-to-point communications to group them into phases and apply frequency scaling to them to save energy by exploiting the architectural and communication stalls. Finally, it proposes an automatic runtime system which combines both collective and point-to-point communications into phases, and applies throttling to them apart from DVFS to maximize energy savings. The experimental results are presented for NAS parallel benchmark problems as well as for the realistic parallel electronic structure calculations performed by the widely used quantum chemistry package GAMESS. Close to the maximum energy savings were obtained with a substantially low performance loss on the given platform.

  7. Design of Automatic Recognition of Cucumber Disease Image

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Guo; Tonghai Liu; Naixiang Li

    2014-01-01

    An automatic recognition method for cucumber disease images is presented. Threshold for image segmentation was generated with 2 dimensional maximum entropy principle and optimized with differential evolution algorithm. With threshold values generated, we segmented cucumber disease images and picked up the lesion with maximum area from segmentation results as representative lesion. Then we analyzed representative lesions of disease images and extracted theirs color features and texture feature...

  8. Quality assurance package for routine thermoluminescence dosimetry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Quality Assurance Package presented here specifies a set of reader-related hardware diagnostics and calibration procedures and automatically maintains audit trails of generated and derived thermoluminescence data. It specifies acceptable performance criteria for the reader and dosimeter assemblies; tracks and controls Readout Cycle Temperature Profiles; and ensures that the acquired data is verified. The quality of the generated glow curves is tracked by the real-time application of Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution to reference dosimeters that may be mixed with field dosimeters during readout sessions. This package is supported by a menu-driven software system using vertical auto-selection menus, lotus-style horizontal menus, data entry menus with automatic error checking, and pop-up windows. The menu system is supported by an extensive HELP file; data EDITING is password-protected, and a journal is maintained for each editing session as part of the audit trail. Files for the Raw Data and Derived Dose results are maintained and managed in seven databases. The paper provides an in-depth analysis of each of the procedures, specifies data validation criteria, and presents samples of the reports generated

  9. Prevention policies addressing packaging and packaging waste: Some emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencati, Antonio; Pogutz, Stefano; Moda, Beatrice; Brambilla, Matteo; Cacia, Claudia

    2016-10-01

    Packaging waste is a major issue in several countries. Representing in industrialized countries around 30-35% of municipal solid waste yearly generated, this waste stream has steadily grown over the years even if, especially in Europe, specific recycling and recovery targets have been fixed. Therefore, an increasing attention starts to be devoted to prevention measures and interventions. Filling a gap in the current literature, this explorative paper is a first attempt to map the increasingly important phenomenon of prevention policies in the packaging sector. Through a theoretical sampling, 11 countries/states (7 in and 4 outside Europe) have been selected and analyzed by gathering and studying primary and secondary data. Results show evidence of three specific trends in packaging waste prevention policies: fostering the adoption of measures directed at improving packaging design and production through an extensive use of the life cycle assessment; raising the awareness of final consumers by increasing the accountability of firms; promoting collaborative efforts along the packaging supply chains. PMID:27372152

  10. Think INSIDE the Box: Package Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Mark; Painter, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Most products people purchase, keep in their homes, and often discard, are typically packaged in some way. Packaging is so prevalent in daily lives that many of take it for granted. That is by design-the expectation of good packaging is that it exists for the sake of the product. The primary purposes of any package (to contain, inform, display,…

  11. 21 CFR 820.130 - Device packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device packaging. 820.130 Section 820.130 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Labeling and Packaging Control § 820.130 Device packaging. Each manufacturer shall ensure that device packaging and shipping containers are designed and constructed to protect...

  12. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit packaging. 157.27 Section 157.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide...

  13. Challenging the strategy paradigm within the paper packaging industry

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, A; Olander, M.

    2012-01-01

    Formulating and implementing a new strategy may be a challenging task, especially if it alters the way in which a company has operated and positioned itself before. This may be particularly true for companies within the forest industry, like manufacturers of paper packaging products, pursuing differentiated customer value and innovative solutions where, traditionally, success has been measured in volume and relative position on a cost curve. In theory there are different schools of thought an...

  14. Direct off-line robot programming via a common CAD package

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, Pedro; Mendes, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on intuitive and direct off-line robot programming from a CAD drawing running on a common 3-D CAD package. It explores the most suitable way to represent robot motion in a CAD drawing, how to automatically extract such motion data from the drawing, make the mapping of data from the virtual (CAD model) to the real environment and the process of automatic generation of robot paths/programs. In summary, this study aims to present a novel CAD-based robot programming system acce...

  15. Green Packaging Management of Logistics Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guirong; Zhao, Zongjian

    From the connotation of green logistics management, we discuss the principles of green packaging, and from the two levels of government and enterprises, we put forward a specific management strategy. The management of green packaging can be directly and indirectly promoted by laws, regulations, taxation, institutional and other measures. The government can also promote new investment to the development of green packaging materials, and establish specialized institutions to identify new packaging materials, standardization of packaging must also be accomplished through the power of the government. Business units of large scale through the packaging and container-based to reduce the use of packaging materials, develop and use green packaging materials and easy recycling packaging materials for proper packaging.

  16. Safety Analysis Report - Packages, 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the performance of the 9965 B, 9968 B, 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages in satisfying the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 711 and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 edition2. Results of the analysis and testing performed on the 9965 B, 9968 B, 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages are presented in this SARP, which was prepared in accordance with U.S. Department of energy (DOE) Order 5480.33 and in the format specified in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides 7.94 and 7.10.5

  17. Safety analysis report - packages 9965, 9968, 9972-9975 packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the performance of the 9965 B( ), 9968 B( ), 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), 9974 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages in satisfying the regulatory safety requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 71 and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Series No. 6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 1985 edition. Results of the analysis and testing performed on the 9965 B(), 9968 B(), 9972 B(U), 9973 B(U), and 9975 B(U) packages are presented in this SARP, which was prepared in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.3 and in the format specified in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guides 7.9 and 7.10

  18. Semiconductor packaging materials interaction and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, understanding how various materials behave and interact is critical to making a reliable and robust semiconductor package. Semiconductor Packaging: Materials Interaction and Reliability provides a fundamental understanding of the underlying physical properties of the materials used in a semiconductor package. The book focuses on an important step in semiconductor manufacturing--package assembly and testing. It covers the basics of material properties and explains how to determine which behaviors are important to package performance. The authors also discuss how

  19. Phthalate migration from packaging materials into food

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Bogdanovičová; Alžbeta Jarošová

    2015-01-01

    The content of dibutylphthalate (DBP) and di- (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in samples of packages used for packaging meat productsand the phthalate migration from packaging materials to meat products were studied. Five samples of textile packaging intended for cooked meat production were analysed as well asthe final product which was filled into packages. Subsequently an analysis was carried out (after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage) of the finished meat products stored o...

  20. Advanced organics for electronic substrates and packages

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Andrew E

    1992-01-01

    Advanced Organics for Electronic Substrates and Packages provides information on packaging, which is one of the most technologically intensive activities in the electronics industry. The electronics packaging community has realized that while semiconductor devices continue to be improved upon for performance, cost, and reliability, it is the interconnection or packaging of these devices that will limit the performance of the systems. Technology must develop packaging for transistor chips, with high levels of performance and integration providing cooling, power, and interconnection, and yet pre

  1. PACKAGING QUALITY ASSURANCE IN SUPPLY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Cholewa-Wójcik; Agnieszka Kawecka

    2014-01-01

    Packaging is a very important element in products quality maintenance that is why quality of packaging has great influence and its quality assurance is necessary. Physical flow in supply chain may deteriorate some of packaging features, so their monitoring and proper conditions of storage, transport and suitable protection are important.The main goal of the paper was to present model of packaging supply chain with elements that are most influencing packaging quality. In the model are consider...

  2. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Pollay RW; DiFranza JR; Clark DM

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers de...

  3. Reference waste package environment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of three candidate repository sites for high-level radioactive waste packages is located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in rhyolitic tuff 700 to 1400 ft above the static water table. Calculations indicate that the package environment will experience a maximum temperature of ∼2300C at 9 years after emplacement. For the next 300 years the rock within 1 m of the waste packages will remain dehydrated. Preliminary results suggest that the waste package radiation field will have very little effect on the mechanical properties of the rock. Radiolysis products will have a negligible effect on the rock even after rehydration. Unfractured specimens of repository rock show no change in hydrologic characteristics during repeated dehydration-rehydration cycles. Fractured samples with initially high permeabilities show a striking permeability decrease during dehydration-rehydration cycling, which may be due to fracture healing via deposition of silica. Rock-water interaction studies demonstrate low and benign levels of anions and most cations. The development of sorptive secondary phases such as zeolites and clays suggests that anticipated rock-water interaction may produce beneficial changes in the package environment

  4. The reduction of packaging waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

  5. Packaging Technologies for 500C SiC Electronics and Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Various SiC electronics and sensors are currently under development for applications in 500C high temperature environments such as hot sections of aerospace engines and the surface of Venus. In order to conduct long-term test and eventually commercialize these SiC devices, compatible packaging technologies for the SiC electronics and sensors are required. This presentation reviews packaging technologies developed for 500C SiC electronics and sensors to address both component and subsystem level packaging needs for high temperature environments. The packaging system for high temperature SiC electronics includes ceramic chip-level packages, ceramic printed circuit boards (PCBs), and edge-connectors. High temperature durable die-attach and precious metal wire-bonding are used in the chip-level packaging process. A high temperature sensor package is specifically designed to address high temperature micro-fabricated capacitive pressure sensors for high differential pressure environments. This presentation describes development of these electronics and sensor packaging technologies, including some testing results of SiC electronics and capacitive pressure sensors using these packaging technologies.

  6. Automatic Texture Mapping of Architectural and Archaeological 3d Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, T. P.; Stallmann, D.

    2012-07-01

    Today, detailed, complete and exact 3D models with photo-realistic textures are increasingly demanded for numerous applications in architecture and archaeology. Manual texture mapping of 3D models by digital photographs with software packages, such as Maxon Cinema 4D, Autodesk 3Ds Max or Maya, still requires a complex and time-consuming workflow. So, procedures for automatic texture mapping of 3D models are in demand. In this paper two automatic procedures are presented. The first procedure generates 3D surface models with textures by web services, while the second procedure textures already existing 3D models with the software tmapper. The program tmapper is based on the Multi Layer 3D image (ML3DImage) algorithm and developed in the programming language C++. The studies showing that the visibility analysis using the ML3DImage algorithm is not sufficient to obtain acceptable results of automatic texture mapping. To overcome the visibility problem the Point Cloud Painter algorithm in combination with the Z-buffer-procedure will be applied in the future.

  7. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Annual Review in Automatic Programming focuses on the techniques of automatic programming used with digital computers. Topics covered range from the design of machine-independent programming languages to the use of recursive procedures in ALGOL 60. A multi-pass translation scheme for ALGOL 60 is described, along with some commercial source languages. The structure and use of the syntax-directed compiler is also considered.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the basic ideas involved in the description of a computing process as a program for a computer, expressed in

  8. Review: nanocomposites in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Padua, G W

    2010-01-01

    The development of nanocomposites is a new strategy to improve physical properties of polymers, including mechanical strength, thermal stability, and gas barrier properties. The most promising nanoscale size fillers are montmorillonite and kaolinite clays. Graphite nanoplates are currently under study. In food packaging, a major emphasis is on the development of high barrier properties against the migration of oxygen, carbon dioxide, flavor compounds, and water vapor. Decreasing water vapor permeability is a critical issue in the development of biopolymers as sustainable packaging materials. The nanoscale plate morphology of clays and other fillers promotes the development of gas barrier properties. Several examples are cited. Challenges remain in increasing the compatibility between clays and polymers and reaching complete dispersion of nanoplates. Nanocomposites may advance the utilization of biopolymers in food packaging. PMID:20492194

  9. Radiation sterilization and food packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation by gamma radiation or electron beams offers a number of benefits to be consumer and to the food industry. Low doses can delay fruit ripening while higher doses can reduce or eliminate pathrogenic microorganisms and control insect infestation. However, ionizing radiations are known to have an effect on the plastics used for food packaging, especially PVC and polyethylene. This chapter looks at food irradiation generally, including legislation on the irradiation of food packaging materials. The effect on specific polymers (PVC, polyethylenes, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyamides and flexible laminates) is then considered. It is concluded that few of the plastics used for food packaging are significantly affected by an overall average dose of 10KGy, the maximum likely for the irradiation of prepackaged food in the United Kingdom. (UK)

  10. Waste package materials selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) is evaluating a site at Yucca Mountain in Southern Nevada to determine its suitability as a mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). The B ampersand W Fuel Company (BWFC), as a part of the Management and Operating (M ampersand O) team in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), is responsible for designing and developing the waste package for this potential repository. As part of this effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is responsible for testing materials and developing models for the materials to be used in the waste package. This paper is aimed at presenting the selection process for materials needed in fabricating the different components of the waste package

  11. Packaging Attributes of Antioxidant-Rich Instant Coffee and Their Influence on the Purchase Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês P. Corso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify the most important packaging attributes for purchasing a product not currently on the Brazilian market: antioxidant-rich instant coffee, a blend of roasted coffee and green coffee. Five package types of the same brand of instant antioxidant-rich coffee marketed in different countries were evaluated through a focus group. The attributes’ glass shape, glass lid color and label, information and brand were selected for the quantitative study. The purchase intent for the packaging images was evaluated with conjoint analysis. In general, an increased purchase intent was verified for more modern packages and browner labels that indicated roasted coffee. The consumers preferred the image of green and roasted coffee beans next to the cup of coffee and valued information about the product’s differentiation (the origin, type, quantity and functions of antioxidants that was presented in the form of explanatory charts on the back of the packaging.

  12. Packaging methods and storage time

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerstedt Norström, Åsa

    2011-01-01

    Consumers base their purchasing choices on perceived quality and a bright red colour of beef is to many a sign of freshness and good meat quality, making colour the most important quality attribute for retailers. The most common consumer packaging types for beef in Sweden is high-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), with the gas composition (80% O₂; 20% CO₂). The high-oxygen content gives the beef a stable bright red oxymyoglobin colour that is desirable to consumers at the moment of p...

  13. Plastic food packaging and health

    OpenAIRE

    Raika Durusoy; Ali Osman Karababa

    2011-01-01

    Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Ch...

  14. Intelligent food packaging - research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobrucka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Packaging also fosters effective marketing of the food through distribution and sale channels. It is of the utmost importance to optimize the protection of the food, a great quality and appearance - better than typical packaged foods. In recent years, intelligent packaging became very popular. Intelligent packaging is becoming more and more widely used for food products. Application of this type of solution contributes to improvement of the quality consumer life undoubtedly. Intelligent packaging refers to a package that can sense environmental changes, and in turn, informs the users about the changes. These packaging systems contain devices that are capable of sensing and providing information about the functions and properties of the packaged foods. Also, this paper will review intelligent packaging technologies and describe different types of indicators (time-temperature indicators, freshness indicators.

  15. Automatic Radiation Monitoring in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The automatic radiation monitoring system in Slovenia started in early nineties and now it comprises measurements of: 1. External gamma radiation: For the time being there are forty-three probes with GM tubes integrated into a common automatic network, operated at the SNSA. The probes measure dose rate in 30 minute intervals. 2. Aerosol radioactivity: Three automatic aerosol stations measure the concentration of artificial alpha and beta activity in the air, gamma emitting radionuclides, radioactive iodine 131 in the air (in all chemical forms, - natural radon and thoron progeny, 3. Radon progeny concentration: Radon progeny concentration is measured hourly and results are displayed as the equilibrium equivalent concentrations (EEC), 4. Radioactive deposition measurements: As a support to gamma dose rate measurements - the SNSA developed and installed an automatic measuring station for surface contamination equipped with gamma spectrometry system (with 3x3' NaI(Tl) detector). All data are transferred through the different communication pathways to the SNSA. They are collected in 30 minute intervals. Within these intervals the central computer analyses and processes the collected data, and creates different reports. Every month QA/QC analysis of data is performed, showing the statistics of acquisition errors and availability of measuring results. All results are promptly available at the our WEB pages. The data are checked and daily sent to the EURDEP system at Ispra (Italy) and also to the Austrian, Croatian and Hungarian authorities. (author)

  16. Eating as an Automatic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Cohen, MD, MPH

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The continued growth of the obesity epidemic at a time when obesity is highly stigmatizing should make us question the assumption that, given the right information and motivation, people can successfully reduce their food intake over the long term. An alternative view is that eating is an automatic behavior over which the environment has more control than do individuals. Automatic behaviors are those that occur without awareness, are initiated without intention, tend to continue without control, and operate efficiently or with little effort. The concept that eating is an automatic behavior is supported by studies that demonstrate the impact of the environmental context and food presentation on eating. The amount of food eaten is strongly influenced by factors such as portion size, food visibility and salience, and the ease of obtaining food. Moreover, people are often unaware of the amount of food they have eaten or of the environmental influences on their eating. A revised view of eating as an automatic behavior, as opposed to one that humans can self-regulate, has profound implications for our response to the obesity epidemic, suggesting that the focus should be less on nutrition education and more on shaping the food environment.

  17. Automatic Association of News Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Christina; Watters, Carolyn

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of electronic news delivery systems and the automatic generation of electronic editions focuses on the association of related items of different media type, specifically photos and stories. The goal is to be able to determine to what degree any two news items refer to the same news event. (Author/LRW)

  18. Automatic quantification of iris color

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S.; Harder, Stine; Andersen, J. D.;

    2012-01-01

    An automatic algorithm to quantify the eye colour and structural information from standard hi-resolution photos of the human iris has been developed. Initially, the major structures in the eye region are identified including the pupil, iris, sclera, and eyelashes. Based on this segmentation, the ...

  19. 05501 Summary -- Automatic Performance Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gerndt, Hans Michael; Malony, Allen; Miller, Barton P.; Nagel, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The Workshop on Automatic Performance Analysis (WAPA 2005, Dagstuhl Seminar 05501), held December 13-16, 2005, brought together performance researchers, developers, and practitioners with the goal of better understanding the methods, techniques, and tools that are needed for the automation of performance analysis for high performance computing.

  20. Automatic Identification of Metaphoric Utterances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jonathan Edwin

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes the problem of metaphor identification in linguistic and computational semantics, considering both manual and automatic approaches. It describes a manual approach to metaphor identification, the Metaphoricity Measurement Procedure (MMP), and compares this approach with other manual approaches. The dissertation then…

  1. Color in packaging design : Case: ZheJiang JinSheng packaging Co,Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Cuicui

    2010-01-01

    Color occupies an important position in packaging design, with the improvement of living standard, the higher requirement of color design in packaging. The aim of this thesis was to discuss key issues concerning aesthetics of packaging design. Topics will include an overview of the packaging design, the influence factor of packaging design, and introduce the aesthetics from packaging aspect. This thesis will also identify common problems of the production process, and list the phases of ho...

  2. Green Packaging Development. : A way to efficient, effective and more environmental friendly packaging solutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Mian Muhammad, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    Growing pressure on the packaging design to enhance the environmental and logistics performance of a packaging system stresses the packaging designers to search new design strategies that not only fulfill logistics requirements in the supply chain, but also reduce the CO 2emissions during the packaging life cycle. This thesis focuses on the packaging design process and suggests some improvements by considering its logistics performance and CO 2emissions. A Green packaging development model wa...

  3. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations ampersand Development (PO ampersand D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage

  4. Comparison of different LED Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieker, Henning; Miesner, Christian; Püttjer, Dirk; Bachl, Bernhard

    2007-09-01

    In this paper different technologies for LED packaging are compared, focusing on Chip on Board (COB) and SMD technology. The package technology which is used depends on the LED application. A critical fact in LED technology is the thermal management, especially for high brightness LED applications because the thermal management is important for reliability, lifetime and electrooptical performance of the LED module. To design certain and long life LED applications knowledge of the heat flow from LEDs to the complete application is required. High sophisticated FEM simulations are indispensable for modern development of high power LED applications. We compare simulations of various substrate materials and packaging technologies simulated using FLOTHERM software. Thereby different substrates such as standard FR4, ceramic and metal core printed circuit boards are considered. For the verification of the simulated results and the testing of manufactured modules, advanced measurement tools are required. We show different ways to experimentally characterize the thermal behavior of LED modules. The thermal path is determined by the transient thermal analysis using the MicReD T3Ster analyzer. Afterwards it will be compared to the conventional method using thermocouples. The heat distribution over the module is investigated by an IR-Camera. We demonstrate and compare simulation and measurement results of Chip-on-Board (COB) and Sub-Mounted Devices (SMD) technology. The results reveal that for different applications certain packages are ideal.

  5. Food Nanotechnology - Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part, the impetus for this predicted growth is the ...

  6. Food Nanotechnology: Food Packaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astonishing growth in the market for nanofoods is predicted in the future, from the current market of $2.6 billion to $20.4 billion in 2010. The market for nanotechnology in food packaging alone is expected to reach $360 million in 2008. In large part the impetus for this predicted growth is the e...

  7. Plastic food packaging and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raika Durusoy

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plastics have a wide usage in our daily lives. One of their uses is for food packaging and food containers. The aim of this review is to introduce different types of chemicals that can leach from food packaging plastics into foods and cause human exposure and to mention their effects on health. The types of plastics were reviewed under the 13 headings in Turkish Codex Alimentarius and plastics recycling symbols were provided to enable the recognition of the type of plastic when applicable. Chemicals used during the production and that can cause health risks are investigated under the heading of the relevant type of plastic. The most important chemicals from plastic food packaging that can cause toxicity are styrene, 1,3-butadiene, melamine, formaldehyde, acrylamide, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl adipate, vinyl chloride and bisphenol A. These chemicals have endocrine disrupting, carcinogenic and/or development disrupting effects. These chemicals may leach into foods depending on the chemical properties of the plastic or food, temperature during packaging, processing and storage, exposure to UV and duration of storage. Contact with fatty/oily or acidic foods, heating of the food inside the container, or drinking hot drinks from plastic cups, use of old and scratched plastics and some detergents increase the risk of leaching. The use of plastic containers and packaging for food and beveradges should be avoided whenever possible and when necessary, less harmful types of plastic should be preferred. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 87-96

  8. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  9. Flat-package DIP handling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelou, E.; Fraser, R.

    1977-01-01

    Device, using magnetic attraction, can facilitate handling of integrated-circuit flat packages and prevent contamination and bent leads. Tool lifts packages by their cases and releases them by operation of manual plunger.

  10. Orbital welding automatic pressure test by ODA automatic machines is 35 years old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development review of technology and equipment of automatic orbital welding with automatic pressures test of nuclear power stations pipelines and different purpose objects is performed. Welding variants with automatic pressure test and different welding automatic machines are described. Priority of national developments is underlined

  11. The development of a packaging handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Packaging Handbook, dealing with the development of packagings designed to carry radioactive material, is being written for DOE's Transportation and Packaging Safety Division. The primary goal of the Handbook is to provide sufficient technical information and guidance to improve the quality of Safety Analysis Reports on Type B Packagings (SARPs) that are submitted to DOE for certification. This paper provides an update on the status of the Handbook

  12. Consumer perception: attributes considered important in packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Nara Medianeira Stefano; Nelson Casarotto Filho

    2012-01-01

    Packaging has been considered the main vehicle for sales, brand building and product identity, since it is the first contact with the product that the consumer has, it is fundamental when choosing and buying a product. In this sense, the packaging is a silent salesperson, because it is up to the package to attract attention, create interest and desire, show the quality of the product and close the sale within seconds. Packaging has contributed to corporate communication with consumers; it pro...

  13. Recent Advances in Antioxidant Active Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches-Silva, Ana; de Costa, Denise; Albuquerque, T.G.; Castilho, Maria Conceição; Ramos, Fernando; Machado, Ana V.; Costa, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent Advances in Antioxidant Active Food Packaging: Food oxidation; Antioxidants; Food Packaging; Active Packaging; Legislation; Natural antioxidants. This work was supported by the project PTDC/AGRTEC/3366/2012 with the acronym Rose4Pack (Biodegradable active packaging with rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) to improve food shelf-life) and funded by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) and COMPETE Program (FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-028015). Denise Costa is grateful for th...

  14. Active Packaging: application of natural antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches-Silva, Ana; de Costa, Denise; Albuquerque, T.G.; Castilho, Maria Conceição; Ramos, Fernando; Machado, Ana V.; Costa, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    Natural antioxidants applied in Active food Packaging: Food oxidation; Antioxidants; Food Packaging; Active Packaging; Legislation; Natural antioxidants. This work was supported by the project PTDC/AGRTEC/3366/2012 with the acronym Rose4Pack (Biodegradable active packaging with rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) to improve food shelf-life) and funded by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) and COMPETE Program (FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-028015).

  15. Intelligent food packaging - research and development

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Dobrucka; Ryszard Cierpiszewski; Andrzej Korzeniowski

    2015-01-01

    Packaging also fosters effective marketing of the food through distribution and sale channels. It is of the utmost importance to optimize the protection of the food, a great quality and appearance - better than typical packaged foods. In recent years, intelligent packaging became very popular. Intelligent packaging is becoming more and more widely used for food products. Application of this type of solution contributes to improvement of the quality consumer life undoubtedly. Intelligent packa...

  16. Automatic mapping of monitoring data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophaven, Søren; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Søndergaard, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an approach, based on universal kriging, for automatic mapping of monitoring data. The performance of the mapping approach is tested on two data-sets containing daily mean gamma dose rates in Germany reported by means of the national automatic monitoring network (IMIS). In the...... second dataset an accidental release of radioactivity in the environment was simulated in the South-Western corner of the monitored area. The approach has a tendency to smooth the actual data values, and therefore it underestimates extreme values, as seen in the second dataset. However, it is capable of...... identifying a release of radioactivity provided that the number of sampling locations is sufficiently high. Consequently, we believe that a combination of applying the presented mapping approach and the physical knowledge of the transport processes of radioactivity should be used to predict the extreme values...

  17. Automatic Schema Evolution in Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ReneBrun; FonsRademakers

    2001-01-01

    ROOT version 3(spring 2001) supports automatic class schema evolution.In addition this version also produces files that are self-describing.This is achieved by storing in each file a record with the description of all the persistent classes in the file.Being self-describing guarantees that a file can always be read later,its structure browsed and objects inspected.also when the library with the compiled code of these classes is missing The schema evolution mechanism supports the frequent case when multiple data sets generated with many different class versions must be analyzed in the same session.ROOT supports the automatic generation of C++ code describing the data objects in a file.

  18. Physics of Automatic Target Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, Firooz

    2007-01-01

    Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...

  19. Automatic schema evolution in Root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROOT version 3 (spring 2001) supports automatic class schema evolution. In addition this version also produces files that are self-describing. This is achieved by storing in each file a record with the description of all the persistent classes in the file. Being self-describing guarantees that a file can always be read later, its structure browsed and objects inspected, also when the library with the compiled code of these classes is missing. The schema evolution mechanism supports the frequent case when multiple data sets generated with many different class versions must be analyzed in the same session. ROOT supports the automatic generation of C++ code describing the data objects in a file

  20. Automatic spikes detection in seismogram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海军; 靳平; 刘贵忠

    2003-01-01

    @@ Data processing for seismic network is very complex and fussy, because a lot of data is recorded in seismic network every day, which make it impossible to process these data all by manual work. Therefore, seismic data should be processed automatically to produce a initial results about events detection and location. Afterwards, these results are reviewed and modified by analyst. In automatic processing data quality checking is important. There are three main problem data thatexist in real seismic records, which include: spike, repeated data and dropouts. Spike is defined as isolated large amplitude point; the other two problem datahave the same features that amplitude of sample points are uniform in a interval. In data quality checking, the first step is to detect and statistic problem data in a data segment, if percent of problem data exceed a threshold, then the whole data segment is masked and not be processed in the later process.

  1. Automatic registration of satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Leila M. G.; Costa, Max H. M.; Manjunath, B. S.; Kenney, C.

    1997-01-01

    Image registration is one of the basic image processing operations in remote sensing. With the increase in the number of images collected every day from different sensors, automated registration of multi-sensor/multi-spectral images has become an important issue. A wide range of registration techniques has been developed for many different types of applications and data. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic registration algorithm which uses a multiresolution analysis procedure based upon the wavelet transform. The procedure is completely automatic and relies on the grey level information content of the images and their local wavelet transform modulus maxima. The registration algorithm is very simple and easy to apply because it needs basically one parameter. We have obtained very encouraging results on test data sets from the TM and SPOT sensor images of forest, urban and agricultural areas.

  2. The Automatic Galaxy Collision Software

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Beverly J; Pfeiffer, Phillip; Perkins, Sam; Barkanic, Jason; Fritts, Steve; Southerland, Derek; Manchikalapudi, Dinikar; Baker, Matt; Luckey, John; Franklin, Coral; Moffett, Amanda; Struck, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    The key to understanding the physical processes that occur during galaxy interactions is dynamical modeling, and especially the detailed matching of numerical models to specific systems. To make modeling interacting galaxies more efficient, we have constructed the `Automatic Galaxy Collision' (AGC) code, which requires less human intervention in finding good matches to data. We present some preliminary results from this code for the well-studied system Arp 284 (NGC 7714/5), and address questions of uniqueness of solutions.

  3. Automatic Generation of Technical Documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Ehud; Mellish, Chris; Levine, John

    1994-01-01

    Natural-language generation (NLG) techniques can be used to automatically produce technical documentation from a domain knowledge base and linguistic and contextual models. We discuss this application of NLG technology from both a technical and a usefulness (costs and benefits) perspective. This discussion is based largely on our experiences with the IDAS documentation-generation project, and the reactions various interested people from industry have had to IDAS. We hope that this summary of ...

  4. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Halpern, Mark I; Bolliet, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Computer Science and Technology and their Application is an eight-chapter book that first presents a tutorial on database organization. Subsequent chapters describe the general concepts of Simula 67 programming language; incremental compilation and conversational interpretation; dynamic syntax; the ALGOL 68. Other chapters discuss the general purpose conversational system for graphical programming and automatic theorem proving based on resolution. A survey of extensible programming language is also shown.

  5. Automatically constructing the semantic web

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra, Victor Manuel; Brown, Matthew; Nasuto, Slawomir

    2008-01-01

    The storage and processing capacity realised by computing has lead to an explosion of data retention. We now reach the point of information overload and must begin to use computers to process more complex information. In particular, the proposition of the Semantic Web has given structure to this problem, but has yet realised practically. The largest of its problems is that of ontology construction; without a suitable automatic method most will have to be encoded by hand. In this paper we disc...

  6. Approaches to Automatic Text Structuring

    OpenAIRE

    Erbs, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Structured text helps readers to better understand the content of documents. In classic newspaper texts or books, some structure already exists. In the Web 2.0, the amount of textual data, especially user-generated data, has increased dramatically. As a result, there exists a large amount of textual data which lacks structure, thus making it more difficult to understand. In this thesis, we will explore techniques for automatic text structuring to help readers to fulfill their information need...

  7. The Automatic Measurement of Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    1997-01-01

    The automatic measurement of targets is demonstrated by means of a theoretical example and by an interactive measuring program for real imagery from a réseau camera. The used strategy is a combination of two methods: the maximum correlation coefficient and the correlation in the subpixel range. F...... interactive software is also part of a computer-assisted learning program on digital photogrammetry....

  8. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  9. Automatic translation among spoken languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Sharon M.; Costigan, Kelly

    1994-02-01

    The Machine Aided Voice Translation (MAVT) system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation, and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish. The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper.

  10. 7 CFR 58.626 - Packaging equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging equipment. 58.626 Section 58.626 Agriculture....626 Packaging equipment. Packaging equipment designed to mechanically fill and close single service... accessible for cleaning. The design and operation of the machine shall in no way contaminate the container...

  11. Packaging of high power semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xingsheng; Xiong, Lingling; Liu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces high power semiconductor laser packaging design. The characteristics and challenges of the design and various packaging, processing, and testing techniques are detailed by the authors. New technologies, in particular thermal technologies, current applications, and trends in high power semiconductor laser packaging are described at length and assessed.

  12. Development of packaging technologies for microsystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yu-feng; WANG Zhen-feng; WEI Jun

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that packaging plays a very important role in developing microsystems. Packaging accounts for about 60%~80% of cost and function of a microsystem. Package is required to provide mechanical protection, media separation or coupling, signal conditioning, etc.

  13. 19 CFR 134.53 - Examination packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination packages. 134.53 Section 134.53... TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Found Not Legally Marked § 134.53 Examination packages. (a) Site of marking—(1) Customs custody. Articles (or containers) in examination packages may be marked...

  14. 9 CFR 354.72 - Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging. 354.72 Section 354.72... CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Supervision of Marking and Packaging § 354.72 Packaging. No container which bears or may bear any official identification or any...

  15. 27 CFR 6.93 - Combination packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Combination packaging. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.93 Combination packaging. The act by an industry member of packaging and distributing distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages in...

  16. 16 CFR 1702.12 - Packaging specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging specifications. 1702.12 Section 1702.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT OF 1970 REGULATIONS PETITIONS FOR EXEMPTIONS FROM POISON PREVENTION PACKAGING ACT REQUIREMENTS; PETITION...

  17. Packaging of Sin Goods - Commitment or Exploitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia

    to such self-control problems, and possibly exploit them, by offering different package sizes. In a competitive market, either one or three (small, medium and large) packages are offered. In contrast to common intuition, the large, and not the small package is a commitment device. The latter serves...

  18. 49 CFR 130.21 - Packaging requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packaging requirements. 130.21 Section 130.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Packaging requirements. Each packaging used for the transportation of oil subject to this part must...

  19. 7 CFR 58.640 - Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaging. 58.640 Section 58.640 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.640 Packaging. The packaging of the semifrozen product shall be done by means which will...

  20. Constraint Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...... experimentation. Our results show that constraint differentiation substantially reduces search and considerably improves the performance of OFMC, enabling its application to a wider class of problems....

  1. Introduction of SCIENCE code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SCIENCE code package is a set of neutronics tools based on 2D assembly calculations and 3D core calculations. It is made up of APOLLO2F, SMART and SQUALE and used to perform the nuclear design and loading pattern analysis for the reactors on operation or under construction of China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group. The purpose of paper is to briefly present the physical and numerical models used in each computation codes of the SCIENCE code pack age, including the description of the general structure of the code package, the coupling relationship of APOLLO2-F transport lattice code and SMART core nodal code, and the SQUALE code used for processing the core maps. (authors)

  2. Differential manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kosinski, Antoni A

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of differential topology form the center of many mathematical disciplines such as differential geometry and Lie group theory. Differential Manifolds presents to advanced undergraduates and graduate students the systematic study of the topological structure of smooth manifolds. Author Antoni A. Kosinski, Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at Rutgers University, offers an accessible approach to both the h-cobordism theorem and the classification of differential structures on spheres.""How useful it is,"" noted the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, ""to have a single, sho

  3. The Source Term Code Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Source Term Code Package (STCP) is a set of computer codes which allows analyses of nuclear reactor accidents to produce predictions of fission product release to the environment as a function of reactor design and specifications for the assumed accident. The codes are basically those used in the analyses performed for the BMI-2104 report but they have been combined, improved and streamlined for easier use. The objective in preparing this code package was to make the calculations more direct, traceable and user-independent, with documentation for release to the public. It is important to note that the STCP is not intended to be a research tool but a code for general use in making source term predictions that has a sound and definable basis and produces reasonably accurate results in comparison with more detailed codes. The STCP has four major elements. The overall thermal-hydraulics is provided by the MARCH-3 code which combines the previously separate codes MARCH2, CORCON Mod 2 and CORSORM. Release of fission products and aerosols during core/concrete interactions is predicted with the VANESA code. Detailed thermal-hydraulics and fission product transport in the reactor coolant system are provided by the TRAPMELT3 code formed by combining the previously separate TRAPMELT and MERGE codes. Finally, fission product transport in the containment is predicted by the NAUA-4 code as modified to include fission product removal by pressure suppression pools (SPARC code) and within ice compartments (ICEDF code). The fission product and aerosol groups being tracked in the code package are noble gases, iodine, caesium, tellurium, barium, strontium, ruthenium, lanthanum and cerium groups. Additionally, in-vessel-produced aerosols and ex-vessel-produced aerosols are tracked. The code package produces time-dependent locational distributions, physical forms and transport rates for these groups throughout the course of the accident. (author)

  4. Traceability Research at Packaging Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Fagerlund, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Research at the division of Packaging Logistics, Lund University, has been performed in numerous areas, ranging from organisational learning and sustainability to process integration and service development. One of these is the new and complex research area of traceability. When it comes to food scandals, from the mad cow disease at the end of the 90s to the more recent incident where glass has been found in chicken, this has increased focus on traceability research in food supply chains....

  5. Transportation and packaging resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, J.W.; Gove, R.M.; Welch, M.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE`s mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin.

  6. Food packaging and radiation sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoko [Division of Food Additives, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in `Bag in a Box` and some food containers. The {gamma} ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The {gamma} ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

  7. Food packaging and radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in 'Bag in a Box' and some food containers. The γ ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The γ ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

  8. Packaging shRNA retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kenneth; Marran, Krista; Valentine, Amy; Hannon, Gregory J

    2013-08-01

    To silence a mammalian gene by RNAi using an encoded trigger, a short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) is integrated into the host cell genome as a stable transgene. Target cells are infected with viral plasmid containing shRNA inserted into the vector backbone. Before infection, the plasmid is transfected into a packaging cell line, which provides the trans-acting factors necessary for virus production. These include, minimally, capsid proteins and reverse transcriptase, but they can also include other regulatory factors (e.g., tat for some lentiviral vectors). It is critical to choose the correct packaging cell system for the viral backbone to be used. The packaging cell also defines the host range of the virus, depending on the envelope protein that it expresses. Ecotropic viruses are limited to rodent hosts, whereas amphotropic viruses have a broader host range that also includes humans. Often, investigators will express a nonretroviral envelope, such as vesicular stomatitus virus (VSV) glycoprotein, to enhance virus stability and host range and to enable viruses to be concentrated following production. Although viruses carrying shRNAs are packaged almost identically to viruses carrying protein-encoding genes, one twist is worth noting. shRNAs are efficiently cleaved by the host RNAi biogenesis machinery, which can reduce the level of viral genomic RNAs and consequently viral titers. Therefore, titers can be enhanced by cotransfecting the viral plasmid with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) that targets DGCR-8/Pasha, which is a core microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis component. siRNAs against Drosha can also be used. PMID:23906912

  9. Transportation and packaging resource guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this resource guide is to provide a convenient reference document of information that may be useful to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractor personnel involved in packaging and transportation activities. An attempt has been made to present the terminology of DOE community usage as it currently exists. DOE's mission is changing with emphasis on environmental cleanup. The terminology or nomenclature that has resulted from this expanded mission is included for the packaging and transportation user for reference purposes. Older terms still in use during the transition have been maintained. The Packaging and Transportation Resource Guide consists of four sections: Sect. 1, Introduction; Sect. 2, Abbreviations and Acronyms; Sect. 3, Definitions; and Sect. 4, References for packaging and transportation of hazardous materials and related activities, and Appendices A and B. Information has been collected from DOE Orders and DOE documents; U.S Department of Transportation (DOT), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations; and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards and other international documents. The definitions included in this guide may not always be a regulatory definition but are the more common DOE usage. In addition, the definitions vary among regulatory agencies. It is, therefore, suggested that if a definition is to be used in a regulatory or a legal compliance issue, the definition should be verified with the appropriate regulation. To assist in locating definitions in the regulations, a listing of all definition sections in the regulations are included in Appendix B. In many instances, the appropriate regulatory reference is indicated in the right-hand margin

  10. dglars: An R Package to Estimate Sparse Generalized Linear Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Augugliaro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available dglars is a publicly available R package that implements the method proposed in Augugliaro, Mineo, and Wit (2013, developed to study the sparse structure of a generalized linear model. This method, called dgLARS, is based on a differential geometrical extension of the least angle regression method proposed in Efron, Hastie, Johnstone, and Tibshirani (2004. The core of the dglars package consists of two algorithms implemented in Fortran 90 to efficiently compute the solution curve: a predictor-corrector algorithm, proposed in Augugliaro et al. (2013, and a cyclic coordinate descent algorithm, proposed in Augugliaro, Mineo, and Wit (2012. The latter algorithm, as shown here, is significantly faster than the predictor-corrector algorithm. For comparison purposes, we have implemented both algorithms.

  11. Towards automatic analytic evaluation of massive Feynman diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to calculate two-loop self-energy diagrams of the Standard Model is demonstrated. A direct physical application is the calculation of the two-loop electroweak contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of themuon 1/2(g-2)μ. Presently we confine ourselves to a ''toy'' model with only μ, γ and a scalar particle (Higgs). The algorithm is implemented as a package of computer programs in FORM. For generating and automatically evaluating any number of two-loop self-energy diagrams, a special C-program has been written. This program creates the initial FORM-expression for every diagram generated by QGRAF, executes the corresponding subroutines and sums up the final results. (orig.)

  12. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report

  13. Glass packages in interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the behavior of type C waste packages consisting of vitrified high-level solutions produced by reprocessing spent fuel. The composition and the physical and chemical properties of the feed solutions are reviewed, and the vitrification process is described. Sodium alumino-borosilicate glass compositions are generally employed - the glass used at la Hague for LWR fuel solutions, for example, contains 45 % SiO2. The major physical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties of the glass are reviewed. In order to allow their thermal power to diminish, the 3630 glass packages produced (as of January 1993) in the vitrification facilities at Marcoule and La Hague are placed in interim storage for several decades. The actual interim storage period has not been defined, as it is closely related to the concept and organization selected for the final destination of the packages: a geological repository. The glass behavior under irradiation is described. Considerable basic and applied research has been conducted to assess the aqueous leaching behavior of nuclear containment glass. The effects of various repository parameters (temperature, flow rate, nature of the environmental materials) have been investigated. The experimental findings have been used to specify a model describing the kinetics of aqueous corrosion of the glass. More generally all the ''source term'' models developed in France by the CEA or by ANDRA are summarized. (author). 152 refs., 33 figs

  14. "Programmed packaging" for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, M; Sakurai, Y; Akita, H; Harashima, H

    2014-11-10

    We report on the development of a multifunctional envelope-type nano device (MEND) based on our packaging concept "Programmed packaging" to control not only intracellular trafficking but also the biodistribution of encapsulated compounds such as nucleic acids/proteins/peptides. Our strategy for achieving this is based on molecular mechanisms of cell biology such as endocytosis, vesicular trafficking, etc. In this review, we summarize the concept of programmed packaging and discuss some of our recent successful examples of using MENDs. Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) was applied as a new methodology for identifying a new ligand toward cell or mitochondria. The delivery of siRNA to tumors and the tumor vasculature was achieved using pH sensitive lipid (YSK05), which was newly designed and optimized under in vivo conditions. The efficient delivery of pDNA to immune cells such as dendritic cells has also been developed using the KALA ligand, which can be a breakthrough technology for DNA vaccine. Finally, ss-cleavable and pH-activated lipid-like surfactant (ssPalm) which is a lipid like material with pH-activatable and SS-cleavable properties is also introduced as a proof of our concept. PMID:24780263

  15. Solidified package-storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification products such as high level radioactive liquid wastes are contained in a solidification package. A containing tube for vertically containing the solidification packages in multi-stages is disposed such that it passes through a ceiling slab. A shielding plug for preventing leakage of radiation from the solidification packages is fitted to an upper opening thereof. A lid of the containing tube is fitted above the plug. The lid is a carbon steel plate having a thickness of 10cm or more. A heat insulation layer comprising glass wool or rock wool is formed on the lower surface of the ceiling slab. A radiation shielding layer comprising such as an iron plate is formed on the lower surface of the heat insulation layer. Then, deterioration of the ceiling slug by heat can be prevented by the heat insulation layer even if high temperature cooling air flown from the upper opening of a ventilation tube should reach the lower surface of the ceiling slab. (I.N.)

  16. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  17. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-09-28

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

  18. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time. PMID:26803804

  19. Social influence effects on automatic racial prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, B S; Hardin, C D; Sinclair, S

    2001-11-01

    Although most research on the control of automatic prejudice has focused on the efficacy of deliberate attempts to suppress or correct for stereotyping, the reported experiments tested the hypothesis that automatic racial prejudice is subject to common social influence. In experiments involving actual interethnic contact, both tacit and expressed social influence reduced the expression of automatic prejudice, as assessed by two different measures of automatic attitudes. Moreover, the automatic social tuning effect depended on participant ethnicity. European Americans (but not Asian Americans) exhibited less automatic prejudice in the presence of a Black experimenter than a White experimenter (Experiments 2 and 4), although both groups exhibited reduced automatic prejudice when instructed to avoid prejudice (Experiment 3). Results are consistent with shared reality theory, which postulates that social regulation is central to social cognition. PMID:11708561

  20. Automatic hypermnesia and impaired recollection in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linscott, R J; Knight, R G

    2001-10-01

    Evidence from studies of nonmnemonic automatic cognitive processes provides reason to expect that schizophrenia is associated with exaggerated automatic memory (implicit memory), or automatic hypermnesia. Participants with schizophrenia (n = 22) and control participants (n = 26) were compared on word stem completion (WSC) and list discrimination (LD) tasks administered using the process dissociation procedure. Unadjusted, extended measurement model and dual-process signal-detection methods were used to estimate recollection and automatic memory indices. Schizophrenia was associated with automatic hypermnesia on the WSC task and impaired recollection on both tasks. Thought disorder was associated with even greater automatic hypermnesia. The absence of automatic hypermnesia on the LD task was interpreted with reference to the neuropsychological bases of context and content memory. PMID:11761047

  1. Package for calculations and simplifications of expressions with Dirac matrices (MatrixExp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, V. A.

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes a package for calculations of expressions with Dirac matrices. Advantages over existing similar packages are described. MatrixExp package is intended for simplification of complex expressions involving γ-matrices, providing such tools as automatic Feynman parameterization, integration in d-dimensional space, sorting and grouping of results in a given order. Also, in comparison with the existing similar package Tracer, the presented package MatrixExp has more enhanced input possibility. User-available functions of MatrixExp package are described in detail. Also an example of calculation of Feynman diagram for process b→sγg with application of functions of MatrixExp package is presented. Program summaryTitle of program:MatrixExp Catalogue identifier:ADWB Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWB Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:none Programming language:MATHEMATICA Computer:PC Pentium Operating system:Windows No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1551 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 16 040 Distribution format:tar.gz RAM:loading the package uses approx. 3 500 000 bytes of RAM. However memory required for calculations depends heavily on the expressions in the view, as the package uses recursive functions, and MATHEMATICA dynamically allocates memory. Package has been tested to work on PC Pentium II 233 MHz with 128 Mb of memory calculating typical diagrams of contemporary calculations. Nature of problem:Feynman diagram calculation, simplification of expressions with γ-matrices Solution method:Analytic transformations, dimensional regularization, Feynman parameterization Restrictions:MatrixExp package works only with single line of expressions (G[l1, …]), in contrast to the Tracer package that works with multiple lines, i.e., the following is possible in Tracer, but not in MatrixExp: G[l1,

  2. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up...... requirements for package formats used for long term preserved digital material, and using these requirements as the basis for analysing a range of package formats. The result of the concrete investigation is that the WARC format is the package format best suited for the listed requirements. Fulfilling the...

  3. The Model 9977 Radioactive Material Packaging Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-09

    The Model 9977 Packaging is a single containment drum style radioactive material (RAM) shipping container designed, tested and analyzed to meet the performance requirements of Title 10 the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A radioactive material shipping package, in combination with its contents, must perform three functions (please note that the performance criteria specified in the Code of Federal Regulations have alternate limits for normal operations and after accident conditions): Containment, the package must “contain” the radioactive material within it; Shielding, the packaging must limit its users and the public to radiation doses within specified limits; and Subcriticality, the package must maintain its radioactive material as subcritical

  4. Conceptual design for HIC transport package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd.(KHNP) is developing a HIC(High Integrity Container) transport package to transport a high integrity container from the radioactive waste treatment facility of the nuclear power plant to the interim storage building of radioactive waste. The transport package is designed according to the requirements of the Korean and the IAEA transport regulations for Type B package. The transport package provides containment, radiation shielding, structural integrity and passive heat removal for normal transport and hypothetical accident conditions. This paper describes the conceptual design for the HIC transport package

  5. Best Practice in Policy Package Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Florian; Vesela, Jirina; Vencl, Vaclav;

    2010-01-01

    This deliverable focuses on the identification and analysis of best practice examples of policy package design. For this purpose a methodology is developed that allows the systematic analysis of both national and EU policy packages. Eight packages were selected and analysed, highlighting...... the factors which supported the design and implementation process in each case. The results of the analysis show which factors led to these cases to be considered best practice. In addition, factors are identified which are not yet part of the generic policy packaging framework presented in earlier OPTIC...... Deliverables. The consideration of these factors will help to further improve the framework in the subsequent work packages....

  6. Differential algebras without differentials: An easy C++ implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automated differentiation can be motivated and explained rather plainly without any reference to infinitesimals or differentials whatsoever. We shall describe one possible approach in this paper. The method which we shall use will suggest its own implementation. However, FORTRAN is not the most natural language in which to carry it out. In the second section we shall describe an almost trivial implementation using C++. (Indeed, one of the motivations for writing this paper is to persuade militant FORTRAN extremists to invest the four or five days necessary to learn this powerful and easy language.) Take heed, however, that what we describe below is only a stripped-down implementation, written in three days, of differential algebra's most essential features; it is not as robust as and does not contain the battery of tools available in Berz's DA package, the product of a significant amount of work. 10 refs

  7. Perspectives on the Elements of Packaging Design : A Qualitative Study on the Communication of Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Alervall, Viktoria; Saied, Juan Sdiq

    2013-01-01

    Background: In today’s markets almost all products we buy come packaged. We use packaging to protect, contain and identify products. Furthermore if this is executed in a skillful way consumers often choose products based on packaging. The work of a designer and marketer is therefore extremely valuable when it comes to the design of a package. Problem: How are packages used to communicate marketing information? Purpose: The focus of this thesis is to identify differences and similarities of a ...

  8. The art of packaging: An investigation into the role of color in packaging, marketing, and branding

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Mohebbi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the existing research in the field of packaging and marketing and shed more light on the psychology of colors and their effect on packaging and marketing. Nowadays, packaging is proved to be one of the significant factors in the success of promoting product sale. However, there is a perceived gap with respect to the different aspects of packaging, in particular the graphics, design, and color of packaging. The current study provides...

  9. The estimation of exposure to food packaging material.1. The development of a food packaging database

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Edel; Hearty, Aine; Gilsenan, Mary; Gibney, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A food packaging database was developed to provide qualitative information on the types of packaging materials used for foods. Packaging information was collected from a sample of 594 children aged 5-12 years as part of a national children?s food survey carried out in Ireland during 2003-2004. All of the food packaging collected during this survey was forwarded to the coordinating centre for further analysis and entry into the Irish Food Packaging Database. This database w...

  10. Lunar Dust Analysis Package - LDAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, S. A.; Richter, L.; Goepel, M.; Sovago, M.; Pike, W. T.; Yang, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Claus, D.

    2012-09-01

    The Lunar Dust Analysis package (L-DAP) is a suite of payloads which have been designed to operate in synergy with each other at the Lunar Surface. The benefits of combining these payloads in a single package allow very precise measurements of a particular regolith sample. At the same time the integration allows mass savings since common resources are shared and this also means that interfaces with the Lander are simplified significantly leading to benefits of integration and development of the overall mission. Lunar Dust represents a real hazard for lunar exploration due to its invasive, fine microscopic structure and toxic properties. However it is also valuable resource which could be exploited for future exploration if the characteristics and chemical composition is well known. Scientifically, the regolith provides an insight into the moon formation process and there are areas on the Moon which have never been ex-plored before. For example the Lunar South Pole Aitken Basin is the oldest and largest on the moon, providing excavated deep crust which has not been found on the previous lunar landing missions. The SEA-led team has been designing a compact package, known as LDAP, which will provide key data on the lunar dust properties. The intention is for this package to be part of the payload suite deployed on the ESA Lunar Lander Mission in 2018. The LDAP has a centralised power and data electronics, including front end electronics for the detectors as well as sample handling subsystem for the following set of internal instruments : • Optical Microscope - with a 1μm resolution to provide context of the regolith samples • Raman and LIBS spectrographic instrumentation providing quantification of mineral and elemental composition information of the soil at close to grain scale. This includes the capability to detect (and measure abundance of) crystalline and adsorbed volatile phases, from their Raman signature. The LIBS equipment will also allow chemical

  11. Examination of shipping package 9975-02403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    SRNL examined shipping package 9975-02403 following storage of nuclear material in K-Area Complex (KAC). As a result of field surveillance activities in KAC, this package was identified to contain several non-conforming and other conditions. Further examination of this package in SRNL confirmed significant moisture and mold in the bottom layers of the lower fiberboard assembly, and identified additional corrosion along the seam weld and on the bottom of the drum. It was recently recommended that checking for corrosion along the bottom edge of the drum be implemented for packages that are removed from storage, as well as high wattage packages remaining in storage. The appearance of such corrosion on 9975-02403 further indicates that such corrosion may provide an indication of significant moisture concentration and related degradation within the package. This condition is more likely to develop in packages with higher internal heat loads.

  12. Theory of the Golden Packaging Design Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玮

    2012-01-01

      Color as a design language, in the packaging design field with a strong visual impact, is not only the ele-ments of commodity packaging, is the soul of the sales package, has become an important means of advertising goods image one. And the golden packaging and packaging the most popular the most brilliant. Golden art design to use in packing, we must request in the system designer can grasp the basic theory on the basis of the color, pay attention to the market and adapt to the colour is applied law, gift packaging spirituality and attractive charm, so as to create a good packaging, arouse consumers' desire to buy, in order to meet the increasing material and cultural and spiritual needs.

  13. Modelling of a DNA packaging motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the assembly of many viruses, a powerful molecular motor packages the genome into a preassembled capsid. The Bacillus subtilis phage φ29 is an excellent model system to investigate the DNA packaging mechanism because of its highly efficient in vitro DNA packaging activity and the development of a single-molecule packaging assay. Here we make use of structural and biochemical experimental data to build a physical model of DNA packaging by the φ29 DNA packaging motor. Based on the model, various dynamic behaviours such as the packaging rate, pause frequency and slip frequency under different ATP concentrations, ADP concentrations, external loads as well as capsid fillings are studied by using Monte Carlo simulation. Good agreement is obtained between the simulated and available experimental results. Moreover, we make testable predictions that should guide future experiments related to motor function. (atomic and molecular physics)

  14. Biobased Packaging - Application in Meat Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wilfred Ruban

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Because of growing problems of waste disposal and because petroleum is a nonrenewable resource with diminishing quantities, renewed interest in packaging research is underway to develop and promote the use of “bio-plastics.” In general, compared to conventional plastics derived from petroleum, bio-based polymers have more diverse stereochemistry and architecture of side chains which enable research scientists a greater number of opportunities to customize the properties of the final packaging material. The primary challenge facing the food (Meat industry in producing bio-plastic packaging, currently, is to match the durability of the packaging with product shelf-life. Notable advances in biopolymer production, consumer demand for more environmentally-friendly packaging, and technologies that allow packaging to do more than just encompass the food are driving new and novel research and developments in the area of packaging for muscle foods. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 79-82

  15. EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-05050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.

    2014-11-06

    Shipping package 9975-05050 was examined in K-Area following its identification as a high wattage package. Elevated temperature and fiberboard moisture content are key parameters that impact the degradation rate of fiberboard within 9975 packages in a storage environment. The high wattage of this package contributes significantly to component temperatures. After examination in K-Area, the package was provided to SRNL for further examination of the fiberboard assembly. The moisture content of the fiberboard was relatively low (compared to packages examined previously), but the moisture gradient (between fiberboard ID and OD surfaces) was relatively high, as would be expected for the high heat load. The cane fiberboard appeared intact and displayed no apparent change in integrity relative to a new package.

  16. Automatic composition of MRI and SPECT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new method to automatically compose MRI image and SPECT image was devised to support the SPECT image which was inferior in the morphological information. This method is a kind of the coordinate transformation to obtain maximal agreement between images using cross correlation of MRI image and SPECT image as the evaluation function to show the degree of the agreement. For the calculation of the cross correlation, MRI T1 weighted image and the morphological information of SPECT image treated by the spatial quadratic differentiation (Laplacian) were used. This method does not require to fix the control point in the tomographic imaging, and can be also applied to PET other than SPECT. This is also useful to follow up the chronological change of a patient by composition among SPECT images and among PET images. Since this method is focused on the internal structure of brain, it is also useful for cases such as cerebral infarction which brain structure has little change. But this method is still under the trial and the examination of the accuracy remained. (K.H.)

  17. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  18. A New Model for Automatic Raster-to-Vector Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham E. ElDeeb

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need for automatic digitizing, or so called automated raster to vector conversion (ARVC for maps. The benefit of ARVC is the production of maps that consume less space and are easy to search for or retrieve information from. In addition, ARVC is the fundamental step to reusing old maps at higher level of recognition. In this paper, a new model for an ARVC is developed. The proposed model converts the “paper maps” into electronic formats for Geographic Information Systems (GIS and evaluates the performance of the conversion process. To overcome the limitations of existing commercial vectorization software packages, the proposed model is customized to separate textual information, usually the cause of problems in the automatic conversion process, from the delimiting graphics of the map. The model retains the coordinates of the textual information for a later merge with the map after the conversion process. The propose model also addresses the localization problems in ARVC through the knowledge-supported intelligent vectorization system that is designed specifically to improve the accuracy and speed of the vectorization process. Finally, the model has beenimplemented on a symmetric multiprocessing (SMP architecture, in order to achieve higher speed up and performance.

  19. Automatic recognition of offensive team formation in american football plays

    KAUST Repository

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati

    2013-06-01

    Compared to security surveillance and military applications, where automated action analysis is prevalent, the sports domain is extremely under-served. Most existing software packages for sports video analysis require manual annotation of important events in the video. American football is the most popular sport in the United States, however most game analysis is still done manually. Line of scrimmage and offensive team formation recognition are two statistics that must be tagged by American Football coaches when watching and evaluating past play video clips, a process which takes many man hours per week. These two statistics are also the building blocks for more high-level analysis such as play strategy inference and automatic statistic generation. In this paper, we propose a novel framework where given an American football play clip, we automatically identify the video frame in which the offensive team lines in formation (formation frame), the line of scrimmage for that play, and the type of player formation the offensive team takes on. The proposed framework achieves 95% accuracy in detecting the formation frame, 98% accuracy in detecting the line of scrimmage, and up to 67% accuracy in classifying the offensive team\\'s formation. To validate our framework, we compiled a large dataset comprising more than 800 play-clips of standard and high definition resolution from real-world football games. This dataset will be made publicly available for future comparison. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Annual Review in Automatic Programming, Volume 2 is a collection of papers that discusses the controversy about the suitability of COBOL as a common business oriented language, and the development of different common languages for scientific computation. A couple of papers describes the use of the Genie system in numerical calculation and analyzes Mercury autocode in terms of a phrase structure language, such as in the source language, target language, the order structure of ATLAS, and the meta-syntactical language of the assembly program. Other papers explain interference or an ""intermediate

  1. Automatic Generation of Technical Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, E R; Levine, J; Reiter, Ehud; Mellish, Chris; Levine, John

    1994-01-01

    Natural-language generation (NLG) techniques can be used to automatically produce technical documentation from a domain knowledge base and linguistic and contextual models. We discuss this application of NLG technology from both a technical and a usefulness (costs and benefits) perspective. This discussion is based largely on our experiences with the IDAS documentation-generation project, and the reactions various interested people from industry have had to IDAS. We hope that this summary of our experiences with IDAS and the lessons we have learned from it will be beneficial for other researchers who wish to build technical-documentation generation systems.

  2. Unsupervised automatic music genre classification

    OpenAIRE

    Barreira, Luís Filipe Marques

    2010-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado no âmbito do Mestrado em Engenharia Informática, como requisito parcial para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Engenharia Informática In this study we explore automatic music genre recognition and classification of digital music. Music has always been a reflection of culture di erences and an influence in our society. Today’s digital content development triggered the massive use of digital music. Nowadays,digital music is manually labeled without following a universa...

  3. Real time automatic scene classification

    OpenAIRE

    Israël, Menno; Broek, van den, Wouter; Putten, van, M.J.A.M.; Uyl, den, T.M.; Verbrugge, R.; Taatgen, N.; Schomaker, L.

    2004-01-01

    This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka [3], who categorized elements of a scene automatically with so-called ’stuff’ categories (e.g., grass, sky, sand, stone). Campbell et al. [1] use similar concepts to describe certain parts of an image, which they named...

  4. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Annual Review in Automatic Programming, Volume 4 is a collection of papers that deals with the GIER ALGOL compiler, a parameterized compiler based on mechanical linguistics, and the JOVIAL language. A couple of papers describes a commercial use of stacks, an IBM system, and what an ideal computer program support system should be. One paper reviews the system of compilation, the development of a more advanced language, programming techniques, machine independence, and program transfer to other machines. Another paper describes the ALGOL 60 system for the GIER machine including running ALGOL pro

  5. Automatic transcription of polyphonic singing

    OpenAIRE

    Paščinski, Uroš

    2015-01-01

    In this work we focus on automatic transcription of polyphonic singing. In particular we do the multiple fundamental frequency (F0) estimation. From the terrain recordings a test set of Slovenian folk songs with polyphonic singing is extracted and manually transcribed. On the test set we try the general algorithm for multiple F0 detection. An interactive visualization of the main parts of the algorithm is made to analyse how it works and try to detect possible issues. As the data set is ne...

  6. Automatic analysis of multiparty meetings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steve Renals

    2011-10-01

    This paper is about the recognition and interpretation of multiparty meetings captured as audio, video and other signals. This is a challenging task since the meetings consist of spontaneous and conversational interactions between a number of participants: it is a multimodal, multiparty, multistream problem. We discuss the capture and annotation of the Augmented Multiparty Interaction (AMI) meeting corpus, the development of a meeting speech recognition system, and systems for the automatic segmentation, summarization and social processing of meetings, together with some example applications based on these systems.

  7. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  8. MOPEX: a software package for astronomical image processing and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovoz, David; Roby, Trey; Khan, Iffat; Booth, Hartley

    2006-06-01

    We present MOPEX - a software package for astronomical image processing and display. The package is a combination of command-line driven image processing software written in C/C++ with a Java-based GUI. The main image processing capabilities include creating mosaic images, image registration, background matching, point source extraction, as well as a number of minor image processing tasks. The combination of the image processing and display capabilities allows for much more intuitive and efficient way of performing image processing. The GUI allows for the control over the image processing and display to be closely intertwined. Parameter setting, validation, and specific processing options are entered by the user through a set of intuitive dialog boxes. Visualization feeds back into further processing by providing a prompt feedback of the processing results. The GUI also allows for further analysis by accessing and displaying data from existing image and catalog servers using a virtual observatory approach. Even though originally designed for the Spitzer Space Telescope mission, a lot of functionalities are of general usefulness and can be used for working with existing astronomical data and for new missions. The software used in the package has undergone intensive testing and benefited greatly from effective software reuse. The visualization part has been used for observation planning for both the Spitzer and Herschel Space Telescopes as part the tool Spot. The visualization capabilities of Spot have been enhanced and integrated with the image processing functionality of the command-line driven MOPEX. The image processing software is used in the Spitzer automated pipeline processing, which has been in operation for nearly 3 years. The image processing capabilities have also been tested in off-line processing by numerous astronomers at various institutions around the world. The package is multi-platform and includes automatic update capabilities. The software

  9. A study on the radiometric method for evaluating element migration from plastic packagings to its contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    migration detection limits were determined. Results from the analyses of the neutron irradiated plastic packagings by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that in high density polyethylene packagings oxidative degradation can occur. Among the main advantages of the radiometric method application for element migration evaluation are its simplicity, no need of blank analysis and the possibility to obtain element migration to the food itself. The results obtained indicated the potentiality of using this method in the element migration evaluation from the plastic packagings to their contents. (author)

  10. The Masculinity of Money: Automatic Stereotypes Predict Gender Differences in Estimated Salaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melissa J.; Paluck, Elizabeth Levy; Spencer-Rodgers, Julie

    2010-01-01

    We present the first empirical investigation of why men are assumed to earn higher salaries than women (the "salary estimation effect"). Although this phenomenon is typically attributed to conscious consideration of the national wage gap (i.e., real inequities in salary), we hypothesize instead that it reflects differential, automatic economic…

  11. Students' Feedback Preferences: How Do Students React to Timely and Automatically Generated Assessment Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayerlein, Leopold

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses whether or not undergraduate and postgraduate accounting students at an Australian university differentiate between timely feedback and extremely timely feedback, and whether or not the replacement of manually written formal assessment feedback with automatically generated feedback influences students' perception of…

  12. Fringe—A Java-based finite fringe analysis package

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Timothy J.; Bishop, Alexis I.

    2012-09-01

    A package for analysing two-dimensional finite fringe interferograms is described. Through a combination of automatic and interactive routines, an interferogram can be processed to extract the phase shift imparted on the recording light by a transparent object. The package consists of routines to condition and pad the original image for Fourier transform analysis, to filter the image and obtain the phase, to unwrap the phase, and to remove the background phase ramp. A sample image recorded using holographic interferometry is successfully analysed. Program summary Program title: FRINGE Catalogue identifier: AEMM_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 134006 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4029801 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java. Computer: Personal Computers. Operating system: Mac OS X, Windows XP, Linux and any other system that can run Java Jar files. RAM: 1GB recommended Classification: 18. Nature of problem: A standalone multi-platform program to perform analysis of finite fringe interferograms. Solution method: Fourier filtering approach with phase unwrapping and background subtraction. Restrictions: Designed to analyse square images. Running time: Interactive processing takes several minutes. Minimal cpu time.

  13. Differential games

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2006-01-01

    This volume lays the mathematical foundations for the theory of differential games, developing a rigorous mathematical framework with existence theorems. It begins with a precise definition of a differential game and advances to considerations of games of fixed duration, games of pursuit and evasion, the computation of saddle points, games of survival, and games with restricted phase coordinates. Final chapters cover selected topics (including capturability and games with delayed information) and N-person games.Geared toward graduate students, Differential Games will be of particular interest

  14. PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John l. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

    2003-07-01

    The 1st generation acoustic monitoring package was designed to detect and analyze weak acoustic signals inside natural gas transmission lines. Besides a microphone it housed a three-inch diameter aerodynamic acoustic signal amplifier to maximize sensitivity to leak induced {Delta}p type signals. The theory and test results of this aerodynamic signal amplifier was described in the master's degree thesis of our Research Assistant Deepak Mehra who is about to graduate. To house such a large three-inch diameter sensor required the use of a steel 300-psi rated 4 inch weld neck flange, which itself weighed already 29 pounds. The completed 1st generation Acoustic Monitoring Package weighed almost 100 pounds. This was too cumbersome to mount in the field, on an access port at a pipeline shut-off valve. Therefore a 2nd generation and truly Portable Acoustic Monitor was built. It incorporated a fully self-contained {Delta}p type signal sensor, rated for line pressures up to 1000 psi with a base weight of only 6 pounds. This is the Rosemont Inc. Model 3051CD-Range 0, software driven sensor, which is believed to have industries best total performance. Its most sensitive unit was purchased with a {Delta}p range from 0 to 3 inch water. This resulted in the herein described 2nd generation: Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) for pipelines up to 1000 psi. Its 32-pound total weight includes an 18-volt battery. Together with a 3 pound laptop with its 4-channel data acquisition card, completes the equipment needed for field acoustic monitoring of natural gas transmission pipelines.

  15. BUMS--Bonner sphere Unfolding Made Simple: an HTML based multisphere neutron spectrometer unfolding package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new multisphere neutron spectrometer unfolding package, Bonner sphere Unfolding Made Simple (BUMS) has been developed that uses an HTML interface to simplify data input and code execution for the novice and the advanced user. This new unfolding package combines the unfolding algorithms contained in other popular unfolding codes under one easy to use interface. The interface makes use of web browsing software to provide a graphical user interface to the unfolding algorithms. BUMS integrates the SPUNIT, BON, MAXIET, and SAND-II unfolding algorithms into a single package. This package also includes a library of 14 response matrices, 58 starting spectra, and 24 dose and detector responses. BUMS has several improvements beyond the addition of unfolding algorithms. It has the ability to search for the most appropriate starting spectra. Also, plots of the unfolded neutron spectra are automatically generated. The BUMS package runs via a web server and may be accessed by any computer with access to the Internet at http://nukeisit.gatech.edu/bums

  16. Challenges in the Packaging of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN, WILLIAM D.; EATON, WILLIAM P.; MALSHE, AJAY P.; MILLER, WILLIAM M.; O' NEAL, CHAD; SINGH, SUSHILA B.

    1999-09-24

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) packaging is much different from conventional integrated circuit (IC) packaging. Many MEMS devices must interface to the environment in order to perform their intended function, and the package must be able to facilitate access with the environment while protecting the device. The package must also not interfere with or impede the operation of the MEMS device. The die attachment material should be low stress, and low outgassing, while also minimizing stress relaxation overtime which can lead to scale factor shifts in sensor devices. The fabrication processes used in creating the devices must be compatible with each other, and not result in damage to the devices. Many devices are application specific requiring custom packages that are not commercially available. Devices may also need media compatible packages that can protect the devices from harsh environments in which the MEMS device may operate. Techniques are being developed to handle, process, and package the devices such that high yields of functional packaged parts will result. Currently, many of the processing steps are potentially harmful to MEMS devices and negatively affect yield. It is the objective of this paper to review and discuss packaging challenges that exist for MEMS systems and to expose these issues to new audiences from the integrated circuit packaging community.

  17. Natural biopolimers in organic food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczynska, Justyna; Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Mondelli, Donato; Di Donato, Paola; Di Terlizzi, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    Concerns on environmental and waste problems caused by use of non-biodegradable and non-renewable based plastic packaging have caused an increase interest in developing biodegradable packaging using renewable natural biopolymers. Recently, different types of biopolymers like starch, cellulose, chitosan, casein, whey protein, collagen, egg white, soybean protein, corn zein, gelatin and wheat gluten have attracted considerable attention as potential food packaging materials. Recyclable or biodegradable packaging material in organic processing standards is preferable where possible but specific principles of packaging are not precisely defined and standards have to be assessed. There is evidence that consumers of organic products have specific expectations not only with respect to quality characteristics of processed food but also in social and environmental aspects of food production. Growing consumer sophistication is leading to a proliferation in food eco-label like carbon footprint. Biopolymers based packaging for organic products can help to create a green industry. Moreover, biopolymers can be appropriate materials for the development of an active surfaces designed to deliver incorporated natural antimicrobials into environment surrounding packaged food. Active packaging is an innovative mode of packaging in which the product and the environment interact to prolong shelf life or enhance safety or sensory properties, while maintaining the quality of the product. The work will discuss the various techniques that have been used for development of an active antimicrobial biodegradable packaging materials focusing on a recent findings in research studies. With the current focus on exploring a new generation of biopolymer-based food packaging materials with possible applications in organic food packaging. Keywords: organic food, active packaging, biopolymers , green technology

  18. Automatic generation of tourist brochures

    KAUST Repository

    Birsak, Michael

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel framework for the automatic generation of tourist brochures that include routing instructions and additional information presented in the form of so-called detail lenses. The first contribution of this paper is the automatic creation of layouts for the brochures. Our approach is based on the minimization of an energy function that combines multiple goals: positioning of the lenses as close as possible to the corresponding region shown in an overview map, keeping the number of lenses low, and an efficient numbering of the lenses. The second contribution is a route-aware simplification of the graph of streets used for traveling between the points of interest (POIs). This is done by reducing the graph consisting of all shortest paths through the minimization of an energy function. The output is a subset of street segments that enable traveling between all the POIs without considerable detours, while at the same time guaranteeing a clutter-free visualization. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Automatic scanning for nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic scanning systems have been recently developed for application in neutrino experiments exploiting nuclear emulsion detectors of particle tracks. These systems speed up substantially the analysis of events in emulsion, allowing the realisation of experiments with unprecedented statistics. The pioneering work on automatic scanning has been done by the University of Nagoya (Japan). The so called new track selector has a very good reproducibility in position (∼1 μm) and angle (∼3 mrad), with the possibility to reconstruct, in about 3 s, all the tracks in a view of 150x150 μm2 and 1 mm of thickness. A new system (ultratrack selector), with speed higher by one order of magnitude, has started to be in operation. R and D programs are going on in Nagoya and in other laboratories for new systems. The scanning speed in nuclear emulsion be further increased by an order of magnitude. The recent progress in the technology of digital signal processing and of image acquisition systems (CCDs and fast frame grabbers) allows the realisation of systems with high performance. New interesting applications of the technique in other fields (e.g. in biophysics) have recently been envisaged

  20. SRV-automatic handling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic handling device for the steam relief valves (SRV's) is developed in order to achieve a decrease in exposure of workers, increase in availability factor, improvement in reliability, improvement in safety of operation, and labor saving. A survey is made during a periodical inspection to examine the actual SVR handling operation. An SRV automatic handling device consists of four components: conveyor, armed conveyor, lifting machine, and control/monitoring system. The conveyor is so designed that the existing I-rail installed in the containment vessel can be used without any modification. This is employed for conveying an SRV along the rail. The armed conveyor, designed for a box rail, is used for an SRV installed away from the rail. By using the lifting machine, an SRV installed away from the I-rail is brought to a spot just below the rail so that the SRV can be transferred by the conveyor. The control/monitoring system consists of a control computer, operation panel, TV monitor and annunciator. The SRV handling device is operated by remote control from a control room. A trial equipment is constructed and performance/function testing is carried out using actual SRV's. As a result, is it shown that the SRV handling device requires only two operators to serve satisfactorily. The required time for removal and replacement of one SRV is about 10 minutes. (Nogami, K.)

  1. Automatic validation of numerical solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with ``Automatic Validation of Numerical Solutions''. The basic theory of interval analysis and self-validating methods is introduced. The mean value enclosure is applied to discrete mappings for obtaining narrow enclosures of the iterates when applying these mappings wit...... the mean value enclosure of an integral operator and uses interval Bernstein polynomials for enclosing the solution. Two numerical examples are given, using two orders of approximation and using different numbers of discretization points.......This thesis is concerned with ``Automatic Validation of Numerical Solutions''. The basic theory of interval analysis and self-validating methods is introduced. The mean value enclosure is applied to discrete mappings for obtaining narrow enclosures of the iterates when applying these mappings with...... intervals as initial values. A modification of the mean value enclosure of discrete mappings is considered, namely the extended mean value enclosure which in most cases leads to even better enclosures. These methods have previously been described in connection with discretizing solutions of ordinary...

  2. Differential topology

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Amiya

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a systematic and comprehensive account of the theory of differentiable manifolds and provides the necessary background for the use of fundamental differential topology tools. The text includes, in particular, the earlier works of Stephen Smale, for which he was awarded the Fields Medal. Explicitly, the topics covered are Thom transversality, Morse theory, theory of handle presentation, h-cobordism theorem, and the generalised Poincaré conjecture. The material is the outcome of lectures and seminars on various aspects of differentiable manifolds and differential topology given over the years at the Indian Statistical Institute in Calcutta, and at other universities throughout India. The book will appeal to graduate students and researchers interested in these topics. An elementary knowledge of linear algebra, general topology, multivariate calculus, analysis, and algebraic topology is recommended.

  3. Automatic Speech Segmentation Based on HMM

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kroul

    2007-01-01

    This contribution deals with the problem of automatic phoneme segmentation using HMMs. Automatization of speech segmentation task is important for applications, where large amount of data is needed to process, so manual segmentation is out of the question. In this paper we focus on automatic segmentation of recordings, which will be used for triphone synthesis unit database creation. For speech synthesis, the speech unit quality is a crucial aspect, so the maximal accuracy in segmentation is ...

  4. Automatic Control of Water Pumping Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhannad Alrheeh; JIANG Zhengfeng

    2006-01-01

    Automatic Control of pumps is an interesting proposal to operate water pumping stations among many kinds of water pumping stations according to their functions.In this paper, our pumping station is being used for water supply system. This paper is to introduce the idea of pump controller and the important factors that must be considering when we want to design automatic control system of water pumping stations. Then the automatic control circuit with the function of all components will be introduced.

  5. Automatic inference of specifications using matching logic

    OpenAIRE

    Alpuente Frasnedo, María; Feliú Gabaldón, Marco Antonio; Villanueva García, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Formal specifications can be used for various software engineering activities ranging from finding errors to documenting software and automatic test-case generation. Automatically discovering specifications for heap-manipulating programs is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose a technique for automatically inferring formal specifications from C code which is based on the symbolic execution and automated reasoning tandem "MATCHING LOGIC /K framework". We implemented our technique for ...

  6. An automatic visual analysis system for tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Connaghan, Damien; Moran, Kieran; O''Connor, Noel E.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a novel video analysis system for coaching tennis players of all levels, which uses computer vision algorithms to automatically edit and index tennis videos into meaningful annotations. Existing tennis coaching software lacks the ability to automatically index a tennis match into key events, and therefore, a coach who uses existing software is burdened with time-consuming manual video editing. This work aims to explore the effectiveness of a system to automatically de...

  7. Towards automatic classification of all WISE sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurcz, A.; Bilicki, M.; Solarz, A.; Krupa, M.; Pollo, A.; Małek, K.

    2016-07-01

    Context. The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has detected hundreds of millions of sources over the entire sky. Classifying them reliably is, however, a challenging task owing to degeneracies in WISE multicolour space and low levels of detection in its two longest-wavelength bandpasses. Simple colour cuts are often not sufficient; for satisfactory levels of completeness and purity, more sophisticated classification methods are needed. Aims: Here we aim to obtain comprehensive and reliable star, galaxy, and quasar catalogues based on automatic source classification in full-sky WISE data. This means that the final classification will employ only parameters available from WISE itself, in particular those which are reliably measured for the majority of sources. Methods: For the automatic classification we applied a supervised machine learning algorithm, support vector machines (SVM). It requires a training sample with relevant classes already identified, and we chose to use the SDSS spectroscopic dataset (DR10) for that purpose. We tested the performance of two kernels used by the classifier, and determined the minimum number of sources in the training set required to achieve stable classification, as well as the minimum dimension of the parameter space. We also tested SVM classification accuracy as a function of extinction and apparent magnitude. Thus, the calibrated classifier was finally applied to all-sky WISE data, flux-limited to 16 mag (Vega) in the 3.4 μm channel. Results: By calibrating on the test data drawn from SDSS, we first established that a polynomial kernel is preferred over a radial one for this particular dataset. Next, using three classification parameters (W1 magnitude, W1-W2 colour, and a differential aperture magnitude) we obtained very good classification efficiency in all the tests. At the bright end, the completeness for stars and galaxies reaches ~95%, deteriorating to ~80% at W1 = 16 mag, while for quasars it stays at a level of

  8. Cerebral Correlates of Automatic Associations Towards Performance Enhancing Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Sebastian; Wolff, Wanja

    2015-01-01

    The direct assessment of explicit attitudes toward performance enhancing substances, for example Neuroenhancement or doping in sports, can be affected by social desirability biases and cheating attempts. According to Dual Process Theories of cognition, indirect measures like the Implicit Association Test (IAT) measure automatic associations toward a topic (as opposed to explicit attitudes measured by self-report measures). Such automatic associations are thought to occur rapidly and to evade voluntary control. However, whether or not such indirect tests actually reflect automatic associations is difficult to validate. Electroencephalography (EEG) has a superior time resolution which can differentiate between highly automatic compared to more elaborate processing stages. We therefore used EEG to examine on which processing stages cortical differences between negative or positive attitudes to doping occur, and whether or not these differences can be related to BIAT scores. We tested 42 university students (31 females, 24.43 ± 3.17 years old), who were requested to complete a brief doping IAT (BIAT) on attitudes toward doping. Cerebral activity during doping BIAT completion was assessed using high-density EEG. Behaviorally, participants D-scores exhibited negative attitudes toward doping, represented by faster reaction times in the doping + dislike pairing task. Event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed earliest effects between 200 and 300 ms. Here, a relatively larger occipital positivity was found for the doping + dislike pairing task. Further, in the LPP time range between 400 and 600 ms a larger late positive potential was found for the doping + dislike pairing task over central regions. These LPP amplitude differences were successfully predicting participants' BIAT D-scores. Results indicate that event-related potentials differentiate between positive and negative doping attitudes at stages of mid-latency. However, it seems that IAT scores can be predicted only

  9. Lessons learned during Type A Packaging testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past 6 years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Facility Safety Analysis (EH-32) has contracted Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct compliance testing on DOE Type A packagings. The packagings are tested for compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A, general packaging, Type A requirements. The DOE has shared the Type A packaging information throughout the nuclear materials transportation community. During testing, there have been recurring areas of packaging design that resulted in testing delays and/or initial failure. The lessons learned during the testing are considered a valuable resource. DOE requested that WHC share this resource. By sharing what is and can be encountered during packaging testing, individuals will hopefully avoid past mistakes

  10. Type A radioactive liquid sample packaging family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has developed two packagings that can be used to ship Type A quantities of radioactive liquids. WHC designed these packagings to take advantage of commercially available items where feasible to reduce the overall packaging cost. The Hedgehog packaging can ship up to one liter of Type A radioactive liquid with no shielding and 15 cm of distance between the liquid and the package exterior, or 30 ml of liquid with 3.8 cm of stainless steel shielding and 19 cm of distance between the liquid and the package exterior. The One Liter Shipper can ship up to one liter of Type A radioactive liquid that does not require shielding

  11. Complex Carton Packaging with Dexterous Robot Hands

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Venketesh N.; Dai, Jian S.

    2006-01-01

    The chapter has presented a dexterous reconfigurable assembly and packaging system (D-RAPS) with dexterous robot fingers. The aim of this research was to design a reconfigurable assembly and packaging system that can handle cardboard cartons of different geometry and shapes. The initial idea was to develop such a system that can demonstrate adaptability to cartons of different styles and complexities. It was shown that the packaging machine could fold two cartons of completely different shape...

  12. NFR TRIGA package design review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists

  13. Cluster-lensing: A Python Package for Galaxy Clusters & Miscentering

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Jes

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new open source package for calculating properties of galaxy clusters, including NFW halo profiles with and without the effects of cluster miscentering. This pure-Python package, cluster-lensing, provides well-documented and easy-to-use classes and functions for calculating cluster scaling relations, including mass-richness and mass-concentration relations from the literature, as well as the surface mass density $\\Sigma(R)$ and differential surface mass density $\\Delta\\Sigma(R)$ profiles, probed by weak lensing magnification and shear. Galaxy cluster miscentering is especially a concern for stacked weak lensing shear studies of galaxy clusters, where offsets between the assumed and the true underlying matter distribution can lead to a significant bias in the mass estimates if not accounted for. This software has been developed and released in a public GitHub repository, and is licensed under the permissive MIT license. The cluster-lensing package is archived on Zenodo (Ford 2016). Full documenta...

  14. ANPS - AUTOMATIC NETWORK PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Development of some of the space program's large simulation projects -- like the project which involves simulating the countdown sequence prior to spacecraft liftoff -- requires the support of automated tools and techniques. The number of preconditions which must be met for a successful spacecraft launch and the complexity of their interrelationship account for the difficulty of creating an accurate model of the countdown sequence. Researchers developed ANPS for the Nasa Marshall Space Flight Center to assist programmers attempting to model the pre-launch countdown sequence. Incorporating the elements of automatic programming as its foundation, ANPS aids the user in defining the problem and then automatically writes the appropriate simulation program in GPSS/PC code. The program's interactive user dialogue interface creates an internal problem specification file from user responses which includes the time line for the countdown sequence, the attributes for the individual activities which are part of a launch, and the dependent relationships between the activities. The program's automatic simulation code generator receives the file as input and selects appropriate macros from the library of software modules to generate the simulation code in the target language GPSS/PC. The user can recall the problem specification file for modification to effect any desired changes in the source code. ANPS is designed to write simulations for problems concerning the pre-launch activities of space vehicles and the operation of ground support equipment and has potential for use in developing network reliability models for hardware systems and subsystems. ANPS was developed in 1988 for use on IBM PC or compatible machines. The program requires at least 640 KB memory and one 360 KB disk drive, PC DOS Version 2.0 or above, and GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The program is written in Turbo Prolog Version 2.0. GPSS/PC is a trademark of Minuteman Software. Turbo Prolog

  15. Dynamic Analysis of Electrostatic Microactuators Using the Differential Quadrature Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Hung Hsu

    2011-01-01

    This work studies the dynamic behavior of electrostatic actuators using finite-element package software (FEMLAB) and differential quadrature method. The differential quadrature technique is used to transform partial differential equations into a discrete eigenvalue problem. Numerical results indicate that length, width, and thickness significantly impact the frequencies of the electrostatic actuators. The thickness could not affect markedly the electrostatic actuator capacities. The effects o...

  16. Hermeticity testing of MEMS and microelectronic packages

    CERN Document Server

    Costello, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Packaging of microelectronics has been developing since the invention of the transistor in 1947. With the increasing complexity and decreasing size of the die, packaging requirements have continued to change. A step change in package requirements came with the introduction of the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) whereby interactions with the external environment are, in some cases, required.This resource is a rapid, definitive reference on hermetic packaging for the MEMS and microelectronics industry, giving practical guidance on traditional and newly developed test methods. This book in

  17. New Polymer Materials for Microelectronics Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Researchers at the CAS Institute of Chemistry (ICCAS) have made breakthrough progress in developing the manufacturing technology of advanced polymer materials for microelectronics packaging applications. The advanced integrated circuit (IC) packaging polymer materials, including photoimageable polyimide resins and liquid epoxy underfills, are a key issue for FC-BGA/CSP(flip chip-ball grill array/chip scale packaging) which is the main stream for the next generation of microelectronics devices. With the down-sizing, thinning and high I/O (input/output) of IC chips, microelectronics packaging is now facing a big technology challenge.

  18. Large transport packages for decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports progress on a study of large transport packages for decommissioning waste and is the semi-annual report for the period 1 January - 30 June 1988. The main tasks performed during the period related to the assembly of package design criteria ie those aspects of manufacture, handling, storage, transport and disposal which impose constraints on design. This work was synthesised into a design specification for packages which formed the conclusion of that task and was the entry into the final task - the development of package design concepts. The design specifications, which concentrated on the Industrial Package category of the IAEA Transport Regulations, has been interpreted for the two main concepts (a) a self-shielded package disposed of in its entirety and (b) a package with returnable shielding. Preliminary information has been prepared on the cost of providing the package as well as transport to a repository and disposal. There is considerable uncertainty about the cost of disposal and variations of over a factor of 10 are possible. Under these circumstances there is merit in choosing a design concept which is relatively insensitive to disposal cost variations. The initial results indicate that on these grounds the package with returnable shielding is preferred. (author)

  19. Simulation and Training Package on Corex Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A software package has been developed for simulation on the Corex process. The simulation and training package on the process of shaft furnace using Corex off gas were introduced. The package consists of three main modules, namely the numerical simulation, the system modeling and optimization, and the training module, which are integrated with graphical interfaces. In addition, the equipment starting and stopping operation and typical trouble-shooting were also included in the package, whereby a practical environment can be established for training of operation and management stuff.

  20. Hermetic packaging for microwave modules. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollar, D.L.

    1996-10-01

    Microwave assemblies, such as radar modules, require hermetically sealed packaging. Since most of these assemblies are used for airborne applications, the packages must be lightweight. The aluminum alloy A-40 provides the needed characteristics of these applications. This project developed packaging techniques using the A-40 alloy as a housing material and laser welding processes to install connectors, purge tube, and covers on the housings. The completed package successfully passed the hermetic leak requirements and environmental testing. Optimum laser welding parameters were established in addition to all of the related tooling for assembly.

  1. Polymer Composites for Intelligent Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiating; Yap, Ray Chin Chong; Wong, Siew Yee; Li, Xu

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 50 years, remarkable improvements in mechanical and barrier properties of polymer composites have been realized. Their improved properties have been widely studied and employed for food packaging to keep food fresh, clean and suitable for consumption over sufficiently long storage period. In this paper, the current progress of science and technology development of polymer composites for intelligent food packaging will be highlighted. Future directions and perspectives for exploring polymer composites for intelligent food packaging to reveal freshness and quality of food packaged will also be put forward.

  2. Safkeg - a modern family of packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SAFKEG family of package were developed specifically to replace existing fissile material packages designs which are based on 30 year old design concepts. The SAFKEG replaces 2 design concepts: the wood cadmium rectilinear packages used in the UK and 6M drum packages commonly used in the USA. The design principles used in the SAFKEG are relatively novel, but were adopted specifically to provide a large design margin at a reasonable cost. The design features were chosen to facilitate the licensing process and to provide operational convenience. The current designs, including those just about to be brought into service, are summarized. (authors)

  3. Work plan for integrated sludge packaging demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the tasks which will be performed to support the hot demonstration of the integrated sludge packaging system to package the sludge that has accumulated in the KE Basin. This activity will be performed in three phases: Phase 1 will consist of testing component and sub-system performance using a surrogate sludge, Phase 2 will consist of cold testing the integrated sludge packaging system using a surrogate sludge, and Phase 3 will consist of the hot demonstration of the integrated sludge packaging system

  4. Automatic gamma spectrometry analytical apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention falls within the area of quantitative or semi-quantitative analysis by gamma spectrometry and particularly refers to a device for bringing the samples into the counting position. The purpose of this invention is precisely to provide an automatic apparatus specifically adapted to the analysis of hard gamma radiations. To this effect, the invention relates to a gamma spectrometry analytical device comprising a lead containment, a detector of which the sensitive part is located inside the containment and additionally comprising a transfer system for bringing the analyzed samples in succession to a counting position inside the containment above the detector. A feed compartment enables the samples to be brought in turn one by one on to the transfer system through a duct connecting the compartment to the transfer system. Sequential systems for the coordinated forward feed of the samples in the compartment and the transfer system complete this device

  5. Automatic home medical product recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Thomas, Selena B; Tang, Chunqiang

    2012-04-01

    Web-based personal health records (PHRs) are being widely deployed. To improve PHR's capability and usability, we proposed the concept of intelligent PHR (iPHR). In this paper, we use automatic home medical product recommendation as a concrete application to demonstrate the benefits of introducing intelligence into PHRs. In this new application domain, we develop several techniques to address the emerging challenges. Our approach uses treatment knowledge and nursing knowledge, and extends the language modeling method to (1) construct a topic-selection input interface for recommending home medical products, (2) produce a global ranking of Web pages retrieved by multiple queries, and (3) provide diverse search results. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques using USMLE medical exam cases. PMID:20703712

  6. Automatic sampling of radioactive liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the latest techniques in sampling radioactive liquors in an Irradiated Fuel Reprocessing Plant. Previously to obtain a sample from these liquors operators were involved at the point of sampling, the transport of samples in shielded containers to the laboratories and at the offloading of the samples at the laboratory. Penetration of the radioactive containments occurred at the sampling point and again in the laboratory, these operations could lead to possible radioactive contamination. The latest design consists of a Sample Bottle Despatch Facility Autosampler units, Pneumatic Transfer System and Receipt Facility which reduces considerably operator involvement, provides a safe rapid transport system and minimises any possibility of radioactive contamination. The system can be made fully automatic and ease of maintenance has been ensured by the design

  7. Automatic sampling of radioactive liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the latest techniques in sampling radioactive liquors in an Irradiated Fuel Reprocessing Plant. Previously to obtain a sample from these liquors operators were involved at the point of sampling, the transport of samples in shielded containers to the laboratories and at the offloading of the samples at the laboratory. Penetration of the radioactive containments occurred at the sampling point and again in the laboratory, these operations could lead to possible radioactive contamination. The latest design consists of a Sample Bottle Despatch Facility Autosampler units, Pneumatic Transfer System and Receipt Facility which reduces considerably operator involvement, provides a safe rapid transport system and minimises any possibility of radioactive contamination. The system can be made fully automatic and ease of maintenance has been ensured by the design. (author)

  8. Automatic sampling of radioactive liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest techniques in sampling radioactive liquors in an Irradiated Fuel Reprocessing Plant are described. Previously to obtain a sample from these liquors operators were involved at the point of sampling, the transport of samples in shielded containers to the laboratories and at the offloading of the samples at the laboratory. Penetration of the radioactive containments occurred at the sampling point and again in the laboratory; these operations could lead to possible radioactive contamination. The latest design consists of a Sample Bottle Despatch Facility Autosampler units, Pneumatic Transfer System and Receipt Facility which reduces considerably operator involvement, provides a safe rapid transport system and minimises any possibility of radioactive contamination. The system can be made fully automatic and ease of maintenance has been ensured by the design. (author)

  9. Automatic Sequencing for Experimental Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Paul F.; Stern, Ivan

    We present a paradigm and implementation of a system for the specification of the experimental protocols to be used for the calibration of AXAF mirrors. For the mirror calibration, several thousand individual measurements need to be defined. For each measurement, over one hundred parameters need to be tabulated for the facility test conductor and several hundred instrument parameters need to be set. We provide a high level protocol language which allows for a tractable representation of the measurement protocol. We present a procedure dispatcher which automatically sequences a protocol more accurately and more rapidly than is possible by an unassisted human operator. We also present back-end tools to generate printed procedure manuals and database tables required for review by the AXAF program. This paradigm has been tested and refined in the calibration of detectors to be used in mirror calibration.

  10. Techniques for automatic speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. K.

    1983-05-01

    A brief insight into some of the algorithms that lie behind current automatic speech recognition system is provided. Early phonetically based approaches were not particularly successful, due mainly to a lack of appreciation of the problems involved. These problems are summarized, and various recognition techniques are reviewed in the contect of the solutions that they provide. It is pointed out that the majority of currently available speech recognition equipments employ a "whole-word' pattern matching approach which, although relatively simple, has proved particularly successful in its ability to recognize speech. The concepts of time-normalizing plays a central role in this type of recognition process and a family of such algorithms is described in detail. The technique of dynamic time warping is not only capable of providing good performance for isolated word recognition, but how it is also extended to the recognition of connected speech (thereby removing one of the most severe limitations of early speech recognition equipment).

  11. Automatic force balance calibration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Alice T.

    1995-05-01

    A system for automatically calibrating force balances is provided. The invention uses a reference balance aligned with the balance being calibrated to provide superior accuracy while minimizing the time required to complete the calibration. The reference balance and the test balance are rigidly attached together with closely aligned moment centers. Loads placed on the system equally effect each balance, and the differences in the readings of the two balances can be used to generate the calibration matrix for the test balance. Since the accuracy of the test calibration is determined by the accuracy of the reference balance and current technology allows for reference balances to be calibrated to within +/-0.05% the entire system has an accuracy of +/-0.2%. The entire apparatus is relatively small and can be mounted on a movable base for easy transport between test locations. The system can also accept a wide variety of reference balances, thus allowing calibration under diverse load and size requirements.

  12. PRIDE Surveillance Projects Data Packaging Project Information Package Specification Version 1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, D. M.; Shipp, R. L.; Mason, J. D.

    2010-08-31

    Information Package Specification version 1.1 describes an XML document format called an information package that can be used to store information in information management systems and other information archives. An information package consists of package information, the context required to understand and use that information, package metadata that describes the information, and XML signatures that protect the information. The information package described in this specification was designed to store Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) information and includes the metadata required for that information: a unique package identifier, information marking that conforms to DOE and NNSA requirements, and access control metadata. It is an implementation of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model archival information package tailored to meet NNSA information storage requirements and designed to be used in the computing environments at the Y-12 National Security Complex and at other NNSA sites.

  13. A proposal for a drug information database and text templates for generating package inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuya R

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ryo Okuya,1 Masaomi Kimura,2 Michiko Ohkura,2 Fumito Tsuchiya3 1Graduate School of Engineering and Science, 2Faculty of Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo, 3School of Pharmacy, International University of Health and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: To prevent prescription errors caused by information systems, a database to store complete and accurate drug information in a user-friendly format is needed. In previous studies, the primary method for obtaining data stored in a database is to extract drug information from package inserts by employing pattern matching or more sophisticated methods such as text mining. However, it is difficult to obtain a complete database because there is no strict rule concerning expressions used to describe drug information in package inserts. The authors' strategy was to first build a database and then automatically generate package inserts by embedding data in the database using templates. To create this database, the support of pharmaceutical companies to input accurate data is required. It is expected that this system will work, because these companies can earn merit for newly developed drugs to decrease the effort to create package inserts from scratch. This study designed the table schemata for the database and text templates to generate the package inserts. To handle the variety of drug-specific information in the package inserts, this information in drug composition descriptions was replaced with labels and the replacement descriptions utilizing cluster analysis were analyzed. To improve the method by which frequently repeated ingredient information and/or supplementary information are stored, the method was modified by introducing repeat tags in the templates to indicate repetition and improving the insertion of data into the database. The validity of this method was confirmed by inputting the drug information described in existing package inserts and checking that the method could

  14. Optimal prices, package sizes and package compositions in a market with variety seeking and loyal consumers

    OpenAIRE

    GIJSBRECHTS, Els; PAUWELS, Wilfried

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyze how the presence of loyal versus variety seeking consumers affects manufacturers’ package decisions. Package decisions relate to the price of the package, the quantity of the commodity it contains, and the number of different varieties in it. We first study the optimal consumption of packages by the two types of consumers, taking into account their purchasing, transaction and inventory cost. We then derive market equilibria in the monopoly and in the duopoly case. Dep...

  15. The Impact of Hunting Package Attributes on Hunting Package Prices in Mississippi

    OpenAIRE

    Buller, Virginia; Hudson, Darren; Parkhurst, Gregory M.; Whittington, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Potential economic impacts of hunting activities suggested opportunities for non-industrial private landowners in Mississippi to capitalize on apparent market demand for fee-access hunting. Data were collected from outfitting individuals/firms operating within Mississippi to analyze the impact of hunting package attributes on package prices. Generally, package prices were directly related to the length of the package in days, with the increase in price decreasing with each additional day. Pro...

  16. Advanced Sensor Arrays and Packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryter, John Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramaiyan, Kannan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    Novel sensor packaging elements were designed, fabricated, and tested in order to facilitate the transition of electrochemical mixed-potential sensors toward commercialization. Of the two designs completed, the first is currently undergoing field trials, taking direct measurements within vehicle exhaust streams, while the second is undergoing preliminary laboratory testing. The sensors’ optimal operating conditions, sensitivity to hydrogen, and long-­term baseline stability were also investigated. The sensing capabilities of lanthanum chromite (La0.8Sr0.2CrO3) and indium-­doped tin oxide (ITO) working electrodes were compared, and the ITO devices were selected for pre-­commercial field trials testing at a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fueling station in California. Previous data from that fueling station were also analyzed, and the causes of anomalous baseline drift were identified.

  17. Antimicrobial seafood packaging: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suman; Ho Lee, Myung; Park, Lnsik; Shin, Yangjai; Lee, Youn Suk

    2016-06-01

    Microorganisms are the major cause of spoilage in most seafood products; however, only few microbes, called the specific spoilage organisms (SSOs), contribute to the offensive off-flavors associated with seafood spoilage. In food, microbial degradation manifests itself as spoilage, or changes in the sensory properties of a food product, rendering it unsuitable for human consumption. The use of antimicrobial substances can control the general microflora as well as specific microorganisms related to spoilage to provide products with higher safety and better quality. Many antimicrobial compounds have been evaluated in film structures for use in seafood, especially organic acids and their salts, enzymes, bacteriocins; some studies have considered inorganic compounds such as AgSiO2, zinc oxide, silver zeolite, and titanium oxide. The characteristics of some organic antimicrobial packaging systems for seafood and their antimicrobial efficiency in film structures are reviewed in this article. PMID:27478206

  18. Methods of automatic scanning of SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods of automatic scanning of solid state nuclear track detectors are reviewed. The paper deals with transmission of light, charged particles, chemicals and electrical current through conventionally etched detectors. Special attention is given to the jumping spark technique and breakdown counters. Eventually optical automatic devices are examined. (orig.)

  19. Automatic control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental concepts in automatic control are surveyed, and the purpose of the automatic control of pressurized water reactors is given. The response characteristics for the main components are then studied and block diagrams are given for the main control loops (turbine, steam generator, and nuclear reactors)

  20. Towards unifying inheritance and automatic program specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2002-01-01

    inheritance with covariant specialization to control the automatic application of program specialization to class members. Lapis integrates object-oriented concepts, block structure, and techniques from automatic program specialization to provide both a language where object-oriented designs can be e...